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Sample records for climate south-eastern spain

  1. The relative influence of climate, environmental heterogeneity, and human population on the distribution of vertebrate species richness in south-eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio; Pizarro, Manuel

    2007-07-01

    In view of the many factors affect species richness, this study examines the relative influence of environmental heterogeneity, climate, human disturbance and spatial structure with respect to the species-richness distribution of terrestrial vertebrates in an area of south-eastern Spain with a Mediterranean climate. We show that environmental heterogeneity was the primary factor determining species richness (20.3% of variance), with the effect of temperature and precipitation being lower (11.6%). Climate had greater importance in determining the species richness of ectotherms (amphibians and reptiles) than of endotherms (mammals and birds). Species richness had less spatial autocorrelation in mammals and birds than in ectotherms. Also, a positive correlation was found between species richness and human population density, especially in reptiles and mammals. Orders and families more sensitive to human presence, such as snakes, raptors, ungulates, and carnivores, showed no relationship (or a negative one) with the human population. This study highlights the importance of environmental heterogeneity (topographic heterogeneity and habitat diversity) for vertebrate conservation in zones with a Mediterranean climate.

  2. Groundwater intensive use and mining in south-eastern peninsular Spain: Hydrogeological, economic and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Custodio, Emilio; Andreu-Rodes, José Miguel; Aragón, Ramón; Estrela, Teodoro; Ferrer, Javier; García-Aróstegui, José Luis; Manzano, Marisol; Rodríguez-Hernández, Luis; Sahuquillo, Andrés; Del Villar, Alberto

    2016-07-15

    Intensive groundwater development is a common circumstance in semiarid and arid areas. Often abstraction exceeds recharge, thus continuously depleting reserves. There is groundwater mining when the recovery of aquifer reserves needs more than 50years. The MASE project has been carried out to compile what is known about Spain and specifically about the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. The objective was the synthetic analysis of available data on the hydrological, economic, managerial, social, and ethical aspects of groundwater mining. Since the mid-20th century, intensive use of groundwater in south-eastern Spain allowed extending and securing the areas with traditional surface water irrigation of cash crops and their extension to former dry lands, taking advantage of good soils and climate. This fostered a huge economic and social development. Intensive agriculture is a main activity, although tourism plays currently an increasing economic role in the coasts. Many aquifers are relatively high yielding small carbonate units where the total groundwater level drawdown may currently exceed 300m. Groundwater storage depletion is estimated about 15km(3). This volume is close to the total contribution of the Tagus-Segura water transfer, but without large investments paid for with public funds. Seawater desalination complements urban supply and part of cash crop cultivation. Reclaimed urban waste water is used for irrigation. Groundwater mining produces benefits but associated to sometimes serious economic, administrative, legal and environmental problems. The use of an exhaustible vital resource raises ethical concerns. It cannot continue under the current legal conditions. A progressive change of water use paradigm is the way out, but this is not in the mind of most water managers and politicians. The positive and negative results observed in south-eastern Spain may help to analyse other areas under similar hydrogeological conditions in a less

  3. Climate change and associated fire potential for the south-eastern United States in the 21st century

    Treesearch

    Anthony P. Bedel; Thomas L. Mote; Scott L. Goodrick

    2013-01-01

    Climate models indicate that the climate of the south-eastern US will experience increasing temperatures and associated evapotranspiration in the 21st century. The current study found that conditions in the south-eastern US will likely become drier overall, given a warmer environment during future winter and spring seasons. This study examined the potential effects of...

  4. Identification of vulnerable sites in salts affected agricultural soils from South-Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Angel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Jansen, Boris; Silvia, Martinez-Martinez

    2010-05-01

    Soil salinization is one of the main problems in many soils under intensive agricultural practices, especially in arid and semiarid zones. Two important reasons for the occurrence of salinization are i) the use of low quality irrigation water and ii) climatic conditions reducing soil quality. The results of salinization can be quite serious. It limits the growing of crops, constrains agricultural productivity, and in severe cases, leads to the abandonment of agricultural soils. There are mainly two kinds of soil salinity: naturally occurring dry-land salinity and human-induced salinity caused by the low quality of irrigation water, excessive water and fertilizer applications. In both cases the development of plants and soil organisms is limited. Natural occurrence of salts in soils is very difficult to handle and requires higher investments than the reduction of human-induced salinity. For these reasons, identification of vulnerable sites is essential for sustainable agricultural management, especially in these semiarid and arid environments. The main aim of this study was to examine spatial and vertical distribution pattern of salts in a semi-arid study site in South-Eastern Spain in order to identify vulnerable sites. In order to achieve this objective, surface soil samples were collected in January and July 2009 at 48 sites located in a representative lemon production area close to City of Murcia, covering a surface area of 44 km2. The area was divided using a square grid of 1000 m and the samples were taken from these squares. The ionic concentrations were used as the input data for distribution maps. The software used for the spatial analysis was Arcview 3.1. An interpolation method called the Inverse Distanced Weighted (IDW) method was adopted for the interpolation of the data. The results indicated that the concentrations of most anions are higher in summer. The difference was particularly large for chloride, most likely because of its high mobility and

  5. Sources of precipitation over South-Eastern Spain and groundwater recharge. An isotopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-San Julian, J.; Araguas, L.; Rozanski, K.; Benavente, J.; Cardenal, J.; Hidalgo, M. C.; Garcia-Lopez, S.; Martinez-Garrido, J. C.; Moral, F.; Olias, M.

    1992-07-01

    The deuterium and oxygen-18 compositions were monitored in several single rain events in south-eastern Spain from November 1989 till April 1990. Large variations in both δ D and δ18O, as well as in the value of deuterium excess (d-value) of up to + 27‰, were recorded during this time period. The observed variations are clearly related to different source regions of the vapour (Atlantic Ocean or Mediterranean Sea) as well as to different trajectories of precipitating air masses. Whereas the rains of Atlantic origin were characterized by d-values close to + 10‰, the Mediterranean-derived precipitation showed much higher values, of up to + 27‰. The apparent correlation between altitude of the sampling site and the d-value of the corresponding rain can be attributed to two mechanisms: the evaporative isotopic enrichment of rain drops below the clouds, especially at initial stages of the given precipitation event, and/or precipitation from air masses with different isotopic signature (d-value) of the water vapour. The range of the d-values observed in samples from local springs and wells (between + 10 and + 13‰) suggests that groundwater in the studied areas is recharged predominantly by the Atlantic-derived precipitation.

  6. A retrospective clinicopathological study of 550 patients with oral lichen planus in south-eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Bermejo-Fenoll, A; Sánchez-Siles, M; López-Jornet, P; Camacho-Alonso, F; Salazar-Sánchez, N

    2010-07-01

    This study describes the clinicopathological characteristics of a group of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) in south-eastern Spain. A retrospective descriptive study was made of 550 patients clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with OLP in the period 1991-2007. Patient gender, age, the prevalence of hepatitis C, symptoms and malignization were recorded. The clinical forms were classified as reticular-papular and atrophic-erosive. Of the 550 patients, 128 (23.3%) were men and 422 (76.7%) women. The mean age was 56.35 +/- 13.67 years (range 14-91). The prevalence of hepatitis C was 3.5%. The red clinical forms were the most frequent, with 359 cases (64.2%). The lesions were asymptomatic in 159 patients (28.9%). Five patients developed oral squamous cell carcinoma (0.9%); none of these subjects was smokers. Patients with OLP present different clinical manifestations. Women were more frequently affected by the disease, and the malignant transformation rate was under 1%.

  7. A 500-year history of floods in the semi arid basins of south-eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez García, Carlos; Schulte, Lothar; Peña, Juan Carlos; Carvalho, Filpe; Brembilla, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Floods are one of the natural hazards with higher incidence in the south-eastern Spain, the driest region in Europe, causing fatalities, damage of infrastructure and economic losses. Flash-floods in semi arid environments are related to intensive rainfall which can last from few hours to days. These floods are violent and destructive because of their high discharges, sediment transport and aggradation processes in the flood plain. Also during historical times floods affected the population in the south-eastern Spain causing sever damage or in some cases the complete destruction of towns. Our studies focus on the flood reconstruction from historical sources of the Almanzora, Aguas and Antas river basins, which have a surface between 260-2600 km2. We have also compiled information from the Andarax river and compared the flood series with the Guadalentín and Segura basins from previous studies (Benito et. al., 2010 y Machado et al., 2011). Flood intensities have been classified in four levels according to the type of damage: 1) ordinary floods that only affect agriculture plots; 2) extraordinary floods which produce some damage to buildings and hydraulic infrastructure; 3) catastrophic floods which caused sever damage, fatalities and partial or complete destruction of towns. A higher damage intensity of +1 magnitude was assigned when the event is recorded from more than one major sub-basin (stretches and tributaries such as Huércal-Overa basin) or catchment (e.g. Antas River). In total 102 incidences of damages and 89 floods were reconstructed in the Almanzora (2.611 km2), Aguas (539 km2), Antas (261 km2) and Andarax (2.100 km2) catchments. The Almanzora River was affected by 36 floods (1550-2012). The highest events for the Almanzora River were in 1580, 1879, 1973 and 2012 producing many fatalities and destruction of several towns. In addition, we identified four flood-clusters 1750-1780, 1870-1900, 1960-1977 and 1989-2012 which coincides with the periods of

  8. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall would significantly benefit land, water resources and agriculture management, as this assists with planning and management decisions. Forecasting spatiotemporal monthly rainfall is difficult, especially in Australia where there is a complex interaction between topography and the effect of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study describes a method for spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting in south-eastern and eastern part of Australia using climatic and non-climatic variables. Rainfall data were obtained from Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high quality weather stations from the south-eastern and eastern part of Australia with monthly rainfall records from 1879 to 2012. To reduce spatial complexity of the area and improve model accuracy, spatial classification (regionalization) was considered as first step. Significant predictors for each sub-region among lagged climatic input variables were selected using Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA). Climate classification: 1) discovered homogenous sub-regions with a similar rainfall patterns and investigated spatiotemporal rainfall variations in the area, 2) allowed selection of significant predictors with a fine resolution for each area, 3) improved the prediction model and increased model accuracy. PCA was used to reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to remove the rainfall time series correlation. K-means clustering was used on the loadings of PCs describing 93% of long-term monthly rainfall variations. The analysis was repeated for different numbers of sub-regions (3 - 8) to identify the best number of clusters to improve the forecast model performance. Subsequently, a Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. After these two stages of pre-processing, a Neural Network model was developed and optimized for each of the sub-regions as well as for the entire area. It is concluded

  9. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasts for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall is important for agriculture management and planning in arid and semi-arid regions. Australia has complex variations in rainfall patterns in time and space, arising from the combination of the geographic structure and the dual effects of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study aims to develop a forecasting model of spatiotemporal monthly rainfall totals using lagged climate indices and historical rainfall data from 1950-2011 for south-eastern and eastern Australia. Data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high-quality weather stations. To reduce spatial complexity, climate regionalization was used to divide the stations in homogenous sub-regions based on similarity of rainfall patterns and intensity using principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means clustering. Subsequently, a fuzzy ranking algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. Selected predictors by FRA were found to vary by sub-region. After these two stages of pre-processing, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed and optimized separately for each sub-region and the entire area. The results indicate that climate regionalization can improve a monthly spatiotemporal rainfall forecast model. The location and number of sub-regions were important for ranking predictors and modeling. This further suggests that the impact of climate variables on Australian rainfall is more variable in both time and space than indicated thus far.

  10. The climate of the Last Glacial Maximum in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulmeister, J.; Cohen, T.; Kiernan, K.; Woodward, C.; Barrows, T.; Fitzsimmons, K.; Kemp, J.; Haworth, R.; Clark, D. H.; Gontz, A. M.; Chang, J.; Mueller, D.; Slee, A.; Ellerton, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Last Glaciation Maximum (c. 25-18 kyr) in south-eastern Australia has traditionally been regarded as both significantly colder than the present and much more arid. This was based on a variety of evidence including the dramatic reduction in tree pollen and dune activity in currently humid areas such as the Blue Mountains of NSW. Maintaining arid conditions under significantly lower temperatures is quite challenging and not all lines of evidence supported strong aridity. Over the last four years an ARC project has worked to develop new lines of evidence to test these inferences. Outcomes from the project indicate that winter temperatures were significantly colder than at present (an 8-11 C decrease) while summer temperatures were cooler but not as extreme (4-6.5 C). Moisture balances appear to have been more positive than present along the eastern highlands, while areas to the west were comparatively drier. The humid zone along the divide maintained at least seasonally stronger flows in the major rivers, meaning that water was more available in western districts than under modern climates. I will summarise the evidence for this new pattern and highlight the climatological patterns that would be consistent with the reconstruction. I will conclude by speculating on the implications for both human landscape use and what happened to the vegetation.

  11. Resistance to spinosad in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in greenhouses of south-eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Bielza, Pablo; Quinto, Vicente; Contreras, Josefina; Torné, María; Martín, Alberto; Espinosa, Pedro J

    2007-07-01

    Susceptibility to spinosad of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), from south-eastern Spain was determined. LC(50) values of the field populations without previous exposure to spinosad collected in Murcia in 2001 and 2002 ranged from 0.005 to 0.077 mg L(-1). The populations collected in Almeria in 2003 in greenhouses were resistant to spinosad (LC(50) > 54 mg L(-1)) compared with the authors' highly susceptible laboratory strain. The highly sensitive laboratory strain leads to very high resistance ratios for the field populations (>13 500), but these ratios do not necessarily mean resistance problems and control failures (spinosad field rate 90-120 mg L(-1)). The populations collected in Murcia from some greenhouses in 2004 were also resistant to spinosad (RF > 3682). Spinosad overuse, with more than ten applications per crop, produced these resistant populations in some greenhouses. Spinosad showed no cross-resistance to acrinathrin, formetanate or methiocarb in laboratory strains selected for resistance towards each insecticide. Correlation analysis indicated no cross-resistance among spinosad and the other three insecticides in 13 field populations and in nine laboratory strains. The synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) and diethyl maleate (DEM) did not enhance the toxicity of spinosad to the resistant strains, indicating that metabolic-mediated detoxification was not responsible for the spinosad resistance. These findings suggest that rotation with spinosad may be an effective resistance management strategy.

  12. Pre- and postnatal exposures to pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children living in agricultural communities from South-Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Hernández, Antonio F; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Gómez, Inmaculada; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; López-Flores, Inmaculada; Parrón, Tesifón; Lacasaña, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Childrens exposure to neurotoxic compounds poses a major problem to public health because oftheir actively developing brain that makes them highly vulnerable. However, limited information is available on neuropsychological effects in children associated with pre- and postnatal exposures to pesticides. To evaluate the association between current and pre- and postnatal exposures to pesticides and their effects on neurodevelopment in children aged 6–11 years living in agricultural communities from South-Eastern Spain. An ambispective study was conducted on 305 children aged 6–11 years randomly selected from public schools of the study area. Current exposure to organophosphate pesticides was assessed measuring children's urinary levels of dialkylphosphates (DAPs). Both prenatal and postnatal residential exposure to pesticides was estimated by developing a geographical information system (GIS) technology-based index that integrated distance-weighted measure of agricultural surface, time-series of crop areas per municipality and year, and land-use maps. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The association of pre- and postnatal and current pesticide exposure with WISC-IV scale scores was assessed using multivariate linear regression models and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, respectively. Greater urinary DAP levels were associated with a poorer performance on intelligence quotient and verbal comprehension domain, with effects being more prominent in boys than in girls. The influence of an increase in 10 ha per year in crop surface around the child's residence during the postnatal period was associated with decreased intelligence quotient, processing speed and verbal comprehension scores. As regards prenatal exposure to pesticides, a poor processing speed performance was observed. These effects were also more prominent in boys than in girls. Our results suggest that

  13. Suspicion of elder abuse in South Eastern Spain: the extent and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cárceles, M D; Rubio, L; Pereniguez, J E; Pérez-Flores, D; Osuna, E; Luna, A

    2009-01-01

    Elder abuse is recognized internationally as a growing problem. Recent years have seen an increase in the number of authors recommending that the MDs systematically question old people concerning possible abuse. The aim of our study was to ascertain the extent of suspicion of elder abuse and the different types of abuse. We design a cross-sectional survey including 460 patients > or = 65 years at different health centers (South East Spain). A face-to-face interview and a physical examination was carried out. Extent of suspected abuse was 44.6%. Female sex, > or = 75 years, widowhood, living alone or with children, accommodation in house of relatives and income < or = 300 euros/month were the associated sociodemographic variables. The risk factors associated are recent worsening of health, living with a mentally ill person, excessive consumption of alcohol or illegal drugs, arguing frequently with relatives or the dependence on someone to carry out a daily activity. The signs in the physical examination associated are dehydration/malnutrition, pressure ulcers and poor body and/or mouth hygiene. There is a high extent of suspicion of elder abuse and the keyword in this respect is prevention.

  14. Modelling the response of surface fuel to climate change across south-eastern Australia: consequences for future fire regimes .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstock, Ross; Matthews, Stuart; Penman, Trent; Price, Owen; Watson, Penny; Williams, Dick

    2014-05-01

    Changes to fire regimes in the future will be determined by a complex range of processes. Vegetation, weather and ignitions may be altered by climate change, elevated CO2 and human activity. In this study, we used an empirically based approach to project future changes in surface litter fuel within major vegetation formations (rainforest, wet sclerophyll forest, dry sclerophyll forest, grassy woodlands) the temperate and subtropical areas of south eastern Australia. Climatic controls of litterfall, decomposition and steady state fuel load within each vegetation formation were examined using metadata derived from field studies. Changes in steady state litter fuel load were then estimated for the current spatial domain of each vegetation formation (1 km grid), using the fuel/climate models, and a range of 2080 climate projections (5 GCMs) selected to encompass both warmer and drier and warmer and wetter future conditions for the region, under the A1b emissions scenario. Steady state surface fine fuel load was generally, negatively related to mean annual temperature but mean annual rainfall had divergent effects dependent on vegetation type. Under all 2080 climate projections, a mean decline in steady state surface litter was predicted in dry sclerophyll forest (-5 to -18%), the most extensive forest type in the region. Similarly a general decline was estimated for rainforest (-5 to -13%). For the other vegetation formations, predicted 2080 responses varied from a small mean increase to a more substantial decline: i.e. + 0.1 to - 24%, grassy woodlands; +3 to -18%, wet sclerophyll forest. The predominant, predicted decline in future surface fine fuel load has the potential to reduce future area burned due to the influence of fuel load on fire behaviour in these ecosystems. Early results from experiments and stand growth models dealing with Eucalyptus species indicate that possible declines in surface fine fuel load induced by a warmer climate may be partially off

  15. Evidence of climatic effects on soil, vegetation and landform in temperate forests of south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, Assaf; Nyman, Petter; Lane, Patrick; Sheridan, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Water and radiation are unevenly distributed across the landscape due to variations in topography, which in turn causes water availability differences on the terrain according to elevation and aspect orientation. These differences in water availability can cause differential distribution of vegetation types and indirectly influence the development of soil and even landform, as expressed in hillslope asymmetry. While most of the research on the effects of climate on the vegetation and soil development and landscape evolution has been concentrated in drier semi-arid areas, temperate forested areas has been poorly studied, particularly in South Eastern Australia. This study uses soil profile descriptions and data on soil depth and landform across climatic gradients to explore the degrees to which coevolution of vegetation, soils and landform are controlled by radiative forcing and rainfall. Soil depth measurements were made on polar and equatorial facing hillslopes located at 3 sites along a climatic gradient (mean annual rainfall between 700 - 1800 mm yr-1) in the Victorian Highlands, where forest types range from dry open woodland to closed temperate rainforest. Profile descriptions were taken from soil pits dag on planar hillslopes (50 m from ridge), and samples were taken from each horizon for physical and chemical properties analysis. Hillslope asymmetry in different precipitation regimes of the study region was quantified from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Significant vegetation differences between aspects were noted in lower and intermediate rainfall sites, where polar facing aspects expressed higher overall biomass than the drier equatorial slope. Within the study domain, soil depth was strongly correlated with forest type and above ground biomass. Soil depths and chemical properties varied between topographic aspects and along the precipitation gradient, where wetter conditions facilitate deeper and more weathered soils. Furthermore, soil depths showed

  16. Mapping the isotopic signature of methane in South-Eastern Spain: complementing biogeochemical long-term research with short term observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Àgueda, Alba; Morguí, Josep Anton; Vazquez Garcia, Eusebi; Curcoll, Roger; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2016-04-01

    As a greenhouse gas, methane has a global warming potential of 25 in a 100 year scale. In order to establish mitigation plans it is important to assess its sources and sinks which can be both of geological and biological origin. South-Eastern Spain is a region with many different possible methane sources: i) by seismic activity of many geological faults both inland and in the neighbouring marine region (i.e. the Carboneras fault crossing the Alborán Sea along Málaga coastline); ii) by seepage of methane from hydrates present in the marine regions close to the Gibraltar Strait and the Gulf of Cádiz; iii) by emissions from fossil fuels caused by high traffic of merchant ships and the presence of large harbours (Algeciras, Tetuan and Cádiz), and the Africa - Europe Gas Transport Network in the Gibraltar Strait region; iv) by organic matter decomposition in both highly productive marshlands and eutrophic reservoirs; v) by burning of agricultural debris for energy supply, mainly from olive residues. In this study, a methane mapping survey has been conducted in the area around three atmospheric stations of the ClimaDat Atmospheric Network for Continuous Measurements of Greenhouse Gases (www.climadat.es) located in South-Eastern Spain (Sierra de Grazalema (SGC3), Tarifa (EEC3) and Sierra de Segura (SSC3). A cavity ring down spectrometer (CRDS) (G2301m, Picarro®) installed on a car has been used to measure methane concentrations. Additionally, in selected points, air samples have been collected in Tedlar bags for isotopic signature analysis by CF-GC-IRMS (Continuous Flow Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry). In order to obtain a map facilitating the identification of the different methane sources in the background air at regional scale, the mapping of isotopic signature of methane together with its concentration is a useful tool to obtain fast and direct information that will contribute to the knowledge of methane transport at the regional scale and

  17. Divergent responses of fire to recent climate change: evidence from bio-regional patterns across south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstock, R.; Boer, M.; Penman, T.; Price, O.

    2012-04-01

    Fire activity is dependent on the growth of biomass (fuel), sufficient dryness of biomass (availability to burn), weather condition such as temperature, wind and humidity (rate of fire spread) and ignitions (natural or human caused). Differing fire regimes are predicted to emerge from differing syndromes of limitation by these fundamental drivers. These processes are in turn governed by complex relationships with vegetation and climate, as well as human populations. Fire regimes should therefore vary systematically across biophysical gradients as highlighted in recent, global analyses of fire patterns. In particular, fire in dry ecosystems may be fundamentally constrained by the growth of herbaceous biomass (fuel limitation), whereas in mesic, forested ecosystems the principal constraint on fire is predicted to be availability to burn (i.e. episodes where litter fuels derived form dominant woody plants are sufficiently dry to burn). This means fire oocurs primarily in response to rain in arid ecosystems (i.e. promotion of herbage growth) and, alternatively, to drought in mesic ecosystems (i.e. drying of fuel beds). These contrasting syndromes of fire provide scope for divergent responses to warmer and drier conditions under climate change, with fire potentially declining in arid ecosystems and increasing in mesic ecosystems as a result. We tested this prediction by examining the response of area burned from 1975 to 2009 across 32 bioregions covering south-eastern Australia, using mapped data derived from land and fire management archives. This range extends from arid grasslands through woodlands and sclerophyll forests to rainforests in the mesic, coastal fringe. Recent research has highlighted an increase in the severity of fire weather (i.e. annual sum of daily fire danger index) for the corresponding period across the part of the continent. We found that area burned tended to remain static or declined in semi-arid and arid bio-regions. By contrast in forested

  18. Evaluation of soil contamination in intensive agricultural areas by pesticides and organic pollutants: south-eastern Spain as a case study.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Garrido-Frenich, Antonia; Romero-González, Roberto; Martínez-Vidal, José Luis

    2012-04-01

    A comprehensive survey of the occurrence and fate of pesticides and organic contaminants in soils from an intensive agricultural area devoted to horticultural production in plastic-based greenhouses has been performed to determine if the operation under integrated pest management practices has contributed to reduce the levels of these compounds. Almería province (south-eastern Spain) was selected for the case study. 38 agricultural soil samples (each sample corresponds to an independent private greenhouse) of areas working under integrated pest management (IPM) programs have been analyzed in order to evaluate their contamination fate. Sampling was designed to cover an area of about 400 km(2). Pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phenolic compounds and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) were monitored. The obtained results were compared to other studies reported in Spain and Europe. Among relevant persistent pesticides, DDTs and endosulfans were mainly found and the results indicated historical application, although recent application of endosulfan was rarely detected. PAHs were also found but to a lesser extent and derived from pyrogenic sources. DEHP levels were considerably higher in comparison to the other monitored analytes. The evaluation revealed that despite the use of IPM programs, pesticide and organic contaminants are still being detected in this type of agricultural soil, although at relatively low concentration levels. In general, the contamination rate was similar or lower in comparison to other agricultural areas from nearby regions or countries. However, further monitoring studies should be carried out to establish the possible reduction in contamination by the selected compounds.

  19. Effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the south-eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, P.J.; Best, G.R.; Coutant, C.C.; Hornberger, G.M.; Meyer, J.L.; Robinson, P.J.; Stenberg, J.R.; Turner, R.E.; Vera-Herrera, F.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The south-eastern United States and Gulf Coast of Mexico is physiographically diverse, although dominated by a broad coastal plain. Much of the region has a humid, warm temperate climate with little seasonality in precipitation but strong seasonality in runoff owing to high rates of summer evapotranspiration. The climate of southern Florida and eastern Mexico is subtropical with a distinct summer wet season and winter dry season. Regional climate models suggest that climate change resulting from a doubling of the pre-industrial levels of atmospheric CO2 may increase annual air temperatures by 3-4??C. Changes in precipitation are highly uncertain, but the most probable scenario shows higher levels over all but the northern, interior portions of the region, with increases primarily occurring in summer and occurring as more intense or clustered storms. Despite the increases in precipitation, runoff is likely to decline over much of the region owing to increases in evapotranspiration exceeding increases in precipitation. Only in Florida and the Gulf Coast areas of the US and Mexico are precipitation increases likely to exceed evapotranspiration increases, producing an increase in runoff. However, increases in storm intensity and clustering are likely to result in more extreme hydrographs, with larger peaks in flow but lower baseflows and longer periods of drought. The ecological effects of climate change on freshwaters of the region include: (1) a general increase in rates of primary production, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling as a result of higher temperatures and longer growing seasons: (2) reduction in habitat for cool water species, particularly fish and macroinvertebrates in Appalachian streams; (3) reduction in water quality and in suitable habitat in summer owing to lower baseflows and intensification of the temperature-dissolved oxygen squeeze in many rivers and reservoirs; (4) reduction in organic matter storage and loss of organisms during

  20. Effects of Climate Change on Freshwater Ecosystems of the South-Eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, Patrick J.; Best, G. Ronnie; Coutant, Charles C.; Hornberger, George M.; Meyer, Judy L.; Robinson, Peter J.; Stenberg, John R.; Turner, R. Eugene; Vera-Herrera, Francisco; Wetzel, Robert G.

    1997-06-01

    The south-eastern United States and Gulf Coast of Mexico is physiographically diverse, although dominated by a broad coastal plain. Much of the region has a humid, warm temperate climate with little seasonality in precipitation but strong seasonality in runoff owing to high rates of summer evapotranspiration. The climate of southern Florida and eastern Mexico is subtropical with a distinct summer wet season and winter dry season. Regional climate models suggest that climate change resulting from a doubling of the pre-industrial levels of atmospheric CO2 may increase annual air temperatures by 3-4°C. Changes in precipitation are highly uncertain, but the most probable scenario shows higher levels over all but the northern, interior portions of the region, with increases primarily occurring in summer and occurring as more intense or clustered storms. Despite the increases in precipitation, runoff is likely to decline over much of the region owing to increases in evapotranspiration exceeding increases in precipitation. Only in Florida and the Gulf Coast areas of the US and Mexico are precipitation increases likely to exceed evapotranspiration increases, producing an increase in runoff. However, increases in storm intensity and clustering are likely to result in more extreme hydrographs, with larger peaks in flow but lower baseflows and longer periods of drought.The ecological effects of climate change on freshwaters of the region include: (1) a general increase in rates of primary production, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling as a result of higher temperatures and longer growing seasons: (2) reduction in habitat for cool water species, particularly fish and macroinvertebrates in Appalachian streams; (3) reduction in water quality and in suitable habitat in summer owing to lower baseflows and intensification of the temperature-dissolved oxygen squeeze in many rivers and reservoirs; (4) reduction in organic matter storage and loss of organisms during

  1. Using Chironomid-Based Transfer Function and Stable Isotopes for Reconstructing Past Climate in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J.; Shulmeister, J.; Woodward, C.

    2014-12-01

    A transfer-function based on chironomids was created to reconstruct past summer temperatures from a training set comprised of 33 south eastern Australian lakes. Statistical analyses show that mean February temperature (MFT) is the most robust and independent variable explaining chironomid species variability. The best MFT transfer function was a partial least squares (PLS) model with a coefficient of determination (r2Jackknifed) of 0.69, a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.33˚C, and maximum bias of 2.15°C. The transfer function was tested by applying it to a Late Glacial to Holocene record from Blue Lake, New South Wales using published data. The reconstruction displays an overall pattern very similar to the Milankovitch driven summer insolation curve for 30°S and to the chironomid based summer temperature reconstruction from Eagle Tarn, Tasmania (Rees and Cwynar 2010) suggesting that the model is robust. The transfer function was also applied to reconstruct the Last Glacial Maxium (LGM) summer temperature from Welsby Lagoon, North Stradbroke Island (Queensland). Preliminary results show a c. 4.2~8.6˚C of cooling in summer temperatures during the LGM from south east Australia. Stable oxygen and deuterium isotope composition (δ18O and δD) of the chitnous subfossil head capsules from Australian chironomids were also measured to explore the opportunity developing them as an independent temperature proxy. This is the first application of this technique in the Southern Hemisphere. The modern range of chironomid δ18O values were measured based on the same 33 lakes sampled for the transfer function. For these lakes, head capsules of single genera were picked to avoid complications from 'vital effects'. The relationship of chironomid δ18O to modern lake temperatures has been investigated. Deuterium (δD) on the head capsules has been measured concurrently and the relationship to climate and environment will be explored based on the latest available

  2. Composition and structure of the molluscan assemblage associated with a Cymodocea nodosa bed in south-eastern Spain: seasonal and diel variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marina, Pablo; Urra, Javier; Rueda, José L.; Salas, Carmen

    2012-12-01

    The molluscan taxocoenosis associated with a Cymodocea nodosa seagrass bed was studied throughout 1 year in Genoveses Bay, in the MPA "Parque Natural Cabo de Gata-Níjar" (south-eastern Spain). A total of 64,824 individuals were collected and 54 species identified. The molluscan fauna was mainly composed of gastropods (99.56% of individuals, 43 spp.). The families Rissoidae (72.98%, 11 spp.) and Trochidae (16.93%, 7 spp.) were the most abundant and diversified in terms of number of species. Rissoa monodonta (47.1% dominance), Rissoa membranacea (25.1%) and Gibbula leucophaea (11.6%) proved the top dominant species in both diurnal and nocturnal samples. Bivalves (0.41%, 10 species) and cephalopods (0.03%, 1 species) represented only a low percentage of the molluscan taxocoenosis. The molluscan assemblage was mainly composed of species with a wide geographical distribution in Europe, followed by strictly Mediterranean species. The abundance was significantly higher in the cold (December, March) than in the warm months (June, July). Species richness ( S) was higher in nocturnal than in diurnal samples, reaching maximal values in diurnal samples of March and June. Shannon-Wiener diversity ( H') values were generally higher in nocturnal samples than in diurnal ones, displaying minimum values in December and June, respectively. Evenness was similar in diurnal and nocturnal samples, with maximum values in July in both groups. S and H' were also significantly different between diurnal and nocturnal samples. Multivariate analyses based on both qualitative and quantitative data showed a significant seasonal and diel variation. Diel changes revealed to be more distinct than seasonal ones.

  3. A comparative study of fire weather indices in a semiarid south-eastern Europe region. Case of study: Murcia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, Julio; Senent-Aparicio, Javier; Díaz-Palmero, José María; Cabezas-Cerezo, Juan de Dios

    2017-07-15

    Forest fires are an important distortion in forest ecosystems, linked to their development and whose effects proceed beyond the destruction of ecosystems and material properties, especially in semiarid regions. Prevention of forest fires has to lean on indices based on available parameters that quantify fire risk ignition and spreading. The present study was conducted to compare four fire weather indices in a semiarid region of 11,314km(2) located in southern Spain, characterised as being part of the most damaged area by fire in the Iberian Peninsula. The studied period comprises 3033 wildfires in the region during 15years (2000-2014), of which 80% are >100m(2) and 14% >1000m(2), resulting around 40km(2) of burnt area in this period. The indices selected have been Angström Index, Forest Fire Drought Index, Forest Moisture Index and Fire Weather Index. Likewise, four selection methods have been applied to compare the results of the studied indices: Mahalanobis distance, percentile method, ranked percentile method and Relative Operating Characteristic curves (ROC). Angström index gives good results in the coastal areas with higher temperatures, low rainfall and wider range of variations while Fire Weather Index has better results in inland areas with higher rainfall, dense forest mass and fewer changes in meteorological conditions throughout the year. ROC space rejects all the indices except Fire Weather Index with good performance all over the region. ROC analysis ratios can be used to assess the success (or lack thereof) of fire indices; thus, it benefits operational wildfire predictions in semiarid regions similar to that of the case study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. New drilling of the early Aptian OAE1a: the Cau core (Prebetic Zone, south-eastern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejandro Ruiz-Ortiz, Pedro; Castro, José Manuel; de Gea, Ginés Alfonso; Jarvis, Ian; Molina, José Miguel; Nieto, Luis Miguel; Pancost, Richard David; Quijano, María Luisa; Reolid, Matías; Skelton, Peter William; Jürg Weissert, Helmut

    2016-08-01

    The Cretaceous was punctuated by several episodes of accelerated global change, defined as Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs), that reflect abrupt changes in global carbon cycling. The Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE1a; 120 Ma) represents an excellent example, recorded in all major ocean basins, and associated with massive burial of organic matter in marine sediments. The OAE1a is concomitant with the "nannoconid crisis", which is characterized by a major biotic turnover, and a widespread demise of carbonate platforms. Many studies have been published over the last decades on OAE1a's from different sections in the world, and provide a detailed C-isotope stratigraphy for the event. Nevertheless, new high-resolution studies across the event are essential to shed light on the precise timing and rates of the multiple environmental and biotic changes that occurred during this critical period of Earth history. Here we present a new drill core recovering an Aptian section spanning the OAE1a in southern Spain. The so-called Cau section was drilled in the last quarter of 2015. The Cau section is located in the easternmost part of the Prebetic Zone (Betic Cordillera), which represents platform deposits of the southern Iberian palaeomargin. The lower Aptian deposits of the Cau section belong to a hemipelagic unit (Almadich Formation), deposited in a highly subsident sector of the distal parts of the Prebetic Platform. Previous work on the early Aptian of the Cau succession has focused on stratigraphy, bioevents, C-isotope stratigraphy, and organic and elemental geochemistry. A more recent study based on biomarkers has presented a detailed record of the pCO2 evolution across the OAE1a (Naafs et al., 2016). All these studies reveal that the Cau section represents an excellent site to further investigate the OAE1a, based on its unusually high sedimentation rate and stratigraphic continuity, the quality and preservation of fossils, and the well-expressed geochemical signatures.

  5. Black carbon aerosols over an urban area in south-eastern Spain: Changes detected after the 2008 economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Foyo, I.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2011-11-01

    Continuous measurements of black carbon (BC) concentrations performed at Granada, an urban location in southeast Spain, using a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer from December 2005 to November 2008, are analysed and discussed here. The daily mean BC concentrations showed considerable day-to-day variations and were found to vary from low values of 0.5 μg m -3 to high values of 8.6 μg m -3, with overall mean and standard deviation of 3.0 ± 1.5 μg m -3. The annual mean BC concentrations were similar during 2006 and 2007 (3.2 ± 1.4 μg m -3 and 3.1 ± 1.6 μg m -3, respectively), but decreased by about 16-18% to 2.6 ± 1.4 μg m -3 in 2008. This reduction is not only observed in the mean value, but also in the median, third and first quartiles. A Mann-Whitney test at 0.05 significance level confirms that the BC concentration difference between 2006 and 2007 is statistically no significant while the BC concentration in 2008 tends to be less than that in 2006-2007. Analysis of meteorological conditions suggested that although the day-to-day variations in BC concentrations were driven mostly by meteorology, the reduction in the use of fossil fuels due to economic slowdown contributed significantly to the observed decrease in BC concentrations in 2008. Under conditions dominated by local source emissions, the effect of the economic crisis on BC concentration was more pronounced. For the three analysed years, BC concentrations obtained during winter were higher than those measured during summer, probably due to increased emissions from domestic heating and less intense vertical mixing in winter season, which lead to the confinement of the BC particles near the surface. The monthly mean BC concentrations were lower in 2008 than in 2006-2007 for almost every month of the year. In all years BC concentrations exhibited a clear diurnal pattern, with two maxima and two minima within a day. There were no differences among the daily patterns for 2006, 2007 and 2008 except for

  6. Climate variability on the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau since the Lateglacial based on a multiproxy approach from Lake Naleng - comparing pollen and non-pollen signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Stephan; Zhang, Chengjun; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Mischke, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    A multi-proxy Lateglacial environmental record is described from Lake Naleng (31.10°N; 99.75°E, 4200 m above sea level), situated on south-eastern Tibetan Plateau to gain deeper insights into the hydrological and palaeoclimate development since 17.7 cal ka BP. Palynological reconstructions of variations in mean annual precipitation (MAP) and temperature (MAT), sedimentological data and sediment chemistry including weathering indicators provide a multi-faceted picture of local and regional environmental changes since the Lateglacial. Principal component analyses of all parameters provide information on interrelationships between each parameters, which help to evaluate their traceability to temperature and precipitation and to estimate their usability as proxy indicators for local and or regional variations. During the Lateglacial from 17.7 to 14.0 cal ka BP Lake Naleng experienced cold and dry climate conditions with low biological productivity and supply of unaltered fine-grained material due to the high supply of glacier milk. During the second half of the Lateglacial, climate conditions changed abruptly: increases in MAT (from -4 to -2.2 °C) and MAP (from 500 mm to 820 mm) between 14.0 and 13.0 cal ka BP indicate a climate amelioration. This time interval can be correlated to the Bølling/Allerød (B/A) warming period in the North Atlantic region and is followed by the Younger Dryas cold reversal indicated by abrupt decreases of MAT (from -2.2 to -5 °C) and MAP (from 820 to 650 mm). The onset of the Holocene at about 11.5 cal ka BP is indicated by rises in reconstructed MAT (from -5 to about -0.3 °C) and MAP (from 600 mm to 950 mm), which led to an increased supply of weathered material and higher biological productivity. Between 5.0 and 3.0 cal ka BP, MAT increases to about 0.2 °C and MAP rises to maximum values of about 1000 mm, followed by slightly decreasing MAT and MAP between 3.0 and 0 cal ka BP. The biogeochemical parameters (total organic carbon

  7. Three climatic cycles recorded in a loess-palaeosol sequence at Semlac (Romania) - Implications for dust accumulation in south-eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeden, C.; Kels, H.; Hambach, U.; Schulte, P.; Protze, J.; Eckmeier, E.; Marković, S. B.; Klasen, N.; Lehmkuhl, F.

    2016-12-01

    Recent investigations of the Semlac loess section in the south-eastern Carpathian Basin, which is situated at an undercut slope position on the right bank of the Mureş River in its lower reaches (Banat region, western Romanian), are presented and discussed. Dating back to marine isotope stage (MIS) 10, the more than 10 m thick loess sequence includes four fossil soil-complexes developed in homogenous and relatively fine silty loess. Because of the good preservation of the sediment, Semlac is regarded as a key section for the Carpathian Basin, which offers possibilities to a) improve the understanding of the type and composition (loess homogeneity and pedogenic alteration) of the lowland loess sequences in the Carpathian Basin also beyond the last interglacial palaoesol complex, b) to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the local loess-palaoesol successions, c) gain better insight into the regional paleoenvironments of the last 300 ka and d) to compare the loess of the region to loess-sequences in adjacent areas and to dust proxy data in the northern hemisphere. An integrated age model based on correlation to reference records and luminescence dating is compiled. Applying this age model we compare climate proxy data from Semlac to both global data and to data from the very southeast of the Carpathian Basin (Vojvodina, Serbia). The obtained results provide new insight into the dust accumulation regime for the eastern Carpathian Basin and offer new palaeoenvironmental information for the region and are an important step towards establishing a catena from the thin loess-like sediments of the Banat foothills in the East towards the thicker and seemingly more complete loess sections of the south-eastern and central Carpathian Basin. Disentangling grain size data from soil formation proxies is used to investigate patterns of non-local dust. Patterns of non-pedogenetic fine material are similar to grain size proxies from China and other parts of the northern hemisphere

  8. Impact of climate change and water use policies on hydropower potential in the south-eastern Alpine region.

    PubMed

    Majone, Bruno; Villa, Francesca; Deidda, Roberto; Bellin, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Climate change is expected to cause alterations of streamflow regimes in the Alpine region, with possible relevant consequences for several socio-economic sectors including hydropower production. The impact of climate change on water resources and hydropower production is evaluated with reference to the Noce catchment, which is located in the Southeastern Alps, Italy. Projected changes of precipitation and temperature, derived from an ensemble of 4 climate model (CM) runs for the period 2040-2070 under the SRES A1B emission scenario, have been downscaled and bias corrected before using them as climatic forcing in a hydrological model. Projections indicate an increase of the mean temperature of the catchment in the range 2-4K, depending on the climate model used. Projections of precipitation indicate an increase of annual precipitation in the range between 2% and 6% with larger changes in winter and autumn. Hydrological simulations show an increase of water yield during the period 2040-2070 with respect to 1970-2000. Furthermore, a transition from glacio-nival to nival regime is projected for the catchment. Hydrological regime is expected to change as a consequence of less winter precipitation falling as snow and anticipated melting in spring, with the runoff peak decreasing in intensity and anticipating from July to June. Changes in water availability reflect in the Technical Hydropower Potential (THP) of the catchment, with larger changes projected for the hydropower plants located at the highest altitudes. Finally, the impacts on THP of water use policies such as the introduction of prescriptions for minimum ecological flow (MEF) have been analyzed. Simulations indicate that in the lower part of the catchment reduction of the hydropower production due to MEF releases from the storage reservoirs counterbalances the benefits associated to the projected increases of inflows as foreseen by simulations driven only by climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Climate change vulnerability assessments as catalysts for social learning: four case studies in south-eastern Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2012-01-01

    Technical assessments of vulnerability and/or risk are increasingly being undertaken to assess the impacts of climate change. Underlying this is the belief that they will bring clarity to questions regarding the scale of institutional investments required, plausible adaptation policies and measures, and the timing of their implementation. Despite the perceived importance of technical assessments in 'evidence-based' decision environments, assessments cannot be undertaken independent of values and politics, nor are they capable of eliminating the uncertainty that clouds decision-making on climate adaptation As such, assessments can trigger as many questions as they answer, leaving practitioners and stakeholders to question their value. This paper explores the value of vulnerability/risk assessments in climate change adaptation planning processes as a catalyst for learning in four case studies in Southeastern Australia. Data were collected using qualitative interviews with stakeholders involved in the assessments and analysed using a social learning framework. This analysis revealed that detailed and tangible strategies or actions often do not emerge directly from technical assessments. However, it also revealed that the assessments became important platforms for social learning. In providing these platforms, assessments present opportunities to question initial assumptions, explore multiple framings of an issue, generate new information, and galvanise support for collective actions. This study highlights the need for more explicit recognition and understanding of the important role social learning plays in climate change vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning more broadly.

  10. Coevolution of soil and vegetation in the South Eastern Australian uplands with variable climate and fire regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, Assaf; Petter, Nyman; Patrick, Lane; Gary, Sheridan

    2016-04-01

    The south east Australian forested uplands are characterized by complex and inter-correlated spatial patterns in forest types, soil depths and fire regimes, even within areas with similar sedimentary geology and catenary position. The ecohydrology of these system-state combinations varies markedly, and is difficult to predict. Here we present preliminary results from a soil and vegetation co-evolutionary framework that represents the key feedbacks that have resulted in the current quasi-equilibrium system states of standing biomass, soil depth and fire frequency. The model is based on a modification of an existing mechanistic model, and includes an ecohydrological engine that drives a vegetation dynamics and a geomorphic submodels. Five sites with similar parent material and slope along a rainfall gradient and opposing aspects were chosen to test the model outputs: soil depth and above-ground biomass. In three of the sites, microclimate conditions were extensively monitored in a clear ridge-top (Open), and North and South facing aspects. The data was used to calibrate and test the ecohydrology modelling according to landscape position. Geomorphic processes that control soil depth were modeled using existing transport functions which varied with climate and forest type, and fire regime was set to be a function of biomass state and water deficit. In the next step, the model will have the potential to be incorporated into a 2D landscape evolution model in order to route sediment and water in a dynamic landscape. Using this model allows us to explore how, and in what rate, did each of the different systems evolve into their current state, and what is the unique and combined part of climate and fire regimes in the coevolution process, and predict the response of the current systems to change in a changing climate.

  11. Impacts of Land use change on air quality and climate of Hangzhou City, South Eastern parts of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Zheng, S.

    2016-12-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) influence the weather and climate conditions at local, regional and global scales. It has dramatically altered the Earth's landscape, chemical fluxes and influences the Earth's climate. The rapid land use change is often related to urban sprawl, farmland displacement, and deforestation. In the last two decades, land use land cover has rapidly changed in China especially along the eastern coastal region. Earlier studies have shown frequent (160 days in a year) occurrence of haze, fog and smog during 2003-2010 in and around Hangzhou city which lies in the south east coast region of China. An analysis of ground observed air quality and trace gases from 11 stations in Hangzhou city and satellite retrieved atmospheric parameters from 2011-2015 show increasing air quality and atmospheric pollution. The pollutants show very dynamic nature especially during winter season associated with the mixing with the influx of air mass from the surrounding regions. The frequent occurrences of fog, haze and smog over Hangzhou city is associated with the land use and land cover change of 16596 km2 areas, home of 9.02 million people. The spatial-temporal characteristics of land use change and air quality in response to rapid urbanization will be presented.

  12. Vegetation and climate changes in the South Eastern Mediterranean during the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle (86 ka): new marine pollen record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langgut, D.; Almogi-Labin, A.; Bar-Matthews, M.; Weinstein-Evron, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean, located at the meeting between the Mediterranean vegetation of the Eurasian continent and the desert vegetation of the Saharan-Arabian desert belt, is ideal for tracking changes in regional vegetation as function of climate changes. Reconstruction of these changes in the South Eastern Mediterranean during the last 86 ka is based on a palynological record, from deep-sea core 9509, taken by R/V Marion Dufresne, off the southern Israeli coast. The chronological framework is based on the correlation of δ 18O records of planktonic foraminifera with the high resolution, well-dated U-Th speleothem record from the Soreq Cave, Israel and the occurrence of sapropel layers. Several cycles of humid/dry periods were documented during the last 86 ka. The record starts with the moderate humid and warm sapropel S3 marking the end of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5. The climate during the Last Glacial period (75.5-16.2 ka) was cold and dry, with low Arboreal Pollen (AP) levels, and high values of semi-desert and desert vegetation (e.g. Artemisia - sagebrush). The driest and coldest period during the last 86 ka corresponds to MIS 2 (27.1-16.2 ka), characterized by the lowest tree cover along the sequence and the dominance of steppe vegetation. Some slightly more humid fluctuations were identified during the period of 56.3 and 43.5 ka with its peak between 56.0 and 54.4 ka. The most pronounced climate change started at the beginning of the Deglaciation (16.2-10 ka) and continued throughout the Holocene (last 10 ka), notwithstanding some short fluctuations. High AP levels were dominated by Quercus callipprinos (evergreen oak), suggesting that the Mediterranean forest was more extensive in the area and the climate was wet. Sapropels S3 and S1 were clearly recognized here by the high concentrations and good state of preservation of pollen because of the development of anoxia in the bottom water that may be related to more extensive Nile discharge coinciding with

  13. Climatic drivers of variability in the response of NPP to elevated CO2. A model-data comparison at two FACE sites in the south eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. P.; Zaehle, S.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Dietze, M. C.; Hanson, P. J.; Hickler, T.; Jain, A. K.; Luo, Y.; McCarthy, H. R.; Medlyn, B. E.; Parton, W. J.; Thornton, P. E.; Wang, S.; Wang, Y.; Warlind, D.; Weng, E.; Oren, R.; Norby, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    In response to elevated CO2, terrestrial plant productivity increases; creating negative feedback on atmospheric CO2 increase. Inter-annual variability (IAV) in the Net Primary Productivity (NPP) response, demonstrated at FACE experiments in Tennessee and North Carolina, was a result of nitrogen dynamics and the water balance. An inter-comparison study, that simulated the FACE experiments with 11 different models, showed that models could reproduce IAV at Duke FACE but were less able at Oak Ridge. The aim of this study was to test whether models could reproduce the experimentally observed relationships between the NPP response and climatic variables. Temperature and soil water were shown to be important drivers of the simulated NPP response. However, models did not demonstrate the same relationships to climate as the observed data. Despite the intensity and duration of the measurement campaigns in comparison with other ecosystem manipulations, fusion of models and data was confounded by the comparatively limited resolution of observed data - 11 years, difficulty in measurement of the full model parameter sets - and difficulty in standardising the diverse parameter sets and initial conditions of the various models. Furthermore, long-term simulations of the FACE experiments, using a 300 year randomised sequence of the 11 years of climatic data, showed that there was wide variability in the NPP response for a particular year of climatic data. Results demonstrate that although IAV in models can correlate with IAV in observations, relationships between NPP and climatic variables may not always be comparable.

  14. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope chronologies from Araucaria angustifolia trees as proxies for investigating the impacts of Andean volcanism on South-Eastern American climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churakova (Sidorova), Olga; Saurer, Matthias; Evangelista da Silva, Heitor; Prestes, Alan; Corona, Christophe; Guillet, Sèbastien; Siegwolf, Rolf; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Stratospheric volcanic eruptions may lead to global cooling effects due to decreasing incoming solar radiation and perturbation of atmospheric circulation masses. Tree rings as indirect climate proxies, are able to capture information about temperature and precipitation changes from seasonal to annual scale. During past decades, studies of the impact of volcanic eruptions on tree-rings as well as stable isotopes in tree rings were focused mostly on the Northern Hemisphere. However, little attention has been paid to the Southern Hemisphere, particular to South America. Therefore, our goal is to quantify the impacts of Andean volcanism on Eastern South American climate in terms of temperature and hydrological changes over the past half millennium. To reconstruct past hydroclimatic and temperature changes after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions of the past 500 years we analyzed carbon and oxygen stable isotopes from cellulose chronologies from Araucaria angustifolia, indigenous climate sensitive conifer species from General Carneiro, State of Paraná, Brazil. The species distribution in southern Brazil is limited between the latitudes of 18° and 30° south, where species occurrence is often associated with Atlantic forest remnants, in mono dominant or mixed forest matrices. To date, a database of 20 tree-ring width chronologies is currently available and spans the last 634 years. We analyzed that material for precipitation and temperature anomalies, and model allocation of atmospheric circulation patterns after major volcanic eruptions. This will improve our understanding of driving factors of Southern Hemispheric climate over the past centuries. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by Brazilian-Swiss Joint Research Programme (BSJRP).

  15. Projecting wildfire area burned in the south-eastern United States, 2011-60

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Uma Shankar; Aijun Xiu; K. Talgo; D. Yang; Ernest Dixon; Donald McKenzie; Karen L. Abt

    2016-01-01

    Future changes in society and climate are expected to affect wildfire activity in the south-eastern United States. The objective of this research was to understand how changes in both climate and society may affect wildfire in the coming decades.We estimated a three-stage statistical model of wildfire area burned by ecoregion province for lightning and human causes (...

  16. Dengue outbreaks in Divinopolis, south-eastern Brazil and the geographic and climatic distribution of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Taranto, Martinelle Ferreira; Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques; dos Santos, Michelli; dos Santos Pereira Andrade, Ana Cláudia; Camargos, Vidyleison Neves; Alves, Stênio Nunes; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Cláudia; Taranto, Alex Gutterres; dos Santos, Luciana Lara; de Magalhães, José Carlos; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Figueiredo, Leandra Barcelos; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira

    2015-01-01

    To entomologically monitor Aedes spp. and correlate the presence of these vectors with the recent epidemic of dengue in Divinopolis, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Ovitraps were installed at 44 points in the city, covering six urban areas, from May 2011 to May 2012. After collection, the eggs were incubated until hatching. In the 4th stage of development, the larvae were classified as Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus. In total, 25 633 Aedes spp. eggs were collected. February was the month with the highest incidence, with 5635 eggs collected and a hatching rate of 46.7%. Ae. aegypti eggs had the highest hatching rate, at 72.3%, whereas Ae. albopictus eggs had 27.7%. Climate and population density influenced the number of eggs found. Indicators of vector presence were positively correlated with the occurrence of dengue cases. These data reinforce the need for entomological studies, highlight the relevance of Ae. albopictus as a possible disease vector and demonstrate its adaptation. Ae. albopictus, most commonly found in forested areas, comprised a substantial proportion of the urban mosquito population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Projecting wildfire area burned in the south-eastern United States, 2011-60

    Treesearch

    Jeff Prestemon; Uma Shankar; Aijun Xiu; K. Talgo; D. Yang; Ernest Dixon IV; Donald McKenzie; Karen L. Abt

    2016-01-01

    Future changes in society and climate are expected to affect wildfire activity in the south-eastern United States. The objective of this research was to understand how changes in both climate and society may affect wildfire in the coming decades.Weestimated a three-stage statistical model of wildfire area burned by ecoregion province for lightning and human causes (...

  18. Vulnerability of wheat productivity in Spain to extreme climate indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Puebla, Concepcion; Hernandez-Barrera, Sara; Gonzalez-Reviriego, Nube; Encinas, Ascension H.

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is one of the major risk for agriculture and it has been reported that statistical values of droughts and temperatures are changing over the Iberian Peninsula. Therefore, we consider of great interest to show results about the potential impacts of temperature, precipitation and extreme climate indices on wheat yield in Spain. First, extreme climate indices derived from daily maximum, minimum temperatures and precipitation are obtained by using E-OBS data over the Iberian Peninsula. Second, we evaluate the relationships between climate indices and wheat productivity. The effects of climate variations on observed wheat is characterized by a model derived from Partial Least Square regression method. This approach is expected to be useful for predicting the impact of climate change on the yield and could be applied for other climate scenarios to learn about the changes in mean and variability of the wheat.

  19. Consideration of climate change on environmental impact assessment in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro; Martín-Aranda, Rosa M.; Díaz-Sierra, Rubén

    2016-02-15

    Most of the projects subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA) are closely related to climate change, as they contribute to or are affected by it. The growing certainty about climate change and its impacts makes its consideration an essential part of the EIA process, as well as in strategic environmental assessment (SEA). This paper examines how climate change (CC) has been taken into account in EIA in Spain through the analysis of 1713 environmental records of decision (RODs) of projects submitted for EIA. In 2013 Spain approved one of the most advanced laws in terms of CC consideration in environmental assessment, although it had not yet accumulated extensive practice on the issue. This contrasts with the situation of countries like Canada or the USA, which have a significant body of experience without specific legal requirements. Only 14% of the RODs analysed included references to CC, and in more than half of the cases it was a mere citation. Thermal power plants, which are subject to specific GHG regulations, show the highest consideration, while transport infrastructures, which are important contributors to CC, show a very low consideration. Almost all the references are related to their contribution to CC, while consideration of the effects of CC is minimal. The increasingly common incorporation of CC into SEA, should not imply its exclusion from EIA, because both processes have different aims and uses. Including the obligation to consider CC in the EIA regulations is highly desirable, but probably not enough without other measures, such as practical guidance, training and motivational programmes for practitioners and evaluators. But even these actions cannot ensure effective and adequate assessments of CC. Probably more resources should be spent on creating greater awareness in all the agents involved in EIA. - Highlights: • We analyse how the climate change is considered in EIA in Spain. • Few projects seriously assess climate change.

  20. Hydrothermal conditions of South Eastern Siberia under the ongoing warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voropay, N. N.; Maksyutova, E. V.; Riazanova, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    A great increase in air temperature has been observed since 1976. Siberia is a region with most severe ongoing climate change. To monitor the extreme weather events is important. To evaluate moisture conditions we used the D.A. Ped index (Si). Monthly air temperature and precipitation data from 19 weather stations of South Eastern Siberia (50-60° N 90-120° E) were used for the index calculation during the vegetation period. During 1976-2010 the number of droughts in the study region was more than the number of excessive moisture periods. The maximal statistically significant trend (0.4-0.6 per 10 years) in Eastern Siberia was observed in May. The characteristics of the winter-spring period preceding the vegetation season were analyzed. Significant positive trends exist in the study area for the May temperature (0.5-0.9 °C per 10 years) and the May sum of positive temperatures (14-28 °C per 10 years). There are tendencies to increase the number of days with temperatures above zero in March (1-3 days per 10 years) and the sum of positive temperatures in April (5-16 °C per 10 years). The stable transition of air temperature over 0 °C shifts into early dates by 1-7 days every 10 years.

  1. Effects of climate variation on viticulture in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Isabel; Nieves Lorenzo, M.; Taboada, Juan J.; Ramos, Alexandre M.

    2015-04-01

    Droughts, floods and extreme weather events (heat-waves, floods and droughts) may cause higher losses to the primary sector. The crops are very dependent on meteorological conditions. In particular, the agricultural sector needs climatic and seasonal forecast that anticipates variations in crop production. Changes in climate could alter crop distribution, and policy-makers working in areas related to climate change should learn about the impact of climate change on crop yields. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of climate variation on Spanish viticulture. Spain remains the country with the largest area of vineyards of the European Union and the world. The vine is the third extension of cultivation in Spanish, after cereals and olives. The knowledge on influence of changes in temperature and rainfall in the actual context of climate change on grape of wine productivity is necessary to elaborate appropriate adaptation measures to the viticulture sector. The influence of main climate variability patterns on the grape of wine also has been analyzed. In particular, the main variability modes of the North Atlantic area (NAO, EA; EAWR and SCA) and the oscillation modes of the equatorial Pacific will be considered (SOI and NIÑO34). The choice of these modes was motivated by previous work where the influence of these modes on Iberian Peninsula was analyzed.

  2. Projected climatic changes on drought conditions over Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Valdecasas Ojeda, Matilde; Quishpe-Vásquez, César; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María

    2017-04-01

    In a context of global warming, the evapotranspiration processes will have a strong influence on drought severity. For this reason, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was computed at different timescales in order to explore the projected drought changes for the main watersheds in Spain. For that, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been used in order to obtain current (1980-2010) and future (2021-2050 and 2071-2100) climate output fields. WRF model was used over a domain that spans the Iberian Peninsula with a spatial resolution of 0.088°, and nested in the coarser 0.44° EURO-CORDEX domain, and driving by the global bias-corrected climate model output data from version 1 of NCAR's Community Earth System Model (CESM1), using two different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. Besides, to examine the behavior of this drought index, a comparison with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), which does not consider the evapotranspiration effects, was also performed. Additionally the relationship between the SPEI index and the soil moisture has also been analyzed. The results of this study suggest an increase in the severity and duration of drought, being larger when the SPEI index is used to define drought events. This fact confirms the relevance of taking into account the evapotranspiration processes to detect future drought events. The results also show a noticeable relationship between the SPEI and the simulated soil moisture content, which is more significant at higher timescales. Keywords: Drought, SPEI, SPI, Climatic change, Projections, WRF. Acknowledgements: This work has been financed by the projects P11-RNM-7941 (Junta de Andalucía-Spain) and CGL2013-48539-R (MINECO-Spain, FEDER).

  3. Portraits of Innovative Vocational Schools in South Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldroyd, David, Ed.; Nielsen, Soren, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The reform of South Eastern European country vocational education and training (VET) systems has been underway for more than a decade. Initially major efforts focused on reforming the curricula of the vocational schools and training centres to align them better with the rapidly changing needs of the labour market and society. Later the focus moved…

  4. Portraits of Innovative Vocational Schools in South Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldroyd, David, Ed.; Nielsen, Soren, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The reform of South Eastern European country vocational education and training (VET) systems has been underway for more than a decade. Initially major efforts focused on reforming the curricula of the vocational schools and training centres to align them better with the rapidly changing needs of the labour market and society. Later the focus moved…

  5. Towards CONFINTEA VI: Lifelong Learning Advocacy in South Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrova, Anelia

    2007-01-01

    Adult learning is a field that has so far been neglected in education and training reforms in South Eastern European countries and territories but which is beginning to emerge as an important policy area. Further efforts are needed to foster national policy debate about the importance of lifelong learning (and adult education as a vital component…

  6. Climate variability and wildfire risk and occurrence in northern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Codron, J. C.; Rasilla, D.; Diego, C.; Carracedo, V.

    2009-04-01

    In spite of their reputation of wetness, wildfires are a frequent event in Cantabria (Northern Spain), but their seasonality does not match the typical warm season maximum generalized in most of the Iberian Peninsula. They occur at the end of the winter and the beginning of the spring (January to March), being mostly anthropogenically triggered due to the necessity of preparing pastures in the uplands. However, catastrophic episodes of generalized burning are controlled by different atmospheric mechanisms, namely the occurrence of "Suradas", a downslope windstorms which combines high winds speeds and low humidities, and long periods of drought in late fall and winter. This contribution analyzes long term trends (1961 onwards) of several climatic variables during the highest wildfire risk period in order to assess to what extent the occurrence of wildfires may be linked to the recent climatic variability. Raw meteorological values of temperature, humidity, wind speed and precipitation are transformed into a well-known meteorological fire weather index, the Canadian Forest Fire Index (FWI). Besides, monthly values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index we used to assess the spatial and temporal magnitude and intensity of droughts. Our results show that the regional climate has become warmer and drier, due to the combined effects of increases in temperatures, sunshine duration, and the decrease in relative humidity and precipitation, variables that are likely to play an important role in drought. Unknown in the 60s, 70s and most of the 80s, drought has become a relatively frequent phenomenon during the last two decades, and, in fact, the two most extreme episodes of drought at century scale, during 1989-1990 and 1993, occur in the 90. However, both the frequency and the intensity of "Suradas" have reduced, and consequently, the high fire risk episodes are now less frequent, but their absolute maximum values remain unchanged. Those regional climate trends are strongly

  7. Iceberg ploughmark features on bottom surface of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, Dmitry; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhova, Evgenia; Krechik, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    A detail swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar and acoustic profiling combined with sediment sampling during the 64th cruise of RV "Academic Mstislav Keldysh" (October 2015) allowed to identify new geomorphological features of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea bottom surface. The extended chaotic ploughmarks (furrows) in most cases filled with thin layer of mud were discovered on surface of the Gdansk-Gotland sill glacial deposits. They are observed on the depth of more than 70 m and have depth and width from 1 to 10 m. Most of them are v- or u-shaped stepped depressions. The side-scan records of similar geomorpholoical features are extensively reported from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica (Goodwin et al., 1985; Dowdeswell et al., 1993). Ploughmarks are attributed to the action of icebergs scouring into the sediment as they touch bottom. We are suggest that furrows discovered in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are also the result of iceberg scouring during the Baltic Ice Lake stage (more than 11 600 cal yr BP (Bjorck, 2008)). This assumption confirmed by occurrence of fragmental stones and boulders on the sea bottom surface which are good indicators of iceberg rafting (Lisitzin, 2003). Ice ploughmarks at sea bottom surface were not occurred before in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The study was financed by Russian Scientific Fund, grant number 14-37-00047. References Bjorck S. The late Quaternary development of the Baltic Sea Basin. In: The BACC Author Team (eds) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008. Dowdeswell J. A., Villinger H., Whittington R. J., Marienfeld P. Iceberg scouring in Scoresby Sund and on the East Greenland continental shelf // Marine Geology. V. 111. N. 1-2. 1993. P. 37-53. Goodwin C. R., Finley J. C., Howard L. M. Ice scour bibliography. Environmental Studies Revolving Funds Report No. 010. Ottawa. 1985. 99 pp. Lisitzin A. P. Sea-Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean: Recent and Past. Springer

  8. Enhancing the Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics Lecturers in South Eastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejinkeonye, Uju Bridget; Usoroh, Comfort I.

    2016-01-01

    The study was on enhancing the utilization of information communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics lecturers in south Eastern Nigeria. The study adopted a survey method. The area of the study is south eastern Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The population was made up of 63 Home Economics lecturers from the six…

  9. 33 CFR 167.154 - Off New York: South-eastern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Off New York: South-eastern... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.154 Off New York: South-eastern approach...′ W (c) A traffic lane for south-eastbound traffic is established between the separation zone and a...

  10. 33 CFR 167.154 - Off New York: South-eastern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off New York: South-eastern... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.154 Off New York: South-eastern approach...′ W (c) A traffic lane for south-eastbound traffic is established between the separation zone and a...

  11. Causal attribution of mental illness in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ikwuka, Ugo; Galbraith, Niall; Nyatanga, Lovemore

    2014-05-01

    Understanding of mental illness in sub-Saharan Africa has remained under-researched in spite of the high and increasing neuropsychiatric burden of disease in the region. This study investigated the causal beliefs that the Igbo people of south-eastern Nigeria hold about schizophrenia, with a view to establishing the extent to which the population makes psychosocial, biological and supernatural attributions. Multi-stage sampling was used to select participants (N = 200) to which questionnaires were administered. Mean comparison of the three causal models revealed a significant endorsement of supernatural causation. Logistic regressions revealed significant contributions of old age and female gender to supernatural attribution; old age, high education and Catholic religious denomination to psychosocial attributions; and high education to biological attributions. It is hoped that the findings would enlighten, augment literature and enhance mental health care service delivery.

  12. A warm thermal enclave in the late Pleistocene of the south-eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Russell, Dale A; Rich, Fredrick J; Schneider, Vincent; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean

    2009-05-01

    Physical and biological evidence supports the probable existence of an enclave of relatively warm climate located between the Southern Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean in the United States during the Last Glacial Maximum. The region supported a mosaic of forest and prairie habitats inhabited by a "Floridian" ice-age biota. Plant and vertebrate remains suggest an ecological gradient towards Cape Hatteras (35 degreesN) wherein forests tended to replace prairies, and browsing proboscideans tended to replace grazing proboscideans. Beyond 35 degreesN, warm waters of the Gulf Stream were deflected towards the central Atlantic, and a cold-facies biota replaced "Floridian" biota on the Atlantic coastal plain. Because of niche diversity and relatively benign climate, biodiversity may have been greater in the south-eastern thermal enclave than in other unglaciated areas of North America. However, the impact of terminal Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions may also have been shorter and more severe in the enclave than further north. A comparison with biotic changes that occurred in North America approximately 55 million years (ma) ago at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum suggests that similar processes of change took place under both ice-house and greenhouse climates.

  13. Comparison between weather station data in south-eastern Italy and CRU precipitation datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglietta, D.

    2009-04-01

    Monthly precipitation data in south-eastern Italy from 1920 to 2005 have been extensively analyzed. Data were collected in almost 200 weather stations located 10-20km apart from each other and almost uniformly distributed in Puglia and Basilicata regions. Apart from few years around world war II, time series are mostly complete and allow a reliable reconstruction of climate variability in the considered region. Statistically significant trends have been studied by applying the Mann-Kendall test to annual, seasonal and monthly values. A comparison has been made between observations and precipitation data given by the Climate Research Unit (CRU), University of East Anglia, with both low (30') and high (10') space resolution grid. In particular, rainfall records, time series behaviors and annual cycles at each station have been compared to the corresponding CRU data. CRU time series show a large negative trend for winter since 1970. Trend is not significant if the whole 20th century is considered (both for the whole year and for winter only). This might be considered as an evidence of recent acceleration towards increasingly dry conditions. However correlation between CRU data and observations is not very high and large percent errors are present mainly in the mountains regions, where observations show a large annual cycle, with intense precipitation in winter, which is not present in CRU data. To identify trends, therefore observed data are needed, even at monthly scale. In particular observations confirm the overall trend, but also indicate large spatial variability, with locations where precipitation has even increased since 1970. Daily precipitation data coming from a subset of weather stations have also been studied for the same time period. The distributions of maximum annual rainfalls, wet spells and dry spells were analyzed for each station, together with their time series. The tools of statistical analysis of extremes have been used in order to evaluate

  14. Agriculture and climate change: Potential for mitigation in Spain.

    PubMed

    Albiac, Jose; Kahil, Taher; Notivol, Eduardo; Calvo, Elena

    2017-03-18

    Agriculture and forestry activities are one of the many sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but they are also sources of low-cost opportunities to mitigate these emissions compared to other economic sectors. This paper provides a first estimate of the potential for mitigation in the whole Spanish agriculture. A set of mitigation measures are selected for their cost-effectiveness and abatement potential and an efficient mix of these measures is identified with reference to a social cost of carbon of 40 €/tCO2e. This mix of measures includes adjusting crop fertilization and managing forests for carbon sequestration. Results indicate that by using the efficient mix of mitigation measures the annual abatement potential could reach 10 million tCO2e, which represents 28% of current agricultural emissions in Spain. This potential could further increase if the social cost of carbon rises covering the costs of applying manure to crops. Results indicate also that economic instruments such as input and emission taxes could be only ancillary measures to address mitigation in agriculture. These findings can be used to support the mitigation efforts in Spain and guide policymakers in the design of country-level mitigation strategies.

  15. Divergent responses of fire to recent warming and drying across south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Bradstock, Ross; Penman, Trent; Boer, Matthias; Price, Owen; Clarke, Hamish

    2014-05-01

    The response of fire to climate change may vary across fuel types characteristic of differing vegetation types (i.e. litter vs. grass). Models of fire under climatic change capture these differing potential responses to varying degrees. Across south-eastern Australia, an elevation in the severity of weather conditions conducive to fire has been measured in recent decades. We examined trends in area burned (1975-2009) to determine if a corresponding increase in fire had occurred across the diverse range of ecosystems found in this part of the continent. We predicted that an increase in fire, due to climatic warming and drying, was more likely to have occurred in moist, temperate forests near the coast than in arid and semiarid woodlands of the interior, due to inherent contrasts in the respective dominant fuel types (woody litter vs. herbaceous fuels). Significant warming (i.e. increased temperature and number of hot days) and drying (i.e. negative precipitation anomaly, number of days with low humidity) occurred across most of the 32 Bioregions examined. The results were mostly consistent with predictions, with an increase in area burned in seven of eight forest Bioregions, whereas area burned either declined (two) or did not change significantly (nine) in drier woodland Bioregions. In 12 woodland Bioregions, data were insufficient for analysis of temporal trends in fire. Increases in fire attributable mostly to warming or drying were confined to three Bioregions. In the remainder, such increases were mostly unrelated to warming or drying trends and therefore may be due to other climate effects not explored (e.g. lightning ignitions) or possible anthropogenic influences. Projections of future fire must therefore not only account for responses of different fuel systems to climatic change but also the wider range of ecological and human effects on interactions between fire and vegetation.

  16. Climatic zoning for the calculation of the thermal demand of buildings in Extremadura (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moral, Francisco J.; Pulido, Elena; Ruíz, Antonio; López, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    The present work reports on a methodology to assess the climatic severity of a particular geographic region as compared to specific information available in the current regulations. The viability for each of the 387 municipalities in the Autonomous Community of Extremadura (Spain) is analysed, making a distinction between those with reliable climate reports and those for which no such information is available. In the case study, although the weather conditions in Extremadura are quite homogeneous according to the Spanish Technical Building Code (STBC 2015) classification and most areas are associated to zone C4 (soft winters and hot summers), the southern area in the region is associated to zone D1, similar to the north of Spain, where winters and summers are cool, which does not coincide with the actual climate in the south of Extremadura. The general climatic homogeneity in Extremadura was also highlighted with the new procedure, predominating zone C4, but unexpected or unreal climatic zoning was not generated, giving place to a consistent spatial distribution of zones throughout the region. Consequently, the proposed method allows a more accurate climatic zoning of any region in agreement with the Spanish legislation on energy efficiency in buildings, which would enhance the setting of thermal demand rates according to the actual climatic characterisation of the area in which a particular municipality is located.

  17. Climatic zoning for the calculation of the thermal demand of buildings in Extremadura (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moral, Francisco J.; Pulido, Elena; Ruíz, Antonio; López, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    The present work reports on a methodology to assess the climatic severity of a particular geographic region as compared to specific information available in the current regulations. The viability for each of the 387 municipalities in the Autonomous Community of Extremadura (Spain) is analysed, making a distinction between those with reliable climate reports and those for which no such information is available. In the case study, although the weather conditions in Extremadura are quite homogeneous according to the Spanish Technical Building Code (STBC 2015) classification and most areas are associated to zone C4 (soft winters and hot summers), the southern area in the region is associated to zone D1, similar to the north of Spain, where winters and summers are cool, which does not coincide with the actual climate in the south of Extremadura. The general climatic homogeneity in Extremadura was also highlighted with the new procedure, predominating zone C4, but unexpected or unreal climatic zoning was not generated, giving place to a consistent spatial distribution of zones throughout the region. Consequently, the proposed method allows a more accurate climatic zoning of any region in agreement with the Spanish legislation on energy efficiency in buildings, which would enhance the setting of thermal demand rates according to the actual climatic characterisation of the area in which a particular municipality is located.

  18. Modelling extreme climatic events in Guadalquivir Estuary ( Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Juan; Moreno-Navas, Juan; Pulido, Antoine; García-Lafuente, Juan; Calero Quesada, Maria C.; García, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    Extreme climatic events, such as heat waves and severe storms are predicted to increase in frequency and magnitude as a consequence of global warming but their socio-ecological effects are poorly understood, particularly in estuarine ecosystems. The Guadalquivir Estuary has been anthropologically modified several times, the original salt marshes have been transformed to grow rice and cotton and approximately one-fourth of the total surface of the estuary is now part of two protected areas, one of them is a UNESCO, MAB Biosphere Reserve. The climatic events are most likely to affect Europe in forthcoming decades and a further understanding how these climatic disturbances drive abrupt changes in the Guadalquivir estuary is needed. A barotropic model has been developed to study how severe storm events affects the estuary by conducting paired control and climate-events simulations. The changes in the local wind and atmospheric pressure conditions in the estuary have been studied in detail and several scenarios are obtained by running the model under control and real storm conditions. The model output has been validated with in situ water elevation and good agreement between modelled and real measurements have been obtained. Our preliminary results show that the model demonstrated the capability describe of the tide-surge levels in the estuary, opening the possibility to study the interaction between climatic events and the port operations and food production activities. The barotropic hydrodynamic model provide spatially explicit information on the key variables governing the tide dynamics of estuarine areas under severe climatic scenarios . The numerical model will be a powerful tool in future climate change mitigation and adaptation programs in a complex socio-ecological system.

  19. Late Glacial-Holocene ecostratigraphy of the south-eastern Aegean Sea, based on plankton and pollen assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantaphyllou, M. V.; Antonarakou, A.; Kouli, K.; Dimiza, M.; Kontakiotis, G.; Papanikolaou, M. D.; Ziveri, P.; Mortyn, P. G.; Lianou, V.; Lykousis, V.; Dermitzakis, M. D.

    2009-08-01

    Quantitative analyses of coccolithophores, planktonic foraminifers, dinoflagellate cysts and pollen assemblages were carried out on shallow (NS-14) and deeper (NS-40) sediment cores from the south-eastern Aegean Sea. Nine coccolithophore (ACE 1-9) and nine planktonic foraminifer (APFE 1-9) ecozones, correlated with dinoflagellate cyst evidence, have been defined for the last ~14.5 cal. ka. Additionally, eight pollen assemblage zones (PAZ 1-8) have been recognised and correlated with the plankton ecozones. Although generally consistent with existing schemes for the central and eastern Mediterranean, the established high-resolution ecostratigraphy has led to an expanded palaeoecological reconstruction of the Late Glacial-Holocene archive in the south-eastern Aegean Sea, defining two warm and humid phases at 9.3-8.6 and 7.6-6.4 cal. ka b.p., associated with the deposition of the early Holocene sapropel S1, and a third one between 5.2 and 4.2 cal. ka b.p. The high sedimentation rates which characterise the study area enabled the detection of even minor and brief climatic events in the Aegean Sea during S1 deposition times. [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.

  20. The unexpected finding of Parapholidoptera castaneoviridis in south-eastern Romania (Insecta, Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Iorgu, Ionuț Ștefan; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Iorgu, Elena Iulia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Balkano-Anatolian genus Parapholidoptera comprises 21 species and the westernmost one, Parapholidoptera castaneoviridis, previously recognized to occur in western Turkey, north-eastern Greece and south-eastern Bulgaria is recorded for the first time from south-eastern Romania, almost 300 km away from the closest known locality. Illustrations and measurements of morphological characters are given and the male calling song from this new, northernmost population is described. PMID:28144178

  1. Spain.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  2. Phylogeography of a Morphologically Cryptic Golden Mole Assemblage from South-Eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mynhardt, Samantha; Maree, Sarita; Pelser, Illona; Bennett, Nigel C.; Bronner, Gary N.; Wilson, John W.; Bloomer, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    The Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of southern Africa was recently designated as a centre of vertebrate endemism. The phylogeography of the vertebrate taxa occupying this region may provide insights into the evolution of faunal endemism in south-eastern Africa. Here we investigate the phylogeographic patterns of an understudied small mammal species assemblage (Amblysomus) endemic to the GMPA, to test for cryptic diversity within the genus, and to better understand diversification across the region. We sampled specimens from 50 sites across the distributional range of Amblysomus, with emphasis on the widespread A. hottentotus, to analyse geographic patterns of genetic diversity using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear intron data. Molecular dating was used to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogeographic history of Amblysomus. Our phylogenetic reconstructions show that A. hottentotus comprises several distinct lineages, or evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), some with restricted geographic ranges and thus worthy of conservation attention. Divergence of the major lineages dated to the early Pliocene, with later radiations in the GMPA during the late-Pliocene to early-Pleistocene. Evolutionary diversification within Amblysomus may have been driven by uplift of the Great Escarpment c. 5–3 million years ago (Ma), habitat changes associated with intensification of the east-west rainfall gradient across South Africa and the influence of subsequent global climatic cycles. These drivers possibly facilitated geographic spread of ancestral lineages, local adaptation and vicariant isolation. Our study adds to growing empirical evidence identifying East and southern Africa as cradles of vertebrate diversity. PMID:26683828

  3. Phylogeography of Saproxylic and Forest Floor Invertebrates from Tallaganda, South-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Garrick, Ryan C.; Rowell, David M.; Sunnucks, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier) climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes ‘scale-up’ to whole communities has begun to be addressed via comparative phylogeographic analyses of co-distributed species. Here we present an overview of a body of research on flightless low-mobility forest invertebrates, focusing on two springtails and two terrestrial flatworms, from Tallaganda on the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia. These species are distantly-related, and represent contrasting trophic levels (i.e., slime-mold-grazers vs. higher-level predators). However, they share an association with the dead wood (saproxylic) habitat. Spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity partly conform to topography-based divisions that circumscribe five ‘microgeographic regions’ at Tallaganda. In synthesizing population processes and past events that generated contemporary spatial patterns of genetic diversity in these forest floor invertebrates, we highlight cases of phylogeographic congruence, pseudo-congruence, and incongruence. Finally, we propose conservation-oriented recommendations for the prioritisation of areas for protection. PMID:26467960

  4. Phylogeography of Saproxylic and Forest Floor Invertebrates from Tallaganda, South-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Ryan C; Rowell, David M; Sunnucks, Paul

    2012-02-29

    The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier) climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes 'scale-up' to whole communities has begun to be addressed via comparative phylogeographic analyses of co-distributed species. Here we present an overview of a body of research on flightless low-mobility forest invertebrates, focusing on two springtails and two terrestrial flatworms, from Tallaganda on the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia. These species are distantly-related, and represent contrasting trophic levels (i.e., slime-mold-grazers vs. higher-level predators). However, they share an association with the dead wood (saproxylic) habitat. Spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity partly conform to topography-based divisions that circumscribe five 'microgeographic regions' at Tallaganda. In synthesizing population processes and past events that generated contemporary spatial patterns of genetic diversity in these forest floor invertebrates, we highlight cases of phylogeographic congruence, pseudo-congruence, and incongruence. Finally, we propose conservation-oriented recommendations for the prioritisation of areas for protection.

  5. Phylogeography of a Morphologically Cryptic Golden Mole Assemblage from South-Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mynhardt, Samantha; Maree, Sarita; Pelser, Illona; Bennett, Nigel C; Bronner, Gary N; Wilson, John W; Bloomer, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    The Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of southern Africa was recently designated as a centre of vertebrate endemism. The phylogeography of the vertebrate taxa occupying this region may provide insights into the evolution of faunal endemism in south-eastern Africa. Here we investigate the phylogeographic patterns of an understudied small mammal species assemblage (Amblysomus) endemic to the GMPA, to test for cryptic diversity within the genus, and to better understand diversification across the region. We sampled specimens from 50 sites across the distributional range of Amblysomus, with emphasis on the widespread A. hottentotus, to analyse geographic patterns of genetic diversity using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear intron data. Molecular dating was used to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogeographic history of Amblysomus. Our phylogenetic reconstructions show that A. hottentotus comprises several distinct lineages, or evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), some with restricted geographic ranges and thus worthy of conservation attention. Divergence of the major lineages dated to the early Pliocene, with later radiations in the GMPA during the late-Pliocene to early-Pleistocene. Evolutionary diversification within Amblysomus may have been driven by uplift of the Great Escarpment c. 5-3 million years ago (Ma), habitat changes associated with intensification of the east-west rainfall gradient across South Africa and the influence of subsequent global climatic cycles. These drivers possibly facilitated geographic spread of ancestral lineages, local adaptation and vicariant isolation. Our study adds to growing empirical evidence identifying East and southern Africa as cradles of vertebrate diversity.

  6. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  7. Urinary calculous disease in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ekwere, P D

    1995-09-01

    Prospective observations are reported on 96 South Eastern Nigerians with urinary calculi, during a five year period. An overall hospital incidence of 19.1 per 100,000, and male: female ratio of 2.7:1, were obtained. There were 79% upper-urinary tract stones and 21% lower-tract stones. Thirty-two per cent of the patients were idiopathic stone formers. Other associated aetiologic factors include obstructive uropathy (29%), UTI (30%) prolonged catheterisation (9%), hyperuricaemia (6%), foreign body in the bladder (3.8%) and hyperparathyroidism (2.5%). The lower socio-economic group accounted for 55% of the patients. Fifty three (55%) stones were removed surgically whilst 38% (45%) were passed spontaneously. Mean size of the latter was 6.3 mm +/- 1.6 mm, and of the former 17.7 mm +/- 9.5 mm. Five patients did not know when they passed the stones. Clinical features were similar to other reported series but six females had pyonephrosis, one with nephrocutaneous fistula. One urethral stone was recovered from a periurethral abscess. Infection and dietary intake appear to be important aetiologic agents. Ninety-eight per cent of stones contained calcium. Other components were similar to other reported series, but it was not possible to detect any case of cystinuria. The relatively high incidence in contrast to most other Nigerian centres may be due to high consumption of calcium/magnesium-rich sea foods and vegetables, as well as the soft water of the South-East. Endemic bladder stones were absent in the series. The close similarity with caucasian stone patterns is a curiosity and of particular interest, deserving further elucidation.

  8. Impact of climate change on olive crop flowering at southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabaldón-Leal, Clara; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; de la Rosa, Raúl; León, Lorenzo; Rodríguez, Alfredo; Belaj, Angjelina; Lorite, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Andalusia region (Southern Spain) is the largest olive oil producer in the world with 40% of the total production (1.1millions tons; FAOSTAT, 2013). Predicting flowering dates of olive under future climate conditions has a critical importance as flowering is a critical stage for olive as heat and water stresses during this period have a significant impact on final olive oil yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the olive flowering dates under future climate conditions. Climate data for the future period was obtained from the ENSEMBLES European Project (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/) with a bias correction in temperature and precipitation with regard with the SPAIN02 dataset (Herrera et al., 2012) (ENS-SP). Flowering of ten different olive cultivars were evaluated under current and forced (greenhouse) climate conditions, applying the bias in temperatures comparing the current period (1981-2010) with the future period (2071-2100) to the current conditions in Cordoba (Andalusia, Spain). These observations allowed obtaining a flowering approach which was applied to the whole Andalusia region. The results showed an average advance in flowering dates about 16 days at the end of the 21st century. With these results different areas within Andalusia region were classified based on the vulnerability caused by the lack of chilling hours accumulation (coastal areas) or by high temperatures during flowering (north and northeast regions). This study has been supported by the project RTA2014-00030-00-00 funded by INIA and FEDER 2014-2020 "Programa Operativo de Crecimiento Inteligente" and IFAPA project AGR6126 from Junta de Andalucía, Spain. FAOSTAT (2013) Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations. Available at http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/Q/QD/E. Accessed 07 January 2016 Herrera S, Gutiérrez JM, Ancell R, Pons MR, Frías MD, Fernández J. 2012. Development and analysis of a 50-year high-resolution daily gridded precipitation dataset over Spain (Spain02

  9. Differences in questing tick species distribution between Atlantic and continental climate regions in Spain.

    PubMed

    Barandika, J F; Olmeda, S A; Casado-Nistal, M A; Hurtado, A; Juste, R A; Valcárcel, F; Anda, P; García-Pérez, A L

    2011-01-01

    Climate and vegetation in Spain vary from north to south, affecting tick distribution and consequently the presence of tick-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate throughout a 2-yr study the distribution of the different exophilic questing tick species present in 18 areas: eight located in central and 10 in northern Spain. The same methodology was used in both areas, sampling vegetation on a monthly basis by blanket dragging for 20- to 30-min intervals. A total of 12 species belonging to the genera Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor, and Hyalomma was identified. Differences in species distribution and prevalence were dramatically different. The most frequent and abundant species in northern Spain were Ixodes ricinus (67% of adult ticks) and Haemaphysalis punctata (8%), whereas Hyalomma lusitanicum (86%) and Dermacentor marginatus (12%) were the most abundant in central Spain. There were important differences in the monthly seasonal patterns for the different tick species. These results highlight important differences in tick distribution in neighboring areas and underline the need for ongoing surveillance programs to monitor tick population dynamics and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens.

  10. Fire occurrence and fire weather indices in the past and under future climate in Peninsular Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbieta, Itziar R.; Zavala, Gonzalo; Moreno, José M.

    2010-05-01

    Understanding fire occurrence and its relationship with ignition sources and weather conditions is a major environmental challenge in regions affected by fire, particularly under ongoing and projected future climate change. The objectives of this study were: 1) To address a historical reconstruction of fire regime (fire occurrence, area burned, and fire causes) in Peninsular Spain for the last three decades. 2) Analyze the time x space relationship between fire occurrence and area burned with climatic variables and climate-derived fire danger indices. 3) Assess how climate change would affect fire danger indices for various emission scenarios based on projections of five regional climate models. The country was divided into 50x50 km cells, for which fire statistics were available. Climate data were interpolated at this grid so that daily fire danger indices were calculated for present and future conditions. Results showed an overall increase of fire occurrence and area burned over the past decades. Fire activity (number of fires and area burned) showed significant correlations with fire danger indices and climatic variables; although in some areas the relationship was weak given the uncertainty linked to the number of ignitions caused by people. There was a significant correlation between certain fire indices and Gini coefficient of fire sizes, whereby fires under more severe conditions become more variable in size. Towards the end of this century (2071-2100) increases in the fire danger indices, and a longer period of fire danger are projected. This trend is consistent among models.

  11. Temperature sensitivity of extreme precipitation events in the south-eastern Alpine forelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeer, Katharina; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2016-04-01

    How will convective precipitation intensities and patterns evolve in a warming climate on a regional to local scale? Studies on the scaling of precipitation intensities with temperature are used to test observational and climate model data against the hypothesis that the change of precipitation with temperature will essentially follow the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) equation, which corresponds to a rate of increase of the water holding capacity of the atmosphere by 6-7 % per Kelvin (CC rate). A growing number of studies in various regions and with varying approaches suggests that the overall picture of the temperature-precipitation relationship is heterogeneous, with scaling rates shearing off the CC rate in both upward and downward directions. In this study we investigate the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation events in the south-eastern Alpine forelands of Austria (SEA) based on a dense rain gauge net of 188 stations, with sub-daily precipitation measurements since about 1990 used at 10-min resolution. Parts of the study region are European hot-spots for severe hailstorms and the region, which is in part densely populated and intensively cultivated, is generally vulnerable to climate extremes. Evidence on historical extremely heavy short-time and localized precipitation events of several hundred mm of rain in just a few hours, resulting in destructive flash flooding, underline these vulnerabilities. Heavy precipitation is driven by Mediterranean moisture advection, enhanced by the orographic lifting at the Alpine foothills, and hence trends in positive sea surface temperature anomalies might carry significant risk of amplifying future extreme precipitation events. In addition, observations from the highly instrumented subregion of south-eastern Styria indicate a strong and robust long-term warming trend in summer of about 0.7°C per decade over 1971-2015, concomitant with a significant increase in the annual number of heat days. The combination of these

  12. The challenge of climate change in Spain: Water resources, agriculture and land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Amelin, Elisa; Pindado, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    Climate change effects are becoming evident worldwide, but some water scarce regions present higher vulnerability. Spain, located in the Mediterranean region, is expected for instance to be highly vulnerable given its unbalanced distribution between water resources availability and existing demands. This article presents an introduction to the main threats of climate change mainly on water resources, but it also assesses effects in interlinked areas such as agriculture, soil and land management. Contents focus on measures and initiatives promoted by the central government and address efforts to establish multi-sectoral coordinating bodies, specific adaptation plans and measures for the different sectors. The article highlights some political aspects, such as the complexity of involved competent authorities in water and land management, the need to strengthen public participation and the conflicts arising from the defence of regional interests. It also makes a link to current EU policies; summarises foreseeable problems derived from climate change effects, and provides some recommendations in the different areas covered.

  13. Spatio-temporal dynamics of maize yield water constraints under climate change in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Rosana; Lima, Mauricio; Gonzalez-Andujar, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have analyzed the impact of climate change on crop productivity, but comparing the performance of water management systems has rarely been explored. Because water supply and crop demand in agro-systems may be affected by global climate change in shaping the spatial patterns of agricultural production, we should evaluate how and where irrigation practices are effective in mitigating climate change effects. Here we have constructed simple, general models, based on biological mechanisms and a theoretical framework, which could be useful in explaining and predicting crop productivity dynamics. We have studied maize in irrigated and rain-fed systems at a provincial scale, from 1996 to 2009 in Spain, one of the most prominent "hot-spots" in future climate change projections. Our new approach allowed us to: (1) evaluate new structural properties such as the stability of crop yield dynamics, (2) detect nonlinear responses to climate change (thresholds and discontinuities), challenging the usual linear way of thinking, and (3) examine spatial patterns of yield losses due to water constraints and identify clusters of provinces that have been negatively affected by warming. We have reduced the uncertainty associated with climate change impacts on maize productivity by improving the understanding of the relative contributions of individual factors and providing a better spatial comprehension of the key processes. We have identified water stress and water management systems as being key causes of the yield gap, and detected vulnerable regions where efforts in research and policy should be prioritized in order to increase maize productivity.

  14. Epidemiological aspects of astrovirus and coronavirus in poults in the South Eastern Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, S.E.L.; Bonetti, A.M.; Petrocelli, A.; Ferrari, H.F.; Luvizotto, M.C.R.; Cardoso, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    A survey of Turkey Coronavirus (TCoV) and Astrovirus (TAstV-2) prevalence was carried out from February to December during 2006 year in semiarid region of Brazil, from a turkey producer area, localized in South Eastern of Brazil. To asses the risk factor related to clinical material, climatic condition and type of RT-PCR applied, cloacal swabs (CS), faeces, sera, bursa of Fabricius (BF), thymus (TH) and spleen (SP) and ileum-caeca region were collected from 30-day-old poults suffering of enteritis episode characterized as poult enteritis mortality syndrome (PEMS). The PEMS clinical features were characterized by watery to foamy faeces, light brown-yellow in colour and low mortality rate. Meteorological data (rainfall and relative humidity) observed during along the study presented monthly average temperature ranging from 39.3 and 31.2ºC, precipitation in rainy season from 40 to 270.3 mm/month, and no rain during dry season. Simplex RT-PCR gave odds ratio (OR) values suggesting that ileum-caeca region is at higher chance (OR=1.9; p=0.9741) to have both viral RNA than faeces (OR=1.5; p=0.7319). However, multiplex RT-PCR showed 3.98 (p=0.89982) more chance to give positive results in faeces than CS at dry season. The major risk factors seem to be low rate of humidity and high temperatures at winter, probably responsible for spread, easily, the TCoV and TAstv-2 among the flocks. The positive results of both virus suggested that they can play an important role in enteric disorders, associated to low humidity and high temperatures frequently found in tropical countries. PMID:24031353

  15. Holocene fire activity and vegetation response in South-Eastern Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Romera, Graciela; Carrión, José S.; Pausas, Juli G.; Sevilla-Callejo, Miguel; Lamb, Henry F.; Fernández, Santiago; Burjachs, Francesc

    2010-05-01

    Since fire has been recognized as an essential disturbance in Mediterranean landscapes, the study of long-term fire ecology has developed rapidly. We have reconstructed a sequence of vegetation dynamics and fire changes across south-eastern Iberia by coupling records of climate, fire, vegetation and human activities. We calculated fire activity anomalies (FAAs) in relation to 3 ka cal BP for 10-8 ka cal BP, 6 ka cal BP, 4 ka cal BP and the present. For most of the Early to the Mid-Holocene uneven, but low fire events were the main vegetation driver at high altitudes where broadleaved and coniferous trees presented a highly dynamic post-fire response. At mid-altitudes in the mainland Segura Mountains, fire activity remained relatively stable, at similar levels to recent times. We hypothesize that coastal areas, both mountains and lowlands, were more fire-prone landscapes as biomass was more likely to have accumulated than in the inland regions, triggering regular fire events. The wet and warm phase towards the Mid-Holocene (between ca 8 and 6 ka cal BP) affected the whole region and promoted the spread of mesophytic forest co-existing with Pinus, as FAAs appear strongly negative at 6 ka cal BP, with a less important role of fire. Mid and Late Holocene landscapes were shaped by an increasing aridity trend and the rise of human occupation, especially in the coastal mountains where forest disappeared from ca 2 ka cal BP. Mediterranean-type vegetation (evergreen oaks and Pinus pinaster- halepensis types) showed the fastest post-fire vegetation dynamics over time.

  16. The association between congenital chondrodystrophy of unknown origin (CCUO) in beef cattle and drought in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    White, Peter J; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Windsor, Peter A

    2010-05-01

    Reports of congenital chondrodystrophy of unknown origin (CCUO) have been anecdotally associated with periods of drought during the gestation period of affected beef calves. Reported sporadically in the past, the incidence of CCUO has increased in south-eastern Australia and has been reported every year between 2002 and 2007. A maternal nutritional deficiency arising from poor quality pastures and supplements has been suggested as contributing to the disorder. With an increase in drought occurrence predicted by climate change models, it is possible that the incidence will increase into the future. Retrospective data collected during a case control study was used to determine if the occurrence of cases of CCUO was associated with rainfall deficiency during gestation. A total of 799 cases occurring on 46 farms in south-eastern Australia were identified and a time series of cases was created. The association of both average monthly and three-month average rainfall with cases of CCUO revealed a significant negative correlation (r=-0.29 and r=-0.37 respectively, P<0.05) five months prior to the birth of CCUO calves on the farms studied. Logistic regression analysis showed a 3.3 (CI 1.8; 5.8, P<0.001) times increased risk of CCUO calves when the three-month average rainfall was in the lowest decile five months prior to the birth of calves. This information may be used to alert farmers as to when high quality supplemental feed may be provided to improve maternal nutrition and reduce the number of CCUO calves born. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Climate change and Kyoto Protocol. Science and strategies. Obligations for Spain].

    PubMed

    de Castro González, Federico Velázquez

    2005-01-01

    This article presents climate change as the major environmental problem of our time. A result of the so-called "greenhouse effect", climate change is caused by certain gases, the concentrations in the atmosphere of which are growing exponentially. The consequences of these gases are going to be felt throughout the entire biosphere, from weather phenomenon to humans, creating a uncertain panorama which is going to be requiring some fast-paced adaptation on the part of all species. This is not, however, an irreversible process, taking action thus being possible and necessary, by combining education and lawmaking measures brought into being within the timeframes and to the extents set forth under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. Spain will be one of the most highly-affected countries, and its strategy may therefore mean a highly-valuable tool for correcting the deviations caused and contributing to the urgent control of global emissions.

  18. The timing and cause of megafauna mass deaths at Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dortch, Joe; Cupper, Matt; Grün, Rainer; Harpley, Bernice; Lee, Kerrie; Field, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia, was one of the earliest sites to provoke interest in Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea). The systematic investigation of the deposit in the early 1970s identified megafaunal remains dominated by the 100-200 kg kangaroo Macropus giganteus titan. Associated radiocarbon ages indicated that the species was extant until c.30,000 BP, suggesting significant overlap with human settlement of Sahul. This evidence was inconsistent with contemporary models of rapid human-driven extinctions. Instead, researchers inferred ecological tethering of fauna at Lancefield Swamp due to intense drought precipitated localised mass deaths, consistent with Late Pleistocene climatic variability. Later investigations in another part of the swamp, the Mayne Site, remote to the initial investigations, concluded that mass flow disturbed this area, and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) analyses on megafauna teeth returned wide-ranging ages. To clarify site formation processes and dating of Lancefield Swamp, we excavated new test-pits next to previous trenches in the Classic and Mayne Sites. We compared absolute chronologies for sediments and teeth, sedimentology, palaeo-topography, taphonomy, and macropod age at death across the swamp. Luminescence dating of sediments and ESR analysis of teeth returned ages between c.80,000 and 45,000 years ago. We found no archaeological remains in the bone beds, and evidence of carnivore activity and fluvial action, in the form of reactivated spring flow. The latter disturbed limited parts of the site and substantial areas of the bone beds remained intact. The faunal assemblage is dominated by megafaunal adult Macropus, consistent with mass die-offs due to severe drought. Such droughts appear to have recurred over millennia during the climatic variability of Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 3. These events began tens of millennia before the first appearance of Aboriginal people in Sahul

  19. Phenological changes in olive (Ola europaea L.) reproductive cycle in southern Spain due to climate change.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Oteros, Jose; Galan, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Modifications of crop species phenology due to a changing environment are of interest because of their impact on fruit set and final harvest. Pre-flowering and flowering phenophases in olive groves at different sites of southern Spain were examined, in order to chart potential trends and determine major correlations with weather-related parameters, especially temperature and water availability. The high prevalence of olive pollen allergy in the Mediterranean population makes this study highly relevant. Ten sites in Cordoba province (Spain) during a 17-year period (1996-2012). BBCH phenology scale. Meteorological data from 1960 were analyzed; data from 1996 included on modeling analysis. Linear Mixed Models (LMMs) were developed, combining phenological and meteorological data. Since 1960, local spring temperatures have increased 1.5ºC, the number of spring rainfall days has fallen 11 days, total rainfall has declined 150 mm. Despite phenological differences between sites, attributable to altitude, phenological development during the season followed a similar pattern. Flowering dates advanced 2 days, while inflorescence emergence was delayed 24 days. Trend slopes revealed differences, an earlier period (1996-2002) with a sharp flowering advance of 15 days, and a later period (2003-2012) characterized by a gradual advance and a high bud emergence delay of 22 days. LMMs was revealed as an appropriate technique for phenology behaviour analysis displaying both fixed and random interactions. Cultivars grown in the study province are adapted to climate with a synchronized response, although climate change is affecting theolive reproductive cycle in southern Spain; therefore, the timing of pollen release, with subsequent consequences on allergic population as phenological changes, could have impacts on flowering period and pollen production. Further investigation is required of the implications for crop production in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  20. Climate change impact on water resources - Example of an anthropized basin (Llobregat, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versini, P.-A.; Pouget, L.; Mc Ennis, S.; Guiu Carrio, R.; Sempere-Torres, D.; Escaler, I.

    2012-04-01

    The impact of climate change is one of the central topics of study by water agencies and companies. Indeed, the forecasted increase of atmospheric temperature may change the amount, frequency and intensity of precipitation and affect the hydrological cycle: runoff, infiltration, aquifer recharge, etc… Moreover, global change combining climate change but also land use and water demand changes, may cause very important impacts on water availability and quality. Global change scenarios in Spain describe a general trend towards increased temperature and water demand, and reduced precipitation as a result of its geographical situation and socio-economic characteristics. The European project WATER CHANGE (included in the LIFE + Environment Policy and Governance program) aims to develop a modeling system to assess the Global Change impacts, and their associated uncertainties, on water availability for water supply and water use. Its objective is to help river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. This work presents the results obtained by applying the modelling system to the Llobregat river basin (Spain). This is an anthropized catchment of about 5000 km2, where water resources are used for different purposes, such as drinking water production, agriculture irrigation, industry and hydroelectric energy production. Based on future global change scenarios, the water resources system has been assessed in terms of water deficit and supply. A cost-benefit analysis has also been conducted in order to evaluate every realistic measure that could optimize and improve the system.

  1. Agricultural Extension in South-Eastern Europe: Issues of Transition and Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daku, Lefter; Norton, George W.; Taylor, Daniel B.; Qenani-Petrela, Eivis

    2005-01-01

    Following the economic reforms in the early 90's, most of the south-eastern European countries (SEE) made efforts to establish agricultural extension services. However, a number of factors including tight governmental budgets, lack of experience, and the existence of vested interests have constrained the development of extension services. This…

  2. Community Members' Interference and Conduct of University Distance Learning Examinations in South Eastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unamma, Anthony Odera

    2013-01-01

    This research work was aimed at determining the degree of community members' interference in the conduct of university distance learning examination in South Eastern Nigeria. It was also aimed at finding out the factors responsible for the community members' interference, the ways by which interference is effected, the consequences and the…

  3. Geographical and Environmental Education in South-Eastern Europe: Geopolitical Developments and Educational Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Fivos

    2004-01-01

    The region of South-eastern Europe has been under two different socioeconomic regimes until the early 1990s, so the development of both geographical and environmental education in the region is now in the process of significant changes. Hence, the current problems relating to geographical and/or environmental education differ significantly among…

  4. Identity of naturalised exotic Wisteria (fabaceae) in the south-eastern United States

    Treesearch

    J.L. Trusty; B.G. Lockaby; W.C. Zipperer; L.R. Goertzen

    2007-01-01

    Exotic Wisteria are increasingly serious invasive plants of watersheds and managed forests throughout the south-eastern United States. Naturalised individuals are frequently identified as either Wisteria floribunda or W. sinensis. but may differ significantly from the original descriptions of either of those species. Here, we use...

  5. The Role of NGOs in Environmental Education in South-Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnock, David

    2004-01-01

    Environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs) are playing an important role in environmental education in South-eastern Europe. Although some organisations appeared to compromise themselves by becoming political parties, others did useful work in debating ecological issues, working on environmental projects and increasing public awareness.…

  6. PROCSEE: Policy Challenges for Professional Higher Education in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policnik, Jasmina; Sauli Miklavcic, Alicia Leonor; Alupei-Durach, Flavia; Nožica, Žarko; Chrást, Ondrej; Voldánová, Iva; Karpíšek, Michal; Dinya, László; Medve, Anna; Wéber, György; Racsko, Réka; Perényi, Petra; Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2016-01-01

    PROCSEE is a policy-oriented project, aimed at strengthening the provision of professional higher education, by strengthening the policy-work conducted by umbrella organizations representing professional higher education institutions in Central and South-Eastern in Europe. Working together over three years, the project intends to: (1) identify the…

  7. Toward an Understanding of People Management Issues in SMEs: a South-Eastern European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szamosi, Leslie T.; Duxbury, Linda; Higgins, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on developing an understanding, and benchmarking, human resource management HRM issues in small and medium enterprises SMEs in South-Eastern Europe. The importance of SMEs in helping transition-based economies develop is critical, but at the same time the research indicates that the movement toward westernized business…

  8. Toward an Understanding of People Management Issues in SMEs: a South-Eastern European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szamosi, Leslie T.; Duxbury, Linda; Higgins, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on developing an understanding, and benchmarking, human resource management HRM issues in small and medium enterprises SMEs in South-Eastern Europe. The importance of SMEs in helping transition-based economies develop is critical, but at the same time the research indicates that the movement toward westernized business…

  9. Biological and physical factors controlling aggregate stability under different climatic conditions in Southern Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel Gabarrón-Galeote, Miguel; Damián Ruiz-Sinoga, Jose; Francisco Martinez-Murillo, Juan; Lavee, Hanoch

    2013-04-01

    Soil aggregation is a key factor determining the soil structure. The presence of stable aggregates is essential to maintain a good soil structure, that in turn plays an important role in sustaining agricultural productivity and preserving environmental quality. A wide range of physical and biological soil components are involved in the aggregate formation and stabilization, namely clay mineral content; the quantity and quality of organic matter, that can be derived from plants, fungal hyphae, microorganism and soil animals; and the soil water content. Climatic conditions, through their effect on soil water content, vegetation cover and organic matter content, are supposed to affect soil aggregation. Thus the main objective of this research is to analyse the effect of organic matter, clay content and soil water content on aggregate stability along a climatic transect in Southern Spain. This study was conducted in four catchments along a pluviometric gradient in the South of Spain (rainfall depth decreases from west to east from more than 1000 mm year-1 to less than 300 mm year-1) and was based on a methodology approximating the climatic gradient in Mediterranean conditions. The selected sites shared similar conditions of geology, topography and soil use, which allowed making comparisons among them and relating the differences to the pluviometric conditions. In February 2007, 250 disturbed and undisturbed samples from the first 5cm of the soil were collected along the transect. We measured the aggregate stability, organic matter, clay content and bulk density of every sample. In the field we measured rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, solar radiation, potential evapotranspiration, soil water content, vegetation cover and presence of litter. Our results suggest that aggregate stability is a property determined by a great number of highly variable factors, which can make extremely difficult to predict its behavior taking in

  10. Analysis of climate change scenarios in an olive orchard microcatchment in Spain using the model WIMMED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Enrique; Aguilar, Cristina; José Polo, María; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2015-04-01

    Olive orchards constitute traditional systems in the Mediterranean Basin. In Andalusia, Southern Spain, more than 1.5Mha are dedicated to olive crop land use, which represent a production of 1Mt of olive oil per year. This is a strategic economic sector with environmental and social relevance. In the context of climate change in Andalusia, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has highlighted that an increase of temperatures and rainfall intensities as well as the reduction of cumulated rainfall might be expected. This may mean serious detrimental economic and environmental risks associated to floods and the reduction of available water resources which would be convenient to quantify. The objective of this work is to analyse the rainfall-runoff relationships in an olive orchard catchment by the application of the distributed hydrological model WIMMED (Herrero et al., 2009) simulating the effects of climate change, with a special emphasis on extreme events. Firstly, the model was calibrated and validated with 9 maximum annual events of a datasets from 2005-2012 obtained in an olive orchard catchment in Spain (Taguas et al., 2010). In this stage, only the saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil moisture in saturation were adjusted after a sensitivity analysis where 68 simulations were carried out. A good agreement was obtained between observed and simulated hydrographs. The mean errors and the root mean square errors were 0.18 mm and 2.19 mm for the calibration and 0.18 and 1.94 mm, for the validation. Finally, the catchment response to the increase of intensity and temperature and the reduction of cumulated rainfall were simulated for the maximum event of the series. The results showed a rise of 11% of the runoff coefficient quantifying the possible impact of climate change. REFERENCES Herrero J, Polo M., Moñino A., Losada MA (2009). An energy balance snowmelt model in a Mediterranean site. J. Hydrol. 371, pp. 98-107 Taguas EV, Peña A, Ayuso JL, Yuan Y

  11. Assessment of future impacts of potential climate change scenarios on aquifer recharge in continental Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido-Velazquez, David; Collados-Lara, Antonio-Juan; Alcalá, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    This research proposes and applies a method to assess potential impacts of future climatic scenarios on aquifer rainfall recharge in wide and varied regions. The continental Spain territory was selected to show the application. The method requires to generate future series of climatic variables (precipitation, temperature) in the system to simulate them within a previously calibrated hydrological model for the historical data. In a previous work, Alcalá and Custodio (2014) used the atmospheric chloride mass balance (CMB) method for the spatial evaluation of average aquifer recharge by rainfall over the whole of continental Spain, by assuming long-term steady conditions of the balance variables. The distributed average CMB variables necessary to calculate recharge were estimated from available variable-length data series of variable quality and spatial coverage. The CMB variables were regionalized by ordinary kriging at the same 4976 nodes of a 10 km x 10 km grid. Two main sources of uncertainty affecting recharge estimates (given by the coefficient of variation, CV), induced by the inherent natural variability of the variables and from mapping were segregated. Based on these stationary results we define a simple empirical rainfall-recharge model. We consider that spatiotemporal variability of rainfall and temperature are the most important climatic feature and variables influencing potential aquifer recharge in natural regime. Changes in these variables can be important in the assessment of future potential impacts of climatic scenarios over spatiotemporal renewable groundwater resource. For instance, if temperature increases, actual evapotranspitration (EA) will increases reducing the available water for others groundwater balance components, including the recharge. For this reason, instead of defining an infiltration rate coefficient that relates precipitation (P) and recharge we propose to define a transformation function that allows estimating the spatial

  12. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture.

  13. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture.

  14. Potential Risk Areas of Aedes albopictus in South-Eastern Iran: A Vector of Dengue Fever, Zika, and Chikungunya

    PubMed Central

    Nejati, Jalil; Bueno-Marí, Rubén; Collantes, Francisco; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad A.; Vatandoost, Hassan; Charrahy, Zabihollah; Tabatabaei, Seyed M.; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad R.; Hasanzehi, Abdolghafar; Shirzadi, Mohammad R.; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed H.; Sedaghat, Mohammad M.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of the rapid and global spread of Zika, chikungunya, yellow fever, and dengue fever by Aedes albopictus is well documented and may be facilitated by changes in climate. To avert and manage health risks, climatic and topographic information can be used to model and forecast which areas may be most prone to the establishment of Ae. albopictus. We aimed to weigh and prioritize the predictive value of various meteorological and climatic variables on distributions of Ae. albopictus in south-eastern Iran using the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Out of eight factors used to predict the presence of Ae. albopictus, the highest weighted were land use, followed by temperature, altitude, and precipitation. The inconsistency of this analysis was 0.03 with no missing judgments. The areas predicted to be most at risk of Ae. albopictus-borne diseases were mapped using Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing data. Five-year (2011–2015) meteorological data was collected from 11 meteorological stations and other data was acquired from Landsat and Terra satellite images. Southernmost regions were at greatest risk of Ae. albopictus colonization as well as more urban sites connected by provincial roads. This is the first study in Iran to determine the regional probability of Ae. albopictus establishment. Monitoring and collection of Ae. albopictus from the environment confirmed our projections, though on-going field work is necessary to track the spread of this vector of life-threatening disease. PMID:28928720

  15. Potential Risk Areas of Aedes albopictus in South-Eastern Iran: A Vector of Dengue Fever, Zika, and Chikungunya.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Jalil; Bueno-Marí, Rubén; Collantes, Francisco; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad A; Vatandoost, Hassan; Charrahy, Zabihollah; Tabatabaei, Seyed M; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad R; Hasanzehi, Abdolghafar; Shirzadi, Mohammad R; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed H; Sedaghat, Mohammad M

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of the rapid and global spread of Zika, chikungunya, yellow fever, and dengue fever by Aedes albopictus is well documented and may be facilitated by changes in climate. To avert and manage health risks, climatic and topographic information can be used to model and forecast which areas may be most prone to the establishment of Ae. albopictus. We aimed to weigh and prioritize the predictive value of various meteorological and climatic variables on distributions of Ae. albopictus in south-eastern Iran using the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Out of eight factors used to predict the presence of Ae. albopictus, the highest weighted were land use, followed by temperature, altitude, and precipitation. The inconsistency of this analysis was 0.03 with no missing judgments. The areas predicted to be most at risk of Ae. albopictus-borne diseases were mapped using Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing data. Five-year (2011-2015) meteorological data was collected from 11 meteorological stations and other data was acquired from Landsat and Terra satellite images. Southernmost regions were at greatest risk of Ae. albopictus colonization as well as more urban sites connected by provincial roads. This is the first study in Iran to determine the regional probability of Ae. albopictus establishment. Monitoring and collection of Ae. albopictus from the environment confirmed our projections, though on-going field work is necessary to track the spread of this vector of life-threatening disease.

  16. GIS-based probability assessment of natural hazards in forested landscapes of Central and South-Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lorz, C; Fürst, C; Galic, Z; Matijasic, D; Podrazky, V; Potocic, N; Simoncic, P; Strauch, M; Vacik, H; Makeschin, F

    2010-12-01

    We assessed the probability of three major natural hazards--windthrow, drought, and forest fire--for Central and South-Eastern European forests which are major threats for the provision of forest goods and ecosystem services. In addition, we analyzed spatial distribution and implications for a future oriented management of forested landscapes. For estimating the probability of windthrow, we used rooting depth and average wind speed. Probabilities of drought and fire were calculated from climatic and total water balance during growing season. As an approximation to climate change scenarios, we used a simplified approach with a general increase of pET by 20%. Monitoring data from the pan-European forests crown condition program and observed burnt areas and hot spots from the European Forest Fire Information System were used to test the plausibility of probability maps. Regions with high probabilities of natural hazard are identified and management strategies to minimize probability of natural hazards are discussed. We suggest future research should focus on (i) estimating probabilities using process based models (including sensitivity analysis), (ii) defining probability in terms of economic loss, (iii) including biotic hazards, (iv) using more detailed data sets on natural hazards, forest inventories and climate change scenarios, and (v) developing a framework of adaptive risk management.

  17. Climate and prevalence of atopic eczema in 6- to 7-year-old school children in Spain. ISAAC phase III.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Varela, María Morales; García-Marcos Alvarez, Luís; Kogan, Michael D; González, Agustín Llopis; Gimeno, Antonio Martínez; Aguinaga Ontoso, Inés; Díaz, Carlos González; Pena, Alberto Arnedo; Aurrecoechea, Begoña Domínguez; Monge, Rosa María Busquets; Quiros, Alfredo Blanco; Garrido, José Batlles; Canflanca, Iñaqui Miner; Varela, Angel López-Silvarrey

    2008-11-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic skin disease. Recent reports indicate that the worldwide prevalence of AE is increasing and that various environmental factors are implicated in its aetiology. Climatic conditions have been related with AE prevalence, and Spain has varying climatic conditions. The aim of this study is to document the possible climatic influence on the prevalence of AE in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years in three different climatic regions in Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based survey of 28,394 schoolchildren aged 6-7 years from 10 Spanish centres in three different climatic regions. The mean participation rate was 76.5%. AE prevalence was assessed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and the Spanish Academy of Dermatology criteria used in Spain to diagnose AE. The data, including annual temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and the annual number of sunny hours per climatic region, were obtained from the Spanish National Institute of Meteorology. Different AE prevalences were found in all three climatic regions studied: Atlantic, 32.9; Mediterranean 28.3; and Continental 31.2 per 100 children studied (p < 0.005). AE was positively associated with precipitation and humidity, and was negatively associated with temperature and the number of sunny hours. The results show that AE is significantly dependent on meteorological conditions.

  18. Managing the impact of climate change on the hydrology of the Gallocanta Basin, NE-Spain.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J; Baumhauer, Roland; Schütt, Brigitta

    2011-02-01

    The Gallocanta Basin represents an environment highly sensitive to climate change. Over the past 60 years, the Laguna de Gallocanta, an ephemeral lake situated in the closed Gallocanta basin, experienced a sequence of wet and dry phases. The lake and its surrounding wetlands are one of only a few bird sanctuaries left in NE-Spain for grey cranes on their annual migration from Scandinavia to northern Africa. Understanding the impact of climate change on basin hydrology is therefore of utmost importance for the appropriate management of the bird sanctuary. Changes in lake level are only weakly linked to annual rainfall, with reaction times between hours and months after rainfall. Both the total amount of rainfall over the reaction period, as well as individual extreme events, affect lake level. In this study the characteristics and frequencies of daily, event, monthly and bi-monthly rainfall over the past 60 years were analysed. The results revealed a clear link between increased frequencies of high magnitude rainfall and phases of water filling in the Laguna de Gallocanta. In the middle of the 20th century, the absolute amount of rainfall appears to have been more important for lake level, while more recently the frequency of high magnitude rainfall has emerged as the dominant variable. In the Gallocanta Basin, climate change and the distinct and continuing land use change since Spain joined the EU in 1986 have created an environment that is in a more or less constant state of transition. This highlights two challenges faced by hydrologists and climatologists involved in developing water management tools for the Gallocanta Basin in particular, but also other areas with sensitive and rapidly changing environments. Hydrologists have to understand the processes and the spatial and temporal patterns of surface-climate interaction in a watershed to assess the impact of climate change on its hydrology. Climatologists, on the other hand, have to develop climate models

  19. Sensitivity of agro-environmental zones in Spain to global climatic change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanwalleghem, T.; Guzmán, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Laguna, A.; Giraldez, J. V.

    2014-12-01

    Soil has a key role in the regulation of carbon, water and nutrient cycles. Traditionally, agricultural soil management was oriented towards optimizing productivity. Nowadays, mitigation of climate change effects and maintaining long-term soil quality are evenly important. Developing policy guidelines for best management practices need to be site-specific, given the large spatial variability of environmental conditions within the EU. Therefore, it is necessary to classify the different farming zones that are susceptible to soil degradation. Especially in Mediterranean areas, this variability and its susceptibility to degradation is higher than in other areas of the EU. The objective of this study is therefore to delineate current agro-environmental zones in Spain and to determine the effect of global climate change on this classification in the future. The final objective is to assist policy makers in scenario analysis with respect to soil conservation. Our classification scheme is based on soil, topography and climate (seasonal temperature and rainfall) variables. We calculated slope and elevation based on a SRTM-derived DEM, soil texture was extracted from the European Soil Database and seasonal mean, minimum and maximum precipitation and temperature data were gridded from publically available weather station data (Aemet). Global change scenarios are average downscaled ensemble predictions for the emission scenarios A2 and B2. The k-means method was used for classification of the 10 km x 10 km gridded variables. Using the before-mentioned input variables, the optimal number of agro-environmental zones we obtained is 8. The classification corresponds well with the observed distribution of farming typologies in Spain. The advantage of this method is that it is a simple, objective method which uses only readily available, public data. As such, its extrapolation to other countries of the EU is straightforward. Finally, it presents a tool for policy makers to assess

  20. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Maize Yield Water Constraints under Climate Change in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Rosana; Lima, Mauricio; Gonzalez-Andujar, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have analyzed the impact of climate change on crop productivity, but comparing the performance of water management systems has rarely been explored. Because water supply and crop demand in agro-systems may be affected by global climate change in shaping the spatial patterns of agricultural production, we should evaluate how and where irrigation practices are effective in mitigating climate change effects. Here we have constructed simple, general models, based on biological mechanisms and a theoretical framework, which could be useful in explaining and predicting crop productivity dynamics. We have studied maize in irrigated and rain-fed systems at a provincial scale, from 1996 to 2009 in Spain, one of the most prominent “hot-spots” in future climate change projections. Our new approach allowed us to: (1) evaluate new structural properties such as the stability of crop yield dynamics, (2) detect nonlinear responses to climate change (thresholds and discontinuities), challenging the usual linear way of thinking, and (3) examine spatial patterns of yield losses due to water constraints and identify clusters of provinces that have been negatively affected by warming. We have reduced the uncertainty associated with climate change impacts on maize productivity by improving the understanding of the relative contributions of individual factors and providing a better spatial comprehension of the key processes. We have identified water stress and water management systems as being key causes of the yield gap, and detected vulnerable regions where efforts in research and policy should be prioritized in order to increase maize productivity. PMID:24878747

  1. Phenological behaviour of early spring flowering trees in Spain in response to recent climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo-Galvez, M. D.; García-Mozo, H.; Oteros, J.; Mestre, A.; Botey, R.; Galán, C.

    2017-03-01

    This research reports the phenological trends of four early spring and late winter flowering trees in Spain (south Europe) from a recent period (1986-2012). The studied species were deciduous trees growing in different climatic areas: hazel (Corylus avellana L.), willow (Salix alba L.), ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and white mulberry (Morus alba L.). We analysed the response to climate and the trends of the following phenophases observed at the field: budburst, leaf unfolding, flowering, fruit ripening, fruit harvesting, leaf colour change and leaf-fall. The study was carried out in 17 sampling sites in the country with the aim of detecting the recent phenological response to the climate of these species, and the possible effect of climate change. We have observed differences in the phenological response to climate depending on each species. Sixty-one percent of studied sites suffered an advance of early spring phenophases, especially budburst on average by -0.67 days and flowering on average by -0.15 days during the studied period, and also in the subsequent fruit ripening and harvesting phases on average by -1.06 days. By contrast, it has been detected that 63% of sampling sites showed a delay in autumn vegetative phases, especially leaf-fall events on average by +1.15 days. The statistic correlation analysis shows in the 55% of the studied localities that phenological advances are the consequence of the increasing trend detected for temperature—being minimum temperature the most influential factor—and in the 52% of them, phenological advances occurred by rainfall variations. In general, leaf unfolding and flowering from these species showed negative correlations in relation to temperature and rainfall, whereas that leaf colour change and leaf-fall presented positive correlations. The results obtained have a great relevance due to the fact that they can be considered as reliable bio-indicators of the impact of the recent climate changes in southern

  2. Reconstructing Past Climate Using Speleothems from Cueva de las Perlas, Northern Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeprose, Laura; Wynn, Peter; Barker, Philip; Leng, Melanie; Noble, Stephen; Sahy, Diana

    2017-04-01

    Abrupt and severe oscillations in climate, termed Heinrich events, are documented in North Atlantic Ocean sediments between 85,000 - 30,000 years ago [1]. This time period also encapsulates the Neanderthal demise, a key transition in human evolution which is proposed to be driven at least in part by changing climate. The Iberian Peninsula represents the last known refuge of the Neanderthals. However, due to a scarcity of palaeoclimate archives from Iberia during this time period, the expression of these cooling events in the terrestrial realm remains poorly understood. As the extinction of the Neanderthal population seems to broadly coincide with the timing of Heinrich event 4, it is therefore critical to understand the terrestrial expression of these changes in ocean circulation. Speleothems from Cueva de las Perlas, northern Spain are being used to reconstruct past climatic and environmental change spanning this period of Neanderthal demise. U-Th dating has identified three suitable speleothems, allowing a precise chronology to be established. Through contemporary monitoring, the oxygen isotope composition of speleothem carbonate has been interpreted to carry a primary environmental signal of rainfall amount. The oxygen isotope values indicate a drying climate across the period of the Neanderthal population demise. Additionally, the carbon isotope record, interpreted to represent shifts in vegetation dynamics, indicates an overall drying during the studied time period. A high degree of climatic instability is superimposed on the overall drying trend, suggesting the prevailing climatic conditions could have been adding environmental pressure to an already marginalised hominin population. Further U-Th dating and high-resolution stable isotope analysis aims to constrain the magnitude and timing of these events. [1] Bond, G., Broecker, W., Johnsen, S.J., McManus, J., Labeyrie, L., Jouzel, J., Bonani, G., 1993. Correlations between North Atlantic sediments and

  3. Holocene climate evolution, human occupation, soil erosion and vegetation cover change in southeast Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellin, Nicolas; Vanacker, Veerle

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is commonly reported as the European region that is most affected by soil degradation. The degradation of Mediterranean soils has often been linked to inappropriate agricultural practices during the last decades besides its typical semiarid conditions. The present-day landscape in Southeast Spain is the result of a long occupation history. To have a better understanding of the impact of human societies on soil degradation, the main shifts in vegetation cover, climate and human occupation have to be taken into account. Recently published paleo-environmental data from continental pollen sequences, high-resolution marine cores, and estimations of the past Sea Surface Temperature (SST) of the Alborán Sea provide new insights in the evolution of the Mediterranean climate and vegetation during the Holocene. These data allow overcoming some of the shortcomings of previous studies on the interaction between humans and the landscape that were mainly based on extrapolations of site-specific information from continental deposits and archeological sites and large-scale regional correlations. Our compilation of multi-continental proxies from the Iberic Peninsula indicates that environmental conditions are strongly related to climatic oscillations and strongly correlated with the North Atlantic changes. By use of a vertical approach, several aridification episodes were detected from marine and continental records at 12000-11600 (H), 11100-10800 (G), 10300-9900 (F), 8600-8000 (E), 5500-4600 (D), 4000-3400 (C), 2700-2400 (B), 1800-1300 (A) cal. years BP. The data suggest that those severe aridification phases were most likely climatically induced, not human-driven and well correlated with the Bond events. We observe a clear association between climate, vegetation cover and sediment fluxes for the period from 12000 to 4600 cal. years BP. In contrast, during the last 4600 years, the reconstruction of various eco-historical periods indicated a weak to low

  4. Fundamental tree growth processes severely suffer from water stress. The example of Pinus halepensis Mill. in South-eastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Francois; Vennetier, Michel; Ouarmim, Samira; Caraglio, Yves; Misson, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    Plant architecture processes are commonly neglected in the studies about climate change impact. In terms of biomass, primary growth (i.e. lateral and principal twig growth) and leaf production are far more important than secondary growth (i.e. radial growth). Polycyclism, or the ability for a plant to produce several flushes in the same growth season, is a key process of plant development. Aleppo pine is a good model to study polycyclism: it is known to produce up to four annual flushes in one growth season: one to three in spring and sometimes one after summer drought. Architectural development i.e. ranching rate, annual branch length growth and number of needles and fruiting are positively correlated with the production of multiple flushes per year. These tree growth processes are likely to be impacted by the anticipated climate trend over the next century, particularly repeated and more severe water stresses, However, Aleppo pine architecture is not well-described in the literature and an important lack of knowledge prevents any possible prediction for the 21st century. Thus, the objectives of this study were (i) to describe architectural processes on Aleppo pine in the Mediterranean region for the last 15 years, (ii) to untangle interrelationship between climate and twig status in the evolution of tree architecture and (iii) to look for a possible impact of climate change. Since 1998, climate was far hotter and drier than normal in South-eastern France: each process of tree architecture was significantly affected, particularly after 2003 heat-wave, which delayed effect remains till 2008, exacerbated by repeated droughts. Morphologically, polycyclism is primarily influenced by twig vigour, hierarchy and position (low, middle or top crown). Climatically, tree architectural development for a given year depends mainly on water availability in preceding growth season and to a less extent on rainfall during winter and summer temperatures of current and preceding year

  5. Mesoscale climatic simulation of surface air temperature cooling by highly reflective greenhouses in SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Campra, Pablo; Millstein, Dev

    2013-01-01

    A long-term local cooling trend in surface air temperature has been monitored at the largest concentration of reflective greenhouses in the world, at the Province of Almeria, SE Spain, associated with a dramatic increase in surface albedo in the area. The availability of reliable long-term climatic field data at this site offers a unique opportunity to test the skill of mesoscale meteorological models describing and predicting the impacts of land use change on local climate. Using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model, we have run a sensitivity experiment to simulate the impact of the observed surface albedo change on monthly and annual surface air temperatures. The model output showed a mean annual cooling of 0.25 °C associated with a 0.09 albedo increase, and a reduction of 22.8 W m(-2) of net incoming solar radiation at surface. Mean reduction of summer daily maximum temperatures was 0.49 °C, with the largest single-day decrease equal to 1.3 °C. WRF output was evaluated and compared with observations. A mean annual warm bias (MBE) of 0.42 °C was estimated. High correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.9) were found between modeled and observed values. This study has particular interest in the assessment of the potential for urban temperature cooling by cool roofs deployment projects, as well as in the evaluation of mesoscale climatic models performance.

  6. Reservoir storage and hydrologic responses to droughts in the Paraná River basin, south-eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Davi de C. D.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Zhang, Zizhan; Wendland, Edson; Yin, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Droughts are particularly critical for Brazil because of impacts on water supply and because most (70 %) of its electricity is derived from hydroelectric generation. The Paraná basin (PB), a major hydroelectric producing region with 32 % (60 million people) of Brazil's population, recently experienced the most severe drought since the 1960s, compromising the water supply for 11 million people in São Paulo. The objective of this study is to quantify linkages between meteorological and hydrological droughts based on remote sensing, modelling, and monitoring data using the Paraná River basin in south-eastern Brazil as a case study. Two major meteorological droughts were identified in the early 2000s and 2014, with precipitation 20-50 % below the long-term mean. Total water storage change estimated from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites declined by 150 km3 between April 2011 and April 2015. Simulated soil moisture storage declined during the droughts, resulting in decreased runoff into reservoirs. As a result, reservoir storage decreased by 30 % relative to the system's maximum capacity, with negative trends ranging from 17 (May 1997-April 2001) to 25 km3 yr-1 (May 2011-April 2015). Storage in upstream reservoirs is mostly controlled by natural climate forcing, whereas storage in downstream reservoirs also reflects dam operations. This study emphasizes the importance of integrating remote sensing, modelling, and monitoring data to evaluate droughts and to establish a preliminary understanding of the linkages between a meteorological and hydrological drought for future management.

  7. ENSO-cave drip water hydrochemical relationship: a 7-year dataset from south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadros, Carol V.; Treble, Pauline C.; Baker, Andy; Fairchild, Ian; Hankin, Stuart; Roach, Regina; Markowska, Monika; McDonald, Janece

    2016-11-01

    Speleothems (cave deposits), used for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, are deposited from cave drip water. Differentiating climate and karst processes within a drip-water signal is fundamental for the correct identification of palaeoenvironmental proxies and ultimately their interpretation within speleothem records. We investigate the potential use of trace element and stable oxygen-isotope (δ18O) variations in cave drip water as palaeorainfall proxies in an Australian alpine karst site. This paper presents the first extensive hydrochemical and δ18O dataset from Harrie Wood Cave, in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern (SE) Australia. Using a 7-year long rainfall δ18O and drip-water Ca, Cl, Mg / Ca, Sr / Ca and δ18O datasets from three drip sites, we determined that the processes of mixing, dilution, flow path change, carbonate mineral dissolution and prior calcite precipitation (PCP) accounted for the observed variations in the drip-water geochemical composition. We identify that the three monitored drip sites are fed by fracture flow from a well-mixed epikarst storage reservoir, supplied by variable concentrations of dissolved ions from soil and bedrock dissolution. We constrained the influence of multiple processes and controls on drip-water composition in a region dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During the El Niño and dry periods, enhanced PCP, a flow path change and dissolution due to increased soil CO2 production occurred in response to warmer than average temperatures in contrast to the La Niña phase, where dilution dominated and reduced PCP were observed. We present a conceptual model, illustrating the key processes impacting the drip-water chemistry. We identified a robust relationship between ENSO and drip-water trace element concentrations and propose that variations in speleothem Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios may be interpreted to reflect palaeorainfall conditions. These findings inform palaeorainfall reconstruction from

  8. Mapping of SPI drought index in South-Eastern Europe, theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihari, Z.; Szentimrey, T.; Lakatos, M.; Gregorič, G.; Likso, T.

    2010-09-01

    In recent decades drought has a major impact on the economy in South-Eastern Europe (SEE). The annual precipitation has decreased from the beginning of 20th century. Additional problem is that the intensity of precipitation increases in average. The part of runoff became larger, and greater part of the precipitation runs to the rivers, streamlets, and less part infiltrates into the soil. Therefore, the available water reduces for vegetation. Summarized, the drought tendency increases in the region. The Drought Management Centre for South East Europe was established to deal with these events and try to improve drought management and policy. One method to calculate the extent of a drought event is the application of drought indices. Several indices are used for this purpose, one of them is the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) developed by McKee et al. The SPI is based only on precipitation and can be used to monitor conditions on a variety of time scales. The SPI calculation for any location is based on long-term precipitation record for a desired period. This long-term record is fitted to a gamma probability distribution, which is then transformed into the standard normal distribution. In the practice SPI is calculated mainly for 1, 3, 6 months. The SPI calculator which is offered on the project page of DMCSEE is applied for SPI calculations in this study. For the interpolation of SPI we use the MISH interpolation method developed at Hungarian Meteorological Service (Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenized Data Basis; Szentimrey, Bihari, 2007). The interpolation can be realized in to ways: 1. The SPI values are calculated in grid points after gridding (by gridding part of MISH) the station precipitation data series 2. The station based SPI values are interpolated by method MISH One of the main feature of MISH is that it use longtime data series for modelling of the necessary climate statistical parameters while the SPI calculations are also based

  9. Reconstruction of past climate variability in SE Spain between 14 and 8 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budsky, Alexander; Scholz, Denis; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Christoph, Spötl; Gibert, Luis; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2016-04-01

    In comparison to the large climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene, Holocene climate only underwent minor changes. Nevertheless, cyclic climate changes also occurred during the Holocene. The Bond events, represented by the presence of cold, ice-bearing waters from the north of Iceland as far south as the latitude of Britain, occurred at a cyclicity of about 1500 a and were particularly pronounced during the Early Holocene. However, their climatic impact on the terrestrial realm was not consistent over Europe, in particular with respect to changes in precipitation. Here we present a precisely dated high-resolution flowstone record from Cueva Victoria, SE Spain, a site well suited to study the competing influence of the Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea on the southern Iberian Peninsula. We sampled several flowstones with a thickness of up to 60 cm. 230Th/U-dating has shown that these deposits mainly formed during relatively warm climate intervals of the Middle and Late Pleistocene, i.e. interglacials and interstadials (Budsky et al., 2015; Gibert et al., 2016). Here we focus on a short (11 cm) flowstone sequence from the Holocene with a high temporal resolution (centennial for stable isotopes and annual for trace elements). The flowstone grew between 14 and ca. 8 ka b2k. The decreasing trend of the δ18O and δ13C values as well as of several trace elements between 12 and 11 ka b2k reflects an increase in temperature and precipitation at the beginning of the Holocene. In particular, Sr and Mg show a trend towards low and stable values. Subsequently, from 10.5 to 8 ka b2k, the δ13C values show a high variability (-11 to -4), whereas the δ18O values are rather stable (between -6 and -7). Maxima in δ13C are interpreted as drier conditions in response to Bond events. These events possibly led to a change of the atmospheric circulation, affecting the vegetation in SE Spain, which evolved towards an open C3 vegetation at ca. 8 ka b2k concomitant with drier conditions

  10. Impact of land cover changes and climate on the main airborne pollen types in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Mozo, Herminia; Oteros, Jose Antonio; Galán, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Airborne pollen concentrations strongly correlate with flowering intensity of wind-pollinated species growing at and around monitoring sites. The pollen spectrum, and the variations in its composition and concentrations, is influenced by climatic features and by available nutritional resources but it is also determined by land use and its changes. The first factor influence is well known on aerobiological researches but the impact of land cover changes has been scarcely studied until now. This paper reports on a study carried out in Southern Spain (Córdoba city) examining airborne pollen trends over a 15-year period and it explores the possible links both to changes in land use and to climate variations. The Seasonal-Trend Decomposition procedure based on Loess (STL) which decomposes long-term data series into smaller seasonal component patterns was applied. Trends were compared with recorded changes in land use at varying distances from the city in order to determine their possible influence on pollen-count variations. The influence of climate-related factors was determined by means of non-parametric correlation analysis. The STL method proved highly effective for extracting trend components from pollen time series, because their features vary widely and can change quickly in a short term. Results revealed mixed trends depending on the taxa and reflecting fluctuations in land cover and/or climate. A significant rising trend in Olea pollen counts was observed, attributable both to the increasing olive-growing area but also to changes in temperature and rainfall. Poaceae pollen concentrations also increased, due largely to an expansion of heterogeneous agricultural areas and to an increase in pollen season length positively influenced by rainfall and temperature. By contrast, the significant declining trend observed for pollen from ruderal taxa, such as Amaranthaceae, Rumex, Plantago and Urticaceae, may be linked to changes in urban planning strategies with a

  11. Influence of climate change on floods in the Arga river in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garijo, Carlos; Mediero, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Catchment response to extreme events is expected to be modified under climate change. This study focuses on the effect of climate change on flood response in the Arga river basin in Spain. Global Climate Models (GCM), under two emission scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) proposed by the Fifth Assessment Report from IPCC (AR5) have been used. These models were downscaled and regionalized by the Spanish Meteorological Agency (AEMET), obtaining eighteen precipitation and temperature projections. Precipitation and temperature series supplied by the models were compared to the observed data in a set of ten gauging sites, selecting the six models that best fit the observed data (ACCESS 1-0, BCC-CSM 1-1, BNU-ESM, CNRM-CM5, INMCM4, MPI-ESM-LR). Outputs of the six downscaled models were corrected in terms of bias to improve the fit for extreme events that usually drive floods in this catchment. The Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) model was used to transform precipitation and temperature data into flow series at the mouth of the basin. A Genetic Algorithm and Powell's Method Optimization function included in the HBV model was used to calibrate the model parameters. The calibrated model was used to obtain flow projections in the future under climate change. Results of the simulations were analysed through Annual Maximum streamflow Series (AMS), to study changes in the flood frequency curve, and Peaks Over Threshold (POT) to study changes in flood seasonality. The AMS analysis shows that high return period floods will decrease slightly in both scenarios for most of the models, as high return period precipitations also decrease in most of the models supplied by AEMET. Furthermore, the POT analysis exhibits a delay of winter floods converting into spring floods.

  12. Temporal variability of soil water repellency in field conditions under humid Mediterranean climate (South of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.; Gabarron-Galeote, Miguel A.; Ruiz-Sinoga, Jose D.

    2013-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) has become an important field of scientific study because of its effects on soil hydrological behavior, including reduced matrix infiltration, development of fingered flow in structural or textural preferential flow paths, irregular wetting fronts, and increased runoff generation and soil erosion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the temporal variability of SWR in Mediterranean rangeland under humid Mediterranean climatic conditions (Tª=14.5 °C; P=1,010 mm y-1) in South of Spain. Every month from September 2008 to May 2009 (rainy season), soil moisture and SWR was measured in field conditions by means of gravimetric method and Water Drop Penetration Test, respectively. The entire tests were performed in differente eco-geomorphological conditions in the experimental site: North and South aspect hillslopes and beneath shrub and bare soil in every of them. The results indicate that: i) climatic conditions seem to be more transcendent than the vegetal cover for explaining the temporal variability of SWR in field conditions; ii) thus, SWR appears to be controlled by the antecedent rainfall and soil moisture; iii) more severity SWR were observed in patches characterized by sandier soils and/or greater organic matter contents; and iv) the factor 'hillslope aspect' was not found very influential in the degree of SWR.

  13. Impact of climate change on irrigation management for olive orchards at southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorite, Ignacio; Gabaldón-Leal, Clara; Santos, Cristina; Belaj, Angjelina; de la Rosa, Raul; Leon, Lorenzo; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2017-04-01

    The irrigation management for olive orchards under future weather conditions requires the development of advanced tools for considering specific physiological and phenological components affected by the foreseen changes in climate and atmospheric [CO2]. In this study a new simulation model named AdaptaOlive has been considered to develop controlled deficit irrigation and full irrigation scheduling for the traditional olive orchards located in Andalusia region (southern Spain) under the projected climate generated by an ensemble of 11 climate models from the ENSEMBLES European project corresponding to the SRES A1B scenario. Irrigation requirements, irrigation water productivity (IWP) and net margin (NM) were evaluated for three periods (baseline, near future and far future) and three irrigation strategies (rainfed, RF, controlled deficit irrigation, CDI, and full irrigation, FI). For irrigation requirements, a very limited average increase for far future compared with baseline period was found (2.6 and 1.3%, for CDI and FI, respectively). Equally, when IWP was analyzed, significant increases were identified for both irrigation strategies (77.4 and 72.2%, for CDI and FI, respectively) due to the high simulated increase in yield. Finally, when net margin was analyzed, the irrigation water cost had a key significance. For low water costs FI provided higher net margin values than for CDI. However, for high water costs (expected in the future due to the foreseen reduction in rainfall and the increase of the competence for the available water resources), net margin is reduced significantly, generating a very elevated number of years with negative net margin. All the described results are affected by a high level of uncertainty as the projections from the ensemble of 11 climate models show large spread. Thus, for a representative location within Andalusia region as Baeza, a reduction of irrigation requirements under full irrigation strategy was found for the ensemble mean

  14. Regional Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources: the Jucar River Basin, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirivella Osma, V.; Capilla, J. E.; Perez Martin, M.; Sanchez Fuster, I.

    2011-12-01

    There is a wide consensus, supported by scientific and technical reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the European Union (EU), regarding the evolution of climate during the twenty-first century. According to current predictions, the Mediterranean basin will experience a meaningful increase of temperature, and the average precipitations will drop below historical records. The Jucar river basin (JB), a Mediterranean river basin located in eastern Spain, will be highly affected by these changes with important impacts on water availability. Under these circumstances, decision makers need reliable descriptions of future climate scenarios, for the short and medium terms (15-25 years), in order to design realistic and robust water plans and management policies. This paper analyzes all current available climate scenarios, proposed by the Spanish Agency of Meteorology (AEMET), for the period 2010-2040, on the geographic area covered by the JB. This is done through the validation of these scenarios using historical records, and by assessing the impact on water resources for the next 30 years. The scenarios were issued in March 2008 as part of the goals pursued by the Spanish National Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change (PNACC). They are based on statistical downscaling from Global Circulation Models (GCM) results from the third IPCC report (TAR 2001), and correspond to emission scenarios A2, B2 (SRES) and IS92a (from IPCC in 1992). The impacts of these scenarios on water resources are still under analyses by other Spanish governmental agencies. By taking the period 1960-90 as control period, a careful comparison of its historical records against AEMET scenarios is performed. Although temperatures are properly honored, precipitations are widely underestimated in a range going from 8 % to 29 %. Besides, the spatial patterns of rainfall are poorly captured. This wide variability range observed in the control period is also found in

  15. A vulnerability analysis for a drought vulnerable catchment in South-Eastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohmann, Clara; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Birk, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    To detect uncertainties and thresholds in a drought vulnerable region we focus on a typical river catchment of the Austrian South-Eastern Alpine forelands with good data availability, the Raab valley. This mid-latitude region in the south-east of the Austrian state Styria (˜ 47° N, ˜ 16° E) exhibits a strong temperature increase over the last decades. Especially the mean summer temperatures (June to August) show a strong increase (˜ 0.7 °C per decade) over the last decades (1971 - 2015) (Kabas et al., Meteorol. Z. 20, 277-289, 2011; pers. comm., 2015). The Styrian Raab valley, with a catchment size of 986 km2, has already struggled with drought periods (e.g., summers of 1992, 2001 and 2003). Thus, it is important to know what happens if warm and dry periods occur more frequently. Therefore we analyze which sensitivities and related uncertainties exist, which thresholds might be crossed, and what the effects on the different components of the water balance equation are, in particular on runoff, soil moisture, groundwater recharge, and evapotranspiration. We use the mainly physics-based hydrological Water Flow and Balance Simulation Model (WaSiM), developed at ETH Zurich (Schulla, Diss., ETH Zurich, CH, 1997). The model is well established and widely used for hydrological modeling at a diversity of spatial and temporal resolutions. We choose a model set up which is as simple as possible but as complex as necessary to perform sensitivity studies on uncertainties and thresholds in the context of climate change. In order to assess the model performance under a wide range of conditions, the calibration and validation is performed with a split sample for dry and wet periods. With the calibrated and validated model we perform a low-flow vulnerability analysis ("stress test"), with focus on drought-related conditions. Therefore we simulate changes in weather and climate (e.g., 20% and 50% less precipitation, 2 °C and 5 °C higher temperature), changes in land use and

  16. Pleistocene calcrete deposits from southern Spain as indicators of climatic conditions and tectonic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, Maria J.; Insua-Arevalo, Juan M.; Garcia-Mayordomo, Julian; Martin-Banda, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    Quaternary calcrete horizons are common weathering products in arid and semi-arid regions of southern Spain. We have analysed a calcrete profile developed within poorly sorted gravels of an alluvial fan. These deposits were sourced from the Carrascoy Range, a fault generated mountain front located in the Internal Zones of the Betic Cordillera (South Spain). During the Pleistocene the climate in southern Spain was dry, either in the form of semi-arid/arid conditions or as seasonal moisture deficits. Alluvial channel incision trends appeared to be disrupted by episodes of alluvial aggradation produced during cold and dry glacial periods. At the top of the aggradational phases, pedogenic processes operated profusely, and, as a result, several calcretes (stage V mature calcrete profiles) were formed. We have analysed one of these calcrete profiles that appears subvertical within the forelimb of a regional fold in relation to the Carrascoy Fault activity. The calcrete consist of a densely cemented hardpan horizon (20 to 40 cm thick) overlain by a thin, 2-cm thick laminar crust. Below the hardpan horizon, carbonate concentrations gradually decrease to clast-coating textures. Calcretes form progressively and a wide range of carbonate phases occur within a single horizon, being the laminar crust the final stage of evolution within a mature pedogenic calcrete deposit, and, therefore, the carbonate within it postdates all the cement phases within the profile. The location of the latest cement phase of the calcrete deposit has been estimated by microscopic observations (to establish their suitability for dating) together with a detailed sedimentological analysis of the calcrete profile in the field. The laminar crust consists of less than 1 mm thick laminae characterized by the alternation of layers of micrite and layers of micrite with ooids, detrital grains and clays indicating environmental conditions in which sedimentation rates were low and episodic. By using radiometric

  17. [Climate and epidemiological characteristics of renal colic attendances in an urban setting in Spain].

    PubMed

    Luján, M; Sánchez, M T; Turo, J; Pascual, C; Chiva, V; Martín, C; Torres, J

    2011-09-01

    To address the real incidence of RC episodes in our setting and its relationship with several epidemiological, seasonal and climatic factors. We analyzed 156,687 attendances in the emergency unit of Hospital Infanta Cristina (Parla, Madrid, Spain), from the opening of the unit in 07/04/2008 to the date of analysis (28/03/2010). Date of birth, sex, history of previous urinary lithiasis episodes, main cause and date of attendance were collected. Daily climate parameters (maximum daily temperature and percent relative humidity) were recorded. A total number of 1,866 RC episodes (1.19% of all attendances) were recorded during the study period. Age ranged from 15 to 94 years, median 39. RC episodes were more prevalent in male population (58.4% vs 41.6% in females respectively, p<0.001). No differences were observed with regard to previous history of RC. A modest but significant rise in RC incidence was observed during summer and autumn. No significant correlation was observed between monthly or seasonal number of RC attendances and the climatic parameters studied. RC incidence in our setting is similar to the previously reported in the literature. A modest but significant higher incidence of renal colic episodes were observed during summer and autumn seasons, although no significant relationship was attributed to temperature and humidity values. Absence of dramatic seasonal changes in incidence can be explained by the "non-extreme" weather conditions in the studied setting. Copyright © 2011 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. The climate of Zaragoza (NE of Spain) in the context of global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Cuadrat, José; Ángel Saz, Miguel; Tejedor, Ernesto; de Luis, Martín; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The IPCC 2013 (AR5) emphasizes that the impact of an increase in temperature will be compounded in large cities by the effect of the urban heat island. Therefore, it suggests the need to study the urban climate in urban planning to anticipate changes and define adaptation strategies. The aim of this work is to analyze recent trends in temperature in the city of Zaragoza (NE of Spain, 750,000 inhabitants) and the extreme values from climate indices defined by the WMO. Daily temperature data recorded at 10 observatories located in Zaragoza was homogenized and quality-controlled using 'HOMER, R-Package', developing a single daily series since 1892 to present. Temperature records show a clear positive trend since the early 80s of 20th century. The first decade of the 21th century is the warmest since the beginning of the instrumental records. There is an increase of +0.07 °C per decade. Furthermore, the temperature rise in this period has been +1.6 ° C. The frequency of tropical nights has also been increased. The number of nights when the minimum temperature was not lower than 20 °C has moved from 89 in the period 1900-1930 to 386 in 1991-2010. Days when the maximum daily exceeds 35°C are also more frequent. Regarding the cold events, there is a decrease in the number of days with temperatures below 0 °C. These results reinforce the idea of the IPCC that the challenges of climate change should be recognized as fundamental elements for urban planning in order to reduce risks and promote the welfare of citizens, as well as an instrument to minimize vulnerability and identify ways to maximize opportunities.

  19. Meteorological factors driving glacial till variation and the associated periglacial debris flows in Tianmo Valley, south-eastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Mingfeng; Chen, Ningsheng; Liu, Mei

    2017-03-01

    Meteorological studies have indicated that high alpine environments are strongly affected by climate warming, and periglacial debris flows are frequent in deglaciated regions. The combination of rainfall and air temperature controls the initiation of periglacial debris flows, and the addition of meltwater due to higher air temperatures enhances the complexity of the triggering mechanism compared to that of storm-induced debris flows. On the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau, where temperate glaciers are widely distributed, numerous periglacial debris flows have occurred over the past 100 years, but none occurred in the Tianmo watershed until 2007. In 2007 and 2010, three large-scale debris flows occurred in the Tianmo Valley. In this study, these three debris flow events were chosen to analyse the impacts of the annual meteorological conditions, including the antecedent air temperature and meteorological triggers. The remote sensing images and field measurements of the adjacent glacier suggested that sharp glacier retreats occurred in the 1 to 2 years preceding the events, which coincided with spikes in the mean annual air temperature. Glacial till changes providing enough active sediment driven by a prolonged increase in the air temperature are a prerequisite of periglacial debris flows. Different factors can trigger periglacial debris flows, and they may include high-intensity rainfall, as in the first and third debris flows, or continuous, long-term increases in air temperature, as in the second debris flow event.

  20. Spatial debris-cover effect on the maritime glaciers of Mount Gongga, south-eastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Fujita, K.; Liu, S.; Liu, Q.

    2013-06-01

    The Tibetan Plateau and surroundings contain a large number of debris-covered glaciers, on which debris cover affects glacier response to climate change by altering ice melting rates and spatial patterns of mass loss. Insufficient spatial distribution of debris thickness data makes it difficult to analyze regional debris-cover effects. Mount Gongga glaciers, maritime glaciers in the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau, are characterized by a substantial reduction in glacier length and ice mass in recent decades. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)-derived thermal property of the debris layer reveals that 68% of the glaciers have extensive mantles of supraglacial debris in their ablation zones, in which the proportion of debris cover to total glacier area varies from 1.74% to 53.0%. Using a surface energy-mass balance model accounting for the debris-cover effect applied at a regional scale, we find that although the presence of supraglacial debris has a significant insulating effect on heavily debris-covered glaciers, it accelerates ice melting on ~ 10.2% of the total ablation area and produces rapid wastage of ~ 25% of the debris-covered glaciers, resulting in the similar mass losses between debris-covered and debris-free glaciers. Widespread debris cover also facilitates the development of active terminus regions. Regional differences in the debris-cover effect are apparent, highlighting the importance of debris cover for understanding glacier status and hydrology in both the Tibetan Plateau and other mountain ranges around the world.

  1. An isolate of the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium for the control of cattle trichostrongyles in south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Assis, R C L; Luns, F D; de Araújo, J V; Braga, F R; Assis, R L; Marcelino, J; Freitas, P C; Andrade, M A

    2015-03-01

    A mycelial formulation in sodium alginate pellets of the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium (isolate NF34A) was assessed in the biological control of beef cattle trichostrongyles in tropical Brazil. Two groups of ten male Nellore calves aged 6 months, a fungus-treated group and a control group, were fed on a pasture of Brachiaria decumbens naturally infected with larvae of cattle trichostrongyles. The fungus-treated group received doses of sodium alginate mycelial pellets orally (1 g pellets (0.2 g fungus)/10 kg live weight) twice a week for 12 months. At the end of the study there was a significant reduction (P< 0.01) in the number of eggs per gram of faeces and coprocultures of the fungus-treated group--47.8% and 50.2%, respectively--in relation to the control group. There was a 47.3% reduction in herbage samples, collected up to 0-20 cm from faecal pats, between the fungus-treated and control groups, and a 58% reduction when the sampling distance was 20-40 cm from faecal pats (P< 0.01). The treatment with sodium alginate pellets containing the nematode-trapping fungus M. thaumasium reduced trichostrongyles in tropical south-eastern Brazil and could be an effective tool for the biological control of this parasitic nematode in beef cattle. However, in such a tropical climate with low rainfall the fungal viability can be reduced.

  2. A speleothem record of climate of the last millennium in Southeast Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celia, Campa; Iñaki, Vadillo; Arsenio, Muñoz; Jorge, Pisonero; Heather, Stoll

    2017-04-01

    We report a paleo-climatological study of Southern Spain using an actively growing stalagmite ("Zerolin") collected in the Cave of Ardales (Málaga) in 2007. U-Th dates indicate that the spleothem began forming 1000 years ago with an average growth rate of 200 microns per year. Clear annual laminae couplets composed of porous white layer and denser darker layer are present in portions of the stalagmite. The thickest laminae couplets reflect times when the stalagmite had the highest growth rate and coincide with the beginning of the Little Ice Age; we interpret these as periods of more humid climates which maintained active dripping and stalagmite growth in both the winter and summer seasons. During dry periods, the dry season laminae is condensed or suppressed. The stalagmite is fed by fracture flow in the dolomitic bedrock. In times of drought, the drip interval can be longer than 20 minutes which would be expected to produce extensive prior calcite precipitation on the cave ceiling. Low Sr/Ca ratios between 1200 and 1700 AD coincide with thickest laminae and may reflect low PCP and more humid conditions. Mg/Ca ratios are more complex to interpret because LA-ICPMS data reveal high contribution of Mg from detrital phases, which may be transported preferentially through the fracture during high flow periods. The magnitude of annual Mg/Ca variation clearly exceeds that which could be attributed to PCP. Although the stalagmite does not have annual laminations during the last two centuries, within the precision of existing U/Th dates we conduct an evaluation of the multidecadal scale proxy response during the period of instrumental climate observations of the region to more carefully establish the best proxies for aridity and humidity.

  3. A new meteorological record for Cádiz (Spain) 1806-1852: Implications for climatic reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, David; Garcia-Herrera, Ricardo; Calvo, Natalia; Ribera, Pedro

    2007-06-01

    A new documentary source of data for wind, atmospheric pressure and air temperature for the city of Cádiz (southern Spain) has been abstracted, analyzed and compared with present-day data. Wind records cover the period 1806-1852 with three observations per day. Instrumental pressure and temperature cover the period 1825-1852. While the historical pressure series shows average values very close to that found for the period 1971-2000, temperature shows a large asymmetric seasonal warming, with increments in the order of 2°C for the winter months and almost no change for summer. Wind measurements have been transformed into their numerical equivalents and then compared with present-day values. The analysis shows that the numerical estimation of ancient wind forces observed at Cádiz, while providing a robust climatic signal, has a strong bias to larger values than their instrumental equivalents. Despite the uncertainties involved in the interpretation of early wind series, this effect could be related to the recording of "average wind gusts" rather than average winds as measured by today's anemometers. In consequence, wind climatologies based on historical data, which recently are becoming available to the scientific community, should be used carefully.

  4. Is rainfall erosivity influenced by climate change?. A case study in a Mediterranean Climate area of North East Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Maria C.

    2014-05-01

    One of the main characteristics of the Mediterranean climate is the high intensity rainfall events usually recorded in autumn and spring. Those events usually concentrate a high percentage of annual rainfall. Different studies carried out in the Mediterranean countries suggest that notable changes in seasonal precipitation regimes have occurred during the second half of the 20th century. In addition, precipitation extremes seem to increase in association with global warming, which may favour erosion processes. Under this hypothesis one question arise: is the rainfall erosivity increasing influenced by climate change? In this work rainfall erosivity and its variability in the last two decades was analysed in an area located NE Spain, where erosion processes of high magnitude are recorded. The main land use in that area is grape vines, which due to the scarce soil cover is usually associated with the highest erosion rates. The study area was located in the Penedès depression (North East Spain). Hourly data from four observatories Els Hostalets de Pierola (UTM X: 400664, Y: 4598608m, elv: 326m ), La Granada ( X:393758; Y:4580393), Sant Martí Sarroca (X: 385556; Y:4581486, elv: 257m) and Font_Rubi (X: 385118, Y:4587935. elev: 415 m ) belonging to the period 1997-2013 were used in the analysis together with a tipping bucket rainfall series recorded at one minute intervals (10 years within the period 1996-2012). Rainfall erosivity was quantified by the index rainfall kinetic energy multiplied by the maximum intensity in 30minute periods (E*Imax30). The Imax30 was estimated from the relationship between hourly and 30 minute data obtained for the tipping bucket series using the Marquard algoritme. In order to analsye changes in rainfall erosivity, the annual and monthly number of erosive events were analysed for each observatory and in each year, the events were classified into intervals according to their erosivity. The intervals used were: 0-100; 100-200; 200-300; 300

  5. Mosasauroid predation on an ammonite - Pseudaspidoceras - from the Early Turonian of south-eastern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Andrew S.; Kennedy, William James; Martill, David

    2017-03-01

    A juvenile specimen of the ammonite Pseudaspidoceras from the Early Turonian of the Goulmima area in the Province of Er-Rachida in south-eastern Morocco shows clear evidence of predation by a tooth-bearing vertebrate. Most of the body chamber is missing, as a result of post-burial compactional crushing. The adapertural part of the shell on the left flank of the surviving fragment of body chamber bears six circular punctuations; the right flank four. These are interpreted as the product of a single bite by a mosasauroid, probably a Tethysaurus. The taxonomy of the Goulmima Pseudaspidoceras is discuused in an appendix.

  6. Prevalence and intensity of Paragonimus uterobilateralis infection among school children in Oban village, South Eastern, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ochigbo, S O; Ekanem, E E; Udo, J J

    2007-10-01

    A survey of Paragonimus infection among primary school children aged 6-10 years in Oban village, Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria, was conducted. A total of 198 children were examined:112 (56.6%) were boys while 86 (43.4%) were girls. Eleven of the subjects were sputum positive for paragonimus eggs, giving an overall prevalence rate of 5.5%. The findings show that paragonimiasis is a significant health problem in South Eastern Nigeria; the risk of infection could be minimized by the proper cooking of fresh water crabs and crayfish before consumption.

  7. Effects of climate variability on irrigation scheduling in white varieties of Vitis vinifera of NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Emma M.; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Fandiño, María; Rey, Benjamín J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.; Cancela, Javier J.

    2014-05-01

    Inter-annual climate variability, in particular the temporal distribution of rainfall is regarded as a critical factor to obtain an optimal irrigation management on crops, being more marked their relevance in Atlantic climates. The presence of precision irrigation systems in Vitis vinifera (L.) has created the need to understand the physiological effects on plant, and vineyard soils, together with production and quality parameters, to achieve and adequate irrigation management. This trial was performed on two relevant white grapevine varieties from Galicia (NW-Spain), cv. `Albariño` (D.O. Rías Baixas and Ribeiro) and cv. `Godello` (D.O. Valdeorras and D.O. Monterrei) during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Two treatments were established following a completely randomized block design with four replications (7 plants each). The treatments were rainfed (R) and surface drip irrigation (DI), these last one was not applied in DO Monterrei during 2012. Irrigation was initiated when an average value of 400 cumulative degree days was reached, ending 15 days before the harvest. Different bioclimatic indices were calculated to characterize each season and location: Cool night index (CI); Heliothermal index (HI), which corresponds to Huglin's heliothermal index; and Winkler index. To assess the water status of the vines leaf (Ψmid) and stem (Ψstem) water potentials were measured at noon. Finally, production and qualitative data were collected for each treatment. No differences between DOs were observed for 'Godello' cultivar in bioclimatic indices within the Geoviticulture MCC system (Tonietto and Carboneau, 2004), indicating temperate warm-temperate (HI) and very cool nights (CI). For the Winkler index, cv. Godello is within the region I, near the region II in the case of D.O. Valdeorras in both years. In the case of 'Albariño', warmer nights were observed in DO Rías Baixas compared with DO Ribeiro, whereas the opposite was found for the thermal index. Leaf water potential

  8. Reduction of the Powerful Greenhouse Gas N2O in the South-Eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Raes, Eric J; Bodrossy, Levente; Van de Kamp, Jodie; Holmes, Bronwyn; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Thompson, Peter A; McInnes, Allison S; Waite, Anya M

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a key catalyst of stratospheric ozone depletion. Yet, little data exist about the sink and source terms of the production and reduction of N2O outside the well-known oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we show the presence of functional marker genes for the reduction of N2O in the last step of the denitrification process (nitrous oxide reductase genes; nosZ) in oxygenated surface waters (180-250 O2 μmol.kg(-1)) in the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Overall copy numbers indicated that nosZ genes represented a significant proportion of the microbial community, which is unexpected in these oxygenated waters. Our data show strong temperature sensitivity for nosZ genes and reaction rates along a vast latitudinal gradient (32°S-12°S). These data suggest a large N2O sink in the warmer Tropical waters of the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Clone sequencing from PCR products revealed that most denitrification genes belonged to Rhodobacteraceae. Our work highlights the need to investigate the feedback and tight linkages between nitrification and denitrification (both sources of N2O, but the latter also a source of bioavailable N losses) in the understudied yet strategic Indian Ocean and other oligotrophic systems.

  9. Reduction of the Powerful Greenhouse Gas N2O in the South-Eastern Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Raes, Eric J.; Bodrossy, Levente; Van de Kamp, Jodie; Holmes, Bronwyn; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Thompson, Peter A.; McInnes, Allison S.; Waite, Anya M.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a key catalyst of stratospheric ozone depletion. Yet, little data exist about the sink and source terms of the production and reduction of N2O outside the well-known oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we show the presence of functional marker genes for the reduction of N2O in the last step of the denitrification process (nitrous oxide reductase genes; nosZ) in oxygenated surface waters (180–250 O2 μmol.kg-1) in the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Overall copy numbers indicated that nosZ genes represented a significant proportion of the microbial community, which is unexpected in these oxygenated waters. Our data show strong temperature sensitivity for nosZ genes and reaction rates along a vast latitudinal gradient (32°S-12°S). These data suggest a large N2O sink in the warmer Tropical waters of the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Clone sequencing from PCR products revealed that most denitrification genes belonged to Rhodobacteraceae. Our work highlights the need to investigate the feedback and tight linkages between nitrification and denitrification (both sources of N2O, but the latter also a source of bioavailable N losses) in the understudied yet strategic Indian Ocean and other oligotrophic systems. PMID:26800249

  10. Health in south-eastern Europe: a troubled past, an uncertain future.

    PubMed Central

    Rechel, Bernd; Schwalbe, Nina; McKee, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The political and economic turmoil that occurred in south-eastern Europe in the last decade of the twentieth century left a legacy of physical damage. This aspect of the conflict has received considerable coverage in the media. However, surprisingly less has been reported about the effects of that turmoil on the health of the people living in the region. In an attempt to identify and synthesize data on these effects, we carried out a systematic review and used the results to put together a searchable online database of documents, reports, and published material, the majority of which have not previously been easily accessible (http:// www.lshtm.ac.uk/ecohost/see/index.php). The database covers the period from the early 1990s to 2003 and will be of considerable interest to policy-makers. It contains 762 items, many of them annotated and available for downloading. This paper synthesizes the main findings obtained from the material in the database and emphasizes the need for concerted action to improve the health of people in south-eastern Europe. Furthermore, we also recommend that agencies working in post-conflict situations should invest in developing and maintaining online databases that would be useful to others working in the area. PMID:15500286

  11. West Nile virus circulation in South-Eastern Romania, 2011 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Dinu, S; Cotar, A I; Pănculescu-Gătej, I R; Fălcuţă, E; Prioteasa, F L; Sîrbu, A; Oprişan, G; Bădescu, D; Reiter, P; Ceianu, C S

    2015-05-21

    Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV), previously found only in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, was identified in Hungary in 2004 and has rapidly expanded in Europe in the past decade. Following a significant outbreak of West Nile fever with neurological cases caused by lineage 1 WNV in Romania in 1996, scattered cases have been recorded in the south-east of the country in each transmission season. Another outbreak, affecting a larger area and caused by lineage 2 WNV, was recorded in 2010. We analysed human sera from neuroinvasive West Nile fever cases and mosquitoes, sampled in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013, for the presence of WNV genome, and obtained partial NS5 and envelope glycoprotein sequences. Human- and mosquito-derived WNV sequences were highly similar (99%) to Volgograd 2007 lineage 2 WNV and differed from isolates previously detected in central and southern Europe. WNV was detected in one pool of Culex pipiens s.l. males, documenting vertical transmission. Lineage 4 WNV, of unknown pathogenicity to mammals, was found in the amphibian-feeding mosquito Uranotaenia unguiculata from the Danube Delta. Our results present molecular evidence for the maintenance of the same isolates of Volgograd 2007-like lineage 2 WNV in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013.

  12. Modelling origin and transport fate of waste materials on the south-eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, M.; Janeković, I.

    2014-12-01

    The south-eastern parts of the Adriatic Sea coastline were severely polluted by large amounts of accumulated waste material in the second half of November 2010. The waste, reported by major news agencies, accumulated dominantly during 21 November 2010 by favourable wind - ocean current transport system. In the study we analysed meteorological and oceanographic conditions that lead to the waste deposition using available in situ measurements, remote sensing data as well numerical models of the ocean and the atmosphere. The measured data reveal that an intensive rainfall event from 7 till 10 November 2010, over the parts of Montenegro and Albania, was followed by a substantial increase of the river water levels indicating flash floods that possibly splashed the waste material into a river and after to the Adriatic Sea. In order to test our hypothesis we set a number of numerical drifter experiments with trajectories initiated off the coast of Albania during the intensive rainfall events following their faith in space and time. One of the numerical drifter trajectory experiment resulted with drifters reached right position (south-eastern Adriatic coast) and time (exactly by the time the waste was observed) when initiated on 00:00 and 12:00 UTC of 10 November 2010 during the mentioned flash flood event.

  13. Early winter mesozooplankton of the coastal south-eastern Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoretsky, Vladimir G.; Dvoretsky, Alexander G.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Barents Sea (Pechora Sea) is a little studied region of the Russian Arctic. We investigated mesozooplankton community of this area in early winter period for the first time. The study was based on collections performed with a Juday net (168 μm) in November 2010. Three types of stations differing in mesozooplankton composition and abundance were revealed by non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses. Taxa richness and diversity of the mesozooplankton were high. The total abundance and biomass varied from 931 to 4360 individuals m-3 and from 4.0 to 64.2 mg dry mass m-3, respectively. Maximum density of mesozooplankton was located in the hydrographical frontal zone where cold and warm waters interacted. Copepods dominated in terms of the total abundance. Abundances of major taxa were strongly correlated with environmental variables, of which temperature, salinity and depth were the most important. Previous studies showed that many mesozooplankton are in a dormant state during the Arctic winter from October to April. However, our investigation found young copepodites to be present for many of the common copepod species, which suggests successful reproduction of some opportunistic taxa (Pseudocalanus, Acartia, Temora, Oithona) and that the small copepod community was in an active phase. The main factor influencing possible development of the copepods in the south-eastern Barents Sea was river run-off which supplied plankton with detritus and suspended organic matter.

  14. Hand anthropometry survey of rural farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obi, Okey Francis

    2016-04-01

    The importance of hand anthropometry as it relates to design of hand tools particularly for farm workers have been established; however, anthropometric data for this group of agricultural workers have continued to remain scarce. A survey of hand anthropometry relevant in design of agricultural hand tools was carried out on 200 male and 100 female adult farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria. Comparison of the male and female data obtained showed that male dimensions were higher than that recorded for the females. The hand anthropometric data of the male and female farm workers were compared with that of other populations but no clear distinction was observed. It was however clear that the following hand dimensions, 2nd Joint to root digit 3 and width at tip digit 3 recorded for Nigerian farm workers were highest and lowest, respectively, compared to other populations. Practitioner Summary: Hand anthropometric data relevant in design of hand tools have continued to remain scarce particularly for farm workers. Hand anthropometry survey of farm workers carried out in south-eastern Nigeria revealed higher dimensions for males than females; however, no clear distinction was observed in comparison with other populations.

  15. Labor support: an overlooked maternal health need in Enugu, south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dim, Cyril C; Ikeme, Arthur C; Ezegwui, Hyginus U; Nwagha, Uchenna I

    2011-03-01

    The current call for continuous support by women for women during labor takes for granted that women prefer to be supported by other women rather than their husbands. This study aimed at identifying the experiences and preferences of parturients as regards support in labor. Questionnaires were administered to 395 parturients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, south-eastern Nigeria from January to August 2006. Data analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. None of the respondents' husband, relations or friends was allowed into the labor room. Ninety-five (24.1%) parturients did not wish to be supported in labor by their husbands. Sixty-five (68.4%) of this group preferred to be supported in labor by medical/midwifery staff only, while the remaining 30 (31.6%) would have preferred a relation. Three hundred (75.9%) parturients, if permitted, would have preferred labor support by their husbands. The preference for labor support by husband was significantly associated with maternal educational status (p=0.003), parity groups (p=0.022), and age category (p=0.037). Labor support by a non-medical employee of health institutions is not practiced in Enugu, south-eastern Nigeria. Most women would prefer to be supported by their husbands during labor. There is a strong desire by mothers for a policy change as regards labor support by family and friends.

  16. Climate factors affecting conception rate of high producing dairy cows in northeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F; Bech-Sabat, G; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J L; Nogareda, C; De Rensis, F; López-Béjar, M

    2007-05-01

    Summer heat stress is a main factor related to low conception rate in high producing dairy herds in warm areas worldwide. We assessed the impact of several climate variables on conception rate in high producing dairy cows in northeastern Spain by examining 10,964 inseminations. The temperature-humidity index (THI) was compared with maximum temperature in terms of its efficiency at predicting conception rate. The following data were recorded for each animal: herd, lactation number, insemination number, insemination date, inseminating bull, and AI technician along with climate variables such as mean and maximum temperatures, rainfall, mean and maximum THI for individual time points Days 7 to 1 before insemination, the day of insemination and 1, 2 and 3 days after insemination. Averages were also established for the following periods: from 7 days before insemination to the insemination day, from 3 days before insemination to the insemination day and from the insemination day to 3 days postinsemination. Based on the odds ratios, the likelihood of conception rate increased significantly by factors of 1.48, 1.47, 1.5, and 1.1 for the respective maximum THI classes <70, 71-75, 76-80, and 81-85 only on Day 3 before AI, while on the insemination day, it increased by factors of 1.73, 1.53, 1.11, and 1.3 for the respective maximum THI classes <70, 71-75, 76-80, and 81-85. In a subsequent logistic regression excluding mean and maximum THI, the effectiveness of temperature at predicting conception rate was evaluated. Although high, the fit of the second logistic regression model was slightly lower than that of the full model (P=0.88 versus P=0.98, respectively) and the information provided by the THI model. The likelihood of conception rate increased significantly by factors of 1.5, 1.2, 1.0, 1.0 for the respective maximum temperature classes <20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-35 degrees C on Day 1 after AI. The choice of the THI or temperature to monitor the farm environment would have to

  17. Hydroclimatic change driven by land-water-use developments:the case of transboundary Sava River Catchment, South Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Lea; Jaramillo, Fernando; Andričević, Roko; Destouni, Georgia

    2013-04-01

    Growing human demands for water, food and energy have led to extensive use and modification of world water bodies, for instance by construction of dams, reservoirs and channels for hydropower purposes. In this study we use the transboundary Sava River Catchment (SRC) in South Eastern Europe, as field case for investigating long-term hydroclimatic changes and their relation to regional hydropower and associated land-water-use developments. We find sustained increase in average annual evapotranspiration, and decrease in average annual runoff and temporal runoff variability as hydropower production increased in the SRC parts with the greatest such developments during the 20th century. Purely climate-driven estimates of change in evapotranspiration and runoff cannot capture these changes, which are apparently related to the land and water use changes associated with hydropower development. Direct comparisons with corresponding results from other world regions and global estimates show consistent cross-regional results, supporting generalization of obtained specific numerical results and the used analysis approach on different scales and across different parts of the world. With regard to specific results, the estimated average increase of actual evapotranspiration by hydropower-related/reflected land-water-use changes in SRC (sub)catchments with considerable hydropower development is 37 mm/year (for their average annual hydropower production of 217 MWh/km2). This result is for instance consistent with a corresponding estimate of evapotranspiration increase by Destouni et al (2012) of 57 mm/year (for their investigated Swedish hydropower catchments with average annual hydropower production of 322 MWh/km2). The SRC case study, of an area of recent political and social instability with less than ideal conditions regarding environmental monitoring, represents a methodological success by showing that, even in such a complicated part of the world, relevant data series can be

  18. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters.

  19. Body Size, Growth and Life Span: Implications for the Polewards Range Shift of Octopus tetricus in South-Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Jorge E.; Pecl, Gretta T.; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A.; Strugnell, Jan M.; León, Rafael I.; Semmens, Jayson M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters. PMID:25090250

  20. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in South-Eastern Nigeria; A 15 Years Histopathologic Review (2000-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Ukekwe, FI; Olusina, DB; Banjo, AAF; Akinde, OR; Nzegwu, MA; Okafor, OC; Ocheni, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic has brought about a resurgence in tuberculosis (TB), especially in developing countries. Previous studies on TB lymphadenitis (TBLN) in South-Eastern Nigeria were done before the advent of the HIV pandemic making a review pertinent. Aim: To evaluate the role of TBLN as a cause of superficial lymphadenopathy in the post-HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) era of South-Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a 15 years (2000-2014) retrospective review of all superficial lymph node biopsies (SLNBs) received at the Department of Morbid Anatomy, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla Enugu, Nigeria. Results: One hundred and seventy-two cases of TBLN were identified in this study constituting 14.6% (172/1,180) of SLNBs received at our Hospital's Morbid Anatomy Department during the 15 years period under review. Twenty-eight cases of TBLN were clinically screened for HIV, 23 of which tested positive, representing 82.1% (23/28) of clinically screened cases. Acid fast bacilli demonstration was positive in 15.1% (26/172) of cases using Ziehl-Neelsen stain. 48.8% (84/172) of TBLN cases were males, and 51.2% (88/172) were females with most (22) cases received in 2012 and least (5) cases in 2000. Most TBLN occurred in the 21-25 years age group with a total of 21.5% (37/172) of cases and a male to female ratio of 1:1.5 The most common biopsy site for TBLN was the cervical group followed by the axillary and inguinal groups with 73.8% (127/172), 14% (24/172), and 4.7% (8/172) of cases, respectively. Conclusions: There is a remarkable decline in the prevalence of TB lymphadenitis in South-Eastern Nigeria indicating a change in trend from the pre- to the post-HIV/AIDS era with slightly more females now presenting with TBLN and most TB lymphadenitis patients now presenting with associated HIV/AIDS disease. There is an urgent need to provide modern diagnostic facilities in our medical

  1. Climate change adaptation via targeted ecosystem service provision: a sustainable land management strategy for the Segura catchment (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagaria, Cecilia; de Vente, Joris; Perez-Cutillas, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Topical research investigating climate, land-use and management scenarios in the Segura catchment (SE Spain), depicts a landscape at high-risk of, quite literally, deserting agriculture. Land degradation in the semi-arid region of SE Spain is characterized by water shortage, high erosion rates and salinization, increasingly exacerbated by climatic changes, scarce vegetation cover and detrimental farming practices. Future climate scenarios predict increases in aridity, variability and intensity of rainfall events, leading to increasing pressure on scarce soil and water resources. This study conceptualized the impending crisis of agro-ecological systems of the Segura basin (18800 km2) as a crisis of ecosystem service deterioration. In light of existing land degradation drivers and future climate scenarios, the potential of Sustainable Land Management (SLM) strategies was evaluated to target three priority ecosystem services (water provision, sediment retention and carbon sequestration) as a means to achieve climate change adaptation and mitigation. A preceding thorough process of stakeholder engagement (as part of the EU funded DESIRE project) indicated five SLM technologies for potential implementation, all with a focus upon reducing soil erosion, increasing soil water holding capacity and soil organic matter content. These technologies have been tested for over four years in local experimental field plots, and have provided results on the local effects upon individual environmental parameters. Despite the growing emphasis witnessed in literature upon the context-specificity which characterizes adaptation solutions, the frequent analysis at the field scale is limited in both scope and utility. There is a need to investigate the effects of adaptive SLM solutions at wider, regional scales. Thus, this study modeled the cumulative effect of each of the five selected SLM technologies with InVEST, a spatial analyst tool designed for ecosystem service quantification and

  2. Sexual and Alcohol Risk Behaviours of Immigrant Latino Men in the South-eastern USA

    PubMed Central

    RHODES, SCOTT D.; HERGENRATHER, KENNETH C.; GRIFFITH, DEREK; YEE, LELAND J.; ZOMETA, CARLOS S.; MONTAÑO, JAIME; VISSMAN, ARRON T.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the intersections of immigration, masculinity, and sexual risk behaviours among recently arrived Latino men in the United States (USA). Nine immigrant Latino men from three urban housing communities in the South-eastern USA used photovoice to identify and explore their lived experiences. From the participants’ photographs and words, thirteen themes emerged within four domains. The immigration experience and sociocultural norms and expectations of masculinity were factors identified decreasing Latino men’s sense of power and increasing stress, which lead to sexual risk. Latino community strengths and general community strengths were factors that participants identified as promoting health and preventing risk. These themes influenced the development of a conceptual model to explain risk among immigrant Latino men. This model requires further exploration and may prove useful in intervention development. PMID:19234948

  3. A new blind snake (Serpentes: Typhlopidae) from an endangered habitat in south-eastern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Venchi, Alberto; Wilson, Steve K; Borsboom, Adrian C

    2015-07-24

    A new species of blind snake is described from south-eastern Queensland, eastern Australia. Anilios insperatus sp. nov. differs from all of its congeners in having:16 scales around the body; 442 paravertebral scales; snout slightly trilobed from above and bluntly angular in profile; small, inconspicuous eyes, located within the ocular scale at its junction with the preocular and the supraocular scales; and uniform light colouration. The unique specimen was collected from pasture that was formally Queensland regional ecosystem 12.8.24, a eucalypt dominated ecosystem currently listed as endangered. The site is less than 100 km from Queensland's capital, Brisbane. Given the locality, habitat and absence of additional specimens, the species is probably of conservation concern.

  4. Sexual and alcohol risk behaviours of immigrant Latino men in the South-eastern USA.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Griffith, Derek M; Yee, Leland J; Zometa, Carlos S; Montaño, Jaime; Vissman, Aaron T

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the intersections of immigration, masculinity and sexual risk behaviours among recently arrived Latino men in the USA. Nine immigrant Latino men from three urban housing communities in the South-eastern USA used photovoice to identify and explore their lived experiences. From the participants' photographs and words, thirteen themes emerged within four domains. The immigration experience and sociocultural norms and expectations of masculinity were factors identified decreasing Latino men's sense of power and increasing stress, which lead to sexual risk. Latino community strengths and general community strengths were factors that participants identified as promoting health and preventing risk. These themes influenced the development of a conceptual model to explain risk among immigrant Latino men. This model requires further exploration and may prove useful in intervention development.

  5. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in the South-Eastern Europe Health Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojiljkovic, Djorde; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods: Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former…

  6. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in the South-Eastern Europe Health Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojiljkovic, Djorde; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods: Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former…

  7. Accessing Parental Perspectives to Inform the Development of Parent Training in Autism in South-Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, David; Symeou, Loizos; Stošic, Jasmina; Troshanska, Jasmina; Mavrou, Katerina; Theodorou, Eleni; Frey Škrinjar, Jasmina

    2017-01-01

    Parent training has been shown to be an important means of supporting families living with autism--but such services are not universally accessible. A multinational project funded by the European Commission has been developed in order to establish such parent training in three south-eastern European countries. To ensure that the training was…

  8. Overcoming scepticism: Interacting influences of geographical location on perceived climate change adaptation measures to water resources in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Bardaji, Isabel; Iglesias, Pedro; Granados, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    Though many climate adaptation efforts attempt to be defined with the participation of local communities, these strategies may be ineffective because among citizens affected equally, a local risk perception rather than scientific understanding largely drives adaptation choices. Further, the geographical location may polarize climate risk perceptions, making some adaptation efforts ineffective among sceptics. This study examines how the local degradation of the environment and water resources relates to adaption choices and in turn, climate change risk perception among a range of citizens in the Tagus basin, Spain (n = 300). We find respondents of less degraded areas have individualistic responses, and are significantly less likely to accept adaptation strategies than respondents in water stressed communities. The interaction between climate knowledge and adaptation choices is positively related to acceptance of adaptation choices in both groups, and had a stronger positive relationship among individualists. There is no statistical difference in acceptance of adaptation between individualists and communitarians at high levels of knowledge (top decile). Thus, education efforts specific to climate change may counteract divisions based geographical location and environmental stress.

  9. Background concentrations and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in south-eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestenius, Mika; Leppänen, Sirkka; Anttila, Pia; Kyllönen, Katriina; Hatakka, Juha; Hellén, Heidi; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Hakola, Hannele

    2011-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compounds) were measured in the PM 10 fraction [from ambient air] at Virolahti, Finland. The sampling site is located in a rural area in the south-eastern corner of Finland, near the Russian border. Altogether, 51 daily and 85 weekly filter samples were collected in 2007-2008. The yearly average concentration of benzo(a)pyrene at Virolahti in 2007 was 0.21 ng m -3, which is well below the annual target value of 1 ng m -3 set by the European Union. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied in source apportionment for daily PAH data combined with other pollutant data. A three-factor solution of the PMF analysis with 28 components was chosen. These three factors were identified as long-range transported secondary particles (F1), combustion (F2) and a sea-salt factor (F3). The conditional probability function (CPF) was used to combine wind direction sectors with the PMF factors. In cases F1 and F2, pollutants mainly originated from the south-east, whereas pollutants in F3 came from the south-western sector. PAHs entered into the combustion factor 2 together with SO 2, NO x, black carbon and potassium. This suggests that the PAHs at Virolahti originated from traffic and industrial pollution, as well as biomass burning. Elevated concentrations occurred throughout the winter period and most frequently originated from the south-eastern sector between 90°-135°. This sector includes, among other transboundary areas, the metropolis of St. Petersburg at a distance of 160 km.

  10. Concurrent validation of two key health literacy instruments in a South Eastern European population.

    PubMed

    Toçi, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Sørensen, Kristine; Kamberi, Haxhi; Brand, Helmut

    2015-06-01

    Public health practice has come to increasing recognition of health promotion and the central role of knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices in achieving health promotion. Health literacy (HL) is an under-explored topic in South Eastern European countries. There are no HL reports from Albania to date. The aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q) and the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in a population-based sample of adults in Albania. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Tirana, Albania, including 239 individuals aged ≥ 18 years (61% women; 87% response). A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was applied twice (test and retest procedure after 2 weeks) including HLS-EU-Q and TOFHLA instruments. The internal consistency was high for both instruments (Cronbach's alpha for the test procedure was 0.92 for TOFHLA and 0.98 for HLS-EU-Q). Both tools exhibited a high stability over time (Spearman's rho: 0.88 for TOFHLA and 0.87 for HLS-EU). Mean values of both instruments were similar in men and women (mean score for TOFHLA: 76.0 vs. 76.5, P = 0.83; mean score for HLS-EU-Q: 32.2 vs. 32.6, P = 0.63). For both instruments, higher HL scores were significantly associated with younger age, higher educational and economic level and lower body mass index. Our study provides valuable novel evidence on concurrent validation of two major HL instruments in a South Eastern European population-based sample. Future studies should be conducted in order to confirm and expand our findings. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Common geriatric emergencies in a rural hospital in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iloh, Gup; Amadi, A N; Awa-Madu, J

    2012-01-01

    Geriatric population in rural Nigeria is often challenged by emergency health conditions that predispose them to higher risk of disability and mortality. This study was aimed at describing the common geriatric emergencies in a rural hospital in South-Eastern Nigeria. This was a descriptive hospital-based study of 216 geriatric patients who presented between June 2008 and June 2011 with emergency health conditions at St Vincent De Paul hospital, Amurie-Omanze, a rural Mission General Hospital in Imo state, South-Eastern Nigeria. The geriatric patients seen within the study period who met the selection criteria were studied. Data extracted for analysis included biodata and diagnosis made. A total of 216 geriatric emergencies were seen during the study period. The ages of the patients ranged from 65 years to 98 years with mean age of 72 ± 1.14 years. There were 94 males and 122 females with a male to female ratio of 1: 1.3. The three most common causes of geriatric emergencies were acute malaria (33.8%), hypertensive crises syndrome (19.0%), and acute hypertensive heart failure (18.1%). This study has shown that the three most common geriatric emergencies were medical emergencies (acute malaria, hypertensive crises syndrome, and acute hypertensive heart failure). Improving the quality of geriatric medical care will help in reduction of these emergency medical conditions. Similarly, health education of the geriatric population to embrace early health-seeking behavior, health maintenance, and promotional practices that are needed to promote longevity is invariably advocated.

  12. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: the case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Baró, Francesc; Chaparro, Lydia; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Langemeyer, Johannes; Nowak, David J; Terradas, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change mitigation in the municipality of Barcelona, Spain. We apply the i-Tree Eco model to quantify in biophysical and monetary terms the ecosystem services "air purification," "global climate regulation," and the ecosystem disservice "air pollution" associated with biogenic emissions. Our results show that the contribution of urban forests regulating services to abate pollution is substantial in absolute terms, yet modest when compared to overall city levels of air pollution and GHG emissions. We conclude that in order to be effective, green infrastructure-based efforts to offset urban pollution at the municipal level have to be coordinated with territorial policies at broader spatial scales.

  13. [Communication, participation and leadership in the perception of the emotional climate in a university hospital in Andalusia, Spain].

    PubMed

    Danet, Alina; March, Joan Carles; Romera, Inmaculada García

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and analyze perceptions and opinions among health professionals in a university hospital in Andalusia, Spain, regarding the emotional climate, leadership style, quality of information, and internal communication. The study also aimed to collect health professionals' suggestions for improving these workplace characteristics. The study included 730 participants and used a quantitative and qualitative methodology. The results reflect a medium-to-low level of emotional climate, correlated with the leadership style and information and internal communication. Statistically significant differences appeared when comparing professional categories and hospital units. The health professionals provided a positive assessment of the administrators' work, although requiring more task-oriented, participative, and affiliative leadership skills.

  14. Extending to seasonal scales the current usage of short range weather forecasts and climate projections for water management in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Camino, Ernesto; Voces, José; Sánchez, Eroteida; Navascues, Beatriz; Pouget, Laurent; Roldan, Tamara; Gómez, Manuel; Cabello, Angels; Comas, Pau; Pastor, Fernando; Concepción García-Gómez, M.°; José Gil, Juan; Gil, Delfina; Galván, Rogelio; Solera, Abel

    2016-04-01

    This presentation, first, briefly describes the current use of weather forecasts and climate projections delivered by AEMET for water management in Spain. The potential use of seasonal climate predictions for water -in particular dams- management is then discussed more in-depth, using a pilot experience carried out by a multidisciplinary group coordinated by AEMET and DG for Water of Spain. This initiative is being developed in the framework of the national implementation of the GFCS and the European project, EUPORIAS. Among the main components of this experience there are meteorological and hydrological observations, and an empirical seasonal forecasting technique that provides an ensemble of water reservoir inflows. These forecasted inflows feed a prediction model for the dam state that has been adapted for this purpose. The full system is being tested retrospectively, over several decades, for selected water reservoirs located in different Spanish river basins. The assessment includes an objective verification of the probabilistic seasonal forecasts using standard metrics, and the evaluation of the potential social and economic benefits, with special attention to drought and flooding conditions. The methodology of implementation of these seasonal predictions in the decision making process is being developed in close collaboration with final users participating in this pilot experience.

  15. Climate change and outbreaks of amphibian chytridiomycosis in a montane area of Central Spain; is there a link?

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Jaime; Carrascal, Luís M; Durán, Luis; Walker, Susan; Fisher, Matthew C

    2006-01-01

    Amphibian species are declining at an alarming rate on a global scale in large part owing to an infectious disease caused by the chytridiomycete fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. This disease of amphibians has recently emerged within Europe, but knowledge of its effects on amphibian assemblages remains poor. Importantly, little is known about the environmental envelope that is associated with chytridiomycosis in Europe and the potential for climate change to drive future disease dynamics. Here, we use long-term observations on amphibian population dynamics in the Peñalara Natural Park, Spain, to investigate the link between climate change and chytridiomycosis. Our analysis shows a significant association between change in local climatic variables and the occurrence of chytridiomycosis within this region. Specifically, we show that rising temperature is linked to the occurrence of chytrid-related disease, consistent with the chytrid-thermal-optimum hypothesis. We show that these local variables are driven by general circulation patterns, principally the North Atlantic Oscillation. Given that B. dendrobatidis is known to be broadly distributed across Europe, there is now an urgent need to assess the generality of our finding and determine whether climate-driven epidemics may be expected to impact on amphibian species across the wider region. PMID:17148254

  16. Climate change and drought effects on rural income distribution in the Mediterranean: a case study for Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, S.; Suárez, C.

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the effects of climate change and drought on agricultural outputs in Spanish rural areas. By now the effects of drought as a response to climate change or policy restrictions have been analyzed through response functions considering direct effects on crop productivity and incomes. These changes also affect incomes distribution in the region and therefore modify the social structure. Here we consider this complementary indirect effect on social distribution of incomes which is essential in the long term. We estimate crop production functions for a range of Mediterranean crops in Spain and we use a decomposition of inequalities measure to estimate the impact of climate change and drought on yield disparities. This social aspect is important for climate change policies since it can be determinant for the public acceptance of certain adaptation measures in a context of drought. We provide the empirical estimations for the marginal effects of the two considered impacts: farms' income average and social income distribution. In our estimates we consider crop productivity response to both bio-physical and socio-economic aspects to analyze long term implications on both competitiveness and social disparities. We find disparities in the adaptation priorities depending on the crop and the region analyzed.

  17. Climate and prevalence of atopic eczema in 6- to 7-year-old school children in Spain. ISAAC PhASE III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Varela, María Morales; García-Marcos Alvarez, Luís; Kogan, Michael D.; González, Agustín Llopis; Gimeno, Antonio Martínez; Ontoso, Inés Aguinaga; Díaz, Carlos González; Pena, Alberto Arnedo; Aurrecoechea, Begoña Domínguez; Monge, Rosa María Busquets; Quiros, Alfredo Blanco; Garrido, José Batlles; Canflanca, Iñaqui Miner; Varela, Ángel López-Silvarrey

    2008-11-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic skin disease. Recent reports indicate that the worldwide prevalence of AE is increasing and that various environmental factors are implicated in its aetiology. Climatic conditions have been related with AE prevalence, and Spain has varying climatic conditions. The aim of this study is to document the possible climatic influence on the prevalence of AE in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years in three different climatic regions in Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based survey of 28,394 schoolchildren aged 6-7 years from 10 Spanish centres in three different climatic regions. The mean participation rate was 76.5%. AE prevalence was assessed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and the Spanish Academy of Dermatology criteria used in Spain to diagnose AE. The data, including annual temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and the annual number of sunny hours per climatic region, were obtained from the Spanish National Institute of Meteorology. Different AE prevalences were found in all three climatic regions studied: Atlantic, 32.9; Mediterranean 28.3; and Continental 31.2 per 100 children studied ( p < 0.005). AE was positively associated with precipitation and humidity, and was negatively associated with temperature and the number of sunny hours. The results show that AE is significantly dependent on meteorological conditions.

  18. Phosphorus monthly losses at the outlet of an agroforestry catchment under Atlantic climate (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sande-Fouz, Patricia; Miras-Avalos, Jose Manuel; Mestas-Valero, Roger Manuel; Vidal-Vázquez, Eva

    2010-05-01

    Phosphorus levels in runoff waters help to estimate the possible contamination associated with them and to know the existence of eutrophication conditions. The amounts of P transported from catchments depended on the hydrology, on soil P contents, and on the amount of P added as fertilizer and manure. The aim of this study was to monthly losses of total P (TP), sedimentary P (TSP), and dissolved P (TDP) at the outlet of an agroforestry catchment under Atlantic climate. This research was conducted at Valiñas River catchment in Coruña (NW Spain), a periurban area of 36.3 km2. Land use is as follows: 35% arable land, 20% grassland or pastures and 45% forest. This study reported data from January 1999 to September 2006. The total sample number was 872, varying from 53 in 1999 and 193 in 2003. Sampling time variability was related to rainfall distribution. The different P forms, TP and TDP, were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The TSP was calculated from the difference between TP and TDP. To calculate the mass balance of these P forms, discharge data at the catchment outlet were estimated. Suspended solids were assessed by filtration. Relations between the three P forms and suspended solids were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The concentrations of the three studied P forms varied widely during the whole study period. Total P yearly losses ranged from 0.350 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2004 to 1.199 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2000. From January to September 2006 they were 0.259 kg ha-1 month-1. TSP losses varied between 0.201 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2004 and 0.7315 kg ha-1 month-1 in 1999. Finally, TDP losses oscillated between 0.140 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2005 and 0.508 kg ha-1 month-1 in 2000. The main causes for these variations were rainfall and flow regimes, soil management, and wastewater discharges. Considering the different seasons, flow regime was low from July to September during the studied years, whereas the highest flows

  19. Holocene denudation pattern across the South-Eastern Australian Escarpment and implications for its evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, Vincent; Dosseto, Anthony; Bellier, Olivier; Bourlès, Didier; Fleury, Jules; Aster Team

    2016-04-01

    Developing a process based understanding of continental relief evolution requires to quantify rates of denudation and to compare their distribution with the evolution of geomorphic parameters. The analysis of denudation and exhumation spatial patterns based from cosmogenic nuclides and low temperature thermochronology are routinely used to document the processes associated with the geomorphic evolution of continental relief over various timescales. Passive margin escarpments are among some of the most salient continental geomorphic features outside of orogenic areas. Their evolution have been studied intensively over the long-term (several Ma to tens of Ma), using for example low-temperature thermochronology. However, datasets documenting their shorter-term (1-10 ka) dynamics are scarcer, and only a limited number of case studies have used quantitative techniques such as cosmogenic nuclides to document the denudation pattern across such escarpments. The South Eastern Australian Escarpment is such a place where cosmogenic nuclides have been intensively used over the last two decades to constrain processes of landscape evolution over short wavelength, with, for example the calibration of the soil production function. Such existing data and constraints provide an ideal setting to carry on further long-wavelength exploration of the dynamics of the whole escarpment. We have sampled 17 catchments across the South Eastern Australian Escarpment, starting from the coastal plain and moving westward up to the low relief plateau surface. The observed landscape denudation rates are 10-20 mm/ka in the coastal area and progressively increases up to ~60 mm/ka toward the edge of the escarpment. In the low-relief areas located west of the continental drainage divide denudation rates fall back to 10-20 mm/ka. This nearly four-fold contrast in denudation across the divide is characteristic of a major disequilibrium in the dynamics of the river network associated with a progressive

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy in South-Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onwuka, Chidinma Ifechi; Dim, Cyril Chukwudi; Menuba, Ifeanyi Emmanuel; Iloghalu, Emeka Ifeanyi; Onwuka, Chidozie Ifechi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a major public health problem because of the enormous deleterious effects on a developing fetus. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is among the highest per capita rates of alcohol consumption in the world, thus suggesting a high burden of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder (FASD) in the sub-region. Despite this, there is limited data on alcohol exposed pregnancies for most SSA countries including Nigeria. Aim To determine the prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional study of 380 consecutive consenting parturients accessing antenatal care at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. The information sought for, included the women’s socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use in pregnancy, awareness of the harmful effects of alcohol on the babies including FASD, sources of initial information on awareness, type and quantity of alcohol ingested, reasons for taking alcohol and willingness to stop alcohol ingestion in pregnancy after counseling on the risk of alcohol use in pregnancy. Statistical analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The prevalence of alcohol consumption in pregnancy was 22.6%. The most common brand of alcoholic beverage consumed was stout beer (62.8%, 54/86). A total of 135 (35.5%) respondents were aware that alcohol is harmful to the fetus. Maternal age 30 years or less, nulliparity, less than tertiary education, pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption and lack of awareness of the harmful effect of alcohol on the fetus, were associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy (p< 0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among women in Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria is high and lack of awareness of harmful effect of alcohol on fetus was a major

  1. Late Holocene paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic evolution at Elaiussa Sebaste archeological area (South-Eastern Turkey): preliminary results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Romana; Bernasconi, Maria Pia; Colizza, Ester; Di Rita, Federico; Equini Schneider, Eugenia; Montenegro, Maria Eugenia; Pugliese, Nevio

    2013-04-01

    Geological disciplines are increasingly applied to archaeological research. Their potentialities are able to cover numerous fields of research, since they can become very interesting tools to define the ancient environments, the origin of the human settlements and the natural and anthropic processes which occurred through the evolution of the territory. Elaiussa Sebaste (Mersin region, South-Eastern coast of the Turkey), which was an important coastal town from the II century BC to VII century AD, may represent a noteworthy field of application of geological disciplines. This site was one of the main trading harbours of the Mediterranean (from the Augustan to the Byzantine era) growing in the Augustan period and maintaining its prestige until the late Empire and the Byzantine era. Actually it was the intersection of the most important shipping and land routes among Syria, Egypt and the Anatolian peninsula. The evolution of the coastal environment around this town has been continuously modified by men along its history. The most evident modification occurred North and South the promontory of Elaiussa-Sebaste bay, i.e. the construction of two harbours, which have been subsequently buried by not well defined events. The definition of the geological processes controlling the evolution of the coastal area during the last 3000 years, should become essential to reconstruct the succession of the palaeoenvironments of Elaiussa Sebaste, including the decline of the harbours. With regard to this topic, the geomorphologic analysis reveals the complex interactions among tectonics, erosion and sedimentation in this coastal area in both, emerged and in ancient times submerged settings facing the archaeological site. During the summer 2012, a geological survey allowed us to drill nine boreholes along the land-to-sea transects in both harbours. Preliminary observations indicate the stratigraphic evolution from restricted to open marine coastal environments. Sedimentology

  2. Using MicroLEIS DSS to evaluate climate change impacts on land suitability in Andalusia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh; Anaya-Romero, María; Jordán, Antonio; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; de la Rosa, Diego

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the effects of climate change on land suitability for crop production has become an important issue with respect to food security in areas undergoing increasing population sizes. Land suitability for six common Mediterranean crops was evaluated under current conditions and future climate change scenario. This evaluation was performed using the Agro-ecological Decision Support System Micro LEIS (MicroLEIS DSS) through the application of Terraza and Cervatana models. Terraza model provides an experimental prediction for the bioclimatic deficiency in the 62 natural regions that represent the Andalusia region. This model is dependent on current climate data, future climate change scenario data, and crop response data including coefficient of photosynthetic efficacy (Kc), coefficient of efficiency (Ky), and soil water retention. Alternatively, the Cervatana model is used to estimate agricultural land use capability under different soil types. Soil morphological and analytical data were collected from SEISnet data base representative of the natural region (NUTS 2) of Andalusia by 62 soil profiles. Agro-climatic data, referred to temperature and precipitation were obtained from the CDBm-Andalusia database, which contains monthly average values of climate variables: mean temperature, maximum and minimum rainfall, number of days of rain and humidity, collected during a consecutive period of 30 years (1960-1990), that represent the current climate scenario. Future climate is represented under A1B scenario for theperiods 2040, 2070 and 2100. These scenarios have been calculated using climate change variation values from the State Meteorological Agency (AEMET, 2011). The results of the Cervatana model depends on Terraza output results (e.g. water deficit class and the risk of frost class) and other land properties including soil factors, slope factors, and erosion risk factors. In order to spatialize the evaluation data, both models were incorporated into a

  3. Recent slowdown and thinning of debris-covered glaciers in south-eastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neckel, Niklas; Loibl, David; Rankl, Melanie

    2017-04-01

    Recent large-scale remote sensing studies have shown that glacier mass loss in south-eastern Tibet, specifically in the eastern Nyainqêntanglha Range exceeds the average in High Asia. However, detailed studies at individual glaciers are scarce and the drivers behind the observed changes are poorly constrained to date. Employing feature tracking techniques on TerraSAR-X data for the periods 2008/2009, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 we found measurable surface velocities through to the glacier terminus positions of five debris-covered glacier tongues. This is contrary to debris-covered glaciers in other parts of High Asia, where stagnant glacier tongues are common. Our feature tracking results for the 2013/2014 period suggest an average deceleration of 51% when compared with published Landsat velocities for the period 1999/2003. Further, we estimated surface elevation changes for the five glaciers from recently released one arc second resolution elevation data obtained during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission in 2000 and an interferometrical derived TanDEM-X elevation model for the year 2014. With an average rate of -0.83 ± 0.57 m a-1 we confirm strong surface lowering in the region, despite the widely discussed insulation effect of debris cover. Beside the influence of thermokarst processes and delayed response times of debris-covered glaciers, we highlight that abundant monsoonal summer rainfall might contribute significantly to the pronounced negative mass balances in the study region.

  4. How Local Landholder Groups Collectively Manage Weeds in South-Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sonia; Rogers, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    For two decades researchers and policy makers have been arguing that community-based collective action is needed to effectively control weeds. Yet there has been little social research into the ways that collective weed control emerges at local scales. The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanisms through which three local landholder groups in south-eastern Australia collectively manage weeds and the measures they use to evaluate success. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of three Landcare groups-Jerrawa Creek/Upper Lachlan, MacLaughlin River and Towamba Valley-as well as government staff external to the groups. The results reveal that for all three groups collective weed control is about supporting individual weed control efforts as well as proactively engaging landholders with the worst infestations. The groups were seen to be successful because they focused on the common challenge that weeds pose to all landholders, thereby removing the shame associated with having weeds, and because they organised community events that were as much about building and maintaining social relationships as improving weed control. Groups were positive about what they had achieved as collectives of landholders, but also saw an important role for government in providing funding, engaging with landholders who were unwilling to engage directly with the group, and controlling weeds on public lands.

  5. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Murad, A; Zhou, X D; Yi, P; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Hou, X L; Yu, Z B

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, 67 wells in Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as two wells and one spring in Oman. The results show a wide gross-α and gross-β activities range in the groundwater samples that vary at 0.01∼19.5 Bq/l and 0.13∼6.6 Bq/l, respectively. The data show gross-β and gross-α values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use of the groundwater in regions that show radioactivity values far above the WHO permissible limit for drinking water.

  6. Building links between town and gown: an innovative organisation in south-eastern Melbourne.

    PubMed

    Advocat, Jenny; Russell, Grant; Mathews, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Primary care is the foundation of a nation's health care system. Real world research is a requirement of a health system built to deliver the benefits of a strong primary care community. In the last decade, new approaches to optimising the impact of research on practice and policy have been formulated across disciplines. However, in Australia, the primary care research community remains small and primary care researchers are not well represented in either receiving support for or governing research. While practice-based research networks (PBRNs) have brought GPs and, sometimes, other clinicians together with academics, few have managed to bring local decision makers and other primary health care stakeholders into partnerships where they can work together on common problems. This paper outlines a novel three-way partnership between a health authority, a primary care organisation and a university in the south-eastern suburbs of Melbourne. A case study was undertaken based on author experience of the Southern Academic Primary Care Research Unit (SAPCRU) and semi-structured interviews with representatives from partner organisations. Interviews elicited perceived barriers and facilitators, including complex financial, human resources and governance challenges, associated with bridging the gap between research and practice. It was found that SAPCRU has been successful in engaging with research partners and has begun to develop links with policy makers and orient research themes to the needs of its varied communities. Especially with the introduction of Primary Health Networks (PHNs), the model has the potential to translate to different settings but barriers should be noted.

  7. [Physicians and occupational health: a qualitative study in south-eastern France].

    PubMed

    Saliba, M-L; Iarmarcovai, G; Souville, M; Viau, A; Arnaud, S; Verger, P

    2007-10-01

    Occupational health is a major public health problem in France. However, the level of investment of general practitioners and specialist physicians in this field is not well documented. We aimed at studying elements moving closer or differentiating groups of professionals (notably physicians) in the field of occupational health in terms of conceptions of their roles (prevention and care) and of practices (in particular detection and notification of occupational diseases and perceived barriers). We conducted a qualitative study in south-eastern France which consisted of in-depth interviews of physicians and actors involved in the prevention of occupational hazards or in their indemnification. Then discourse analysis was carried out on the corpus collected. Content analysis grouped the data into themes. Several reasons could explain the low investment of physicians in the field of occupational health: insufficient detection of occupational causes of diseases, complexity of administrative procedures of declaration and bias of causal interpretation for the patients exposed to other risk factors such as smoking. The fear that notifying an occupational disease might have repercussions on patients' socio-professional situations places physicians in a situation of ethical dilemma: inducing a social risk on one side, ignoring his rights on the other. Physicians are not sufficiently prepared to deal with these situations, because they lack appropriate knowledge and support from specialists in the field, due to an important bulk-heading of actors and their practices. To sensitize and train physicians to occupational health and to support multi-field practices are essential.

  8. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Jiangxi province, South-Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H H; Huang, S Y; Zhang, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, C M; Deng, S Z; Zhu, X Q

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative obligate bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by pigs, a total of 920 serum samples were collected from pigs in 11 administrative cities in Jiangxi province, south-eastern China, and the seroprevalence of Chlamydia antibodies was investigated by an indirect haemagglutination assay. The pathogen-specific antibodies were detected in 539 (58.59 %) pigs with seroprevalence ranging from 33.33 % (Jingdezhen) to 90.91 % (Pingxiang) among different cities (P<0.05). The highest prevalence was found in pregnant sows (80.89 %, 127/157), followed by breeding boars (79.37 %, 50/63), suckling sows (77.01 %, 67/87), fattening pigs (69.32 %, 61/88) and non-pregnant sows (62.5 %, 180/288). Piglets had the lowest prevalence of 22.78 % (54/237). The seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection among different categories of pigs was also significantly different (P<0.05). These results indicate that Chlamydia is highly prevalent in pigs in Jiangxi province and our results indicate that the presence of Chlamydia exposure in pigs may pose a potential threat to human health.

  9. Environmental determinants of the distribution of Chagas disease vectors in south-eastern Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Dulce Maria; Monroy, Maria Carlota; Rodas, Antonieta Guadalupe; Juarez, Jaime Abraham; Malone, John B

    2007-05-01

    The associations between the presence of triatomines and environmental variables were studied using correlation analysis and logistic regression models for a sample of villages in the south-eastern provinces of Guatemala. Information on the presence of Triatoma dimidiata, T. nitida and Rhodnius prolixus came from entomological surveys carried out by the Ministry of Health of Guatemala as part of its vector control programme. Environmental information for each village was extracted from digital thematic maps developed by the Ministry of Agriculture. The presence of T. nitida was found to be significantly associated with the average minimum temperature. The odds of presence of T. nitida in a village decreased as the average minimum temperature increased. T. nitida exists at altitudes above 1000 m above sea level in temperate regions. The presence of R. prolixus showed a significant positive association with maximum absolute temperature and relative humidity. The logistic regression model for R. prolixus showed a good fit and predicted suitable habitats in the provinces of Chiquimula, Zacapa and Jalapa, which agrees with the known distribution of the species. Habitat partitioning between R. prolixus and T. dimidiata is suggested by their significant and opposite associations with maximum absolute temperature. Improved models to predict suitable habitats for T. dimidiata hold promise for spatial targeting of integrated vector management.

  10. Trace fossil assemblages in the tide-dominated estuarine system: Ameki Group, south-eastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekwenye, O. C.; Nichols, G.; Okogbue, C. O.; Mode, A. W.

    2016-06-01

    A systematic ichnological analysis with sedimentological study of the Eocene Ameki Group in south-eastern Nigeria, was conducted to infer depositional and biogenic processes operating during basin fill, identify discontinuities using substrate controlled ichnofacies, and identify the paleocological conditions that affected the diversity of the trace fossils. The Ameki Group represents a tide-dominated estuarine system characterised by a range of trace fossils assemblages. Eighteen individual ichnogenera and nineteen ichnospecies observed in the study area, were grouped into six recurring ichnofacies namely Scoyenia, Psilonichnus, Skolithos, Cruziana, Glossifungites and Teredolites. Skolithos and Cruziana ichnofacies are predominant in the estuarine deposits indicating that the sedimentary successions of the Eocene are dominantly of moderate to high energy marginal marine environments. The estuarine deposits (senus stricto) were controlled by low to fluctuating salinity levels, high sedimentation rate and fluctuating hydrodynamic energy. These resulted in the occurrence of low diversity of Scoyenia and Teredolites ichnofacies and low to moderate ichnodiversity of mixed Skolithos and depauperate Cruziana ichnofacies. Low levels of dissolved oxygen in quiescent water-embayment (open estuarine) resulted in low diversity of impoverished Cruziana ichnofacies. Glossifungites ichnofacies marked an amalgamated sequence boundary/marine flooding and an initial flooding surface at the base of the tidally influenced fluvial deposits.

  11. Copro-PCR prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs in Kerman, south-eastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirbadie, S R; Kamyabi, H; Mohammadi, M A; Shamsaddini, S; Harandi, M F

    2017-01-30

    The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of taeniid parasites and the specific detection of Echinococcus granulosus using copro-DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in the stray dogs of Kerman, south-eastern Iran. From September 2013 to May 2014, faecal samples of stray dogs were collected from different parts of the city of Kerman and its suburbs. Faecal samples from dogs were collected randomly within 24 h of defecation. All samples were transferred to the research lab and coprological examinations were conducted by the formalin-ether concentration method. In the microscopically positive samples, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) specific primers were used to determine the taeniid identity of the infection. In addition, another set of primers was used for the specific diagnosis of E. granulosus sensu lato. In total, 307 faecal samples from stray dogs were examined for the presence of the parasites. Taeniidae eggs were detected in 34 dogs (11.07%). All 34 taeniid-positive specimens were PCR positive for cox1 (444 bp). Of all taeniid-positive specimens, 21 samples (6.8% of all dog specimens) were positive according to primers specific for E. granulosus. The findings of the present study revealed that canine echinococcosis is prevalent in the stray dogs in Kerman. The findings of the present study have important implications for hydatid control programmes in the area.

  12. Economic Burden of Road Traffic Accidents; Report from a Single Center from South Eastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Sargazi, Aliyeh; Sargazi, Atefeh; Nadakkavukaran Jim, Prigil Kumar; Danesh, HoseinAli; Aval, ForoughSargolzaee; Kiani, Zohre; Lashkarinia, AmirHosein; Sepehri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    To determine the economic burden of road traffic accidents (RTAs) in patients admitted to a single center in south eastern Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Amir-Al-Momenin hospital of Zabol affiliated with Zabol University of Medical Sciences during a 12-month period from April 2012 to April 2013. All the RTAs patients who were admitted to our emergency department were included. The direct expenses of hospital care were recorded according to their medical charts and the accountant registration information. Data are presented according to different RTAs characteristics. Overall 1155 patients were included in the current study with mean age of 36.7 ± 5.14 years among whom there were 673(58.3%) men and 482 (41.7%) women. The annual incidence of RTAs were calculated to be 288 per 100,000 population. The RTAs economic burden in our center was 589,448.49 USD which accounted for 10.4% of total hospital expenses during the study period. The money spend on RTAs in our center was 130 times more than gross national income per capita. Cost of each patient in road traffic was 15 times more than cost of an average patient of the hospital in other sections. With considerable high ratio of accidents in Zabol, proper intervention is needed for controlling and preventing RTAs in order to decrease its injuries, impact and the associated economic burden.

  13. Hydrogeological impacts of a railway tunnel in fractured Precambrian gneiss rocks (south-eastern Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kværner, Jens; Snilsberg, Petter

    2013-11-01

    Groundwater monitoring along the Romeriksporten tunnel, south-eastern Norway, provided an opportunity for studying the impacts of tunnelling on groundwater in fractured Precambrian gneiss rocks, and examining relations between bedrock hydrology, tectonic weakness zones and catchments. Tunnel leakage resulted in groundwater drawdown up to 35 m in weakness zones, converted groundwater discharge zones into recharge zones, and affected groundwater chemistry. The magnitude of drawdown and fluctuations in groundwater level differed between weakness zones, and varied with distance from the tunnel route, tunnel leakage, and recharge from catchments. Clear differences in groundwater level and fluctuation patterns indicated restricted groundwater flow between weakness zones. The groundwater drawdowns demonstrated coherent water-bearing networks to 180-m depth in faults and fracture zones. Similar groundwater levels with highly correlated fluctuations demonstrated hydraulic connectivity within fracture zones. Different groundwater drawdown and leakage in weakness zones with different appearance and influence of tectonic events demonstrated the importance of the geological history for bedrock hydrogeology. Water injection into the bedrock counteracted groundwater drawdowns. Even moderate leakage to underground constructions may lead to large groundwater drawdown in areas with small groundwater recharge. Hydrogeological interpretation of tectonic weakness zones should occur in the context of geological history and local catchment hydrology.

  14. Economic Burden of Road Traffic Accidents; Report from a Single Center from South Eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sargazi, Aliyeh; Sargazi, Atefeh; Nadakkavukaran Jim, Prigil Kumar; Danesh, HoseinAli; Aval, ForoughSargolzaee; Kiani, Zohre; Lashkarinia, AmirHosein; Sepehri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the economic burden of road traffic accidents (RTAs) in patients admitted to a single center in south eastern Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Amir-Al-Momenin hospital of Zabol affiliated with Zabol University of Medical Sciences during a 12-month period from April 2012 to April 2013. All the RTAs patients who were admitted to our emergency department were included. The direct expenses of hospital care were recorded according to their medical charts and the accountant registration information. Data are presented according to different RTAs characteristics. Results: Overall 1155 patients were included in the current study with mean age of 36.7 ± 5.14 years among whom there were 673(58.3%) men and 482 (41.7%) women. The annual incidence of RTAs were calculated to be 288 per 100,000 population. The RTAs economic burden in our center was 589,448.49 USD which accounted for 10.4% of total hospital expenses during the study period. The money spend on RTAs in our center was 130 times more than gross national income per capita. Cost of each patient in road traffic was 15 times more than cost of an average patient of the hospital in other sections. Conclusion: With considerable high ratio of accidents in Zabol, proper intervention is needed for controlling and preventing RTAs in order to decrease its injuries, impact and the associated economic burden. PMID:27162926

  15. The drought of the 1890s in south-eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribyl, Kathleen; Nash, David; Klein, Jorgen; Endfield, Georgina

    2016-04-01

    During the second half of the 1890s south-eastern Africa, from modern day Zimbabwe and Botswana down to South Africa, was hit by a drought driven ecological crisis. Using instrumental observations and previously unexploited documentary records in the form of British administrative sources, reports and letters by various Protestant mission societies and newspapers, the extent, duration and severity of the drought are explored. Generally the period was marked by a delayed onset of the rainy season of several months; rainfall totals dropped and perennial rivers such as the Limpopo dried up. The delay of the rainy season negatively impacted the rain-fed agriculture. Recurrent drought conditions during the rainy season frequently withered the young crops. In the interior of southern Africa, on the border of the Kalahari desert, the drought was more severe and continuous than towards the coast of the Indian Ocean. The prolonged dry conditions furthered the outbreak of locust plagues and cattle disease, which in the 1890s took the disastrous form of Rinderpest. A model is established showing how the drought as the original driver of the crisis, triggered a cascade of responses from harvest failure to famine and finally leading to profound socio-economic change.

  16. Mapping capacity to conduct health technology assessment in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    de Labry Lima, Antonio Olry; Mochon, Leticia García; Martínez, Araceli Caro; Ruiz, Eva Martín; Balbino, Jaime Espin

    2016-02-01

    To provide insights into the capacity to conduct health technology assessment (HTA) in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe (CESEE), taking account of technical, financial, networking, and human resources. An e-mail survey of 257 CESEE key informants involved in HTA was undertaken between March and April 2014. Contact e-mail addresses were identified from the internet. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 sections: i) characteristics of the organization performing HTA, (ii) networking in HTA, and (iii) resources allocated for HTA. The survey was completed by 41 respondents representing a wide range of institutions from CESEE countries (response rate of 19.8%). Less than a quarter of respondents reported that their institutions had HTA-specific budgets, whereas the majority indicated that their institutions participated in HTA networks either at domestic or international levels. Although almost half of respondents indicated that their institutions offered HTA training, a shortage in skills training was suggested as the main barrier to HTA. This is the first survey to thoroughly assess the state of HTA capacity in the CESEE region. To strengthen HTA capacity, CESEE countries should increase financial, technical, and training resources. To strengthen collaboration, the European Union and other international bodies should assist existing HTA networks in fulfilling their regional activities through leadership, advocacy to local policymakers, funding, and technical assistance.

  17. Lyme borreliosis in south-eastern Poland: relationships with environmental factors and medical attention standards.

    PubMed

    Bartosik, Katarzyna; Lachowska-Kotowska, Patrycja; Szymańska, Jolanta; Pabis, Artur; Buczek, Alicja

    2011-01-01

    Yhe aim of the study was the investigation of the dynamics of LB prevalence in central Europe over a 12-year period and estimation of its dependence on the environmental factors and on the level of medical services. Epidemiological studies of LB were conducted in the years 1996-2007 in 9 regions of the Świętokrzyskie province in south-eastern Poland (Central Europe). On the basis of patient registry, the incidence, prevalence in various months of the year, the mean number of cases in various seasons and the seasonality factors (SF) of LB were calculated. Between 2000-2007, an increased borreliosis incidence was observed in the study area. During the entire study period, the highest incidence (25.93 and 30.66) was observed in the regions with the highest density of Ixodes ricinus ticks - vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, and where the inhabitants are offered the best available LB diagnosis and treatment due to a sufficient number of doctors (r = 0.74) and all medical personnel (doctors, nurses and diagnosticians) (r = 0.89). The highest LB incidence was present in the summer and autumn seasons (SF = 113.25 and 155.18%) in the areas with the highest density of nymphs and adult I. ricinus ticks (> =19/1 h of sampling). Improved standards of public medical care as well as environmental monitoring of tick threat may contribute to a decrease in prevalence of LB and to its better detection.

  18. A Prospective Cohort Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Risk and Opium Addiction in South Eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Iraj; Hakimi Parizi, Maryam; Fekri, Ali Reza; Aflatoonian, Behnaz; Sharifi, Maryam; Khosravi, Ahmad; Khamesipour, Ali; Sharifi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Opium addiction and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are endemic in different parts of Iran, particularly in Bam, where a massive earthquake occurred. This study was designed to compare the incidence rate and severity of CL cases among opium addicted and non-addicted individuals in south-eastern Iran. This study was carried out as a prospective cohort by active house-to-house visits of 1,481 habitants in Bam. CL cases were confirmed by smear and identification of Leishmania species was performed using nested-PCR. The data was analyzed by χ2 and t-tests, using SPSS software and also Kaplan-Meier survival curve and long-rank test in Stata 11.2 and P<0.05 was considered as significant. A total of 904 individuals consisting of 226 opium addicted and 678 non-addicted individuals were followed-up for a period of seven years. The two cohorts were similar in terms of age, sex and place of residency. A similar pattern of incidence was observed among the two cohort groups. In contrast, the severity of CL in terms of the number, duration and the size of the lesions in opium addicted individuals was significantly (P<0.001) higher than non-opium addicted individuals. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that there is no relationship between the incidence of CL and opium addiction. PMID:24586494

  19. Reducing the marine debris of recreational hoop nets in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, Matt K; Millar, Russell B

    2017-06-15

    Alternative configurations of Australian recreational portunid hoop nets were investigated to address debris and selectivity issues. Four treatment nets (all comprising 152-mm polyamide-PA mesh) were assessed that differed in their twine (conventional multifilament vs new multi-monofilament) and fishing configuration (conventional conical vs inverted shapes). The conical multifilament design lost means (±SEs) of 130.6±23.1 and 5.3±1.2mm of twine 3-h soak(-1) when used to target Scylla serrata and Portunus pelagicus. Inverting this hoop net significantly reduced legal-sized catches (by up to 70%) and with greater twine loss (×5) when targeting P. pelagicus. Conversely, both multi-monofilament configurations maintained legal catches of S. serrata and P. pelagicus, but lost 78 and 95% less twine than the conical multifilament design. Using multi-monofilament hoop nets could reduce PA debris by thousands of m p.a. in south-eastern Australia, without affecting targeted catches. Further, a lower fishing height of inverted multi-monofilament nets might reduce non-portunid bycatch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rock glaciers, protalus ramparts and pronival ramparts in the south-eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, R. R.; Boccali, C.; Žebre, M.; Guglielmin, M.

    2016-09-01

    Rock glaciers and protalus ramparts are characteristic landforms of the periglacial domain often used as markers for the occurrence of permafrost in mountain terrains. As such, relict rock glaciers can be used for paleoclimate reconstructions. We present here the first previously unreported rock glacier inventory of the south-eastern Alps (including the north-eastern-most region of Italy and Slovenia), interpreted from high resolution orthophotos and a high resolution digital terrain model interpolated from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR). We mapped 53 rock glaciers covering a total area of 3.45 km2. The majority of rock glaciers are classified as relict and distributed between 1708 and 1846 m a.s.l. with slope ranging between 19° and 27°. In addition to rock glaciers we observed 66 protalus (pronival) ramparts, having median elevation of 1913 m a.s.l. and covering 0.48 km2. More than half of the inventoried protalus ramparts are located in the more maritime area of the Alps with higher precipitation compared to the location of rock glaciers. Using paleoclimate reconstruction based on the 1981-2010 climatological record of the area, we infer that the rock glaciers formed during one of the dry and cold periods of the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. Possible evolution of the active pronival forms observed in the most maritime area of this alpine sector is also discussed.

  1. Distribution and sources of organic matter in sediments of the south-eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remeikaitė-Nikienė, Nijolė; Lujanienė, Galina; Malejevas, Vitalijus; Barisevičiūtė, Rūta; Žilius, Mindaugas; Garnaga-Budrė, Galina; Stankevičius, Algirdas

    2016-05-01

    Temporal and spatial distribution of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) as well as its sources in the south-eastern Baltic Sea were investigated. Organic matter was characterized by the organic carbon content, δ13C and δ15N signatures and C/N ratios. The sampling was performed in the coastal, offshore areas and in the Curonian Lagoon in the period from May 2012 to September 2014. The average elemental (C/N ~ 6.4) and isotopic composition (δ13C from - 29.6‰ to - 24.9‰) of SOM suggested that during most of the year it was composed of both freshwater and marine phytoplanktonic material. Elevated δ15N values (average ranging from 5.6‰ to 6.7‰) were detected in SOM from the Curonian Lagoon. This most likely reflected the increased isotopic signal of the Nemunas River (δ15N ~ 8‰) derived from the anthropogenic input in the basin area. At the Baltic Sea offshore sites, SOM had lower δ15N values (δ15N ~ 3.5‰ on average), indicating phytoplankton blooms. A two-end member mixing model based on the carbon stable isotopic composition showed that a large proportion (~ 90%) of SOM in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon was of the freshwater origin. The allochthonous organic matter accounted for about 47% of SOM in the studied Baltic Sea area with the highest contribution (about 75%) within the Curonian Lagoon plume zone in the coastal waters.

  2. Rapid assessment of home management of malaria among caregivers in parts of south eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chukwuocha, Uche

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to rapidly access the practice of home management of malaria by caregivers and community health workers in a rural part of South Eastern Nigeria between March and October, 2010. Structured, pretested questionnaires, focus group discussions and oral interviews were used to collect data from 300 consenting individuals. Most of the participants/respondents were civil servants/teachers (44.3%). About 88.3% of them recognized malaria as an illness, 81.0% perceived it was transmitted by mosquito bites. Malaria diagnosis at home was mainly by noticing fever, headache, cough, and pains (86.0%). Most primary action was sought by going to hospitals/health centers (62.3%) and choroquine (46.7%) was the preferred antimalarial drug. Some of the factors hindering effective home management of malaria in the area included ignorance (13.0%); use of fake drugs (50%) and wrong diagnosis (19.1%). This study shows that there is some awareness about malaria and its management in the study area. There is however need to improve and sustain the strategy, placing more emphasis on educating the people on current drug protocols to achieve better results in controlling and combating malaria especially at the local levels.

  3. A quantitative analysis of microplastic pollution along the south-eastern coastline of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nel, H A; Froneman, P W

    2015-12-15

    The extent of microplastic pollution (<5mm) in the southern hemisphere, particularly southern Africa, is largely unknown. This study aimed to evaluate microplastic pollution along the south-eastern coastline of South Africa, looking at whether bays are characterised by higher microplastic densities than open stretches of coastline in both beach sediment and surf-zone water. Microplastic (mean ± standard error) densities in the beach sediment ranged between 688.9 ± 348.2 and 3308 ± 1449 particles · m(-2), while those in the water column varied between 257.9 ± 53.36 and 1215 ± 276.7 particles · m(-3). With few exceptions there were no significant spatial patterns in either the sediment or water column microplastic densities; with little differences in density between bays and the open coast (P>0.05). These data indicate that the presence of microplastics were not associated with proximity to land-based sources or population density, but rather is governed by water circulation.

  4. How Local Landholder Groups Collectively Manage Weeds in South-Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Sonia; Rogers, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    For two decades researchers and policy makers have been arguing that community-based collective action is needed to effectively control weeds. Yet there has been little social research into the ways that collective weed control emerges at local scales. The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanisms through which three local landholder groups in south-eastern Australia collectively manage weeds and the measures they use to evaluate success. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of three Landcare groups—Jerrawa Creek/Upper Lachlan, MacLaughlin River and Towamba Valley—as well as government staff external to the groups. The results reveal that for all three groups collective weed control is about supporting individual weed control efforts as well as proactively engaging landholders with the worst infestations. The groups were seen to be successful because they focused on the common challenge that weeds pose to all landholders, thereby removing the shame associated with having weeds, and because they organised community events that were as much about building and maintaining social relationships as improving weed control. Groups were positive about what they had achieved as collectives of landholders, but also saw an important role for government in providing funding, engaging with landholders who were unwilling to engage directly with the group, and controlling weeds on public lands.

  5. Food partitioning by coastal predatory teleosts in south-eastern Cape waters of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smale, M. J.

    1987-02-01

    The results of complementary classification and multi-dimensional scaling analyses performed on the diets of eleven coastal predatory teleosts in the south-eastern Cape, South Africa, show that there is considerable overlap in prey use by most of the fishes. The predators belong to six families: Sparidae, Serranidae, Pomatomidae, Carangidae, Scombridae and Sciaenidae. Ontogenetic differences in prey taken are often as great as those between species. Although predators may be grouped according to habitat (pelagic, reef, soft substrates), the analyses indicate that groupings are not rigid. Not only does habitat vary during the life histories of the predators, but prey availability appears to have a pronounced influence on food choice. The mobility of both predators and prey between contiguous habitats allows interaction between species which are typical of a particular habitat. The highest degree of specialization to a habitat is seen in the tunas which feed almost exclusively on pelagic prey. Several predators share the relatively low number of prey species available and this explains the high degree of similarity between many of them.

  6. Mapping capacity to conduct health technology assessment in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; García Mochón, Leticia; Caro Martínez, Araceli; Martín Ruiz, Eva; Espín Balbino, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Aim To provide insights into the capacity to conduct health technology assessment (HTA) in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe (CESEE), taking account of technical, financial, networking, and human resources. Methods An e-mail survey of 257 CESEE key informants involved in HTA was undertaken between March and April 2014. Contact e-mail addresses were identified from the internet. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 sections: i) characteristics of the organization performing HTA, (ii) networking in HTA, and (iii) resources allocated for HTA. Results The survey was completed by 41 respondents representing a wide range of institutions from CESEE countries (response rate of 19.8%). Less than a quarter of respondents reported that their institutions had HTA-specific budgets, whereas the majority indicated that their institutions participated in HTA networks either at domestic or international levels. Although almost half of respondents indicated that their institutions offered HTA training, a shortage in skills training was suggested as the main barrier to HTA. Conclusion This is the first survey to thoroughly assess the state of HTA capacity in the CESEE region. To strengthen HTA capacity, CESEE countries should increase financial, technical, and training resources. To strengthen collaboration, the European Union and other international bodies should assist existing HTA networks in fulfilling their regional activities through leadership, advocacy to local policymakers, funding, and technical assistance. PMID:26935616

  7. Rapid assessment of home management of malaria among caregivers in parts of south eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chukwuocha, Uche

    2011-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to rapidly access the practice of home management of malaria by caregivers and community health workers in a rural part of South Eastern Nigeria between March and October, 2010. Methods Structured, pretested questionnaires, focus group discussions and oral interviews were used to collect data from 300 consenting individuals. Results Most of the participants/respondents were civil servants/teachers (44.3%). About 88.3% of them recognized malaria as an illness, 81.0% perceived it was transmitted by mosquito bites. Malaria diagnosis at home was mainly by noticing fever, headache, cough, and pains (86.0%). Most primary action was sought by going to hospitals/health centers (62.3%) and choroquine (46.7%) was the preferred antimalarial drug. Some of the factors hindering effective home management of malaria in the area included ignorance (13.0%); use of fake drugs (50%) and wrong diagnosis (19.1%). Conclusion This study shows that there is some awareness about malaria and its management in the study area. There is however need to improve and sustain the strategy, placing more emphasis on educating the people on current drug protocols to achieve better results in controlling and combating malaria especially at the local levels. PMID:22187611

  8. Occult hepatitis B viral infection among blood donors in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nna, Emmanuel; Mbamalu, Chinenye; Ekejindu, Ifeoma

    2014-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is endemic in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) is a challenging clinical problem characterized by the absence of Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) and low viral DNA load. We aimed at determining the prevalence of OBI among repeat blood donors in Abakaliki, south-eastern Nigeria. Of 113 informed consented repeat blood donors enrolled into the study, 12 donors (10·6%) tested positive to both serological HBsAg screening, anti-HBc total and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA Nested PCR tests. One donor (0·9%) tested HBsAg positive, anti-HBC positive but Nested PCR negative. All donors were negative for HIV 1 and 2 and HCV infections. Of the 100 HbsAg negative repeat blood donors, 8·0% (eight donors) were HBV DNA positive by nested PCR method and anti-HBc total positive by ELISA. The median viral load, determined by real time PCR-Taqman chemistry, in the OBI blood samples was 51 IU/ml compared to 228 IU/ml of the HBsAg screen positive donors. The observed OBI prevalence of 8·0% corroborated with high endemicity of HBV infection in Abakaliki. We therefore recommend routine HBV DNA testing by real time PCR method on all sero-negative blood donations in Abakaliki and for a similar policy to be evaluated across the sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Downscaling an Eddy-Resolving Global Model for the Continental Shelf off South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughan, M.; Baird, M.; MacDonald, H.; Oke, P.

    2008-12-01

    The Australian Bluelink collaboration between CSIRO, the Bureau of Meteorology and the Royal Australian Navy has made available to the research community the output of BODAS (Bluelink ocean data assimilation system), an ensemble optimal interpolation reanalysis system with ~10 km resolution around Australia. Within the Bluelink project, BODAS fields are assimilated into a dynamic ocean model of the same resolution to produce BRAN (BlueLink ReANalysis, a hindcast of water properties around Australia from 1992 to 2004). In this study, BODAS hydrographic fields are assimilated into a ~ 3 km resolution Princeton Ocean Model (POM) configuration of the coastal ocean off SE Australia. Experiments were undertaken to establish the optimal strength and duration of the assimilation of BODAS fields into the 3 km resolution POM configuration for the purpose of producing hindcasts of ocean state. It is shown that the resultant downscaling of Bluelink products is better able to reproduce coastal features, particularly velocities and hydrography over the continental shelf off south eastern Australia. The BODAS-POM modelling system is used to provide a high-resolution simulation of the East Australian Current over the period 1992 to 2004. One of the applications that we will present is an investigation of the seasonal and inter-annual variability in the dispersion of passive particles in the East Australian Current. The practical outcome is an estimate of the connectivity of estuaries along the coast of southeast Australia, which is relevant for the dispersion of marine pests.

  10. Acceptability of general practice services for Afghan refugees in south-eastern Melbourne.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Prashanti; Cheng, I-Hao; Advocat, Jenny; Russell, Grant

    2016-08-02

    Over 750000 refugees have resettled in Australia since 1945. Despite complex health needs related to prior traumatic experiences and the challenges of resettlement in a foreign country, refugees experience poor access to primary care. Health and settlement service providers describe numerous cultural, communication, financial and health literacy barriers. This study aimed to investigate the acceptability of general practitioner (GP) services and understand what aspects of acceptability are relevant for Afghan refugees in south-eastern Melbourne. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with two Afghan community leaders and 16 Dari- or English-speaking Afghan refugees who accessed GP services. Two distinct narratives emerged - those of recently arrived refugees and established refugees (living in Australia for 3 years or longer). Transecting these narratives, participants indicated the importance of: (1) a preference for detailed clinical assessments, diagnostic investigations and the provision of prescriptions at the first consultation; (2) 'refugee-friendly' staff; and (3) integrated, 'one-stop-shop' GP clinic features. The value of acceptable personal characteristics evolved over time - GP acceptability was less a consideration for recently arrived, compared with more, established refugees. The findings reinforce the importance of tailoring healthcare delivery to the evolving needs and healthcare expectations of newly arrived and established refugees respectively.

  11. Helminth communities of Leptodactylus latrans (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from the Atlantic rainforest, south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Toledo, G M; Morais, D H; Silva, R J; Anjos, L A

    2015-03-01

    The helminth fauna associated with Leptodactylus latrans, a large frog living in a disturbed environment of Atlantic rainforest in south-eastern Brazil, was evaluated. We found eight helminth taxa, including five nematode species, Falcaustra mascula, Oswaldocruzia subauricularis, Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp. and an unidentified cosmocercid, two trematodes, Gorgoderina parvicava and Haematoloechus fuelleborni, and one larval cestode. The overall prevalence of infection was 63.2% with a mean intensity of 11.3 ± 3.8. The cosmocercid nematode and O. subauricularis showed the highest prevalences, although the trematode G. parvicava was the most abundant and dominant parasite species. Host size positively influenced both the intensity of infection and parasite species richness. Our data suggest that the juvenile individuals of L. latrans are more susceptible to parasitic infection than the adults. The comparison of the similarity of this community component with that found in other studies in South America shows that, as well as the characteristics of the host, the sampling area also influences the parasitic fauna. Therefore, the results of this study agree that the helminth communities of frogs have relatively low species richness and dominance of generalist species.

  12. Transport of North Pacific 137Cs labeled waters to the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Levy, I.; Gastaud, J.; Eriksson, M.; Osvath, I.; Aoyama, M.; Povinec, P. P.; Komura, K.

    2011-04-01

    During the reoccupation of the WOCE transect A10 at 30°S by the BEAGLE2003 cruise, the SHOTS project partners collected a large number of samples for the analysis of isotopic tracers. 137Cs was mostly deposited on the oceans surface during the late 1950s and early 1960s, after the atmospheric detonation of large nuclear devices, which mostly occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. The development of advanced radioanalytical and counting techniques allowed to obtain, for the first time in this region, a zonal section of 137Cs water concentrations, where little information existed before, thus constituting an important benchmark for further studies. 137Cs concentrations in the upper waters (0-1000 m) of the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean are similar to those observed in the south-western Indian Ocean, suggesting transport of 137Cs labeled waters by the Agulhas current to the Benguela Current region. In contrast, bomb radiocarbon data do not show this feature, indicating the usefulness of 137Cs as a radiotracer of water mass transport from the Indian to the South Atlantic Ocean.

  13. Headwater peatland channels in south-eastern Australia; the attainment of equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanson, R. A.; Cohen, T. J.

    2014-05-01

    Many small headwater catchments (< 50 km2) in temperate south-eastern Australia store sediment in valley fills. While accumulation in some of these systems commenced up to 30,000 years ago, most did not commence filling with peat or clastic material until at least the mid Holocene. In such headwater settings, many clastic valley fills develop cut-and-fill channels, which contrast to some peatland settings where sinuous equilibrium channels have evolved. Four peatland systems within this dataset demonstrate stable channel systems which span nearly the full spectrum of observed valley-floor slopes. We assess new and published longitudinal data from these four channels and demonstrate that each of these channels has achieved equilibrium profiles. New and published flow and survey data are synthesised to demonstrate how these peatland systems have attained equilibrium. Low rates of sediment supply and exceptionally high bank strengths have resulted in low width to depth ratios which accommodate rapid changes in flow velocity and depth with changes in discharge. In small peatland channels, planform adjustments have been sufficient to counter the energy provided by these hydraulically efficient cross-sections and have enabled the achievement of regime energy-slopes. In larger and higher energy peatland channels, large, armoured, stable, bedforms have developed. These bedforms integrate with planform adjustments to maintain a condition of minimum variance in energy losses as represented by the slope profiles and, therefore, a uniform increase in downstream entropy.

  14. Guild composition and habitat use of voles in 2 forest landscapes in south-eastern Norway.

    PubMed

    Gorini, Lucrezia; Linnell, John D C; Boitani, Luigi; Hauptmann, Ulrike; Odden, Morten; Wegge, Per; Nilsen, Erlend B

    2011-12-01

    It is widely believed that intensive forestry has influenced small mammal population dynamics, and thereby the entire mammalian community in Fennoscandian boreal forests. The nature of these impacts on the different species is subject to debate. We live-trapped voles between 2006 and 2009 in 2 commercially harvested forests in south-eastern Norway. We investigated the variation in vole abundance among habitat types (e.g. mature forest and clear-cut) and the hypothesis that graminivorous species such as field voles (Microtus agrestis L.) benefit from clear-cuts at the expense of forest dwellers (i.e. the bank vole, Myodes glareolus Schreb.), using fine-scale descriptors of the ground vegetation. We could not find support for the hypothesis that field voles show a preference for clear-cuts, and their overall abundance was low, while bank voles were the dominant species in all habitat types, including clear-cuts in the peak and pre-peak years. We found a positive association between bank vole abundance and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) availability rather than a specific habitat type. Low field vole density in clear-cuts might be due to variation in local productivity and ground vegetation as well as to large variation in the species temporal dynamics. The latter is particularly associated with the widespread decline of field voles in Scandinavia. Logging has the potential to negatively affect bank vole population dynamics because of the negative effect on bilberry development.

  15. Treatment of uncomplicated malaria at public health facilities and medicine retailers in south-eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background At primary care facilities in Nigeria, national treatment guidelines state that malaria should be symptomatically diagnosed and treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Evidence from households and health care providers indicates that many patients do not receive the recommended treatment. This study sought to determine the extent of the problem by collecting data as patients and caregivers leave health facilities, and determine what influences the treatment received. Methods A cross-sectional cluster survey of 2,039 respondents exiting public health centres, pharmacies and patent medicine dealers was undertaken in urban and rural settings in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria. Results Although 79% of febrile patients received an anti-malarial, only 23% received an ACT. Many patients (38%) received sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). A further 13% of patients received an artemisinin-derivative as a monotherapy. An estimated 66% of ACT dispensed was in the correct dose. The odds of a patient receiving an ACT was highly associated with consumer demand (OR: 55.5, p < 0.001). Conclusion Few febrile patients attending public health facilities, pharmacies and patent medicine dealers received an ACT, and the use of artemisinin-monotherapy and less effective anti-malarials is concerning. The results emphasize the importance of addressing both demand and supply-side influences on malaria treatment and the need for interventions that target consumer preferences as well as seek to improve health service provision. PMID:21651787

  16. The effects of sea level and palaeotopography on lithofacies distribution and geometries in heterozoan carbonates, south-eastern Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.L.; Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized three-dimensional exposures to evaluate how sea-level position and palaeotopography control the facies and geometries of heterozoan carbonates. Heterozoan carbonates were deposited on top of a Neogene volcanic substrate characterized by palaeotopographic highs, palaeovalleys, and straits that were formed by subaerial erosion, possibly original volcanic topography, and faults prior to carbonate deposition. The depositional sequence that is the focus of this study (DS1B) consists of 7-10 fining upward cycles that developed in response to relative sea-level fluctuations. A complete cycle has a basal erosion surface overlain by deposits of debrisflows and high-density turbidity currents, which formed during relative sea-level fall. Overlying tractive deposits most likely formed during the lowest relative position of sea level. Overlying these are debrites grading upward to high-density turbidites and low-density turbidites that formed during relative sea-level rise. The tops of the cycles consist of hemipelagic deposits that formed during the highest relative position of sea level. The cycles fine upward because upslope carbonate production decreased as relative sea level rose due to less surface area available for shallow-water carbonate production and partial drowning of substrates. The cycles are dominated by two end-member types of facies associations and stratal geometries that formed in response to fluctuating sea-level position over variable substrate palaeotopography. One end-member is termed 'flank flow cycle' because this type of cycle indicates dominant sediment transport down the flanks of palaeovalleys. Those cycles drape the substrate, have more debrites, high-density turbidites and erosion on palaeovalley flanks, and in general, the lithofacies fine down the palaeovalley flanks into the palaeovalley axes. The second end-member is termed 'axial flow cycle' because it indicates a dominance of sediment transport down the axes of palaeovalleys. Those cycles are characterized by debrites and high-density turbidites in palaeovalley axes, and lap out of strata against the flanks of palaeovalleys. Where and when an axial flow cycle or flank flow cycle developed appears to be related to the intersection of sea level with areas of gentle or steep substrate slopes, during an overall relative rise in sea level. Results from this study provide a model for similar systems that must combine carbonate principles for sediment production, palaeotopographic controls, and physical principles of sediment remobilization into deep water. ?? 2005 International Association of Sedimentologists.

  17. Climate threats on growth of rear-edge European beech peripheral populations in Spain.

    PubMed

    Dorado-Liñán, I; Akhmetzyanov, L; Menzel, A

    2017-07-21

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in the Iberian Peninsula are a clear example of a temperate forest tree species at the rear edge of its large distribution area in Europe. The expected drier and warmer climate may alter tree growth and species distribution. Consequently, the peripheral populations will most likely be the most threatened ones. Four peripheral beech forests in the Iberian Peninsula were studied in order to assess the climate factors influencing tree growth for the last six decades. The analyses included an individual tree approach in order to detect not only the changes in the sensitivity to climate but also the potential size-mediated sensitivity to climate. Our results revealed a dominant influence of previous and current year summer on tree growth during the last six decades, although the analysis in two equally long periods unveiled changes and shifts in tree sensitivity to climate. The individual tree approach showed that those changes in tree response to climate are not size dependent in most of the cases. We observed a reduced negative effect of warmer winter temperatures at some sites and a generalized increased influence of previous year climatic conditions on current year tree growth. These results highlight the crucial role played by carryover effects and stored carbohydrates for future tree growth and species persistence.

  18. Climate threats on growth of rear-edge European beech peripheral populations in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorado-Liñán, I.; Akhmetzyanov, L.; Menzel, A.

    2017-07-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in the Iberian Peninsula are a clear example of a temperate forest tree species at the rear edge of its large distribution area in Europe. The expected drier and warmer climate may alter tree growth and species distribution. Consequently, the peripheral populations will most likely be the most threatened ones. Four peripheral beech forests in the Iberian Peninsula were studied in order to assess the climate factors influencing tree growth for the last six decades. The analyses included an individual tree approach in order to detect not only the changes in the sensitivity to climate but also the potential size-mediated sensitivity to climate. Our results revealed a dominant influence of previous and current year summer on tree growth during the last six decades, although the analysis in two equally long periods unveiled changes and shifts in tree sensitivity to climate. The individual tree approach showed that those changes in tree response to climate are not size dependent in most of the cases. We observed a reduced negative effect of warmer winter temperatures at some sites and a generalized increased influence of previous year climatic conditions on current year tree growth. These results highlight the crucial role played by carryover effects and stored carbohydrates for future tree growth and species persistence.

  19. Application of climatic indices to analyse viticultural suitability in Extremadura, south-western Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moral, Francisco J.; Rebollo, Francisco J.; Paniagua, Luis L.; García, Abelardo; de Salazar, Enrique Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Although climate is recognised as one of the main drivers of viticulture success, its main features have not been sufficiently described in many viticultural regions, including Extremadura, which contains one of the largest grapevine-growing areas in Europe. Using climatic data from 80 weather stations located throughout Extremadura, seven bioclimatic indices were calculated to estimate heat accumulation and potential water balance during the growing season and the thermal regime during the ripening of grapes. Differences in some climatic indices were found, and after a multivariate geographic analysis, four groups were delimited containing weather stations with similar climatic features, with variability between groups explained by heat accumulation and tempearture and thermal amplitude during the ripening season. Suitability for cultivation of grapevines without thermal restriction and temperate nights during the ripening period are the main characteristics of the weather stations studied, but spatial variability found in climatic potential denotes the importance of differentiating locations to properly relate the viticultural climate to grape quality factors and the style of wines produced. The climatic features of the four groups are very similar to those described in other viticultural regions, including those in close proximity to Extremadura and others worldwide, but few studies have used broad and updated temporal climate data for computing bioclimatic indices as in this case study. Finally, trends in climate indices were analysed. Results revealed that all groups have experienced warmer growing seasons, driven mainly by changes in minimum temperatures. This fact has numerous potential impacts, including changes in grapevine phenological timing, disruption of balanced composition in grapes (ultimately affecting wine characteristics), alterations in varieties grown and spatial changes in viable winegrape-growing zones.

  20. Integrated assessment of the impact of climate and land use changes on groundwater quantity and quality in Mancha Oriental (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Peña-Haro, S.; Garcia-Prats, A.; Mocholi-Almudever, A. F.; Henriquez-Dole, L.; Macian-Sorribes, H.; Lopez-Nicolas, A.

    2014-09-01

    Climate and land use change (global change) impacts on groundwater systems cannot be studied in isolation, as various and complex interactions in the hydrological cycle take part. Land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes have a great impact on the water cycle and contaminant production and transport. Groundwater flow and storage are changing in response not only to climatic changes but also to human impacts on land uses and demands (global change). Changes in future climate and land uses will alter the hydrologic cycles and subsequently impact the quantity and quality of regional water systems. Predicting the behavior of recharge and discharge conditions under future climatic and land use changes is essential for integrated water management and adaptation. In the Mancha Oriental system in Spain, in the last decades the transformation from dry to irrigated lands has led to a significant drop of the groundwater table in one of the largest groundwater bodies in Spain, with the consequent effect on stream-aquifer interaction in the connected Jucar River. Streamflow depletion is compromising the related ecosystems and the supply to the downstream demands, provoking a complex management issue. The intense use of fertilizer in agriculture is also leading to locally high groundwater nitrate concentrations. Understanding the spatial and temporal distribution of water availability and water quality is essential for a proper management of the system. In this paper we analyze the potential impact of climate and land use change in the system by using an integrated modelling framework consisting of the sequentially coupling of a watershed agriculturally-based hydrological model (SWAT) with the ground-water model MODFLOW and mass-transport model MT3D. SWAT model outputs (mainly groundwater recharge and pumping, considering new irrigation needs under changing ET and precipitation) are used as MODFLOW inputs to simulate changes in groundwater flow and storage and impacts on stream

  1. Future climate scenarios and rainfall--runoff modelling in the Upper Gallego catchment (Spain).

    PubMed

    Bürger, C M; Kolditz, O; Fowler, H J; Blenkinsop, S

    2007-08-01

    Global climate change may have large impacts on water supplies, drought or flood frequencies and magnitudes in local and regional hydrologic systems. Water authorities therefore rely on computer models for quantitative impact prediction. In this study we present kernel-based learning machine river flow models for the Upper Gallego catchment of the Ebro basin. Different learning machines were calibrated using daily gauge data. The models posed two major challenges: (1) estimation of the rainfall-runoff transfer function from the available time series is complicated by anthropogenic regulation and mountainous terrain and (2) the river flow model is weak when only climate data are used, but additional antecedent flow data seemed to lead to delayed peak flow estimation. These types of models, together with the presented downscaled climate scenarios, can be used for climate change impact assessment in the Gallego, which is important for the future management of the system.

  2. Climate change and drought effects on rural income distribution in the Mediterranean: a case study for Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, Sonia; Suárez, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of climate change and drought on agricultural incomes in Spanish rural areas. Present research has focused on the effects of these extreme climatological events through response functions, considering effects on crop productivity and average incomes. Among the impacts of droughts, we focused on potential effects on income distribution. The study of the effects on abnormally dry periods is therefore needed in order to perform an analysis of diverse social aspects in the long term. We estimate crop production functions for a range of Mediterranean crops in Spain and we use a measure of the decomposition of inequality to estimate the impact of climate change and drought on yield disparities. Certain adaptation measures may require a better understanding of risks by the public to achieve general acceptance. We provide empirical estimations for the marginal effects of the two impacts considered: farms' average income and income distribution. Our estimates consider crop production response to both biophysical and socio-economic aspects to analyse long-term implications on competitiveness and disparities. As for the results, we find disparities in the adaptation priorities depending on the crop and the region analysed.

  3. Climate, water and tourism: causes and effects of droughts associated with urban development and tourism in Benidorm (Spain).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we analyse the relationship between climate, tourism and water in Benidorm (Spain), an international icon of Fordist tourism (mass tourism). In particular, we have studied the causes and effects of the water supply droughts Benidorm has suffered since becoming a major holiday destination. For this purpose, we consulted the local press in Benidorm over the period 1969-2003. Using qualitative and quantitative geographical techniques, we found that the water supply in the area has managed to keep up with rapidly increasing demand, with only occasional imbalances and periods of crisis. We focused in particular on the causes and effects of the water supply crisis of 1978, a moment of great uncertainty in the history of Benidorm as a holiday resort. We also examined the influence of atmospheric conditions on precipitation levels and how these precipitation levels affect the water supply. Our results highlight the importance of intense rainfall episodes associated with easterly winds, which provided large inputs for Benidorm's water supply system (Marina Baja Water Consortium). We also found that the water supply crisis of 1978 resulted in serious economic losses for Benidorm and damaged its image as a holiday destination and that the city is now less vulnerable to variations in the climate, as a result of its search for new water resources (both surface and ground water resources and from other nonconventional sources).

  4. Climate, water and tourism: causes and effects of droughts associated with urban development and tourism in Benidorm (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Ibarra, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we analyse the relationship between climate, tourism and water in Benidorm (Spain), an international icon of Fordist tourism (mass tourism). In particular, we have studied the causes and effects of the water supply droughts Benidorm has suffered since becoming a major holiday destination. For this purpose, we consulted the local press in Benidorm over the period 1969-2003. Using qualitative and quantitative geographical techniques, we found that the water supply in the area has managed to keep up with rapidly increasing demand, with only occasional imbalances and periods of crisis. We focused in particular on the causes and effects of the water supply crisis of 1978, a moment of great uncertainty in the history of Benidorm as a holiday resort. We also examined the influence of atmospheric conditions on precipitation levels and how these precipitation levels affect the water supply. Our results highlight the importance of intense rainfall episodes associated with easterly winds, which provided large inputs for Benidorm's water supply system (Marina Baja Water Consortium). We also found that the water supply crisis of 1978 resulted in serious economic losses for Benidorm and damaged its image as a holiday destination and that the city is now less vulnerable to variations in the climate, as a result of its search for new water resources (both surface and ground water resources and from other nonconventional sources).

  5. Assessing the Potentialities of FORMOSAT-2 Data for Water and Crop Monitoring at Small Regional Scale in South-Eastern France

    PubMed Central

    Courault, Dominique; Bsaibes, Aline; Kpemlie, Emmanuel; Hadria, Rachid; Hagolle, Olivier; Marloie, Olivier; Hanocq, Jean-F.; Olioso, Albert; Bertrand, Nadine; Desfonds, Véronique

    2008-01-01

    Water monitoring at the scale of a small agricultural region is a key point to insure a good crop development particularly in South-Eastern France, where extreme climatic conditions result in long dry periods in spring and summer with very sparse precipitation events, corresponding to a crucial period of crop development. Remote sensing with the increasing imagery resolution is a useful tool to provide information on plant water status over various temporal and spatial scales. The current study focussed on assessing the potentialities of FORMOSAT-2 data, characterized by high spatial (8m pixel) and temporal resolutions (1-3 day/time revisit), to improve crop modeling and spatial estimation of the main land properties. Thirty cloud free images were acquired from March to October 2006 over a small region called Crau-Camargue in SE France, while numerous ground measurements were performed simultaneously over various crop types. We have compared two models simulating energy transfers between soil, vegetation and atmosphere: SEBAL and PBLs. Maps of evapotranspiration were analyzed according to the agricultural practices at field scale. These practices were well identified from FORMOSAT-2 images, which provided accurate input surface parameters to the SVAT models. PMID:27879889

  6. An evaluation of soil water outlooks for winter wheat in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Western, A. W.; Dassanayake, K. B.; Perera, K. C.; Alves, O.; Young, G.; Argent, R.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Soil moisture is a key limiting resource for rain-fed cropping in Australian broad-acre cropping zones. Seasonal rainfall and temperature outlooks are standard operational services offered by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and are routinely used to support agricultural decisions. This presentation examines the performance of proposed soil water seasonal outlooks in the context of wheat cropping in south-eastern Australia (autumn planting, late spring harvest). We used weather ensembles simulated by the Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA), as input to the Agricultural Production Simulator (APSIM) to construct ensemble soil water "outlooks" at twenty sites. Hindcasts were made over a 33 year period using the 33 POAMA ensemble members. The overall modelling flow involved: 1. Downscaling of the daily weather series (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature, humidity, radiation) from the ~250km POAMA grid scale to a local weather station using quantile-quantile correction. This was based on a 33 year observation record extracted from the SILO data drill product. 2. Using APSIM to produce soil water ensembles from the downscaled weather ensembles. A warm up period of 5 years of observed weather was followed by a 9 month hindcast period based on each ensemble member. 3. The soil water ensembles were summarized by estimating the proportion of outlook ensembles in each climatological tercile, where the climatology was constructed using APSIM and observed weather from the 33 years of hindcasts at the relevant site. 4. The soil water outlooks were evaluated for different lead times and months using a "truth" run of APSIM based on observed weather. Outlooks generally have useful some forecast skill for lead times of up to two-three months, except late spring; in line with current useful lead times for rainfall outlooks. Better performance was found in summer and autumn when vegetation cover and water use is low.

  7. Hepatitis E Virus of Subtype 3a in a Pig Farm, South-Eastern France.

    PubMed

    Colson, P; Saint-Jacques, P; Ferretti, A; Davoust, B

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged during the past decade as a causative agent of autochthonous hepatitis and is a clinical concern in Western developed countries. It has been increasingly recognized that pigs are a major reservoir of HEV of genotypes 3 and 4 worldwide and pig-derived food items represent a potential source of infections by these viruses in humans. Hepatitis E virus RNA testing was performed here on faeces from rectal swabs sampled in 2012 from 50 3-month-old farm pigs from the same farm located in south-eastern France than in a previous work conducted in 2007. Pig HEV sequences corresponding to genomic fragments of ORF2 and ORF1 genes were obtained after RT-PCR amplification with in-house protocols. Hepatitis E virus genotype was determined by phylogenetic analysis. Prevalence was similar to that determined 5 years earlier (68% versus 62%). Two robust phylogenetic clusters of HEV subtypes 3a and 3f were identified, and these sequences obtained in 2012 largely differ compared with those obtained in 2007. Notably, HEV sequences obtained in 2012 from a majority (62%) of the infected pigs belonged to subtype 3a, which was not previously described in France, including not being found in any of humans, pigs or wild boars. Further studies are needed to assess the circulation of HEV-3a in pigs and humans in this country. In addition, along with previous findings, this study supports the need for increased information to the public on the risk of HEV infection through contacts with pigs or consumption of pig-derived products in France.

  8. DDT and dieldrin: effects on resident Peregrine Falcon populations in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Olsen, P; Emison, B; Mooney, N; Brothers, N

    1992-12-01

    Organochlorine residues in eggs and prey species of the Peregrine Falcon,Falco peregrinus, were determined in parts of three south-eastern Australian States: Tasmania (1975-91), Victoria (1975-83) and South Australia (1977-1981). Relationships between residues detected and eggshell thickness, nest site occupancy and productivity were examined. Temporal changes and, in particular, the relative effects of DDE and dieldrin were also investigated. DDE was detected in all 137 eggs analysed. The concentration of DDE residues in eggs peaked in the late 1970s to early 1980s in Victoria, but peaked earlier and had declined to low concentrations by the 1980s in Tasmania. Maximum concentrations reached 82 ppm, in Victoria. The geometric means were: Victoria 12.4 ppm; Tasmania 1970s 10.1 ppm, 1980s 1.5 ppm; and South Australia 1.95 ppm. Dieldrin was detected in approximately half the eggs, but all except one egg (1.5 ppm) contained concentrations considered noncritical (<1 ppm). The degree of shell-thinning and reproductive success were related to DDE content, but not to that of dieldrin.Organochlorine concentrations in prey reflected general concentrations in eggs and, with a few exceptions, were low. In Tasmania, reproductive success increased as DDE contamination declined. In Victoria, despite mean concentrations of DDE well above that considered to be critical for successful reproduction (>15-20 ppm) for at least seven years, the breeding population declined by <2% a year. We interpret this result as evidence that DDE causes a slow decline in population and that the dramatic declines observed in some other parts of the world were mainly attributable to contamination by dieldrin or to other confounding factors.

  9. Improved prognosis of breast cancer since 1970 in south-eastern Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Nab, H. W.; Hop, W. C.; Crommelin, M. A.; Kluck, H. M.; Coebergh, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    Despite many new advances in breast cancer therapy since the 1970s, there are only few reports on improved prognosis in a general population. A follow-up of more than 10 years is rarely reported, and a differentiation according to stage of the disease or between follow-up intervals is seldom made. Our purpose was to assess whether prognosis of primary breast cancer improved in patients diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 in south-eastern Netherlands, and to distinguish between different stages and follow-up intervals. Data from 4,467 breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 were derived from the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry. Follow-up was attained up to 1 July 1991. Relative survival rates, as the ratio of the observed to the expected rates, were calculated. In a multivariate analysis a change in prognosis over time was computed with adjustment for age and stage; this was done separately for 5 year follow-up intervals. The relative survival rates were 69% after 5 years, 55% after 10 years and 50% after 20 years. Relative survival, after adjustment for age, was strongly related to the stage of the disease in the first 5 years of follow-up, less markedly between 5 and 10 years, and to a small, borderline significant, extent after 10 years of follow-up. Relative survival rates increased markedly over time, during the whole interval of follow-up. This increase was apparent in all age groups and in all stages, except for those with distant disease at diagnosis. The observed improvement in survival is unlikely to be explained by the increased use of adjuvant chemo- and hormonal therapy. Other factors, such as a change in the natural history of the disease in this period, cannot be ruled out. PMID:8054277

  10. The genetic spectrum of familial hypercholesterolemia in south-eastern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Mahtab; Walus-Miarka, Małgorzata; Idzior-Waluś, Barbara; Malecki, Maciej T.; Sanak, Marek; Whittall, Ros; Li, Ka Wah; Futema, Marta; Humphries, Steve E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common autosomal dominant disorder with a frequency of 1 in 200 to 500 in most European populations. Mutations in LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes are known to cause FH. In this study, we analyzed the genetic spectrum of the disease in the understudied Polish population. Materials and methods 161 unrelated subjects with a clinical diagnosis of FH from the south-eastern region of Poland were recruited. High resolution melt and direct sequencing of PCR products were used to screen 18 exons of LDLR, a region of exon 26 in the APOB gene and exon 7 of PCSK9. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed to detect gross deletions and insertions in LDLR. Genotypes of six LDL-C raising SNPs were used for a polygenic gene score calculation. Results We found 39 different pathogenic mutations in the LDLR gene with 10 of them being novel. 13 (8%) individuals carried the p.Arg3527Gln mutation in APOB, and overall the detection rate was 43.4%. Of the patients where no mutation could be found, 53 (84.1%) had a gene score in the top three quartiles of the healthy comparison group suggesting that they have a polygenic cause for their high cholesterol. Conclusions These results confirm the genetic heterogeneity of FH in Poland, which should be considered when designing a diagnostic strategy in the country. As in the UK, in the majority of patients where no mutation can be found, there is likely to be a polygenic cause of their high cholesterol level. PMID:26892515

  11. The genetic spectrum of familial hypercholesterolemia in south-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Mahtab; Walus-Miarka, Małgorzata; Idzior-Waluś, Barbara; Malecki, Maciej T; Sanak, Marek; Whittall, Ros; Li, Ka Wah; Futema, Marta; Humphries, Steve E

    2016-03-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common autosomal dominant disorder with a frequency of 1 in 200 to 500 in most European populations. Mutations in LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes are known to cause FH. In this study, we analyzed the genetic spectrum of the disease in the understudied Polish population. 161 unrelated subjects with a clinical diagnosis of FH from the south-eastern region of Poland were recruited. High resolution melt and direct sequencing of PCR products were used to screen 18 exons of LDLR, a region of exon 26 in the APOB gene and exon 7 of PCSK9. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed to detect gross deletions and insertions in LDLR. Genotypes of six LDL-C raising SNPs were used for a polygenic gene score calculation. We found 39 different pathogenic mutations in the LDLR gene with 10 of them being novel. 13 (8%) individuals carried the p.Arg3527Gln mutation in APOB, and overall the detection rate was 43.4%. Of the patients where no mutation could be found, 53 (84.1%) had a gene score in the top three quartiles of the healthy comparison group suggesting that they have a polygenic cause for their high cholesterol. These results confirm the genetic heterogeneity of FH in Poland, which should be considered when designing a diagnostic strategy in the country. As in the UK, in the majority of patients where no mutation can be found, there is likely to be a polygenic cause of their high cholesterol level. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using Geospatial Technology in South Eastern Part of Nilgiri District, Tamilnadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangasamy, N.; Varathan, R.

    2013-05-01

    Landslides are often destructive and periodically affect the Nilgiris district. Two method viz., Frequency ratio (FR) and Weights of evidence (WofE) were used to reclassify the sub-variables and the landslide susceptibility index (LSI) was calculated by weighted sum overlay analysis. The final LS Zonation map was prepared from the LSI and the area was classified into two zones. Validation of the LSM was the next step and was accomplished by excluding some landslide points in the GIS analyses and overlying the unused landslides points over the LSM. The LSMs prepared using the FR and WofE methods are reliable as more than 75% of the excluded slides fall in high and very high landslide susceptibility zones and the error of mismatch in the two maps is negligible.During the course of this study landslides devastated the Kethi, Coonoor, Barliyar and Kothagiri areas due to an extreme event with 374 to 1,171 mm rainfall received in these stations in just three days on 8th to 10th November, 2009. The rainfall event is unprecedented and such extreme rainfall has not occurred in the region since meteorological records are maintained. Over 100 landslides took place in the area of which 75 are major slides and more 43 people died and 200 houses were damaged. The event was documented and a data base containing the location, details of death, slide characteristics and photographs was prepared. Further, the probability of landslide occurrence may change over time due to changes in land use, unscientific massive developmental activities and establishing settlements without adopting proper safety measures. The study also highlights the need for maintenance of landslide database and installation of more rain gauge stations to update and improve the LSM so as to reduce the risk of landslide hazard faced by the Community. NaveenRaj.T INDIA LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING USING GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY IN SOUTH EASTERN PART OF NILGIRI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA.

  13. Time Series Analysis of Meteorological Factors Influencing Malaria in South Eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ostovar, Afshin; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Raeisi, Ahmad; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Malaria Early Warning System is defined as the use of prognostic variables for predicting the occurrence of malaria epidemics several months in advance. The principal objective of this study was to provide a malaria prediction model by using meteorological variables and historical malaria morbidity data for malaria-endemic areas in south eastern Iran. Methods: A total of 2002 locally transmitted microscopically confirmed malaria cases, which occurred in the Minab district of Hormozgan Province in Iran over a period of 6 years from March 2003 to March 2009, were analysed. Meteorological variables (the rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity in this district) were also assessed. Monthly and weekly autocorrelation functions, partial autocorrelation functions, and cross-correlation graphs were examined to explore the relationship between the historical morbidity data and meteorological variables and the number of cases of malaria. Having used univariate auto-regressive integrated moving average or transfer function models, significant predictors among the meteorological variables were selected to predict the number of monthly and weekly malaria cases. Ljung-Box statistics and stationary R-squared were used for model diagnosis and model fit, respectively. Results: The weekly model had a better fit (R2= 0.863) than the monthly model (R2= 0.424). However, the Ljung-Box statistic was significant for the weekly model. In addition to autocorrelations, meteorological variables were not significant, except for different orders of maximum and minimum temperatures in the monthly model. Conclusions: Time-series models can be used to predict malaria incidence with acceptable accuracy in a malaria early-warning system. The applicability of using routine meteorological data in statistical models is seriously limited. PMID:27308280

  14. Metabolic Syndrome in School Children in Mardin, South-Eastern of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MES) in a school children population. Materials and Methods: Three thousand four hundred and sixty children aged between 7 and 15 in three elementary schools in the city of Mardin, located in the south-eastern region of Turkey, were included in this study in April and May 2011. Age, gender, height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured and a variety of blood tests were done. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria were used for the diagnosis of MES. Results: It was found that 9.42% of those tested were overweight, and 8.0% were obese. The study found that more girls (9.1%) were obese than girls (6.9%). The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among girls than boys (p<0.001). A positive correlation was found between body mass index (BMI) and the other parameters, namely waist and hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), triglyceride (TG) (p=0.0001). It was found that total cholesterol (T-Chol), TG, BMI, systolic and diastolic BP were significantly different among obese MES’s group and non-obese children (p<0.05). The waist/hip ratio reference value in girls was significantly higher than boys (p>0.05). The prevalence of MES was 6.3%. The number of components of MES was higher in girls and obese children. The rate of MES was 30.3% in obese children. Conclusion: The frequency of obesity, hypertension and MES in childhood period have been steadily increasing. Children who are classified having central obesity and high body mass index should be more carefully evaluated to its potential to progress to MES. And the quality of the life should be improved by reducing the risks resulted from life style changes, necessary treatments and follow ups. PMID:25610318

  15. Determinants of Eye Care Utilization in Rural South-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arinze, O C; Eze, B I; Ude, N N; Onwubiko, S N; Ezisi, C N; Chuka-Okosa, C M

    2015-10-01

    To determine the barriers and incentives to eye care utilization (ECU) in Abagana, a rural south-eastern Nigerian community. The study was a population-based cross-sectional mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) survey of adult inhabitants of Abagana, in July-August, 2011. Data on respondents' socio-demographics, barriers and incentives to ECU were collected, and analysed using descriptive and comparative statistics. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Qualitative data were obtained from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews and analyzed using ATLAS.ti software. The 549 respondents (males 224) were aged 49.8 ± 15.9 SD years (range 18-93 years). Overall, orthodox eye care had ever been sought by 42.4%, and 46.4% of those who reported change in vision. Lack of awareness-31.8%, cost-18.0%, and fatalistic attitudes-15.9% were the main ECU barriers. Possession of health insurance (OR 11.49; 95% CI 4.21-31.34; p = 0.001), family history of eye disorder (OR 3.27, 95% CI 2.03-5.26; p = 0.001), noticed change in vision (OR 11.30; 95% CI 1.42-90.09; p = 0.022), current eye disease (OR 4.06; 95% CI 2.29-7.19; p = 0.001) and systemic co-morbidity (OR 4.33; 95% CI 2.67-7.02; p = 0.001) were the incentives to ECU. To enhance the low ECU in Abagana community, educational interventions on eye health maintenance and eye health seeking behaviours, and measures to reduce eye care cost are recommended.

  16. Numerical modelling of the buoyant marine microplastics in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagaev, Andrei; Mizyuk, Artem; Chubarenko, Irina; Khatmullilna, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics is a burning issue in the marine pollution science. Its sources, ways of propagation and final destiny pose a lot of questions to the modern oceanographers. Hence, a numerical model is an optimal tool for reconstruction of microplastics pathways and fate. Within the MARBLE project (lamp.ocean.ru), a model of Lagrangian particles transport was developed. It was tested coupled with oceanographic transport fields from the operational oceanography product of Copernicus Marine Monitoring Environment Service. Our model deals with two major types of microplastics such as microfibres and buoyant spheroidal particles. We are currently working to increase the grid resolution by means of the NEMO regional configuration for the south-eastern Baltic Sea. Several expeditions were organised to the three regions of the Baltic Sea (the Gotland, the Bornholm, and the Gdansk basins). Water samples from the surface and different water layers were collected, processed, and analysed by our team. A set of laboratory experiments was specifically designed to establish the settling velocity of particles of various shapes and densities. The analysis in question provided us with the understanding necessary for the model to reproduce the large-scale dynamics of microfibres. In the simulation, particles were spreading from the shore to the deep sea, slowly sinking to the bottom, while decreasing in quantity due to conditional sedimentation. Our model is expected to map out the microplastics life cycle and to account for its distribution patterns under the impact of wind and currents. For this purpose, we have already included the parameterization for the wind drag force applied to a particle. Initial results of numerical experiments seem to indicate the importance of proper implicit parameterization of the particle dynamics at the vertical solid boundary. Our suggested solutions to that problem will be presented at the EGU-2017. The MARBLE project is supported by Russian Science

  17. The bladed Bangiales (Rhodophyta) of the South Eastern Pacific: Molecular species delimitation reveals extensive diversity.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Ramírez, María Eliana; Macaya, Erasmo C; Contador, Cristian Bulboa; Woods, Helen; Wyatt, Christopher; Brodie, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    A molecular taxonomic study of the bladed Bangiales of the South Eastern Pacific (coast of Chile) was undertaken based on sequence data of the mitochondrial COI and chloroplast rbcL for 193 specimens collected from Arica (18°S) in the north to South Patagonia (53°S) in the south. The results revealed for the first time that four genera, Porphyra, Pyropia, Fuscifolium and Wildemania were present in the region. Species delimitation was determined based on a combination of a General Mixed Yule Coalescence model (GMYC) and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) coupled with detection of monophyly in tree reconstruction. The overall incongruence between the species delimitation methods within each gene was 29%. The GMYC method led to over-splitting groups, whereas the ABGD method had a tendency to lump groups. Taking a conservative approach to the number of putative species, at least 18 were recognized and, with the exception of the recently described Pyropia orbicularis, all were new to the Chilean flora. Porphyra and Pyropia were the most diverse genera with eight 'species' each, whereas only a 'single' species each was found for Fuscifolium and Wildemania. There was also evidence of recently diverging groups: Wildemania sp. was distinct but very closely related to W. amplissima from the Northern Hemisphere and raises questions in relation to such disjunct distributions. Pyropia orbicularis was very closely related to two other species, making species delimitation very difficult but provides evidence of an incipient speciation. The difference between the 'species' discovered and those previously reported for the region is discussed in relation to the difficulty of distinguishing species based on morphological identification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. South-Eastern Bay of Biscay eddy-induced anomalies and their effect on chlorophyll distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, Ainhoa; Rubio, Anna; Ruiz, Simón; Le Cann, Bernard; Testor, Pierre; Mader, Julien; Hernández, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of deep-water glider hydrographic and fluorescence data, together with satellite measurements provides a new insight into eddy-induced anomalies within the South-Eastern Bay of Biscay, during summer. Two cyclonic eddies and a SWODDY have been observed in different glider transects and by means of different sources of satellite data. Vertical profiles reveal complex structures (characteristic of the second baroclinic mode): upward/downward displacement of the seasonal/permanent thermocline in the case of X13 and the opposite thermocline displacements in the case of the cyclones. This is a typical behaviour of mode-water and "cyclonic thinny" eddies. A qualitative analysis of the vertical velocities in the anticyclone indicates that though geostrophy dominates the main water column, depressing the isopycnals, near the sea-surface the eddy-wind interaction affects the vertical currents, favouring Ekman pumping and upwelling. The analysis of the Θ-S properties corroborates that inside cyclones and between the 26 and 27 isopycnals, net downwelling occurs. These two types of intra-thermocline lenses appear to deeply impact the Chl-a fluorescence profiles, since the maximum Chl-a fluorescence is located just below the seasonal thermocline. The mean Chl-a fluorescence was higher in the anticyclone than within the cyclones and the mean for the entire study period; the highest values were observed in the centre of the anticyclone. These results are in agreement with previous findings concerning the SWODDY F90 and surrounding cyclones, located in the South-Western Bay of Biscay. Significant differences in the Θ-S properties of the two cyclonic mesoscale structures have been observed: higher temperatures and lower salinity in the easternmost cyclone. Finally, time variation of the salinity content of the shallowest water masses of the anticyclone (salinity decreasing over time), probably indicates advective mixing processes occurred during the mission.

  19. Occupational differences, cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits in South Eastern rural Australia.

    PubMed

    Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie; Philpot, Benjamin; Janus, Edward D; Versace, Vincent L; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki A; Dunbar, James A

    2013-11-23

    In rural and remote Australia, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates are higher than metropolitan rates.This study analysed cardiovascular and other chronic disease risk factors and related health behaviours by occupational status, to determine whether agricultural workers have higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk than other rural workers. Cross-sectional surveys in three rural regions of South Eastern Australia (2004-2006). A stratified random sample of 1001 men and women aged 25-74 from electoral rolls were categorised by occupation into agricultural workers (men = 214, women = 79), technicians (men = 123), managers (men = 148, women = 272) and 'home duties' (women = 165). Data were collected from self-administered questionnaire, physical measurements and laboratory tests. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk were assessed by Framingham 5 years risk calculation. Amongst men, agricultural workers had higher occupational physical activity levels, healthier more traditional diet, lower alcohol consumption, lower fasting plasma glucose, the lowest proportion of daily smokers and lower age-adjusted 5 year CVD and CHD risk scores.Amongst women, managers were younger with higher HDL cholesterol, lower systolic blood pressure, less hypertension, lower waist circumference, less self-reported diabetes and better 5 year CVD and CHD risk scores.Agricultural workers did not have higher cardiovascular disease risk than other occupational groups. Previous studies have suggested that farmers have higher risks of cardiovascular disease but this is because the risk has been compared with non-rural populations. In this study, the comparison has been made with other rural occupations. Cardiovascular risk reduction programs are justified for all. Programs tailored only for agricultural workers are unwarranted.

  20. Anti-malarial seroprevalence assessment during an elimination programme in Chabahar District, south-eastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Sedigheh; van den Hoogen, Lotus Leonie; Mehrizi, Akram Abouie; Karimi, Fatemh; Raeisi, Ahmad; Drakeley, Chris

    2016-07-22

    Iran has achieved a substantial decline in malaria incidence over the past decades. A common feature of malaria-endemic settings is the requirement for more sensitive techniques to describe levels of low transmission. In this study, serological and parasitological methods were used to measure transmission levels of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax during an elimination programme (2012) in Chabahar District, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, south-eastern Iran. Participants were randomly selected from 64 different geographical clusters in Chabahar city and surrounding villages. Antibody responses to P. falciparum and P. vivax blood-stage antigens were assessed by ELISA, while microscopy and molecular testing were used to determine parasite carriage by species. Age-adjusted antibody responses were analysed using a reversible catalytic model to calculate seroconversion rates (SCR). There was no evidence of recent transmission in the study areas, indicated by an absence of parasite infections in all ages and low or absent serological responses to either species in young children. The best model for age P. falciparum seroconversion was one with a change in exposure 21 years before sampling was done in Chabahar city (P = 0.018) and 4 years in the villages (P = 0.039). There was a higher level of recent P. vivax transmission compared to P. falciparum, based on the SCRs, in both the city and village settings. Serological analysis identified a decline in P. falciparum transmission in the urban areas of Chabahar, consistent with a previously described decrease in malaria in the early 1990s, demonstrating the utility of this approach to reconstruct exposure history. At present, it remains unclear whether the P. vivax antibody responses reflect active transmission due to new infections or relapse infections. The absence of parasitological and serological evidence of recent malaria transmission in Chabahar District is viable evidence for certification of

  1. Pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland (2009-2011).

    PubMed

    Matyaszek, Aneta; Szpyrka, Ewa; Podbielska, Magdalena; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Kurdziel, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Poland is a leading grower/producer of berries in Europe that are either eaten raw or processed. As well as berries this includes fruit such as grapes, strawberries and other small fruits. Testing for the presence of active substances in Plant Protection Products, (PPP), in such fruit is however important, as part of measures taken to minimise human intake. To determine the incidence of pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland in 2009-2011. . Chromatographic separation followed by analytical detection was performed on 250 samples of various test fruits using an accredited methodology: GC/ECD/NPD, together with spectrophotometric detection wherever necessary, according to PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025. As part of previous monitoring, 126 active substances were identified in 2009, 132 in 2010 and 153 in 2011; levels were compared to Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). RESULTS;. Analyses showed that 46.4% of samples contained PPPs of which 4% exceeded the MRL. The most were found in raspberries, (58.8% of all tested), followed by 58.3% redcurrants, and gooseberries as well as 50% grapes. The most frequently found active substances of PPPs were pyrimethanil (15.6%), dithiocarbamates (12.4%), procymidone (8%), cyprodinil (5.6%) and difenoconazole (5.2%). The highest MRL exceedances were found in blackcurrants. Testing also revealed many examples of pesticides not recommended for the protection of specific crops: propiconazole in gooseberries, cyprodinil, flusilazole, iprodione, pyrimethanil in blackcurrants and folpet and captan in raspberries. Furthermore, active substances whose use in PPPs have been forbidden since 2008 were also detected, ie. endosulfan in blackcurrants and strawberries, fenitrothion in black and red currants as well as procymidone in raspberries, blackcurrants and strawberries. These data are consistent to those obtained from the whole of Poland and the European Union (EU). Most pesticides were present in raspberries, redcurrants

  2. Time Series Analysis of Meteorological Factors Influencing Malaria in South Eastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Ostovar, Afshin; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Raeisi, Ahmad; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2016-06-01

    The Malaria Early Warning System is defined as the use of prognostic variables for predicting the occurrence of malaria epidemics several months in advance. The principal objective of this study was to provide a malaria prediction model by using meteorological variables and historical malaria morbidity data for malaria-endemic areas in south eastern Iran. A total of 2002 locally transmitted microscopically confirmed malaria cases, which occurred in the Minab district of Hormozgan Province in Iran over a period of 6 years from March 2003 to March 2009, were analysed. Meteorological variables (the rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity in this district) were also assessed. Monthly and weekly autocorrelation functions, partial autocorrelation functions, and cross-correlation graphs were examined to explore the relationship between the historical morbidity data and meteorological variables and the number of cases of malaria. Having used univariate auto-regressive integrated moving average or transfer function models, significant predictors among the meteorological variables were selected to predict the number of monthly and weekly malaria cases. Ljung-Box statistics and stationary R-squared were used for model diagnosis and model fit, respectively. The weekly model had a better fit (R(2)= 0.863) than the monthly model (R(2)= 0.424). However, the Ljung-Box statistic was significant for the weekly model. In addition to autocorrelations, meteorological variables were not significant, except for different orders of maximum and minimum temperatures in the monthly model. Time-series models can be used to predict malaria incidence with acceptable accuracy in a malaria early-warning system. The applicability of using routine meteorological data in statistical models is seriously limited.

  3. Climate driven changes in subtidal kelp forest communities in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Voerman, Sofie E; Llera, Eva; Rico, José M

    2013-09-01

    Reconstructions suggest a massive decline of nearly 1400 ha of kelp forest in North Western Spain in 2007. In line with global rising temperatures, we hypothesized that Sea Surface Temperature (SST) surpassed a lethal threshold for kelp. We examined whether changes in SST correlated to the proposed decline in kelp forest. All investigated SST characteristics suggested to affect kelp abundance increased significantly during the past thirty years, reaching extreme values during the last decade. In addition over the past two decades, the landscape formerly dominated by both cold and warm temperate canopy forming and understory species changed to one dominated by warm temperate understory species, resulting in a loss of vertical community structure. Fisheries landing data of kelp associated species was used to support the suggested change in kelp abundance. Subsequent recovery of the kelp appears to be occurring in deeper waters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Climatic implications of correlated upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits on the Cinca and Gallego rivers, NE Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Claudia J; Mcdonald, Eric; Sancho, Carlos; Pena, Jose- Luis

    2008-01-01

    We correlate Upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits of the Cinca and Gallego River valleys (south central Pyrenees and Ebro basin, Spain) using geomorphic position, luminescence dates, and time-related trends in soil development. The ages obtained from glacial deposits indicate glacial periods at 85 {+-} 5 ka, 64 {+-} 11 ka, and 36 {+-} 3 ka (from glacial till) and 20 {+-} 3 ka (from loess). The fluvial drainage system, fed by glaciers in the headwaters, developed extensive terrace systems in the Cinca River valley at 178 {+-} 21 ka, 97 {+-} 16 ka, 61 {+-} 4 ka, 47 {+-} 4 ka, and 11 {+-} 1 ka, and in the Gallego River valley at 151 {+-} 11 ka, 68 {+-} 7 ka, and 45 {+-} 3 ka. The times of maximum geomorphic activity related to cold phases coincide with Late Pleistocene marine isotope stages and heinrich events. The maximum extent of glaciers during the last glacial occurred at 64 {+-} 11 ka, and the terraces correlated with this glacial phase are the most extensive in both the Cinca (61 {+-} 4 ka) and Gallego (68 {+-} 7 ka) valleys, indicating a strong increase in fluvial discharge and availability of sediments related to the transition to deglaciation. The global Last Glacial Maximum is scarcely represented in the south central Pyrenees owing to dominantly dry conditions at that time. Precipitation must be controlled by the position of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation system. The glacial systems and the associated fluvial dynamic seem sensitive to (1) global climate changes controlled by insolation, (2) North Atlantic thermohaline circulation influenced by freshwater pulses into the North Atlantic, and (3) anomalies in atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic controlling precipitation on the Iberian peninsula. The model of glacial and fluvial evolution during the Late Pleistocene in northern Spain could be extrapolated to other glaciated mountainous areas in southern Europe.

  5. Can climate change jeopardize predator control of invasive herbivore species? A case study in avocado agro-ecosystems in Spain.

    PubMed

    Montserrat, Marta; Sahún, Rosa María; Guzmán, Celeste

    2013-02-01

    Climate change is one of the most important factors affecting the phenology, distribution, composition and diversity of organisms. In agricultural systems many pests and natural enemies are arthropods. As poikilotherm organisms, their body temperature is highly dependent on environmental conditions. Because higher trophic levels typically have lower tolerance to high temperatures than lower trophic levels, trends towards increasing local or regional temperatures may affect the strength of predator/prey interactions and disrupt pest control. Furthermore, increasing temperatures may create climate corridors that could facilitate the invasion and establishment of invasive species originating from warmer areas. In this study we examined the effect of environmental conditions on the dynamics of an agro-ecosystem community located in southern Spain, using field data on predator/prey dynamics and climate gathered during four consecutive years. The study system was composed of an ever-green tree species (avocado), an exotic tetranychid mite, and two native species of phytoseiid mites found in association with this new pest. We also present a climatological analysis of the temperature trend in the area of study during the last 28 years, as evidence of temperature warming occurring in the area. We found that the range of temperatures with positive per capita growth rates was much wider in prey than in predators, and that relative humidity contributed to explain the growth rate variation in predators, but not in prey. Predator and prey differences in thermal performance curves could explain why natural enemies did not respond numerically to the pest when environmental conditions were harsh.

  6. Biomarkers in a peat deposit in Northern Spain (Huelga de Bayas, Asturias) as proxy for climate variation.

    PubMed

    López-Días, V; Borrego, A G; Blanco, C G; Arboleya, M; López-Sáez, J A; López-Merino, L

    2010-05-21

    Peatlands are peculiar ecosystems in which well-adapted communities grow and develop, recording the variation in climate and hydrological conditions inland. In addition necromass is well preserved and therefore peatlands can be used as palaeo-archives for environmental variation. In this work a peat core of depth 60 cm dated at the bottom of the peat deposit as ca. 250cal AD from Huelga de Bayas (Asturias, Northern Spain) was studied to a resolution of 2-4 cm to investigate the evolution of the environmental conditions in the area. Samples were extracted with a dichloromethane/methanol ratio of 3:1 and studied by means of gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to identify possible biomarkers of climatic variation during the period of peat formation. Lipid biomarker study allows the identification of periods in which Sphagnum or higher plants preferentially contributed to the peat profile. The absolute dating of the profile combined with the n-alkane record displayed five episodes of wetter conditions around ca. 250 cal AD (Roman Warm Period), 1080 and 1270 cal AD (Medieval Warm Period), 1460 cal AD (Little Ice Age) and 1920 cal AD (Recent warming), which are consistent with climate evolution in the region. Pentacyclic triterpenoids with hopane skeleton derived from microorganisms and with oleanane skeleton derived from higher plants were identified. The presence of their ketone and acetyl-derivatives, along with the presence of unstable hopane configurations indicates a low maturity of the peat profile. A tendency for the functionalised triterpenoids to decrease with depth was observed in the profile.

  7. Past, present and future of wave climate, storms and morphological impacts on sandy coasts: Spain and Wales coasts examples.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel-Buitrago, N. G.; Anfuso, G.; Phillips, M.; Thomas, T.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal response to climate events is very important for both socio-economic and environmental reasons. In order to carry out a correct coastal management program, it is important to provide realistic analysis of the natural variability and trend associated with climatic events (i.e. hurricanes, storms). In a scenario of rising sea level and increasing wave heights, the coastline will suffer huge impacts in terms of erosion and flooding especially with respect to low-lying regions that may partly or entirely disappear. This work deals with the analysis of a 22 year long wave buoy dataset recorded at Cadiz (SW Spain) and Tenby (S Wales, UK) with the objective of find the existing relationships between wave climate and coastal response. The analysis consisted in the characterization of winter wave climate, extreme waves and storms characteristics and distribution and their relationships with regional cycles (Teleconnection Patterns) such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index, the East Atlantic (EA) pattern and the Arctic Oscillation (AO), among others. Wave climate showed clear cyclic variations in average monthly significant wave height (Hs). Winter waves rapidly increased in height, reaching peak values (Hs = 1.2 m, Cadiz, Hs = 2.1 m, Tenby) between December and January. Energy patterns calculated using the equation of wave energy flux, showed average values of 37 kW/m and 155 kW/m respectively, during winter. In the same way, storm characterization in each study area was carried out using the Storm Power Index (Dolan and Davis, 1992) and five classes were obtained, from class I (weak) to V (extreme). Storm occurrence probability was 95% for class I (i.e. almost one event per year) to 5 % for class V. The return period for class V was 25 years and ranged from 5 to 8 years for classes III and IV storms, e.g. significant and severe events. Classes I and II showed a period of recurrence ranging from 1 to 3 years. For both areas high energy wave values were

  8. Climate change scenarios for temperature and precipitation in Aragón (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ribalaygua, Jaime; Pino, M Rosa; Pórtoles, Javier; Roldán, Esther; Gaitán, Emma; Chinarro, David; Torres, Luis

    2013-10-01

    By applying a two-step statistical downscaling technique to four climate models under different future emission scenarios, we produced future projections of the daily precipitation and the maximum and minimum temperatures over the Spanish region of Aragón. The reliability of the downscaling technique was assessed by a verification process involving the comparison of the downscaled reanalysis data with the observed data--the results were very good for the temperature and acceptable for the precipitation. To determine the ability of the climate models to simulate the real climate, their simulations of the past (the 20C3M output) were downscaled and then compared with the observed climate. The results are quite robust for temperature and less conclusive for the precipitation. The downscaled future projections exhibit a significant increase during the entire 21st century of the maximum and minimum temperatures for all the considered IPCC future emission scenarios (A2, A1B, B1), both for mid-century (increases relative to the 1971-2000 averages between 1.5°C and 2.5°C, depending on the scenario) and for the end of the century (for the maximum temperature of approximately 3.75°C, 3.3°C, and 2.1°C for A2, A1B, and B1 scenarios respectively, and for the minimum temperature of 3.1°C, 2.75°C, and 1.75°C). The precipitation does not follow such a clear tendency (and exhibits greater uncertainties), but all the scenarios suggest a moderate decrease in rainfall for the mid-century (2-4%) and for the end of the century (4.5-5.5%). Due to the clear spatial differences in climate characteristics, we divided the studied area into five sub-regions to analyse the different changes on these areas; we determined that the high mountains (Pyrenees, Mediterranean-Oceanic transitional climate) and the lands of the Ebro River Basin (Continental sub-Mediterranean climate) will probably be the most affected. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Increasing late winter-early spring fire activity in Northern Spain: climate change or human footprint?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carracedo Martín, Virginia; García Codron, Juan Carlos; Rasilla Álvarez, Domingo

    2016-04-01

    Most of the fire activity across Spain concentrates during the summer months, but a secondary peak appears also during late winter and early spring (February and March). This peak represents a tiny fraction of the burned surface but in northern Spain becomes the main fire season, representing up to 60 % of the total burned surface. Moreover, the impact of this "unseasonal" fire regime is becoming more relevant; an analysis of the temporal evolution of the burned surface since 2005 shows that the suppression efforts of summer forest fires have apparently succeeded, while the opposite has occurred with late winter-early spring forest fires. For example, during March 2012 more than 22,000 ha were burned in the Spanish provinces of Asturias and Cantabria, while about 14,000 suffers the effects of fires in Northern Portugal. Anthropogenic factor (mostly linked to an extensive cattle farming in the mountains) are the main cause of such fire activity, but atmospheric factors also play a relevant role in the spread of this fires. Consequently, the main aim of this poster is to explore if the recent evolution of forest fires in the study area are consequence of an aggravation of the atmospheric conditions driving to more fire risk conditions, or other factor could also explain the increase in fire activity. Burned surface data obtained from official statistics since 1971 were compared with atmospheric data at two temporal scales: daily fire risk values calculated from synoptic records and long term drought indices (SPI and SPEI). The results show a long term increase in both daily fire risk and drought conditions, but this trend can be related to the background warming of the area, rather to an increase in the frequency and magnitude of the extreme fire weather events. Thus, we consider that the regional atmospheric evolution cannot explain by itself the recent increase in late winter-early spring fire activity. Additional anthropogenic factors, such as recent changes in

  10. Vegetation and climate history from Laguna de Río Seco, Sierra Nevada, southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. S.; Jimenez-Moreno, G.

    2010-12-01

    The largest mountain range in southern Spain - the Sierra Nevada - is an immense landscape with a rich biological and cultural heritage. Rising to 3,479 m at the summit of Mulhacén, the range was extensively glaciated during the late Pleistocene. Subsequent melting of cirque glaciers allowed formation of numerous small lakes and wetlands. One south-facing basin contains Laguna de Río Seco, a small lake at ca. 3020 m elevation, presently above potential treeline. Pollen analysis of sediment cores documents over 11,000 calendar years of vegetation change there. The early record, to ca. 5,700 cal yr BP, is dominated by pine pollen, with birch, deciduous oak, and grass, with an understory of shrubs types. Pine trees probably never grew at the elevation of the lake, but aquatic microfossils indicate lake levels were highest prior to ca. 7,800 cal yr BP, perhaps as a result of heavy winter precipitation, and early Holocene expansion of the ITCZ. Drier conditions commenced by 5,700 cal yr BP, shown by declines in wetland pollen, and increases in high elevation steppe shrubs more common today (juniper, sage, and others). The local and regional impact of humans increased substantially after ca. 2700 years ago, with the regional loss of pine forest or woodland, increases in pollen and spore types associated with pasturing, and olive cultivation at lower elevations.

  11. Epidemiological Characteristics of Renal Colic and Climate-Related Causes in a Continental Area in Spain.

    PubMed

    Cepeda Delgado, Marcos; López Izquierdo, Raúl; Amón Sesmero, José Heriberto; Del Pozo Vegas, Carlos; Álvarez Manzanares, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of renal colic (RC) in a northwestern area of Spain and its relationship with seasonal and meteorological characteristics. We examined 700,257 cases that presented at the emergency room (ER) between 2005 and 2013. We reviewed data such as age, gender, arrival at ER, tests performed and destination after ER. Monthly data regarding temperature, humidity and hours of daylight were taken into account. The Student t-test, the Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-square test were used for the statistical analysis. RC visits were correlated with meteorological characteristics using the Pearson correlation coefficients. A total of 9,330 cases were diagnosed as RC episodes (1.41% of total cases presented). The age range was 14-100 years and mean age was 47 years. Prevalence in men was higher (55.6%) than in women (44.4%). After the seasonal decomposition analysis by month, a significant increase in RC incidence was observed in the months of June, July, August and December (107-114%). There is a statistically significant correlation between mean monthly temperature and RC visit rate (R 0.33, p < 0.001). The incidence of RC in our region is slightly higher than the one described in the literature. A significant increase in RCs is observed in the summer months, as well as a significant correlation between incidence and temperature. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Science in pictures: Visual representation of climate change in Spain's television news.

    PubMed

    León, Bienvenido; Erviti, M Carmen

    2015-02-01

    The images used by the media to represent science can help people's understanding of complex processes and create meaningful links with audiences. This is particularly relevant in the case of climate change (CC), an important phenomenon that, nevertheless, is often perceived as a remote issue, with no relevance to daily life. This article presents the main results of a research on the images used in television news to represent CC. From a sample of 1476.4 hours of Spanish television news programmes, a content analysis of 78 stories on climate change was carried out. This was complemented with six semi-structured interviews at five TV newsrooms. Results indicate that the low rate of coverage of CC can be related to the scarcity of attractive images available to the channels.

  13. Nursing personnel's perceptions of the organizational climate in public and private hospitals in Spain.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, I; Ramos, V Benítez; Serrano, J L Cobos; Ramos Cobos, M C; Souza, A

    2011-06-01

    Organizational climate is considered one of the most significant determinants of individual and group behaviour in institutions. The International Council of Nurses has launched a campaign to improve professional recognition, support for personal development, safety and health at work. To analyse nursing personnel's organizational climate perceptions using the Work Environment Scale (WES) in two categories of hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in public and private hospitals. Two sampling approaches were used. At the Public Hospital, the sample was randomly selected (n = 297, 168 nurses and 129 other nursing personnel). At the Private Hospitals, a convenience sampling method was used (n = 66, 14 nurses and 52 other nursing personnel). The study used descriptive and inferential statistic analyses to explain the nursing personnel perception of organizational climate and to explore variations between nurses and other nursing personnel in both categories of hospitals. Sixty per cent and seventy per cent of WES subscales yielded scores below the midpoint for the perception of work environment in public and private hospitals, respectively. Mean scores for both categories were similar, except for the subscales of Pressure and Control that were higher in Private Hospitals. In the Public Hospital, nurses scored significantly lower than other nursing personnel in Involvement, Innovation and Comfort. Based on these findings, it is suggested that nurse managers should introduce strategies to set conditions for a better work environment in public and private hospitals. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  14. Epidemiological survey of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in pet dogs in south-eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianwei; Liu, Qingbiao; Wang, Demou; Li, Wanmeng; Beugnet, Frédéric; Zhou, Jinlin

    2017-01-01

    To understand the epidemiology of tick infestation and tick-borne diseases in pet dogs in south-eastern China and to develop a reference for their prevention and treatment, we collected 1550 ticks parasitizing 562 dogs in 122 veterinary clinics from 20 cities of south-eastern China. Dogs were tested for common tick-borne pathogens; collected ticks were identified and processed for the detection of tick-borne pathogens. The use of an in vitro ELISA diagnostic kit for antibody detection (SNAP®4Dx® Plus) on dog sera found the infection rates with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma spp. to be 0.4%, 1.3% and 2.7%, respectively. By using a specific ELISA method, the infection rate with Babesia gibsoni was 3.9%. Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, Haemaphysalis longicornis and Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides were the major tick species identified on pet dogs. PCR tests were conducted to detect five tick-borne pathogens in 617 ticks. The infection rate was 10.2% for E. canis, 3.4% for Anaplasma platys, 2.3% for B. gibsoni, 0.3% for B. burgdorferi s.l. and 0% for Babesia canis. Some ticks were co-infected with two (1.46%) or three pathogens (0.16%). These results indicate the infestation of pet dogs by ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens in south-eastern China, and the need for effective treatment and routine prevention of tick infestations in dogs. © J. Zhang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  15. Deep-water chaunacid and lophiid anglerfishes (Pisces: Lophiiformes) off the south-eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caruso, John H.; Ross, S.W.; Sulak, K.J.; Sedberry, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research cruises to deep (80-910 m) reef habitats off the south-eastern U.S. and in the northern Gulf of Mexico have provided new information on the diagnostic characteristics, behaviours, colour patterns in life, bottom associations, distributions and maximum sizes of species of the anglerfish genera Chaunax, Lophiodes and Sladenia. Chaunax stigmaeus occurred much further south than previously known (Blake Plateau off South Carolina), and all C. stigmaeus observed were found associated with dense beds of dead coral (Lophelia pertusa) rubble or on broken hard bottom. In contrast, Chaunax suttkusi was found on soft bottoms. Chaunax stigmaeus and C. suttkusi appear to be sympatric over a major portion of their ranges. Because knowledge of pigmentation in live or freshly caught Chaunax is critical to distinguish some members of the genus, changes in the colouration of C. suttkusi were noted and documented photographically immediately after death and after fixation. The yellow spots found on some, but not all specimens, temporarily disappeared completely after death, but they reappeared after fixation, slowly disappearing thereafter along with other carotenoid pigments. Lophiodes beroe and Lophiodes monodi were collected for the first time off the Atlantic coast of the U.S., being previously known only from the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the northern coast of South America. For both species (L. beroe and L. monodi), the collections included the two largest known representatives of the species (400 and 325 mm standard length, respectively). Lophiodes beroe commonly occurred on L. pertusa rubble, and seemed to prefer this habitat. Occupying such a habitat that is deep and difficult to sample probably explains how this common species escaped detection. Only a single L. monodi was collected or observed, so this species appears to be uncommon in this geographic area or at least so on coral rubble habitat. Detailed aspects of the colour patterns of both species

  16. The Neoproterozoic Abu Dahr ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: petrological characteristics and tectonomagmatic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahlan, Hisham A.; Azer, Mokhles K.; Khalil, Ahmed E. S.

    2015-10-01

    The Neoproterozoic Abu Dahr ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt, is one of the best preserved and least dismembered ophiolite successions in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. It contains a Penrose-type ophiolite sequence from mantle section below mafic crust upward to oceanic sedimentary cover overlying mafic volcanics, although the original magmatic (stratigraphic) contact between the mantle and crustal sections is disrupted by tectonism. The Abu Dahr ophiolite is metamorphosed under greenschist facies conditions, and low-temperature alteration is widespread. Petrography reveals that: (i) the mantle is homogenous, serpentinized, and dominated by harzburgite and less abundant dunite; (ii) the cumulate ultramafics are represented by wehrlite and pyroxenite; and (iii) the crustal section is represented by metagabbros, meta-anorthosites and metabasalts. The Abu Dahr serpentinized peridotites show high Mg# (0.92-0.93), with enrichment of Ni, Cr and Co, and depletion of Al2O3 and CaO, and nearly flat and unfractionated REE chondrite-normalized pattern. Major and trace element characteristics of the Abu Dahr metagabbro and metabasalt (crustal section) indicate a tholeiitic to calc-alkaline affinity. Units of the crustal section have low-Nb and Zr concentrations, low Dy/Yb and relatively elevated La/Yb ratios, high U/Yb and Th/Yb ratios, and LREE enriched chondrite-normalized pattern. All of the Abu Dahr ophiolite units have trace-element signatures characterized by enrichment of LILE over HFSE. Rare and trace element patterns indicate a genetic link between the Abu Dahr mantle, cumulate ultramafics, and crust. Chromian spinel has survived metamorphism and is used as a petrogenetic indicator in the Abu Dahr serpentinized peridotites. The spinel is homogeneous with a limited composition, and shows high-Cr# (>0.6) combined with low-TiO2 character (mostly <0.1 wt.%). The Abu Dahr ophiolite is interpreted as a fragment of depleted oceanic lithosphere that experienced high degrees

  17. Attitude to sperm donation among medical students in Enugu, South-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onah, H E; Agbata, T A; Obi, S N

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the knowledge, attitude and practices of a sample of Nigerian medical students towards sperm donation. It was a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire survey of fifth and final year medical students of the College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu campus, South-eastern Nigeria. Out of 205 eligible medical students in both classes, 180 (87.8%) responded. There were 99 male and 81 female respondents. Their ages ranged from 20 to 30 years with a mean of 24.0 +/- 2.0 years. All the participants were Christians. A total of 177 (98.3%) of the respondents were aware of the practice of sperm donation for the treatment of infertility, while three students had never heard of it. A total of 15 (15.2%) of the male respondents reported their willingness to donate their sperm for infertile couples. The main motivation for wanting to donate sperm was a desire to help infertile couples. A total of 24 (30%) of the female respondents were willing to accept donor semen should the need arise. The leading factors which discouraged the male respondents from donating semen were that the practice was either against their religious belief (41.7%) or in their opinion, was morally wrong (22.6%). Some 10.7% were afraid of a possible adverse effect on future fertility, while 9.5% were afraid of being screened for sexually transmitted infections; 20 (35%) of the female respondents would not accept donor semen because of the psychological and emotional effects of having to bring up a child that is not their husband's; 13 (23%) said it was against their religious faith, while 10 (18%) believed that adopting a child was better than accepting donor semen. Eight (14%) were afraid of contracting HIV infection through donor semen, while six (11%) declined because they would not want the paternity of their child to be questioned later. With respect to the participants' views on identity disclosure, 35 (90%) of the 39 respondents willing to donate or accept sperm

  18. Sedimentological Comparison of Recent Storm and Tsunami Deposits from the South-Eastern Coastline of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouramanis, Chris; Switzer, Adam; Srinivasalu, Seshachalam; Anandasabari, Karthik; Pham, Dat; Carson, Stephen; Pilarczyk, Jessica; Hussain, Mohammad; Yap, Wenshu; Jones, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Storm and tsunami deposits have been identified and described from many siliciclastic coastlines globally, but detailed comparison of both known storm and tsunami deposits from the same coastlines are lacking. An opportunity to compare storm and tsunami sedimentary deposits was recognised following sediment deposition by Cyclone Thane (25th to 31st December 2011) that were superimposed on sediments deposited during the Indian Ocean Tsunami (26th December 2004) in a pit (DPM3a) near Cuddalore, on the south-eastern Indian coastline. A second pit, at Silver Beach (SB1) was located 2 km south of Pit DPM3a, was examined for comparison with Pit DPM3a. Pit DPM3a contained four distinct units, an oldest intertidal unit, the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and a reworked aeolian sand that is capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. Pit SB1 contained an oldest intertidal deposit, an estuarine beach and capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. The identification of these units was verified from satellite imagery. The pits were examined at 1cm increments for grainsize and grain shape characteristics, loss on ignition, heavy mineral concentrations and microfossils. Representative samples from each unit were collected for detailed mineralogy analysis using X-ray Diffraction. A suite of statistical analyses, including exploratory data analysis techniques, analysis of variance and principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to compare the measured parameters and the individual deposits within and between pits DPM3a and SB1. Individual deposits showed significant differences in many of the parameters, but no individual variable was diagnostic of the deposits. PCA of Pit DPM3a suggested that the proportion of heavy minerals was the strongest parameter to distinguish the storm deposit from the tidal, aeolian and tsunami deposit, but that significant overlap between the deposits occurred. The application of DFA showed that in Pit DPM3a, the storm deposit

  19. Tick bites on humans in the agricultural and recreational areas in south-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Bartosik, Katarzyna; Sitarz, Monika; Szymańska, Jolanta; Buczek, Alicja

    2011-01-01

    The investigations were conducted in the Lublin province (south-eastern Poland) in areas of high agricultural and recreational value. Among the 418 patients admitted to medical clinics due to arthropod bites in the years 2003-2005, 184 people (44%) had been bitten by ticks. As shown by the research, high-risk groups include people whose stay in tick habitats is connected with their occupational work (54.5%) as well as recreation and tourism (45.5%). As many as 78.7% of the patients were attacked by Ixodes ricinus ticks in forests, and much fewer (31.3%) in other habitats located in urban and rural areas. In one case, a Dermacentor reticulatus female was attached to the skin. Ticks were most commonly located on the upper (28.8%) and lower (27.2%) extremities, and on the abdomen (15.8%). Local skin reactions (57.6%) with predominance of erythema were the most prevalent. Combined local and systemic symptoms were reported less frequently (20.1%). The general symptoms were headache (10.8% of patients), fever (5.4%), lymphadenitis (5.9%) and arthralgia (4.3%). No lesions produced by tick bites were reported in 22.3% of the patients. Field studies conducted in 2003-2004 demonstrated that I. ricinus is a common species in the southern part of the Lublin province, where the density of nymphs and adult forms in various localities during the period of peak seasonal activity (in May) ranges from 18.5-26 specimens/1 h of collection. Two tick species, I. ricinus and D. reticulatus, occur in the northern part of the province. The density of I. ricinus nymphs and adult forms as well as D. reticulatus adults is in the range of 2.5-42 specimens/1 hr of collection and 19.5-64.0 speciments/1 hr of collection, respectively. Due to the high risk of tick attacks in the study area, there arises the necessity to permanent the monitoring of ticks numbers and tick-borne diseases.

  20. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    PubMed

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  1. Spatial distribution of selected heavy metals and soil fertility status in south-eastern Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saljnikov, E.; Mrvic, V.; Cakmak, D.; Nikoloski, M.; Perovic, V.; Kostic, L.; Brebanovic, B.

    2009-04-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals is one of the most powerful factors destroying biosphere components that directly affecting agricultural production quality and therefore health of human and animals. Regional soil contamination by heavy metals occurs mainly in industrial areas and in big cities. However, pollutants can be air-and/or water-transferred to big distances and may accumulated far from industrial zone what makes difficult to distinguish original background concentrations of heavy metals in soil. Our study covers south-eastern part of Serbia and is a part of a big project studying soil fertility and heavy metal contamination all around Serbia. Diverse natural characteristics and heterogeneity of soil cover, as well as, human activity greatly influenced soil fertility parameters, while, diverse geological substrate and human activity determined the level of potential geochemical pollution. There are number of industrial factories functioning from the last century on the studied area. Also, close to studied area, there was a mining in the middle of the last century. About 600 soil samples from surface 0-30 cm were investigated for main soil fertility characteristics (pH, humus, available K and P) and concentrations of selected heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb). Soils graded as very acidic cover 46% of the area, which are mainly mountains with acidic parent materials. Content of humus in 41% of soil samples were below 3%. The most of the soils (71%) are weakly supplied available phosphorus. While available potassium in more than 70% is presented in the concentrations enough for good soil quality. So, about 75% of studied area is characterized with unfavorable soil fertility properties (extremly low soil pH, very low content of available P, about half of the area maintained low soil humus) that is located under forests, meadows and pastures. Content of heavy metals on studied area in 80% of sampled soils was below maximum allowed concentrations

  2. Humeral Fractures in South-Eastern Australia: Epidemiology and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Kara L; Bucki-Smith, Gosia; Morse, Amelia G; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Kotowicz, Mark A; Moloney, David J; Sanders, Kerrie M; Korn, Sam; Timney, Elizabeth N; Dobbins, Amelia G; Pasco, Julie A

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the epidemiology and risk factors for humeral fractures (proximal humerus and shaft) among men and women residing in south-eastern Australia. Incident fractures during 2006 and 2007 were identified using X-ray reports (Geelong Osteoporosis Study Fracture Grid). Risk factors were identified using data from case-control studies conducted as part of the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Median age of fracture was lower in males than females for proximal humerus (33.0 vs 71.2 years), but not for humeral shaft (8.9 vs 8.5 years). For females, proximal humerus fractures occurred mainly in the 70-79 and 80+ years age groups, whereas humeral shaft fractures followed a U-shaped pattern. Males showed a U-shaped pattern for both proximal humerus and humeral shaft fractures. Overall age-standardised incidence rates for proximal humerus fractures in males and females were 40.6 (95% CI 32.7, 48.5) and 73.2 (95% CI 62.2, 84.1) per 100,000 person years, respectively. For humeral shaft fractures, the age-standardised rate was 69.3 (95% CI 59.0, 79.6) for males and 61.5 (95% CI 51.9, 71.0) for females. There was an increase in risk of proximal humerus fractures in men with a lower femoral neck BMD, younger age, prior fracture and higher milk consumption. In pre-menopausal women, increased height and falls were both risk factors for proximal humerus fractures. For post-menopausal women, risk factors associated with proximal humerus fractures included a lower non-milk dairy consumption and sustaining a prior fracture. Humeral shaft fractures in both sexes were sustained mainly in childhood, while proximal humerus fractures were sustained in older adulthood. The overall age-standardised rates of proximal humerus fractures were nearly twice as high in females compared to males, whereas the incidence rates of humeral shaft fractures were similar.

  3. Rock glaciers and protalus ramparts in the south-eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Renato R.; Boccali, Chiara; Žebre, Manja; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Rock glaciers and protalus ramparts are characteristic landforms of the periglacial domain often used as markers of the permafrost occurrence in mountain terrains. Therefore, relict rock glaciers can be used for paleoclimate reconstructions. We present here the first rock glacier inventory of south-eastern Alps (including the northeasternmost region of Italy and Slovenia) obtained through the use of high resolution orthophotos and high resolution digital terrain model interpolated from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR). We mapped 53 rock glaciers covering a total area of 3.45 km2. The majority of rock glaciers are classified as relict and distributed between 1,708 and 1,846 m a.s.l. with slope range between 19° and 27°. Their altitudinal range is the lowest for the southern Alps and comparable with what has been found for relict rock glaciers in the Northern Alps of Austria (1,798 m) and in the Austrian Niedere Tauern Range (1,823-1,850 m). Besides rock glaciers we also observed 66 protalus (pronival) ramparts covering 0.48 km2. They are predominantly located in the Carnic Alps, Julian Alps and Karavanke (80% of the total); the majority is distributed between 1,697 m and 2,007 m a.s.l. Protalus (pronival) ramparts situated in the Carnic Alps and Prealps (47% of the total) generally follow the same geographical distribution of rock glaciers, whereas more than half of the inventoried protalus (pronival) ramparts are located in the more maritime area of the Alps where there is the higher precipitation. The analysis also highlighted 9 pronival ramparts located in front of permanent snow/firn bodies and small glacierets. These ridges produce a damming effect for avalanches which enhance accumulation of winter snow, a significant impact to the local mass balance. Using paleoclimate reconstruction based on the existing 1981-2010 climatology of the area, we infer that the rock glaciers possibly formed during one of the dry and cold periods of the late Pleistocene (12.8±0

  4. Prevalence of tobacco use among students aged 13-15 years in the South-Eastern Europe health network.

    PubMed

    Stojiljkovic, Djordje; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Republic of Moldova, Romania, and Serbia. Current cigarette smoking rates among students ranged from 5.6% to 33.1%. Current use of tobacco products other than cigarettes ranged from 3.6% to 10.2%. If effective programs are not developed, implemented, and enforced, morbidity and mortality attributed to tobacco use will surely increase.

  5. Fluvial response to climate variations and anthropogenic perturbations for the Ebro River, Spain in the last 4,000 years.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fei; Kettner, Albert J; Ashton, Andrew; Giosan, Liviu; Ibáñez, Carles; Kaplan, Jed O

    2014-03-01

    Fluvial sediment discharge can vary in response to climate changes and human activities, which in return influences human settlements and ecosystems through coastline progradation and retreat. To understand the mechanisms controlling the variations of fluvial water and sediment discharge for the Ebro drainage basin, Spain, we apply a hydrological model HydroTrend. Comparison of model results with a 47-year observational record (AD 1953-1999) suggests that the model adequately captures annual average water discharge (simulated 408 m(3)s(-1) versus observed 425 m(3)s(-1)) and sediment load (simulated 0.3 Mt yr(-1) versus observed 0.28 ± 0.04 Mt yr(-1)) for the Ebro basin. A long-term (4000-year) simulation, driven by paleoclimate and anthropogenic land cover change scenarios, indicates that water discharge is controlled by the changes in precipitation, which has a high annual variability but no long-term trend. Modeled suspended sediment load, however, has an increasing trend over time, which is closely related to anthropogenic land cover variations with no significant correlation to climatic changes. The simulation suggests that 4,000 years ago the annual sediment load to the ocean was 30.5 Mt yr(-1), which increased over time to 47.2 Mt yr(-1) (AD 1860-1960). In the second half of the 20th century, the emplacement of large dams resulted in a dramatic decrease in suspended sediment discharge, eventually reducing the flux to the ocean by more than 99% (mean value changes from 38.1 Mt yr(-1) to 0.3 Mt yr(-1)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Climate change and Saharan dust drive recent cladoceran and primary production changes in remote alpine lakes of Sierra Nevada, Spain.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Laura; Rühland, Kathleen M; Jeziorski, Adam; Smol, John P; Pérez-Martínez, Carmen

    2017-08-22

    Recent anthropogenic climate change and the exponential increase over the past few decades of Saharan dust deposition, containing ecologically important inputs of phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca), are potentially affecting remote aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we examine changes in cladoceran assemblage composition and chlorophyll-a concentrations over the past ~150 years from high-resolution, well-dated sediment cores retrieved from six remote high mountain lakes in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of Southern Spain, a region affected by Saharan dust deposition. In each lake, marked shifts in cladoceran assemblages and chlorophyll-a concentrations in recent decades indicate a regional-scale response to climate and Saharan dust deposition. Chlorophyll-a concentrations have increased since the 1970s, consistent with a response to rising air temperatures and the intensification of atmospheric deposition of Saharan P. Similar shifts in cladoceran taxa across lakes began over a century ago, but have intensified over the past ~50 years, concurrent with trends in regional air temperature, precipitation, and increased Saharan dust deposition. An abrupt increase in the relative abundance of the benthic cladoceran Alona quadrangularis at the expense of Chydorus sphaericus, and a significant increase in Daphnia pulex gr. was a common trend in these softwater lakes. Differences in the magnitude and timing of these changes are likely due to catchment and lake-specific differences. In contrast with other alpine lakes that are often affected by acid deposition, atmospheric Ca deposition appears to be a significant explanatory factor, amongst others, for the changes in the lake biota of Sierra Nevada that has not been previously considered. The effects observed in Sierra Nevada are likely occurring in other Mediterranean lake districts, especially in soft water, oligotrophic lakes. The predicted increases in global temperature and Saharan dust deposition in the future will further

  7. Intrinsic Factors Influencing the Infection by Helminth Parasites in Horses under an Oceanic Climate Area (NW Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, I.; Arias, M.; Cortiñas, F. J.; Francisco, R.; Mochales, E.; Dacal, V.; Suárez, J. L.; Uriarte, J.; Morrondo, P.; Sánchez-Andrade, R.; Díez-Baños, P.; Paz-Silva, A.

    2009-01-01

    A coprological survey to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors (breed, age, and sex) on the infection by helminth parasites in equine livestock (n = 418) under an oceanic climate area (NW Spain) was conducted. Faecal samples were individually collected and analyzed by the coprological techniques. The main strongylid genera identified were Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles). The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode was 89% (95% CI 86, 92) and 1% cestoda (0, 2). The percentage of horses with strongyloid parasites was 89% (86, 92), 11% (8, 14) for Parascaris, and 3% (1, 5) for Oxyuris. The highest prevalence for ascariosis was observed in the youngest horses (<3 years), for oxyurosis in the >10 years animals, and for strongylosis in the 3–10 years ones. Females were significantly more parasitized than males. A negative correlation between the age and the egg-excretion of ascarids and strongyles was recorded. The autochthonous and the English Pure Blood horses were the most parasitized. We concluded that the infections by helminths, especially the strongyloids, are significantly common in the region, so that greater importance should be given to this situation. PMID:20721327

  8. Climate change adaptation & mitigation strategies for Water-Energy-Land Nexus management in Mediterranean region: Case study of Catalunya (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Water-Energy-Land (WEL) Nexus management is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to supply-demand management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. On the other hand, climate adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated, and resource sensitive regions like Mediterranean provide ample opportunities towards that end. While the water sector plays a key role in climate adaptation, mitigation focuses on the energy and agriculture sector. Recent studies on the so-called WEL nexus confirm the potential synergies to be derived from mainstreaming climate adaptation in the water sector, while simultaneously addressing opportunities for co-management with energy (and also land use). Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water & energy supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Catalonia) and to test the scenario based climate adaptation & mitigation strategy for WEL management policies. Resource sensitive area of Catalonia presents an interesting nexus problem to study highly stressed water demand scenario (representing all major demand sectors), very heterogeneous land use including intensive agriculture to diversified urban and industrial uses, and mixed energy supply including hydro, wind, gas turbine to nuclear energy. Different energy sectors have different water and land requirements. Inter-river basin water transfer is another factor which is considered for this area. The water-energy link is multifaceted. Energy production can affect water quality, while energy is used in water treatment and to reduce pollution. Similarly, hydropower - producing energy from water - and desalination - producing freshwater using energy - both play important role in economic growth by supplying large and secure amounts of 'green' energy or

  9. Climatic spatial variability in Extremadura (Spain) based on viticultural bioclimatic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moral, F. J.; Rebollo, F. J.; Paniagua, L. L.; García, A.

    2014-12-01

    The evaluation of general suitability for viticulture in wine regions requires a knowledge of the spatial variation in temperature, which is also used to assess different grapevine cultivars and to delimit appropriate zones for winegrape production. However, usually temperature data and methods applied to properly delineate homogeneous areas are not adequate to generate accurate maps. With the aim of providing an analysis using four temperature-based indices, quantifying their spatial variability, and representing the spatial pattern of each index throughout Extremadura, one of the most important Spanish wine regions, temperature data from 117 meteorological stations, considering the 1980-2011 period, were utilized. The statistical properties of each index were assessed and, later, they were mapped by means of an integrated geographic information system (GIS) and a multivariate geostatistics (regression-kriging) approach. Results show that heat-sum temperature indices were highly related to the more simple growing season temperature; however, temperature regime differences varied upon which index was employed. The spatial variability of climate within Extremaduran natural regions (NR) is significant; although the warmer conditions predominate, some NR have part of their territory by up to eight climate classes. This information enables a better understanding of the viticulture suitability within each NR and delineating homogeneous zones. The use of consistent bioclimatic indices and an advanced geostatistical algorithm have made it possible to delimit and compare within-region climates and also enabled comparisons of Extremaduran NR with others worlwide, which should be taken into account to select varieties and assess the possibilities of producing new wines.

  10. Climatic spatial variability in Extremadura (Spain) based on viticultural bioclimatic indices.

    PubMed

    Moral, F J; Rebollo, F J; Paniagua, L L; García, A

    2014-12-01

    The evaluation of general suitability for viticulture in wine regions requires a knowledge of the spatial variation in temperature, which is also used to assess different grapevine cultivars and to delimit appropriate zones for winegrape production. However, usually temperature data and methods applied to properly delineate homogeneous areas are not adequate to generate accurate maps.With the aim of providing an analysis using four temperature-based indices, quantifying their spatial variability, and representing the spatial pattern of each index throughout Extremadura, one of the most important Spanish wine regions, temperature data from 117 meteorological stations, considering the 1980–2011 period, were utilized. The statistical properties of each index were assessed and, later, they were mapped by means of an integrated geographic information system (GIS) and a multivariate geostatistics (regression-kriging) approach. Results show that heat-sum temperature indices were highly related to the more simple growing season temperature; however, temperature regime differences varied upon which index was employed. The spatial variability of climate within Extremaduran natural regions (NR) is significant; although the warmer conditions predominate, some NR have part of their territory by up to eight climate classes. This information enables a better understanding of the viticulture suitability within each NR and delineating homogeneous zones. The use of consistent bioclimatic indices and an advanced geostatistical algorithm have made it possible to delimit and compare within-region climates and also enabled comparisons of Extremaduran NR with others worlwide, which should be taken into account to select varieties and assess the possibilities of producing new wines.

  11. Recent climate trends and multisecular climate variability: temperature and precipitation during the cold season (October-March) in the Ebro Basin (NE of Spain) betrween 1500 and 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saz-Sanchez, M.-A.; Cuadrat-Prats, J.-M.

    2009-09-01

    One of the goals of Paleoclimatology is to assess the importance and the exceptional nature of recent climate trends related to the anthropogenic climate change. Instrumental data enable the analysis of last century's climate, but do not give any information on previous periods' precipitation and temperature, during which there was no anthropic intervention on the climate system. Dendroclimatology is one of the paleoclimatic reconstruction sources giving best results when it comes to reconstructing the climate of the time before instruments could be used. This work presents the reconstructed series of precipitation and temperature of the cold season (October-March) In the central sector of the Ebro Valley (NE of Spain). The chronologies used for the reconstruction come on the one hand from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) and on the other hand from the dendrochronological information bank created in the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula within the framework of the Spanish Interministerial Commission for Science and Technology (CICYT) CLI96-1862 project. The climate data used for chronology calibration and the reconstruction of the temperature and precipitation values are those of the instrumental observatory number 9910 (Pallaruelo) belonging to the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología or AEMET), located in the central sector of the Ebro Valley. The reconstruction obtained covers the 1500-1990 period. In order to extend the series up to 2008, instrumental information has been used. Thanks to data from a set of AEMET instrumental observatories close to the one used for chronology calibration, a regional series of temperatures as well as a precipitation one were generated. The series reconstructed through dendroclimatic methods and the regional series do not show statistically significant differences in their mean and variance values. R values between both series exceed 0.85. Taking these statistical characteristics

  12. Fluvial-system response to climate change: The Paleocene-Eocene Tremp Group, Pyrenees, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombera, Luca; Arévalo, Oscar J.; Mountney, Nigel P.

    2017-10-01

    The Tremp Group of the Tremp-Graus Basin (Southern Pyrenees, Spain) is a succession of predominantly continental origin that records the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a transient episode of extreme global warming that occurred across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. For this succession, the stratigraphic position of the PETM is accurately determined, and histories of tectonic and sea-level controls are well constrained. Building upon previous studies, this work assesses changes in sedimentary architecture through the PETM in the Tremp Group, based on quantitative sedimentological analyses documented over a km-scale strike-oriented transect in the Arén area, with the scope to better understand the response of this alluvial system to the hyperthermal event. The analysed features represent a partial record of the geomorphic organization and processes of the system at the time of deposition, and are therefore interpretable in terms of geomorphic change in alluvial landscapes caused by the PETM. The record of the PETM, as previously recognized, begins at a time when erosional palaeotopographic relief was developed and deposition was confined in valleys. A shift between valley back-filling and widespread aggradation is observed at the onset of the PETM interval, which demonstrates uniquely the impact of the hyperthermal on both depositional loci and interfluves. Compared to underlying strata, the interval that embodies the onset and main phase of the PETM is characterized by: (i) higher proportion of channel deposits; (ii) channel complexes of greater average thickness and width; (iii) barforms and channel fills that are slightly thicker; (iv) increased thickness of sets of cross-stratified sandstones; (v) similar values of maximum extraclast size, by architectural element. An evident change in the facies organization of channel deposits is also seen through the stratigraphy, though this appears to predate the PETM. Increased channel-body density in the PETM

  13. Postglacial history of alpine vegetation, fire, and climate from Laguna de Río Seco, Sierra Nevada, southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. S.; Jiménez-Moreno, G.; Carrión, J. S.; Pérez-Martínez, C.

    2011-06-01

    The Sierra Nevada of southern Spain is a landscape with a rich biological and cultural heritage. The range was extensively glaciated during the late Pleistocene. However, the postglacial paleoecologic history of the highest range in southern Europe is nearly completely unknown. Here we use sediments from a small lake above present treeline - Laguna de Río Seco at 3020 m elevation - in a paleoecological study documenting over 11,500 calendar years of vegetation, fire and climate change, addressing ecological and paleoclimatic issues unique to this area through comparison with regional paleoecological sequences. The early record is dominated by Pinus pollen, with Betula, deciduous Quercus, and grasses, with an understory of shrubs. It is unlikely that pine trees grew around the lake, and fire was relatively unimportant at this site during this period. Aquatic microfossils indicate that the wettest conditions and highest lake levels at Laguna de Río Seco occurred before 7800 cal yr BP. This is in contrast to lower elevation sites, where wettest conditions occurred after ca 7800. Greater differences in early Holocene seasonal insolation may have translated to greater snowpack and subsequently higher lake levels at higher elevations, but not necessarily at lower elevations, where higher evaporation rates prevailed. With declining seasonality after ca 8000 cal yr BP, but continuing summer precipitation, lake levels at the highest elevation site remained high, but lake levels at lower elevation sites increased as evaporation rates declined. Drier conditions commenced regionally after ca 5700 cal yr BP, shown at Laguna de Río Seco by declines in wetland pollen, and increases in high elevation steppe shrubs common today ( Juniperus, Artemisia, and others). The disappearance or decline of mesophytes, such as Betula from ca 4000 cal yr BP is part of a regional depletion in Mediterranean Spain and elsewhere in Europe from the mid to late Holocene. On the other hand

  14. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in Ohaji exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soil as recommended by EU. Lead, Cd, and Ni in the food crops were highest in Oryza sativa, Glycine max, and Pentabacta microfila respectively. Highest levels of Pb, Cd, and Ni, in fruits were detected in Canarium schweinfurthii, Citrus reticulata, Ananas comosus respectively. The true lead and cadmium intake for the rice based meal were 3.53 and 0.034 g/kg respectively. Whereas the true intake of lead and cadmium for the cassava based meal were 19.42 and 0.049 g/kg respectively. Conclusion Local food stuff commonly available in South Eastern Nigeria villages may contribute to the body burden of heavy metal. This is of public health importance. PMID:22853175

  15. The role of continental shelf width in determining freshwater phylogeographic patterns in south-eastern Australian pygmy perches (Teleostei: Percichthyidae).

    PubMed

    Unmack, Peter J; Hammer, Michael P; Adams, Mark; Johnson, Jerald B; Dowling, Thomas E

    2013-03-01

    Biogeographic patterns displayed by obligate freshwater organisms are intimately related to the nature and extent of connectivity between suitable habitats. Two of the more significant barriers to freshwater connections are seawater and major drainage divides. South-eastern Australia provides a contrast between these barriers as it has discrete areas that are likely influenced to a greater or lesser extent by each barrier type. We use continental shelf width as a proxy for the potential degree of river coalescence during low sea levels. Our specific hypothesis is that the degree of phylogeographic divergence between coastal river basins should correspond to the continental shelf width of each region. This predicts that genetic divergences between river basins should be lowest in regions with a wider continental shelf and that regions with similar continental shelf width should have similar genetic divergences. Pygmy perches (Nannoperca australis and Nannoperca 'flindersi') in south-eastern Australia provide an ideal opportunity to test these biogeographic hypotheses. Phylogeographic patterns were examined based on range-wide sampling of 82 populations for cytochrome b and 23 polymorphic allozyme loci. Our results recovered only limited support for our continental shelf width hypothesis, although patterns within Bass clade were largely congruent with reconstructed low sea-level drainage patterns. In addition, we identified several instances of drainage divide crossings, typically associated with low elevational differences. Our results demonstrate high levels of genetic heterogeneity with important conservation implications, especially for declining populations in the Murray-Darling Basin and a highly restricted disjunct population in Ansons River, Tasmania.

  16. Academic stress and menstrual disorders among female undergraduates in Uyo, South Eastern Nigeria - the need for health education.

    PubMed

    Ekpenyong, C E; Davis, K J; Akpan, U P; Daniel, N E

    2011-12-20

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between academic stress and menstrual disorders among female undergraduates in Uyo, South Eastern Nigeria. Three hundred and ninety-three (393) female students of the University of Uyo, ages between 16 and 35 years were randomly selected from different departments in the University, and studied during the 2009/2010 academic session. Menstrual history and Student's Stress Assessment Questionnaire (SSAQ) were used for this assessment. They were distributed for participants to fill out. Prevalence of menstrual disorder among participants was 34.6%. A direct association between menstrual disorder and academic stress was observed. Commonest menstrual disorder was menorrhagia (37.5%). Others were: Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS 33.1%), Oligomenorrhea 19.9% and amenorrhea 5.9% (P<0.05). Those who experienced academic stress had about 2 times chances of having menstrual disorders (OR : 2.0, C.I = 1.224-2.837) at P<0.05. This study demonstrated a significant association between academic stress and menstrual disorder among females undergraduate in Uyo, South Eastern Nigeria.

  17. Establishment of the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority Resource Center for Children with Prenatal Alcohol/Drug Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Løhaugen, Gro C. C.; Flak, Marianne Møretrø; Gerstner, Thorsten; Sundberg, Cato; Lerdal, Bjørn; Skranes, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new initiative in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway to establish a regional resource center focusing on services for children and adolescents aged 2–18 years with prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs. In Norway, the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum (FAS) is not known but has been estimated to be between 1 and 2 children per 1000 births, while the prevalence of prenatal exposure to illicit drugs is unknown. The resource center is the first of its kind in Scandinavia and will have three main objectives: (1) provide hospital staff, community health and child welfare personnel, and special educators with information, educational courses, and seminars focused on the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of children with a history of prenatal alcohol/drug exposure; (2) provide specialized health services, such as diagnostic services and intervention planning, for children referred from hospitals in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway; and (3) initiate multicenter studies focusing on the diagnostic process and evaluation of interventions. PMID:26692762

  18. Detection of Echinococcus granulosus coproantigens in faeces from naturally infected rural domestic dogs in south eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; McKinlay, A; Duolong, H E; Bradshaw, H; Craig, P S

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of Echinococcus granulosus in rural domestic dogs in farming areas around Yass, New South Wales, and Mansfield and Whitfield, Victoria. Faeces were collected per-rectally from farm dogs voluntarily presented by their owners in four farming districts in New South Wales and two in Victoria. Faeces were collected in the field, an extract prepared from each sample and E granulosus coproantigens detected in an ELISA. Farmers were also questioned about their dog feeding and worming practices. Echinococcus granulosus coproantigens were detected in 99 of 344 dogs (29%) from 95 farms in south eastern New South Wales and 38 of 217 dogs (17.5%) from 43 farms in Victoria. Cross-reactions between E granulosus coproantigen trapping antibody and coproantigens in faeces from dogs monospecifically infected with other species of intestinal helminthes (Taenia ovis, T hydatigena, T pisiformis, Spirometra ericacei, Dipylidium caninum, hookworm, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis) were not evident. Dietary and worming data revealed many owners fed raw meat and occasionally offal from domestic livestock and wildlife to their dogs and few owners wormed their dogs frequently enough to preclude the chance of patent E granulosus being present in their dogs. Echinococcus granulosus occurs commonly in rural dogs in south eastern Australia and an education program promoting the public health importance of responsible management of rural dogs is urgently needed.

  19. Parents' perceptions of timing of initiation of sexuality discussion with adolescents in Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Emelumadu, O F; Ezeama, N N; Ifeadike, C O; Ubajaka, C F; Adogu, P O U; Umeh, U; Nwamoh, U N; Ukegbu, A U; Onyeonoro, U U

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed at determining the perception of the timing and practice of sexuality discussion among parents in South Eastern Nigeria. A cross-sectional, descriptive, community-based study. The study was carried out in 3 randomly selected Local Government Areas in Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria. The study participants were parents with adolescent children resident in the study areas for at least 2 years. Most parents opined that sexuality discussion should be initiated after puberty. Only 20% of them discussed reproductive health issues often with their adolescents, while another 20% never discussed such issues with their adolescent children. Topics most commonly discussed bordered on the adverse consequences of sex rather than measures for preventing them. About half of parents were willing to discuss contraception with their adolescent child. Predictors of parent-child communication were age, gender, and educational status. Common reasons for low parental involvement in sexuality discussions were due to their lack of capacity and the perception that discussing such issues before puberty is ill timed. Therefore, measures should be taken to improve the capacity of parents to engage in such conversations to provide sexuality information to their teens. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. New insights into the last deglaciation of the south-eastern flank of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitinas, Albertas

    2012-06-01

    The existing glaciodynamic paradigm used to explain the dynamics, morphogenesis, and deglaciation of the last Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) does not satisfactorily reflect all the nuances of ice sheet dynamics, formation of particular forms of glacial relief, and details of deglaciation. Significant problems are to be found in the explanations proposed for the processes of deglaciation. Therefore a new theory for the deglaciation of the last SIS, based on new geochronological, geological, and geomorphological data has been developed and is presented here. It is suggested that along the south-eastern perimeter of the SIS, with the exception of the Salpausselkä moraine ridges, there is no evidence anywhere for re-advances of the SIS during deglaciation. Apart from the Salpausselkä moraine ridges the evidence for so-called 'stadial' or 'phasial' recessional events is interpreted as the result of SIS surges that occurred at different times and positions along the ice sheet margin. This new theory also proposes that deglaciation of the south-eastern flank of the SIS was dominated by surface thinning rather than marginal retreat. Characteristic landforms such as kame terraces located on the distal slopes of recessional marginal ridges and plateau-like glaciolacustrine kames, were developed during deglaciation probably due to the interaction of active ice lobes (surges) and masses of dead ice that persisting beyond the ice margin.

  1. Mapping of PM10 surface concentrations derived from satellite observations of aerosol optical thickness over South-Eastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péré, J.-C.; Pont, V.; Mallet, M.; Bessagnet, B.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at developing a methodology based on in-situ experimental observations in order to use satellite retrievals as a tool for monitoring air particulate pollution. This methodology is applied during summer time on the South-Eastern France, which is one of the most polluted zones over Europe, enclosing further large cities and industrial sites. In a first time, we consider correlations between daily mean AERONET AOT and PM10 concentrations at five sites located as well close to as far from pollution sources. Our results show significant correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.68 to 0.79, following the site studied. Several factors like aerosol vertical distribution or hygroscopic growth factor could affect the link between PM10 ground measurements and aerosol optical thickness. To statistically strengthen this approach, we gather data sets from three types of sites (urban, near urban and rural) and establish a linear relationship between daily mean AOT measured from AERONET and PM10 mass concentrations. Secondly and thanks to good agreements between AOT measured from AERONET and AOT retrieved from the MODIS sensor, we calculate estimated concentrations of PM10 by using MODIS retrievals above the South-Eastern France. Uncertainties about this approach are discussed.

  2. Geological record of the 365 A.D. Crete tsunami in south-eastern Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardi, Flavia; Serafina Barbano, Maria; de Martini, Paolo Marco; Pirrotta, Claudia; Smedile, Alessandra; Pinzi, Stefania; Del Carlo, Paola

    2010-05-01

    Five years ago we started a coring campaign with the purpose to identify evidence for tsunami inundations along the coastal areas of eastern Sicily, that were affected in historical times by devastating tsunamis, generated both by local earthquakes, such as the 1169, 1693 and 1908 events, and by distant seismic sources, such as those belonging to the Aegean subduction zone (e.g. the A.D. 365 Crete earthquake). Following a multi-theme approach, we used the available historical information to address geomorphological study of the coastal landscape: aerial-photographs analysis, satellite images interpretation and field surveys allowed us to select areas likely invaded by tsunami waves in the past, representing potential trap-site for high energy deposits sedimentation and preservation. Given the variability in the nature of tsunami deposit characteristics, they are not uniquely identifiable, and other kinds of high energy deposits may share some of their features. Despite the abundant literature regarding diagnostic criteria for tsunami deposits, their distinction from storm and hurricane deposits remains a debated issue. We present the geological evidence of a tsunami inundation that left continuous onshore sandy deposit inside the Pantano Morghella along the south-eastern Sicilian coast. Pantano Morghella an almost flat area, about 1.3 km long and 0.8 km wide, surrounded by Upper Cretaceous lavas and volcanoclastic deposits, Late Cretaceous limestone calciruditi, calcarenites and marls. To the east Quaternary deposits, beach sands and 3 m high, partially cemented, dunal system (Holocene and Late Pleistocene) separate the Pantano from the sea forming the intertidal pond with a little channel from which sea water can rush into. The site was partially used as salt-pans in the recent past. In this site, we dug 33 cores down to a maximum depth of 5.80 m, from 200 m up to 1200 m from the coastline. The sedimentological core analysis reveals a fine stratigraphic sequence

  3. Geocemical provinces of magmatism in the south-eastern part of the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushchevskaya, Nadezhda; Belyatsky, Boris; Teterin, Dmitry

    2010-05-01

    Comparison of geochemical signatures of island magmatism in the south-eastern part of the Pacific Ocean and tholeiites of the Bransfield and Powell rift zones revealed the similar character of the enrichment which reflects the melting of a close mantle source. But alkaline magmatism of the islands in the west of Antarctic and Marie Byrd Land differs from the enriched basalts of the northern province (Bransfield, Powell, BTJ) by showing more radiogenic Sr values and non-radiogenic Nd. The tectonic development of the South Ocean is characterized by its formation under stationary conditions of Antarctic continent. As a result of this, for the volcanic islands distributed at the western part of the Antarctic we observe no long mountain ridges typical for their development under conditions of the moving plate. Intraplate magmatism evolution was coincided with the extinction of the old subduction zones, formation of the new rift zones and separation of South America from Antarctic [Udintsev, Schenke, 2007; Teterin, 2008]. Such complicated geodynamics caused the possibility of formation of rupture cracks reaching the underlying metasomatizated mantle and decompression melting with further island formation. In Oligocene due to migration of asthenospheric flow from the west to east in the result of destruction of previously united continental blocks there was formed the Scotia Sea, South Sandwich island arc as well as Drake Passage. This caused the mechanical weakening of South Atlantic lithosphere and the starting at the end of Oligocene - beginning Miocene of the new plate border formation - American-Antarctic ridge, which propagated in the eastern direction till the Bouvet triple junction [Dubinin et al., 1999]. The close geochemical signatures of mantle source for islands basalts including the Bouvet Island and the enriched tholeiites of the western extremity of the SW Indian Ridge proves the development of a specific geochemical province enveloping the southeastern

  4. Ocean Colour Radiometry across the Southern Atlantic and South-Eastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudorff, N. D.; Kampel, M.; Frouin, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    An oceanographic cruise across the Southern Atlantic and South-eastern Pacific was undertaken from February 20th to March 14th, 2011, on board the R/V Melville (MV1102). The research vessel crossed highly dynamic regions with important roles on regional and global biogeochemical cycles, such as: the Benguela Upwelling System, the Subtropical Convergence Zone, the Patagonian Shelf, the Magellan Strait, and the Chilean Eastern Boundary Upwelling Zone. The Southern Ocean has been focus of many ocean colour studies due to the high spatio-temporal variability of bio-optical constituents and its biogeochemical importance. Nevertheless, the high latitudes and rough seas of the Southern Ocean are a great challenge for the estimation of these properties from in situ and satellite sensors. The present work shows the first results of the MV1102 cruise with the aim to access the magnitude and possible sources of errors for the estimation of in situ above water remote sensing reflectance (Rrs). Simultaneous measurements were taken at 18 stations with two hyperspectral radiometers: the Fieldspec HandHeld ASD Inc. (350-1100nm) for above water measurements, and the HyperOCR II Satlantic Inc. (380-800 nm) for in-water profiles. Above water measurements were performed with a sensor viewing geometry of 45o zenith and 137o azimuth solar angles, and the downwelling solar irradiance (ED) was estimated using a white Spectralon plaque. The Rrs was estimated with an average of 10 casts per station, and different sky reflectance factors were used to adjust to environmental conditions. Two methods were used to retrieve the Rrs: M01, without the residual sky correction (RSC); and M02, with the RSC, subtracting the Rrs at 870 nm, as a white spectral offset. The M02 was applied for all stations except in the Magellan Strait (coastal waters). For the profiler, the above water Rrs was estimated using two methods: MP01, with the ED measured from the profiler; and MP02, with ED measured from the

  5. Effects of topsoil treatments on afforestation in a dry Mediterranean climate (southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso-González, Paloma; Francisco Martínez-Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz-Sinoga, Jose

    2016-10-01

    Afforestation programs in semiarid areas are associated with a high level of sapling mortality. Therefore, the development of alternative low-cost and low-environmental-impact afforestation methods that ensure the survival of seedlings is crucial for improving the efficiency of Mediterranean forest management. This study assessed the effects of five types of soil amendments on the afforestation success (e.g., plant growth and survival) of a Mediterranean semiarid area. The amendments tested were (i) straw mulch; (ii) mulch containing chipped branches of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis L.); (iii) sheep manure compost; (iv) sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant; and (v) TerraCottem hydroabsorbent polymer. We hypothesized that in the context of dry Mediterranean climatic conditions, the use of organic amendments would enhance plant establishment and ensure successful afforestation. The results showed that afforestation success varied among the various soil amendment treatments in the experimental plots. The amendments had no effect on soil organic carbon, pH, or salinity, but the results indicated that the addition of mulch or hydroabsorbent polymer can reduce transplant stress by increasing the soil water available for plant growth throughout the hydrological year, and potentially improve the success of afforestation by reducing plant mortality.

  6. An assessment of the influence of sulfidic mine wastes on rainwater quality in a semiarid climate (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcolea, A.; Fernández-López, C.; Vázquez, M.; Caparrós, A.; Ibarra, I.; García, C.; Zarroca, M.; Rodríguez, R.

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the influence of the Sierra Minera de Cartagena - La Unión mining wastes on the surrounding areas, due to the sediment transport in the atmosphere. Monitoring of 15 weather stations located in the Campo de Cartagena land (SE Spain) was performed in the period December, 2004-March, 2008. A total of 920 rainfall water samples were collected and analyzed in this study. The network of weather stations covered a wide range of soil use and human activities (industrial, urban, agricultural, and mining sites). The physicochemical characterization involved determination of pH, EC, major ions, and the metals of interest in the soluble fraction of rainwater. Precipitations had an alkaline pH (7.0-7.9) and, compared to World Health Organization guidelines for drinking-water quality, samples were characterized by low EC (76-930 μS/cm), Ni (0.1-8 μg/L), Cu (3-88 μg/L), As (0.04-2 μg/L), Na+ (3-16 mg/L), K+ (0.41-30 mg/L), Ca2+ (6-51 mg/L), Mg2+ (up to 5 mg/L), Cl- (4-23 mg/L), NO3- (1-30 mg/L), and SO42- (4-35 mg/L) values. In certain locations, Zn, Cd, and Pb exceeded the guideline limits. A downward trend of H+, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in total depositions was observed while the distance to the area affected by mining activities increased in the first 20 km. Rainwater quality was found to be just subtly affected by the metal-sulfide abandoned minesites, but without presenting a current threat to neither public health nor natural ecosystem. Nevertheless, greater attention should be paid in the future projections of climate change, where a significant increase in aridity may favor the atmospheric transport of pollutant particles.

  7. [Influence of climate, according to Koppën classification and Lang's index, on gross rate mortality associated with prostate cancer in the geographical area of Spain].

    PubMed

    Santos Arrontes, D; Fernández Arjona, M; Valer López-Fando, M P; Cortés Aránguez, I

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate if the climatic factors of temperature and rainfall influence mortality associated with prostate cancer for a period of five years. The mortality trends associated with prostate cancer will be evaluated in the period ranging from 1st january 1998 to 31st december 2002, in the geographical area of Spain. The demographic and mortality data were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and the climatologically data on temperature and rainfall were obtained from the National Meteorology Institute applying the values registered in 2002. Based on the meteorological data, the different provinces are classified in accordance with Koppën climate classification and climatic index of Lang that defines them from the mean annual and monthly temperature and rainfall data. Mortality rates will be expressed by 100.000 men year, applying for their study the Kruskall-Wallis test for "n" independent samples through the SPSS v12.0 Windows software. Three main climatic areas are obtained, one area with type B climate, which accounts for 13% of the total population, a Csa climate, and a Csb, accounting for 67 and 20% respectively. The mortality found is higher in the Csb type for prostate cancer (p= 0.007), as compared to the other two climatic areas. Mortality associated with prostate cancer is significantly higher in the regions with a lower sun exposure. However, randomized prospective studies confirming these findings are warranted.

  8. A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, D. Philip; Kati, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations’ persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM) to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms. Four different vulture avoidance rates were considered in the CRM. Cumulative collision mortality was expected to be eight to ten times greater in the future (proposed and operating wind farms) than currently (operating wind farms), equivalent to 44% of the current population (103 individuals) if all proposals are authorized (2744 MW). Even under the most optimistic scenario whereby authorized proposals will not collectively exceed the national target for wind harnessing in the study area (960 MW), cumulative collision mortality would still be high (17% of current population) and likely lead to population extinction. Under any wind farm proposal scenario, over 92% of expected deaths would occur in the core area of the population, further implying inadequate spatial planning and implementation of relevant European legislation with scant regard for governmental obligations to protect key species. On the basis of a sensitivity map we derive a spatially explicit solution that could meet the national target of wind harnessing with a minimum conservation cost of less than 1% population loss providing that the population mortality (5.2%) caused by the operating wind farms in the core area would be totally mitigated. Under other scenarios, the vulture population would probably be at serious risk of extinction. Our ‘win-win’ approach is appropriate to other potential conflicts where wind farms may cumulatively threaten wildlife

  9. A multi-locus molecular phylogeny for Australia's iconic Jacky Dragon (Agamidae: Amphibolurus muricatus): phylogeographic structure along the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Mitzy; Barquero, Marco D; Whiting, Martin J; Keogh, J Scott

    2014-02-01

    Jacky dragons (Amphibolurus muricatus) are ubiquitous in south-eastern Australia and were one of the first Australian reptiles to be formally described. Because they are so common, Jacky dragons are widely used as a model system for research in evolutionary biology and ecology. In addition, their distribution along the Great Dividing Range of eastern Australia provides an opportunity to examine the influence of past biogeographical processes, particularly the expansion and contraction of forest habitats, on the diversification of this iconic agamid lizard. We generated sequence data for two mitochondrial and three nuclear DNA loci (4251base pairs) for 62 Jacky dragons sampled from throughout their distribution. Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian species-tree methods revealed five geographically structured clades separated by up to 6% mitochondrial and 0.7% nuclear sequence divergence. We also quantified body proportion variation within and between these genetic clades for more than 500 specimens and found no evidence of any significant differentiation in body proportions across their range. Based on body proportion homogeneity and lack of resolution in the nuclear loci, we do not support taxonomic recognition of any of the mitochondrial clades. Instead, A. muricatus is best thought of as a single species with phylogeographic structure. The genetic patterns observed in the Jacky dragon are consistent with fragmented populations reduced to multiple refugia during cold, arid phases when forested habitats were greatly restricted. Consequently, the inferred biogeographic barriers for this taxon appear to be in line with lowland breaks in the mountain ranges. Our results are congruent with studies of other reptiles, frogs, mammals, birds and invertebrates, and together highlight the overarching effects of widespread climatic and habitat fluctuations along the Great Dividing Range since the Pliocene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Vasilakis, Dimitris P; Whitfield, D Philip; Kati, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations' persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM) to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms. Four different vulture avoidance rates were considered in the CRM. Cumulative collision mortality was expected to be eight to ten times greater in the future (proposed and operating wind farms) than currently (operating wind farms), equivalent to 44% of the current population (103 individuals) if all proposals are authorized (2744 MW). Even under the most optimistic scenario whereby authorized proposals will not collectively exceed the national target for wind harnessing in the study area (960 MW), cumulative collision mortality would still be high (17% of current population) and likely lead to population extinction. Under any wind farm proposal scenario, over 92% of expected deaths would occur in the core area of the population, further implying inadequate spatial planning and implementation of relevant European legislation with scant regard for governmental obligations to protect key species. On the basis of a sensitivity map we derive a spatially explicit solution that could meet the national target of wind harnessing with a minimum conservation cost of less than 1% population loss providing that the population mortality (5.2%) caused by the operating wind farms in the core area would be totally mitigated. Under other scenarios, the vulture population would probably be at serious risk of extinction. Our 'win-win' approach is appropriate to other potential conflicts where wind farms may cumulatively threaten wildlife

  11. Sedimentary and chemostratigraphic record of climatic cycles in Lower Pliensbachian marl-limestone platform successions of Asturias (North Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bádenas, Beatriz; Aurell, Marc; Armendáriz, Maider; Rosales, Idoia; García-Ramos, José Carlos; Piñuela, Laura

    2012-12-01

    A combined sedimentological, lithological and chemostratigraphical (Mg/Ca, δ13C, δ18O) analysis of the Lower Pliensbachian marl-limestone platform successions exposed along the Asturias coastline (northern Spain) has resulted in the characterization of high-frequency cycles. The highest-order sedimentary cycles (i.e. elementary cycles) are centimeter- to deciemeter-thick alternations of bioclastic and muddy laminated/burrowed facies, which do not match the marl-limestone couplets. They encompass three sedimentary stages: deposition from storm-density currents (bioclastic facies), dominant lateral advection of continental terrigenous mud accumulated on to an oxygen-deficient seafloor (laminated facies), and recovery of bottom oxygenation involving the burrowing of laminated sediments (burrowed facies). The close match between the number of elementary cycles recorded during the Jamesoni Subzone in Asturias and Yorkshire (Northern England) gives support to the idea of the influence of a regional climatic factor (i.e. millennial-scale cyclicity). Decimeter- to meter-scale cycles formed by bundles of elementary cycles are thought to record orbitally driven climatic changes (precession or obliquity, depending on the time calibration considered). Lower hemicycles of bundles are dominated by marls/calcareous mudstones, with decreasing burrowing and eventual preservation of laminated facies. They formed during humid periods, which controlled an increase in freshwater and terrigenous input to the platform and quasi-estuarine circulation promoting bottom-anoxia. Upper hemicycles of bundles are dominated by burrowed and bioclastic limestones, thought to be formed under arid conditions with anti-estuarine circulation and an increase of shallow carbonate production and offshore resedimentation. Chemostratigraphic data from belemnites recorded in the muddy laminated and burrowed facies indicate that significant concomitant shifts in δ13C and δ18O occurred during the lower

  12. Future trends of snowfall days in northern Spain from ENSEMBLES regional climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, M. R.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    In a previous study Pons et al. (Clim Res 54(3):197-207, 2010. doi: 10.3354/cr01117g) reported a significant decreasing trend of snowfall occurrence in the Northern Iberian Peninsula since the mid 70s. The study was based on observations of annual snowfall frequency (measured as the annual number of snowfall days NSD) from a network of 33 stations ranging from 60 to 1350 m. In the present work we analyze the skill of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to reproduce this trend for the period 1961-2000 (using both reanalysis- and historical GCM-driven boundary conditions) and the trend and the associated uncertainty of the regional future projections obtained under the A1B scenario for the first half of the twenty-first century. In particular, we consider the regional simulation dataset from the EU-funded ENSEMBLES project, consisting of thirteen state-of-the-art RCMs run at 25 km resolution over Europe. While ERA40 severely underestimates both the mean NSD and its observed trend (-2.2 days/decade), the corresponding RCM simulations driven by the reanalysis appropriately capture the interannual variability and trends of the observed NSD (trends ranging from -3.4 to -0.7, -2.1 days/decade for the ensemble mean). The results driven by the GCM historical runs are quite variable, with trends ranging from -8.5 to 0.2 days/decade (-1.5 days/decade for the ensemble mean), and the greatest uncertainty by far being associated with the particular GCM used. Finally, the trends for the future 2011-2050 A1B runs are more consistent and significant, ranging in this case from -3.7 to -0.5 days/decade (-2.0 days/decade for the ensemble mean), indicating a future significant decreasing trend. These trends are mainly determined by the increasing temperatures, as indicated by the interannual correlation between temperature and NSD (-0.63 in the observations), which is preserved in both ERA40- and GCM-driven simulations.

  13. Riparian Vegetation and Water Chemistry in a Basin Under Semiarid Mediterranean Climate, Andarax River, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, M. J.; Blanca, G.; Romero, A. T.

    2000-11-01

    A study has been made of the relationships between the characteristics of the riparian vegetation (floristic composition, structure and diversity) and the spatial-temporal variation of the quality of the stream waters in a basin under a semiarid Mediterranean climate in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula. The plant communities of the high reaches present greater specific richness and diversity ( S mean= 7.0 ± 3.4 and H'mean= 2.0 ± 0.7) than do those of the middle and low reaches ( S mean= 4.5 ± 1.6 and H'mean= 1.8 ± 0.6). One zone reached the highest specific richness ( S= 12, H'= 3.2), which, apart from being situated in the intermediate stretch of the basin, represents a transitional state (ecotone) between the Salix and Tamarix communities. The characteristics of the waters analyzed indicate very high rates of erosion and runoff due to the nature of the soils (easily eroded marls) and to agricultural expansion and mining since the 16th century. The present-day riparian vegetation is not adequate to absorb the nitrates added to the basin by crop fertilization, reaching extremely high values, particularly during the dry period (between 1.2 and 42.5 mg/liter). Sewage dumping at three sampling stations did not appear to affect the specific composition of the woody vegetation. In the zones with watercourses, water salinity was low during the period of greater water flow, but considerably higher in the dry season (the upper limit was some 1.2 mS/m), resulting in a predominance of salt cedars over willows. Three types of saltcedar areas were distinguished: subhalophilous, which barely changes its chemical composition over the season; halophilous, which develops over strongly mineralized waters and markedly alters in chemical composition during the dry season; and hyperhalophilous, where salinity is extraordinarily high and quite constant throughout the year. A direct relationship was found between the dominance of Tamarix africana and abundance of NaCl.

  14. Shear-wave velocity structure of the south-eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula from Rayleigh wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corchete, V.; Chourak, M.

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we present the lithospheric structure of the south-eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula by means of a set of 2D images of shear velocity, for depths ranging from 0 to 50 km. This goal will be attained by means of the inversion of the Rayleigh wave dispersion. For it, the traces of 25 earthquakes occurred on the neighbouring of the study area, from 2001 to 2003, will be considered. These earthquakes have been registered by 11 broadband stations located on Iberia. All seismic events have been grouped in source zones to get an average dispersion curve for each source-station path. The dispersion curves have been measured for periods between 2 and 45 s, by combination of two digital filtering techniques: Multiple Filter Technique and Time Variable Filtering. The resulting set of source-station averaged dispersion curves has been inverted according to the generalized inversion theory, to get S-wave velocity models for each source-station path. Later, these models have been interpolated using the method of kriging, to obtain a 2D mapping of the S-wave velocity structure for the south-eastern part of Iberia. The results presented in this paper show that the techniques used here are a powerful tool to investigate the crust and upper mantle structure, through the dispersion analysis and its inversion to obtain shear velocity distributions with depth. By means of this analysis, principal structural features of the south-eastern part of Iberia, such as the existence of lateral and vertical heterogeneity in the whole study area, or the location of the Moho discontinuity at 30 km of depth (with an average S-velocity of uppermost mantle of 4.7 km/s), have been revealed. Other important structural features revealed by this analysis have been that the uppermost of Iberian massif shows higher velocity values than the uppermost of the Alpine domain, indicating that the massif is old and tectonically stable. The average velocity of the crust in Betic cordillera is of

  15. Molecular typing of PPRV strains detected during an outbreak in sheep and goats in south-eastern Gabon in 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peste des petits ruminanats (PPR) is an economically important viral disease affecting goats and sheep. Four genetically distinct lineages of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) have been identified. In Gabon, the virus has not so far been detected. Findings Epidemiological investigations of Aboumi PPR outbreak revealed a high case fatality rate in sheep (98.9%). We detected and characterized peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), in October 2011, during the suspected outbreak in sheep and goats in Aboumi village located in the south-eastern. PPRV RNA was detected in 10 of 14 samples from three sick animals. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the PPRV strain belonged to lineage IV and was closely related to strain circulating in neighboring Cameroon. Conclusions This is the first molecular detection and typing of the PPRV strain associated with fatal PPR infection in these small ruminants and concrete evidence that PPRV is present and circulating in Gabon. PMID:23497402

  16. Bioprospecting for fast growing and biomass characterization of oleaginous microalgae from South-Eastern Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Do Nascimento, Mauro; Ortiz-Marquez, Juan Cesar Federico; Sanchez-Rizza, Lara; Echarte, María Mercedes; Curatti, Leonardo

    2012-12-01

    As part of pioneering efforts to assess the potential of native microalgae as biofuel feedstock in South-Eastern Buenos Aires, 34 monoalgal cultures (corresponding to the Phylum Chlorophyta) were established and 21 were selected for further growth and biomass composition characterization. Novel RNA sequences in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region were identified. Some strains showed desirable traits as biodiesel feedstock such as (i) apparent maximal doubling times of 6h, (ii) lipids accumulation of up to 43% of their dry biomass, (iii) high ration of mono-unsaturated to poly-unsaturated fatty acids, (iv) high response to CO(2) supplementation, and (v) complete sedimentation in 4h. Data of the outdoors performance of some strains suggested they might represent valuable resources for future research towards the regional development of the technology for microalgae-based biofuels.

  17. Sattleria revisited: unexpected cryptic diversity on the Balkan Peninsula and in the south-eastern Alps (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Huemer, Peter; Timossi, Giovanni

    2014-03-21

    The taxonomy of Sattleria Povolný from the high mountain systems on the Balkan Peninsula and the adjacent parts of the Alps (south-eastern Alps, Dinaric Alps, Rila Mountains) is revised based on recently collected material and re-examined museum vouchers. Adult morphology and molecular data of the COI barcode region support the existence of six strictly allopatric species in this area, including four new species: Sattleria sophiae Timossi, sp. nov. (Parco Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino, Dolomites, Prov. Trento, Italy), Sattleria dolomitica Huemer, sp. nov. (Eastern Dolomites, Prov. South Tyrol, Italy), Sattleria dinarica Huemer, sp. nov. (Durmitor NP, Dinaric Alps, Montenegro) and Sattleria haemusi Huemer, sp. nov. (Rila Mts., Bulgaria; Šar Planina, Macedonia). 

  18. Ideological vs. Instrumental Barriers to Accessing Formal Mental Health care in the Developing World: Focus on South-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ikwuka, Ugo; Galbraith, Niall; Manktelow, Ken; Chen-Wilson, Josephine; Oyebode, Femi; Muomah, Rosemary C; Igboaka, Anuli

    2016-01-01

    The striking gaps in formal mental health care in the developing world are largely traceable to Instrumental and Ideological Barriers. Focusing on south-eastern Nigeria, the study aimed to establish the relative weight, significance and determinants of these barriers for prioritised policy interventions. Multistage sampling method was used to select participants (n = 706) to whom questionnaires were administered. Ideological Barriers (cultural and mental health literacy constraints) were more significantly perceived (84.8%) than Instrumental Barriers (systemic and financial impediments) (56.6%). The study demonstrated the primacy of improved knowledge in plugging the gap in conventional mental health care in a region ironically defined more by systemic and material poverty. This is instructive for prioritised policy interventions with an indication that even if facilities and socio-economic status improve, services will likely be underused without greater improvement in people's conceptualisation of mental illness. It equally underscored the need for cultural competence in mental health service provision.

  19. Distribution and characteristics of metamorphic belts in the south- eastern Alaska part of the North American Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, D.A.; Himmelberg, G.R.; Loney, R.A.; Ford, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Cordilleran orogen in south-eastern Alaska includes 14 distinct metamorphic belts that make up three major metamorphic complexes, from east to west: the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex; the Glacier Bay-Chichagof plutonic-metamorphic complex; and the Chugach plutonic-metamorphic complex. Each of these complexes is related to a major subduction event. The metamorphic history of the Coast complex is lengthy and is related to the Late Cretaceous collision of the Alexander and Wrangellia terranes and the Gravina overlap assemblage to the west against the Stikine terrane to the east. The metamorphic history of the Glacier Bay-Chichagof complex is relatively simple and is related to the roots of a Late Jurassic to late Early Cretaceous island arc. The metamorphic history of the Chugach is complicated and developed during and after the Late Cretaceous collision of the Chugach terrane with the Wrangellia and Alexander terranes. -from Authors

  20. An Online 3D Database System for Endangered Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in the South-Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, D.; Avgousti, A.; Faka, M.; Hermon, S.; Bakirtzis, N.; Christofi, P.

    2017-02-01

    The World Heritage Convention, drawn by various international bodies in 1972, was designed to protect cultural or natural places of outstanding universal value so that future generations may be able to enjoy them. Responding to these principles as well as to the Charter on the Preservation of Digital heritage (Vancouver, 2003), this multidisciplinary project, which involves archaeologists, art historians, conservators and computer scientists, aims to create an open access, 3D interactive online geo-database of endangered architectural and archaeological heritage in the South Eastern Mediterranean basin; a region of tremendous cultural importance whose rech heritage is unfortunately threatened by both natural and human factors. A wide range of 3D modelling and topographic techniques have been applied to create accurate reconstructions of heritage sites, enriched by a extensive array of metadata.

  1. Sympatric and allopatric combinations of Lymnaea columella and Fasciola hepatica from southern and south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, L H L; Lima, W S; Guimaraes, M P

    2009-09-01

    Experimental infections of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica were carried out to test the effect of sympatric and allopatric combinations between parasite and host, by using snails and flukes from southern and south-eastern Brazil. Four groups of 50 snails were infected with four miracidia per snail: two groups in sympatric and two groups in allopatric combinations. Sympatric combinations between parasite and host were more efficient than allopatric ones when snails from Itajubá were used, but the opposite was observed in infections involving snails from Pelotas. The sympatric association between L. columella and F. hepatica from Itajubá was significantly higher than in the other combinations. We concluded that the host-parasite relationship between L. columnella and F. hepatica may vary according to the geographical origin of the snails and flukes involved.

  2. Modelling bloom formation of the toxic dinoflagellates Dinophysis acuminata and Dinophysis caudata in a highly modified estuary, south eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajani, Penelope; Larsson, Michaela E.; Rubio, Ana; Bush, Stephen; Brett, Steve; Farrell, Hazel

    2016-12-01

    Dinoflagellates belonging to the toxigenic genus Dinophysis are increasing in abundance in the Hawkesbury River, south-eastern Australia. This study investigates a twelve year time series of abundance and physico-chemical data to model these blooms. Four species were reported over the sampling campaign - Dinophysis acuminata, Dinophysis caudata, Dinophysis fortii and Dinophysis tripos-with D. acuminata and D. caudata being most abundant. Highest abundance of D. acuminata occurred in the austral spring (max. abundance 4500 cells l-1), whilst highest D. caudata occurred in the summer to autumn (max. 12,000 cells l-1). Generalised additive models revealed abundance of D. acuminata was significantly linked to season, thermal stratification and nutrients, whilst D. caudata was associated with nutrients, salinity and dissolved oxygen. The models' predictive capability was up to 60% for D. acuminata and 53% for D. caudata. Altering sampling strategies during blooms accompanied with in situ high resolution monitoring will further improve Dinophysis bloom prediction capability.

  3. Levels of Possession of Science Process Skills by Final Year Students of Colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akani, Omiko

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the levels of possession of science process skills by final year Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) Students in colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria. The skills that were assessed were observation, experimentation, measurement, communication, and inference. The research was guided by five research…

  4. A new Mylabris species from south-eastern Iran and a key to the Iranian species of the nominate subgenus (Coleoptera, Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Serri, Sayeh; Pan, Zhao; Bologna, Marco A

    2012-01-01

    A new species of Mylabris of the nominate subgenus is described and figured. This species is apparently endemic to the south-eastern Iranian province of Kerman and seems to be phenetically very distinct from all other species of this subgenus, primarily because of the unique elytral pattern. A key to the species of the nominate subgenus distributed in Iran is also presented.

  5. "Bringing Learning Closer to Home": The Value and Impact of the Lisbon Strategy for Strengthening the Role of Local Learning Centres and Partnerships in South-Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarifis, George K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative examination of four local learning centres that provide learning opportunities throughout life in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece and Turkey. The paper aims to assess some of the strengths and weaknesses of different types of local learning centres and partnerships in South-Eastern Europe--in line with the value and…

  6. Teacher Education Reforms between Higher Education and General Education Transformations in South-Eastern Europe: Reviewing the Evidence and Scoping the Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Nataša

    2012-01-01

    The present paper considers reforms and developments in teacher education in South-Eastern European countries as part of overall reforms in higher education, and in light of changes in general education that impact teachers and their preparation. The paper reviews the literature and reports from the region that offer some evidence of and insights…

  7. Infection control and antibiotic stewardship practices reported by south-eastern Mediterranean hospitals collaborating in the ARMed project.

    PubMed

    Borg, M A; Cookson, B D; Gür, D; Ben, Redjeb S; Rasslan, O; Elnassar, Z; Benbachir, M; Bagatzouni, D P; Rahal, K; Daoud, Z

    2008-11-01

    The prevalence of multiply resistant organisms (MROs) reported from south-eastern Mediterranean hospitals highlights the need to identify possible contributory factors to help design control interventions. This was investigated through a structured questionnaire, which examined infection control and antibiotic stewardship practices in hospitals participating or collaborating with the Antibiotic Resistance SurveilLance & Control in the Mediterranean Region (ARMed) project. A total of 45 hospitals (78.9% of invited institutions) responded to the questionnaire; 60% indicated that they faced periods of overcrowding when available bed complement was insufficient to cope with hospital admissions and 62% reported difficulties in isolating patients with MROs due to lack of available beds. Most hospitals relied mainly on washing to achieve hand hygiene, whether by non-medicated or disinfectant soaps. Dependence on solid bars of soap (28.9%) and cloth towels (37.8%) were among the problems identified as well as inconvenient distances of sinks from patient beds (66.6%). Alcohol hand rub was the predominant hand hygiene product in only 7% of hospitals. Programmes for better antibiotic use were mostly limited in scope; 33.3% reported having antibiotic prescribing guidelines and 53.3% of hospitals fed back resistance rates to prescribers. Auditing of antibiotic consumption, whether institution- or unit-based, was carried out in 37.8% of responding hospitals. Multi-faceted approaches aimed at improving isolation of patients with MROs, increasing the emphasis on hand hygiene by encouraging greater use of alcohol hand rubs and introducing effective antibiotic stewardship programmes should be encouraged in south-eastern Mediterranean hospitals.

  8. Genetic diversity and differentiation of Taxodium in the south-eastern United States using cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences.

    PubMed

    Tsumura, Y; Tomaru, N; Suyama, Y; Bacchus, S

    1999-09-01

    Two taxa of Taxodium, bald cypress and pond cypress, occur in the south-eastern United States. The ranges of these taxa overlap in the south-eastern Coastal Plain, with the range of the latter being more restricted. Although these taxa co-occur throughout a portion of the more expansive range of bald cypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) L. C. Rich), the habitats of the two taxa appear to differ. Consequently, considerable debate has occurred regarding the taxonomic status of pond cypress. Some authors recognize pond cypress as a distinct species (Taxodium ascendens Brongn.), whereas others recognize it as a variety/ecotype (Taxodium distichum var. imbricarium (Nutt.) Croom). In this study, the genetic diversity of these two taxa was investigated using 10 DNA markers based on sequences from cDNA clones of Cryptomeria japonica. Cryptomeria is a monospecific genus native to Japan, and is a close relative of Taxodium. These markers were codominant in Cryptomeria and were presumed to be codominant in Taxodium. DNA was extracted from leaf tissue collected from six populations of bald cypress and seven populations of pond cypress throughout Florida and Georgia. The average heterozygosities of bald cypress and pond cypress were 0.386 (SE 0.040) and 0.380 (SE 0.040), respectively. Most of the genetic variation (91.9%) was found within populations, 4.9% was found between populations and 3.2% between taxa. Results of DNA analysis using cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) in this study did not suggest that pond cypress was a species distinct from bald cypress. Our conclusion is that the two taxa of Taxodium should be given varietal status.

  9. The varied beneficial effects of ivermectin (Mectizan) treatment, as observed within onchocerciasis foci in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anosike, J C; Dozie, I N S; Ameh, G I; Ukaga, C N; Nwoke, B E B; Nzechukwu, C T; Udujih, O S; Nwosu, D C

    2007-10-01

    In the treatment of humans, ivermectin (Mectizan((R))), a semi-synthetic macrocyclic lactone, is now primarily used as a rapid microfilaricide. The drug has several other benefits, however, and these have recently been investigated in five states in south-eastern Nigeria, where there have been mass treatments with ivermectin, for the control of Onchocerca volvulus, for more than 10 years. Between the January and December of 2005, 3125 adult onchocerciasis patients (each aged >/=20 years and known to have at least one clinical sign of onchocerciasis) were enlisted, clinically examined and interviewed. Relevant data were collected in the interviews, using a structured, pre-tested questionnaire, and in personal and focus-group discussions. Overall, 612 (19.6%) of the subjects reported that they had had nodules that had disappeared following repeated doses of ivermectin, although only 83.8% of the 612 attributed their nodule clearance to ivermectin (the other 16.2% being unsure of the cause). A larger percentage of the subjects (24.6%) reported that they had expelled intestinal helminths following the last round of ivermectin treatment (i.e. been dewormed). Other side-benefits reported in the study were improved vision (11.7% of subjects), reversal of secondary amenorrhea (4.5%), increased appetite (22.3%), reduction in arthritic or other musculo-skeletal pain (7.9%), reductions in the severity of body itching (18.5%) and skin rash (17.3%), darkening of leopard skin (6.6%), improved libido in men (6.6%), and clearance of head lice (4.5%). If, via health education, the local communities could be made more aware of the side-benefits of ivermectin treatment, the sustainability of the on-going programme of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in south-eastern Nigeria would probably be improved.

  10. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province).

    PubMed

    Tahraoui, A; El-Hilaly, J; Israili, Z H; Lyoussi, B

    2007-03-01

    This survey was undertaken in the Errachidia province in south-eastern Morocco in order to inventory the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Four hundred individuals who knew about and/or had used the medicinal plants for the indicated diseases, including some herbal healers, were interviewed throughout different regions of the province. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common name of the plant, its ecological distribution, the part of the plant and the preparation used and the therapeutic indication. Extensive investigations have brought to light 64 medicinal plants belonging to 33 families; of these, 45 are used for diabetes, 36 for hypertension, and 18 for both diseases. Of these plants, 34% grow in the wild, 44% are cultivated, and 22% are not indigenous to the area and are brought from other parts of Morocco or from outside the country. The survey shows that 78% of the patients regularly use these medicinal plants. In this region, the most frequently used plants to treat diabetes include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Artemisia herba-alba, Carum carvi, Lepidium sativum, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Peganum harmala, Phoenix dactylifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Zygophyllum gaetulum, and those to treat hypertension include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Carum carvi, Nigella sativa, Olea europea, Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, Peganum harmala, and Phoenix dactylifera. The local people recognize the toxic plants and are very careful in using such plants, which are Citrullus colocynthis, Datura stramonium, Nerium oleander, Nigella sativa, Peganum harmala and Zygophyllum gaetulum. Our survey shows that traditional medicine in the south-eastern Moroccan population has not only survived but has thrived in the transcultural environment and intermixture of many ethnic traditions and

  11. Characterization of a rapid climate shift at the MIS 8/7 transition in central Spain (Valdocarros II, Autonomous Region of Madrid) by means of the herpetological assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Panera, Joaquin; Uribelarrea, David; Rubio-Jara, Susana; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2012-07-01

    Climate instability with high-amplitude and rapid shifts during the Middle Pleistocene is well known from pollen records and deep-ocean sediment cores. Although poorly correlatable with such long climate/environment records, the successive fossil amphibian and reptile assemblages from the Middle Pleistocene site of Valdocarros II (Autonomous Region of Madrid, central Spain) provide a unique opportunity to characterize the climatic and environmental features of such rapid (certainly less than 1000 years) shifts from cold to warm conditions in a terrestrial sequence. As the amphibians and reptiles do not differ at species level from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. In this paper, the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods are applied to the herpetofaunistic assemblages in order to estimate quantitative data. The difference in mean annual temperature between "cold" and "warm" periods is estimated at 3.2 °C, with a greater increase in temperature during winter (+3 °C) than during summer (+1 °C). During "cold" periods the climate was more Oceanic (although preserving some dryness during the summers), whereas during "warm" periods the climate became Mediterranean (with mild winters and a long period of dryness in the summer and early autumn). Though higher during cold periods, the continentality (or atmospheric temperature range) remained roughly similar, in accordance with the geographical location of the site in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. A greater amount of open landscape occurred during "cold" periods, whereas during "warm" periods the wooded areas expanded from 20% to 40% of the landscape surface. Such climatic/environmental changes, together with the numeric datings of the site, suggest that this shift may correspond to the transition from MIS 8 to MIS 7, also called Termination III.

  12. Quality assessment of groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H W; Sun, Y Q; Li, Y; Zhou, X D; Tang, X Z; Yi, P; Murad, A; Hussein, S; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Yu, Z B; Chen, X G; Mugwaneza, V D P

    2017-08-01

    Assessment of groundwater quality plays a significant role in the utilization of the scarce water resources globally and especially in arid regions. The increasing abstraction together with man-made contamination and seawater intrusion have strongly affected groundwater quality in the Arabia Peninsula, exemplified by the investigation given here from the United Arab Emirates, where the groundwater is seldom reviewed and assessed. In the aim of assessing current groundwater quality, we here present a comparison of chemical data linked to aquifers types. The results reveal that most of the investigated groundwater is not suitable for drinking, household, and agricultural purposes following the WHO permissible limits. Aquifer composition and climate have vital control on the water quality, with the carbonate aquifers contain the least potable water compared to the ophiolites and Quaternary clastics. Seawater intrusion along coastal regions has deteriorated the water quality and the phenomenon may become more intensive with future warming climate and rising sea level.

  13. Effect of climatic conditions, season and wastewater quality on contaminant removal efficiency of two experimental constructed wetlands in different regions of Spain.

    PubMed

    Garfí, Marianna; Pedescoll, Anna; Bécares, Eloy; Hijosa-Valsero, María; Sidrach-Cardona, Ricardo; García, Joan

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of climate, season and wastewater quality on contaminant removal efficiency of constructed wetlands implemented in Mediterranean and continental-Mediterranean climate region of Spain. To this end, two experimental horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands located in Barcelona and León (Spain) were compared. The two constructed wetland systems had the same experimental set-up. Each wetland had a surface area of 2.95 m(2), a water depth of 25 cm and a granular medium of D(60)=7.3 mm, and was planted with Phragmites australis. Both systems were designed in order to operate with a maximum organic loading rate of 6 g(DBO) m(-2) d(-1). Experimental systems operated with a hydraulic loading rate of 28.5 and 98 mm d(-1) in Barcelona and León, respectively. Total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium mass removal efficiencies followed seasonal trends, with higher values in the summer (97.4% vs. 97.8%; 97.1% vs. 96.2%; 99.9% vs. 88.9%, in Barcelona and León systems, respectively) than in the winter (83.5% vs. 74.4%; 73.2% vs. 60.6%; 19% vs. no net removal for ammonium in Barcelona and León systems, respectively). During the cold season, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium removal were significantly higher in Barcelona system than in León, as a result of higher temperature and redox potential in Barcelona. During the warm season, statistical differences were observed only for ammonium removal. Results showed that horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland is a successful technology for both regions considered, even if winter seemed to be a critical period for ammonium removal in continental climate regions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated analysis of the climate change effects on water availability for catchment management. The case of the Ésera River (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solera, Abel; Segura, Carlos; Bussi, Gianbattista; Momblanch, Andrea; Francés, Félix

    2014-05-01

    The analysis of the impact of climate change on water resources is of primary importance in Mediterranean Areas. Mean precipitation is expected to decrease, although an increase in its torrentiality is foreseen, and temperature is expected to increase. In addition, growing urban water demand and new environmental requirements also contribute to increase water stress. To achieve an improved use of water resources, new and detailed studies of the impact of the climate change are needed. Due to the high complexity of rainfall-runoff processes and the need to incorporate climate change effect in them, physically based distributed models are proposed as a tool for assessing and analysing the climate change impact on water discharge. In this case, the distributed conceptual TETIS model was employed. This model was previously calibrated and validated in order to reproduce the hydrological cycle of a Mediterranean-influenced catchment, the Ésera River (Spain), under current climate conditions. Then, the TETIS model was driven by the results of a climatic model (precipitation and temperature series) under three climatic scenarios: current climate (or control scenario), A2 and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios. Water discharge series were generated at different points of the catchment. The model results pointed out that a global decrease in water yield is devised, being around 33% and 37% for scenario A2 and B2 respectively. Water discharge series were subsequently used in the analysis of climate change impact on water resources and water use in the studied river basin. To do so, a water allocation model was built, calibrated and validated under current streamflow conditions for the Ésera River. It considered all the water management infrastructures, water uses and environmental requirements. The results from TETIS for the three different scenarios were introduced as inputs to the water management model, what allowed performing three simulations. The outcomes

  15. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastics particles during the expeditionary measurement program in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esiukova, Elena; Bagaeva, Margarita; Chubarenko, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    According to the tasks of the Russian Science Foundation project "Physical and dynamical properties of marine microplastics particles and their transport in a basin with vertical and horizontal salinity gradient on the example of the Baltic Sea" number 15-17-10020, a comprehensive expeditionary program of measurements in the South-Eastern Baltic started. The project is aimed at finding solutions for a number of problems caused by superfluous plastic pollution in the World Ocean and, in particular, in the Baltic Sea. This pollution has been accumulating for years and just recently it has become obvious that only multidisciplinary approach (geographical, biological, chemical, etc.) to the issues related to the processes of transformation of properties and propagation of plastic particles will allow the study of physical aspects of the problem. During the first stage of the study samples should be selected from the water surface, water column at various horizons, bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea, from different areas at the beaches - in order to further examine the qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastic particles in different seasons for different hydrophysical situations. Reconnaissance survey was begun to choose the fields for research close to point and distributed sources of microplastics. Preference is given to those beaches that are exposed to maximum anthropogenic pollution: areas around the town of Baltiysk, the northern part of the Vistula Spit (near the settlement of Kosa), and the Sambia peninsula coast (settlements of Yantarny, Donskoye, Primorye, Kulikovo, towns of Svetlogorsk, Pionersky, Zelenogradsk). Locations for experimental sites were found in order to assess time for formation of microplastics (Vistula Spit, Kosa settlement). In June-November, 2015 there were 5 expeditions in the waters of the South-Eastern Baltic, 7 expeditions along the coast line of the Baltic Sea (in Kaliningrad Oblast), and 5 expeditions to the Vistula

  16. Summer and winter plankton fish assemblages around offshore oil and gas platforms in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira, Francisco J.

    2005-06-01

    Opportunistic plankton surveys were conducted within a 5-nmi radius of nine offshore oil and gas platforms in Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia, in February 1998 and 1999 (summer) and August 1998 (winter). The 108 day-night samples collected alongside (vertical tows) and nearby (surface and oblique tows) platforms yielded 1526 larval and early juvenile fishes representing 55 taxa from 45 families. Epipelagic/mesopelagic taxa dominated the catches, whereas hard/soft habitat-associated taxa were uncommon. Carangidae (36.2%) and Myctophidae (31.5%) dominated in summer and winter, respectively. The most abundant taxon was Trachurus declivis (Carangidae, 35.1%), followed by Bovichtus angustifrons (Bovichtidae, 8.7%), Scomberesox saurus (Scomberesocidae, 3.7%), Centroberyx affinis (Berycidae, 3.0%) and Arripis trutta (Arripidae, 1.7%). Fish concentrations (nos. per 100 m 3) alongside platforms did not differ significantly between day and night across all surveys. Likewise, concentrations nearby platforms in February 1999, including those of T. declivis, did not vary significantly by tow type (surface vs. oblique) or day vs. night. The far greater diversity and abundance recorded in February 1999 are likely the result of upwelling conditions over the eastern Bass Strait shelf during the sampling period, and which were not detected in February 1998. In the absence of data on adult fishes associated with the Bass Strait platforms, and given the limited availability of reefs directly around the area, it could be argued that some of the taxa caught may originate from spawning around neighboring natural reefs, particularly those off the Gippsland coastline and the south-east corner of mainland Australia. However, the prime position of the platforms almost right in the center of a productivity "hotspot" would have a confounding effect on the potential source(s) of larval fishes in that region of south-eastern Australia. The role of platforms as potential de-facto reefs for

  17. The use of webcam images to determine tourist-climate aptitude: favourable weather types for sun and beach tourism on the Alicante coast (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Emilio Martínez

    2011-05-01

    Climate has an obvious influence on tourism as a resource and as a location factor for tourist activities. Consequently, the tourist phenomenon in general is heavily controlled by meteorological conditions—in short, by the climate. In this article, the author proposes a set of weather types with which to establish the climate aptitude for sun and beach tourism. To determine these types, the density of use of one of the beaches with the lowest seasonality in continental Europe, the Levante Beach in Benidorm (Alicante, Spain), was analysed. Beach attendance was monitored using a webcam installed by the "Agencia Valenciana de Turismo". The relationship between the density of use of the lower and upper beach areas on the one hand, and meteorological variables on the other, allowed comfort (physiological equivalent temperature) and enjoyment (fractions of solar radiation) thresholds to be established. The appropriate hydric comfort values were obtained by comparing the ranges proposed by Besancenot in 1989 [Besancenot (1989) Clima et turismes. Massom, París] with numbers of visitors to the beach. The wind velocity and precipitation thresholds were selected following consultation with the literature and considering the climatic characteristics of the environment under analysis. Based on a combination of these thresholds, weather types suitable for this specific tourist activity are defined. Thus, this article presents a method for assessing the extent to which a day on the beach can be enjoyed. This has a number of applications, for planners, the tourism business and consumers alike. The use of this (filter) method in climate databases and meteorological forecasts could help determine the tourist season, the suitability of setting up a business associated with sun and beach tourism, as well as help plan holidays and program a day's leisure activities. Thus, the article seeks to improve our understanding of the climate preferences of that tourist activity par

  18. The use of webcam images to determine tourist-climate aptitude: favourable weather types for sun and beach tourism on the Alicante coast (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Emilio Martínez

    2011-05-01

    Climate has an obvious influence on tourism as a resource and as a location factor for tourist activities. Consequently, the tourist phenomenon in general is heavily controlled by meteorological conditions-in short, by the climate. In this article, the author proposes a set of weather types with which to establish the climate aptitude for sun and beach tourism. To determine these types, the density of use of one of the beaches with the lowest seasonality in continental Europe, the Levante Beach in Benidorm (Alicante, Spain), was analysed. Beach attendance was monitored using a webcam installed by the "Agencia Valenciana de Turismo". The relationship between the density of use of the lower and upper beach areas on the one hand, and meteorological variables on the other, allowed comfort (physiological equivalent temperature) and enjoyment (fractions of solar radiation) thresholds to be established. The appropriate hydric comfort values were obtained by comparing the ranges proposed by Besancenot in 1989 [Besancenot (1989) Clima et turismes. Massom, París] with numbers of visitors to the beach. The wind velocity and precipitation thresholds were selected following consultation with the literature and considering the climatic characteristics of the environment under analysis. Based on a combination of these thresholds, weather types suitable for this specific tourist activity are defined. Thus, this article presents a method for assessing the extent to which a day on the beach can be enjoyed. This has a number of applications, for planners, the tourism business and consumers alike. The use of this (filter) method in climate databases and meteorological forecasts could help determine the tourist season, the suitability of setting up a business associated with sun and beach tourism, as well as help plan holidays and program a day's leisure activities. Thus, the article seeks to improve our understanding of the climate preferences of that tourist activity par excellence

  19. The critical role of fire in catchment coevolution in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, P.; Inbar, A.; Lane, P. N. J.; Sheridan, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Temperate south east Australian forested uplands are characterised by complex spatial patterns in forest types, soils and fire regimes, even within areas with similar geologies and landscape position. Preliminary measurements and experiments suggest that positive and negative feedbacks between the vegetation, fuels, fire frequency and soil erosion may control the coevolution of these observed system states. Here we propose the hypotheses that in this landscape post-fire soil erosion has played a dominant role in the coevolved system-state combinations of standing biomass, fire frequency and soil depth. To test the hypothesis a 1D simulation model was developed that links together an ecohydrological model to drive the biomass production and water and energy partitioning, a stochastic fire model that is controlled by climate, fuel load and moisture conditions, and a geomorphic model that controls soil production and fluvial and diffusive sediment transport rates. The model was calibrated to the range of existing observed quasi-equalibrium system-states of soil depth, standing biomass, fuel loading and fire frequency using field measurements from 12 instrumented eco-hydrologic microclimate research sites. The long-term partitioning of rainfall into evaporation, transpiration, and streamflow was calibrated against field and literature values. Fuel moisture and micro-climate variables were calibrated to the field microclimate stations. The calibrated model was able to reasonably replicate the observed quasi-equilibrium system-states and hydrologic outputs using current climate forcings operating over a 10,000 year period, providing confidence in the model structure and performance. The model was then used to test the hypothesis stated above, by alternatively including or excluding the post fire erosion process. An alternate hypothesis, whereby the observed system states are dominated by climate related differences in soil production rates was also tested in this way

  20. Experiences in regional landslide forecasting from Piemonte region (North-western Italy) and South-Eastern Norway between the 15th and the 23rd of May 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiranti, Davide; Boje, Søren; Cremonini, Roberto; Devoli, Graziella; Sund, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Although Italy and Norway belongs to different climates, they can be influenced by the same large low pressure systems. On May 2013, ARPA in Piemonte region and NVE in Norway issued warning for flood and landslides due to the arriving of a deep and large low pressure (known as Vb-tief). This type of weather is well known to produce the largest floods in Europe. Recent studies in Norway confirm that similar systems are also responsible of triggering landslide events. In this contribution we present how the existing forecasting systems in Piemonte region and in Norway react and we summarize our experiences. Regional early warning systems (EWS) are operational both in Piemonte region (Italy) and nationally in Norway to forecast shallow landslides, debris flows and debris avalanches. Both EWSs provides daily landslide hazard assessments based on quantitative thresholds and daily rainfall forecasts coupled with qualitative expert analysis. The ARPA Piemonte warning system has been operational since 1994 while the NVE one since 2013: daily bulletins are published respectively by http://www.arpa.piemonte.gov.it/rischinaturali and www.varsom.no. From 15th May to 19nd June 2013, ARPA Piemonte rain gauges recorded more that 200mm in Piemonte and 60-90cm fresh snow over the Alps above 2000m asl. Several rivers were flooded and diffuse landslides were occurred over all the region. In Norway the same weather type lasts a bit longer from 15th May to 2nd June 2013. South-Eastern Norway received a lot of rain distributed in 2 major events, the 15th - 16th of May and between the 22nd and 23rd of May. In addition, high temperatures produced intense snow melting over a large area. Snow depth was less than normal but the snow melted within two weeks while the frost in the area was deeper than normal. From 21st to 23rd May heavy rainfall, over 70 mm in a few hours, fell over the Glomma river basin, especially over Gudbrandsdalen, causing extensive flood along Glomma river and hundreds

  1. Evaluation of a WRF simulation over South Eastern Australia at multiple time scales.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jason

    2010-05-01

    The climate of the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) has been simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. WRF was implemented using a 10km horizontal grid and integrated for 24 years from 1985 through 2008. The model simulated climate was evaluated against gridded precipitation and temperature observations from the Australian Water Availability Project (AWAP) and found to perform adequately at time scales ranging from daily to multi-year. WRF is able to reproduce daily and seasonal statistics well. It is able to capture the recent drought well for the basin except for an overestimation of the negative anomaly in the northernmost part of the domain. Examining ENSO cycles showed WRF has good skill at capturing the correct spatial distribution of precipitation anomalies associated with El Nino/La Nina events during this 24 year period. This high resolution simulation allows investigation of land - atmosphere coupling within the basin including identification of the dominant water vapour source regions for events and seasons, and quantification of the precipitation recycling.

  2. Mapping health research capacity in 17 countries of the former Soviet Union and south-eastern Europe: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Alessio; Glonti, Ketevan; Bertollini, Roberto; Ricciardi, Walter; McKee, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Policies to improve health status, tackle disease and ensure equitable access to healthcare should be informed by evidence derived from high-quality research. However, health research capacity is unevenly distributed across countries, as revealed by mapping exercises that have been undertaken to provide a basis for concerted action to strengthen capacity. This study systematically describes capacity to undertake health research in the countries of the former Soviet Union and south-eastern Europe and identifies the elements required to create a national health research system. The mapping exercise comprised two elements: a survey of key informants in the respective countries and a bibliometric analysis of scientific publications in the field of public health. Our results confirm that health research remains a low priority in some countries of the WHO European Region. In these countries, most of the literature was produced by researchers outside the country, often to inform international donors. This study provides important information for countries seeking to initiate action to strengthen their research capacity. There is a need for a comprehensive strategy with sustained investment in training and career development of researchers. There is also a need to create new funding systems to provide financial support to those undertaking policy-relevant research. International collaboration and investment in mechanisms to bridge the gap between research and policy are urgently required. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. Links between riparian landcover, instream environment and fish assemblages in headwater streams of south-eastern Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, Bruna B.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Cetra, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesised and tested a hierarchical organisation model where riparian landcover would influence bank composition and light availability, which in turn would influence instream environments and control fish assemblages. The study was conducted during the dry season in 11 headwater tributaries of the Sorocaba River in the upper Paraná River Basin, south-eastern Brazil. We focused on seven environmental factors each represented by one or multiple environmental variables and seven fish functional traits each represented by two or more classes. Multivariate direct gradient analyses suggested that riparian zone landcover can be considered a higher level causal factor in a network of relations that control instream characteristics and fish assemblages. Our results provide a framework for a hierarchical conceptual model that identifies singular and collective influences of variables from different scales on each other and ultimately on different aspects related to stream fish functional composition. This conceptual model is focused on the relationships between riparian landcover and instream variables as causal factors on the organisation of stream fish assemblages. Our results can also be viewed as a model for headwater stream management in that landcover can be manipulated to influence factors such as bank composition, substrates and water quality, whereas fish assemblage composition can be used as indicators to monitor the success of such efforts.

  4. Primate population densities in three nutrient-poor amazonian terra firme forests of south-eastern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Erwin; Peres, Carlos A

    2005-01-01

    We censused primate populations at three non-hunted 'terra firme' forests of south-eastern Colombian Amazonia. The aggregate biomass densities of diurnal primates at all sites were amongst the lowest recorded for any non-hunted forest in western Amazonia and elsewhere in the Neotropics. Densities of red howler monkeys were low, as is typical in Amazonian terra firme forests far removed from white-water rivers, and densities of woolly monkeys were 1.5-3.5 times lower than those estimated for this species in central-western Brazilian Amazonia. Densities of small to mid-sized primates except for brown capuchins (Cebus apella) and white-faced capuchins (Cebus albifrons) were similar to those of other oligotrophic Amazonian forest sites. Our results are in agreement with other studies showing that terra firme forests of lowland Amazonia typically sustain a low biomass density of primates and other mid-sized to large vertebrates. Large reserves are therefore required to assure the viability of primate populations in oligotrophic systems. Given the escalating negative impacts of human habitat disturbance and hunting in Colombian Amazonia, we urge that a baseline sampling protocol to quantify the abundance and distribution of the harvest-sensitive vertebrate fauna be established within protected areas and the large indigenous reserves so that conservation efforts can be defined and implemented.

  5. Petrophysical rock properties of the Bazhenov Formation of the South-Eastern part of Kaymysovsky Vault (Tomsk Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, A. M.; Kudryashova, L. K.; Lee-Van-Khe, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the results of studying petrophysical rock properties of the Bazhenov Formation of the South-Eastern part of Kaymysovsky Vault with the Gas Research Institute (GRI) method. The authors have constructed dependence charts for bulk and grain density, open porosity and matrix permeability vs. depth. The results of studying petrophysical properties with the GRI method and core description have allowed dividing the entire section into three intervals each of which characterized by different conditions of Bazhenov Formation rock formation. The authors have determined a correlation between the compensated neutron log and the rock density vs. depth chart on the basis of complex well logging and petrophysical section analysis. They have determined a promising interval for producing hydrocarbons from the Bazhenov Formation in the well under study. Besides, they have determined the typical behavior of compensated neutron logs and SP logs on well logs for this interval. These studies will allow re-interpreting available well logs in order to determine the most promising interval to be involved in Bazhenov Formation development in Tomsk Region.

  6. Latino MSM and HIV in the rural south-eastern USA: findings from ethnographic in-depth interviews

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Aronson, Robert E.; Bloom, Fred R.; Felizzola, Jesus; Wolfson, Mark; Vissman, Aaron T.; Alonzo, Jorge; Allen, Alex Boeving; Montaño, Jaime; McGuire, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    A community-based participatory research partnership explored HIV risk and potentially effective intervention characteristics to reduce exposure and transmission among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men living in the rural south-eastern USA States. Twenty-one participants enrolled and completed a total of 62 ethnographic in-depth interviews. Mean age was 31 (range 18–48) years, and English-language proficiency was limited; 18 participants were from Mexico. Four participants reported having sex with men and women during the past three months; two participants self-identified as male-to-female transgender. Qualitative themes that emerged included a lack of accurate information about HIV and prevention; the influence of social-political contexts to sexual risk; and barriers to healthcare services. We also identified eight characteristics of potentially effective interventions for HIV prevention. Our findings suggest that socio-political contexts must be additional targets of change to reduce and eliminate HIV health disparities experienced by immigrant Latino men who have sex with men. PMID:20582764

  7. Gonadal Development of the Piau Leporinus copelandii (Characiformes, Anostomidae) in a Tropical River in South-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, F G; Gomes, I D; Nascimento, A A; Sales, A

    2015-08-01

    Histological analysis of the gonadal development of Leporinus copelandii Steindachner, 1875, a rheophilic Characiformes species in the Paraiba do Sul River, South-eastern Brazil, was described. We expect that this species adapt gonadal development to succeed in this river basin that has its longitudinal profile blocked by several impoundments. Fishes were examined by routine macroscopic and histological techniques. Stages of oocyte and spermatocyte development were described, and gonadal maturation was proposed. Mean oocyte diameter obtained from histological observations increased from the pre-spawning (4.2-175.5 μm) to spawning (148.5-262.0 μm) phases, followed by a sharp decrease in the post-spawning (27.0-56.7 μm) phase. Based on occurrence of different oocytes phases and oocyte size distribution, this species has group-synchronic development of oocytes. Further studies are necessary to clarify the spawning grounds for L. copelandii in the Paraíba do Sul River basin, especially considering that several impoundments obliterate the natural river course and this could limit spawning grounds. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. The October 2015 flash-floods in south eastern France: hydrological analyses, inundation mapping and impact estimations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payrastre, Olivier; Bourgin, François; Lebouc, Laurent; Le Bihan, Guillaume; Gaume, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The October 2015 flash-floods in south eastern France caused more than twenty fatalities, high damages and large economic losses in high density urban areas of the Mediterranean coast, including the cities of Mandelieu-La Napoule, Cannes and Antibes. Following a post event survey and preliminary analyses conducted within the framework of the Hymex project, we set up an entire simulation chain at the regional scale to better understand this outstanding event. Rainfall-runoff simulations, inundation mapping and a first estimation of the impacts are conducted following the approach developed and successfully applied for two large flash-flood events in two different French regions (Gard in 2002 and Var in 2010) by Le Bihan (2016). A distributed rainfall-runoff model applied at high resolution for the whole area - including numerous small ungauged basins - is used to feed a semi-automatic hydraulic approach (Cartino method) applied along the river network - including small tributaries. Estimation of the impacts is then performed based on the delineation of the flooded areas and geographic databases identifying buildings and population at risk.

  9. Atypical residency of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) to a shallow, urbanized embayment in south-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Salgado Kent, Chandra; Donnelly, David; Weir, Jeffrey; Bilgmann, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are typically considered highly mobile, offshore delphinids. This study assessed the residency of a small community of short-beaked common dolphins in the shallow, urbanized Port Phillip Bay, south-eastern Australia. The ability to identify common dolphins by their dorsal fin markings and coloration using photo-identification was also investigated. Systematic and non-systematic boat surveys were undertaken between 2007 and 2014. Results showed that 13 adult common dolphins and their offspring inhabit Port Phillip Bay, of which 10 adults exhibit residency to the bay. The majority of these adults are reproductively active females, suggesting that female philopatry may occur in the community. Systematic surveys conducted between 2012 and 2014 revealed that the dolphins were found in a median water depth of 16 m and median distance of 2.2 km from the coast. The shallow, urbanized habitat of this resident common dolphin community is atypical for this species. As a result, these common dolphins face threats usually associated with inshore bottlenose dolphin communities. We suggest that the Port Phillip Bay common dolphin community is considered and managed separate to those outside the embayment and offshore to ensure the community's long-term viability and residency in the bay. PMID:27703709

  10. Species diversity of remnant calcareous grasslands in south eastern Germany depends on litter cover and landscape structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Stephanie; Huber, Birgit; Stahl, Silvia; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Species diversity depends on, often interfering, multiple ecological drivers. Comprehensive approaches are hence needed to understand the mechanisms determining species diversity. In this study, we analysed the impact of vegetation structure, soil properties and fragmentation on the plant species diversity of remnant calcareous grasslands, therefore, in a comparative approach. We determined plant species diversity of 18 calcareous grasslands in south eastern Germany including all species and grassland specialists separately. Furthermore, we analysed the spatial structure of the grasslands as a result of fragmentation during the last 150 years (habitat area, distance to the nearest calcareous grassland and connectivity in 1830 and 2013). We also collected data concerning the vegetation structure (height of the vegetation, cover of bare soil, grass and litter) and the soil properties (content of phosphorous and potassium, ratio of carbon and nitrogen) of the grassland patches. Data were analysed using Bayesian multiple regressions. We observed a habitat loss of nearly 80% and increasing isolation between grasslands since 1830. In the Bayesian multiple regressions the species diversity of the studied grasslands depended negatively on cover of litter and to a lower degree on the distance to the nearest calcareous grassland in 2013, whereas soil properties had no significant impact. Our study supports the observation that vegetation structure, which strongly depends on land use, is often more important for the species richness of calcareous grasslands than fragmentation or soil properties. Even small and isolated grasslands may, therefore, contribute significantly to the conservation of species diversity, when they are still grazed.

  11. Geological record of tsunami inundations in Pantano Morghella (south-eastern Sicily) both from near and far-field sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardi, F.; Smedile, A.; Pirrotta, C.; Barbano, M. S.; De Martini, P. M.; Pinzi, S.; Gueli, A. M.; Ristuccia, G. M.; Stella, G.; Troja, S. O.

    2012-04-01

    Analysis of tsunami deposits from the Pantano Morghella area provided geological evidence for two inundations occurred along the south-eastern Ionian coast of Sicily. Pantano Morghella is a large pond characterised by a fine-grained sedimentation indicating a low-energy depositional environment. Two anomalous yellow sandy layers found at different depths indicate the occurrence of high-energy marine inundations. We studied sedimentological and paleontological features of the anomalous deposits as well as their spatial distribution observing the following properties: different facies with respect to the local stratigraphic sequence; erosive bases, rip-up clasts and broken elements testifying violent deposition mechanisms; macro and micro fauna of marine environment; relatively constant thickness throughout most of the depositional zone with thinning at the distal end; large sand sheets that extend inland. These observations, jointly with their infrequency in the sedimentary record and the age indicating a fast deposition, provided strong evidence for tsunami inundations. Correlations between anomalous layers and historical tsunamis are supported by radiocarbon and OSL dating results. The younger deposit is likely due to the 1908 near-source tsunami, whereas the flooding of the oldest event is most likely associated with a far and large source, the Crete 365 AD earthquake.

  12. Feeding biology of a guild of benthivorous fishes in a sandy shore on south-eastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Zahorcsak, P; Silvano, R A; Sazima, I

    2000-08-01

    The feeding biology of eight species of benthivorous fishes was studied in a sandy shore at Anchieta Island, south-eastern Brazilian coast. The fishes fed mainly on Amphipoda and Mysidacea crustaceans. The diet of the most abundant species, the drum Umbrina coroides, was analyzed in three standard length classes (20-55, 56-90 and 91-135 mm). This sciaenid showed an ontogenetic diet shift from Mysidacea to Amphipoda. The feeding behaviour of the sciaenid U. coroides and the gerreid Eucinostomus gula was recorded while snorkeling. During their foraging both species uncovered small organisms buried in the sand. Notwithstanding general similarities in diet, U. coroides and E. gula presented differences in feeding behaviour and morphology. Two carangid species of the genus Trachinotus differed in diet composition and consumed a larger array of food items than the remaining fish species. Differences in diet and feeding activity between the remaining benthivorous species were noted. These differences possibly reduce overlap in resource use and favour the coexistence of guilds of benthivorous fishes on sandy shores.

  13. Blooms of Trichodesmium erythraeum in the South Eastern Arabian Sea during the onset of 2009 summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmakumar, K. B.; Smitha, B. R.; Thomas, Lathika Cicily; Fanimol, C. L.; Sreerenjima, G.; Menon, N. R.; Sanjeevan, V. N.

    2010-09-01

    This study presents in situ evidence for the blooms of Trichodesmium erythraeum observed in the shelf waters of the South Eastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) during the onset of the southwest monsoon in June 2009. Evidence showed that water surface discoloration was caused by the accumulation of T. erythraeum, and that the water column contained a colony of T. thiebautii. The surface water color in the bloom region varied from pale brown to pinkish red. Pale brown indicated healthy algae at the peak of its photosynthetic activity, while pinkish red indicated the presence of photosynthetically less active filaments. Zooplankton abundance, especially copepodites, in the bloom area substantiated the theory that Trichodesmium filaments are excellent epiphytes to which the copepodites cling. The bloom area was very fertile with copious quantities of dissolved oxygen (6.85 ml L-1), PO4-P (0.108 μmol L-1) and SiO4 (1.29 μmol L-1). Lower NO3-N (0.028 μmol L-1) values in the bloom area did not appear to affect Trichodesmium growth from molecular nitrogen fixation. However, lower NO3-N values altered the normal phytoplankton composition of this area.

  14. Dune convergence/divergence controlled by residual current vortices in the Jade tidal channel, south-eastern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubicki, Adam; Kösters, Frank; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    A field of large to very large subaqueous dunes was investigated in the Jade tidal channel, south-eastern North Sea, between January 2006 and October 2011. A ground-truthed sidescan sonar sediment map shows that the dunes, which are located on top of a consolidated clay surface, are composed of medium to coarse sand. A series of 35 consecutive high-resolution bathymetric surfaces collected by multibeam echosounder revealed a complex migration pattern induced by the reversing tidal currents. Various parts of the dune field are under the influence of either ebb- or flood-dominated currents, as indicated by dune asymmetries. Although some dunes migrate at a pace exceeding 100 m/year, the majority are displaced by 30 m/year in the direction of the locally dominant current. In the deepest part of the channel, however, dunes were observed to converge head-on, resulting in practically zero net transport with minor oscillations of symmetrical dunes at the apex. Applying the numerical UnTRIM model for the simulation of the fair-weather hydrology, a simplified map of residual current vectors over the dune field was generated. The residual flow vectors are found to perfectly match the derived dune migration vectors, suggesting that dune convergence is controlled by two counter-rotating residual current vortices caused by the local shape of the tidal channel. As no sediment build-up is observed, a mechanism of sediment bypassing with potential recirculation must exist, but has not yet been identified.

  15. Aechmea pectinata: a hummingbird-dependent bromeliad with inconspicuous flowers from the rainforest in south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Canela, Maria Bernadete Ferreira; Sazima, Marlies

    2003-11-01

    The pollination biology of Aechmea pectinata (Bromeliaceae) was studied in a submontane rainforest in south-eastern Brazil. This species has a mainly clumped distribution and its aggregated individuals are likely to be clones. From October to January, during the flowering period, the distal third of its leaves becomes red. The inflorescence produces 1-15 flowers per day over a period of 20-25 d. The flowers are inconspicuous, greenish-white coloured, tubular shaped with a narrow opening, and the stigma is situated just above the anthers. Anthesis begins at 0400 h and flowers last for about 13 h. The highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occur between 0600 and 1000 h, and decrease throughout the day. Aechmea pectinata is self-incompatible and therefore pollinator-dependent. Hummingbirds are its main pollinators (about 90 % of the visits), visiting flowers mainly in the morning. There is a positive correlation between the number of hummingbird visits per inflorescence and the production of nectar, suggesting that the availability of this resource is important in attracting and maintaining visitors. The arrangement of the floral structures favours pollen deposition on the bill of the hummingbirds. Flowers in clumps promote hummingbird territoriality, and a consequence is self-pollination in a broader sense (geitonogamy) as individuals in assemblages are genetically close. However, trap-lining and intruding hummingbirds promote cross-pollination. These observations suggest that successful fruit set of A. pectinata depends on both the spatial distribution of its individuals and the interactions among hummingbirds.

  16. Fish gills alterations as potential biomarkers of environmental quality in a eutrophized tropical river in south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, A A; Araújo, F G; Gomes, I D; Mendes, R M M; Sales, A

    2012-06-01

    Gill anomalies in three common fish species of different taxonomic order, habitat dwelling and feeding habits (one Characiformes, Oligosarcus hepsetus; one Siluriformes, Hypostomus auroguttatus; and one Perciformes, Geophagus brasiliensis) from a eutrophized tropical river in south-eastern in Brazil were compared. The aim of this study was to search for sentinel species that could be used as potential biomarkers of environmental quality. Most fish had gills with histological changes, namely epithelial lifting, interstitial oedema, leucocyte infiltration, hyperplasia of the epithelial cells, lamellar fusion, vasodilatation and necrosis. On the other hand, lamellar blood congestion and lamellar aneurysm, which are more serious and often irreversible changes, were recorded for the water column carnivorous O. hepsetus and, to a lesser extent, for the bottom-dwelling detritivorous H. auroguttatus. A histopathological alteration index (HAI) based on the occurrence and severity of gills anomalies indicated that O. hepsetus (mean score = 11.4) had significantly higher values (Kruskall-Wallis H(2,41) = 15.95, P = 0.0003) compared with G. brasiliensis (mean score = 7.0). Overall, the omnivorous G. brasiliensis had comparatively lesser occurrence of most gill anomalies compared with other two species, being less suitable as biomarker of environmental quality. In contrast, the water column-dweller O. hepsetus (water column) and the bottom-dweller H. auroguttatus had gills most susceptible to changes, making them more suitable for using as histological biomarkers of the environmental quality in entrophized tropical rivers. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Habitat suitability of Anopheles vector species and association with human malaria in the Atlantic Forest in south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Gabriel Zorello; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2011-08-01

    Every year, autochthonous cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria occur in low-endemicity areas of Vale do Ribeira in the south-eastern part of the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, where Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles bellator are considered the primary vectors. However, other species in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (e.g., Anopheles marajoara) are abundant and may participate in the dynamics of malarial transmission in that region. The objectives of the present study were to assess the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to associate the presence of these species with malaria cases in the municipalities of the Vale do Ribeira. Potential habitat suitability modelling was applied to determine both the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to establish the density of each species. Poisson regression was utilized to associate malaria cases with estimated vector densities. As a result, An. cruzii was correlated with the forested slopes of the Serra do Mar, An. bellator with the coastal plain and An. marajoara with the deforested areas. Moreover, both An. marajoara and An. cruzii were positively associated with malaria cases. Considering that An. marajoara was demonstrated to be a primary vector of human Plasmodium in the rural areas of the state of Amapá, more attention should be given to the species in the deforested areas of the Atlantic Forest, where it might be a secondary vector.

  18. Submarine Sedimentation Transport Processes in the South-Eastern Terceira Rift / São Miguel Region (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, Benedikt; Hübscher, Christian; Lüdmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The south-eastern Terceira Rift comprises a rift basin, igneous ridges, seamounts and São Miguel, the main island of the volcanic Azores Archipelago. It is located ~1500 km west of continental Portugal within the convergence zone of the American, African and Eurasian plate. Due to submarine and subaerial volcanism, the sedimentation rate is higher than usually assumed in such a segregated submarine region. Multi-beam and high-resolution multi-channel seismic data reveal a wide variety of sediment transport processes. Volcanic fall-out sediments are abundant in the entire area. Along the northern slope of Sao Miguel terrestrial volcanic sediments are drained by rain water gullies which connect to submarine channels. Turbidity currents created some 10 km long erosional channels which transported the sediments more than 40 km downslope. Several regional accumulations of talus and/or pyroclastic material get instable resulting in gravitational gliding, creeping or slide events. Volcanic ridges partly collapse due to tectonic stress and/or gravity spreading. Oceanic currents remobilize sediments and form drift deposits. Infilling drifts developed on top of hangingwall blocks of step faults. Therefore, the São Miguel region is a good example of a sedimentary system with strong time-variant and locally defined sediment support. Sedimentation is controlled by volcanism and tectonics, since these processes affect sedimentation pathways and oceanographic conditions.

  19. Atypical residency of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) to a shallow, urbanized embayment in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Mason, Suzanne; Salgado Kent, Chandra; Donnelly, David; Weir, Jeffrey; Bilgmann, Kerstin

    2016-09-01

    Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are typically considered highly mobile, offshore delphinids. This study assessed the residency of a small community of short-beaked common dolphins in the shallow, urbanized Port Phillip Bay, south-eastern Australia. The ability to identify common dolphins by their dorsal fin markings and coloration using photo-identification was also investigated. Systematic and non-systematic boat surveys were undertaken between 2007 and 2014. Results showed that 13 adult common dolphins and their offspring inhabit Port Phillip Bay, of which 10 adults exhibit residency to the bay. The majority of these adults are reproductively active females, suggesting that female philopatry may occur in the community. Systematic surveys conducted between 2012 and 2014 revealed that the dolphins were found in a median water depth of 16 m and median distance of 2.2 km from the coast. The shallow, urbanized habitat of this resident common dolphin community is atypical for this species. As a result, these common dolphins face threats usually associated with inshore bottlenose dolphin communities. We suggest that the Port Phillip Bay common dolphin community is considered and managed separate to those outside the embayment and offshore to ensure the community's long-term viability and residency in the bay.

  20. A review of Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) in south-eastern Australia with a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Rhys A; Hoffmann, Ary A; Raadik, Tarmo A

    2015-09-25

    The dwarf galaxias, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack), is a small, threatened freshwater fish from coastal south-eastern Australia. Recent genetic studies, using multiple nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, found substantial differences between populations in western Victoria and south Australia ('west region') compared to eastern Victoria, Flinders Island, and Tasmania ('east region') that suggest the presence of a cryptic species. Morphological measurements and meristic counts from multiple populations within each region were undertaken to investigate potential differences between regions. Several characters, found to discriminate between individuals in the regions and to be diagnostic for two taxa, were used to describe a new species, Galaxiella toourtkoourt, for the west region. This is only the second species in the Galaxiidae to exhibit sexual dimorphism. The original description of Galaxiella pusilla, based on five specimens, is revised following examination of a large number of individuals. Both species are considered nationally threatened and are categorised as 'endangered'; the revised distribution of G. pusilla s.s. is reduced by approximately 60%. A number of inconsistencies in the most recent revision of the genus Galaxiella are also corrected.

  1. Dendrochronological potential of the alpine shrub Rhododendron nivale on the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Liang, Eryuan; Eckstein, Dieter

    2009-09-01

    Shrubs and dwarf shrubs are wider spread on the Tibetan Plateau than trees and hence offer a unique opportunity to expand the present dendrochronological network into extreme environments beyond the survival limit of trees. Alpine shrublands on the Tibetan Plateau are characterized by rhododendron species. The dendrochronological potential of one alpine rhododendron species and its growth response to the extreme environment on the south-east Tibetan Plateau were investigated. Twenty stem discs of the alpine snowy rhododendron (Rhododendron nivale) were collected close to the tongue of the Zuoqiupu Glacier in south-east Tibet, China. The skeleton plot technique was used for inter-comparison between samples to detect the growth pattern of each stem section. The ring-width chronology was developed by fitting a negative exponential function or a straight line of any slope. Bootstrapping correlations were calculated between the standard chronology and monthly climate data. The wood of snowy rhododendron is diffuse-porous with evenly distributed small-diameter vessels. It has well-defined growth rings. Most stem sections can be visually and statistically cross-dated. The resulting 75-year-long standard ring-width chronology is highly correlated with a timberline fir chronology about 200 km apart, providing a high degree of confidence in the cross-dating. The climate/growth association of alpine snowy rhododendron and of this timberline fir is similar, reflecting an impact of monthly mean minimum temperatures in November of the previous year and in July during the year of ring formation. The alpine snowy rhododendron offers new research directions to investigate the environmental history of the Tibetan Plateau in those regions where up to now there was no chance of applying dendrochronology.

  2. A new Mylabris species from south-eastern Iran and a key to the Iranian species of the nominate subgenus (Coleoptera, Meloidae)

    PubMed Central

    Serri, Sayeh; Pan, Zhao; Bologna, Marco A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Mylabris of the nominate subgenus is described and figured. This species is apparently endemic to the south-eastern Iranian province of Kerman and seems to be phenetically very distinct from all other species of this subgenus, primarily because of the unique elytral pattern. A key to the species of the nominate subgenus distributed in Iran is also presented. PMID:22977351

  3. Full-coverage spatial distribution of epibenthic communities in the south-eastern North Sea in relation to habitat characteristics and fishing effort.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Hermann; Diekmann, Rabea; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Kleeberg, Ulrike; Moll, Andreas; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    Full-coverage spatial data of occurrence and a detailed description of habitat requirements of epibenthic communities are needed in many conservation and management contexts. In the North Sea the focus has so far been on small benthic infauna, whereas structure and ecosystem functions of larger epifaunal communities have been largely ignored. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of epibenthic community structure in the south-eastern North Sea, including a detailed inventory of species, diversity and spatially contiguous distribution of communities. Data from nearly 400 stations were compiled for the study, enabling us to describe epibenthic community structure at unprecedented spatial resolution. Eight distinct epibenthic communities were found in the south-eastern North Sea by using multivariate analysis. Distribution modelling with eight environmental variables (bottom temperature and salinity, temperature differences between summer and winter, mud content of sediments, maximum bottom shear stress, stratification, water depth and annual primary production) and one human pressure (fishing effort) was used to extrapolate probable spatial distributions and to identify associated habitat characteristics of the communities in the south-eastern North Sea. Three large epibenthic communities "Coast", "Oysterground" and "Tail End" reflect a gradual habitat change from the coast towards offshore regions, expressed in gradients of bottom salinity, seasonal temperature differences and stratification as the dominant environmental factors. Five smaller communities ("Amrum Bank", "Frisian Front", "Deeps", "Dogger Bank" and "Dogger Slope") outline specific habitats in the south-eastern North Sea. The "Dogger Slope" community has not been recognized before, but has a predicted spatial extent of 7118 km(2). Due to the high occurrence of long-lived, sessile species such as sponges this community is very sensitive to demersal fishing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  4. The impact of droughts and climate change on sinkhole occurrence. A case study from the evaporite karst of the Fluvia Valley, NE Spain.

    PubMed

    Linares, Rogelio; Roqué, Carles; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Zarroca, Mario; Carbonel, Domingo; Bach, Joan; Fabregat, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    This work introduces the concept that sinkhole frequency in some karst settings increases during drought periods. This conception is tested in a sector of the Fluvia River valley in NE Spain, where subsidence phenomena is related to the karstification of folded Eocene evaporite formations. In the discharge areas, the evaporites behave as confined aquifers affected by hypogene karstification caused by aggressive artesian flows coming form an underlying carbonate aquifer. A sinkhole inventory with chronological data has been constructed, revealing temporal clusters. Those clusters show a good correlation with drought periods, as revealed by precipitation, river discharge and piezometric data. This temporal association is particularly obvious for the last and current drought starting in 1998, which is the most intense of the record period (1940-present). Climatic projections based on recent studies foresee an intensification of the droughts in this sector of NE Spain, which could be accompanied by the enhancement of the sinkhole hazard and the associated risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Extreme pointer years in tree-ring records of Central Spain as evidence of climatic events and the eruption of the Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru, 1600 AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génova, M.

    2012-04-01

    The study of pointer years of numerous tree-ring chronologies of the central Iberian Peninsula (Sierra de Guadarrama) could provide complementary information about climate variability over the last 405 yr. In total, 64 pointer years have been identified: 30 negative (representing minimum growths) and 34 positive (representing maximum growths), the most significant of these being 1601, 1963 and 1996 for the negative ones, and 1734 and 1737 for the positive ones. Given that summer precipitation was found to be the most limiting factor for the growth of Pinus in the Sierra de Guadarrama in the second half of the 20th century, it is also an explanatory factor in almost 50% of the extreme growths. Furthermore, these pointer years and intervals are not evenly distributed throughout time. Both in the first half of the 17th and in the second half of 20th, they were more frequent and more extreme and these periods are the most notable for the frequency of negative pointer years in Central Spain. The interval 1600-1602 is of special significance, being one of the most unfavourable for tree growth in the centre of Spain, with 1601 representing the minimum index in the regional chronology. We infer that this special minimum annual increase was the effect of the eruption of Huaynaputina, which occurred in Peru at the beginning of 1600 AD. This is the first time that the effects of this eruption in the tree-ring records of Southern Europe have been demonstrated.

  6. Catastrophic fat tails and non-smooth damage functions-fire economics and climate change adaptation for public policy

    Treesearch

    Adriana Keeting; John Handmer

    2013-01-01

    South-eastern Australia is one of the most fire prone environments on earth. Devastating fires in February 2009 appear to have been off the charts climatically and economically, they led to a new category of fire danger aptly called 'catastrophic'. Almost all wildfire losses have been associated with these extreme conditions and climate change will see an...

  7. Cross-timescale Interference and Rainfall Extreme Events in South Eastern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Angel G.

    The physical mechanisms and predictability associated with extreme daily rainfall in South East South America (SESA) are investigated for the December-February season. Through a k-mean analysis, a robust set of daily circulation regimes is identified and then it is used to link the frequency of rainfall extreme events with large-scale potential predictors at subseasonal-to-seasonal scales. This basic set of daily circulation regimes is related to the continental and oceanic phases of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and wave train patterns superimposed on the Southern Hemisphere Polar Jet. Some of these recurrent synoptic circulation types are conducive to extreme rainfall events in the region through synoptic control of different meso-scale physical features and, at the same time, are influenced by climate phenomena that could be used as sources of potential predictability. Extremely high rainfall (as measured by the 95th- and 99th-percentiles) is preferentially associated with two of these weather types, which are characterized by moisture advection intrusions from lower latitudes and the Pacific; another three weather types, characterized by above-normal moisture advection toward lower latitudes or the Andes, are preferentially associated with dry days (days with no rain). The analysis permits the identification of several subseasonal-to-seasonal scale potential predictors that modulate the occurrence of circulation regimes conducive to extreme rainfall events in SESA. It is conjectured that a cross-timescale interference between the different climate drivers improves the predictive skill of extreme precipitation in the region. The potential and real predictive skill of the frequency of extreme rainfall is then evaluated, finding evidence indicating that mechanisms of climate variability at one timescale contribute to the predictability at another scale, i.e., taking into account the interference of different potential sources of predictability at

  8. Control of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in south-eastern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bennis, Issam; De Brouwere, Vincent; Ameur, Btissam; El Idrissi Laamrani, Abderrahmane; Chichaoui, Smaine; Hamid, Sahibi; Boelaert, Marleen

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania major has increased in Morocco over the last decade, prompting the Ministry of Health to take intersectoral response measures including vector and reservoir control. The aim of this article was to describe the CL outbreak response measures taken in the province of Errachidia, where the reservoir of L. major, a sand rat (Meriones shawi), was targeted using strychnine-poisoned wheat baits from 2010 to 2012. We analysed routine surveillance data and other information using the data of the CL control programme. We present data on the evolution and the extension of CL in this province as well as the epidemiological profile of the disease. Between 2004 and 2013, 7099 cases of CL were recorded in Errachidia Province, gradually affecting all districts. Our results demonstrate that more women were affected than men and that all age groups were represented. Errachidia Province was the epicentre of the recent CL outbreak in Morocco. A notable decline in incidence rates was observed after 2011. The outbreak control measures may have contributed to this decline, as well as climatic trends or progressing herd immunity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Using global Climate Impact Indicators to assess water resource availability in a Mediterranean mountain catchment: the Sierra Nevada study case (Spain) in the SWICCA platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Sáenz de Rodrigáñez, Marta; Gulliver, Zacarias; José Polo, María

    2017-04-01

    Climate services provide water resource managements and users with science-based information on the likely impacts associated to the future climate scenarios. Mountainous areas are especially vulnerable to climate variations due to the expected changes in the snow regime, among others; in Mediterranean regions, this shift involves significant effects on the river flow regime and water resource availability and management. The Guadalfeo River Basin is a 1345 km2 mountainous, coastal catchment in southern Spain, ranging from the Mediterranean Sea coastline to the Sierra Nevada mountains to the north (up to 3450 m a.s.l.) within a 40-km distance. The climate variability adds complexity to this abrupt topography and heterogeneous area. The uncertainty associated to snow occurrence and persistence for the next decades poses a challenge for the current and future water resource uses in the area. The development of easy-to-use local climate indicators and derived decision-making variables is key to assess and face the economic impact of the potential changes. The SWICCA (Service for Water Indicators in Climate Change Adaptation) Platform (http://swicca.climate.copernicus.eu/) has been developed under the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and provides global climate and hydrology indicators on a Pan-European scale. Different case studies are included to assess the platform development and contents, and analyse the indicators' performance from a proof-of-concept approach that includes end-users feedbacks. The Guadalfeo River Basin is one of these case studies. This work presents the work developed so far to analyse and use the SWICCA Climate Impact Indicators (CIIs) related to river flow in this mountainous area, and the first set of local indicators specifically designed to assess selected end-users on the potential impact associated to different climate scenarios. Different CIIs were extracted from the SWICCA interface and tested against the local information

  10. Columbus's Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Jose Manuel Nieto

    1991-01-01

    Describes fifteenth-century Spain's tendencies that proved central to the Columbian enterprise: experience as a conquering and colonizing kingdom, interest in Atlantic expansion, and missionary inclination. Argues that Columbus's arrival in Spain came at the perfect time in Spanish history. Stresses Spain's long history of religious war, conquest,…

  11. Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds. Application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Olivares, Gonzalo; Gomez, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    Gaining knowledge on potential climate change impacts on water resources is a complex process which depends on numerical models capable of describing these processes in quantitative terms. Under limited data or ungauged basin conditions, which constrain the modelling approach, a physically based coherent methodological approach is required. The traditional approach to assess flow regime and groundwater recharge impacts, based on coupling general atmosphere-ocean circulation models (GCM) and hydrologic models, has been investigated in the Siurana ungauged catchment (NE Spain). The future A2 (medium-high) and B1 (medium-low) greenhouse gas scenarios and time slices 2013-2037 (2025) and 2038-2062 (2050), developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), have been selected. For scenario simulations, coupled GCM ECHAM5 scenarios, stochastically downscaled outputs and surface-subsurface modelling to simulate changes in water resources were applied to the catchment. Flow regime analysis was assessed by HEC-HMS, a physically based hydrologic model to assess rainfall-runoff in a catchment, while recharge was estimated with VisualBALAN, a distributed model for natural recharge estimation. Simulations show that the projected climate change at the catchment will affect the entire hydrological system with a maximum of 56% reduction of water resources. While subtle changes are observed for the 2025 time slice, the temperature and precipitation forecast for 2050 shows a maximum increase of 2.2 °C and a decreased precipitation volume of 11.3% in relation to historical values. Regarding historical values, runoff output shows a maximum 20% decrease, and 18% decrease of natural recharge with a certain delay in relation to runoff and rainfall data. According to the results, the most important parameters conditioning future water resources are changes in climatic parameters, but they are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  12. Public attitudes and risk perception toward land application of biosolids within the south-eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Kevin G; Robinson, Carolyn H; Raup, Lauren A; Markum, Travis R

    2012-05-15

    A descriptive-correlational study of biosolids recycling was conducted in the south-eastern United States to assess current knowledge, attitudes and risk perceptions of participants in two communities that land apply biosolids as part of their waste management programs. One community, Amelia County VA, has been outspoken against biosolids recycling in the past, whereas the second community, Knoxville, TN region, has voiced few concerns about biosolids recycling. Additionally, gender differences within the entire study population were assessed. A 45-question telephone survey, utilizing a 4-point Likert scale, was developed and administered to 311 randomly selected adults in the two regions. Commonalities identified during the study revealed key risk perceptions by the public regarding biosolids regulations, treatment, and application. Given current perceptions and knowledge, respondents felt that the benefits derived from biosolids recycling do not offset the perceived health and safety risks. However, as distance between application and personal property increased, a decrease in opposition of biosolids reuse became evident for all respondents. Survey participants were dissatisfied with the level of stakeholder involvement in research and decision-making processes concerning biosolids. The outspoken Amelia County residents perceived greater health risks due to inadequate treatment of biosolids and odorous emissions during the application process than the less engaged Knox Metro respondents. Significant gender differences were observed with sampled females perceiving greater risks to health and safety from biosolids recycling than males. There was also indication that decisions and risks were not sufficiently communicated to the public, leading to respondents being inadequately informed about biosolids land application in both communities. Community-specific outreach programs must address these public risk perceptions and the differences in perception caused by

  13. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Nutritional Status among Primary School Children in Delo-mena District, South Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tulu, Begna; Taye, Solomon; Zenebe, Yohannes; Amsalu, Eden

    2016-01-01

    Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) for the determination of stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively using WHO AntroPlus software. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Among 492 children studied (51% boys, aged 6-18 years, mean 10.93 +2.4) an overall IPIs prevalence of 26.6% was found. The prevalence of S. mansoni, E. histolytica/dispar, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, G. lambilia, T. trichiura, S. stercolaris, E. vermicularis, Hookworms and Taenia spp were 9.6%, 7.7%, 5.3%, 3.7%, 2.0%, 1.6%, 1.4%, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. Stunting and underweightedness were observed in 4.5% and 13.6% of children and associated with IPIs (P<0.001) and (P=0.001), respectively. IPIs and its associated malnutrition remain a public health concern in Delo-Mena district. Therefore, the overall health promotion activities coupled with snail control and de-worming to the students is crucial. Additionally, initiatives aimed at improving the nutritional status of school children are also important.

  14. Heterogeneity of Environments Associated with Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis in South-Eastern France and Implication for Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Faucher, Benoit; Gaudart, Jean; Faraut, Francoise; Pomares, Christelle; Mary, Charles; Marty, Pierre; Piarroux, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum is currently spreading into new foci across Europe. Leishmania infantum transmission in the Old World was reported to be strongly associated with a few specific environments. Environmental changes due to global warming or human activity were therefore incriminated in the spread of the disease. However, comprehensive studies were lacking to reliably identify all the environments at risk and thereby optimize monitoring and control strategy. Methodology/Findings We exhaustively collected 328 cases of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis from 1993 to 2009 in South-Eastern France. Leishmaniasis incidence decreased from 31 yearly cases between 1993 and 1997 to 12 yearly cases between 2005 and 2009 mostly because Leishmania/HIV coinfection were less frequent. No spread of human visceral leishmaniasis was observed in the studied region. Two major foci were identified, associated with opposite environments: whereas one involved semi-rural hillside environments partly made of mixed forests, the other involved urban and peri-urban areas in and around the region main town, Marseille. The two neighboring foci were related to differing environments despite similar vectors (P. perniciosus), canine reservoir, parasite (L. infantum zymodeme MON-1), and human host. Conclusions/Significance This unprecedented collection of cases highlighted the occurrence of protracted urban transmission of L. infantum in France, a worrisome finding as the disease is currently spreading in other areas around the Mediterranean. These results complete previous studies about more widespread canine leishmaniasis or human asymptomatic carriage. This first application of systematic geostatistical methods to European human visceral leishmaniasis demonstrated an unsuspected heterogeneity of environments associated with the transmission of the disease. These findings modify the current view of leishmaniasis epidemiology. They notably stress the need

  15. Sedimentological conditions and sediment transport pathways in the nearshore zone of the Russian part of South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhova, Evgenia

    2016-04-01

    The sediment transport pathways and sedimentological conditions are identified on the South-Eastern Baltic Sea coastal zone (Russian part) up to the depth of 30 m on the base of grain size analysis of recent marine sediments. The interrelations between grain size statistical parameters of 971 sediment samples are used. The two independent approaches that discussed in the literature are applied: 1) the sediment trend analysis, based on spatial variations of sediment grain size parameters from sample to sample (McLaren, 1981) and 2) the population anomalies method, which allows to determine the sedimentation conditions (erosion, transit or accumulation) from the deviations of sediments grain size parameters in each sampling place from the average values in investigation area (Baraniecki and Racinowski, 1996). Taking into account that the sediment grain size composition achieve its constant in calm period of reduced storm influence and that the all samples were taking during summer season, the obtained sedimentation pattern present the long-time annual average of sediment transport pathways in the investigated area. The results show that the sediment accumulation under the wave influence prevails up to the depth of 5 m. The continuous accumulation zone breaks in erosion where the shore line changes its direction. Seaward of the accumulation zone the sediment transit area extends and interrupts by zones of erosion and accumulation up to the depth of 20 m. Sediment transport here occurs in hydrodynamic circulation cells within bays along the Sambian peninsula north coast. The erosion zones serves as sediment source on the underwater shore slope. The north-eastern direction of sediment transport exist along the straightened coast of Curonian spit according to prevail west winds. Deeper there are zones of transit and "slowly" sediment accumulation up to the depth of 30 m. The seaward and isobaths parallel sediment transport pathways are obtained in these zones. The work

  16. Demography of the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) in Manu National Park, South-Eastern Peru: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Groenendijk, Jessica; Hajek, Frank; Johnson, Paul J.; Macdonald, David W.; Calvimontes, Jorge; Staib, Elke; Schenck, Christof

    2014-01-01

    The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an endangered semi-aquatic carnivore of South America. We present findings on the demography of a population inhabiting the floodplain of Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru, arising from 14 annual dry season censuses over a 16 year period. The breeding system of territorial groups, including only a single breeding female with non-reproductive adult ‘helpers’, resulted in a low intrinsic rate of increase (0.03) and a slow recovery from decades of hunting for the pelt trade. This is explained by a combination of factors: (1) physiological traits such as late age at first reproduction and long generation time, (2) a high degree of reproductive skew, (3) small litters produced only once a year, and (4) a 50% mortality between den emergence and age of dispersal, as well as high mortality amongst dispersers (especially males). Female and male giant otters show similar traits with respect to average reproductive life-spans (female 5.4 yrs., male 5.2 yrs.) and average cub productivity (female 6.9, male 6.7 cubs per lifetime); the longest reproductive life spans were 11 and 13 years respectively. Individual reproductive success varied substantially and depended mainly on the duration of dominance tenure in the territory. When breeding females died, the reproductive position in the group was usually occupied by sisters or daughters (n = 11), with immigrant male partners. Male philopatry was not observed. The vulnerability of the Manu giant otter population to anthropogenic disturbance emphasises the importance of effective protection of core lake habitats in particular. Riverine forests are the most endangered ecosystem in the Department of Madre de Dios due to the concentration of gold mining, logging and agricultural activities in floodplains, highlighting the need for a giant otter habitat conservation corridor along the Madre de Dios River. PMID:25162684

  17. HTA and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe: Results from a survey.

    PubMed

    García-Mochón, Leticia; Espín Balbino, Jaime; Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; Caro Martinez, Araceli; Martin Ruiz, Eva; Pérez Velasco, Román

    2017-03-31

    To gain knowledge and insights on health technology assessment (HTA) and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe (CESEE) countries. A cross-sectional study was performed. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was developed in a multi-stage process. The questionnaire was arranged according to 5 broad domains: (i) introduction/country settings; (ii) use of HTA in the country; (iii) decision-making process; (iv) implementation of decisions; and (v) HTA and decision-making: future challenges. Potential survey respondents were identified through literature review-with a total of 118 contacts from the 24 CESEE countries. From March to July 2014, the survey was administered via e-mail. A total of 22 questionnaires were received generating an 18.6% response rate, including 4 responses indicating that their institutions had no involvement in HTA. Most of the CESEE countries have entities under government mandates with advisory functions and different responsibilities for decision-making, but mainly in charge of the reimbursement and pricing of medicines. Other areas where discrepancies across countries were found include criteria for selecting technologies to be assessed, stakeholder involvement, evidence requirements, use of economic evaluation, and timeliness of HTA. A number of CESEE countries have created formal decision-making processes for which HTA is used. However, there is a high level of heterogeneity related to the degree of development of HTA structures, and the methods and processes followed. Further studies focusing on the countries from which information is scarcer and on the HTA of health technologies other than medicines are warranted. Reviews/comparative analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High prevalence of complement component C6 deficiency among African-Americans in the South-eastern USA

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Z-B; Atkinson, T P; Hovanky, K T; Boppana, S B; Dai, Y L; Densen, P; Go, R C P; Jablecki, J S; Volanakis, J E

    2000-01-01

    Complement component C6 is a part of the membrane attack complex that forms a pore-like structure in cell membranes following complement activation. Deficiency of terminal complement components including C6 predisposes individuals to infection with Neisseriae. Using polymerase chain reaction/single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis followed by DNA sequencing, we screened genomic DNA from 200 randomly chosen blacks and an equal number from whites for three loss-of-function C6 mutations. Ten blacks and two whites were found to be heterozygous for one of the mutations. Two of the mutations, 1195delC and 1936delG, were found exclusively in black individuals. A third previously undescribed mutation, 878delA, was found at equal frequency among the two groups. The difference between the two groups was significant (P = 0.027), indicating that C6 deficiency due to these three mutations is more common among blacks than whites in the local area, principally Jefferson County, Alabama. In addition, three previously undescribed point mutations, two of which result in amino acid substitutions, were identified within exon 6. A review of the county health department records over the past 6 years revealed a higher incidence of meningococcal meningitis in blacks due to serogroups Y and W-135 which paralleled the difference in the estimated prevalence of C6 deficiency. Among black residents of the county (n = 235 598) there were 15 cases of meningitis due to these two serogroups, compared with two cases in the white population (n = 422 604) (P = 0.002). We conclude that C6 deficiency is more common among blacks than whites in the south-eastern United States, with a frequency approaching 1 in 1600 black individuals. PMID:10632667

  19. Isotopic, trace element and nutrient characterization of coastal waters from Ubatuba inner shelf area, south-eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povinec, P. P.; de Oliveira, J.; Braga, E. S.; Comanducci, J.-F.; Gastaud, J.; Groening, M.; Levy-Palomo, I.; Morgenstern, U.; Top, Z.

    2008-02-01

    Stable isotopes, tritium, radium isotopes, radon, trace elements and nutrients data were collected during two sampling campaigns in the Ubatuba coastal area (south-eastern Brazil) with the aim of investigating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the region. The isotopic composition ( δD, δ18O, 3H) of submarine waters was characterised by significant variability and heavy isotope enrichment. The stable isotopes and tritium data showed good separation of groundwater and seawater groups. The contribution of groundwater in submarine waters varied from a few % to 17%. Spatial distribution of 222Rn activity concentration in surface seawater revealed changes between 50 and 200 Bq m -3 which were in opposite relationship with observed salinities. Time series measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in Flamengo Bay (from 1 to 5 kBq m -3), obtained by in situ underwater gamma-spectrometry showed a negative correlation between the 222Rn activity concentration and tide/salinity. This may be caused by sea level changes as tide effects induce variations of hydraulic gradients, which increase 222Rn concentration during lower sea level, and opposite, during high tides where the 222Rn activity concentration is smaller. The estimated SGD fluxes varied during 22-26 November between 8 and 40 cm d -1, with an average value of 21 cm d -1 (the unit is cm 3/cm 2 per day). The radium isotopes and nutrient data showed scattered distributions with offshore distance and salinity, which implies that in a complex coast with many small bays and islands, the area has been influenced by local currents and groundwater-seawater mixing. SGD in the Ubatuba area is fed by coastal contaminated groundwater and re-circulated seawater (with small admixtures of groundwater), which claims for potential environmental concern with implications on the management of freshwater resources in the region.

  20. An independent event of Neolithic cattle domestication on the South-eastern Balkans: evidence from prehistoric aurochs and cattle populations.

    PubMed

    Hristov, Peter; Spassov, Nikolai; Iliev, Nikolai; Radoslavov, Georgi

    2017-05-01

    Neolithic/Chalcolithic livestock domestication is an important issue for understanding the mode of life and economics of ancient human communities. The Balkans appears to be a crucial point for clarifying the socio-economical interrelations between the Oldest Middle Eastern/Anatolian and newly formed cultures in Europe. Two main hypotheses regarding the early history of cattle domestication, from their ancestor - the aurochs, have been discussed: multipoint domestication centers or single point origin and subsequent worldwide dissemination. In this study, we provide molecular data about the Balkan aurochs for the first time as well as additional information for the Neolithic/Chalcolithic cattle populations in this geographic location. A total of seventeen samples from different ancient settlements were analyzed according to D-loop control region. The results did not show different genetic profile of wild and domestic populations. All haplotypes were found to belong to the basic macro-haplogroup T. The majority of specimens (n = 14) were defined to form a new Balkan-specific T6 haplogroup. Only two of the ancient samples analyzed were assigned to the T3 haplotype predominating in Europe. We attempt to throw new light on the earliest cattle domestication events in Europe, thus, the results presented are discussed in two directions: (a) The possibility of local independent domestication processes in Neolithic South-Eastern Europe; (b) The single point domestication in the Middle East and subsequent cattle dissemination in Europe. Our data does not exclude the possibility for independent domestication events followed by a second wave of parallel dissemination of cattle herds via the Mediterranean route.

  1. Hydrometeorological extremes derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic, 1751-1900 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.

    2012-03-01

    Historical written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic) are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period 1751-1900 AD. At the time, the taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage are documented for 1751-1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860 (74.9% of all events analysed). The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types) include hailstorm (25.7%), torrential rain (21.7%), flood (21.0%), followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890) and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847). Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816-1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961-2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance). Taxation records constitute an important source of data for historical climatology and historical hydrology and have a great potential for use in many European countries.

  2. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Nutritional Status among Primary School Children in Delo-mena District, South Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    TULU, Begna; TAYE, Solomon; ZENEBE, Yohannes; AMSALU, Eden

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) for the determination of stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively using WHO AntroPlus software. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Among 492 children studied (51% boys, aged 6–18 years, mean 10.93 +2.4) an overall IPIs prevalence of 26.6% was found. The prevalence of S. mansoni, E. histolytica/dispar, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, G. lambilia, T. trichiura, S. stercolaris, E. vermicularis, Hookworms and Taenia spp were 9.6%, 7.7%, 5.3%, 3.7%, 2.0%, 1.6%, 1.4%, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. Stunting and underweightedness were observed in 4.5% and 13.6% of children and associated with IPIs (P<0.001) and (P=0.001), respectively. Conclusion: IPIs and its associated malnutrition remain a public health concern in Delo-Mena district. Therefore, the overall health promotion activities coupled with snail control and de-worming to the students is crucial. Additionally, initiatives aimed at improving the nutritional status of school children are also important. PMID:28127367

  3. Antenatal care in practice: an exploratory study in antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gross, Karin; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna; Kessy, Flora; Pfeiffer, Constanze; Obrist, Brigit

    2011-05-20

    The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged. Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health workers' antenatal care practices with reference to the national Focused Antenatal Care guidelines and identifies factors influencing health workers' performance. Potential implications for improving antenatal care provision in Tanzania are discussed. Combining different qualitative techniques, we studied health workers' antenatal care practices in four public antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania. A total of 36 antenatal care consultations were observed and compared with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews with the staff helped to identify and explain health workers' practices and contextual factors influencing antenatal care provision. The delivery of antenatal care services to pregnant women at the selected antenatal care clinics varied widely. Some services that are recommended by the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines were given to all women while other services were not delivered at all. Factors influencing health workers' practices were poor implementation of the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines, lack of trained staff and absenteeism, supply shortages and use of working tools that are not consistent with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Health workers react to difficult working conditions by developing informal practices as coping strategies or "street-level bureaucracy". Efforts to improve antenatal care should address shortages of trained staff through expanding training opportunities, including health worker cadres with little pre-service training. Attention should be paid to

  4. Geodynamics and intermediate-depth seismicity in Vrancea (the south-eastern Carpathians): Current state-of-the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Matenco, Liviu; Radulian, Mircea; Cloetingh, Sierd; Panza, Giuliano

    2012-03-01

    The Vrancea region of the south-eastern Carpathians is a remarkable site of intra-continental intermediate-depth seismicity. A large set of geological, geophysical, and geodetic observations has been accumulated for the last few decades and utilised to improve our knowledge of the shallow and deep structures beneath Vrancea, the crustal and mantle dynamics, and the linkage between deep and surface processes in the region. In this article we review geology and tectonics of the Vrancea region including post-collisional to recent deformations, syn- to post-collisional magmatism, and orogenic exhumation along the East and South Carpathians. The regional seismicity is analysed, and the recent seismic studies including reflection, refraction, body and surface wave tomography are reviewed. We discuss new geodetic measurements of horizontal and vertical movements in the region, geoelectric studies, density/gravity and thermal modelling. Qualitative and quantitative (including retrospective) geodynamic models developed for Vrancea are analysed. The knowledge of regional tectonics, geodynamics, seismicity, lithospheric deformation, and stress regime in the Vrancea earthquake-prone region assists in an assessment of strong ground motion, seismic hazard and risk. The earthquake simulation, seismic hazard, and earthquake forecasting models have also been reviewed providing a link between deep geodynamic processes and their manifestation on the surface. Finally we discuss unresolved problems in Vrancea in order to improve our understanding of the regional evolution, present tectonics, mantle dynamics, intermediate-depth seismicity, and surface manifestations of the lithosphere dynamics and to enhance our ability to forecast strong earthquakes in the Vrancea region. The problems to be solved include: (i) the origin of the high-velocity body revealed by seismic tomography studies (oceanic versus continental); (ii) the lithospheric scale mechanism driving the Miocene subsidence of

  5. The continuum approach in analysing the glacial landscapes of the South-Eastern sector of the Last Scandinavian glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvans, Andis; Hang, Tiit

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally geomorphologists are identifying individual landforms and describing their properties. However any discrimination of individual forms on the Earth's surface is arbitrary and often subjective. We are developing an automated procedure for slope and aspect distribution analysis of the digital elevation models. Instead of considering individual forms and describing them we intend to consider the Earth's surface as continuous plane and calculate the parameters describing it along a regular set of node points. The aim of the research is to identify and characterise fast ice flow zones in the south-eastern sector of the Last Scandinavian glaciation. We assume that different glacial landscapes - drumlin fields, glaciolimnic planes, outwash planes, complexes of marginal landforms etc. - do have their own fingerprint of slope and aspect distribution. We expect that this distribution can be used to identify and characterise the particular process that has shaped it, e.g. the fast ice flow usually is associated with streamlined glacial bed and faster flow produces stronger, more distinct lineation. Slope aspect distribution across a drumlin field will have a bidirectional, symetrical character with dominant dip directions transverse to the ice flow direction. In contrast the distribution of slope dip direction at the terrain dominated by ribbed moraines will be asymmetric and clustering in the ice flow direction. The slope and aspect distribution for the terrain at the Saadjärve drumlin field in eastern Estonia is used as the testing ground for the methodology. SRTM elevation data set is the basic data source and results are validated against the excellent laser altimetry (LiDAR) data obtained from Estonian Land Board. The research is supported by the European Union through the European Social Fund Mobilitas grant No MJD309.

  6. Surface sediment dynamics along the Tunisian coast at Skhira (Gulf of Gabès, south-eastern Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahim, Mouldi; Abdelfattah, Atoui; Sammari, Chérif; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-12-01

    An investigation was conducted in the summer of 2012 at 24 study stations along the Tunisian coast near Skhira (south-eastern Mediterranean Sea) through high resolution of analyses, grain size and mineral composition of surface sediment. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler showed Skhira's main coastal current to follow a direction 60°E, with its main axis south-west/north-east parallel to the coastline and its minor axis east-west. Current speeds were approximately 13 cm s-1 and 4.5 cm s-1 for the major and minor axes, respectively. Parallel to the coast, currents were generally mild to moderate, but often exceeded 20 cm s-1. An Argonaut meter recorded the dominant current direction as north/north-east with a speed not exceeding 18 cm s-1. Orthogonal Empirical Function analysis of tidal currents showed that the major axis velocity dispersion was north-east/south-west, the water mass flow parallel to the shoreline being almost unidirectional, driving littoral drift parallel to the coast. Spatial distribution of particle size, along with speed and current direction analysis, furnish an overview of the Skhira area's sediment dynamics and transport. Average sand grain size shows that the bottom consists of fine and especially of medium sands near the coast, with muddy sands offshore. The fine fraction percentage (<63 microns) as opposed to the coarse fraction (>63 microns) is higher at the two offshore study stations, 20 m deep. Fine particles are discharged into the sea by rip currents. Sediment dynamics along the Skhira coast are complex, being subject to the combined effect of swell and tide. Sediments are permanently re-suspended and in constant movement, especially during storms.

  7. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in primary school children in the south-eastern Iranian city of Bam, 1994-95.

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, I.; Fekri, A. R.; Aflatonian, M. R.; Nadim, A.; Nikian, Y.; Kamesipour, A.

    1998-01-01

    Between August 1994 and July 1995, 11,517 primary school children aged 6-11 years in the south-eastern Iranian city of Bam, comprising 5560 (48.3%) girls and 5957 (51.7%) boys, were examined for the presence of active lesions or scars of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). There was a trend towards increasing prevalence with age, the prevalence being 10.7% in 6-year-old and 20% in > or = 11-year-old children. Overall, 1.3% of the children had active lesions and 14.3% had scars. There was no significant difference between the sexes in the prevalence of active lesions and/or scars. Of the children examined, 54 (0.5%) had leishmaniasis recidivans: 19 girls (35.2%) and 35 boys (64.8%). The number of active lesions or scars per child ranged from 1 to 10. The majority (82.3%) had 1 lesion, 12.4% had 2 lesions, and 5.3% had > or = 3. The average number of lesions was 1.08 (1.03 in girls and 1.18 in boys). The face was the part of the body most commonly involved (63.6%), followed by the hands (20.9%), legs (12.8%) and other parts of the body (2.7%). Examination of isolates from 14 children revealed that in 13 (92.9%) the causal organism was Leishmania tropica and in the other (7.1%) L. major. The survey indicates that the geographical distribution of CL is far wider than previously thought. It also shows that Bam is a suitable areas for a vaccine field trial. PMID:9744249

  8. Age and sex prevalence of infectious dermatoses among primary school children in a rural South-Eastern Nigerian community

    PubMed Central

    Kalu, Eziyi Iche; Wagbatsoma, Victoria; Ogbaini-Emovon, Ephraim; Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Ojide, Chiedozie Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various dermatoses, due to their morbidity characteristics, have been shown to negatively impact on learning. The most epidemiologically important seem to be the infectious types because of their transmissibility and amenability to simple school-health measures. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and sex/age correlates of infectious dermatoses in a rural South-eastern Nigerian community. Methods The pupils were proportionately recruited from the three primary schools based on school population. Stratified simple random sampling method was adopted and a table of random numbers was used to select required pupils from each arm. Clinical and laboratory examination was done to establish diagnoses of infectious skin disease. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results The 400 pupils consisted of 153 males and 247 females. Age range was between 6 and 12 years. The prevalence of infectious dermatoses was 72.3%. The five most prevalent clinical forms of infectious dermatoses, in order of decreasing prevalence, were tinea capitis (35.2%), scabies (10.5%), tinea corporis (5.8%), tinea pedis (5.5%), and impetigo (5.0%). More cases, generally, occurred among males than females (80.4% vs 67.2%)); while some specific clinical types, pediculosis and seborrheic dermatitis, exhibited predilection for females. Pyodermas and scabies were significantly more prevalent in the 7-9 age-group; while tinea capitis, tinea corporis, seborrheic dermatitis and pediculosis were more associated with ≥10 age-group. Conclusion Infectious dermatoses were highly prevalent in the surveyed population. Many of the clinical types exhibited sex- and age-specificity. PMID:26430479

  9. Demography of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) in Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Groenendijk, Jessica; Hajek, Frank; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W; Calvimontes, Jorge; Staib, Elke; Schenck, Christof

    2014-01-01

    The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an endangered semi-aquatic carnivore of South America. We present findings on the demography of a population inhabiting the floodplain of Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru, arising from 14 annual dry season censuses over a 16 year period. The breeding system of territorial groups, including only a single breeding female with non-reproductive adult 'helpers', resulted in a low intrinsic rate of increase (0.03) and a slow recovery from decades of hunting for the pelt trade. This is explained by a combination of factors: (1) physiological traits such as late age at first reproduction and long generation time, (2) a high degree of reproductive skew, (3) small litters produced only once a year, and (4) a 50% mortality between den emergence and age of dispersal, as well as high mortality amongst dispersers (especially males). Female and male giant otters show similar traits with respect to average reproductive life-spans (female 5.4 yrs., male 5.2 yrs.) and average cub productivity (female 6.9, male 6.7 cubs per lifetime); the longest reproductive life spans were 11 and 13 years respectively. Individual reproductive success varied substantially and depended mainly on the duration of dominance tenure in the territory. When breeding females died, the reproductive position in the group was usually occupied by sisters or daughters (n = 11), with immigrant male partners. Male philopatry was not observed. The vulnerability of the Manu giant otter population to anthropogenic disturbance emphasises the importance of effective protection of core lake habitats in particular. Riverine forests are the most endangered ecosystem in the Department of Madre de Dios due to the concentration of gold mining, logging and agricultural activities in floodplains, highlighting the need for a giant otter habitat conservation corridor along the Madre de Dios River.

  10. Distribution and fluxes of aggregates >100 μm in the upper kilometer of the South-Eastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, L.; Gorsky, G.; Claustre, H.; Miquel, J. C.; Picheral, M.; Stemmann, L.

    2008-09-01

    Large sinking particles transport organic and inorganic matter into the deeper layers of the oceans. Between 70 and 90% of the aggregates exported from the surface mixed layer are disaggregated within the upper 1000 m. This decrease with depth indicates that fragmentation and remineralization processes are intense during sedimentation. Generally, the estimates of vertical flux rely on sediment trap data but difficulties inherent in their design limit the reliability of this information. During the BIOSOPE study in the south-eastern Pacific, 76 vertical casts using the Underwater Video Profiler (UVP) and deployments of drifting sediment traps provided an opportunity to fit the UVP data to sediment trap flux measurements. We applied the calculated UVP flux in the upper 1000 m to the whole 8000 km BIOSOPE transect. Comparison between the large particulate material (LPM) abundance and the estimated fluxes from both UVP and sediment traps showed different patterns in different regions. On the western end of the BIOSOPE section the standing stock of particles in the surface layer was high but the export between 150 and 250 m was low. Below this layer the flux values increased. High values of about 30% of the calculated UVP maximum surface zone flux were observed below 900 m at the HNLC station. The South Pacific Gyre exported about 2 mg m-2 d-1. While off Chilean coast 95% of the surface mixed layer matter was disaggregated, remineralized or advected in the upper kilometer, 20% of the surface zone flux was observed below 900 m near the Chilean coast. These results suggest that the export to deep waters is spatially heterogeneous and related to the different biotic and abiotic factors.

  11. Depositional environments of the south-eastern Volga-Ural anteclise in the Early-Middle Devonian.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selezeneva, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, in the Orenburg region of Russia hydrocarbon potential has been determined down to a depth of 5 km. Therefore, discovery of deep fields is becoming a pressing issue there. Seismic profiles on the south-eastern part of Volga-Ural anteclise indicate two uplifts at the depth of 6-7 km composed of Emsian-Givetian deposits which likely represent large carbonate buildups. Then facies analysis of this territory (based on data of about 100 boreholes) was made and it confirmed the presence of bioherm massifs and showed sedimentary environments. Analysis of the composition and the structure of deposits revealed that in the Emsian stage a shallow-water shelf basin existed, which deepened toward the Ural and North Caspian basins and was characterized by the transgressive evolution. The early stage of transgression was dominated by the terrigenous sedimentation. This region likely had a prodelta with three (proximal, intermediate, and distal) zones. Then the basin was deepened, the amount of terrigenous material decreased and carbonate massifs started to form. At that time following environments occurred: shallow-water coastal zone, intrabasin uplift, shallow-water distal zone, relatively deep-water zone and riftogenic carbonate buildups. Facies analysis of Eifelian sediments showed that there were two shallow-water zones, where carbonates were deposed with formation of small separate organic structures, surrounded by relatively deep-water zone. Continued submergence caused development of bioherm massifs. Givetian deposits differed from the Eifelian by abundant input of the terrigenous material. The growth of the bioherm massifs stopped during this time. Due to facies analyses such paleogeographic zones as shallow-water coastal zone, deep-water shelf zone, submarine fan zone were defined. As a result, two buried reefs were discovered, which could be perspective for finding out oil and gas. These bioherms are covered by the Tournaisian depression sediments that could

  12. Out-of-Pocket Payments, Health Care Access and Utilisation in South-Eastern Nigeria: A Gender Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Onah, Michael N.; Govender, Veloshnee

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs), which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs) with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel). OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households. PMID:24728103

  13. Reproductive Isolation among Sympatric Molecular Forms of An. gambiae from Inland Areas of South-Eastern Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Niang, El Hadji Amadou; Konaté, Lassana; Diallo, Mawlouth; Faye, Ousmane; Dia, Ibrahima

    2014-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex includes at least seven morphologically indistinguishable species, one of which, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is the primary mosquito vector responsible for the transmission of malaria across sub-Saharan Africa. Sympatric ecological diversification of An. gambiae s.s. is in progress within this complex, leading to the emergence of at least two incipient species (the M and S molecular forms now recognized as good species and named An. coluzzii and An. gambiae respectively) that show heterogeneous levels of divergence in most parts of Africa. However, this process seems to have broken down in coastal areas of West Africa at the extreme edge of the distribution. We undertook a longitudinal study to describe An. gambiae s.s. populations collected from two inland transects with different ecological characteristics in south-eastern Senegal. Analysis of samples collected from 20 sites across these two transects showed the M and S molecular forms coexisted at almost all sampled sites. Overall, similar hybridization rates (2.16% and 1.86%) were recorded in the two transects; sites with relatively high frequencies of M/S hybrids (up to 7%) were clustered toward the north-western part of both transects, often near urban settings. Estimated inbreeding indices for this putative speciation event varied spatially (range: 0.52–1), with hybridization rates being generally lower than expected under panmictic conditions. Such observations suggest substantial reproductive isolation between the M and S molecular forms, and further support the ongoing process of speciation in these inland areas. According to a recent reclassification of the An. gambiae complex, the M and S molecular forms from this zone correspond to An. coluzzii and An. gambiae, respectively. There is considerable evidence that these molecular forms differ in their behavioural and ecological characteristics. Detailed study of these characteristics will allow the development

  14. Breast cancer in South-Eastern European countries since 2000: Rising incidence and decreasing mortality at young and middle ages.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Nadya; Znaor, Ariana; Agius, Dominic; Eser, Sultan; Sekerija, Mario; Ryzhov, Anton; Primic-Žakelj, Maja; Coebergh, Jan Willem

    2017-09-01

    Marked variations exist in the incidence and mortality trends of major cancers in South-Eastern European (SEE) countries which have now been detailed by age for breast cancer (BC) to seek clues for improvement. We brought together and analysed data from 14 cancer registries (CRs), situated in SEE countries or directly adjacent. Age-standardised rate at world standard (ASRw) and truncated incidence and mortality rates during 2000-2010 by year, and for four age groups, were calculated. Average annual percentage change of rates was estimated using Joinpoint regression. Annual incidence rates increased significantly in countries and age groups, by 2-4% (15-39 years), 2-5% (40-49), 1-4% (50-69) and 1-6% (at 70+). Mortality rates decreased significantly in all age-groups in most countries, but increased up to 5% annually above age 55 in Ukraine, Serbia, Moldova and Cyprus. The BC data quality was evaluated by internationally agreed indicators which appeared suboptimal for Moldova, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Romania. The observed variations of incidence trends reflect the influence of risk factors, as well as levels of early detection activities (screening). While mortality rates were mostly decreasing, probably due to improved cancer care and introduction of more effective systemic treatment regimens, the worrying increasing mortality trends in the 55-plus age groups in some countries have to be addressed by health professionals and policymakers. In order to assess and monitor the effects of cancer control activities in the region, the CRs need substantial investments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Geo-environmental model for the prediction of potential transmission risk of Dirofilaria in an area with dry climate and extensive irrigated crops. The case of Spain.

    PubMed

    Simón, Luis; Afonin, Alexandr; López-Díez, Lucía Isabel; González-Miguel, Javier; Morchón, Rodrigo; Carretón, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Kartashev, Vladimir; Simón, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Zoonotic filarioses caused by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are transmitted by culicid mosquitoes. Therefore Dirofilaria transmission depends on climatic factors like temperature and humidity. In spite of the dry climate of most of the Spanish territory, there are extensive irrigated crops areas providing moist habitats favourable for mosquito breeding. A GIS model to predict the risk of Dirofilaria transmission in Spain, based on temperatures and rainfall data as well as in the distribution of irrigated crops areas, is constructed. The model predicts that potential risk of Dirofilaria transmission exists in all the Spanish territory. Highest transmission risk exists in several areas of Andalucía, Extremadura, Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia, Valencia, Aragón and Cataluña, where moderate/high temperatures coincide with extensive irrigated crops. High risk in Balearic Islands and in some points of Canary Islands, is also predicted. The lowest risk is predicted in Northern cold and scarcely or non-irrigated dry Southeastern areas. The existence of irrigations locally increases transmission risk in low rainfall areas of the Spanish territory. The model can contribute to implement rational preventive therapy guidelines in accordance with the transmission characteristics of each local area. Moreover, the use of humidity-related factors could be of interest in future predictions to be performed in countries with similar environmental characteristics.

  16. Genomic scanning using AFLP to detect loci under selection in the moss Funaria hygrometrica along a climate gradient in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, Spain.

    PubMed

    Magdy, M; Werner, O; McDaniel, S F; Goffinet, B; Ros, R M

    2016-03-01

    The common cord moss Funaria hygrometrica has a worldwide distribution and thrives in a wide variety of environments. Here, we studied the genetic diversity in F. hygrometrica along an abiotic gradient in the Mediterranean high mountain of Sierra Nevada (Spain) using a genome scan method. Eighty-four samples from 17 locations from 24 to 2700 m were fingerprinted based on their amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) banding pattern. Using PCA and Bayesian inference we found that the genetic diversity was structured in three or four clusters, respectively. Using a genome scan method we identified 13 outlier loci, which showed a signature of positive selection. Partial Mantel tests were performed between the Euclidean distance matrices of geographic and climatic variables, versus the pair-wise genetic distance of the AFLP dataset and AFLP-positive outliers dataset. AFLP-positive outlier data were significantly correlated with the gradient of the climatic variables, suggesting adaptive variation among populations of F. hygrometrica along the Sierra Nevada Mountains. We highlight the additional analyses necessary to identify the nature of these loci, and their biological role in the adaptation process.

  17. Extreme pointer years in tree-ring records of Central Spain as evidence of volcanic eruptions (Huaynaputina, Peru, 1600 AC) and other climatic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génova, M.

    2011-12-01

    The study of pointer years based on the numerous tree-ring chronologies of the central Iberian Peninsula (Sierra de Guadarrama) could provide complementary information about climate variability over the last 405 years. In total, 64 pointer years have been identified: 30 negative (representing minimum growths) and 34 positive (representing maximum growths), the most significant of these being 1601, 1963 and 1996 for the negative ones, and 1734 and 1737 for the positive ones. Given that summer precipitation has been the most incident factor in the general variability of growth of Pinus in the Sierra de Guadarrama in the second half of the 20th century, it is also an explanatory factor in almost 50% of the extreme growths. Furthermore, the data show that there has been variability over the centuries in the distribution of the frequencies of pointer years and intervals. The first half of the 17th century, together with the second half of the 20th century, constitute the two most notable periods for the frequency of negative pointer years in Central Spain. This variability was sufficiently notable to affirm that, both in the 17th and 20th centuries, the macroclimatic anomalies that affected growth were more frequent and more extreme than in the other two centuries analysed. The period 1600-1602 is of special significance, being one of the most unfavourable for tree growth in the centre of Spain, with 1601 representing the minimum index in the regional chronology. It is possible to infer that these phenomena are the effect of the eruption of Huaynaputina, which occurred in Peru at the beginning of 1600 AD. This is the first time that the effects of this eruption in the tree-ring records of central and southern Europe have been demonstrated.

  18. Holocene climate variability in the western Mediterranean through a multiproxy analysis from Padul peat bog (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Román, María J.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Camuera, Jon; García-Alix, Antonio; Anderson, R. Scott; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Sachse, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula, located in the Mediterranean area, is an interesting location for paleoclimate studies due to its geographic situation between arid and humid climates. Sediments from peat bogs and lakes from Sierra Nevada, in southeastern Iberian Peninsula, have been very informative in terms of how vegetation and wetland environments were impacted by Holocene climate change. These studies are essential if we want to understand the past climate change in the area, which is the key to identify the possible environmental response of the Sierra Nevada ecosystems to future climate scenarios. Padul basin, located in the southwest of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, contains a ca. 100 m-thick peat bog sedimentary sequence that was deposited during the past 1 Ma making this area interesting for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions. A new 43 m-long sedimentary record has recently been retrieved from the Padul peat bog. In this study we have developed a multiproxy analysis of the Holocene part of the Padul-15-05 core including pollen analysis, XRF-core scanner, magnetic susceptibility and organic geochemistry, supported by an age control based on AMS radiocarbon dates, providing with information about vegetation and climate variability during the past 9.9 cal ka BP. This multiproxy reconstruction of the Padul-15-05 evidences the Mediterranean as a sensitive area with respect to global-scale climate system, showing relevant climate episodes such as the ca. 8, 7.5, 6.5 and 5.5 cal ka BP events during the early and middle Holocene. The trend to aridification to the late Holocene is interrupted by more arid and humid periods as the Iberian Roman Humid Period (from ca. 3 to 1.6 cal ka BP), the Dark Ages (from ca. 1.5 to 1.1 cal ka BP), the Medieval Climate Anomaly (from ca. 1.1 to 1.3 cal ka BP) and the Little Ice Age period (from ca. 500 to 100 cal yr BP).

  19. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: The case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain

    Treesearch

    Francesc Baró; Lydia Chaparro; Erik Gómez-Baggethun; Johannes Langemeyer; David J. Nowak; Jaume. Terradas

    2014-01-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change...

  20. Molecular Mechanisms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) as a Basis for Individualized and Personalized Therapy: Rationale, Design and Methods of the South Eastern Europe (SEE)-PTSD study.

    PubMed

    Kulenovic, Alma Dzubur; Agani, Ferid; Avdibegovic, Esmina; Jakovljevic, Miro; Babic, Dragan; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Kucukalic, Sabina; Dzananovic, Emina Sabic; Mehmedbasic, Alma Bravo; Uka, Aferdita Goci; Haxhibeqiri, Shpend; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete; Hoxha, Blerina; Sinanovic, Osman; Kravic, Nermina; Muminovic, Mirnesa; Aukst-Margetic, Branka; Jaksic, Nenad; Franc, Ana Cima; Rudan, Dusko; Pavlovic, Marko; Babic, Romana; Bojic, Elma Feric; Marjanovic, Damir; Bozina, Nada; Ziegler, Christiane; Wolf, Christiane; Warrings, Bodo; Domschke, Katharina; Deckert, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a major health problem in South Eastern Europe (SEE). Available treatment options are not efficient enough and the course is often chronic. Little is known about molecular mediators and moderators of pathogenesis and therapy. Genetic and epigenetic variation may be one central molecular mechanism. We therefore established a consortium combining clinical expertise on PTSD from SEE countries Bosnia-Herzegovina (Sarajevo, Tuzla and Mostar), Kosovo (Prishtina) and Croatia (Zagreb) with genetic and epigenetic competence from Germany (Würzburg) in 2011 within the framework of the DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst)-funded Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe. After obtaining ethical votes and performing rater trainings as well as training in DNA extraction from EDTA blood between 2011 and 2013, we recruited 747 individuals who had experienced war-related trauma in the SEE conflicts between 1991 and 1999. 236 participants had current PTSD, 161 lifetime PTSD and 350 did not have and never had PTSD. Demographic and clinical data are currently merged together with genetic and epigenetic data in a single database to allow for a comprehensive analysis of the role of genetic and epigenetic variation in the pathogenesis and therapy of PTSD. Analyses will be done to a great degree by PhD students from participating SEE centers who in addition to participation in the project had an opportunity to take part in spring and summer schools of the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) funded Research Training Group (RTG) 1253 and thus meet PhD students from Germany and other countries We are confident that our project will not only contribute to a better understanding of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of PTSD as a basis for future individualized and personalized therapies, but also to the academic development of South Eastern Europe.

  1. Pesticides in surface water runoff in south-eastern New York State, USA: Seasonal and stormflow effects on concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, P.J.; Bode, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Samples from two streams (Kisco River and the Middle Branch of the Croton River) in the Croton Reservoir system in south-eastern New York State, USA were sampled from May 2000 through to February 2001 in order to document the effect of land use, streamflow and seasonal patterns of application on pesticide concentrations in runoff from developed watersheds. Many of the pesticides detected most commonly in this study are generally used in developed areas, and particularly on turfgrass. Pesticide concentrations were generally higher, and the numbers of compounds were generally larger, in samples from the Kisco River than in samples from the Middle Branch, probably because the Kisco River drainage has a greater population density and is more extensively developed. Four pesticides (2,4-D, 2,4-D-methyl, dicamba and metalaxyl) were detected in at least one sample from the Kisco River at a concentration > 1 ??g litre-1, and no pesticides were detected at concentrations >0.4 ??g litre-1 in Middle Branch samples. No human-health-based water-quality standards were exceeded by samples from either site in this study, but samples from the Kisco River contained four insecticides (carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon and malathion) and one herbicide (2,4-D) in concentrations that exceeded water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life. The highest concentrations of most compounds occurred during stormflows in both streams in June, September and December, 2000. The lowest concentrations of most compounds at both sites occurred during baseflows from October 2000 through February 2001, even though the concentrations of many compounds increased substantially at the Kisco River site during stormflows in November and December. Detailed data on the variability of pesticide concentrations during stormflows indicate that there may be two sources of pesticides in the Kisco River watershed: (1) elevated concentrations of pesticides during peak flows that occur early in stormflows

  2. Petrogenesis of cogenetic silica-oversaturated and -undersaturated syenites of Abu Khruq ring complex, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogahed, Moustafa M.

    2016-12-01

    The upper Cretaceous Abu Khruq ring complex (ARC) is located in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt displays concentric zonation of syenitic rocks from quartz-rich syenite at the margin, through alkali feldspar syenite to nepheline syenite in the centre. The syenitic rocks occur with nepheline monzogabbro, volcanic rocks (phonolite and trachyte) and the quartz- and nepheline-bearing pegmatites. Rocks of contrasting composition (mafic and salic) exhibit sophisticate geometric relationships. The nepheline monzogabbroic rocks have pillowy xenoliths forms within the salic (nepheline syenite and quartz alkali feldspar syenite) rocks, suggesting synchronous emplacement of the mafic and salic magmas. Clinopyroxene analysis of mafic and salic plutonic rocks of the ARC revealed that the overall pyroxene trend suggesting that fractionation involved a late, progressive increase in Na, in a reaction of the type Ca Mg Fe2+↔Na Fe3+. The chemistry of the analysed amphiboles are compositionally similar to those from typical differentiated peralkaline suites. Geochemically, the complex is enriched in the LILE, HFSE and REE. The concentrations of the compatible elements (V, Sr and Ba) generally decrease with increasing silica, consistent with fractional crystallization. A generalised increase in the Nb/Ta from the nepheline monzogabbro to nepheline syenite compositions is attributed to titanite fractionation. All the rock samples show relative increment of the LREE content than the HREE indicating weak to steep fractionated REE patterns (La/Yb) from 9.43 to 10.86, and thus retaining the geochemical characteristics of anorogenic suites. The magma sources of ARC are not derived from normal primitive mantle. The early stages of differentiation involved extensive olivine and pyroxene fractionation, the fractionation of amphibole, titanite, magnetite, apatite and feldspar may have been involved in the genesis of the salic differentiated compositions. The deviation towards silica

  3. Feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women in Samre Woreda, South Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haileslassie, Kiday; Mulugeta, Afework; Girma, Meron

    2013-03-01

    Lactating mothers from low-income settings are considered as a nutritionally vulnerable group. Due to the nursing process, mothers are subjected to nutritional stresses. Frequent pregnancies followed by lactation increase the health risk of mothers resulting in a high maternal mortality. To assess the feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women from Samre Woreda, South Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia. Community based cross-sectional survey Four kebeles of Samre Woreda (2 urban & 2 rural kebeles) Four hundred lactating mothers were recruited from 400 randomly selected households. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, maternal characteristics, feeding practices, frequency of foods eaten and dietary diversity was collected using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken from each mother using calibrated equipments and standardized techniques. A one-day weighed food record was also collected from randomly selected sub sample (n=60) of mothers. The nutrient and energy content of foods consumed by the mothers was calculated by using ESHA Food Processor and the Ethiopian Food Composition Tables. To investigate the socio-economic and demographic factors affecting the nutritional status of the women, logistic regression was used. ANOVA and t-test were also used to see if there was a mean difference in nutritional status among the lactating mothers. Majority (71.2%) of the participants did not take additional meals during lactation. The median dietary diversity score of the study participants was 5 out of 14 food groups. The prevalence of underweight, chronic energy deficiency and stunting were 31%, 25% and 2.2% respectively. Using logistic regression model, factors significantly associated with the nutritional status of the study participants (as determined by BMI and MUAC) were size of farm land, length of years of marriage, maize cultivation, frequency of antenatal care visit and age of

  4. Geodynamic Implications of Himu Mantle In The Source of Tertiary Volcanics From The Veneto Region (south Eastern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macera, P.; Gasperini, D.; Blichert-Toft; Bosch, D.; del Moro, A.; Dini, G.; Martin, S.; Piromallo, C.

    DuringTertiary times extensive mafic volcanism took place in the South-Eastern Alps, along a half-graben structure bounded by the Schio-Vicenza main fault. This mag- matism gave rise to four main volcanic centers: Lessini, Berici, Euganei, and Maros- tica. The dominating rock types are alkali basalts, basanites and transitional basalts, with hawaiites, trachybasalts, tephrites, basaltic andesites, and differentiated rocks be- ing less common. Major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic data for the most primitive lavas from each volcanic center show the typical features of HIMU hotspot volcanism, variably diluted by a depleted asthenospheric mantle component (87Sr/86Sr48Ma = 0.70314-0.70321; eNd48Ma = +6.4 to +6.5; eHf48Ma = +6.4 to +8.1, 206Pb/204Pb48Ma = 18.786-19.574). Since the HIMU component is consid- ered to be of deep mantle origin, its presence in a tectonic environment dominated by subduction (the Alpine subduction of the European plate below the Adria plate) has significant geodynamic implications. Slab detachment and ensuing rise of deep man- tle material into the lithospheric gap is proposed to be a viable mechanism of hotspot magmatism in a subduction zone setting. Interaction between deep-seated plume ma- terial and shallow depleted asthenospheric mantle may account for the geochemical features of the Veneto volcanics, as well as those of the so-called enriched astheno- spheric reservoir (EAR) component. Ascending counterflow of deep mantle material through the lithospheric gap to the top of the subducting slab further may induce heat- ing of the overriding plate and trigger it to partially melt. Upwelling of the resulting mafic magmas and their subsequent underplating at the mantle-lower crust bound- ary would favor partial melting of the lower crust, thereby giving rise to the bimodal mafic-felsic magmatism that characterizes the whole Periadriatic province. According to this model, the HIMU-like magmatism of the Alpine foreland is therefore

  5. Feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women in Samre Woreda, South Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactating mothers from low-income settings are considered as a nutritionally vulnerable group. Due to the nursing process, mothers are subjected to nutritional stresses. Frequent pregnancies followed by lactation increase the health risk of mothers resulting in a high maternal mortality. Objective To assess the feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women from Samre Woreda, South Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia. Design Community based cross-sectional survey Setting Four kebeles of Samre Woreda (2 urban & 2 rural kebeles) Methods Four hundred lactating mothers were recruited from 400 randomly selected households. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, maternal characteristics, feeding practices, frequency of foods eaten and dietary diversity was collected using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken from each mother using calibrated equipments and standardized techniques. A one-day weighed food record was also collected from randomly selected sub sample (n=60) of mothers. The nutrient and energy content of foods consumed by the mothers was calculated by using ESHA Food Processor and the Ethiopian Food Composition Tables. To investigate the socio-economic and demographic factors affecting the nutritional status of the women, logistic regression was used. ANOVA and t-test were also used to see if there was a mean difference in nutritional status among the lactating mothers. Results Majority (71.2%) of the participants did not take additional meals during lactation. The median dietary diversity score of the study participants was 5 out of 14 food groups. The prevalence of underweight, chronic energy deficiency and stunting were 31%, 25% and 2.2% respectively. Using logistic regression model, factors significantly associated with the nutritional status of the study participants (as determined by BMI and MUAC) were size of farm land, length of years of marriage, maize cultivation

  6. A new species of the rare nematode genus Paramicrolaimus Wieser, 1954 (Chromadorida: Paramicrolaimidae) from the south eastern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jini; Jaleel K U, Abdul; Vijayan, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-08

    A new paramicrolaimid nematode, Paramicrolaimus damodarani sp. nov., is described based on specimens from the continental shelf (95 m) of the south eastern Arabian Sea. Paramicrolaimus damodarani sp. nov. differs from other known species of the genus in having a smaller body size, form of the spicular apparatus, presence of 7 cuticularised protruding precloacal supplements and a strongly cuticularised terminal spinneret. This is the first record of the genus Paramicrolaimus from the northern Indian Ocean. A pictorial key to the four species of Paramicrolaimus is also provided, supplemented with comparative characters, based on published information.

  7. Holocene climate variability, vegetation dynamics and fire regime in the central Pyrenees: the Basa de la Mora sequence (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sanz, A.; González-Sampériz, P.; Moreno, A.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Gil-Romera, G.; Rieradevall, M.; Tarrats, P.; Lasheras-Álvarez, L.; Morellón, M.; Belmonte, A.; Sancho, C.; Sevilla-Callejo, M.; Navas, A.

    2013-08-01

    High resolution multiproxy data (pollen, sedimentology, geochemistry, chironomids and charcoal) from the Basa de la Mora (BSM) lake sequence (42° 32' N, 0° 19' E, 1914 m a.s.l.) show marked climate variability in the central southern Pyrenees throughout the Holocene. A robust age model based on 15 AMS radiocarbon dates underpins the first precise reconstruction of rapid climate changes during the Holocene from this area. During the Early Holocene, increased winter snowpack and high snowmelt during summer, as a consequence of high seasonality, led to higher lake levels, a chironomid community dominated by non-lacustrine taxa (Orthocladiinae) related to higher inlet streams, and a forested landscape with intense run-off processes in the watershed. From 9.8 to 8.1 cal ka BP, climate instability is inferred from rapid and intense forest shifts and high fluctuation in surface run-off. Shifts among conifers and mesophytes reveal at least four short-lived dry events at 9.7, 9.3, 8.8 and 8.3 cal ka BP. Between 8.1 and 5.7 cal ka BP a stable climate with higher precipitation favoured highest lake levels and forest expansion, with spread of mesophytes, withdrawal of conifers and intensification of fires, coinciding with the Holocene Climate Optimum. At 5.7 cal ka BP a major change leading to drier conditions contributed to a regional decline in mesophytes, expansion of pines and junipers, and a significant lake level drop. Despite drier conditions, fire activity dropped as consequence of biomass reduction. Two arid intervals occurred between 2.9 and 2.4 cal ka BP and at 1.2-0.7 cal ka BP (800-1300 AD). The latter coincides with the Medieval Climate Anomaly and is one of the most arid phases of the Holocene in BSM sequence. Anthropogenic disturbances were small until 700 AD, when human pressure over landscape intensified, with Olea cultivation in the lowlands and significant deforestation in highlands. Colder and unfavourable weather conditions during the second part of the

  8. Atmospheric composition and micro-climate in the Alhambra monument, Granada (Spain), in the context of preventive conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horemans, B.; Schalm, O.; De Wael, K.; Cardell, C.; Van Grieken, R.

    2012-07-01

    The world famous Alhambra monument in Granada, Southern Spain, listed as UNESCO world cultural heritage since 1984, represents probably the most beautiful example of Islamic art and architecture from the Middle Ages in Europe. It is visited by ca. 2 million people annually. Granada is situated in a natural basin, surrounded by mountains with altitudes up to 3500 m. Due to this topography and the prevailing low wind speeds, pollution-derived and especially traffic-derived particulate matter often accumulates in the urban air. In order to evaluate the potential conservation risks from the surrounding air, the atmospheric composition in the Alhambra monument was evaluated. Indoor temperature and relative humidity fluctuations were evaluated for their potential degenerative effects. Furthermore, the atmospheric composition in the Alhambra was analyzed in terms of inorganic gases (NO2, SO2, O3, and NH3) and black carbon. It was found that the open architecture protected the indoor environments from developing a potentially harmful microclimate, such as the build-up of humidity resulting from the huge number of daily tourists. On the downside, the strong ventilation made the indoor air hardly different from outdoor air, as characterized by strong diurnal temperature and relative humidity gradients and high traffic-derived pollutant levels.

  9. The weak effects of climatic change on Plantago pollen concentration: 17 years of monitoring in Northwestern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Parrado, Zulima; Valencia-Barrera, Rosa Ma.; Vega-Maray, Ana Ma.; Fuertes-Rodríguez, Carmen Reyes; Fernández-González, Delia

    2014-09-01

    Plantago L. species are very common in nitrified areas such as roadsides and their pollen is a major cause of pollinosis in temperate regions. In this study, we sampled airborne pollen grains in the city of León (NW, Spain) from January 1995 to December 2011, by using a Burkard® 7-day-recording trap. The percentage of Plantago pollen compared to the total pollen count ranged from 11 % (1997) to 3 % (2006) in the period under study. Peak pollen concentrations were recorded in May and June. Our 17-year analysis failed to disclose significant changes in the seasonal trend of plantain pollen concentration. In addition, there were no important changes in the start dates of pollen release and the meteorological parameters analyzed did not show significant variations in their usual trends. We analyzed the influence of several meteorological parameters on Plantago pollen concentration to explain the differences in pollen concentration trends during the study. Our results show that temperature, sun hours, evaporation, and relative humidity are the meteorological parameters best correlated to the behavior of Plantago pollen grains. In general, the years with low pollen concentrations correspond to the years with less precipitation or higher temperatures. We calculated the approximate Plantago flowering dates using the cumulative sum of daily maximum temperatures and compared them with the real bloom dates. The differences obtained were 4 days in 2009, 3 days in 2010, and 1 day in 2011 considering the complete period of pollination.

  10. Tectonothermal evolution in the core of an arcuate fold and thrust belt: the south-eastern sector of the Cantabrian Zone (Variscan belt, north-western Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valín, María Luz; García-López, Susana; Brime, Covadonga; Bastida, Fernando; Aller, Jesús

    2016-07-01

    The tectonothermal evolution of an area located in the core of the Ibero-Armorican Arc (Variscan belt) has been determined by using the conodont colour alteration index (CAI), Kübler index of illite (KI), the Árkai index of chlorite (AI) and the analysis of clay minerals and rock cleavage. The area is part of the Cantabrian Zone (CZ), which represents the foreland fold and thrust belt of the orogen. It has been thrust by several large units of the CZ, what resulted in the generation of a large number of synorogenic Carboniferous sediments. CAI, KI and AI values show an irregular distribution of metamorphic grade, independent of stratigraphic position. Two tectonothermal events have been distinguished in the area. The first one, poorly defined, is mainly located in the northern part. It gave rise to very-low-grade metamorphism in some areas and it was associated with a deformation event that resulted in the emplacement of the last large thrust unit and development of upright folds and associated cleavage (S1). The second tectonothermal event gave rise to low-grade metamorphism and cleavage (S2) crosscutting earlier upright folds in the central, western and southern parts of the study area. The event continued with the intrusion of small igneous rock bodies, which gave rise to contact metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration. This event was linked to an extensional episode due to a gravitational instability at the end of the Variscan deformation. This tectonothermal evolution occurred during the Gzhelian-Sakmarian. Subsequently, several hydrothermal episodes took place and local crenulation cleavage developed during the Alpine deformation.

  11. Analysis of the spatial climate structure from a viticultural perspective. Application to determine viticulture suitability and zonification in Extremadura (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollo, Francisco J.; Moral, Francisco J.; Paniagua, Luís L.; García, Abelardo

    2014-05-01

    The basis for assessing the suitability for viticulture in wine regions is an accurate depiction of the temperature spatial distribution. Thus, using data for a long time internal (1980-2011) and from 117 meteorological stations, four bioclimatic indices were calculated and their spatial distribution patterns were mapped using a multivariate method, the regression-kriging technique. It was obtained that the spatial variability of climate within Extremaduran natural regions (NRs) is significant. Although the warmer conditions predominate in Extremadura, some NRs have part of their territory by up to eight climate classes; this information enables a better understanding of the viticulture suitability within each NR and delineating homogeneous zones. Finally, comparisons of Extremaduran NRs with others worlwide were conducted, which should be taken into account to select varieties and assess the possibilities of producing new wines.

  12. Modelling soil erosion in rainfed vineyards of northeast of Spain under climate change: effects of increasing rainfall intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria

    2017-04-01

    This aim of the research was to analyse the effect of rainfall distribution and intensity on soil erosion in vines cultivated in the Mediterranean under the projected climate change scenario. The simulations were done at plot scale using the WEPP model. Climatic data for the period 1996-2014 were obtained from a meteorological station located 6km far from the plot. Soil characteristics such as texture, organic matter content, water retention capacity and infiltration were analysed. Runoff and soil losses were measured at four locations within the plot during 4 years and used to calibrate and validate the model. According to evidences recorded in the area, changes of rainfall intensities of 10 and 20% were considered for different rainfall distributions. The simulations were extended to the predicted changes for 2030, 2050 and 2070 based on the HadGEM2-CC under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 scenario. WEPP model provided a suitable prediction of the seasonal runoff and erosion as simulated relatively well the runoff and erosion of the most important events although some deficiencies were found for those events that produced low runoff. The simulation confirmed the contribution of the extreme events to annual erosion rates in 70%, on average. The model responded to changes in precipitation predicted under a climate change scenario with a decrease of runoff and erosion, and with higher erosion rates for an increase in rainfall intensity. A 10% increase may imply erosion rates up to 22% greater for the scenario 2030, and despite the predicted decrease in precipitation for the scenario 2050, soil losses may be up to 40% greater than at present for some rainfall distributions and intensity rainfall increases of 20%. These findings show the need of considering rainfall intensity as one of the main driven factors when soil erosion rates under climate change are predicted. Keywords: extreme events, rainfall distribution, runoff, soil losses, wines

  13. Evaluation of the impact of climate change on the water resources, crop needs and water quality of the Jalón river (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisani, Bruno; Samper, Javier; García Vera, Miguel Angel

    2014-05-01

    Climate models predict an increase in temperature, T, and a decrease of precipitation, P, for the Mediterranean regions. These trends will decrease the available water resources, increase the water demand of crops and affect the water quality. The Ebre river basin is one of the largest basins in Spain. Preliminary evaluations of the potential impact of the climate change on its water resources pointed out that the sub-basins located in the Southeastern part of the basin are the most vulnerable. The Jalón river sub-basin is one of such sub-basins. It has a drainage area of 10187 km2 and shows a wide range of climatic, geologic, and land use conditions. The impact of climate change on the water resources of the Jalón River sub-basin has been evaluated for the period 2071-2100 for the A2 and B2 emission scenarios by using a semi-distributed water balance model. The results indicate that the mean annual temperature will rise from 2 to 4 ºC while the mean annual precipitation will decrease from 14% to 18%. Groundwater recharge will decrease dramatically (from 60% to 80%) while the total stream flow will decrease from 59% to 77%. The increase in crop water demand will range from 12% to 16% while the net crop water demand will increase from 25% to 33%. The concentration of a conservative chemical species such as Cl- in the runoff will increase by a factor ranging from 1.45 to 5. These predictions, which may contain uncertainties, have been taken into account in the program of measures of the Ebre river basin water plan. The main sources of uncertainty come from the historic hydrological data, the global and regional circulation models, the definition of the scenarios, the downscaling method and the hydrological model. Acknowledgements. The research leading to these results has received funding from the Ebre River Authority (Proyect 2010-PH-02.I) and a project from the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Project CGL2012-36560). The work of Bruno Pisani was funded

  14. Sediment delivery and lake dynamics in a Mediterranean mountain watershed: Human-climate interactions during the last millennium (El Tobar Lake record, Iberian Range, Spain).

    PubMed

    Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Brown, Erik; Moreno, Ana; Morellón, Mario; Abbott, Mark; Hillman, Aubrey; Giralt, Santiago; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2015-11-15

    Land degradation and soil erosion are key environmental problems in Mediterranean mountains characterized by a long history of human occupation and a strong variability of hydrological regimes. To assess recent trends and evaluate climatic and anthropogenic impacts in these highly human modified watersheds we apply an historical approach combining lake sediment core multi-proxy analyses and reconstructions of past land uses to El Tobar Lake watershed, located in the Iberian Range (Central Spain). Four main periods of increased sediment delivery have been identified in the 8m long sediment sequence by their depositional and geochemical signatures. They took place around 16th, late 18th, mid 19th and early 20th centuries as a result of large land uses changes such as forest clearing, farming and grazing during periods of increasing population. In this highly human-modified watershed, positive synergies between human impact and humid periods led to increased sediment delivery periods. During the last millennium, the lake depositional and geochemical cycles recovered quickly after each sediment delivery event, showing strong resilience of the lacustrine system to watershed disturbance. Recent changes are characterized by large hydrological affections since 1967 with the construction of a canal from a nearby reservoir and a decreased in anthropic pressure in the watershed as rural areas were abandoned. The increased fresh water influx to the lake has caused large biological changes, leading to stronger meromictic conditions and higher organic matter accumulation while terrigenous inputs have decreased. Degradation processes in Iberian Range watersheds are strongly controlled by anthropic activities (land use changes, soil erosion) but modulated by climate-related hydrological changes (water availability, flood and runoff frequency). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term climate record inferred from early-middle Pleistocene amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages at the Gran Dolina Cave, Atapuerca, Spain.

    PubMed

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Bailon, Salvador; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José Maria; Carbonell, Eudald

    2009-01-01

    The Gran Dolina cave site is famous for having delivered some of the oldest hominin remains of Western Europe (Homo antecessor, ca. 960 ka). Moreover, the evidence of lithic industries throughout the long vertical section suggests occupation on the part of hominins from the latest early Pleistocene (levels TD3/4, TD5, and TD6) to the late middle Pleistocene (level TD10). The Gran Dolina Sondeo Sur (TDS) has furnished a great number of small-vertebrate remains; among them some 40,000 bones are attributed to amphibians and squamates. Although they do not differ specifically from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, the overlap of their current distribution areas (= mutual climatic range method) in Spain can provide mean annual temperatures (MAT), the mean temperatures of the coldest (MTC) and warmest (MTW) months, and mean annual precipitation (MAP) estimations for each sub-level, and their change can be studied throughout the sequence. Results from the squamate and amphibian study indicate that during hominin occupation the MAT (10-13 degrees C) was always slightly warmer than at present in the vicinity of the Gran Dolina Cave, and the MAP (800-1000mm) was greater than today in the Burgos area. Climatic differences between "glacial" and "interglacial" phases are poorly marked. Summer temperatures (MTW) show stronger oscillations than winter temperatures (MTC), but seasonality remains almost unchanged throughout the sequence. These results are compared with those for large mammals, small mammals, and pollen analysis, giving a scenario for the palaeoclimatic conditions that occurred during the early to middle Pleistocene in Atapuerca, and hence a scenario for the hominins that once lived in the Sierra de Atapuerca.

  16. Seasonal temperature and precipitation variability during the last 60 years in a Mediterranean climate area of Northeastern Spain: a multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. C.; Balasch, J. C.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents the analysis of mean daily temperature and precipitation from 1950 to 2010 in an area with Mediterranean climate of NE Spain including some coastal areas near Barcelona and the Penedès and Camp de Tarragona Depressions located between the Coastal Mountain Range and the Mediterranean Sea. Their variability, with especial attention to the frequency of extreme events, was analysed by using 18 indexes: seven for temperature and 11 for precipitation were analysed for four meteorological observatories. A multivariate analysis was performed in order to analyse the temperature and precipitation trends. During the analysed period, an increase in mean annual maximum temperature was observed in all observatories ranging between 1.5 and 2.2°C associated with an increase in the number of days with high extreme temperatures. Minimum temperature only increased significantly in the coast observatories (about 1.4°C). By seasons, temperature trends were greater at Vilafranca del Penedès and Barcelona observatories and lower at Reus airport. Maximum spring temperature increased between 1.5 and 2.5°C, summer temperature increased between 1.6 and 2.5°C and autumn temperature increased by up to 2.2°C. Precipitation presented a high variability from year to year, without significant trends. The most significant results were related to the dry conditions observed in spring 2000s, the wet conditions recorded in summer 2000s and 1980s and the longer dry periods in autumn 2000s. The increase of temperatures determined the increase of evapotranspiration, and due to the higher irregular distribution, water deficits for crop development were recorded. An advance of phenological dates and a reduction of grape yield are associated to climate trends.

  17. MURASOC, a parametric model to test climate change effects on soil organic carbon. Application to Southern Spain (Mediterranean áreas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Brevik, Eric C.; Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Obregón-Romero, Rafael; Gil Torres, Juan; Recio-Espejo, Jose Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is formed through the decomposition processes of plant, animal and microbial residues, root exudates, living and dead microorganism and soil biota; and is the main energy source for soil microorganism. Consequently, a strong feedback is stablished among a large number of components in the complex biota-abiota network. Likewise, SOC influences in physical, chemical and biological soil properties such as temperature, cationic exchange capacity and plant growth (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015). Therefore, to improve our knowledge about what soil variables are more responsible of SOC content would be extremely useful in soils characterization. In many studies, independent variables were related to SOC, however, the possible combined effects of different independent variables and their ability to model SOC have not been considered. On the other hand, over the last few decades interest in soil organic carbon (SOC) has increased due to its role in C sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems, which could contribute to decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels (Lozano-García et al., 2016; Fernández-Romero et al., 2016; Parras-Alcántara and Lozano-García 2014). Then, attempts to model SOC content have multiplied over this time. In this study, 612 soil profiles obtained from the Natura 2000 network of protected areas in the Sierra Morena mountains, (Spain) were used with the following objectives: i) To quantify SOC content according to different variables (analytical, morphological, genetic and climatic) in order to define the variables that are most closely related to SOC content; ii) To model the Current SOC content for a geographic area (Sierra Morena - Spain); iii) To model SOC suitability-habitat under a climate change scenario; iv) To extrapolate the SOC content and distribution model to the wider Andalusia region, showing the areas that have a high probability to experience an increase in their SOC content in coming years; and v) To propose

  18. Total organic carbon and humus fractions in restored soils from limestone quarries in semiarid climate, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Ángel Domene Ruiz, Miguel; Solé Benet, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities generate erosion and loss of plant cover and soil organic matter (SOM), especially in arid and semiarid Mediterranean regions. A precondition for ecosystem restoration in such highly disturbed areas is the development of functional soils with sufficient organic matter. But the SOM quality is also important to long-term C stabilization. The resistance to biodegradation of recalcitrant organic matter fractions has been reported to depend on some intrinsic structural factors of humic acid substances and formation of amorphous organo-mineral recalcitrant complexes. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries in the Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, several combinations of organic amendments (sewage sludge and compost from domestic organic waste) and mulches (gravel and woodchip) were added in experimental plots using a factorial design. In each plot, 75 native plants (Anthyllis cytisoides, A. terniflora and Macrochloa tenacissima) were planted and five years after the start of the experiment total organic carbon (TOC), physico-chemical soil properties and organic C fractions (particulate organic matter, H3PO4-fulvic fraction, fulvic acids (FA), humic acids (HA) and humin) were analyzed. We observed significant differences between treatments related to the TOC content and the HA/FA ratio. Compost amendments increased the TOC, HA content and HA/FA ratio, even higher than in natural undisturbed soils, indicating an effective clay humus-complex pointing to progressively increasing organic matter quality. Soils with sewage sludge showed the lowest TOC and HA/FA ratio and accumulated a lower HA proportion indicating poorer organic matter quality and comparatively lower resilience than in natural soils and soils amended with compost.

  19. Towards a quantitative climate reconstruction linking meteorological, limnological and sedimentological datasets: the Lake Sanabria (NW Spain) case.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico-Herrero, María. Teresa; Giralt, Santiago; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Vega, José Carlos

    2010-05-01

    It is well-known that lacustrine sediment records constitute one of the best environmental sensors to reconstruct climate variability. Nevertheless, our knowledge of how the climate signal (precipitation, temperature, wind stress) is transferred from the atmosphere to the lake water masses (through the limnological variables such as pH, nutrient inputs or water chemistry) and to the sediments is very poor. Besides there are few reliable and temporal long limnological and/or meteorological datasets. This lack also prevents the conversion of these qualitative climate reconstructions into quantitative ones. Lake Sanabria (Zamora) is located in the northwestern of the Iberian Peninsula (42°07'30' N, 06°43'00' W), at 1.000 m a.s.l. It is the largest glacial lake (368 ha, 51 m of water depth at the deepest point and 96 Hm3 of water volume) in the Iberian Peninsula. The main water and sediments input and output is the Tera River. Monthly limnological (secchi disk, water temperature profiles, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen), nutrients (nitrates, silicon, total phosphorous, reactive phosphorous, total chlorophyll and a-chlorophyll), hydrological (Tera river discharge) and meteorological (precipitation and air temperature from the Ribadelago meteorological station) datasets covering the period 1992 - 2005 were employed to explore the relationships between the atmosphere and the Lake Sanabria hydrological balance, and the limnological variables. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanner data of two gravity cores (SAN04-3A and SAN07-1M) allowed us to characterize with high resolution the evolution of the chemical composition of the uppermost sedimentary infill. SAN07-1M was dated using gamma-spectrometry (210Pb) and a key bed corresponding to the dam failure of the Vega de Tera Reservoir located upstream occurred in 1959 AD. The relationships between the sedimentological and limnological datasets allowed us to characterize the transference of the climate signal from the

  20. Effects of density, climate, and supplementary forage on body mass and pregnancy rates of female red deer in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Hidalgo, P; Gortazar, C; Tortosa, F S; Rodriguez-Vigal, C; Fierro, Y; Vicente, J

    2010-10-01

    The influence of short- and long-term (cohort) effects of climate and density on the life-histories of ungulates in temperate regions may vary with latitude, habitat, and management practices, but the life-histories of ungulates in the Mediterranean region are less well known. This study examined the short- and long-term effects of rainfall and absolute density on hinds in two of the southernmost populations of red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) in Europe. One population received supplementary forage. Unlike more northerly latitudes, where red deer hinds lose body mass in winter as a result of adverse weather, in the Spanish populations, hinds did not lose body mass. Hinds in the population that received supplementary forage were heavier and more likely to become pregnant than were the hinds in the unsupplemented population. The likelihood of pregnancy occurring was strongly influenced by hind body mass; the proportion of yearlings that became pregnant was consequently lower in the unsupplemented population than in the population that received supplementary forage. Cohort effects on hind body mass (negative for density and positive for rainfall at birth) and on the probability of pregnancy (negative for density at birth) were apparent only in the unsupplemented population, which implies that supplemental feeding may partially compensate for negative density-dependent factors during early growth, and that supplemented deer hinds may experience reduced selection pressures. These results reflect the particular seasonal variation in the abundance and quality of food in Mediterranean habitats. The delayed effects of climate and density at birth on adult hind body mass and the prevalence of pregnancy probably affects population dynamics and constitutes a mechanism by which cohort effects affect the population dynamics in Iberian red deer. The management of Iberian red deer populations should take into account cohort effects and supplemental feeding practices, which can

  1. Variations of Minor elements during MIS3a in the glacial tills at Mt.Yulong, South-eastern Tibetan plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuanqing; He, Ze

    2016-04-01

    Several profiles of glacial varve sediments in Mt.Yulong (27°7'43"N, 100°14'53"E) were found and sampled recently, where is the lowest latitude alpine glacier-covered area in the region of south-eastern Tibetan Plateau influenced by South Asian monsoon. High resolution X-ray fluorescence (mXRF) was firstly applied to observe and describe these sediments in details, and the varve sediments are dated between 31620±180 and 38230±380BP determined by 14C dating,corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage 3a(MIS3a). Minor elements in the glacial till can be related to precipitation amount because this kind of accumulation is strongly affected by monsoon rainfall in the region. 4 general circle variations have been identified in the varve sediments. The changes of analyzed lithogenic elements(Ga, Si, Fe,Sr,Zr )in the sediments show distinct centennial to millennial variable features during MIS3a. Principal components analysis of our geochemical dataset suggests a close link between high Rb/Sr ratio, Mn/Fe ratio and Zr abundance in the deposition that could be dealing with both chemical weathering process and hydrological process. Key Words: Minor elements, MIS 3a, Glacial till, Mt.Yulong, South-eastern Tibetan plateau;

  2. Histological and morphological aspects of reproduction in the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus in the U.S. south-eastern Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Piercy, A N; Murie, D J; Gelsleichter, J J

    2016-05-01

    The reproduction of the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus in the U.S. south-eastern Atlantic Ocean including the Gulf of Mexico was examined using a combination of histological and morphological characteristics of C. plumbeus collected through fishery-dependent and -independent sampling programmes (n = 1,567). Indices of maturity were constructed using measurements of gonads, reproductive tracts and claspers, and sandbar sharks exhibited 50% maturity sizes of 140 and 148 cm fork length for males and females respectively. Gonado-somatic indices and variation in reproductive tract condition were used to determine seasonal trends in reproduction of mature C. plumbeus. Sandbar sharks have discrete seasonal reproductive cycles in which males produce sperm from January to May with a peak in May and females develop eggs from January to May with ovulation occurring in June. Females were shown to exhibit a >2 year reproductive cycle. Embryonic development was assessed through measurements of masses and lengths of uterine contents. Gestation was 12 months, from July to the following June, with parturition in late June. This research highlights a difference from previously reported data on the periodicity of female reproduction in C. plumbeus in the U.S. south-eastern Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, which may have major effects on future C. plumbeus stock management. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Geographic distribution of Gryllotalpa stepposa in south-eastern Europe, with first records for Romania, Hungary and Serbia (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllotalpidae)

    PubMed Central

    Iorgu, Ionuț Ștefan; Iorgu, Elena Iulia; Puskás, Gellért; Ivković, Slobodan; Borisov, Simeon; Gavril, Viorel Dumitru; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Described from the steppe zones north of the Black Sea, Caucasus, and central Asia, Gryllotalpa stepposa Zhantiev was recently recorded from a few localities in Greece, R. Macedonia, and Bulgaria. In May 2015, several specimens were collected from Ivrinezu Mare in Romania, which suggested a continuous distribution area of the species, stretching from the central Balkans to central Asia. Thus, to reveal its actual range of occurrence, a survey of several Orthoptera collections became mandatory and, as expected, a large number of misidentified specimens of Gryllotalpa stepposa were discovered, providing new data on the species distribution in south-eastern Europe, including also the first records of this mole cricket in Serbia and Hungary. Here a full locality list is presented of this species west of Ukraine and Moldova and the current geographic distribution of the genus Gryllotalpa in the Balkans is revised. A key for distinguishing the mole crickets in south-eastern Europe and a distribution map for this region are presented. PMID:27551213

  4. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in young beef cattle in eastern and south-eastern regions of Poland.

    PubMed

    Wernicki, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Stęgierska, D; Adaszek, Ł; Kalinowski, M; Puchalski, A; Dec, M

    2015-01-01

    In view of the scarcity of information concerning viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections in beef cattle in Poland, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the BVDV in young beef cattle from selected herds in eastern and south-eastern regions of Poland. The material consisted of 78 sera obtained from beef cattle from 15 farms, aged 6-12 months. The anti-BVDV antibody level in the sera was estimated with an ELISA kit, and detection of the BVDV was carried out by standard PCR and one step Real-Time RT-PCR. The ELISA results showed a high degree (80%) of positivity in 5 of the 78 samples. In 7 samples the degree of positivity was in the very low range: < 40%. Of the 78 cDNA samples, the presence of genetic material with a length of 288 bp was found by standard PCR in 3 sera. The genetic material of BVDV was also found in the sera of the same three calves by Real-Time HRM PCR. BVDV infection in young beef cattle in south-eastern Poland is not a significant problem. This was confirmed by the positive ELISA results for 6.4% of the animals and the positive PCR results for 3.9%. The percentage of positive beef herds was about 8.6%. However, due to the severe nature of the disease and rapid transmission of the virus, regular monitoring of BVDV should be carried out.

  5. Climate change and its impact on water infrastructure: the case of Alcala de Henares (Spain) and Mexico City (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, M.; Tortajada, C.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change and its possible impacts on precipitation are still a matter of controversy due to lack of data as well as models which are considered reliable. Even though the science of climate change has advanced significantly in recent years, many uncertainties still prevail, ranging from reliable prediction of extreme river flow events to downscaling of rainfall to smaller planning areas. That is, present knowledge is still insufficient to understand and accurately predict how global changes, climate change one of them, may affect precipitation and streamflows over specific geographical units. In terms of planning and investment in urban areas, where more than 50 percent of the population live at present, freshwater supply and flood risk management have to be considered on long-term basis. This includes development of water infrastructure for drinking water supply and drainage as well as flood control which responds to the needs of the growing populations and their economies. Impacts of climate change are slow over time and take place over thousands of years. However, their study is relatively recent, mostly in terms of impacts on the hydrological cycle and therefore in terms of run-off. In the case of urban centres, the rationale is that governments will have to adapt the water infrastructure according to the expected changes and thus have to plan for them. For example, in the case of Mexico City, the way the drainage system was designed 100 years ago is very different from the way it would be done at present and the way it would be planned in about 50 years time. In the case of the city of Alcalá de Henares in the region of Madrid, the analysis of precipitations has shown a slight tendency towards a wet period from the decade of the 60´s. Due to this tendency, the calculations for the design of water infrastructures have remained virtually unchanged. In the case of this specific city, there is no indication that there will be dramatic or rapid changes in

  6. Towards the assessment of climate change and human activities impacts on the water resources of the Ebro catchment (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milano, M.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Ardoin-Bardin, S.; Thivet, G.; Servat, E.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide studies modelling the hydrological response to global changes have proven the Mediterranean area as one of the most vulnerable region to water crisis. It is characterised by limited and unequally distributed water resources, as well as by important development of its human activities. Since the late 1950s, water demand in the Mediterranean basin has doubled due to a significant expansion of irrigated land and urban areas, and has maintained on a constant upward curve. The Ebro catchment, third largest Mediterranean basin, is very representative of this context. Since the late 1970s, a negative trend in mean rainfall has been observed as well as an increase in mean temperature. Meanwhile, the Ebro River discharge has decreased by about 40%. However, climate alone cannot explain this downward trend. Another factor is the increase in water consumption for agricultural and domestic uses. Indeed, the Ebro catchment is a key element in the Spanish agricultural production with respectively 30% and 60% of the meat and fruit production of the country. Moreover, population has increased by 20% over the catchment since 1970 and the number of inhabitant doubles each summer due to tourism attraction. Finally, more than 250 storage dams have been built over the Ebro River for hydropower production and irrigation water supply purposes, hence regulating river discharge. In order to better understand the respective influence of climatic and anthropogenic pressures on the Ebro hydrological regime, an integrated water resources modelling framework was developed. This model is driven by water supplies, generated by a conceptual rainfall-runoff model and by a storage dam module that accounts for water demands and environmental flow requirements. Water demands were evaluated for the most water-demanding sector, i.e. irrigated agriculture (5 670 Hm3/year), and the domestic sector (252 Hm3/year), often defined as being of prior importance for water supply. A water allocation

  7. Integrated assessment of the impact of climate and land use changes on groundwater quantity and quality in the Mancha Oriental system (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Peña-Haro, S.; García-Prats, A.; Mocholi-Almudever, A. F.; Henriquez-Dole, L.; Macian-Sorribes, H.; Lopez-Nicolas, A.

    2015-04-01

    Climate and land use change (global change) impacts on groundwater systems cannot be studied in isolation. Land use and land cover (LULC) changes have a great impact on the water cycle and contaminant production and transport. Groundwater flow and storage are changing in response not only to climatic changes but also to human impacts on land uses and demands, which will alter the hydrologic cycle and subsequently impact the quantity and quality of regional water systems. Predicting groundwater recharge and discharge conditions under future climate and land use changes is essential for integrated water management and adaptation. In the Mancha Oriental system (MOS), one of the largest groundwater bodies in Spain, the transformation from dry to irrigated lands during the last decades has led to a significant drop of the groundwater table, with the consequent effect on stream-aquifer interaction in the connected Jucar River. Understanding the spatial and temporal distribution of water quantity and water quality is essential for a proper management of the system. On the one hand, streamflow depletion is compromising the dependent ecosystems and the supply to the downstream demands, provoking a complex management issue. On the other hand, the intense use of fertilizer in agriculture is leading to locally high groundwater nitrate concentrations. In this paper we analyze the potential impacts of climate and land use change in the system by using an integrated modeling framework that consists in sequentially coupling a watershed agriculturally based hydrological model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) with a groundwater flow model developed in MODFLOW, and with a nitrate mass-transport model in MT3DMS. SWAT model outputs (mainly groundwater recharge and pumping, considering new irrigation needs under changing evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation) are used as MODFLOW inputs to simulate changes in groundwater flow and storage and impacts on stream

  8. Malaria resurgence risk in southern Europe: climate assessment in an historically endemic area of rice fields at the Mediterranean shore of Spain.

    PubMed

    Sainz-Elipe, Sandra; Latorre, Jose Manuel; Escosa, Raul; Masià, Montserrat; Fuentes, Marius Vicent; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, Maria Dolores

    2010-07-31

    International travel and immigration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. This fact and climate change, prolonging the period favouring vector development, require an analysis of the malaria transmission resurgence risk in areas of southern Europe. Such a study is made for the first time in Spain. The Ebro Delta historically endemic area was selected due to its rice field landscape, the presence of only one vector, Anopheles atroparvus, with densities similar to those it presented when malaria was present, in a situation which pronouncedly differs from already assessed potential resurgence areas in other Mediterranean countries, such as France and Italy, where many different Anopheles species coexist and a different vector species dominates. The transmission risk was assessed analysing: 1) climate diagrams including the minimum temperature for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax development; 2) monthly evolution of the Gradient Model Risk (GMR) index, specifying transmission risk period and number of potential Plasmodium generations; 3) ecological characteristics using remote sensing images with the Eurasia Land Cover characteristics database and the monthly evolution of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); 4) evaluation of A. atroparvus population dynamics. Climatological analyses and GMR index show that a transmission risk presently exists, lasting from May until September for P. falciparum, and from May until October for P. vivax. The GMR index shows that the temperature increase does not actually mean a transmission risk increase if accompanied by a precipitation decrease reducing the number of parasite generations and transmission period. Nevertheless, this limitation is offset by the artificial flooding of the rice fields. Maximum NDVI values and A. atroparvus maximum abundance correspond to months with maximum growth of the rice fields. The Ebro Delta presents the ecological characteristics that favour

  9. Malaria resurgence risk in southern Europe: climate assessment in an historically endemic area of rice fields at the Mediterranean shore of Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background International travel and immigration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. This fact and climate change, prolonging the period favouring vector development, require an analysis of the malaria transmission resurgence risk in areas of southern Europe. Such a study is made for the first time in Spain. The Ebro Delta historically endemic area was selected due to its rice field landscape, the presence of only one vector, Anopheles atroparvus, with densities similar to those it presented when malaria was present, in a situation which pronouncedly differs from already assessed potential resurgence areas in other Mediterranean countries, such as France and Italy, where many different Anopheles species coexist and a different vector species dominates. Methods The transmission risk was assessed analysing: 1) climate diagrams including the minimum temperature for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax development; 2) monthly evolution of the Gradient Model Risk (GMR) index, specifying transmission risk period and number of potential Plasmodium generations; 3) ecological characteristics using remote sensing images with the Eurasia Land Cover characteristics database and the monthly evolution of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); 4) evaluation of A. atroparvus population dynamics. Results Climatological analyses and GMR index show that a transmission risk presently exists, lasting from May until September for P. falciparum, and from May until October for P. vivax. The GMR index shows that the temperature increase does not actually mean a transmission risk increase if accompanied by a precipitation decrease reducing the number of parasite generations and transmission period. Nevertheless, this limitation is offset by the artificial flooding of the rice fields. Maximum NDVI values and A. atroparvus maximum abundance correspond to months with maximum growth of the rice fields. Conclusions The Ebro Delta presents the ecological

  10. Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and Fasciola hepatica in sheep in the northwest of Spain: relation to climatic conditions and/or man-made environmental modifications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the present study we studied and updated the prevalence of the infections caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and Fasciola hepatica in grazing sheep in the northwest (NW) of Spain for the last six years (2006–2011), and its relationship with the current climatic conditions. Methods We analyzed faecal samples from 110 flocks located in four different provinces of the Autonomous Community of Castilla y León: 76.4% of them were situated in León, 12.7% in Zamora, 9.1% in Palencia and 1.8% in Valladolid. Results The prevalence of GIN was 100% and the mean of eggs per gram (epg) in faeces was 237.2 (± 375.9) per flock. Regarding climatic conditions, we found a direct relationship between the GIN infection level and the maximum humidity (p<0.05) but inverse with the degree of solar radiation (p<0.05). The prevalence of fasciolosis was 59.3%, with a mean epg of 17.5 (± 33.9) per flock; these values were correlated with the minimum humidity and precipitations (p<0.05). Comparing our results in León with previous studies during the early 1990s, the mean epg of GIN was increased slightly (134.3 epg); regarding fasciolosis, the prevalence rose significantly, from 26.7% to 60.5%. Since the 1990s we observed that the maximum temperature is nowadays 0.45°C higher (17.0°C) and the minimum 0.5°C lower (5.2°C); the rainfall values were very similar in both decades but at the present time the humidity is higher (75.9%). Conclusions We found that the prevalence of GIN and F. hepatica infections was directly influenced by the humidity and also by precipitations in the case of F. hepatica. Comparing the current prevalence with studies carried out in the same area for the early 1990s, we observed that nowadays the mean epg of GIN is higher with a possible cause being the differences in climatic conditions depending on the sampling year. Regarding F. hepatica infection, its prevalence rose significantly probably favoured by an increase in irrigated areas in

  11. Features of autumnal differential coastal cooling in south-eastern Baltic deduced from data of MODIS spectroradiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esiukova, Elena; Chubarenko, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Characteristics of profiles of sea surface temperature (SST) from the coastline to deep sea area in Russian sector of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea during seasonal autumnal cooling are identified using the data of spectroradiometers MODIS Aqua. Time periods are chosen when vertical convection and wind mixing make the upper layer (~ 30-40 m) in deep-sea area practically isothermal, and significant horizontal gradients of temperature/density are formed above shallows and underwater coastal slopes. This picture of differential cooling is formed by the combined action of heat exchange with the atmosphere (which is practically the same in coastal and open areas) and horizontal transport of heat from the sea to the shallow/coastal zone. This allows for estimation of horizontal heat and mass transport between the deep and the coastal area. The images of October-November 2002-2009 were analyzed, corresponding to periods of fast decrease of air temperature (at a rate of 0.86-2.54 °C/day). Significant linear portion in shallow-most paret is found to be a characteristic feature of the profiles, which is detected above all types of slopes (steep, sloping, irregular), reaching 20% to 70% of the length of the slope. Comparative analysis of the characteristics of the observed profiles above different slopes at the same image, and for the same slope at different dates was performed. The actual profiles of SST are compared with several theoretically predicted cases (in the absence of horizontal exchange, in of the quasi-stationary exchange), and the modeling results. Estimations suggest that horizontal gradient of water temperature favours seasonal slide of the cold/dense water along the underwater slopes (cascading) with a fairly high speed, reaching tens of cm/s at the shelf edge in the case of rapid cooling of water above the underwater slopes. Current speed at the end of the slopes may be quite high (8-20 cm/s), but comparable to the known values. On the base of numerical

  12. Analysis of large boulders along the coast of south-eastern Sicily to discriminate between storm and tsunami deposits.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrotta, Claudia; Serafina Barbano, Maria; Gerardi, Flavia

    2010-05-01

    We present a study to discriminate the kind of anomalous waves, storms or tsunamis, that were responsible for the large boulder accumulation in the Vendicari Reserve along the south-eastern Sicilian coast. These depositional and erosional indicators of the large wave impact have been already observed in some rocky coasts of the Mediterranean basin and associated to strong waves of tsunamigenic or meteorological origin. Distinguishing boulders deposited by tsunamis from that deposited by storms and determining the age of their deposition can help to evaluate the magnitude and frequency of tsunamis and the hazard along the coast also regarding extraordinarily violent storms. The Sicilian Ionian coast has been affected in historical time by large destructive earthquake-related tsunamis (e.g. the 1169, 1693 and 1908) and it is exposed to an intense wave motion coming from a NNE- SSE span direction . In the rocky coastal area of Vendicari Reserve, three different GPS surveys (from September 2006 until April 2009) have been performed with the aim to observe the distance of each boulders with respect to the shoreline and if storms removed boulders or deposited new ones. A morphological analysis aiming to identify boulder shapes, measuring their volumes, elongation axis azimuth, pre-transport setting and the probable transport mechanism on the platform, was also carried out. The calcarenitic boulders (specific weight about 2,3 g/cm3), reaching about 20 tons and a distance up to 60m from the shoreline, are generally carved out from the supratidal or mid-sublittoral zone, showing widespread biogenic encrustations sometimes so fresh that suggest a recent deposition. The GPS surveys allowed us to observed that, after a strong storm during January 2009, several boulders were removed while new have been deposited on the platform by the storm waves. Hydrodynamic equations jointly to statistical analysis of sea storms have been used to determine the extreme event, geological or

  13. Climate change in a Point-Over-Threshold model: an example on ocean-wave-storm hazard in NE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolosana-Delgado, R.; Ortego, M. I.; Egozcue, J. J.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.

    2009-09-01

    Climatic change is a problem of general concern. When dealing with hazardous events such as wind-storms, heavy rainfall or ocean-wave storms this concern is even more serious. Climate change might imply an increase of human and material losses, and it is worth devoting efforts to detect it. Hazard assessment of such events is often carried out with a point-over-threshold (POT) model. Time-occurrence of events is assumed to be Poisson distributed, and the magnitude of each event is modelled as an arbitrary random variable, which upper tail is described by a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). Independence between this magnitude and occurrence in time is assumed, as well as independence from event to event. The GPD models excesses over a threshold. If X is the magnitude of an event and x0 a value of the support of X, the excess over the threshold x0 is Y = X - x0, conditioned to X > x0. Therefore, the support of Y is (a segment of) the positive real line. The GPD model has a scale and a shape parameter. The scale parameter of the distribution is β > 0. The shape parameter, ? is real-valued, and it defines three different sub-families of distributions. GPD distributions with ? < 0 have limited support (ysup = -β?). For values ? > 0, distributions have infinite heavy tails (ysup = +? ), and for ? = 0 we obtain the exponential distribution, which has an infinite support but a well-behaved tail. The GPD distribution function is ( ? )- 1 ? FY(y|β,?) = 1- 1+ β-y , 0 ? y < ysup ? = 0 , with exponential limit form FY (y|β,? = 0) = 1 - exp( ) - yβ for ? = 0, where 0 ? y < ? . Scarcity of data arises as an additional difficulty, as hazardous events are fortunately rare. A Bayesian approach seems thus quite a needed step to estimate the GPD parameters in a way that their uncertainty is adequately propagated to the hazard parameters, such as return periods. This bayesian perspective allows us to transparently include necessary conditions on the parameters for our

  14. Transition, Reconstruction and Stability in South-Eastern Europe. The Role of Vocational Education and Training. Working Document. [European Training Foundation and Kulturkontakt Austria Joint Workshop on "Civil Society and Vocational Education Training. The Role of Democratic Citizenship and Diversity Education" (Mavrovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, September 9-11, 1999)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document includes the following papers: "The European Training Foundation's Experience in Supporting Human Resource Development in South-Eastern Europe" (Peter de Rooij); "Transition, Reconstruction and Stability in South-Eastern Europe; The Role of Vocational Education and Training" (Cesar Birzea, Peter Grootings, Tzako…

  15. Heat accumulation period in the Mediterranean region: phenological response of the olive in different climate areas (Spain, Italy and Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Fátima; Ruiz, Luis; Fornaciari, Marco; Romano, Bruno; Galán, Carmen; Oteros, Jose; Ben Dhiab, Ali; Msallem, Monji; Orlandi, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    The main characteristics of the heat accumulation period and the possible existence of different types of biological response to the environment in different populations of olive through the Mediterranean region have been evaluated. Chilling curves to determine the start date of the heat accumulation period were constructed and evaluated. The results allow us to conclude that the northern olive populations have the greatest heat requirements for the development of their floral buds, and they need a period of time longer than olives in others areas to completely satisfy their biothermic requirements. The olive trees located in the warmest winter areas have a faster transition from endogenous to exogenous inhibition once the peak of chilling is met, and they show more rapid floral development. The lower heat requirements are due to better adaptation to warmer regions. Both the threshold temperature and the peak of flowering date are closely related to latitude. Different types of biological responses of olives to the environment were found. The adaptive capacity shown by the olive tree should be considered as a useful tool with which to study the effects of global climatic change on agro-ecosystems.

  16. Discriminating between tectonism and climate signatures in palustrine deposits: Lessons from the Miocene of the Teruel Graben, NE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Zarza, Ana M.; Meléndez, Alfonso; Martín-García, Rebeca; Herrero, Mª Josefa; Martín-Pérez, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    (lacustrine deposition + palustrine modification) would require about 40,000 yr. Facies and the SD record changes across short horizontal distances, and thus reflect the topography of prior sedimentation/modification events. Small (50 cm) highs with micro-karst have their SD counterparts in lower areas of the lake, in which the SD is indicated by desiccation and mottling. The topographic differences of the micro-karst were filled by intraclastic rudstones sourced by the adjacent carbonate flats. The example examined not only clearly sketches the morphology of ancient palustrine systems or wetlands, it also provides evidence that recycling of previous carbonate deposits played an important role as a sediment source, apart from biogenic or physical-chemical production processes. Our geochemical data indicate LMC (Low Magnesian Calcite) as the main component and Fe contents lower than 1%, except for the mottled areas that are richer in FeO. Stable isotope compositions provide δ18O values close to - 6.5‰ VPDB, and more varied δ13C (- 3.39 to - 6.97‰ PDB). Oxygen and carbon values reveal no covariation and clear trends are lacking. The homogeneity of δ18O values reflects the intense effects of meteoric waters. The deposition of these palustrine limestones took place under suitable semi-arid to sub-humid climates. Climate could also have a role in determining subaerial exposure periods. However, its imprint is not easy to detect neither in the geochemical signals nor in the vertical arrangement of the facies. This could be attributed to climate changes probably occurring over shorter periods than those that can be recorded in this type of sediment, such as the astronomical precession cycles, and suggests the unsuitability of palustrine carbonates for detailed palaeoclimate analyses. Tectonism controlled the location of the main lacustrine depocentre close to the basin's main fault. The activity of this normal fault during the sedimentation of Unit II determined long- and

  17. Grape harvest and yield responses to inter-annual changes in temperature and precipitation in an area of north-east Spain with a Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Camps, Josep Odó; Ramos, María Concepción

    2012-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of temperature and precipitation trends and their impact on grape harvests in the Penedès region (NE Spain). It includes analyses of maximum, minimum and mean daily temperatures (for both the growing and ripening seasons) and daily rainfall (for the hydrological year, the growing season and each phenological stage) for three observatories in the immediate area. We analysed a series of factors: beginning and end harvest dates; the day on which a given potential alcoholic degree was reached; and yield for several varieties of grape grown in the area in relation to climatic variables. Maximum temperatures increased at all the observatories, with greater values being recorded in recent years (1996-2009) than in previous decades (1960s-2000s): we observed increases in average growing season temperatures of 0.11°C per year for the period 1996-2009 vs 0.04°C per year for the period 1960-2009 at Vilafranca del Penedès. These temperature changes were due mainly to increases in maximum temperatures and an increase in the incidence of extreme heat (number of days with T > 30°C). Crop evapotranspiration also increased significantly during the same period. The Winkler index also increased, so the study area would correspond to region IV according to that climatic classification. There were no significant trends in annual rainfall but rainfall recorded between bloom and veraison decreased significantly at the three observatories, with the greatest decrease corresponding to the period 1996-2009. The dates on which harvests started and ended showed a continuous advance (of between -0.7 and -1.1 days per year, depending on the variety), which was significantly correlated with the average mean and maximum daily growing season temperatures (up to -7.68 days for 1°C increase). Winegrape yield was influenced by the estimated water deficit (crop evapotranspiration minus precipitation) in the bloom-veraison period; this value increased due to a

  18. Environmental and climatic controls since the early XVth century in the palaeoflood records of a Mediterranean arroyo (Rambla de la Viuda, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M.; Benito, G.; Rico, M.; Sánchez-Moya, Y.; Sopeña, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Rambla de la Viuda arroyo is a representative ephemeral stream of the western Mediterranean area (NE Spain), both in terms of its torrential regime and land use history. A total of 10 stratigraphic profiles were described, located in areas of prevailing deposition of suspended clay, silts and fine sands, during flood events, along the canyon margins. The sedimentary comprises continuous sequences of slackwater flood deposits interbeded with episodic coluvial and edaphic horizons. The radiocarbon dating indicates that most of these deposits accumulated over the last 500 years. The stratigraphic and edaphological characterisation of the slack-water flood deposits, coluvial units and palaeosols, was supported biominerals content analysis (phytoliths), geochemical and documentary data (written historical documents). A high frequency and high magnitude palaeoflood period took place during the XV-XVII centuries (Phase I), which seem to correlate in time with general wetter conditions (higher presence of C3 photosynthetic pathway Poaceae and ligneous plants). During Phase I two well-developed palaeosols can be identified, which could correspond in time with two wetter than normal periods during ca.1550-1620 AD and 1670-1700 AD. Minimum flood discharges between 2000 m3s-1 and 1400 m3s-1 were estimated for this Phase. Phase II was characterised by episodic high magnitude floods (estimated minimum discharges between 1000-350 m3s-1), interrupted by coluvial deposits. This phase seems to be correlated in time with a period of higher climatic variability and general dry conditions as it can be inferred from the analysis of the phytoliths content on fluvial and coluvial sediments. Major drier conditions have occurred during middle XVIII century, where phytoliths indicate the presence of a C4 grassland, with less than 5% of riparian and dycots plants. Phytoliths content in this maximum driest period were of 5x103 phytoliths per gram of sediment (Acid-insoluble Fraction

  19. Grape harvest and yield responses to inter-annual changes in temperature and precipitation in an area of north-east Spain with a Mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camps, Josep Odó; Ramos, María Concepción

    2012-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of temperature and precipitation trends and their impact on grape harvests in the Penedès region (NE Spain). It includes analyses of maximum, minimum and mean daily temperatures (for both the growing and ripening seasons) and daily rainfall (for the hydrological year, the growing season and each phenological stage) for three observatories in the immediate area. We analysed a series of factors: beginning and end harvest dates; the day on which a given potential alcoholic degree was reached; and yield for several varieties of grape grown in the area in relation to climatic variables. Maximum temperatures increased at all the observatories, with greater values being recorded in recent years (1996-2009) than in previous decades (1960s-2000s): we observed increases in average growing season temperatures of 0.11°C per year for the period 1996-2009 vs 0.04°C per year for the period 1960-2009 at Vilafranca del Penedès. These temperature changes were due mainly to increases in maximum temperatures and an increase in the incidence of extreme heat (number of days with T > 30°C). Crop evapotranspiration also increased significantly during the same period. The Winkler index also increased, so the study area would correspond to region IV according to that climatic classification. There were no significant trends in annual rainfall but rainfall recorded between bloom and veraison decreased significantly at the three observatories, with the greatest decrease corresponding to the period 1996-2009. The dates on which harvests started and ended showed a continuous advance (of between -0.7 and -1.1 days per year, depending on the variety), which was significantly correlated with the average mean and maximum daily growing season temperatures (up to -7.68 days for 1°C increase). Winegrape yield was influenced by the estimated water deficit (crop evapotranspiration minus precipitation) in the bloom-veraison period; this value increased due to a

  20. Climate and environment of the earliest West European hominins inferred from amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages: Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit, Atapuerca, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Bailon, Salvador; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Bennàsar, Maria; Rofes, Juan; López-García, Juan Manuel; Huguet, Rosa; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José Maria; Carbonell, Eudald

    2010-11-01

    The Sima del Elefante cave, in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain), is famous for the fact that level TE9 of its Lower Red Unit recently delivered the oldest hominin remains of Western Europe, identified as Homo antecessor and dated by biostratigraphy and radiometric methods to ca 1.2 Ma. Given the importance of this discovery, every effort is being made to reconstruct the landscapes where these hominins once thrived. The amphibian and squamate reptile assemblage of the Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit is here studied for the first time. The faunal list comprises at least 17 species (roughly 12,000 bone fossil remains): Salamandra salamandra, Triturus cf. marmoratus, Alytes obstetricans, Pelobates cultripes, Pelodytes punctatus, Bufo bufo, Bufo calamita, Hyla arborea, Rana sp., cf. Pelophylax sp., Lacerta s.l., small-sized indeterminate lacertids, Anguis fragilis, Natrix cf. natrix, Natrix cf. maura, Coronella cf. girondica and Vipera sp. As the amphibians and squamate reptiles do not differ at species level from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. In this paper, the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods are applied to the amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages in order to estimate quantitative data. The results from the squamate and amphibian study indicate that during the hominin presence the mean annual temperature (MAT = 10-13 °C) was always slightly warmer than at present and the mean annual precipitation (MAP = 800-1000 mm) was greater than today in the Burgos area. The landscape had open habitats in the vicinity of the Atapuerca caves throughout the sequence, with wet points in the surrounding area, and a predominance of humid meadows and open woodlands. These results mainly agree with those for large mammals, small mammals and the pollen analysis. The climate and landscape of TE-LRU are very similar to those reconstructed for the TD6 "Aurora Stratum

  1. [Low rate of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection among women with cervical lesion. Preliminary results from the South-Eastern Hungarian population].

    PubMed

    Vanya, Melinda; Jakó, Mária; Terhes, Gabriella; Szakács, László; Kaiser, László; Deák, Judit; Bártfai, György

    2016-01-10

    Although the natural history of cervical and oral human papillomavirus infection has been intensively investigated in the past years, the ability of this virus to infect oral and genital mucosae in the same individual and its potential to co-infect both cervical and oral mucosa are still unclear. The aim of the authors was to assess the presence of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection in women with cervical lesions in the South-Eastern Hungarian population. The total of 103 women have been included in the study between March 1, 2013 and January 1, 2015. Brushing was used to collect cells from the oropharyngeal mucosa. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected using polymerase chain reaction, and Amplicor line blot test was used for genotyping. Oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection was detected in 2 cases (3%). The detected genotypes were 31, 40/61 and 73 in the oropharyngeal region. The results indicate that in women with cervical lesions oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection rarely occurs.

  2. Triple bottom line assessment of raw water treatment: methodology and application to a case study in the municipality of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, G; Azrague, Kamal; Bell, Stig; Eikebrokk, Bjørnar

    2015-01-01

    There could be several options a water treatment plant (WTP) can select from, if an improvement in treated water quality (WQ) is desired. This paper outlines a methodology to test a variety of approaches to accomplish pre-set goals as regards WQ, while adopting a triple bottom line approach. This approach, in a nutshell, takes into consideration economic, environmental and social aspects in decision-making. The methodology has been applied to the Stangasen WTP in the town of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway. Among the seven alternative approaches compared were the use, as coagulant, of five different dosages of granulated aluminium sulphate, liquid aluminium sulphate (48%) and liquid ferric chloride (40%). Using the set of weighting factors obtained from experts, it was determined that increasing the dosage of granulated aluminium sulphate by 20% over the current one would be the most sustainable option from a triple bottom line point of view.

  3. Utilization of airborne gamma ray spectrometric data for radioactive mineral exploration of G.Abu Had - G.Umm Qaraf area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkhadragy, A. A.; Ismail, A. A.; Eltarras, M. M.; Azzazy, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry method is a powerful tool for geological mapping, mineral exploration and environmental monitoring. Qualitative and quantitative interpretations were performed on the airborne spectrometric data of G.Abu Had - G.Umm Qaraf area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Special attention is focused in this paper to discuss the distribution of k, eTh, eU and TC maps. Also there are statistical analyses for the radioactive content for the rock units of the studied area. Anomalies of high radioactive content were calculated and studied by field ground follow-up. The younger granites, Natach volcanic, gneissose granites and pegmatite rocks are the highly content of uranium in the studied area.

  4. Metal bioaccumulation in two edible cephalopods in the Gulf of Gabes, South-Eastern Tunisia: environmental and human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Rabaoui, Lotfi; El Zrelli, Radhouan; Balti, Rafik; Mansour, Lamjed; Courjault-Radé, Pierre; Daghbouj, Nabil; Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha

    2017-01-01

    Samples of Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis were collected from four areas in the Gulf of Gabes, south-eastern Tunisia, and their edible tissues (mantle and arms) were analyzed for cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc. While the concentrations of metals showed significant differences between the sampling sites, no differences were revealed between the tissues of the two species. The spatial distribution of metals analyzed showed similar pattern for both tissues of the two species, with the highest concentrations found in the central area of Gabes Gulf, and the lowest in the northern and/or southern areas. From a human health risk point of view, the highest values of estimated daily intake, target hazard quotient, and hazard index were found in the central area of Gabes Gulf. Although the results of these indices were, in general, not alarming, the health risks posed by the consumption of cephalopods on local consumers cannot be excluded.

  5. Adult Participation in Education in South-Eastern Europe: An Elaboration on the Study Report for the Assessment of the Impact of Ongoing Reforms in Education and Training on the Adult Learning Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarifis, George K.

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on the findings of the Research voor Beleid (RvB) study for the second phase of the assessment of the "Impact of ongoing reforms in education and training on adult learning sector" (2010), with particular focus on adult participation in education in three EU Member States in south-eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Cyprus…

  6. Experiences and unmet needs of women undergoing Pap smear cervical cancer screening: impact on uptake of cervical cancer screening in south eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chigbu, Chibuike O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K; Egbuji, Chuma C; Ezugwu, Eusebus C

    2015-03-01

    The burden of cervical cancer is on the increase in sub-Saharan Africa mainly due to inadequate provision and utilisation of cervical cancer prevention services. Several evidence-based strategies have been deployed to improve cervical cancer screening uptake without much success. However, patients' experiences and satisfaction with service provision has not been adequately studied. Inefficiencies in service delivery and less fulfilling experiences by women who attend cervical cancer screening could have considerable impact in future voluntary uptake of cervical cancer screening. Six hundred and eighty women who underwent Pap smear screening in three health care facilities in two states in south eastern Nigeria were interviewed to evaluate their satisfaction, willingness to undertake future voluntary screening, unmet needs and correlation between satisfaction level and willingness to undergo future screening. Satisfaction with Pap smear screening correlated positively with willingness to undertake future voluntary screening (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.78, P = 0.001). The mean satisfaction score was significantly higher among participants handled by nurses than those handled by the physicians (3.16 ± 0.94 vs 2.52 ± 0.77, P = 0.001). 'Scrapping discomfort' of the spatula was reported as the most dissatisfying aspect of Pap smear experience. The need for less invasive screening procedures was the most unmet need. It was concluded that improving the Pap smear screening experience of women and providing less invasive methods of cervical cancer screening with immediate results could improve uptake of cervical cancer screening in south eastern Nigeria.

  7. Modelling of INTER-Linkages Between LAND Cover Pattern and Socio-Economic Factors in the Idemili River Basin of South Eastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maduekwe, N. I.; Adesina, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the inter-relationships between socio-economic factors and land cover pattern in the Idemili River Basin of South Eastern Nigeria. It is based on the concept of coupled human environment systems and focuses on the modelling of community scale relationships between critical land cover parameter and socio-demographic, economic and cultural factors in the basin. The modelling was implemented with pixel level NDVI indicators of vegetation cover density developed from NigeriaSat image with 32m resolution linked to eight indicators of socio-economic factors developed from a household survey of the basin. NDVI and socio-economic data were matched for 25 sampled localities in the basin and their relationships modelled with correlation, regression and Principal Component Analysis statistics. NDVI based image analysis showed a high level of human impact on vegetation. The Model output shows that bivariate relationships between vegetation cover dynamics and socio-demographic variables were the most significant, with R Square values > 0.60 for linear and non linear models. Vegetation cover density has high inverse correlations with population, urbanization levels and number of households in localities. Population/urbanization status of localities was also the most significant Principal Component or underlying dimension linked to spatial dynamics of vegetation cover in the basin accounting for 50% of factor variations. Relationships between vegetation cover densities and economic factors (occupational and household energy patterns) and socio-cultural factors (environmental knowledge, values and governance) were weaker and less significant. The study captured the linkages between landcover- represented by vegetation cover- and socio-economic parameters. It demonstrates that socio-economic factors are major drivers of change in the basin. Key Words: Socio-economic factors, Vegetation Cover, NDVI, Socio-ecological Systems, State Variables, South Eastern Nigeria

  8. Climates

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The broad range of aspen in North America is evidence of its equally broad tolerance of wide variations in climate (Fowells 1965). Given open space for establishment and not too severe competition from other plants, aspen can survive from timberline on the tundra's edge to very warm temperate climates, and from the wet maritime climates of the coasts to very...

  9. Applying data mining methods to the assessment of soil contamination and carbon sequestration under Mediterranean Climate. The case study of Guadiamar basin (SW Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Vallés, Sara; Pino-Mejías, Rafael; Blanco-Velázquez, Francisco J.; Anaya-Romero, María

    2017-04-01

    In the present background of increasing access to vast datasets of soil and environmental records, the application of the newest analytical techniques and approaches for modelling offer excellent opportunities to define recommendations and simulate processes for land degradation and management. In this regard, data mining techniques have been successfully applied in different fields of environmental sciences, performing an innovative tool to explore relevant questions and providing valuable results and useful applications through an efficient management and analysis of large and heterogeneous datasets. Soil Organic matter, pH and trace elements in soil perform close relationships, with ability to alter each other and lead to emerging, synergic properties for soils. In addition, effects associated to climate and land use change promotes mechanisms of feedback that could amplify the negative effects of soil contamination on human health, biodiversity conservation and soil ecosystem services maintenance. The aim of this study was to build and compare several data mining models for the prediction of potential and interrelated functions of soil contamination and carbon sequestration by soils. In this context, under the framework of the EU RECARE project (Preventing and Remediating degradation of Soils in Europe through Land Care), the Guadiamar valley (SW Spain) is used as case study. The area was affected by around four hm3 of acid waters and two hm3 of mud rich in heavy metals, resulting from a mine spill, in 1998, where more than 4,600 ha of agricultural and pasture land were affected. The area was subjected to a large-scale phyto-management project, and consequently protected as "Green Corridor". In this study, twenty environmental variables were taken into account and several base models for supervised classification problems were selected, including linear and quadratic discriminant analysis, logistic regression, neural networks and support vector machines. A

  10. Studies on mosquito biting risk among migratory rice farmers in rural south-eastern Tanzania and development of a portable mosquito-proof hut.

    PubMed

    Swai, Johnson K; Finda, Marceline F; Madumla, Edith P; Lingamba, Godfrey F; Moshi, Irene R; Rafiq, Mohamed Y; Majambere, Silas; Okumu, Fredros O

    2016-11-22

    Subsistence rice farmers in south-eastern Tanzania are often migratory, spending weeks or months tending to crops in distant fields along the river valleys and living in improvised structures known as Shamba huts, not fully protected from mosquitoes. These farmers also experience poor access to organized preventive and curative services due to long distances. Mosquito biting exposure in these rice fields, relative to main village residences was assessed, then a portable mosquito-proof hut was developed and tested for protecting these migratory farmers. Pair-wise mosquito surveys were conducted in four villages in Ulanga district, south-eastern Tanzania in 20 randomly-selected Shamba huts located in the distant rice fields and in 20 matched houses within the main villages, to assess biting densities and Plasmodium infection rates. A portable mosquito-proof hut was designed and tested in semi-field and field settings against Shamba hut replicas, and actual Shamba huts. Also, semi-structured interviews were conducted, timed-participant observations, and focus-group discussions to assess experiences and behaviours of the farmers regarding mosquito-bites and the mosquito-proof huts. There were equal numbers of mosquitoes in Shamba huts and main houses [RR (95% CI) 27 (25.1-31.2), and RR (95% CI) 30 (27.5-33.4)], respectively (P > 0.05). Huts having >1 occupant had more mosquitoes than those with just one occupant, regardless of site [RR (95% CI) 1.57 (1.30-1.9), P < 0.05]. Open eaves [RR (95% CI) 1.15 (1.08-1.23), P < 0.05] and absence of window shutters [RR (95% CI) 2.10 (1.91-2.31), P < 0.05] increased catches of malaria vectors. All Anopheles mosquitoes caught were negative for Plasmodium. Common night-time outdoor activities in the fields included cooking, eating, fetching water or firewood, washing dishes, bathing, and storytelling, mostly between 6 and 11 p.m., when mosquitoes were also biting most. The prototype hut provided 100% protection in semi

  11. Prevalence of Fasciola gigantica infection in slaughtered animals in south-eastern Lake Chad area in relation to husbandry practices and seasonal water levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis has been described in sub-Saharan Africa in many accounts, but the latest reports from Chad are from the 1970s. Mobile pastoralists perceive liver parasites as a significant problem and think that proximity to Lake Chad can lead to infection. This study aimed to assess the importance of liver fluke infections in mobile pastoralists’ livestock in the south-eastern Lake Chad region. In 2011, all animals presented at three slaughter slabs near Gredaya in the south-eastern Lake Chad area were examined for infection with Fasciola spp. during routine meat inspections. Results This study included 616 goats, 132 sheep and 130 cattle. The prevalence of adult Fasciola gigantica was 68% (CI 60-76%) in cattle, 12% (CI 10-16%) in goats and 23% (CI 16-30%) in sheep. From all infected animals (n = 200), 53% (n = 106) were classified as lightly infected with 1-10 parasites, 18% (n =36) as moderately infected with 11-100 parasites and 29% (n = 58) as heavily infected with more than 100 parasites per animal. Animals grazing close to the shores of Lake Chad had a much higher risk of infection (prevalence =38%; n = 329) than animals not feeding at the lake (n = 353), with only one goat being positive (prevalence = 0.28%). The ethnic group of the owner was a strong determinant for the risk of infection. Ethnic group likely served as a proxy for husbandry practices. Geospatial distribution showed that animals originating from areas close to the lake were more likely to be infected with F. gigantica than those from more distant areas. Conclusions Livestock belonging to ethnic groups which traditionally stay near surface water, and which were reported to feed near Lake Chad, have a high risk of infection with F. gigantica. Pastoralist perception of fasciolosis as a priority health problem was confirmed. Regular preventive and post-exposure treatment is recommended for animals grazing near the lake. However, further economic analysis is

  12. Wind-driven snow conditions control the occurrence of contemporary marginal mountain permafrost in the Chic-Choc Mountains, south-eastern Canada: a case study from Mont Jacques-Cartier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davesne, Gautier; Fortier, Daniel; Domine, Florent; Gray, James T.

    2017-06-01

    We present data on the distribution and thermophysical properties of snow collected sporadically over 4 decades along with recent data of ground surface temperature from Mont Jacques-Cartier (1268 m a.s.l.), the highest summit in the Appalachians of south-eastern Canada. We demonstrate that the occurrence of contemporary permafrost is necessarily associated with a very thin and wind-packed winter snow cover which brings local azonal topo-climatic conditions on the dome-shaped summit. The aims of this study were (i) to understand the snow distribution pattern and snow thermophysical properties on the Mont Jacques-Cartier summit and (ii) to investigate the impact of snow on the spatial distribution of the ground surface temperature (GST) using temperature sensors deployed over the summit. Results showed that above the local treeline, the summit is characterized by a snow cover typically less than 30 cm thick which is explained by the strong westerly winds interacting with the local surface roughness created by the physiography and surficial geomorphology of the site. The snowpack structure is fairly similar to that observed on windy Arctic tundra with a top dense wind slab (300 to 450 kg m-3) of high thermal conductivity, which facilitates heat transfer between the ground surface and the atmosphere. The mean annual ground surface temperature (MAGST) below this thin and wind-packed snow cover was about -1 °C in 2013 and 2014, for the higher, exposed, blockfield-covered sector of the summit characterized by a sporadic herbaceous cover. In contrast, for the gentle slopes covered with stunted spruce (krummholz), and for the steep leeward slope to the south-east of the summit, the MAGST was around 3 °C in 2013 and 2014. The study concludes that the permafrost on Mont Jacques-Cartier, most widely in the Chic-Choc Mountains and by extension in the southern highest summits of the Appalachians, is therefore likely limited to the barren wind-exposed surface of the summit

  13. Vulnerability and Sensitivity of Women and the Aged to Hydrological Extremes in Rural Communities of South Eastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbajiorgu, Constantine; Ezenne, Gloria I.; Ndulue, Emeka L.

    2017-04-01

    Annual rainfall total of Southeastern Nigeria varies widely from year to year and across the seasons. Southeastern Nigeria is marked with two distinctive seasons, namely: the rainy season (occurs March through November) and the dry season (December through February). Highest daily rainfall of this area occurs in the months of July through September. Climate change has brought about either prolonged rainy or dry season in this region. Flash floods are common features in Southeastern Nigeria during the rainy (wet) season, but the unprecedented floods of 2012 represent the worst with 21 million people displaced, 597,476 houses destroyed or damaged, over 363 people killed and an estimated loss of USD 19.6 billion. Hydrological extremes such as these affect men and women differently because of the different roles socio-culturally assigned to them. Women are more vulnerable and sensitive to floods and drought because of their conventional gender responsibilities. This study assesses how women and the elderly of rural communities of Southeastern Nigeria are affected by hydrological extremes, their vulnerability to the effects as well as risk reduction approaches to cope with and/or adapt to the impacts of climate change. In the study area, women are predominantly the providers of food, water and fuel, and climate change has adverse impacts on all three. Women in these rural communities practice subsistence farming during the rainy season. Their farm lands are submerged during flood events destroying their crops and they are helpless during prolonged dry seasons. Inadequacy of hydrological data makes it difficult to predict and forecast hydrological extremes in the region. Several other factors exacerbate vulnerability of women and the aged to the impacts of hydrological extremes, such as rural poverty, limited livelihood options, education, lack of basic services, and socio-cultural norms. The poverty level affects their resilience and recovery from any flood disaster. It

  14. Impact of climate change on Precipitation and temperature under the RCP 8.5 and A1B scenarios in an Alpine Cathment (Alto-Genil Basin,southeast Spain). A comparison of statistical downscaling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido-Velazquez, David; Juan Collados-Lara, Antonio; Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Jimeno-Saez, Patricia; Fernandez-Chacon, Francisca

    2016-04-01

    In order to design adaptive strategies to global change we need to assess the future impact of climate change on water resources, which depends on precipitation and temperature series in the systems. The objective of this work is to generate future climate series in the "Alto Genil" Basin (southeast Spain) for the period 2071-2100 by perturbing the historical series using different statistical methods. For this targeted we use information coming from regionals climate model simulations (RCMs) available in two European projects, CORDEX (2013), with a spatial resolution of 12.5 km, and ENSEMBLES (2009), with a spatial resolution of 25 km. The historical climate series used for the period 1971-2000 have been obtained from Spain02 project (2012) which has the same spatial resolution that CORDEX project (both use the EURO-CORDEX grid). Two emission scenarios have been considered: the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 emissions scenario, which is the most unfavorable scenario considered in the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and the A1B emission scenario of fourth Assessment Report (AR4). We use the RCM simulations to create an ensemble of predictions weighting their information according to their ability to reproduce the main statistic of the historical climatology. A multi-objective analysis has been performed to identify which models are better in terms of goodness of fit to the cited statistic of the historical series. The ensemble of the CORDEX and the ENSEMBLES projects has been finally created with nine and four models respectively. These ensemble series have been used to assess the anomalies in mean and standard deviation (differences between the control and future RCM series). A "delta-change" method (Pulido-Velazquez et al., 2011) has been applied to define future series by modifying the historical climate series in accordance with the cited anomalies in mean and standard deviation. A

  15. Microelement contents and fatty acid compositions of Rhus coriaria L. and Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits spread commonly in the south eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kizil, Suleyman; Turk, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) are two important spice plants of south eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Nutrients, physical properties including moisture, ash, dry matter, protein, fatty oil and essential oil content, along with Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn and characteristics of fruit sizes and fatty acid compositions of both plants were determined from ripe fruits. The free fatty acid content was determined in the fruit oil, and the main fatty acids of sumac and terebinth were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. They included oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a ratio of 37.7% and 34.8%, 27.4% and 17.3%, 21.1% and 21.7% and, 4.7% and 2.5%, respectively. The fruits of both plants were rich in oil, fatty acids and minerals, suggesting that they are valuable for using in food. The data may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information.

  16. Catch composition, reproductive biology and diet of the bramble shark Echinorhinus brucus (Squaliformes: Echinorhinidae) from the south-eastern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Akhilesh, K V; Bineesh, K K; White, W T; Shanis, C P R; Hashim, M; Ganga, U; Pillai, N G K

    2013-11-01

    Fishery and biological data are presented for the poorly known bramble shark Echinorhinus brucus (Squaliformes: Echinorhinidae), from the deep waters of the south-eastern Arabian Sea. A total of 5318 individuals from by-catch landings of deep-water bottom set longlines, gillnets and shrimp trawl fisheries operating at depths of 200-1200 m were recorded between January 2008 and December 2011 at the Kochi Fisheries Harbour (Kerala). A total of 431 individuals, from 46 to 318 cm total length (L(T)) and 0·8 to 132 kg total mass (M(T)), were examined to determine biological data for this species. The LT at which 50% were mature (L(T)50) for females and males was estimated at 189 and 187 cm LT. Litter size ranged from 10 to 36 and size at birth was between 42 and 46 cm L(T). Dietary analysis of stomach contents revealed E. brucus feeds on a variety of prey including crustaceans (69% index of relative importance, I(RI)), teleosts (25·8% I(RI)), cephalopods (1·7% I(RI)) and elasmobranchs (0·7% I(RI)). This study provides the first detailed biological data for this species and also highlights the extent of the by-catch fishery for this species in Indian waters.

  17. TDS-Eh graph analysis: a new water quality index and rural water supply implications of a river affected by mining in south-eastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezekwe, I. C.; Aisubeogun, A. O.; Chima, G. N.; Odubo, E.

    2012-03-01

    The Ivo River Basin of south-eastern Nigeria is a water scarce and mining region, which suffers from water scarcity. The influence of mining activities on the quality of the Ivo River and its capacity for community water supply was investigated. Also the efficacy of TDS-Eh graph in explaining water quality was presented. Results indicated that the TDS-Eh graph highlights subtle chemical relationships which control water quality and provide a simple but generic pollution index for rapid water quality assessment. It was also discovered that the Ivo River could become an adequate alternative to groundwater as a source of rural water supply in the study area with an estimated average daily discharge of 6726000 L and a rural population of less than 200000 persons. The Ivo River meets the WHO drinking water standards in 20 physicochemical water quality parameters (pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, salinity, TDS, Eh, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, lead and cadmium) analyzed and can therefore (with little treatment) provide up to 133.4% of average community water demand and 83.8% of maximum community water demand. The impact of mining on Ivo River quality was found to have been moderated by the presence of carbonate rocks which may have enhanced the precipitation of heavy metals from the river.

  18. Geological mapping and spectral based classification of basement rocks using remote sensing data analysis: The Korbiai-Gerf nappe complex, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Safaa M.; Sadek, Mohamed F.

    2017-10-01

    The Pan-African Neoproterozoic Korbiai-Gerf nappe complex in the extreme South Eastern Desert of Egypt comprises dismembered ophiolite assemblages tectonically thrusted over pelite-psammopelite, quartzo-feldspathic gneiss and island-arc schistose metavolcanics. The whole sequence is intruded by syn-late to post tectonic mafic and felsic intrusions. The enhanced Landsat-8 band ratio (bands 6/2, 6/7 and 6/5 × 4/5) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Principal Component (PC2, PC6, and PC5) successfully discriminated most of the exposed lithological units and produced a detailed geological map. Granitoids, psammopelite-pelite, gneiss and serpentinite-talc carbonate rocks have been discriminated using ASTER kaolinite, clay, sericite-muscovite and calcite-carbonate indices respectively. Three spectral based classification algorithms have been compared using Landsat-8 and the Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) datasets to obtain the best lithological classification for the exposed basement rock units. Results from the present study revealed that, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier algorithm provided the best lithological classification accuracy (97.72%) using the combination of 9 ASTER bands and 20 ASTER derivative images. The results of the present study concluded that, the integrated data of ASTER and Landsat-8 enhanced images are effective in the discrimination and classification of the basement rock units exposed at Korbiai-Gerf nappe complex and can be applied in similar areas in the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  19. Spatio-temporal patterns of genetic variations in populations of yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi from the south-eastern Pacific Ocean and potential implications for its fishery management.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, F A; González, M T

    2017-01-01

    The genetic population structure and genetic diversity of yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi from the coastal south-eastern Pacific Ocean (SEP) were evaluated at spatiotemporal scale in order to understand the ecology of this species. Between 2012 and 2015, temporal and spatial population genetic structure and a low genetic diversity were detected in S. lalandi from SEP. These results suggest that S. lalandi specimens arriving annually from offshore to the SEP coast could come from at least two genetically distinct populations, revealing a particular life strategy (i.e. reproductive or habitat segregation) for this fish species. Therefore, the SEP coast might constitute a point of population mixing for this species. Additionally, the low genetic diversity of S. lalandi in the SEP could be a result of a founder effect or overfishing. Regardless of the process explaining the genetic diversity and structure of S. lalandi in this geographical area, this new information should be considered in order to implement successful fishery management of this resource in the South Pacific.

  20. Fatty acid content, health and risk indices, physicochemical composition, and somatic cell counts of milk from organic and conventional farming systems in tropical south-eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo-Puga, Claudia; Sánchez-Muñoz, Bernardo; Nahed-Toral, José; Cuchillo-Hilario, Mario; Díaz-Martínez, Margarita; Solis-Zabaleta, Roman; Reyes-Hernández, Aurora; Castillo-Domíguez, Rosa Maria

    2014-06-01

    Organic agriculture and livestock farming is claimed to promote animal welfare and can offer animal products with better hygienic-sanitary quality, based on principles of health, ecology, fairness, and care. However, no clear advantages of organic milk (OM) versus conventional milk (CM) from tropical conditions are available. The aims of the study were to determine fatty acid profile, health-promoting (HPI) and thrombogenic (TI) indices, physicochemical composition, and somatic cell counts (SCC) of OM and CM in tropical south-eastern Mexico. Female cross-breed cows (400-600 kg) were employed. CM had larger values of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (63.6 %; 4.57 %) than OM (61.48 %; 4.22 %), while OM resulted in a larger value of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (34.3 %) than CM (31.7 %). HPI and TI showed that OM was more favorable than CM. Milk production and physicochemical composition (PC) as well as density had no significant difference, while SCC was significantly lower in OM than in CM on a monthly basis. These results showed that OM promotes a healthful and balanced diet, and is already produced by sustainable ecologic technologies employing traditional agrosilvopastoral management, which is more environmentally friendly and promotes ecological resilience.

  1. Unchanging diet in a stable colony: contemporary and past diet composition of black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla at Helgoland, south-eastern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markones, Nele; Guse, Nils; Hüppop, Ommo; Garthe, Stefan

    2009-09-01

    In contrast to the situation at the west coast of the North Sea, the breeding colony of black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla at Helgoland in the south-eastern North Sea did not exhibit severe declines since 1990 but instead numbers increased and only lately stabilised. Declines at the west coast of the North Sea were attributed to a lower abundance and lower quality of the key prey, sandeels. We hypothesised that kittiwakes at Helgoland do not rely as heavily on sandeels as their conspecifics. We analysed stomach contents of nestlings and adults of 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. In concordance with earlier studies of the 1980s and 1990s, young whiting Merlangius merlangus was the most important prey species in 2001, 2002 and 2004. Clupeids and sandeels were consumed in lower proportions. While earlier studies suggested whiting to originate from fisheries discards, evidence now supports that kittiwakes prey upon whiting in areas of hydrographic fronts. No whiting was recovered in samples of 2006 and the proportion of fish prey was low. Main prey items were polychaete worms (Nereidae), which were presumably consumed as swarming Heteronereis stages. An observed strong rise in water temperature in summer 2006 might have influenced food availability of kittiwakes by inducing swarming of Nereidae. Overall, kittiwakes breeding on Helgoland showed a positive population trend for several decades while mainly feeding on whiting.

  2. A case in south-eastern France: a review of drug facilitated sexual assault in European and English-speaking countries.

    PubMed

    Dorandeu, Anne H; Pagès, Cheryl A; Sordino, Marie-Christine; Pépin, Gilbert; Baccino, Eric; Kintz, Pascal

    2006-07-01

    Drug facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA) have been increasingly reported in the medical literature since the 1980s but their legal recognition is more recent, at least in Europe. From a case treated in south-eastern France, whose judicial consequences were known, it seemed of interest to carry out an international study of jurisprudence concerning this type of rape. While from the medical viewpoint the drugs used are well-known and their presence can be clinically verified, the legal consequences of their use in subsequent criminal prosecution is less clear-cut. Some European countries have no jurisprudence in this area, while others consider the use of drugs as an aggravating circumstance. In France, it was only in 2003 that the first case of DFSA was truly punished by the judicial system, with considerable media attention. By contrast, in English-speaking countries, particularly the United States, the use of drugs to facilitate sexual assault has frequently been recognized in legislation and in criminal prosecutions. Prevention is fundamental and is recognised as demonstrated by campaigns in various countries.

  3. Integrating variations in the soil chloride profile and evaporativity for in-situ estimation of evaporation in arid zones: an application in south-eastern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhlassa, Saïdati; Ammary, Bouchaib; Paré, Samuel; Safsaf, Naima

    2016-11-01

    In arid regions, knowledge of the evaporation rate from the water table is essential for appropriate management of scarce resources and to prevent land degradation. Soil chloride profiles in the unsaturated zone of a bare soil in an arid area of south-eastern Morocco were used to assess the evaporation flux, using chloride inventories in conjunction with evaporative demand. Moisture fluxes were calculated from measured chloride concentrations on the basis of a steady-state flow model. The chloride profiles displayed large variations in concentrations and had (1) low chloride concentrations near the soil surface, (2) maximum chloride concentrations at depths of 11-14 cm beneath the soil surface, respectively in July and February, and (3) gradually decreasing chloride concentrations while depth increased below these peaks. Evaporative demands were found to be inversely proportional to the depth of evaporation fronts and proportional to evaporation fluxes. In addition, the evaporation along the profiles seems to be controlled by the soil composition and texture. The investigation of chloride profiles in February and July enabled the determination of a value for annual evaporation (˜30 mm), which is in good agreement with the value estimated by the Allison-Barnes type model (˜32 mm).

  4. A new species of Suezichthys (Teleostei: Perciformes: Labridae) from the south-eastern Pacific, with a redefinition of the genus and a key to species.

    PubMed

    Russell, Barry C; Westneat, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the fish family Labridae, Suezichthys rosenblatti, is described from specimens collected at Isla San Felix, Isla Juan Fernandez and Isla San Ambrosio, off the coast of Chile. Suezichthys rosenblatti is distinct in having a combination of 11 dorsal fin soft rays and 11 anal fin soft rays. It falls in the group of species that has 1½ scale rows above the lateral line and lack a scaly sheath at the base of the dorsal and anal fins (S. aylingi Russell, S. caudovittatus Russell, S. gracilis (Steindachner & Döderlein) and S. soelae Russell). Unlike other members of this group, S. rosenblatti has haemal arches on vertebrae 10-11 (versus haemal arch only on vertebra 10). The monotypic Nelabrichthys ornatus (Carmichael) is now included in the genus Suezichthys and a revised generic description and key to species of Suezichthys is provided. The occurrence of S. rosenblatti in the south-eastern Pacific and S. ornatus in the south-western Indian Ocean and south Atlantic Ocean represent major range extensions of the genus Suezichthys.

  5. Evaluation of the effectiveness and compliance of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) in the control of malaria in pregnant women in south eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nduka, F O; Nwosu, E; Oguariri, R M

    2011-12-01

    Controlling malaria in pregnancy has been an important component of the millennium development goal and intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is considered an important tool in controlling malaria among pregnant women. In this study, we evaluated the level of compliance to IPT use as well as its effect on malaria infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in south eastern Nigeria. Peripheral blood smears and placental histology were used as diagnostic tools to determine infection rate. Our data show that compliance to IPT use was poor (33%) when compared with non-compliance (67%). Infection rate was significantly lower among IPT users (39%) than in non-users (71%) (X(2) = 39·95; P<0·05). Maternal anaemia was also lower in IPT users (4%) than in non-users (18%). Taken together, IPT use appears to be important in reducing infection rate and maternal anaemia. Therefore, its adoption is highly recommended and this could be improved through public enlightenment campaign and adequate funding.

  6. Sustainable urban development and human health: septic tank as a major breeding habitat of mosquito vectors of human diseases in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nw