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Sample records for climate wise case

  1. Climate wise case study compendium: Report 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This case study compendium is one of several Climate Wise tools available to help interested companies identify cost-effective options. Climate Wise, a private-public partnership program, is a key Federal initiative to return greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2000.

  2. Step-wise extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and their climatic implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurrasse, Florentin J-M. R.

    1988-01-01

    A comparative study of planktonic foraminifera and radiolarian assemblages from the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary section of the Beloc Formation in the southern Peninsula of Haiti, and the lowermost Danian sequence of the Micara Formation in southern Cuba reveals a remarkable pattern of step-wise extinctions. This pattern is consistent in both places despite the widely different lithologies of the two formations. Because of a step-wise extinction and the delayed disappearance of taxa known to be more representative of cooler water realms, it is inferred that a cooling trend which characterized the close of the Maastrichtian and the onset of the Tertiary had the major adverse effect on the existing biota. Although repetitive lithologic and faunal fluctuations throughout the Maastrichtian sediments found at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) site 146/149 in the Caribbean Sea indicate variations reminiscent of known climatically induced cycles in the Cenozoic, rapid biotic succession appears to have taken place during a crisis period of a duration greater than 2 mission years. Widespread and abundant volcanic activities recorded in the Caribbean area during the crisis period gives further credence to earlier contention that intense volcanism may have played a major role in exhacerbating pre-existing climatic conditions during that time.

  3. Can Local Voluntary Environmental Programs "Work"? An Examination of Fort Collins' (Colorado) Climate Wise Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samantha, Mosier; Jonathan, Fisk

    2013-05-01

    Previous research on voluntary environmental programs (VEPs) frequently assesses the effectiveness of federal, state, and third party programs and why organizations seek to join such programs. Yet, research has yet to evaluate the effectiveness or firm motivation relative to local VEPs. Recognizing this gap, our paper examines the structure and organization of Fort Collins' Climate Wise program, a local VEP. Using a variety of sources, we find that the program has successfully met both short- and long-term goals by persistently self-evaluating and seeking outside financial support. Findings from this analysis can aid in understanding and developing local VEPs elsewhere. Specifically, this initial research suggests that local VEPs need to consider local context and available resources when implementing such programs. Furthermore, it is possible for local VEPs to attract a diverse variety of participating firms by avoiding one-size-fits-all participation levels and by establishing a sense of ownership among partners.

  4. Bridging the Divide: A Case Study Investigating Digitally-Wise Teacher Perceptions of Middle School Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Tiffany Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the perceptions of middle school, technologically proficient, or digitally-wise teachers, regarding how they defined, prevented, recognized, and handled incidences of cyberbullying in four middle schools located in Southern Virginia. Data was collected using an open-ended questionnaire,…

  5. Choosing Wisely.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Leonard M

    2016-07-01

    The American College of Physicians in its ethics manual endorsed the idea that physicians ought to improve their ability to provide care to their patients more parsimoniously. This elicited a critical backlash; critics essentially claimed that what was being endorsed was a renamed form of rationing. In a recent article, Tilburt and Cassel argued that parsimonious care and rationing are ethically distinct practices. In this essay I critically assess that claim. I argue that in practice there is considerable overlap between what they term parsimonious care and what they define as rationing. The same is true of the Choosing Wisely campaign endorsed by the American Board of Internal Medicine. In both cases, if the goal is to control healthcare costs by reducing the use of marginally beneficial care that is not cost effective, then a public conversation about the justness of specific choices is essential. PMID:27348821

  6. Choosing Wisely®: A case study of constructive engagement in health policy.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Daniel; Suchman, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Choosing Wisely began at a time when a polarized national debate on healthcare reform stymied effective conversation on effective and efficient resource use. The ABIM Foundation sought to change attitudes and culture and promote the idea that removing waste is an integral component of providing high quality care by using an approach of constructive engagement to persuade specialty societies to identify five wasteful tests or treatments within their field. PMID:27637831

  7. WISE and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; WISE Team

    2009-05-01

    The search for the nearest and coolest brown dwarfs will use WISE's two short-wavelength channels (W1 and W2), which are optimized for brown dwarf detection. W1 samples the methane fundamental absorption band at 3.3 microns, and W2 measures the relatively opacity-free portion of the brown dwarf atmosphere near 4.7 microns. Cool brown dwarfs will thus have very red [W1]-[W2] colors, maximizing our chances of identifying them. Extrapolating preferred mass functions to very low masses and assuming that the star formation rate has been constant over the last 10 Gyr, we can predict the number of brown dwarfs WISE is expected to image. At spectral types later than T7 (Teff > 850K), WISE is expected to find 500 brown dwarfs, which makes WISE uniquely suited among future surveys to measure the low-mass limit of star formation for the first time. This sample will also show whether a new spectral class beyond T, dubbed "Y", is needed at the lowest temperatures. Although the primary six-month WISE mission will cover the entire sky once, WISE should have sufficient cryogen to perform a second, complete pass of the sky. In this case, the identification of nearby brown dwarfs need not rely solely on color selection. Kinematics (proper motion) and geometry (parallax) can also be used to distinguish our closest brown dwarf neighbors, one of which may lie less distant than Proxima Centauri or even fall within our own Oort Cloud.

  8. Step-Wise Evolution of Mental Models of Electric Circuits: A "Learning-Aloud" Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, John J.; Steinberg, Melvin S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an approach to teaching complex models in science that uses a model construction cycle of generation, evaluation, and modification. Reports on a case study of a student in a tutoring experiment in the study of electric circuits. Focuses on the role of analogies, discrepant events, and the student's moments of surprise as motivators of…

  9. Choosing Wisely? Let's Start with Working Wisely.

    PubMed

    Kurdyak, Paul; Wiesenfeld, Lesley; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing emphasis on quality and, relatedly, cost-effectiveness as it relates to the delivery of health care. Choosing Wisely is an initiative adopted by numerous specialties with the goal of starting a dialogue about efficient use of health care resources. People need to be able to access care to have an opportunity to choose wisely. There is a considerable amount of evidence that access to care is poor for specialty mental health care, particularly access to psychiatrists. Consequently, we suggest that psychiatrists and the broader mental health system need to consider working wisely, and in our paper outline key issues (for example, implementation of wait times and objective measures of need in a centralized referral management system; incorporation of performance indicators with longitudinal monitoring for continuous quality improvement) that need to be addressed to develop a mental health system that would allow people to access care to choose wisely. PMID:27582450

  10. Spending Money Wisely.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, Donald R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The theme article of this issue, "Spending Money Wisely," by Donald R. Wentworth, begins with an explanation of basic strategies which aid wise spending. The article goes on to provide an introduction to economic reasoning related to consumer purchases and focusing on the role of incentives, scarcity, and alternatives. Four teaching units follow…

  11. WISE Eyes the Whole Sky

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the progress of the WISE all-sky survey over time. WISE, or NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, is perched up in the sky like a wise, old owl, scanning the whole sky on...

  12. Using Medicines Wisely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Use Medicines Wisely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... or foods should I avoid? 2. Keep a Medicine List Write down the important facts about each ...

  13. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fowler, J.; Koribalski, B.; Lake, S.; Neill, James D.; Seibert, M.; Sheth, K.; Stanford, S.; Wright, E.

    2012-08-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 μm, 4.6 μm, 12 μm, and 22 μm. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  14. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fowler, J.; Koribalski, B.; Lake, S.; Neill, James D.; Seibert, M.; Stanford, S.; Wright, E.

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  15. Obscured AGNs in Bulgeless Hosts discovered by WISE: The Case Study of SDSS J1224+5555

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyapal, S.; Secrest, N. J.; Rothberg, B.; O'Connor, J. A.; Ellison, S. L.; Hickox, R. C.; Constantin, A.; Gliozzi, M.; Rosenberg, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    There is mounting evidence that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) form and grow in bulgeless galaxies. However, a robust determination of the fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in bulgeless galaxies, an important constraint to models of SMBH seed formation and merger-free models of AGN fueling, is unknown, since optical studies have been shown to be incomplete for AGNs in low-mass galaxies. In a recent study using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we discovered hundreds of bulgeless galaxies that display mid-infrared signatures of extremely hot dust suggestive of powerful accreting massive black holes, despite having no signatures of black hole activity at optical wavelengths. Here we report X-ray follow-up observations of J122434.66+555522.3, a nearby (z = 0.052) isolated bulgeless galaxy that contains an unresolved X-ray source detected at the 3σ level by XMM-Newton with an observed luminosity uncorrected for intrinsic absorption of {L}2-10{keV}=(1.1+/- 0.4)× {10}40 erg s-1. Ground-based near-infrared spectroscopy with the Large Binocular Telescope and multiwavelength observations from ultraviolet to millimeter wavelengths together suggest that J1224+5555 harbors a highly absorbed AGN with an intrinsic absorption of {N}{{H}}\\gt {10}24 cm-2. The hard X-ray luminosity of the putative AGN corrected for absorption is {L}2-10{keV}˜ 3× {10}42 erg s-1, which, depending on the bolometric correction factor, corresponds to a bolometric luminosity of the AGN of {L}{bol}.˜ 6× {10}43-3 × 1044 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 and a lower mass limit for the black hole of {M}{BH}≃ 2× {10}6 {M}⊙ , based on the Eddington limit. While enhanced X-ray emission and hot dust can be produced by star formation in extremely low metallicity environments typical in dwarf galaxies, J1224+5555 has a stellar mass of ˜ 2.0× {10}10 {M}⊙ and an above solar metallicity (12 + {logO}/{{H}} = 9.11), typical of our WISE-selected bulgeless galaxy sample. While collectively these

  16. Obscured AGNs in Bulgeless Hosts discovered by WISE: The Case Study of SDSS J1224+5555

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyapal, S.; Secrest, N. J.; Rothberg, B.; O’Connor, J. A.; Ellison, S. L.; Hickox, R. C.; Constantin, A.; Gliozzi, M.; Rosenberg, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    There is mounting evidence that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) form and grow in bulgeless galaxies. However, a robust determination of the fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in bulgeless galaxies, an important constraint to models of SMBH seed formation and merger-free models of AGN fueling, is unknown, since optical studies have been shown to be incomplete for AGNs in low-mass galaxies. In a recent study using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we discovered hundreds of bulgeless galaxies that display mid-infrared signatures of extremely hot dust suggestive of powerful accreting massive black holes, despite having no signatures of black hole activity at optical wavelengths. Here we report X-ray follow-up observations of J122434.66+555522.3, a nearby (z = 0.052) isolated bulgeless galaxy that contains an unresolved X-ray source detected at the 3σ level by XMM-Newton with an observed luminosity uncorrected for intrinsic absorption of {L}2-10{keV}=(1.1+/- 0.4)× {10}40 erg s‑1. Ground-based near-infrared spectroscopy with the Large Binocular Telescope and multiwavelength observations from ultraviolet to millimeter wavelengths together suggest that J1224+5555 harbors a highly absorbed AGN with an intrinsic absorption of {N}{{H}}\\gt {10}24 cm‑2. The hard X-ray luminosity of the putative AGN corrected for absorption is {L}2-10{keV}˜ 3× {10}42 erg s‑1, which, depending on the bolometric correction factor, corresponds to a bolometric luminosity of the AGN of {L}{bol}.˜ 6× {10}43‑3 × 1044 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 and a lower mass limit for the black hole of {M}{BH}≃ 2× {10}6 {M}ȯ , based on the Eddington limit. While enhanced X-ray emission and hot dust can be produced by star formation in extremely low metallicity environments typical in dwarf galaxies, J1224+5555 has a stellar mass of ˜ 2.0× {10}10 {M}ȯ and an above solar metallicity (12 + {logO}/{{H}} = 9.11), typical of our WISE-selected bulgeless galaxy sample. While collectively these

  17. Get SunWise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Patricia; Ingram, Dabney

    2004-01-01

    Providing sun-safe environments, schedules, and activities; teaching and modeling sun-safe behaviors; and implementing a sun-safe school policy are ways that schools can help protect children from sun overexposure and lay the foundation for a healthy lifestyle at an early age. This article presents the SunWise program and examples of classroom…

  18. Climate Cases: Learning about Student Conceptualizations of Global Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Benjamin P.

    2013-01-01

    The complex topic of global climate change continues to be a challenging yet important topic among science educators and researchers. This mixed methods study adds to the growing research by investigating student conceptions of climate change from a system theory perspective (Von Bertalanffy, 1968) by asking the question, "How do differences…

  19. Students' Perspective (Age Wise, Gender Wise and Year Wise) of Parameters Affecting the Undergraduate Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the students' perspective (age wise, gender wise and year wise) of parameters affecting the undergraduate engineering education system present in a private technical institution in NCR [National Capital Region], Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research in nature. The data has been collected with the…

  20. The wise leader.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Ikujiro; Takeuchi, Hirotaka

    2011-05-01

    In an era of increasing discontinuity, wise leadership has nearly vanished. Many leaders find it difficult to reinvent their corporations rapidly enough to cope with new technologies, demographic shifts, and consumption trends. They can't develop truly global organizations that operate effortlessly across borders. And they find it tough to ensure that their people adhere to values and ethics. The authors assert that leaders must acquire practical wisdom, or what Aristotle called phronesis: experiential knowledge that enables people to make ethically sound judgments. Wise leaders demonstrate six abilities: (i) They make decisions on the basis of what is good for the organization and for society. (2) They quickly grasp the essence of a situation and fathom the nature and meaning of people, things, and events. (3) They provide contexts in which executives and employees can interact to create new meaning. (4) They employ metaphors and stories to convert their experience into tacit knowledge that others can use. (5) They exert political power to bring people together and spur them to act. (6) They use apprenticeship and mentoring to cultivate practical wisdom in orders. PMID:21548419

  1. unWISE: Unblurred coadds of the WISE imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Dustin

    2014-05-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite observed the full sky in four mid-infrared bands in the 2.8-28 μm range. The primary mission was completed in 2010. The WISE team has done a superb job of producing a series of high-quality, well-documented, complete data releases in a timely manner. However, the 'Atlas Image' coadds that are part of the recent AllWISE and previous data releases were intentionally blurred. Convolving the images by the point-spread function while coadding results in 'matched-filtered' images that are close to optimal for detecting isolated point sources. But these matched-filtered images are sub-optimal or inappropriate for other purposes. For example, we are photometering the WISE images at the locations of sources detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey through forward modeling, and this blurring decreases the available signal-to-noise by effectively broadening the point-spread function. This paper presents a new set of coadds of the WISE images that have not been blurred. These images retain the intrinsic resolution of the data and are appropriate for photometry preserving the available signal-to-noise. Users should be cautioned, however, that the W3- and W4-band coadds contain artifacts around large, bright structures (large galaxies, dusty nebulae, etc.); eliminating these artifacts is the subject of ongoing work. These new coadds, and the code used to produce them, are publicly available at http://unwise.me.

  2. unWISE: Unblurred Coadds of the WISE Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Dustin

    2014-05-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite observed the full sky in four mid-infrared bands in the 2.8-28 μm range. The primary mission was completed in 2010. The WISE team has done a superb job of producing a series of high-quality, well-documented, complete data releases in a timely manner. However, the "Atlas Image" coadds that are part of the recent AllWISE and previous data releases were intentionally blurred. Convolving the images by the point-spread function while coadding results in "matched-filtered" images that are close to optimal for detecting isolated point sources. But these matched-filtered images are sub-optimal or inappropriate for other purposes. For example, we are photometering the WISE images at the locations of sources detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey through forward modeling, and this blurring decreases the available signal-to-noise by effectively broadening the point-spread function. This paper presents a new set of coadds of the WISE images that have not been blurred. These images retain the intrinsic resolution of the data and are appropriate for photometry preserving the available signal-to-noise. Users should be cautioned, however, that the W3- and W4-band coadds contain artifacts around large, bright structures (large galaxies, dusty nebulae, etc.); eliminating these artifacts is the subject of ongoing work. These new coadds, and the code used to produce them, are publicly available at http://unwise.me.

  3. Reservoirs performances under climate variability: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longobardi, A.; Mautone, M.; de Luca, C.

    2014-09-01

    A case study, the Piano della Rocca dam (southern Italy) is discussed here in order to quantify the system performances under climate variability conditions. Different climate scenarios have been stochastically generated according to the tendencies in precipitation and air temperature observed during recent decades for the studied area. Climate variables have then been filtered through an ARMA model to generate, at the monthly scale, time series of reservoir inflow volumes. Controlled release has been computed considering the reservoir is operated following the standard linear operating policy (SLOP) and reservoir performances have been assessed through the calculation of reliability, resilience and vulnerability indices (Hashimoto et al. 1982), comparing current and future scenarios of climate variability. The proposed approach can be suggested as a valuable tool to mitigate the effects of moderate to severe and persistent droughts periods, through the allocation of new water resources or the planning of appropriate operational rules.

  4. WISE and the Dusty Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2010-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey is a medium class Explorer mission that was launched onl4Dec 2009. WISE should detect hundreds of millions of stars and galaxies, including millions of ULIRGS and QSOs; hundreds of thousands of asteroids; and hundreds of cold brown dwarfs. The telescope cover was ejected on 29 Dec 2009 and the all-sky survey started on 14 Jan 2010. WISE takes more the 7000 framesets per day, with each frameset covering 0.6 square degrees in four bands centered at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns. WISE is well-suited to the discovery of brown dwarfs, ultraluminous infrared galaxies, and near-Earth objects. With an angular resolution of 6 arcsecouds at 12 microns, a 5(sigma) point-source sensitivity of around 1 mJy at 12 microns and 6 mJy at 22 microns, and coverage of over 99% of the sky, WISE also provides a powerful database for the study of the dusty ISM in our own galaxy. A preliminary release of WISE data will be made available to the community 6 months after the end of the cryogenic survey, or about May 2011. The final data release will be 11 months later, about April 2012.

  5. Designing climate-smart conservation: guidance and case studies.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lara; Hoffman, Jennifer; Drews, Carlos; Mielbrecht, Eric

    2010-02-01

    To be successful, conservation practitioners and resource managers must fully integrate the effects of climate change into all planning projects. Some conservation practitioners are beginning to develop, test, and implement new approaches that are designed to deal with climate change. We devised four basic tenets that are essential in climate-change adaptation for conservation: protect adequate and appropriate space, reduce nonclimate stresses, use adaptive management to implement and test climate-change adaptation strategies, and work to reduce the rate and extent of climate change to reduce overall risk. To illustrate how this approach applies in the real world, we explored case studies of coral reefs in the Florida Keys; mangrove forests in Fiji, Tanzania, and Cameroon; sea-level rise and sea turtles in the Caribbean; tigers in the Sundarbans of India; and national planning in Madagascar. Through implementation of these tenets conservation efforts in each of these regions can be made more robust in the face of climate change. Although these approaches require reconsidering some traditional approaches to conservation, this new paradigm is technologically, economically, and intellectually feasible. PMID:20121842

  6. Searching for Outer Planet Debris Disks/Rings with WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrutskie, M. F.; Masci, F.; Fowler, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Verbiscer, A.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-10-01

    The NASA Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) imaged the entire celestial sphere at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22μm during its 9 month cryogenic survey mission with typical 5-sigma sensitivity for point source detection near the ecliptic of 0.08, 0.11, 1, and 6 mJy (Wright et al. 2010). In addition to the detection of hundreds of millions of stars and galaxies as well as a vast number of known and new asteroids (Mainzer et al. 2011), WISE was sensitive to extended emission from warm dust in the Solar System, for example from zodiacal dust bands and comet debris trails. WISE also scanned all of the superior planets during its mission, encountering them serendipitously during normal Survey operations. This paper presents the result of searches for dust emission originating from irregular satellite impact debris or activity around Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, primarily in the longest wavelength band at 22μm. WISE delivered angular resolution of 6 arcseconds in the three shorterwavelength bands and 12 arcseconds in the band most suited for outer Solar System dust detection at 22μm. Jupiter and Saturn heavily saturate the detectors and scattered light limits the inner radius for analysis. Since WISE acquired its observations over many days, and in some cases weeks, we have constructed deep coadds in the frame of the moving planet rather than using standard WISE Atlas Image Coadds. WISE typically dedicated about 70 sec of observation to each point on the sky near the ecliptic plane, so WISE observations are not nearly as sensitive as those possible with the Spitzer Space Telescope during its cryogenic mission. All of the giant planets were located in a region of the sky scanned in the second half of WISE's all-sky coverage. As a result none of these fields was included in the 57% of the sky covered in the April 2011 WISE Preliminary Data Release. At the time of the WISE Final Data Release, planned for Spring 2012, the individual calibrated "Level 1" frames

  7. Asia Wise Workbook Number One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).

    This workbook is a compilation of work sheets from the teacher's sections of the 1989 issues of "Asia Wise," an Auatralian magazine devoted to the study of Asia. Profiles and worksheets are provided for the countries of China, Indo-China, Indonesia, Japan, Philippines, and Thailand. Worksheets feature the following themes: Asian Australians; food…

  8. 76 FR 71341 - BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools: Case Study Guide to Potential Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... AGENCY BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools: Case Study Guide to Potential Applications AGENCY... Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (EPA/600/R-11/123A). EPA also... WEPP climate assessment tools. The report presents a series of short case studies designed...

  9. Public Perception of Climate Risk: The Case of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voskaki, Asimina; Tsermenidis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is generally considered as one of the greatest challenges our world is facing. In the case of Greece climatic change seems to be associated with sea level rise, increase in temperature, variation in precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events. As a result of climate pattern changes a series of consequences are expected in areas involving build environment, infrastructures, health and various sectors of the economy. Even though climate change is probably going to affect Greece in terms of human welfare and economic growth, public perception and attitude do not always identify it as the most important, amongst others, environmental area of concern, or compared to various socio-economic issues. Considering that topics related to climate change involve a certain degree of uncertainty public perception seems to be important when dealing with adaptation strategies to manage or prevent risks from climate change impact and therefore people's reaction to risks seem to be an issue of great importance in future policy planning and implementation. The key issue of this paper is to investigate and analyse public perception in Greece as regards to climate change risk. Through a questionnaire survey this research investigates people's understanding, specific knowledge, opinion, awareness, emotions, behavior with regards to climate change risks and their willingness to pay in order to minimize or prevent risk. In addition, it examines people's willingness to alter current lifestyle and adapt to a changing climate. The information derived from survey data concern the topics and the perceived importance of the causes of the climate change between certain groups of people; the analysis of the data is focused on the correlation between perceived risk and knowledge about the issues involved. Rather than applying a specific technique extensively, we choose to deploy a number of methodologies with which we are able to draw different aspects from the data. To this

  10. THE WISE LIGHT CURVES OF POLARS

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Campbell, Ryan K. E-mail: Ryan.Campbell@humboldt.edu

    2015-08-15

    We have extracted the WISE (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer) single-exposure data for a sample of 72 polars, which are highly magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs). We combine these data with both published and unpublished optical and infrared data to explore the origins of the large amplitude variations seen in these systems. In nearly every case, we find evidence for cyclotron emission in the WISE bandpasses. We find that the derived magnetic field strengths for some polars are either too high, or cyclotron emission from lower field components, located spatially coincident to the main accreting poles, must be occurring. We have also estimated field strengths for a number of polars where no such values exist. In addition, contrary to expectations, we find that emission from the fundamental cyclotron harmonic (n = 1) appears to be nearly always present when the magnetic field is of the appropriate strength that it falls within a WISE bandpass. We find that the light curves for RBS 490, an ultrashort-period (46 minutes) CV, suggest that it is a polar. Modeling its spectrum indicates that its donor star is much hotter than expected. Nearly all of the detected polars show 11.5 μm (“W3 band”) excesses. The general lack of variability seen in the W3 bandpass light curves for higher-field polars demonstrates that these excesses are probably not due to cyclotron emission. There is circumstantial evidence that these excesses can be attributed to bremsstrahlung emission from their accretion streams. Reduction of the Spitzer 24 μm image of V1500 Cyg shows that it appears to be located at the center of a small nebula.

  11. DOE climate partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Stoss, F.

    1995-12-31

    This article briefly describes US DOE partnerships, with electrical utilities and with US EPA and industry, which focus on reduction in greenhouse gasses. They are called `Climate Challenge` and `Climate Wise.`

  12. Cure-WISE: HETDEX Data Reduction with Astro-WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snigula, J. M.; Drory, N.; Fabricius, M.; Landriau, M.; Montesano, F.; Hill, G. J.; Gebhardt, K.; Cornell, M. E.

    2014-05-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX, Hill et al. 2012b) is a blind spectroscopic survey to map the evolution of dark energy using Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshifts 1.9< ɀ <3.5 as tracers. The survey will use an array of 75 integral field spectrographs called the Visible Integral field Replicable Unit (IFU) Spectrograph (VIRUS, Hill et al. 2012c). The 10m HET (Ramsey et al. 1998) currently receives a wide-field upgrade (Hill et al. 2012a) to accomodate the spectrographs and to provide the needed field of view. Over the projected five year run of the survey we expect to obtain approximately 170 GB of data each night. For the data reduction we developed the Cure pipeline, to automatically find and calibrate the observed spectra, subtract the sky background, and detect and classify different types of sources. Cure employs rigorous statistical methods and complete pixel-level error propagation throughout the reduction process to ensure Poisson-limited performance and meaningful significance values. To automate the reduction of the whole dataset we implemented the Cure pipeline in the Astro-WISE framework. This integration provides for HETDEX a database backend with complete dependency tracking of the various reduction steps, automated checks, and a searchable interface to the detected sources and user management. It can be used to create various web interfaces for data access and quality control. Astro-WISE allows us to reduce the data from all the IFUs in parallel on a compute cluster. This cluster allows us to reduce the observed data in quasi real time and still have excess capacity for rerunning parts of the reduction. Finally, the Astro-WISE interface will be used to provide access to reduced data products to the general community.

  13. Cure-WISE: HETDEX data reduction with Astro-WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snigula, J. M.; Cornell, M. E.; Drory, N.; Fabricius, Max.; Landriau, M.; Hill, G. J.; Gebhardt, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) is a blind spectroscopic survey to map the evolution of dark energy using Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshifts 1:9 < z < 3:5 as tracers. The survey instrument, VIRUS, consists of 75 IFUs distributed across the 22-arcmin field of the upgraded 9.2-m HET. Each exposure gathers 33,600 spectra. Over the projected five year run of the survey we expect about 170 GB of data per night. For the data reduction we developed the Cure pipeline. Cure is designed to automatically find and calibrate the observed spectra, subtract the sky background, and detect and classify different types of sources. Cure employs rigorous statistical methods and complete pixel-level error propagation throughout the reduction process to ensure Poisson-limited performance and meaningful significance values. To automate the reduction of the whole dataset we implemented the Cure pipeline in the Astro-WISE framework. This integration provides for HETDEX a database backend with complete dependency tracking of the various reduction steps, automated checks, and a searchable interface to the detected sources and user management. It can be used to create various web interfaces for data access and quality control. Astro-WISE allows us to reduce the data from all the IFUs in parallel on a compute cluster. This cluster allows us to reduce the observed data in quasi real time and still have excess capacity for rerunning parts of the reduction. Finally, the Astro-WISE interface will be used to provide access to reduced data products to the general community.

  14. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and Developmen...

  15. WISE Discovers Hyperluminous Hot DOGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Wu, J.; WISE Team

    2013-01-01

    One of the primary science objectives for NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is to find the most luminous galaxies in the Universe. We have used WISE photometry to select an extraordinary all-sky sample of galaxies, which are prominent at 12 microns (W3) or 22 microns (W4), but faint or undetected at 3.4 microns (W1) and 4.6 microns (W2). Follow-up observations reveal that most of these galaxies are at redshift > 1.5, that they are hyperluminous (> 10^13 Lsun; with ~10% exceeding 10^14 Lsun, comparable to the most luminous optical QSOs). The follow-up observations also show that they are at least twice as hot as other types of infrared luminous galaxies, so that they are hot dust-obscured-galaxies, or Hot DOGs. Their SEDs have a very high mid-IR to submillimeter luminosity ratio, which is quite different from any existing galaxy templates. They may represent a rare, new phase in the galaxy evolution, possibly hosting extremely powerful super massive black holes.

  16. Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Christensen, C.

    2006-01-01

    This project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Program, is a case study in reaching zero energy within the affordable housing sector in cold climates. The design of the 1200 square foot, 3-bedroom Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed using an early version of the BEOpt building optimization software with additional analysis using DOE2. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design towards simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques.

  17. 75 FR 51806 - Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... AGENCY Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices AGENCY...-day public comment period for the draft document titled, ``Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment... utilities to assess their vulnerability to future climate change. The report is intended to illustrate...

  18. WISE Photometry for 400 Million SDSS Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Dustin; Hogg, David W.; Schlegel, David J.

    2016-02-01

    We present photometry of images from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) of over 400 million sources detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We use a “forced photometry” technique, using measured SDSS source positions, star-galaxy classification, and galaxy profiles to define the sources whose fluxes are to be measured in the WISE images. We perform photometry with The Tractor image modeling code, working on our “unWISE” coaddds and taking account of the WISE point-spread function and a noise model. The result is a measurement of the flux of each SDSS source in each WISE band. Many sources have little flux in the WISE bands, so often the measurements we report are consistent with zero given our uncertainties. However, for many sources we get 3σ or 4σ measurements; these sources would not be reported by the “official” WISE pipeline and will not appear in the WISE catalog, yet they can be highly informative for some scientific questions. In addition, these small-signal measurements can be used in stacking analyses at the catalog level. The forced photometry approach has the advantage that we measure a consistent set of sources between SDSS and WISE, taking advantage of the resolution and depth of the SDSS images to interpret the WISE images; objects that are resolved in SDSS but blended together in WISE still have accurate measurements in our photometry. Our results, and the code used to produce them, are publicly available at http://unwise.me.

  19. Case study applications of the BASINS climate assessment tool (CAT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This EPA report will illustrate the application of different climate assessment capabilities within EPA’s BASINS modeling system for assessing a range of potential questions about the effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality in different watershed settings and us...

  20. Mapping Climate Change: Six U.S. Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmberg, Marjorie O.

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on the current role of mapping practices in communicating climate change in the United States. This includes maps used in monitoring climate change, projecting its potential impacts, and identifying potential adaptation strategies at particular scales. Since few, if any, studies have been done specifically on mapping…

  1. WISE Finds Fewer Asteroids near Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    New observations by NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, orWISE, show there are significantly fewer near-Earth asteroids in themid-size range than previously thought.› Asteroid and Come...

  2. Human Responses to Climate Variability: The Case of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Licker, R.; Mastrorillo, M.; Bohra-Mishra, P.; Estes, L. D.; Cai, R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability has been associated with a range of societal and individual outcomes including migration, violent conflict, changes in labor productivity, and health impacts. Some of these may be direct responses to changes in mean temperature or precipitation or extreme events, such as displacement of human populations by tropical cyclones. Others may be mediated by a variety of biological, social, or ecological factors such as migration in response to long-term changes in crops yields. Research is beginning to elucidate and distinguish the many channels through which climate variability may influence human behavior (ranging from the individual to the collective, societal level) in order to better understand how to improve resilience in the face of current variability as well as future climate change. Using a variety of data sets from South Africa, we show how climate variability has influenced internal (within country) migration in recent history. We focus on South Africa as it is a country with high levels of internal migration and dramatic temperature and precipitation changes projected for the 21st century. High poverty rates and significant levels of rain-fed, smallholder agriculture leave large portions of South Africa's population base vulnerable to future climate change. In this study, we utilize two complementary statistical models - one micro-level model, driven by individual and household level survey data, and one macro-level model, driven by national census statistics. In both models, we consider the effect of climate on migration both directly (with gridded climate reanalysis data) and indirectly (with agricultural production statistics). With our historical analyses of climate variability, we gain insights into how the migration decisions of South Africans may be influenced by future climate change. We also offer perspective on the utility of micro and macro level approaches in the study of climate change and human migration.

  3. The Piece Wise Linear Reactive Flow Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vitello, P; Souers, P C

    2005-08-18

    For non-ideal explosives a wide range of behavior is observed in experiments dealing with differing sizes and geometries. A predictive detonation model must be able to reproduce many phenomena including such effects as: variations in the detonation velocity with the radial diameter of rate sticks; slowing of the detonation velocity around gentle corners; production of dead zones for abrupt corner turning; failure of small diameter rate sticks; and failure for rate sticks with sufficiently wide cracks. Most models have been developed to explain one effect at a time. Often, changes are made in the input parameters used to fit each succeeding case with the implication that this is sufficient for the model to be valid over differing regimes. We feel that it is important to develop a model that is able to fit experiments with one set of parameters. To address this we are creating a new generation of models that are able to produce better fitting to individual data sets than prior models and to simultaneous fit distinctly different regimes of experiments. Presented here are details of our new Piece Wise Linear reactive flow model applied to LX-17.

  4. The Waste Wise Schools Program: Evidence of Educational, Environmental, Social and Economic Outcomes at the School and Community Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patricia; Sharpley, Brian; Malcolm, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The Waste Wise Schools Program was established by EcoRecycle Victoria to implement waste and litter education in Victorian schools. It is now operating in over 900 schools in Victoria and 300 schools in other Australian states / territories. This paper provides detailed case studies of two active schools in the Waste Wise Schools Program and…

  5. Thermophysical modeling of main-belt asteroids from WISE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuš, J.; Delbó, M.; Durech, J.; Alí-Lagoa, V.

    2014-07-01

    We determine asteroid physical parameters such as size, surface roughness, albedo, and thermal inertia by applying the implementation of the thermophysical model (TPM) of Lagerros (1996; 1997; 1998) to the thermal data obtained by the NASA WISE satellite. We present thermophysical parameters for ˜150 asteroids, which gives us so far the largest sample of asteroids with determined values of thermal inertia. On several individual cases, we discuss the reliability of our determinations and limitations of the TPM method we use. As initial shapes, we adopt convex shape models from the DAMIT database (Durech et al., 2010) and present new determinations based on combined dense and sparse-in-time disk-integrated photometry and the lightcurve inversion method (Kaasalainen & Torppa 2001; Kaasalainen et al., 2001). We use thermal data from the WISE filters W3 and W4, as well as the data observed by the IRAS satellite. However, due to the intriguing accuracy of the fluxes and larger amount of measurements, the WISE data are significantly more important and dominate the modeling. The WISE data are processed the same way as in Alí-Lagoa et al. (2014) for asteroid (341 843) 2008 EV_5. We show the main results of the study of derived thermophysical parameters within the whole population of MBAs and within several asteroid families with the main focus on the thermal inertia. The thermal inertia increases with decreasing size (as previously shown by Delbó et al., 2007), but a large range of thermal inertia values is observed within the similar size ranges between D˜10-100 km. Surprisingly, we derived very low (<10 J m^{-2} s^{-1/2} K^{-1}) thermal inertias for many asteroids (˜20) with various sizes. The range of thermal inertia values is large even within a few asteroid families.

  6. One hundred years: A collective case study of climate change education in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Leonard Mark

    This collective case study examined how five K-12 science teachers taught about climate change during Fall 2013, and asked how the University of Georgia can support climate change education. The participants were all experienced teachers, and included: three high school teachers, a middle school teacher, and an elementary school teacher. 'Postcarbonism', an emerging theoretical framework, shaped the research and guided the analysis. The teachers varied in their teaching practices and in their conceptions of 'climate change', but they were united in: 1) their focus on mitigation over adaptation, and 2) presenting climate change as a remote problem with simple solutions. The teachers drew on varied resources, but in all cases, their most valuable resources were their own skills, knowledge and personality. The University of Georgia can support climate change education by developing locally relevant educational resources. Curriculum developers might consider building upon the work of outstanding teach.

  7. GridWise Standards Mapping Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bosquet, Mia L.

    2004-04-01

    ''GridWise'' is a concept of how advanced communications, information and controls technology can transform the nation's energy system--across the spectrum of large scale, central generation to common consumer appliances and equipment--into a collaborative network, rich in the exchange of decision making information and an abundance of market-based opportunities (Widergren and Bosquet 2003) accompanying the electric transmission and distribution system fully into the information and telecommunication age. This report summarizes a broad review of standards efforts which are related to GridWise--those which could ultimately contribute significantly to advancements toward the GridWise vision, or those which represent today's current technological basis upon which this vision must build.

  8. Leishmaniasis and Climate Change—Case Study: Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Quintana, María Gabriela; Mastrángelo, Andrea Verónica; Fernández, María Soledad

    2012-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases closely associated with the environment, such as leishmaniases, have been a usual argument about the deleterious impact of climate change on public health. From the biological point of view interaction of different variables has different and even conflicting effects on the survival of vectors and the probability transmission of pathogens. The results on ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Argentina related to climate variables at different scales of space and time are presented. These studies showed that the changes in transmission due to change or increase in frequency and intensity of climatic instability were expressed through changes in the probability of vector-human reservoir effective contacts. These changes of contact in turn are modulated by both direct effects on the biology and ecology of the organisms involved, as by perceptions and changes in the behavior of the human communities at risk. Therefore, from the perspective of public health and state policy, and taking into account the current nonlinear increased velocity of climate change, we concluded that discussing the uncertainties of large-scale models will have lower impact than to develop-validate mitigation strategies to be operative at local level, and compatibles with sustainable development, conservation biodiversity, and respect for cultural diversity. PMID:22685477

  9. Nonlinear dynamics in ecosystem response to climatic change: Case studies and policy implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Stottlemyer, Robert; Barrow, Wylie; Fagre, Dan; Baron, Jill; Price, Jeff; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Allen, Craig D.; Peterson, David L.; Ruggerone, Greg; Doyle, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Many biological, hydrological, and geological processes are interactively linked in ecosystems. These ecological phenomena normally vary within bounded ranges, but rapid, nonlinear changes to markedly different conditions can be triggered by even small differences if threshold values are exceeded. Intrinsic and extrinsic ecological thresholds can lead to effects that cascade among systems, precluding accurate modeling and prediction of system response to climate change. Ten case studies from North America illustrate how changes in climate can lead to rapid, threshold-type responses within ecological communities; the case studies also highlight the role of human activities that alter the rate or direction of system response to climate change. Understanding and anticipating nonlinear dynamics are important aspects of adaptation planning since responses of biological resources to changes in the physical climate system are not necessarily proportional and sometimes, as in the case of complex ecological systems, inherently nonlinear.

  10. Non-linearity dynamics in ecosystem response to climate change: Case studies and policy implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, V.R.; Wilcox, D.A.; Stottlemyer, R.; Barrow, W.; Fagre, D.; Baron, J.; Nielsen, J.L.; Allen, C.D.; Peterson, D.L.; Ruggerone, G.; Doyle, T.

    2005-01-01

    Many biological, hydrological, and geological processes are interactively linked in ecosystems. These ecological phenomena normally vary within bounded ranges, but rapid, nonlinear changes to markedly different conditions can be triggered by even small differences if threshold values are exceeded. Intrinsic and extrinsic ecological thresholds can lead to effects that cascade among systems, precluding accurate modeling and prediction of system response to climate change. Ten case studies from North America illustrate how changes in climate cna lead to rapid, threshold-type responses within ecological communities; the case studies also highlight the role of human activities that alter the rate or direction of system response to climate change. Understanding and anticipating nonlinear dynamics are important aspects of adaptation planning since responses of biological resources to changes in the physical climate system are not necessarily proportional and sometimes, as in the case of complex ecological systems, inherently nonlinear.

  11. The case against climate regulation via oceanic phytoplankton sulphur emissions.

    PubMed

    Quinn, P K; Bates, T S

    2011-12-01

    More than twenty years ago, a biological regulation of climate was proposed whereby emissions of dimethyl sulphide from oceanic phytoplankton resulted in the formation of aerosol particles that acted as cloud condensation nuclei in the marine boundary layer. In this hypothesis--referred to as CLAW--the increase in cloud condensation nuclei led to an increase in cloud albedo with the resulting changes in temperature and radiation initiating a climate feedback altering dimethyl sulphide emissions from phytoplankton. Over the past two decades, observations in the marine boundary layer, laboratory studies and modelling efforts have been conducted seeking evidence for the CLAW hypothesis. The results indicate that a dimethyl sulphide biological control over cloud condensation nuclei probably does not exist and that sources of these nuclei to the marine boundary layer and the response of clouds to changes in aerosol are much more complex than was recognized twenty years ago. These results indicate that it is time to retire the CLAW hypothesis.

  12. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher.

  13. The case for a wet, warm climate on early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.; Kasting, J. F.; Richardson, S. M.; Poliakoff, K.

    1987-01-01

    The conditions under which Mars could have had a warm wet climate during its early evolution are explored by means of numerical simulations, incorporating more accurate data on the opacity of gaseous CO2 and H2O in the solar and thermal spectral regions (McClatchey et al., 1971) into the one-dimensional radiative-convective greenhouse model of Kasting and Ackerman (1986). The results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail, with consideration of atmospheric CO2 loss rates, sources of atmospheric CO2, CO2 partitioning between atmosphere and hydrosphere, the Mars volatile inventory, the CO2 geochemical cycle, climate evolution, and observational tests. It is concluded that greenhouse conditions (requiring atmospheric CO2 of 1-5 bar) could have existed for a period of about 1 Gyr if the total surficial inventory of CO2 was 2-10 bar.

  14. Teaching Children To Be Test Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Test-wiseness is discussed in the newsletter of Programs for Educational Opportunity (PEO), a combined race, gender, and national origin desegregation assistance center providing technical information to eligible public schools in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. PEO is based on the belief that specific teaching of test…

  15. WISE Inquiry in Fifth Grade Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michelle; Linn, Marcia C.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a two-year study designed to investigate how a Web-Based Integrated Science Environment (WISE) project called "Plants in Space" featuring classroom investigations enabled 5th grade students to increase their understanding of plant growth and development. Investigates two versions of the curriculum and considers how understanding of the…

  16. SunWise[R] Meteorologist Tool Kit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The SunWise Program is designed to help meteorologists raise sun safety awareness by addressing the science of the sun, the risk of overexposure to its ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and what students and their families can do to protect themselves from overexposure. This Tool Kit has been designed for use all over the United States and its…

  17. Embracing Uncertainty: A Case Study Examination of How Climate Change is Shifting Water Utility Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, L.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing water utilities' planning for the future, adding a new source and level of complexity that is forcing many agencies to re-examine their decision-making processes. A significant barrier for many agencies is figuring out how to consider highly uncertain climate information and move away from deterministic thinking to make climate-informed decisions. To provide water professionals with practical and relevant information, the Water Utility Climate Alliance teamed up with the American Water Works Association, in coordination with the Water Research Foundation and Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies, to develop a white paper sharing insights into how and why water agencies are modifying planning and decision-making processes. The 13 case studies presented illustrate the variety of ways in which utilities are incorporating climate change into planning, from immediate operational decisions, to capital planning and asset management, to long-term supply planning.

  18. Diving deaths - use words wisely.

    PubMed

    Capps, Roger

    2008-03-01

    Dear Editor, I have just been reading the article by Andrew McClelland in the last issue and am suffering from the horrors and sleepless nights! In case report SC 03-01, for example (the healthy [sic] diver with a BMI of 36.5), it is reported "the deceased rapidly found it hard to swim". Was this establishing rigor mortis? The thought of "the deceased panicked and had a knife in his hands" and later, "the deceased was lunging with the knife" brings back to mind some zombie-type horror movies. Could you please give these articles a suitable warning rating? PMID:22692664

  19. The case for a wet, warm climate on early Mars.

    PubMed

    Pollack, J B; Kasting, J F; Richardson, S M; Poliakoff, K

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical arguments are presented in support of the idea that Mars possessed a dense CO2 atmosphere and a wet, warm climate early in its history. Calculations with a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate model indicate that CO2 pressures between 1 and 5 bars would have been required to keep the surface temperature above the freezing point of water early in the planet's history. The higher value corresponds to globally and orbitally averaged conditions and a 30% reduction in solar luminosity; the lower value corresponds to conditions at the equator during perihelion at times of high orbital eccentricity and the same reduced solar luminosity. The plausibility of such a CO2 greenhouse is tested by formulating a simple model of the CO2 geochemical cycle on early Mars. By appropriately scaling the rate of silicate weathering on present Earth, we estimate a weathering time constant of the order of several times 10(7) years for early Mars. Thus, a dense atmosphere could have persisted for a geologically significant time period (approximately 10(9) years) only if atmospheric CO2 was being continuously resupplied. The most likely mechanism by which this might have been accomplished is the thermal decomposition of carbonate rocks induced directly and indirectly (through burial) by intense, global-scale volcanism. For plausible values of the early heat flux, the recycling time constant is also of the order of several times 10(7) years. The amount of CO2 dissolved in standing bodies of water was probably small; thus, the total surficial CO2 inventory required to maintain these conditions was approximately 2 to 10 bars. The amount of CO2 in Mars' atmosphere would eventually have dwindled, and the climate cooled, as the planet's internal heat engine ran down. A test for this theory will be provided by spectroscopic searches for carbonates in Mars' crust.

  20. The case for a wet, warm climate on early Mars.

    PubMed

    Pollack, J B; Kasting, J F; Richardson, S M; Poliakoff, K

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical arguments are presented in support of the idea that Mars possessed a dense CO2 atmosphere and a wet, warm climate early in its history. Calculations with a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate model indicate that CO2 pressures between 1 and 5 bars would have been required to keep the surface temperature above the freezing point of water early in the planet's history. The higher value corresponds to globally and orbitally averaged conditions and a 30% reduction in solar luminosity; the lower value corresponds to conditions at the equator during perihelion at times of high orbital eccentricity and the same reduced solar luminosity. The plausibility of such a CO2 greenhouse is tested by formulating a simple model of the CO2 geochemical cycle on early Mars. By appropriately scaling the rate of silicate weathering on present Earth, we estimate a weathering time constant of the order of several times 10(7) years for early Mars. Thus, a dense atmosphere could have persisted for a geologically significant time period (approximately 10(9) years) only if atmospheric CO2 was being continuously resupplied. The most likely mechanism by which this might have been accomplished is the thermal decomposition of carbonate rocks induced directly and indirectly (through burial) by intense, global-scale volcanism. For plausible values of the early heat flux, the recycling time constant is also of the order of several times 10(7) years. The amount of CO2 dissolved in standing bodies of water was probably small; thus, the total surficial CO2 inventory required to maintain these conditions was approximately 2 to 10 bars. The amount of CO2 in Mars' atmosphere would eventually have dwindled, and the climate cooled, as the planet's internal heat engine ran down. A test for this theory will be provided by spectroscopic searches for carbonates in Mars' crust. PMID:11539035

  1. Case studies of extreme climatic events in the Amazon basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Hastenrath, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    The present exploration of climate-anomaly mechanisms, on the basis of surface-climatological and hydrological series, as well as upper-air and satellite observations, gives attention to the March-April rainy season peak in northern Amazonia. While the moderately wet year 1986 exhibited a far-southerly location of the Atlantic near-equatorial trough, and an embedded intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), the extremely dry El Nino year 1983 featured a more northerly ITCZ. Major mechanisms of extreme rainfall events are synthesized on the basis of these analyses.

  2. Development, malaria and adaptation to climate change: a case study from India.

    PubMed

    Garg, Amit; Dhiman, R C; Bhattacharya, Sumana; Shukla, P R

    2009-05-01

    India has reasons to be concerned about climate change. Over 650 million people depend on climate-sensitive sectors, such as rain-fed agriculture and forestry, for livelihood and over 973 million people are exposed to vector borne malarial parasites. Projection of climatic factors indicates a wider exposure to malaria for the Indian population in the future. If precautionary measures are not taken and development processes are not managed properly some developmental activities, such as hydro-electric dams and irrigation canal systems, may also exacerbate breeding grounds for malaria. This article integrates climate change and developmental variables in articulating a framework for integrated impact assessment and adaptation responses, with malaria incidence in India as a case study. The climate change variables include temperature, rainfall, humidity, extreme events, and other secondary variables. Development variables are income levels, institutional mechanisms to implement preventive measures, infrastructure development that could promote malarial breeding grounds, and other policies. The case study indicates that sustainable development variables may sometimes reduce the adverse impacts on the system due to climate change alone, while it may sometimes also exacerbate these impacts if the development variables are not managed well and therefore they produce a negative impact on the system. The study concludes that well crafted and well managed developmental policies could result in enhanced resilience of communities and systems, and lower health impacts due to climate change.

  3. Development, Malaria and Adaptation to Climate Change: A Case Study from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Amit; Dhiman, R. C.; Bhattacharya, Sumana; Shukla, P. R.

    2009-05-01

    India has reasons to be concerned about climate change. Over 650 million people depend on climate-sensitive sectors, such as rain-fed agriculture and forestry, for livelihood and over 973 million people are exposed to vector borne malarial parasites. Projection of climatic factors indicates a wider exposure to malaria for the Indian population in the future. If precautionary measures are not taken and development processes are not managed properly some developmental activities, such as hydro-electric dams and irrigation canal systems, may also exacerbate breeding grounds for malaria. This article integrates climate change and developmental variables in articulating a framework for integrated impact assessment and adaptation responses, with malaria incidence in India as a case study. The climate change variables include temperature, rainfall, humidity, extreme events, and other secondary variables. Development variables are income levels, institutional mechanisms to implement preventive measures, infrastructure development that could promote malarial breeding grounds, and other policies. The case study indicates that sustainable development variables may sometimes reduce the adverse impacts on the system due to climate change alone, while it may sometimes also exacerbate these impacts if the development variables are not managed well and therefore they produce a negative impact on the system. The study concludes that well crafted and well managed developmental policies could result in enhanced resilience of communities and systems, and lower health impacts due to climate change.

  4. THE MASSIVE DISTANT CLUSTERS OF WISE SURVEY: THE FIRST DISTANT GALAXY CLUSTER DISCOVERED BY WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Gettings, Daniel P.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, Conor; Stanford, S. Adam; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Masci, Frank J.; Papovich, Casey; Tanaka, Ichi; Wright, Edward L.

    2012-11-01

    We present spectroscopic confirmation of a z = 0.99 galaxy cluster discovered using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). This is the first z {approx} 1 cluster candidate from the Massive Distant Clusters of WISE Survey to be confirmed. It was selected as an overdensity of probable z {approx}> 1 sources using a combination of WISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 photometric catalogs. Deeper follow-up imaging data from Subaru and WIYN reveal the cluster to be a rich system of galaxies, and multi-object spectroscopic observations from Keck confirm five cluster members at z = 0.99. The detection and confirmation of this cluster represents a first step toward constructing a uniformly selected sample of distant, high-mass galaxy clusters over the full extragalactic sky using WISE data.

  5. Uncertainties in climate assessment for the case of aviation NO.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christopher D; Tang, Qi; Prather, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    Nitrogen oxides emitted from aircraft engines alter the chemistry of the atmosphere, perturbing the greenhouse gases methane (CH(4)) and ozone (O(3)). We quantify uncertainties in radiative forcing (RF) due to short-lived increases in O(3), long-lived decreases in CH(4) and O(3), and their net effect, using the ensemble of published models and a factor decomposition of each forcing. The decomposition captures major features of the ensemble, and also shows which processes drive the total uncertainty in several climate metrics. Aviation-specific factors drive most of the uncertainty for the short-lived O(3) and long-lived CH(4) RFs, but a nonaviation factor dominates for long-lived O(3). The model ensemble shows strong anticorrelation between the short-lived and long-lived RF perturbations (R(2)=0.87). Uncertainty in the net RF is highly sensitive to this correlation. We reproduce the correlation and ensemble spread in one model, showing that processes controlling the background tropospheric abundance of nitrogen oxides are likely responsible for the modeling uncertainty in climate impacts from aviation.

  6. Uncertainties in climate assessment for the case of aviation NO

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Christopher D.; Tang, Qi; Prather, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides emitted from aircraft engines alter the chemistry of the atmosphere, perturbing the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and ozone (O3). We quantify uncertainties in radiative forcing (RF) due to short-lived increases in O3, long-lived decreases in CH4 and O3, and their net effect, using the ensemble of published models and a factor decomposition of each forcing. The decomposition captures major features of the ensemble, and also shows which processes drive the total uncertainty in several climate metrics. Aviation-specific factors drive most of the uncertainty for the short-lived O3 and long-lived CH4 RFs, but a nonaviation factor dominates for long-lived O3. The model ensemble shows strong anticorrelation between the short-lived and long-lived RF perturbations (R2 = 0.87). Uncertainty in the net RF is highly sensitive to this correlation. We reproduce the correlation and ensemble spread in one model, showing that processes controlling the background tropospheric abundance of nitrogen oxides are likely responsible for the modeling uncertainty in climate impacts from aviation. PMID:21690364

  7. Climate change influence on POPs distribution and fate: a case study.

    PubMed

    Dalla Valle, M; Codato, E; Marcomini, A

    2007-04-01

    Climate change has the potential of affecting the behaviour and distribution of organic pollutants, including POPs. Direct effects of climate change, like temperature increase, modification of wind and precipitation patterns, sea level rise, snow and ice cover, may be very effective in altering the partitioning of POPs among the environmental compartments. Other consequences of future climate scenarios may imply the alteration of degradation rates, soil properties (and hence land use), air-particle partitioning of chemicals and so forth. A case study is here presented to illustrate the major implications of climate change on the long term at the local scale. A dynamic multimedia model was applied to selected PCB and PCDD/F congeners to simulate the effects of climate change on their distribution and fluxes over the next 50 y in the Venice Lagoon (Italy). Different climate change scenarios were tested, finding noticeable variations in POPs concentration even for minor environmental changes. PCBs and PCDFs environmental concentrations may differ by a factor two in a moderate climate change scenario, compared to a situation with stable climate over the next 50 y. However, model results also suggest that if global warming may have the potential of reducing the environmental levels of these chemicals, it would probably enhance their mobility and hence their potential for long range atmospheric transport.

  8. Climate adaptation as mitigation: the case of agricultural investments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobell, David B.; Baldos, Uris Lantz C.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2013-03-01

    Successful adaptation of agriculture to ongoing climate changes would help to maintain productivity growth and thereby reduce pressure to bring new lands into agriculture. In this paper we investigate the potential co-benefits of adaptation in terms of the avoided emissions from land use change. A model of global agricultural trade and land use, called SIMPLE, is utilized to link adaptation investments, yield growth rates, land conversion rates, and land use emissions. A scenario of global adaptation to offset negative yield impacts of temperature and precipitation changes to 2050, which requires a cumulative 225 billion USD of additional investment, results in 61 Mha less conversion of cropland and 15 Gt carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) fewer emissions by 2050. Thus our estimates imply an annual mitigation co-benefit of 0.35 GtCO2e yr-1 while spending 15 per tonne CO2e of avoided emissions. Uncertainty analysis is used to estimate a 5-95% confidence interval around these numbers of 0.25-0.43 Gt and 11-22 per tonne CO2e. A scenario of adaptation focused only on Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, while less costly in aggregate, results in much smaller mitigation potentials and higher per tonne costs. These results indicate that although investing in the least developed areas may be most desirable for the main objectives of adaptation, it has little net effect on mitigation because production gains are offset by greater rates of land clearing in the benefited regions, which are relatively low yielding and land abundant. Adaptation investments in high yielding, land scarce regions such as Asia and North America are more effective for mitigation. To identify data needs, we conduct a sensitivity analysis using the Morris method (Morris 1991 Technometrics 33 161-74). The three most critical parameters for improving estimates of mitigation potential are (in descending order) the emissions factors for converting land to agriculture, the price elasticity of land supply

  9. Regional Climate Modeling of Volcanic Eruptions and the Arctic Climate System: A Baffin Island Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losic, M.; Robock, A.

    2010-12-01

    It is well-understood that the effects of volcanic aerosol loading into the stratosphere are transient, with global cooling lasting only a few years after a single large eruption. Geological evidence collected from Northern Baffin Island, Canada, suggests ice cap growth began soon after a succession of several large eruptions in the 13th century, and they did not start to melt until roughly a century ago. We investigate which feedbacks allowed these ice caps to be maintained long after the transient forcing of the volcanic aerosols, by conducting sensitivity studies with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and Polar WRF, a version of WRF developed specifically for the polar regions. Results from an ensemble of month-long regional simulations over Baffin Island suggest that better treatment of snow and ice in Polar WRF improves our regional climate simulations. Thus, sensitivity test results from decade-long runs with imposed changes to boundary condition temperatures and carbon dioxide concentrations using Polar WRF are presented. Preliminary findings suggest that not only large scale but localized climate feedbacks play an important role in the responses of the ice caps after temperature and carbon dioxide forcings are applied. The results from these and further sensitivity tests will provide insight into the influence of regional feedbacks on the persistence of these ice caps long after the 13th century eruptions.

  10. The case for a wet, warm climate on early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.; Kasting, J. F.; Richardson, S. M.; Poliakoff, K.

    1987-01-01

    Arguments are presented in support of the idea that Mars possessed a dense CO2 atmosphere and a wet, warm climate early in its history. The plausibility of a CO2 greenhouse is tested by formulating a simple model of the CO2 geochemical cycle on early Mars. By scaling the rate of silicate weathering on Earth, researchers estimated a weathering time constant of the order of several times 10 to the 7th power years for early Mars. Thus, a dense atmosphere could have existed for a geologically significant time period (approx. 10 to the 9th power years) only if atmospheric CO2 was being continuously resupplied. The most likely mechanism by which this could have been accomplished is the thermal decomposition of carbonate rocks induced directly or indirectly by intense, global scale volcanism.

  11. Climate services for the assessment of climate change impacts and risks in coastal areas at the regional scale: the North Adriatic case study (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentina, Gallina; Torresan, Silvia; Giannini, Valentina; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Gualdi, Silvio; Bellucci, Alessio; Giorgi, Filippo; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    At the international level, the interest for climate services is rising due to the social and economic benefits that different stakeholders can achieve to manage climate risks and take advantage of the opportunities associated with climate change impacts. However, there is a significant gap of tools aimed at providing information about risks and impacts induced by climate change and allowing non-expert stakeholders to use both climate-model and climate-impact data. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), the case study of the North Adriatic Sea is aimed at analysing the need of climate information and the effectiveness of climate services for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts in coastal zones of the North Adriatic Sea at the regional to local scale. A participative approach was developed and applied to identify relevant stakeholders which have a mandate for coastal zone management and to interact with them in order to elicit their climate information needs. Specifically, the participative approach was carried out by means of two local workshops and trough the administration of a questionnaire related to climate information and services. The results of the process allowed identifying three major themes of interest for local stakeholders (i.e. hydro-climatic regime, coastal and marine environment, agriculture) and their preferences concerning key climate variables (e.g. extreme events, sea-level, wave height), mid-term temporal projections (i.e. for the next 30-40 years) and medium-high spatial resolution (i.e. from 1 to 50 km). Furthermore, the workshops highlighted stakeholder concern about several climate-related impacts (e.g. sea-level rise, storm surge, droughts) and vulnerable receptors (e.g. beaches, wetlands, agricultural areas) to be considered in vulnerability and risk assessment studies for the North Adriatic coastal zones. This information was used by climate and environmental risk experts in order to develop targeted climate information and

  12. Towards automatic classification of all WISE sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurcz, A.; Bilicki, M.; Solarz, A.; Krupa, M.; Pollo, A.; Małek, K.

    2016-07-01

    Context. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has detected hundreds of millions of sources over the entire sky. Classifying them reliably is, however, a challenging task owing to degeneracies in WISE multicolour space and low levels of detection in its two longest-wavelength bandpasses. Simple colour cuts are often not sufficient; for satisfactory levels of completeness and purity, more sophisticated classification methods are needed. Aims: Here we aim to obtain comprehensive and reliable star, galaxy, and quasar catalogues based on automatic source classification in full-sky WISE data. This means that the final classification will employ only parameters available from WISE itself, in particular those which are reliably measured for the majority of sources. Methods: For the automatic classification we applied a supervised machine learning algorithm, support vector machines (SVM). It requires a training sample with relevant classes already identified, and we chose to use the SDSS spectroscopic dataset (DR10) for that purpose. We tested the performance of two kernels used by the classifier, and determined the minimum number of sources in the training set required to achieve stable classification, as well as the minimum dimension of the parameter space. We also tested SVM classification accuracy as a function of extinction and apparent magnitude. Thus, the calibrated classifier was finally applied to all-sky WISE data, flux-limited to 16 mag (Vega) in the 3.4 μm channel. Results: By calibrating on the test data drawn from SDSS, we first established that a polynomial kernel is preferred over a radial one for this particular dataset. Next, using three classification parameters (W1 magnitude, W1-W2 colour, and a differential aperture magnitude) we obtained very good classification efficiency in all the tests. At the bright end, the completeness for stars and galaxies reaches ~95%, deteriorating to ~80% at W1 = 16 mag, while for quasars it stays at a level of

  13. A Case Study: Climate Change Decision Support for the Apalachicola, Chattahoochee, Flint Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, G. N.; McMahon, G.; Friesen, N.; Carney, S.

    2011-12-01

    Riverside Technology, inc. has developed a Climate Change Decision Support System (DSS) to provide water managers with a tool to explore a range of current Global Climate Model (GCM) projections to evaluate their potential impacts on streamflow and the reliability of future water supplies. The system was developed as part of a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project. The DSS uses downscaled GCM data as input to small-scale watershed models to produce time series of projected undepleted streamflow for various emission scenarios and GCM simulations. Until recently, water managers relied on historical streamflow data for water resources planning. In many parts of the country, great effort has been put into estimating long-term historical undepleted streamflow accounting for regulation, diversions, and return flows to support planning and water rights administration. In some cases, longer flow records have been constructed using paleohydrologic data in an attempt to capture climate variability beyond what is evident during the observed historical record. Now, many water managers are recognizing that historical data may not be representative of an uncertain climate future, and they have begun to explore the use of climate projections in their water resources planning. The Climate Change DSS was developed to support water managers in planning by accounting for both climate variability and potential climate change. In order to use the information for impact analysis, the projected streamflow time series can be exported and substituted for the historical streamflow data traditionally applied in their system operations models for water supply planning. This paper presents a case study in which climate-adjusted flows are coupled with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) ResSim model for the Apalachicola, Chattahoochee, and Flint (ACF) River basins. The study demonstrates how climate scenarios can be used

  14. The impact of climate change on the BRICS economies: The case of insurance demand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranger, N.; Surminski, S.

    2012-04-01

    Session ERE5.1 Climate change impact on economical and industrial activities The impact of climate change on the BRICS economies: The case of insurance demand. Over the past decade, growth in the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) economies has been a key driver of global economic growth. Current forecasts suggest that these markets will continue to be areas of significant growth for a large number of industries. We consider how climate change may influence these trends in the period to 2030, a time horizon that is long in terms of strategic planning in industry, but relatively short for climate change analysis, where the impacts are predicted to be most significant beyond around 2050. Based on current evidence, we expect climate change to affect the BRICS economies in four main ways: 1. The impact of physical climatic changes on the productivity of climate-sensitive economic activity, the local environment, human health and wellbeing, and damages from extreme weather. 2. Changing patterns of investment in climate risk management and adaptation 3. Changing patterns of investments in areas affected by greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy, 4. The impacts of the above globally, including on international trade, growth, investment, policy, migration and commodity prices, and their impacts on the BRICS. We review the evidence on the impacts of climate change in the BRICS and then apply this to one particular industry sector: non-life insurance. We propose five potential pathways through which climate change could influence insurance demand: economic growth; willingness to pay for insurance; public policy and regulation; the insurability of natural catastrophe risks; and new opportunities associated with adaptation and greenhouse gas mitigation. We conclude that, with the exception of public policy and regulation, the influence of climate change on insurance demand to 2030 is likely to be small when compared with the expected growth due to rising

  15. Submillimeter Follow-up of WISE-selected Hyperluminous Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Sayers, Jack; Benford, Dominic; Bridge, Carrie; Blain, Andrew; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Petty, Sara; Assef, Roberto; Bussmann, Shane; Comerford, Julia M.; Cutri, Roc; Evans, Neal J., II; Griffith, Roger; Jarrett, Thomas; Lake, Sean; Lonsdale, Carol; Rho, Jeonghee; Stanford, S. Adam; Weiner, Benjamin; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2012-09-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare (~1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at z = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 μm, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 μm. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (z > 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 μm, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature. We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60-120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 1013 L ⊙. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe. We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  16. SUBMILLIMETER FOLLOW-UP OF WISE-SELECTED HYPERLUMINOUS GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jingwen; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger; Jarrett, Thomas; Sayers, Jack; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Petty, Sara; Lake, Sean; Bussmann, Shane; Comerford, Julia M.; Evans, Neal J. II; Lonsdale, Carol; Rho, Jeonghee; Stanford, S. Adam; and others

    2012-09-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare ({approx}1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at z = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 {mu}m. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (z > 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 {mu}m, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature. We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60-120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe. We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  17. Submillimeter Follow-up of Wise-Selected Hyperluminous Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Sayers, Jack; Benford, Dominic; Bridge, Carrie; Blain, Andrew; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Petty, Sara; Assef, Roberto; Bussmann, Shane; Comerford, Julia M.; Cutri, Roc; Evans, Neal J., II; Griffith, Roger; Jarrett, Thomas; Lake, Sean; Lonsdale, Carol; Rho, Jeonghee; Stanford, S. Adam

    2013-01-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare (approximately 1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at zeta = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 micrometers, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 micrometers. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (zeta greater than 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 micrometers, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature.We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60-120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10(exp 13) solar luminosity. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe.We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  18. Submillimeter Follow-Up of WISE-Selected Hyperluminous Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Sayers, Jack; Benford, Dominic; Bridge, Carrie; Blain, Andrew; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Stern, Daniel; Petty, Sara; Assef, Roberto; Bussmann, Shane; Comerford, Julia M.; Cutri, Roc; Evans, Neal J., II; Griffith, Roger; Jarrett, Thomas; Lake, Sean; Lonsdale, Carol; Rho, Jeonghee; Stanford, S. Adam; Weiner, Benjamin; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare (approx.1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at z = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 microns, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 microns. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (z > 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 microns, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature.We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60 C120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10(exp 13) Stellar Luminosity. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe.We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  19. Selecting M-giants with WISE photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing

    2015-08-01

    We use M-giants, M-dwarfs and QSOs identified by LAMOST to assess how well WISE & 2MASS colour-cuts can separate these populations through photometry. We find that the WISE bands are very efficient to separate M-giants from M-dwarfs, especially for the early-type stars. We derive a new photometric relation to estimate [Fe/H] for M-giants. We show that previous photometric distance relations may be biased and devise a new empirical distance relation. We detect M-giants in the Sagittarius stream from the ALLWISE Source Archive. Our detection shows good agreement with the bright stream, although the leading tail appears to be misaligned by a couple of degrees. We have measured the metallicity distribution at four locations along the stream, finding a clear metallicity offset between the leading and trailing tails.

  20. Does reflection lead to wise choices?

    PubMed Central

    Bortolotti, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Does conscious reflection lead to good decision-making? Whereas engaging in reflection is traditionally thought to be the best way to make wise choices, recent psychological evidence undermines the role of reflection in lay and expert judgement. The literature suggests that thinking about reasons does not improve the choices people make, and that experts do not engage in reflection, but base their judgements on intuition, often shaped by extensive previous experience. Can we square the traditional accounts of wisdom with the results of these empirical studies? Should we even attempt to? I shall defend the view that philosophy and cognitive sciences genuinely interact in tackling questions such as whether reflection leads to making wise choices. PMID:22408385

  1. THE MOST LUMINOUS GALAXIES DISCOVERED BY WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.; Assef, Roberto J.; Blain, Andrew W.; Bridge, Carrie R.; Sayers, Jack; Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, David T.; Cutri, Roc M.; Masci, Frank J.; Yan, Lin; Griffith, Roger L.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Petty, Sara M.; Stanford, S. Adam; and others

    2015-06-01

    We present 20 Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected galaxies with bolometric luminosities L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}, including five with infrared luminosities L{sub IR} ≡ L{sub (rest} {sub 8–1000} {sub μm)} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}. These “extremely luminous infrared galaxies,” or ELIRGs, were discovered using the “W1W2-dropout” selection criteria which requires marginal or non-detections at 3.4 and 4.6 μm (W1 and W2, respectively) but strong detections at 12 and 22 μm in the WISE survey. Their spectral energy distributions are dominated by emission at rest-frame 4–10 μm, suggesting that hot dust with T{sub d} ∼ 450 K is responsible for the high luminosities. These galaxies are likely powered by highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and there is no evidence suggesting these systems are beamed or lensed. We compare this WISE-selected sample with 116 optically selected quasars that reach the same L{sub bol} level, corresponding to the most luminous unobscured quasars in the literature. We find that the rest-frame 5.8 and 7.8 μm luminosities of the WISE-selected ELIRGs can be 30%–80% higher than that of the unobscured quasars. The existence of AGNs with L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉} at z > 3 suggests that these supermassive black holes are born with large mass, or have very rapid mass assembly. For black hole seed masses ∼10{sup 3} M{sub ☉}, either sustained super-Eddington accretion is needed, or the radiative efficiency must be <15%, implying a black hole with slow spin, possibly due to chaotic accretion.

  2. Communicating for Climate Change Adaptation: Lessons from a Case Study with Nature-Based Tour Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, K.; Sparrow, E. B.; Pettit, E. C.; Trainor, S. F.; Taylor, K.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing temperatures are projected to have a positive effect on the length of Alaska's tourism season, but the natural attractions that tourism relies on, such as glaciers, wildlife, fish, or other natural resources, may change. In order to continue to derive benefits from these resources, nature-based tour operators may have to adapt to these changes, and communication is an essential, but poorly understood, component of the climate change adaptation process. The goal of this study was to determine how to provide useful climate change information to nature-based tour operators by answering the following questions: 1. What environmental changes do nature-based tour operators perceive? 2. How are nature-based tour operators responding to climate and environmental change? 3. What climate change information do nature-based tour operators need? To answer these questions, twenty-four nature-based tour operators representing 20 different small and medium sized businesses in Juneau, Alaska were interviewed. The results show that many of Juneau's nature-based tour operators are observing, responding to, and in some cases, actively planning for further changes in the environment. The types of responses tended to vary depending on the participants' certainty in climate change and the perceived risks to their organization. Using these two factors, this study proposes a framework to classify climate change responses for the purpose of generating meaningful information and communication processes that promote adaptation and build adaptive capacity. During the course of the study, several other valuable lessons were learned about communicating about adaptation. The results of this study demonstrate that science communication research has an important place in the practice of promoting and fostering climate change adaptation. While the focus of this study was tour operators, the lessons learned may be valuable to other organizations striving to engage unique groups in climate

  3. Basins and Wepp Climate Assessment Tools (Cat): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the BASINS and WEPP <span class=Climate Assessment Tool: Case Study Final report"> This final report supports application of two recently developed...

  4. Sensitivity of worst-case strom surge considering influence of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayabu, Izuru; Hibino, Kenshi; Sasaki, Hidetaka; Shiogama, Hideo; Mori, Nobuhito; Shibutani, Yoko; Takemi, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    There are two standpoints when assessing risk caused by climate change. One is how to prevent disaster. For this purpose, we get probabilistic information of meteorological elements, from enough number of ensemble simulations. Another one is to consider disaster mitigation. For this purpose, we have to use very high resolution sophisticated model to represent a worst case event in detail. If we could use enough computer resources to drive many ensemble runs with very high resolution model, we can handle these all themes in one time. However resources are unfortunately limited in most cases, and we have to select the resolution or the number of simulations if we design the experiment. Applying PGWD (Pseudo Global Warming Downscaling) method is one solution to analyze a worst case event in detail. Here we introduce an example to find climate change influence on the worst case storm-surge, by applying PGWD to a super typhoon Haiyan (Takayabu et al, 2015). 1 km grid WRF model could represent both the intensity and structure of a super typhoon. By adopting PGWD method, we can only estimate the influence of climate change on the development process of the Typhoon. Instead, the changes in genesis could not be estimated. Finally, we drove SU-WAT model (which includes shallow water equation model) to get the signal of storm surge height. The result indicates that the height of the storm surge increased up to 20% owing to these 150 years climate change.

  5. Civic Engagement about Climate Change: A Case Study of Three Educators and Their Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Thomas; Marri, Anand R.

    2012-01-01

    This collective case study examined how three educators (a high school social studies teacher, a university social studies teacher educator, and minister teaching an adult population) used a multimedia based curriculum guide, "Teaching the Levees", to teach about climate change to examine public priorities in relation to the environment.…

  6. BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the BASINS and WEPP climate assessment tools. The report presents a series of short case studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for conducting scenario based assessments...

  7. `Climate wise` program at the Cosmair, Inc. Clark Manufacturing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kraly, K.

    1997-12-31

    Viewgraphs from the conference presentation are reproduced in this paper, which outlines energy efficiency improvements and emissions reductions at a hair care products manufacturing facility. Program management focuses on employee involvement in internal audits, utility tracking, public relations, and preventative maintenance. Energy savings, cost savings, and emission reductions are presented for 1996 and projected to the year 2000. Other program aspects outlined include a summary of utility costs; solid waste; chilled water system modifications; lighting modifications; boiler upgrades; and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning improvements.

  8. The "New Climate" New Atmospheric Events and "New Climate Risks": The case of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrouk, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Since the end of last century, qualified meteorological events of "exceptional" causing floods have ceased to occur in Morocco and elsewhere, with a recurrence increasingly high, prompting to wonder about the "new" mode of climate's hydrothermal functioning inducing torrential rains, as well as its effect on the environment and societies.The latest event is the disaster of November 2014 flooding in southern Morocco, which is due especially to the non usual rains return.Weather conditions were marked by enhanced Meridian Atmospheric Circulation (MAC), characterized by persistent high temperatures during the autumn period in Morocco, mainly south of the Atlas, combined by the intrusion of a cold drop in the beginning of the event on 11.17.2014, and straightforward installation of a planetary valley across the Moroccan coast on 11.24.2014, which has evolved into storm (Xandra) in which depression has reached the surprising value of 975 hPa on 11.28.2014.Human and material damage caused by this flood are impressive: people died, roads, bridges and crops have been destroyed, overwhelmed dams. It has been a catastrophe.This event and others like it (Mohammedia 2002, Tangier 2008, Gharb 2009-2010, Casablanca 2010), must be considered as references for the simulation of future situations, and integration into development plans on future.This communication aims to identify the processes and conditions that have generated these events causing floods, the "exceptional" characteristics of recorded rainfall, the spatial and temporal distribution of events. Those floods affect the whole country, especially low areas, foothills and the mouths of rivers. There are the most vulnerable locations mainly on the autumn which is the most exposed to torrential rainfall season !! ... Etc.

  9. A Case Study of a Kindergarten Teacher: Examining Practices and Beliefs That Support the Social-Emotional Classroom Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pech, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This 5-month qualitative case study investigated the social-emotional climate of one half-day kindergarten classroom by examining the role of the teacher in establishing and sustaining a classroom climate that nurtured the social-emotional lives of students. This case study asks: How and why did the teacher establish and sustain a classroom…

  10. Cloud-Enabled Climate Analytics-as-a-Service using Reanalysis data: A case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, D.; Duffy, D.; Schnase, J. L.; McInerney, M.; Tamkin, G.; Potter, G. L.; Thompson, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) maintains advanced data capabilities and facilities that allow researchers to access the enormous volume of data generated by weather and climate models. The NASA Climate Model Data Service (CDS) and the NCCS are merging their efforts to provide Climate Analytics-as-a-Service for the comparative study of the major reanalysis projects: ECMWF ERA-Interim, NASA/GMAO MERRA, NOAA/NCEP CFSR, NOAA/ESRL 20CR, JMA JRA25, and JRA55. These reanalyses have been repackaged to netCDF4 file format following the CMIP5 Climate and Forecast (CF) metadata convention prior to be sequenced into the Hadoop Distributed File System ( HDFS ). A small set of operations that represent a common starting point in many analysis workflows was then created: min, max, sum, count, variance and average. In this example, Reanalysis data exploration was performed with the use of Hadoop MapReduce and accessibility was achieved using the Climate Data Service(CDS) application programming interface (API) created at NCCS. This API provides a uniform treatment of large amount of data. In this case study, we have limited our exploration to 2 variables, temperature and precipitation, using 3 operations, min, max and avg and using 30-year of Reanalysis data for 3 regions of the world: global, polar, subtropical.

  11. Climate change adaptation accounting for huge uncertainties in future projections - the case of urban drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological design parameters, which are currently used in the guidelines for the design of urban drainage systems (Willems et al., 2013) have been revised, taking the Flanders region of Belgium as case study. The revision involved extrapolation of the design rainfall statistics, taking into account the current knowledge on future climate change trends till 2100. Uncertainties in these trend projections have been assessed after statistically analysing and downscaling by a quantile perturbation tool based on a broad ensemble set of climate model simulation results (44 regional + 69 global control-scenario climate model run combinations for different greenhouse gas scenarios). The impact results of the climate scenarios were investigated as changes to rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. Thereafter, the climate scenarios and related changes in rainfall statistics were transferred to changes in flood frequencies of sewer systems and overflow frequencies of storage facilities. This has been done based on conceptual urban drainage models. Also the change in storage capacity required to exceed a given overflow return period, has been calculated for a range of return periods and infiltration or throughflow rates. These results were used on the basis of the revision of the hydraulic design rules of urban drainage systems. One of the major challenges while formulating these policy guidelines was the consideration of the huge uncertainties in the future climate change projections and impact assessments; see also the difficulties and pitfalls reported by the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage - Working group on urban rainfall (Willems et al., 2012). We made use of the risk concept, and found it a very useful approach to deal with the high uncertainties. It involves an impact study of the different climate projections, or - for practical reasons - a reduced set of climate scenarios tailored for the specific type of impact considered (urban floods in our

  12. Implicit reference-based group-wise image registration and its application to structural and functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiujuan; Christensen, Gary E; Gu, Hong; Ross, Thomas J; Yang, Yihong

    2009-10-01

    In this study, an implicit reference group-wise (IRG) registration with a small deformation, linear elastic model was used to jointly estimate correspondences between a set of MRI images. The performance of pair-wise and group-wise registration algorithms was evaluated for spatial normalization of structural and functional MRI data. Traditional spatial normalization is accomplished by group-to-reference (G2R) registration in which a group of images are registered pair-wise to a reference image. G2R registration is limited due to bias associated with selecting a reference image. In contrast, implicit reference group-wise (IRG) registration estimates correspondences between a group of images by jointly registering the images to an implicit reference corresponding to the group average. The implicit reference is estimated during IRG registration eliminating the bias associated with selecting a specific reference image. Registration performance was evaluated using segmented T1-weighted magnetic resonance images from the Nonrigid Image Registration Evaluation Project (NIREP), DTI and fMRI images. Implicit reference pair-wise (IRP) registration-a special case of IRG registration for two images-is shown to produce better relative overlap than IRG for pair-wise registration using the same small deformation, linear elastic registration model. However, IRP-G2R registration is shown to have significant transitivity error, i.e., significant inconsistencies between correspondences defined by different pair-wise transformations. In contrast, IRG registration produces consistent correspondence between images in a group at the cost of slightly reduced pair-wise RO accuracy compared to IRP-G2R. IRG spatial normalization of the fractional anisotropy (FA) maps of DTI is shown to have smaller FA variance compared with G2R methods using the same elastic registration model. Analyses of fMRI data sets with sensorimotor and visual tasks show that IRG registration, on average, increases the

  13. Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

  14. [Choosing wisely together with the patient].

    PubMed

    Fölsch, U R; Hasenfuß, G

    2016-06-01

    Within the framework of the Choosing wisely initiative of the German Society for Internal Medicine, all scientific societies associated with internal medicine were requested to highlight the unnecessary or underused medical tests or procedures out of the 60 defined examples, which are of immediate relevance within the doctor-patient interaction. Each of the 12 scientific internal medicine societies compiled and substantiated 2 recommendations. This resulted in a spectrum of important recommendations covering the entire field of internal medicine. In difficult situations these recommendations should contribute to developing and supporting the dialogue with patients on an evidence-based level. PMID:27255446

  15. Model-wise and point-wise random sample consensus for robust regression and outlier detection.

    PubMed

    El-Melegy, Moumen T

    2014-11-01

    Popular regression techniques often suffer at the presence of data outliers. Most previous efforts to solve this problem have focused on using an estimation algorithm that minimizes a robust M-estimator based error criterion instead of the usual non-robust mean squared error. However the robustness gained from M-estimators is still low. This paper addresses robust regression and outlier detection in a random sample consensus (RANSAC) framework. It studies the classical RANSAC framework and highlights its model-wise nature for processing the data. Furthermore, it introduces for the first time a point-wise strategy of RANSAC. New estimation algorithms are developed following both the model-wise and point-wise RANSAC concepts. The proposed algorithms' theoretical robustness and breakdown points are investigated in a novel probabilistic setting. While the proposed concepts and algorithms are generic and general enough to adopt many regression machineries, the paper focuses on multilayered feed-forward neural networks in solving regression problems. The algorithms are evaluated on synthetic and real data, contaminated with high degrees of outliers, and compared to existing neural network training algorithms. Furthermore, to improve the time performance, parallel implementations of the two algorithms are developed and assessed to utilize the multiple CPU cores available on nowadays computers. PMID:25047916

  16. Climate change impacts on irrigated rice and wheat production in Gomti River basin of India: a case study.

    PubMed

    Abeysingha, N S; Singh, Man; Islam, Adlul; Sehgal, V K

    2016-01-01

    Potential future impacts of climate change on irrigated rice and wheat production and their evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements in the Gomti River basin were assessed by integrating a widely used hydrological model "Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)" and climate change scenario generated from MIROC (HiRes) global climate model. SWAT model was calibrated and validated using monthly streamflow data of four spatially distributed gauging stations and district wise wheat and rice yields data for the districts located within the basin. Simulation results showed an increase in mean annual rice yield in the range of 5.5-6.7, 16.6-20.2 and 26-33.4 % during 2020s, 2050s and 2080s, respectively. Similarly, mean annual wheat yield is also likely to increase by 13.9-15.4, 23.6-25.6 and 25.2-27.9 % for the same future time periods. Evapotranspiration for both wheat and rice is projected to increase in the range of 3-9.6 and 7.8-16.3 %, respectively. With increase in rainfall during rice growing season, irrigation water allocation for rice is likely to decrease (<5 %) in future periods, but irrigation water allocation for wheat is likely to increase by 17.0-45.3 % in future periods.

  17. Climate change impacts on irrigated rice and wheat production in Gomti River basin of India: a case study.

    PubMed

    Abeysingha, N S; Singh, Man; Islam, Adlul; Sehgal, V K

    2016-01-01

    Potential future impacts of climate change on irrigated rice and wheat production and their evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements in the Gomti River basin were assessed by integrating a widely used hydrological model "Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)" and climate change scenario generated from MIROC (HiRes) global climate model. SWAT model was calibrated and validated using monthly streamflow data of four spatially distributed gauging stations and district wise wheat and rice yields data for the districts located within the basin. Simulation results showed an increase in mean annual rice yield in the range of 5.5-6.7, 16.6-20.2 and 26-33.4 % during 2020s, 2050s and 2080s, respectively. Similarly, mean annual wheat yield is also likely to increase by 13.9-15.4, 23.6-25.6 and 25.2-27.9 % for the same future time periods. Evapotranspiration for both wheat and rice is projected to increase in the range of 3-9.6 and 7.8-16.3 %, respectively. With increase in rainfall during rice growing season, irrigation water allocation for rice is likely to decrease (<5 %) in future periods, but irrigation water allocation for wheat is likely to increase by 17.0-45.3 % in future periods. PMID:27536533

  18. Characterization of WISE Debris Disk Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, Deborah; Liu, Wilson; Morales, Farisa

    2013-02-01

    We propose to acquire low dispersion spectra with the SOAR Goodman Spectrograph of new debris disk stars identified from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE survey of the entire sky. Despite many targeted surveys for stellar disks in the solar neighborhood by Spitzer Space Telescope, the census of disks remains incomplete at mid-IR sensitivity levels better than the IRAS limits. The improved sensitivity and spatial resolution of the all-sky WISE survey for debris disks (Padgett et al., submitted) has recently improved this situation, identifying Hipparcos and Tycho stars with mid-infrared excess out to distances of 120 pc. With the SOAR spectrograph we will characterize the new candidate debris disk stars in the southern sky, providing a uniform set of stellar classifications and information on a range of spectroscopic activity indicators related to stellar age. These data will help to constrain the stellar properties of an important new set of solar neighbors with evidence of planetary systems.

  19. The WISE View of RV Tauri Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezer, I.; Van Winckel, H.; Bozkurt, Z.

    2015-08-01

    RV Tauri stars are luminous population II Cepheids which show a characteristic light curve of alternating deep and shallow minima. There are 170 known RV Tauri variables in our Galaxy and several have been found in the LMC and SMC. The evolutionary nature of RV Tauri stars is not understood yet. A limited number of RV Tauri stars were detected by IRAS and found to show a large IR excess due to thermal emission from dust, and hence these were classified as post-AGB stars (Jura 1986). These objects occupy a specific region in the IRAS color-color diagram due to the presence of a long-lived, hot, rather stable dusty disk (Lloyd Evans 1999; De Ruyter et al. 2006; Hillen et al. 2014). We have expanded the analysis based on IRAS colors to a similar but much deeper one using WISE (Wide-Field Infrared Survey) data. WISE was launched in December 2009 and scanned the whole sky in 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 μm bands (Wright et al. 2010). We study systematically the infrared properties of all 170 Galactic RV Tauri pulsators and differentiate between likely disk sources, expanding shells, and objects without dust excesses. The aim is to correlate infrared properties with chemical peculiarities and the possible binary nature of the central stars. This will lead to a better understanding of the evolutionary status of RV Tauri stars.

  20. Secure Genomic Computation through Site-Wise Encryption.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongan; Wang, XiaoFeng; Tang, Haixu

    2015-01-01

    Commercial clouds provide on-demand IT services for big-data analysis, which have become an attractive option for users who have no access to comparable infrastructure. However, utilizing these services for human genome analysis is highly risky, as human genomic data contains identifiable information of human individuals and their disease susceptibility. Therefore, currently, no computation on personal human genomic data is conducted on public clouds. To address this issue, here we present a site-wise encryption approach to encrypt whole human genome sequences, which can be subject to secure searching of genomic signatures on public clouds. We implemented this method within the Hadoop framework, and tested it on the case of searching disease markers retrieved from the ClinVar database against patients' genomic sequences. The secure search runs only one order of magnitude slower than the simple search without encryption, indicating our method is ready to be used for secure genomic computation on public clouds.

  1. Secure Genomic Computation through Site-Wise Encryption.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongan; Wang, XiaoFeng; Tang, Haixu

    2015-01-01

    Commercial clouds provide on-demand IT services for big-data analysis, which have become an attractive option for users who have no access to comparable infrastructure. However, utilizing these services for human genome analysis is highly risky, as human genomic data contains identifiable information of human individuals and their disease susceptibility. Therefore, currently, no computation on personal human genomic data is conducted on public clouds. To address this issue, here we present a site-wise encryption approach to encrypt whole human genome sequences, which can be subject to secure searching of genomic signatures on public clouds. We implemented this method within the Hadoop framework, and tested it on the case of searching disease markers retrieved from the ClinVar database against patients' genomic sequences. The secure search runs only one order of magnitude slower than the simple search without encryption, indicating our method is ready to be used for secure genomic computation on public clouds. PMID:26306278

  2. Secure Genomic Computation through Site-Wise Encryption

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yongan; Wang, XiaoFeng; Tang, Haixu

    2015-01-01

    Commercial clouds provide on-demand IT services for big-data analysis, which have become an attractive option for users who have no access to comparable infrastructure. However, utilizing these services for human genome analysis is highly risky, as human genomic data contains identifiable information of human individuals and their disease susceptibility. Therefore, currently, no computation on personal human genomic data is conducted on public clouds. To address this issue, here we present a site-wise encryption approach to encrypt whole human genome sequences, which can be subject to secure searching of genomic signatures on public clouds. We implemented this method within the Hadoop framework, and tested it on the case of searching disease markers retrieved from the ClinVar database against patients’ genomic sequences. The secure search runs only one order of magnitude slower than the simple search without encryption, indicating our method is ready to be used for secure genomic computation on public clouds. PMID:26306278

  3. Climate change, water rights, and water supply: The case of irrigated agriculture in Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenchao; Lowe, Scott E.; Adams, Richard M.

    2014-12-01

    We conduct a hedonic analysis to estimate the response of agricultural land use to water supply information under the Prior Appropriation Doctrine by using Idaho as a case study. Our analysis includes long-term climate (weather) trends and water supply conditions as well as seasonal water supply forecasts. A farm-level panel data set, which accounts for the priority effects of water rights and controls for diversified crop mixes and rotation practices, is used. Our results indicate that farmers respond to the long-term surface and ground water conditions as well as to the seasonal water supply variations. Climate change-induced variations in climate and water supply conditions could lead to substantial damages to irrigated agriculture. We project substantial losses (up to 32%) of the average crop revenue for major agricultural areas under future climate scenarios in Idaho. Finally, farmers demonstrate significantly varied responses given their water rights priorities, which imply that the distributional impact of climate change is sensitive to institutions such as the Prior Appropriation Doctrine.

  4. REDD+ and climate smart agriculture in landscapes: A case study in Vietnam using companion modelling.

    PubMed

    Salvini, G; Ligtenberg, A; van Paassen, A; Bregt, A K; Avitabile, V; Herold, M

    2016-05-01

    Finding land use strategies that merge land-based climate change mitigation measures and adaptation strategies is still an open issue in climate discourse. This article explores synergies and trade-offs between REDD+, a scheme that focuses mainly on mitigation through forest conservation, with "Climate Smart Agriculture", an approach that emphasizes adaptive agriculture. We introduce a framework for ex-ante assessment of the impact of land management policies and interventions and for quantifying their impacts on land-based mitigation and adaptation goals. The framework includes a companion modelling (ComMod) process informed by interviews with policymakers, local experts and local farmers. The ComMod process consists of a Role-Playing Game with local farmers and an Agent Based Model. The game provided a participatory means to develop policy and climate change scenarios. These scenarios were then used as inputs to the Agent Based Model, a spatially explicit model to simulate landscape dynamics and the associated carbon emissions over decades. We applied the framework using as case study a community in central Vietnam, characterized by deforestation for subsistence agriculture and cultivation of acacias as a cash crop. The main findings show that the framework is useful in guiding consideration of local stakeholders' goals, needs and constraints. Additionally the framework provided beneficial information to policymakers, pointing to ways that policies might be re-designed to make them better tailored to local circumstances and therefore more effective in addressing synergistically climate change mitigation and adaptation objectives.

  5. REDD+ and climate smart agriculture in landscapes: A case study in Vietnam using companion modelling.

    PubMed

    Salvini, G; Ligtenberg, A; van Paassen, A; Bregt, A K; Avitabile, V; Herold, M

    2016-05-01

    Finding land use strategies that merge land-based climate change mitigation measures and adaptation strategies is still an open issue in climate discourse. This article explores synergies and trade-offs between REDD+, a scheme that focuses mainly on mitigation through forest conservation, with "Climate Smart Agriculture", an approach that emphasizes adaptive agriculture. We introduce a framework for ex-ante assessment of the impact of land management policies and interventions and for quantifying their impacts on land-based mitigation and adaptation goals. The framework includes a companion modelling (ComMod) process informed by interviews with policymakers, local experts and local farmers. The ComMod process consists of a Role-Playing Game with local farmers and an Agent Based Model. The game provided a participatory means to develop policy and climate change scenarios. These scenarios were then used as inputs to the Agent Based Model, a spatially explicit model to simulate landscape dynamics and the associated carbon emissions over decades. We applied the framework using as case study a community in central Vietnam, characterized by deforestation for subsistence agriculture and cultivation of acacias as a cash crop. The main findings show that the framework is useful in guiding consideration of local stakeholders' goals, needs and constraints. Additionally the framework provided beneficial information to policymakers, pointing to ways that policies might be re-designed to make them better tailored to local circumstances and therefore more effective in addressing synergistically climate change mitigation and adaptation objectives. PMID:26921566

  6. Who Should be Empowered to Know about Earth's Changing Climate? The Case of Earth's Changing Cryosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    to deal with, but when humans—some humans more than others—are the prime causes of new hazards, and some humans more than others are the victims of those anthropogenic changes to the Earth, it becomes politically charged. One approach is to bury one's head in the sand and ignore the issues; this has been substantially NASA's approach with regard to natural hazards that bear on matters of political import—such as climate change. The risks of doing the honorable thing and to deal squarely with information at hand are huge, both for agencies and individual scientists. No matter what funding agencies say, scientists must answer a higher calling to do the right thing. Rarely does the right thing ever involve the news media on such frightful matters. I will review two special cases of how NOT to do things in my area of glaciation and glacial hazards—in one case, USGS attempted to delete a reference to the intergovernmental panel on climate change that was included in a draft of a press release; in another case, unsubstantiated warnings by JPL of imminent danger from a generally dangerous glacial lake in Peru did not go through peer review or the national scientific or civil authorities in Peru, and it resulted in needless public panic. Climate change faces every human alive and will have increasing impacts on the next several generations. Major funding agencies must provide the resources for robust, unclassified, objective research in climate change and its impacts, including hazards, and the observing tools to enable it, especially in areas where humans are the underlying cause and where mitigative action is possible. Scientists must exercise special responsibility and sensitivity in dealing with such politically charged issues.

  7. Explanatory Supplement to the AllWISE Data Release Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Conrow, T.; Fowler, J. W.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Grillmair, C.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Masci, F.; McCallon, H. L.; Wheelock, S. L.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Yan, L.; Benford, D.; Harbut, M.; Jarrett, T.; Lake, S.; Leisawitz, D.; Ressler, M. E.; Stanford, S. A.; Tsai, C. W.; Liu, F.; Helou, G.; Mainzer, A.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Hoffman, D.; Marsh, K. A.; Padgett, D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Beck, R. P.; Papin, M.; Wittman, M.

    2013-11-01

    The AllWISE program builds upon the successful Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) mission by combining data from all WISE and NEOWISE (Mainzer et al. 2011) survey phases to form the most comprehensive view of the mid-infrared sky currently available. By combining the data from two complete sky coverage epochs in an advanced data processing system, AllWISE has generated new products that have enhanced photometric sensitivity and accuracy, and improved astrometric precision compared with the earlier WISE All-Sky Data Release. Exploiting the 6 month baseline between the WISE sky coverage epochs enables AllWISE to measure source motions for the first time, and to compute improved flux variability statistics. AllWISE data release products include: a Source Catalog that contains 4-band fluxes, positions, apparent motion measurements, and flux variability statistics for over 747 million objects detected at SNR>5 in the combined exposures; a Multiepoch Photometry Database containing over 42 billion time-tagged, single-exposure fluxes for each object detected on the combined exposures; and an Image Atlas of 18,240 4-band calibrated FITS images, depth-of-coverage and noise maps that cover the sky produced by coadding nearly 7.9 million single-exposure images from the cryogenic and post-cryogenic survey phases. The Explanatory Supplement to the AllWISE Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the AllWISE data. The Supplement contains detailed descriptions of the format and characteristics of the AllWISE data products, as well as a summary of cautionary notes that describe known limitations. The Supplement is an on-line document that is updated frequently to provide the most current information for users of the AllWISE data products. The Explanatory Supplement is maintained at: http://wise2.ipac.caltech.edu/docs/release/allwise/expsup/index.html AllWISE makes use of data from WISE, which is a joint project of the University of

  8. WISE Observations of Comets, Centaurs, & Scattered Disk Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, J.; Walker, R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Grav, T.; Cutri, R.; Dailey, J.; McMillan, R.; Lisse, C. M.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Meech, K. J.; Pittichova, J.; Tholen, D.; DeBaun, E.; Hand, E.; Blauvelt, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) was luanched on December 14, 2009. WISE imaged more than 99% of the sky in the mid-infrared for a 9-month mission lifetome. In addition to its primary goals of detecting the most luminous infrared galaxies and the nearest brown dwarfs, WISE, detected over 155500 of solar system bodies, 33700 of which were previously unknown. Most of the new objects were main Belt asteriods, and particular emphasis was on the discovery of Near Earth Asteoids. Hundreds of Jupiter Trojans have been imaged by WISE as well. However a substantial number of Centaurs, Scattered Disc Objects (SDOs), & cometary objects, were observed and discovered.

  9. Forecasting malaria cases using climatic factors in delhi, India: a time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Mangal, Abha; Panesar, Sanjeet; Yadav, Geeta; Talwar, Richa; Raut, Deepak; Singh, Saudan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malaria still remains a public health problem in developing countries and changing environmental and climatic factors pose the biggest challenge in fighting against the scourge of malaria. Therefore, the study was designed to forecast malaria cases using climatic factors as predictors in Delhi, India. Methods. The total number of monthly cases of malaria slide positives occurring from January 2006 to December 2013 was taken from the register maintained at the malaria clinic at Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC), Najafgarh, Delhi. Climatic data of monthly mean rainfall, relative humidity, and mean maximum temperature were taken from Regional Meteorological Centre, Delhi. Expert modeler of SPSS ver. 21 was used for analyzing the time series data. Results. Autoregressive integrated moving average, ARIMA (0,1,1) (0,1,0)(12), was the best fit model and it could explain 72.5% variability in the time series data. Rainfall (P value = 0.004) and relative humidity (P value = 0.001) were found to be significant predictors for malaria transmission in the study area. Seasonal adjusted factor (SAF) for malaria cases shows peak during the months of August and September. Conclusion. ARIMA models of time series analysis is a simple and reliable tool for producing reliable forecasts for malaria in Delhi, India. PMID:25147750

  10. The uncertainty cascade in flood risk assessment under changing climatic conditions - the Biala Tarnowska case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroszkiewicz, Joanna; Romanowicz, Renata

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainty in the results of the hydraulic model is not only associated with the limitations of that model and the shortcomings of data. An important factor that has a major impact on the uncertainty of the flood risk assessment in a changing climate conditions is associated with the uncertainty of future climate scenarios (IPCC WG I, 2013). Future climate projections provided by global climate models are used to generate future runoff required as an input to hydraulic models applied in the derivation of flood risk maps. Biala Tarnowska catchment, situated in southern Poland is used as a case study. Future discharges at the input to a hydraulic model are obtained using the HBV model and climate projections obtained from the EUROCORDEX project. The study describes a cascade of uncertainty related to different stages of the process of derivation of flood risk maps under changing climate conditions. In this context it takes into account the uncertainty of future climate projections, an uncertainty of flow routing model, the propagation of that uncertainty through the hydraulic model, and finally, the uncertainty related to the derivation of flood risk maps. One of the aims of this study is an assessment of a relative impact of different sources of uncertainty on the uncertainty of flood risk maps. Due to the complexity of the process, an assessment of total uncertainty of maps of inundation probability might be very computer time consuming. As a way forward we present an application of a hydraulic model simulator based on a nonlinear transfer function model for the chosen locations along the river reach. The transfer function model parameters are estimated based on the simulations of the hydraulic model at each of the model cross-section. The study shows that the application of the simulator substantially reduces the computer requirements related to the derivation of flood risk maps under future climatic conditions. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the

  11. Nutrient loadings from urban catchments under climate change scenarios: case studies in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiechen; Malmström, Maria E

    2015-06-15

    Anthropogenic nutrient emissions and associated eutrophication of urban lakes are a global problem. Future changes in temperature and precipitation may influence nutrient loadings in lake catchments. A coupling method, where the Generalized Watershed Loading Functions method was tested in combination with source quantification in a Substance Flow Analysis structure, was suggested to investigate diffuse nutrient sources and pathways and climate change effects on the loadings to streamflow in urban catchments. This method may, with an acceptable level of uncertainty, be applied to urban catchments for first-hand estimations of nutrient loadings in the projected future and to highlight the need for further study and monitoring. Five lake catchments in Stockholm, Sweden (Råcksta Träsk, Judarn, Trekanten, Långsjön and Laduviken) were employed as case studies and potential climate change effects were explored by comparing loading scenarios in two periods (2000-2009 and 2021-2030). For the selected cases, the dominant diffuse sources of nutrients to urban streamflow were found to be background atmospheric concentration and vehicular traffic. The major pathways of the nitrogen loading were suggested to be from both developed areas and natural areas in the control period, while phosphorus was indicated to be largely transported through surface runoff from natural areas. Furthermore, for nitrogen, a modest redistribution of loadings from surface runoff and stormwater between seasons and an increase in the annual loading were suggested for the projected future climate scenarios as compared to the control period. The model was, due to poor monitoring data availability, only able to set an upper limit to nutrient transport by groundwater both in the control period and the future scenarios. However, for nitrogen, groundwater appeared to be the pathway most sensitive to climate change, with a considerable increase and seasonal redistribution of loadings. For phosphorus

  12. Explanatory Supplement to the WISE Preliminary Data Release Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Conrow, T.; Bauer, J.; Benford, D.; Brandenburg, H.; Dailey, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Evans, T.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Fowler, J.; Gelino, C.; Grillmair, C.; Harbut, M.; Hoffman, D.; Jarrett, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Liu, W.; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, K.; Masci, F.; McCallon, H.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M. E.; Royer, D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Stanford, S. A.; Wyatt, P. L.; Tholen, D.; Tsai, C. W.; Wachter, S.; Wheelock, S. L.; Yan, L.; Alles, R.; Beck, R.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; McCollum, B.; McGehee, P.; Wittman, M.

    2011-04-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) surveyed the entire sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns in 2010, achieving 5-sigma point source sensitivities per band better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic. The WISE Preliminary Data Release, conducted on April 14, 2011, incorporates data covering the first ~57% of the sky surveyed that were processed with initial calibrations and reduction algorithms. Release data products include: (1) an Atlas of 10,464 sets of calibrated, coadded images, depth-of-coverage and uncertainty maps in the four WISE bands, (2) a Source Catalog containing positions and four-band photometry for 257 million objects, and (3) an Explanatory Supplement. Ancillary products include an archive of 754,000 sets of calibrated WISE single-exposure images, uncertainty and bit-mask maps, and a database of 2.2 billion source extractions made from the single-exposure images, and moving object tracklets identified by the NEOWISE program (Mainzer et al. 2011). The Explanatory Supplement to the WISE Preliminary Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the WISE data. The Supplement contains an overview of the WISE mission, facilities, and operations, a description of the contents and formats of the WISE image and tabular data products, and cautionary notes that describe known limitations of the Preliminary Release products. Instructions for accessing the WISE data products via the services of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive are provided. Detailed descriptions of the data processing system and algorithms used to ingest and convert raw WISE data to the calibrated data products are presented, along with assessments of the achieved sky coverage, photometric and astrometric characteristics and completeness and reliability of the Preliminary Release data products. The WISE Preliminary Release Explanatory Supplement is an on-line document that is updated frequently to provide the most current

  13. When Choosing Wisely meets clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Strech, Daniel; Follmann, Markus; Klemperer, David; Lelgemann, Monika; Ollenschläger, Günter; Raspe, Heiner; Nothacker, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation launched the Choosing Wisely campaign in 2012 and until today convinced more than 50 US specialist societies to develop lists of interventions that may not improve people's health but are potentially harmful. We suggest combining these new efforts with the already existing efforts in clinical practice guideline development. Existing clinical practice guidelines facilitate a more participatory and evidence-based approach to the development of top 5 lists. In return, adding top 5 lists (for overuse and underuse) to existing clinical practice guidelines nicely addresses a neglected dimension to clinical practice guideline development, namely explicit information on which Do or Don't do recommendations are frequently disregarded in practice. PMID:25499114

  14. When Choosing Wisely meets clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Strech, Daniel; Follmann, Markus; Klemperer, David; Lelgemann, Monika; Ollenschläger, Günter; Raspe, Heiner; Nothacker, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation launched the Choosing Wisely campaign in 2012 and until today convinced more than 50 US specialist societies to develop lists of interventions that may not improve people's health but are potentially harmful. We suggest combining these new efforts with the already existing efforts in clinical practice guideline development. Existing clinical practice guidelines facilitate a more participatory and evidence-based approach to the development of top 5 lists. In return, adding top 5 lists (for overuse and underuse) to existing clinical practice guidelines nicely addresses a neglected dimension to clinical practice guideline development, namely explicit information on which Do or Don't do recommendations are frequently disregarded in practice.

  15. The WISE View on Water Maser Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Emily; Constantin, A.; Braatz, J. A.; Corcoran, J.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive searches for water vapor megamasers in active galactic nuclei (AGN) have resulted in ~120 detections out of ~3500 galaxies surveyed. In about 21% of the detections, the masers originate in the sub-pc circumnuclear disks. An investigation of the relationship between the mid-infrared properties and the water maser emission in galaxy centers is essential for both refinement of future maser surveys and for constraining the dominant ionization mechanism most likely associated with the maser activity. We present here the results of a careful cross reference of all galaxies surveyed to date in 22 GHz, offered by the Megamaser Cosmology Project (MCP), with the Wide field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) All-Sky Release data, which reveals an impressive overlap of 93% and 98% for maser detections and non-detections, respectively. We find that, while the WISE classification of AGNs based on their redder W1-W2>0.8 colors produces a potential maser detection rate of ~20%, the cut recovers significantly less than half (27%) of all the disk detections to date. We also find that the W3 band (12 microns) appears to offer significant sensitivity to the maser detection for W3<7, as well as for maser disks, with a 13% overall maser detection rate, that includes 62% of all disks detections. We discuss the possibility that the strong connection between the 22 GHz detection and the W3 emission implies a close physical association of the masing conditions with the strength of the PAH feature (11.3 microns) as well as to the warm continuum in AGNs.

  16. The Reddest Extragalactic WISE Sources: Hot DOGs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    One of the two primary science objectives for NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is to identify the most luminous galaxies in the Universe. We have used WISE photometry to select an all-sky sample of 1,000 objects which are extremely luminous. The sources are prominent at 12 microns (W3) or 22 microns (W4), but faint or undetected at 3.4 microns (W1) and 4.7 microns (W2), and hence referred to as "W12drops.” I will provide an overview of several programs to follow up the objects. Observations of the full sample with Spitzer are largely complete, confirming that W12drops are redder than previously identified populations. Spectroscopy of 100 W12drops shows that the majority have z > 1.6. Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometry for a subsample of 91 is underway, and sub-millimeter and millimeter data have been obtained for approximately a dozen sources. These reveal SEDs that tend to peak below rest frame 100 microns, so that hot dust dominates the bolometric luminosity, which can exceed 100 trillion solar luminosities. Optical and near-IR imaging programs, including adaptive optics and HST, are in progress. These will address whether lensing is a major factor in the population. Modeling of one W12drop suggests the luminous AGN phase may precede galaxy formation, contrary to prevailing ideas. We suggest these hot, dust- obscured galaxies, or hot DOGs, represent a rare transitional stage in the interplay between the formation of galaxy bulges and super-massive black holes.

  17. Climate variability as a threat for countries progressing towards malaria elimination: The case study of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousam, Aneela; Maggioni, Viviana; Quispe, Antonio; Aquila, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    Malaria cases reported by the Peruvian Ministry of Health demonstrate a 61% reduction of malaria in the last decade (2001- 2010). However, during the years 2011-14 malaria increased by ~2.7 folds in Peru and ~5 folds in Loreto, an Amazonian department that continues contributing over 90% of the malaria cases in Peru. Past studies have indicated that there is a strong association between climate variability and malaria rates. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that climate variables have played a key role in the recent increase of malaria cases in Peru. Climate data, such as precipitation, temperature, humidity and surface pressure simulated by the NASA MERRA model during a 10-year ling time series (2004-2013) are used to verify this hypothesis. Preliminary data analyses show large deviations from the 10-year mean (i.e., climatological anomalies) in humidity, surface pressure, and temperature during 2010 up to four times larger than previous and subsequent years. An increase of 8% in precipitation yearly averages is observed in 2010, which also corresponds with the following reverse of the downward trend of malaria incidence, particularly in Loreto. The sudden amplification of climatological anomalies in 2010 could have set the environmental conditions that caused the re-emergence of malaria in 2011. Investigation is underway to link weekly malaria data from different districts in Peru to the climate conditions at those locations during the past ten years. This will be crucial in understanding why some countries, despite all necessary efforts, are unable to completely eliminate malaria.

  18. Principles for the wise use of computers by children.

    PubMed

    Straker, L; Pollock, C; Maslen, B

    2009-11-01

    Computer use by children at home and school is now common in many countries. Child computer exposure varies with the type of computer technology available and the child's age, gender and social group. This paper reviews the current exposure data and the evidence for positive and negative effects of computer use by children. Potential positive effects of computer use by children include enhanced cognitive development and school achievement, reduced barriers to social interaction, enhanced fine motor skills and visual processing and effective rehabilitation. Potential negative effects include threats to child safety, inappropriate content, exposure to violence, bullying, Internet 'addiction', displacement of moderate/vigorous physical activity, exposure to junk food advertising, sleep displacement, vision problems and musculoskeletal problems. The case for child specific evidence-based guidelines for wise use of computers is presented based on children using computers differently to adults, being physically, cognitively and socially different to adults, being in a state of change and development and the potential to impact on later adult risk. Progress towards child-specific guidelines is reported. Finally, a set of guideline principles is presented as the basis for more detailed guidelines on the physical, cognitive and social impact of computer use by children. The principles cover computer literacy, technology safety, child safety and privacy and appropriate social, cognitive and physical development. The majority of children in affluent communities now have substantial exposure to computers. This is likely to have significant effects on child physical, cognitive and social development. Ergonomics can provide and promote guidelines for wise use of computers by children and by doing so promote the positive effects and reduce the negative effects of computer-child, and subsequent computer-adult, interaction.

  19. Principles for the wise use of computers by children.

    PubMed

    Straker, L; Pollock, C; Maslen, B

    2009-11-01

    Computer use by children at home and school is now common in many countries. Child computer exposure varies with the type of computer technology available and the child's age, gender and social group. This paper reviews the current exposure data and the evidence for positive and negative effects of computer use by children. Potential positive effects of computer use by children include enhanced cognitive development and school achievement, reduced barriers to social interaction, enhanced fine motor skills and visual processing and effective rehabilitation. Potential negative effects include threats to child safety, inappropriate content, exposure to violence, bullying, Internet 'addiction', displacement of moderate/vigorous physical activity, exposure to junk food advertising, sleep displacement, vision problems and musculoskeletal problems. The case for child specific evidence-based guidelines for wise use of computers is presented based on children using computers differently to adults, being physically, cognitively and socially different to adults, being in a state of change and development and the potential to impact on later adult risk. Progress towards child-specific guidelines is reported. Finally, a set of guideline principles is presented as the basis for more detailed guidelines on the physical, cognitive and social impact of computer use by children. The principles cover computer literacy, technology safety, child safety and privacy and appropriate social, cognitive and physical development. The majority of children in affluent communities now have substantial exposure to computers. This is likely to have significant effects on child physical, cognitive and social development. Ergonomics can provide and promote guidelines for wise use of computers by children and by doing so promote the positive effects and reduce the negative effects of computer-child, and subsequent computer-adult, interaction. PMID:19851906

  20. Making spatial prioritizations robust to climate change uncertainties: a case study with North American birds.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, Justin G; Langham, Gary M; Soykan, Candan U; Wilsey, Chad B; Auer, Tom; Sanchez, Connie C

    2015-10-01

    Spatial prioritizations are essential tools for conserving biodiversity in the face of accelerating climate change. Uncertainty about species' responses to changing climates can complicate prioritization efforts, however, and delay conservation investment. In an effort to facilitate decision-making, we identified three hypotheses about species' potential responses to climate change based on distinct biological assumptions related to niche flexibility and colonization ability. Using 314 species of North American birds as a test case, we tuned separate spatial prioritizations to each hypothesis and assessed the degree to which assumptions about biological responses affected the perceived conservation value of the landscape and prospects for individual taxa. We also developed a bet-hedging prioritization to minimize the chance that incorrect assumptions would lead to valuable landscapes and species being overlooked in multispecies prioritizations. Collectively, these analyses help to quantify the sensitivity of spatial prioritizations to different assumptions about species' responses to climate change and provide a framework for enabling efficient conservation investment despite substantial biological uncertainty.

  1. A climate-based spatiotemporal prediction for dengue fever epidemics: a case study in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.-L.; Yang, S.-J.; Lin, Y.-C.

    2012-04-01

    Dengue Fever (DF) has been identified by the World Health organization (WHO) as one of the most serious vector-borne infectious diseases in tropical and sub-tropical areas. DF has been one of the most important epidemics in Taiwan which occur annually especially in southern Taiwan during summer and autumn. Most DF studies have focused mainly on temporal DF patterns and its close association with climatic covariates, whereas few studies have investigated the spatial DF patterns (spatial dependence and clustering) and composite space-time effects of the DF epidemics. The present study proposes a spatio-temporal DF prediction approach based on stochastic Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) analysis. Core and site-specific knowledge bases are considered, including climate and health datasets under conditions of uncertainty, space-time dependence functions, and a Poisson regression model of climatic variables contributing to DF occurrences in southern Taiwan during 2007, when the highest number of DF cases was recorded in the history of Taiwan epidemics (over 2000). The obtained results show that the DF outbreaks in the study area are highly influenced by climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis can provide the required "one-week-ahead" outbreak warnings based on spatio-temporal predictions of DF distributions. Therefore, the proposed analysis can provide the Taiwan Disease Control Agency with a valuable tool to timely identify, control, and even efficiently prevent DF spreading across space-time.

  2. How climate change threats water resource: the case of the Thau coastal lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sellami, Haykel; Cirelli, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change explained that the Mediterranean regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These latest are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and on regional economies. The aim of this paper is to discuss impacts of climate changes on the Thau case study in relation to the evolution of water balance, water uses and adaptation to climate change. The Thau coastal lagoon is located in the Mediterranean coast in south of France in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Economic activities are diverse from shellfish farming, fertilizers industries to agriculture and tourism. However, tourism and shellfish farming are of major importance for local economy. If tourism is mainly turned to the Sea coast, shellfishes grow within the lagoon and rely on water quality. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between the coastal lagoon water quality and inputs of freshwater from the catchment. Thus, changes in rainfalls, runoff and water balance would not only affect water uses but also water quality. Climate changes projections are presented following the implementation of 4 downscaled climatic models. Impacts on water balance are modelled with SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) for 2041-2070 compared to the 1971-2000 reference period. The decrease of precipitations and water balance will impact discharges and thus decrease the freshwater inputs to the coastal lagoon. A study of water uses conducted in interactions with stakeholders within the Thau area has permitted to assess both current and evolution of water uses. It has revealed local water resources are depleting while water demand is increasing and is planned to continue to increase in the really near future. To prevent water scarcity events, mainly due to the climate change context, the Regional authorities have connected the catchment to the Rhône river to import water. The conclusion of this study is while

  3. Data Wise in Action: Stories of Schools Using Data to Improve Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudett, Kathryn Parker, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    What does it look like when a school uses data wisely? "Data Wise in Action", a new companion and sequel to the bestselling "Data Wise", tells the stories of eight very different schools following the Data Wise process of using assessment results to improve teaching and learning. "Data Wise in Action" highlights the leadership challenges schools…

  4. Evaluation of body-wise and organ-wise registrations for abdominal organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhoubing; Panjwani, Sahil A.; Lee, Christopher P.; Burke, Ryan P.; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Abramson, Richard G.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    Identifying cross-sectional and longitudinal correspondence in the abdomen on computed tomography (CT) scans is necessary for quantitatively tracking change and understanding population characteristics, yet abdominal image registration is a challenging problem. The key difficulty in solving this problem is huge variations in organ dimensions and shapes across subjects. The current standard registration method uses the global or body-wise registration technique, which is based on the global topology for alignment. This method (although producing decent results) has substantial influence of outliers, thus leaving room for significant improvement. Here, we study a new image registration approach using local (organ-wise registration) by first creating organ-specific bounding boxes and then using these regions of interest (ROIs) for aligning references to target. Based on Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), Mean Surface Distance (MSD) and Hausdorff Distance (HD), the organ-wise approach is demonstrated to have significantly better results by minimizing the distorting effects of organ variations. This paper compares exclusively the two registration methods by providing novel quantitative and qualitative comparison data and is a subset of the more comprehensive problem of improving the multi-atlas segmentation by using organ normalization.

  5. Evaluation of Body-Wise and Organ-Wise Registrations For Abdominal Organs

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhoubing; Panjwani, Sahil A.; Lee, Christopher P.; Burke, Ryan P.; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Abramson, Richard G.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying cross-sectional and longitudinal correspondence in the abdomen on computed tomography (CT) scans is necessary for quantitatively tracking change and understanding population characteristics, yet abdominal image registration is a challenging problem. The key difficulty in solving this problem is huge variations in organ dimensions and shapes across subjects. The current standard registration method uses the global or body-wise registration technique, which is based on the global topology for alignment. This method (although producing decent results) has substantial influence of outliers, thus leaving room for significant improvement. Here, we study a new image registration approach using local (organ-wise registration) by first creating organ-specific bounding boxes and then using these regions of interest (ROIs) for aligning references to target. Based on Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), Mean Surface Distance (MSD) and Hausdorff Distance (HD), the organ-wise approach is demonstrated to have significantly better results by minimizing the distorting effects of organ variations. This paper compares exclusively the two registration methods by providing novel quantitative and qualitative comparison data and is a subset of the more comprehensive problem of improving the multi-atlas segmentation by using organ normalization. PMID:27127329

  6. Generating temporal model using climate variables for the prediction of dengue cases in Subang Jaya, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Dom, Nazri Che; Hassan, A Abu; Latif, Z Abd; Ismail, Rodziah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a forecasting model for the incidence of dengue cases in Subang Jaya using time series analysis. Methods The model was performed using the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) based on data collected from 2005 to 2010. The fitted model was then used to predict dengue incidence for the year 2010 by extrapolating dengue patterns using three different approaches (i.e. 52, 13 and 4 weeks ahead). Finally cross correlation between dengue incidence and climate variable was computed over a range of lags in order to identify significant variables to be included as external regressor. Results The result of this study revealed that the ARIMA (2,0,0) (0,0,1)52 model developed, closely described the trends of dengue incidence and confirmed the existence of dengue fever cases in Subang Jaya for the year 2005 to 2010. The prediction per period of 4 weeks ahead for ARIMA (2,0,0)(0,0,1)52 was found to be best fit and consistent with the observed dengue incidence based on the training data from 2005 to 2010 (Root Mean Square Error=0.61). The predictive power of ARIMA (2,0,0) (0,0,1)52 is enhanced by the inclusion of climate variables as external regressor to forecast the dengue cases for the year 2010. Conclusions The ARIMA model with weekly variation is a useful tool for disease control and prevention program as it is able to effectively predict the number of dengue cases in Malaysia.

  7. How WISE Points to Future Far-Infrared Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the tantalizing science that is emerging from the first WISE discoveries, we consider the impact that the future will bring to far-infrared mission concepts. What we've learned from WISE gives us new investigations for missions like SPICA and SPIRIT. We highlight the new results from WISE and incorporate that into the context of the Far-Infrared Community Plan and the recent New Worlds, New Horizons documents. Plain-Language Abstract: Based on tantalizing science emerging from the first WISE discoveries, what we've learned gives us new investigations for missions like SPICA and SPIRIT. We highlight the new results from WISE and incorporate that into the context of the Far-Infrared Community Plan and the recent New Worlds, New Horizons documents.

  8. Final Report for High Latitude Climate Modeling: ARM Takes Us Beyond Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Lynn M

    2013-06-18

    The main thrust of this project was to devise a method by which the majority of North Slope of Alaska (NSA) meteorological and radiometric data, collected on a daily basis, could be used to evaluate and improve global climate model (GCM) simulations and their parameterizations, particularly for cloud microphysics. Although the standard ARM Program sensors for a less complete suite of instruments for cloud and aerosol studies than the instruments on an intensive field program such as the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), the advantage they offer lies in the long time base and large volume of data that covers a wide range of meteorological and climatological conditions. The challenge has been devising a method to interpret the NSA data in a practical way, so that a wide variety of meteorological conditions in all seasons can be examined with climate models. If successful, climate modelers would have a robust alternative to the usual “case study” approach (i.e., from intensive field programs only) for testing and evaluating their parameterizations’ performance. Understanding climate change on regional scales requires a broad scientific consideration of anthropogenic influences that goes beyond greenhouse gas emissions to also include aerosol-induced changes in cloud properties. For instance, it is now clear that on small scales, human-induced aerosol plumes can exert microclimatic radiative and hydrologic forcing that rivals that of greenhouse gas–forced warming. This project has made significant scientific progress by investigating what causes successive versions of climate models continue to exhibit errors in cloud amount, cloud microphysical and radiative properties, precipitation, and radiation balance, as compared with observations and, in particular, in Arctic regions. To find out what is going wrong, we have tested the models' cloud representation over the full range of meteorological conditions found in the Arctic using the ARM

  9. A protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services based on the experiences of the CLIM-RUN case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodess, Clare; Ruti, Paolo; Rousset, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    During the closing stages of the CLIM-RUN EU FP7 project on Climate Local Information in the Mediterranean region Responding to User Needs, the real-world experiences encountered by the case-study teams are being assessed and synthesised to identify examples of good practice and, in particular, to produce the CLIM-RUN protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services. The specific case studies have focused on renewable energy (Morocco, Spain, Croatia, Cyprus), tourism (Savoie, Tunisia, Croatia, Cyprus) and wild fires (Greece) as well as one cross-cutting case study (Veneto region). They have been implemented following a common programme of local workshops, questionnaires and interviews, with Climate Expert Team and Stakeholder Expert Team members collaborating to identify and translate user needs and subsequently develop climate products and information. Feedback from stakeholders has been essential in assessing and refining these products. The protocol covers the following issues: the overall process and methodological key stages; identification and selection of stakeholders; communication with stakeholders; identification of user needs; translation of needs; producing products; assessing and refining products; methodologies for evaluating the economic value of climate services; and beyond CLIM-RUN - the lessons learnt. Particular emphasis is given to stakeholder analysis in the context of the participatory, bottom-up approach promoted by CLIM-RUN and to the iterative approach taken in the development of climate products. Recommendations are also made for an envisioned three-tier business model for the development of climate services involving climate, intermediary and stakeholder tiers.

  10. Wise detections of known QSOs at redshifts greater than six

    SciTech Connect

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

    2013-12-01

    We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55% (17/31) of the known QSOs at z > 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer, and UKIDSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in the quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE W1 (3.4 μm) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 μm), 3 in W3 (12 μm), and 0 in W4 (22 μm). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longward of 5 μm until the launch of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES, and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests that a more aggressive hunt for very high redshift QSOs by combining WISE W1 and W2 data with red, observed optical colors could be effective at least for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are, on average, significantly fainter than the WISE-detected examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-IR flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in W1 but not W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large active galactic nucleus samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshift QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

  11. Constructing Perceptions of Climate Change: a case study of regional political decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, D.

    2012-12-01

    This case study of climate change communications assesses the salient means of communication and the message adopted by regional political decision makers on the German Baltic coast. Realizing that cultural factors and local values (and not simply knowledge) are significant influences in explaining attitudes towards climate change, this analysis draws from the records of regional weather, from scientists with a specific focus on the region, from the political decision makers for that region, and the media message reaching the decision makers, ensuring all elements of the analysis are drawn from the same socioeconomic, geophysical, political and cultural context. This is important as the social dynamics surrounding the trust in science is of critical importance and, as such, all elements of the case study are specifically contained within a common context. If the utility of climate change knowledge is to prompt well conceived adaptation/mitigation strategies then the political decision process, or at least the perceptions shaping it, can best be understood by locating it within the world view of the decision makers involved in the production process. Using the results of two survey questionnaires, one of regional climate scientists and one of regional political decision makers, ten years of local weather records, and a summary of the message from mass media circulation, the discord in perceptions of regional climate change are quantitatively explored. The conclusions drawn from the analysis include, compared to the scientific assessment: The decision makers' perceptions of recent past differ from actual observations. The decision makers' perceptions of the future differ from scientific assessments. The decision makers tend to over estimate the magnitude of regional climate change and its impacts. The decision makers tend to over estimate the sense of immediacy for adaptation measures. The conclusions drawn suggest that in the regional political realm, it is often a

  12. The Arctic as a test case for an assessment of climate impacts on national security.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Mark A.; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Backus, George A.; Ivey, Mark D.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2008-11-01

    The Arctic region is rapidly changing in a way that will affect the rest of the world. Parts of Alaska, western Canada, and Siberia are currently warming at twice the global rate. This warming trend is accelerating permafrost deterioration, coastal erosion, snow and ice loss, and other changes that are a direct consequence of climate change. Climatologists have long understood that changes in the Arctic would be faster and more intense than elsewhere on the planet, but the degree and speed of the changes were underestimated compared to recent observations. Policy makers have not yet had time to examine the latest evidence or appreciate the nature of the consequences. Thus, the abruptness and severity of an unfolding Arctic climate crisis has not been incorporated into long-range planning. The purpose of this report is to briefly review the physical basis for global climate change and Arctic amplification, summarize the ongoing observations, discuss the potential consequences, explain the need for an objective risk assessment, develop scenarios for future change, review existing modeling capabilities and the need for better regional models, and finally to make recommendations for Sandia's future role in preparing our leaders to deal with impacts of Arctic climate change on national security. Accurate and credible regional-scale climate models are still several years in the future, and those models are essential for estimating climate impacts around the globe. This study demonstrates how a scenario-based method may be used to give insights into climate impacts on a regional scale and possible mitigation. Because of our experience in the Arctic and widespread recognition of the Arctic's importance in the Earth climate system we chose the Arctic as a test case for an assessment of climate impacts on national security. Sandia can make a swift and significant contribution by applying modeling and simulation tools with internal collaborations as well as with outside

  13. Wise Regulates Bone Deposition through Genetic Interactions with Lrp5

    PubMed Central

    Ellies, Debra L.; Economou, Androulla; Viviano, Beth; Rey, Jean-Philippe; Paine-Saunders, Stephenie; Krumlauf, Robb; Saunders, Scott

    2014-01-01

    In this study using genetic approaches in mouse we demonstrate that the secreted protein Wise plays essential roles in regulating early bone formation through its ability to modulate Wnt signaling via interactions with the Lrp5 co-receptor. In Wise−/− mutant mice we find an increase in the rate of osteoblast proliferation and a transient increase in bone mineral density. This change in proliferation is dependent upon Lrp5, as Wise;Lrp5 double mutants have normal bone mass. This suggests that Wise serves as a negative modulator of Wnt signaling in active osteoblasts. Wise and the closely related protein Sclerostin (Sost) are expressed in osteoblast cells during temporally distinct early and late phases in a manner consistent with the temporal onset of their respective increased bone density phenotypes. These data suggest that Wise and Sost may have common roles in regulating bone development through their ability to control the balance of Wnt signaling. We find that Wise is also required to potentiate proliferation in chondrocytes, serving as a potential positive modulator of Wnt activity. Our analyses demonstrate that Wise plays a key role in processes that control the number of osteoblasts and chondrocytes during bone homeostasis and provide important insight into mechanisms regulating the Wnt pathway during skeletal development. PMID:24789067

  14. The WISE Satellite Development: Managing the Risks and the Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, Valerie G.; Elwell, John D.; Howard, Joan F.; Irace, William R.; Liu, Feng-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) MIDEX mission is surveying the entire sky in four infrared bands from 3.4 to 22 micrometers. The WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm telescope, a solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and four 1K x1K infrared detectors. The WISE spacecraft bus provides communication, data handling, and avionics including instrument pointing. A Delta 7920 successfully launched WISE into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on December 14, 2009. WISE was competitively selected by NASA as a Medium cost Explorer mission (MIDEX) in 2002. MIDEX missions are led by the Principal Investigator who delegates day-to-day management to the Project Manager. Given the tight cost cap and relatively short development schedule, NASA chose to extend the development period one year with an option to cancel the mission if certain criteria were not met. To meet this and other challenges, the WISE management team had to learn to work seamlessly across institutional lines and to recognize risks and opportunities in order to develop the flight hardware within the project resources. In spite of significant technical issues, the WISE satellite was delivered on budget and on schedule. This paper describes our management approach and risk posture, technical issues, and critical decisions made.

  15. Update on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Wright, Edward L.; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Irace, William; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Cutri, Roc; Duval, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA MIDEX mission, will survey the entire sky in four bands from 3.3 to 23 microns with a sensitivity 1000 times greater than the IRAS survey. The WISE survey will extend the Two Micron All Sky Survey into the thermal infrared and will provide an important catalog for the James Webb Space Telescope. Using 1024(sup 2) HgCdTe and Si:As arrays at 3.3, 4.7, 12 and 23 microns, WISE will find the most luminous galaxies in the universe, the closest stars to the Sun, and it will detect most of the main belt asteroids larger than 3 km. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm diamond-turned aluminum afocal telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 5 resolution (full-width-half-maximum). The use of dichroics and beamsplitters allows four color images of a 47' x47' field of view to be taken every 8.8 seconds, synchronized with the orbital motion to provide total sky coverage with overlap between revolutions. WISE will be placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta 7320-10 launch vehicle. The WISE survey approach is simple and efficient. The three-axis-stabilized spacecraft rotates at a constant rate while the scan mirror freezes the telescope line of sight during each exposure. WISE has completed its mission Preliminary Design Review and its NASA Confirmation Review, and the project is awaiting confirmation from NASA to proceed to the Critical Design phase. Much of the payload hardware is now complete, and assembly of the payload will occur over the next year. WISE is scheduled to launch in late 2009; the project web site can be found at www.wise.ssl.berkeley.edu.

  16. Operational resilience of reservoirs to climate change, agricultural demand, and tourism: A case study from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Mereu, Simone; Sušnik, Janez; Trabucco, Antonio; Daccache, Andre; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia; Renoldi, Stefano; Virdis, Andrea; Savić, Dragan; Assimacopoulos, Dionysis

    2016-02-01

    Many (semi-) arid locations globally, and particularly islands, rely heavily on reservoirs for water supply. Some reservoirs are particularly vulnerable to climate and development changes (e.g. population change, tourist growth, hydropower demands). Irregularities and uncertainties in the fluvial regime associated with climate change and the continuous increase in water demand by different sectors will add new challenges to the management and to the resilience of these reservoirs. The resilience of vulnerable reservoirs must be studied in detail to prepare for and mitigate potential impacts of these changes. In this paper, a reservoir balance model is developed and presented for the Pedra e' Othoni reservoir in Sardinia, Italy, to assess resilience to climate and development changes. The model was first calibrated and validated, then forced with extensive ensemble climate data for representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5, agricultural data, and with four socio-economic development scenarios. Future projections show a reduction in annual reservoir inflow and an increase in demand, mainly in the agricultural sector. Under no scenario is reservoir resilience significantly affected, the reservoir always achieves refill. However, this occurs at the partial expenses of hydropower production with implications for the production of renewable energy. There is also the possibility of conflict between the agricultural sector and hydropower sector for diminishing water supply. Pedra e' Othoni reservoir shows good resilience to future change mostly because of the disproportionately large basin feeding it. However this is not the case of other Sardinian reservoirs and hence a detailed resilience assessment of all reservoirs is needed, where development plans should carefully account for the trade-offs and potential conflicts among sectors. For Sardinia, the option of physical connection between reservoirs is available, as are alternative water supply measures

  17. Calculating the Isgur-Wise function on the lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, C.W.; Shen, Y.; Soni, A.

    1992-12-31

    We calculate the Isgur-Wise function by measuring the heavy-heavy meson transition matrix element on the lattice. The standard Wilson action is used for both the heavy and light quarks. Our first numerical results are presented.

  18. Calculating the Isgur-Wise function on the lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, C.W. . Dept. of Physics); Shen, Y. . Dept. of Physics); Soni, A. )

    1992-01-01

    We calculate the Isgur-Wise function by measuring the heavy-heavy meson transition matrix element on the lattice. The standard Wilson action is used for both the heavy and light quarks. Our first numerical results are presented.

  19. Quantitative urban climate mapping based on a geographical database: A simulation approach using Hong Kong as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Ng, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The urban environment has been dramatically changed by artificial constructions. How the modified urban geometry affects the urban climate and therefore human thermal comfort has become a primary concern for urban planners. The present study takes a simulation approach to analyze the influence of urban geometry on the urban climate and maps this climatic understanding from a quantitative perspective. A geographical building database is used to characterize two widely discussed aspects: urban heat island effect (UHI) and wind dynamics. The parameters of the sky view factor (SVF) and the frontal area density (FAD) are simulated using ArcGIS-embedded computer programs to link urban geometry with the UHI and wind dynamic conditions. The simulated results are synergized and classified to evaluate different urban climatic conditions based on thermal comfort consideration. A climatic map is then generated implementing the classification. The climatic map shows reasonable agreement with thermal comfort understanding, as indicated by the biometeorological index of the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) obtained in an earlier study. The proposed climate mapping approach can provide both quantitative and visual evaluation of the urban environment for urban planners with climatic concerns. The map could be used as a decision support tool in planning and policy-making processes. An urban area in Hong Kong is used as a case study.

  20. Climate change impact and adaptation research requires integrated assessment and farming systems analysis: a case study in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidsma, Pytrik; Wolf, Joost; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Schaap, Ben F.; Mandryk, Maryia; Verhagen, Jan; van Ittersum, Martin K.

    2015-04-01

    Rather than on crop modelling only, climate change impact assessments in agriculture need to be based on integrated assessment and farming systems analysis, and account for adaptation at different levels. With a case study for Flevoland, the Netherlands, we illustrate that (1) crop models cannot account for all relevant climate change impacts and adaptation options, and (2) changes in technology, policy and prices have had and are likely to have larger impacts on farms than climate change. While crop modelling indicates positive impacts of climate change on yields of major crops in 2050, a semi-quantitative and participatory method assessing impacts of extreme events shows that there are nevertheless several climate risks. A range of adaptation measures are, however, available to reduce possible negative effects at crop level. In addition, at farm level farmers can change cropping patterns, and adjust inputs and outputs. Also farm structural change will influence impacts and adaptation. While the 5th IPCC report is more negative regarding impacts of climate change on agriculture compared to the previous report, also for temperate regions, our results show that when putting climate change in context of other drivers, and when explicitly accounting for adaptation at crop and farm level, impacts may be less negative in some regions and opportunities are revealed. These results refer to a temperate region, but an integrated assessment may also change perspectives on climate change for other parts of the world.

  1. Undergraduate Students' Conceptions of Natural and Anthropogenic Climate Change: A Case Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenbath, Thien-Kim Leckie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation shows the evolution of five undergraduate students' ideas of natural and anthropogenic climate change throughout a lecture hall course on climate change. This research was informed by conceptual change theory and students' inaccurate ideas of climate change. Subjects represented different levels of climate change understanding at…

  2. Sediment transport patterns and climate change: the downstream Tuul River case study, Northern Mongolia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroń, Jan; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2014-05-01

    Ongoing changes in the Central Asian climate including increasing temperatures can influence the hydrological regimes of rivers and the waterborne transport of sediments. Changes in the latter, especially in combination with adverse human activities, may severely impact water quality and aquatic ecosystems. However, waterborne transport of sediments is a result of complex processes and varies considerably between, and even within, river systems. There is therefore a need to increase our general knowledge about sediment transport under changing climate conditions. The Tuul River, the case site of this study, is located in the upper part of the basin of the Selenga River that is the main tributary to Lake Baikal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Like many other rivers located in the steppes of Northern Mongolia, the Tuul River is characterized by a hydrological regime that is not disturbed by engineered structures such as reservoirs and dams. However, the water quality of the downstream Tuul River is increasingly affected by adverse human activities - including placer gold mining. The largest contribution to the annual river discharge occurs during the relatively warm period in May to August. Typically, there are numerous rainfall events during this period that cause considerable river flow peaks. Parallel work has furthermore shown that due to climate change, the daily variability of discharge and numbers of peak flow events in the Tuul River Basin has increased during the past 60 years. This trend is expected to continue. We here aim at increasing our understanding of future sediment transport patterns in the Tuul River, specifically considering the scenario that peak flow events may become more frequent due to climate change. We use a one-dimensional sediment transport model of the downstream reach of the river to simulate natural patterns of sediment transport for a recent hydrological year. In general, the results show that sediment transport varies considerably

  3. Climate adaptation wedges: a case study of premium wine in the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Diffenbaugh, Noah; White, Michael A; Jones, Gregory V; Ashfaq, Moetasim

    2011-01-01

    Design and implementation of effective climate change adaptation activities requires quantitative assessment of the impacts that are likely to occur without adaptation, as well as the fraction of impact that can be avoided through each activity. Here we present a quantitative framework inspired by the greenhouse gas stabilization wedges of Pacala and Socolow. In our proposed framework, the damage avoided by each adaptation activity creates an 'adaptation wedge' relative to the loss that would occur without that adaptation activity. We use premium winegrape suitability in the western United States as an illustrative case study, focusing on the near-term period that covers the years 2000 39. We find that the projected warming over this period results in the loss of suitable winegrape area throughout much of California, including most counties in the high-value North Coast and Central Coast regions. However, in quantifying adaptation wedges for individual high-value counties, we find that a large adaptation wedge can be captured by increasing the severe heat tolerance, including elimination of the 50% loss projected by the end of the 2030 9 period in the North Coast region, and reduction of the projected loss in the Central Coast region from 30% to less than 15%. Increased severe heat tolerance can capture an even larger adaptation wedge in the Pacific Northwest, including conversion of a projected loss of more than 30% in the Columbia Valley region of Washington to a projected gain of more than 150%. We also find that warming projected over the near-term decades has the potential to alter the quality of winegrapes produced in the western US, and we discuss potential actions that could create adaptation wedges given these potential changes in quality. While the present effort represents an initial exploration of one aspect of one industry, the climate adaptation wedge framework could be used to quantitatively evaluate the opportunities and limits of climate adaptation

  4. Climate Change and Adaptation in Irrigated Agriculture-A Case Study of the Yakima River

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J; Vail, Lance W; Stockle, Claudio O; Kemanian, Armen

    2004-07-22

    Using a case study of the Yakima River Valley in Washington State, we show that relatively simple tools originally developed to forecast the impact of the El Nino phenomenon on water supplies to irrigated agriculture also can be used to estimate the significantly shifted probability distribution of water shortages in irrigated agriculture during climate change, and that these shifted probabilities can be used to estimate the impact on agriculture in a region. The more permanent nature of changes in the temperature and precipitation regime associated with climate change means that risk management options also take a more permanent form (such as changes in crops and cultivars, and adding storage). A number of storage options have been proposed to deal with El Nino-associated drought, and would be more valuable under climate change. The most ambitious of the proposed storage projects is Black Rock, which would add about 500,00 acre-feet of water to supplement the Yakima's current 1.1 million acre-feet, at a cost currently estimated at $1.9 billion. For perspective, economic losses in the Yakima Valley reportedly have been about $100 million in a drought year such as 2001. Under current circumstances, the expected annual fisheries and periodic drought relief benefits may be large enough to justify the expenditure, but since drought has been occasional, environmental consequences of new projects uncertain, and the price tag beyond the reach of all but the Federal government, no projects have been built. The benefits become more certain with warming. Analysis shows that adding 500,000 acre-feet to TWSA would offset El Nino and the effects of 2 C warming.

  5. The impact of an extreme case of irrigation on the southeastern United States climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selman, Christopher; Misra, Vasubandhu

    2016-05-01

    The impacts of irrigation on southeast United States diurnal climate are investigated using simulations from a regional climate model. An extreme case is assumed, wherein irrigation is set to 100 % of field capacity over the growing season of May through October. Irrigation is applied to the root zone layers of 10-40 and 40-100 cm soil layers only. It is found that in this regime there is a pronounced decrease in monthly averaged temperatures in irrigated regions across all months. In non-irrigated areas a slight warming is simulated. Diurnal maximum temperatures in irrigated areas warm, while diurnal minimum temperatures cool. The daytime warming is attributed to an increase in shortwave flux at the surface owing to diminished low cloud cover. Nighttime and daily mean cooling result as a consequence repartitioning of energy into latent heat flux over sensible heat flux, and of a higher net downward ground heat flux. Excess heat is transported into the deep soil layer, preventing a rapidly intensifying positive feedback loop. Both diurnal and monthly average precipitations are reduced over irrigated areas at a magnitude and spatial pattern similar to one another. Due to the excess moisture availability, evaporation is seen to increase, but this is nearly balanced by a corresponding reduction in sensible heat flux. Concomitant with additional moisture availability is an increase in both transient and stationary moisture flux convergences. However, despite the increase, there is a large-scale stabilization of the atmosphere stemming from a cooled surface.

  6. On Pixel-Wise Explanations for Non-Linear Classifier Decisions by Layer-Wise Relevance Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Montavon, Grégoire; Klauschen, Frederick; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Samek, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and interpreting classification decisions of automated image classification systems is of high value in many applications, as it allows to verify the reasoning of the system and provides additional information to the human expert. Although machine learning methods are solving very successfully a plethora of tasks, they have in most cases the disadvantage of acting as a black box, not providing any information about what made them arrive at a particular decision. This work proposes a general solution to the problem of understanding classification decisions by pixel-wise decomposition of nonlinear classifiers. We introduce a methodology that allows to visualize the contributions of single pixels to predictions for kernel-based classifiers over Bag of Words features and for multilayered neural networks. These pixel contributions can be visualized as heatmaps and are provided to a human expert who can intuitively not only verify the validity of the classification decision, but also focus further analysis on regions of potential interest. We evaluate our method for classifiers trained on PASCAL VOC 2009 images, synthetic image data containing geometric shapes, the MNIST handwritten digits data set and for the pre-trained ImageNet model available as part of the Caffe open source package. PMID:26161953

  7. On Pixel-Wise Explanations for Non-Linear Classifier Decisions by Layer-Wise Relevance Propagation.

    PubMed

    Bach, Sebastian; Binder, Alexander; Montavon, Grégoire; Klauschen, Frederick; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Samek, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and interpreting classification decisions of automated image classification systems is of high value in many applications, as it allows to verify the reasoning of the system and provides additional information to the human expert. Although machine learning methods are solving very successfully a plethora of tasks, they have in most cases the disadvantage of acting as a black box, not providing any information about what made them arrive at a particular decision. This work proposes a general solution to the problem of understanding classification decisions by pixel-wise decomposition of nonlinear classifiers. We introduce a methodology that allows to visualize the contributions of single pixels to predictions for kernel-based classifiers over Bag of Words features and for multilayered neural networks. These pixel contributions can be visualized as heatmaps and are provided to a human expert who can intuitively not only verify the validity of the classification decision, but also focus further analysis on regions of potential interest. We evaluate our method for classifiers trained on PASCAL VOC 2009 images, synthetic image data containing geometric shapes, the MNIST handwritten digits data set and for the pre-trained ImageNet model available as part of the Caffe open source package.

  8. On Pixel-Wise Explanations for Non-Linear Classifier Decisions by Layer-Wise Relevance Propagation.

    PubMed

    Bach, Sebastian; Binder, Alexander; Montavon, Grégoire; Klauschen, Frederick; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Samek, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and interpreting classification decisions of automated image classification systems is of high value in many applications, as it allows to verify the reasoning of the system and provides additional information to the human expert. Although machine learning methods are solving very successfully a plethora of tasks, they have in most cases the disadvantage of acting as a black box, not providing any information about what made them arrive at a particular decision. This work proposes a general solution to the problem of understanding classification decisions by pixel-wise decomposition of nonlinear classifiers. We introduce a methodology that allows to visualize the contributions of single pixels to predictions for kernel-based classifiers over Bag of Words features and for multilayered neural networks. These pixel contributions can be visualized as heatmaps and are provided to a human expert who can intuitively not only verify the validity of the classification decision, but also focus further analysis on regions of potential interest. We evaluate our method for classifiers trained on PASCAL VOC 2009 images, synthetic image data containing geometric shapes, the MNIST handwritten digits data set and for the pre-trained ImageNet model available as part of the Caffe open source package. PMID:26161953

  9. Eliciting climate experts' knowledge to address model uncertainties in regional climate projections: a case study of Guanacaste, Northwest Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, I.; Steyn, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    Global general circulation models typically cannot provide the detailed and accurate regional climate information required by stakeholders for climate adaptation efforts, given their limited capacity to resolve the regional topography and changes in local sea surface temperature, wind and circulation patterns. The study region in Northwest Costa Rica has a tropical wet-dry climate with a double-peak wet season. During the dry season the central Costa Rican mountains prevent tropical Atlantic moisture from reaching the region. Most of the annual precipitation is received following the northward migration of the ITCZ in May that allows the region to benefit from moist southwesterly flow from the tropical Pacific. The wet season begins with a short period of "early rains" and is interrupted by the mid-summer drought associated with the intensification and westward expansion of the North Atlantic subtropical high in late June. Model projections for the 21st century indicate a lengthening and intensification of the mid-summer drought and a weakening of the early rains on which current crop cultivation practices rely. We developed an expert elicitation to systematically address uncertainties in the available model projections of changes in the seasonal precipitation pattern. Our approach extends an elicitation approach developed previously at Carnegie Mellon University. Experts in the climate of the study region or Central American climate were asked to assess the mechanisms driving precipitation during each part of the season, uncertainties regarding these mechanisms, expected changes in each mechanism in a warming climate, and the capacity of current models to reproduce these processes. To avoid overconfidence bias, a step-by-step procedure was followed to estimate changes in the timing and intensity of precipitation during each part of the season. The questions drew upon interviews conducted with the regions stakeholders to assess their climate information needs. This

  10. Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Release Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) surveyed the entire sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns in 2010, achieving 5-sigma point source sensitivities per band better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic. The WISE All-Sky Data Release, conducted on March 14, 2012, incorporates all data taken during the full cryogenic mission phase, 7 January 2010 to 6 August 20l0,that were processed with improved calibrations and reduction algorithms. Release data products include: (1) an Atlas of 18,240 match-filtered, calibrated and coadded image sets; (2) a Source Catalog containing positions and four-band photometry for over 563 million objects, and (3) an Explanatory Supplement. Ancillary products include a Reject Table that contains 284 million detections that were not selected for the Source Catalog because they are low signal-to-noise ratio or spurious detections of image artifacts, an archive of over 1.5 million sets of calibrated WISE Single-exposure images, and a database of 9.4 billion source extractions from those single images, and moving object tracklets identified by the NEOWISE program (Mainzer et aI. 2011). The WISE All-Sky Data Release products supersede those from the WISE Preliminary Data Release (Cutri et al. 2011). The Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the WISE data. The Supplement contains an overview of the WISE mission, facilities, and operations, a detailed description of WISE data processing algorithms, a guide to the content and formals of the image and tabular data products, and cautionary notes that describe known limitations of the All-Sky Release products. Instructions for accessing the WISE data products via the services of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive are provided. The Supplement also provides analyses of the achieved sky coverage, photometric and astrometric characteristics and completeness and reliability of the All

  11. Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Christensen, C.

    2006-07-01

    This project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Program, is a case study in reaching zero energy within the affordable housing sector in cold climates. The design of the 1200 square foot, 3-bedroom Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed using an early version of the BEOpt building optimization software with additional analysis using DOE2. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design towards simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques.

  12. Big Data Sensors of Organic Advocacy: The Case of Leonardo DiCaprio and Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Althouse, Benjamin M.; Dredze, Mark; Obradovich, Nick; Fowler, James H.; Noar, Seth M.; Allem, Jon-Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The strategies that experts have used to share information about social causes have historically been top-down, meaning the most influential messages are believed to come from planned events and campaigns. However, more people are independently engaging with social causes today than ever before, in part because online platforms allow them to instantaneously seek, create, and share information. In some cases this “organic advocacy” may rival or even eclipse top-down strategies. Big data analytics make it possible to rapidly detect public engagement with social causes by analyzing the same platforms from which organic advocacy spreads. To demonstrate this claim we evaluated how Leonardo DiCaprio’s 2016 Oscar acceptance speech citing climate change motivated global English language news (Bloomberg Terminal news archives), social media (Twitter postings) and information seeking (Google searches) about climate change. Despite an insignificant increase in traditional news coverage (54%; 95%CI: -144 to 247), tweets including the terms “climate change” or “global warming” reached record highs, increasing 636% (95%CI: 573–699) with more than 250,000 tweets the day DiCaprio spoke. In practical terms the “DiCaprio effect” surpassed the daily average effect of the 2015 Conference of the Parties (COP) and the Earth Day effect by a factor of 3.2 and 5.3, respectively. At the same time, Google searches for “climate change” or “global warming” increased 261% (95%CI, 186–335) and 210% (95%CI 149–272) the day DiCaprio spoke and remained higher for 4 more days, representing 104,190 and 216,490 searches. This increase was 3.8 and 4.3 times larger than the increases observed during COP’s daily average or on Earth Day. Searches were closely linked to content from Dicaprio’s speech (e.g., “hottest year”), as unmentioned content did not have search increases (e.g., “electric car”). Because these data are freely available in real time our

  13. Big Data Sensors of Organic Advocacy: The Case of Leonardo DiCaprio and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Leas, Eric C; Althouse, Benjamin M; Dredze, Mark; Obradovich, Nick; Fowler, James H; Noar, Seth M; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ayers, John W

    2016-01-01

    The strategies that experts have used to share information about social causes have historically been top-down, meaning the most influential messages are believed to come from planned events and campaigns. However, more people are independently engaging with social causes today than ever before, in part because online platforms allow them to instantaneously seek, create, and share information. In some cases this "organic advocacy" may rival or even eclipse top-down strategies. Big data analytics make it possible to rapidly detect public engagement with social causes by analyzing the same platforms from which organic advocacy spreads. To demonstrate this claim we evaluated how Leonardo DiCaprio's 2016 Oscar acceptance speech citing climate change motivated global English language news (Bloomberg Terminal news archives), social media (Twitter postings) and information seeking (Google searches) about climate change. Despite an insignificant increase in traditional news coverage (54%; 95%CI: -144 to 247), tweets including the terms "climate change" or "global warming" reached record highs, increasing 636% (95%CI: 573-699) with more than 250,000 tweets the day DiCaprio spoke. In practical terms the "DiCaprio effect" surpassed the daily average effect of the 2015 Conference of the Parties (COP) and the Earth Day effect by a factor of 3.2 and 5.3, respectively. At the same time, Google searches for "climate change" or "global warming" increased 261% (95%CI, 186-335) and 210% (95%CI 149-272) the day DiCaprio spoke and remained higher for 4 more days, representing 104,190 and 216,490 searches. This increase was 3.8 and 4.3 times larger than the increases observed during COP's daily average or on Earth Day. Searches were closely linked to content from Dicaprio's speech (e.g., "hottest year"), as unmentioned content did not have search increases (e.g., "electric car"). Because these data are freely available in real time our analytical strategy provides substantial lead time

  14. Big Data Sensors of Organic Advocacy: The Case of Leonardo DiCaprio and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Leas, Eric C; Althouse, Benjamin M; Dredze, Mark; Obradovich, Nick; Fowler, James H; Noar, Seth M; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ayers, John W

    2016-01-01

    The strategies that experts have used to share information about social causes have historically been top-down, meaning the most influential messages are believed to come from planned events and campaigns. However, more people are independently engaging with social causes today than ever before, in part because online platforms allow them to instantaneously seek, create, and share information. In some cases this "organic advocacy" may rival or even eclipse top-down strategies. Big data analytics make it possible to rapidly detect public engagement with social causes by analyzing the same platforms from which organic advocacy spreads. To demonstrate this claim we evaluated how Leonardo DiCaprio's 2016 Oscar acceptance speech citing climate change motivated global English language news (Bloomberg Terminal news archives), social media (Twitter postings) and information seeking (Google searches) about climate change. Despite an insignificant increase in traditional news coverage (54%; 95%CI: -144 to 247), tweets including the terms "climate change" or "global warming" reached record highs, increasing 636% (95%CI: 573-699) with more than 250,000 tweets the day DiCaprio spoke. In practical terms the "DiCaprio effect" surpassed the daily average effect of the 2015 Conference of the Parties (COP) and the Earth Day effect by a factor of 3.2 and 5.3, respectively. At the same time, Google searches for "climate change" or "global warming" increased 261% (95%CI, 186-335) and 210% (95%CI 149-272) the day DiCaprio spoke and remained higher for 4 more days, representing 104,190 and 216,490 searches. This increase was 3.8 and 4.3 times larger than the increases observed during COP's daily average or on Earth Day. Searches were closely linked to content from Dicaprio's speech (e.g., "hottest year"), as unmentioned content did not have search increases (e.g., "electric car"). Because these data are freely available in real time our analytical strategy provides substantial lead time

  15. Alluvial fan sensitivity to glacial-interglacial climate change: case studies from Death Valley.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Alexander; D'Arcy, Mitch; Roda-Boluda, Duna; Brooke, Sam

    2016-04-01

    The effects of climate change on eroding landscapes and the sedimentary record remain poorly understood. The measurement of regional grain size trends in stream-flow deposits provides one way to address this issue because, in principle, these trends embed important information on the dynamics of sediment routing systems and their sensitivity to external forcings. In many cases, downstream stratigraphic fining is primarily driven by selective deposition of sediment. The relative efficiency of this process is determined by the physical characteristics of the input sediment supply and the spatial distribution of subsidence rate, which generates the accommodation necessary for mass extraction. Here, we measure grain size fining rates from apex to toe for alluvial fan systems in Death Valley, California, which have well-exposed modern and late Pleistocene deposits, where the long-term tectonic boundary conditions are known and where climatic variation over this time period is well-constrained. Our field data demonstrate that input grain sizes and input fining rates do vary noticeably over the late Pleistocene-Holocene period in this study area, although there is little evidence for significant changes in rates of faulting in the last 200 ky. For two catchments in the Grapevine Mountains for which we have excellent stratigraphic constraints on modern and 70 ka fan deposits, we use a self-similarity based grain size fining model to understand changes in sediment flux to the fans over this time period. When calibrated with cosmogenically-derived catchment erosion rates, our results show that a 30 % decrease in average precipitation rate over this time-frame led to a 20 % decrease in sediment flux to the fans, and a clear increase in the down-fan rate of fining. This supports existing landscape evolution models that relate a decrease in precipitation rate to a decrease in sediment flux, but implies that the relationship between sediment flux and precipitation rate may be

  16. Impact of climate change and variability on agricultural production. Case study of bufumbo sub county in Mt. Elgon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Wafula

    2012-07-01

    Like other Sub-Saharan Africa countries,Uganda's agriculture is subsistence and rain-fed making it vulnerable to climate variability and change. Agricultural performance of the farmers in Bufumbo Sub County largely depends on climatic conditions (rainfall and temperature) implying that, there is likelihood that fluctuations in agricultural outputs are closely linked to climate variability and climate change. This study aims at assessing the impact of climate change and variability on agricultural production in a montane agro-ecological zone of Uganda-Case study of Bufumbo Sub County(Mt. Elgon region. A sample size of 180 farmers will be selected for questionnaire administration (30 respondents in each Parish) with the help of the village leaders. Secondary data on climate, crop yields and soil variables will be obtained from the department of meteorology/ satellite databases, district production/agriculture office and soil maps from FAO (1975) and department of Agriculture respectively. Statistical data will be coded, summarized in frequency tables in excel sheets and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences spreadsheet. While spatial data such as soil and satellite images will be analysed and interpreted using Envisat, ArcGIS 9.3 and ILWIS. Crop yield time series will be analysed using Fapar algorithm using MISR data. The expected results shall be inform of Geo-spatial vulnerability maps, time series satellite images of crop yields, climate change projections and practical adaptation measures for farmers.

  17. Group-wise FMRI Activation Detection on DICCCOL Landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jinglei; Guo, Lei; Zhu, Dajiang; Zhang, Tuo; Hu, Xintao; Han, Junwei; Liu, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    Group-wise activation detection in task-based fMRI has been widely used because of its robustness to noises and its capacity to deal with variability of individual brains. However, current group-wise fMRI activation detection methods typically rely on the co-registration of individual brains’ fMRI images, which has difficulty in dealing with the remarkable anatomic variation of different brains. As a consequence, the resulted misalignments could significantly degrade the required inter-subject correspondences, thus substantially reducing the sensitivity and specificity of group-wise fMRI activation detection. To deal with these challenges, this paper presents a novel approach to detecting group-wise fMRI activation on our recently developed and validated Dense Individualized and Common Connectivity-based Cortical Landmarks (DICCCOL). The basic idea here is that the first-level general linear model (GLM) analysis is first performed on the fMRI signal of each corresponding DICCCOL landmark in individual brain’s own space, and then the estimated effect sizes of the same landmark from a group of subjects are statistically assessed with the mixed-effect model at the group level. Finally, the consistently activated DICCCOL landmarks are determined and declared in a group-wise fashion in response to external block-based stimuli. Our experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed approach can detect meaningful activations. PMID:24777386

  18. Community Wise: Paving the Way for Empowerment in Community Reentry

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Jemal, Alexis; Benoit, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical approaches traditionally applied in mental health and criminal justice interventions fail to address the historical and structural context that partially explains health disparities. Community Wise was developed to address this gap. It is a 12 week group intervention informed by Critical Consciousness Theory and designed to prevent substance abuse, related health risk behaviors, psychological distress, and reoffending among individuals with a history of incarceration and substance abuse. This paper reports findings from the first implementation and pilot evaluation of Community Wise in two community-based organizations. This pre-posttest evaluation pilot-tested Community Wise and used findings to improve the intervention. Twenty-six participants completed a phone and clinical screening, baseline, 6- and 12-week follow-ups, and a focus group at the end of the intervention. Measures assessed participants’ demographic information, psychological distress, substance use, criminal offending, HIV risk behaviors, community cohesion, community support, civic engagement, critical consciousness, ethnic identification, group cohesion, client satisfaction, and acquired treatment skills. Research methods were found to be feasible and useful in assessing the intervention. Results indicated that while Community Wise is a promising intervention, several changes need to be made in order to enhance the intervention. Community Wise is a new approach where oppressed individuals join in critical dialogue, tap into existing community resources, and devise, implement and evaluate their own community solutions to structural barriers. PMID:24630737

  19. Community Wise: paving the way for empowerment in community reentry.

    PubMed

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Jemal, Alexis; Benoit, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical approaches traditionally applied in mental health and criminal justice interventions fail to address the historical and structural context that partially explains health disparities. Community Wise was developed to address this gap. It is a 12week group intervention informed by Critical Consciousness Theory and designed to prevent substance abuse, related health risk behaviors, psychological distress, and reoffending among individuals with a history of incarceration and substance abuse. This paper reports findings from the first implementation and pilot evaluation of Community Wise in two community-based organizations. This pre-posttest evaluation pilot-tested Community Wise and used findings to improve the intervention. Twenty-six participants completed a phone and clinical screening, baseline, 6- and 12-week follow-ups, and a focus group at the end of the intervention. Measures assessed participants' demographic information, psychological distress, substance use, criminal offending, HIV risk behaviors, community cohesion, community support, civic engagement, critical consciousness, ethnic identification, group cohesion, client satisfaction, and acquired treatment skills. Research methods were found to be feasible and useful in assessing the intervention. Results indicated that while Community Wise is a promising intervention, several changes need to be made in order to enhance the intervention. Community Wise is a new approach where oppressed individuals join in critical dialogue, tap into existing community resources, and devise, implement and evaluate their own community solutions to structural barriers.

  20. Translating global climate model projections into usable information for water managers and industry: A case study from Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, J.; Ling, F.; Graham, B.; Grose, M.; Corney, S.; Holz, G.; White, C.; Gaynor, S.; Bindoff, N.

    2010-09-01

    differentiated. This is important for water managers, as it separates elements outside of their control (climate) from those under their control (e.g. irrigation). While changes in human water use are not considered in the Climate Futures for Tasmania study, Tasmanian water managers will be able to adapt the river systems models to quantify changes in water management policies. Finally, projections of runoff were adapted to run through the Hydro Tasmania Systems model Temsim. Temsim uses hydrological inputs in conjunction with projected power demand and energy prices to simulate the Hydro Tasmania power generation system. The Temsim runs translate CFT climate projections into metrics such as storage levels, power generation, and revenue - metrics that can inform the future operation of the Hydro Tasmania system. The result is climate information tailored to the needs of water managers and industry, ensuring the research will be understandable and useable. This paper presents the communication strategy implemented by Climate Futures for Tasmania, and provides a case study of how interaction with government and industry directed the technical research.

  1. A case independent approach on the impact of climate change effects on combined sewer system performance.

    PubMed

    Kleidorfer, M; Möderl, M; Sitzenfrei, R; Urich, C; Rauch, W

    2009-01-01

    Design and construction of urban drainage systems has to be done in a predictive way, as the average lifespan of such investments is several decades. The design engineer has to predict many influencing factors and scenarios for future development of a system (e.g. change in land use, population, water consumption and infiltration measures). Furthermore, climate change can cause increased rain intensities which leads to an additional impact on drainage systems. In this paper we compare the behaviour of different performance indicators of combined sewer systems when taking into account long-term environmental change effects (change in rainfall characteristics, change in impervious area and change in dry weather flow). By using 250 virtual case studies this approach is--in principle--a Monte Carlo Simulation in which not only parameter values are varied but the entire system structure and layout is changed in each run. Hence, results are more general and case-independent. For example the consideration of an increase of rainfall intensities by 20% has the same effect as an increase of impervious area of +40%. Such an increase of rainfall intensities could be compensated by infiltration measures in current systems which lead to a reduction of impervious area by 30%.

  2. Organizational Climate and Work Satisfaction: The Case of Beduin Elementary Schools in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Yoram; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This survey focused on 185 Israeli Bedouin elementary school teachers, assessing their job satisfaction, perception of organizational climate, and interaction. The effect of climate on satisfaction was examined in two separate regression models, based respectively on the task and human relations aspects of satisfaction. Climate factors were…

  3. Changes in circulation type frequencies for present and future climates - the case of Northwestern Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Taboada, J. J.; Gimeno, L.

    2010-05-01

    types for the 3 models and the reanalysis is also analyzed. After assessing the behavior of the three models in the 20th century, we examine changes in the frequency of the circulation types for the three scenarios A1B, B1 and A2. The differences between the respective control run (1961-1999) and the 3 models are accessed and discussed for two future periods of analysis: 2046-2065 and 2081-2099. Lorenzo M.N., J. J. Taboada and L. Gimeno (2008), Links between circulation weather types and teleconnection patterns and their influence on precipitation patterns in Galicia (NW Spain), Int. J. Climatol., 28(11), 1493:1505 doi:10.1002/joc.1646. Ramos, A. M., M. N. Lorenzo, and L. Gimeno (2009), Compatibility between modes of low frequency variability and Circulation Types: a case study of the North West Iberian Peninsula, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2009JD012194 Trenberth, K.E., 1990: Recent observed interdecadal climate changes in the northern hemisphere. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 71, 988-993.

  4. Chemistry Teachers' Views on Teaching "Climate Change"--An Interview Case Study from Research-Oriented Learning in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feierabend, Timo; Jokmin, Sebastian; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a case study from research-oriented learning in chemistry teacher education. The study evaluates the views of twenty experienced German chemistry teachers about the teaching of climate change in chemistry education. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews about the teachers' experiences and their views about…

  5. Impacts of climate change and establishing a vegetation cover on water erosion of contaminated spoils for two contrasting United Kingdom regional climates: a case study approach.

    PubMed

    De Munck, Cécile S; Hutchings, Tony R; Moffat, Andy J

    2008-10-01

    This study examines how pollutant linkage of contaminants will be influenced by predicted changes in precipitation and subsequent rainfall erosion of soils and spoils in the United Kingdom during the 21st century. Two contrasting regional climates were used in conjunction with 2 extreme emissions scenarios (low and high greenhouse gas emissions) to run the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2 (RUSLE2) model for a case study that represents a high risk of pollutant linkage through water erosion. Results for the 2 scenarios and the 2 regions showed a significant and gradual increase in erosion rates with time as a consequence of climate change, by up to 32% for the southwest and 6.6% for the southeast regions by the 2080s. Revegetation of the site showed a dramatic reduction in predicted future amounts of sediment production and subsequent contaminant movement, well below existing levels. Limitations and future improvements of the methodology are discussed.

  6. Porting Big Data technology across domains. WISE for MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vriend, Willem-Jan

    2015-12-01

    Due to the nature of MUSE data, each data-cube obtained as part of the GTO program is used by most of the consortium institutes which are spread across Europe. Since the effort required in reducing the data is significant, and to ensure uniformity in analysis, it is desirable to have a data management system that integrates data reduction, provenance tracking, quality control and data analysis. Such a system should support the distribution of storage and processing over the consortium institutes. The MUSE-WISE system incorporates these aspects. It is built on the Astro-WISE system, originally designed to handle OmegaCAM imaging data, which has been extended to support 3D spectroscopic data. MUSE-WISE is now being used to process MUSE GTO data. It currently stores 95 TB consisting of 48k raw exposures and processed data used by 79 users spread over 7 nodes in Europe.

  7. The Porcupine Survey: A Distributed Survey and WISE Followup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Mainzer, A. K.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Cohen, M.

    2007-10-01

    Spitzer post-cryogen observations to perform a moderate depth survey distributed around the sky are proposed. Field centers are chosen to be WISE brown dwarf candidates, which will typically be 160 μJy at 4.7 μm and randomly distributed around the sky. The Spitzer observations will give much higher sensitivity, higher angular resolution, and a time baseline to measure both proper motions and possibly parallaxes. The distance and velocity data obtained on the WISE brown dwarf candidates will greatly improve our knowledge of the mass and age distribution of brown dwarfs. The outer parts of the Spitzer fields surrounding the WISE positions will provide a deep survey in many narrow fields of view distributed around the sky, and the volume of this survey will contain many more distant brown dwarfs, and many extragalactic objects.

  8. Thermophysical Modeling of WISE Data on 2010 AB78

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Edward L.; Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.

    2010-10-01

    2010 AB78 was the first NEO discovered by WISE in early January. It came back through the WISE scan path in February and again in July, appearing in a total of 89 frames. The lines-of-sight to the asteroid cover 180 deg in RA and 70 deg in Dec. These data are used to constrain the rotation rate, rotation axis, thermal inertia and size of 2010 AB78 using the rotating cratered thermophysical model of Wright (2007). All data were obtained on the same side of the WISE scan circle, limiting our ability to constrain the thermal inertia. The effect of poorly constrained parameters on the size is handled using a Monte Carlo Markov Chain approach.

  9. Chord-wise Tip Actuation on Flexible Flapping Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nathan; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of low aspect ratio flapping plates are strongly influenced by the interaction between tip and edge vortices. This has led to the development of tip actuation mechanisms which bend the tip towards the root of the plate in the span-wise direction during oscillation to investigate its impact. In our current work, a tip actuation mechanism to bend a flat plate's two free corners towards one another in the chord-wise direction is developed using a shape memory alloy. The aerodynamic forces and resulting flow field are investigated from dynamically altering the tip chord-wise curvature while flapping. The frequency of oscillation, stroke angle, flexibility, and tip actuation timing are independently varied to determine their individual effects. These results will further the fundamental understanding of flapping wing aerodynamics. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE 1144469.

  10. Simulation of Urban Climate with High-Resolution WRF Model: A Case Study in Nanjing, China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ben; Zhang, Yaocun; Qian, Yun

    2012-08-05

    In this study, urban climate in Nanjing of eastern China is simulated using 1-km resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a single-layer Urban Canopy Model. Based on the 10-summer simulation results from 2000 to 2009 we find that the WRF model is capable of capturing the high-resolution features of urban climate over Nanjing area. Although WRF underestimates the total precipitation amount, the model performs well in simulating the surface air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation frequency, diurnal cycle and inter-annual variability. We find that extremely hot events occur most frequently in urban area, with daily maximum (minimum) temperature exceeding 36ºC (28ºC) in around 40% (32%) of days. Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect at surface is more evident during nighttime than daytime, with 20% of cases the UHI intensity above 2.5ºC at night. However, The UHI affects the vertical structure of Planet Boundary Layer (PBL) more deeply during daytime than nighttime. Net gain for latent heat and net radiation is larger over urban than rural surface during daytime. Correspondingly, net loss of sensible heat and ground heat are larger over urban surface resulting from warmer urban skin. Because of different diurnal characteristics of urban-rural differences in the latent heat, ground heat and other energy fluxes, the near surface UHI intensity exhibits a very complex diurnal feature. UHI effect is stronger in days with less cloud or lower wind speed. Model results reveal a larger precipitation frequency over urban area, mainly contributed by the light rain events (<10 mm day-1). Consistent with satellite dataset, around 10-20% more precipitation occurs in urban than rural area at afternoon induced by more unstable urban PBL, which induces a strong vertical atmospheric mixing and upward moisture transport. A significant enhancement of precipitation is found in the downwind region of urban in our simulations in the afternoon.

  11. FPA annealing studies for the WISE mission cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naes, Larry

    2006-02-01

    The wide-field infrared survey explorer (WISE) is a MIDEX mission that is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to address several of NASA’s Astronomical Search of Origins (ASO) objectives. The WISE instrument, developed by the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), includes a cryogenically-cooled telescope (at <13 K) and four focal plane assemblies (2 at 7.6 K, 2 at 32 K). Cooling of the instrument is accomplished by a dual-stage solid hydrogen cryostat that is developed by the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center (LM-ATC). Experience from Spitzer suggests that it will be required to warm the two Si:As LWIR arrays used on WISE to above 20 K approximately 4-times a day—i.e. anneal the arrays—to re-establish detector sensitivity. For SFHe systems, detectors are typically vapor cooled. As a result, the warming associated with the annealing process is only indirectly coupled to the cryogen. However, since the WISE focal plane assemblies are conduction coupled directly to the solid hydrogen tank, the potential exists for system impacts on lifetime, temperature stability, and mission duty cycle. This paper summarizes the results of some top-level sensitivity studies that characterize the effects of FPA annealing on a solid hydrogen cryostat—using the WISE cryostat and focal plane assemblies as a model. These trades provide a vector for candidate system level changes to the WISE instrument to help mitigate the impact of the annealing process on the cryostat’s performance.

  12. Predicting Unprecedented Dengue Outbreak Using Imported Cases and Climatic Factors in Guangzhou, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Peng; Yang, Weizhong; Yang, Zhicong; Xu, Lei; Yang, Jun; Liu, Xiaobo; Jiang, Tong; Wu, Haixia; Chu, Cordia; Liu, Qiyong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dengue is endemic in more than 100 countries, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, and the incidence has increased 30-fold in the past 50 years. The situation of dengue in China has become more and more severe, with an unprecedented dengue outbreak hitting south China in 2014. Building a dengue early warning system is therefore urgent and necessary for timely and effective response. Methodology and Principal Findings In the study we developed a time series Poisson multivariate regression model using imported dengue cases, local minimum temperature and accumulative precipitation to predict the dengue occurrence in four districts of Guangzhou, China. The time series data were decomposed into seasonal, trend and remainder components using a seasonal-trend decomposition procedure based on loess (STL). The time lag of climatic factors included in the model was chosen based on Spearman correlation analysis. Autocorrelation, seasonality and long-term trend were controlled in the model. A best model was selected and validated using Generalized Cross Validation (GCV) score and residual test. The data from March 2006 to December 2012 were used to develop the model while the data from January 2013 to September 2014 were employed to validate the model. Time series Poisson model showed that imported cases in the previous month, minimum temperature in the previous month and accumulative precipitation with three month lags could project the dengue outbreaks occurred in 2013 and 2014 after controlling the autocorrelation, seasonality and long-term trend. Conclusions Together with the sole transmission vector Aedes albopictus, imported cases, monthly minimum temperature and monthly accumulative precipitation may be used to develop a low-cost effective early warning system. PMID:26020627

  13. Are You Choosing Wisely in Your Professional Practice?

    PubMed

    Fessele, Kristen L

    2016-04-01

    To enhance the value of care provided to Americans, the American Board of Internal Medicine and Consumer Reports launched the Choosing Wisely® initiative in 2012. Choosing Wisely educates providers and patients about high-frequency, low-value care practices that can be avoided to decrease cost and increase the value of health care. The Oncology Nursing Society collaborated with the American Academy of Nursing to add the first-ever nursing-focused list to those previously submitted by more than 70 specialty societies.
. PMID:26991717

  14. WISE 3.4 micron Detection of PTF10acbp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Hoffman, D.; Masci, F.; Conrow, T.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Helou, G.; Ofek, E. O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Surace, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010 AJ 140, 1868) scanned the position of PTF10acbp (ATEL #3094), the luminous red nova in the spiral galaxy UGC 11973, 23 times between 2010 June 17 and June 23, and again 30 times between 2010 December 12 and December 16, just five days after the transient's discovery. The June observations were made during the WISE cryogenic survey yielding images at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns.

  15. Undergraduate students' conceptions of natural and anthropogenic climate change: A case study approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenbath, Thien-Kim Leckie

    This dissertation shows the evolution of five undergraduate students' ideas of natural and anthropogenic climate change throughout a lecture hall course on climate change. This research was informed by conceptual change theory and students' inaccurate ideas of climate change. Subjects represented different levels of climate change understanding at the beginning of the course and were selected based on their scores on a climate change questionnaire. The study was designed to research how students' ideas changed throughout the course and compare trajectories of lower and higher achieving students. At the beginning, students had different levels of understanding, but as the semester continued, the lower-performing students progressed more than the higher-performing students. At the end of the course, all students described more ideas than they did at the beginning; however some of these ideas were inconsistent with the professors' instruction. Lower-performing students struggled more than the higher-performing students. Struggles included differentiating climate change and its causes, effects, and consequences from other environmental problems. Students also struggled with the idea that climate change is anthropogenic despite it being natural in the past. In order to understand that climate change is impacted by human forcings in addition to natural forcings, students developed the relationship that climate change is natural and humans are "speeding it up." They took time to integrate this relationship into their prior ideas. Three of the students constructed a definition of climate change that was different than the professor's. Two students defined "climate change" as only the natural aspects of climate change and reserved the anthropogenic changes for the term "global warming". For a third student, "climate change" included damming rivers, eutrophication, frog mutations, ozone depletion, and overfishing, which are environmental ailments but not climate change.

  16. Accounting for health in climate change policies: a case study of Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Georgina; Bowen, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Background Climate change is expected to affect the health of most populations in the coming decades, having the greatest impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged people in the world. The Pacific islands, including Fiji, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Objective The three major health impacts of climate change in Fiji explored in this study were dengue fever, diarrhoeal disease, and malnutrition, as they each pose a significant threat to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the Fiji National Climate Change Policy, and a selection of relevant sectoral policies, account for these human health effects of climate change. Design The study employed a three-pronged policy analysis to evaluate: 1) the content of the Fijian National Climate Change Policy and to what extent health was incorporated within this; 2) the context within which the policy was developed; 3) the relevant processes; and 4) the actors involved. A selection of relevant sectoral policies were also analysed to assess the extent to which these included climate change and health considerations. Results The policy analysis showed that these three health impacts of climate change were only considered to a minor extent, and often indirectly, in both the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and the corresponding National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, as well as the Public Health Act. Furthermore, supporting documents in relevant sectors including water and agriculture made no mention of climate change and health impacts. Conclusions The projected health impacts of climate change should be considered as part of reviewing the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, and the Public Health Act. In the interest of public health, this should include strategies for combating dengue fever, malnutrition, and water-borne disease. Related sectoral policies in water and agriculture should also be revised to

  17. Does Integration Help Adapt to Climate Change? Case of Increased US Corn Yield Volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Hertel, T. W.

    2012-12-01

    and reduces its demand. In the presence of domestic integration, ethanol production rises to substitute oil in the gasoline blend and thereby increases the corn demand and prices. However if one takes into account increase in corn price due to increased production costs (increase in oil price increases fertilizer prices - a major input into corn production) and reduced corn prices due to reduced fuel demand and therefore reduced ethanol additive demand; the prices can go either way. Our initial simulations show that they do in fact go down with mandate driven integration. This raises some more general questions: Whether integration (intersectoral and international) can be an effective strategy for adapting to climate change? And which of the four adaptation options - RFS or oil price driven domestic integration, full corn tariff liberalization or restricting tariff manipulation by partners - would be more effective in comparison to other adaptation (including no adaptation) scenarios? We implement the alternative adaptation strategies, while sampling from the same corn yield and oil price distributions and compare the resulting corn price variations to the base case where no such adaptation has been undertaken. Our initial results suggest that intersectoral integration is more effective form of adaptation than international one, but only if driven by market forces and not mandates.

  18. Modelling the impacts of an invasive species across landscapes: a step-wise approach

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Fraser

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the extent of ecological impacts of the invasive Asian paper wasp across different landscapes in New Zealand. We used: (i) a baseline distribution layer (modelled via MaxEnt); (ii) Asian paper wasp nest density (from >460 field plots, related to their preferences for specific land cover categories); and (iii) and their foraging intensity (rates of foraging success, and the time available to forage on a seasonal basis). Using geographic information systems this information is combined and modelled across different landscapes in New Zealand in a step-wise selection process. The highest densities of Asian paper wasps were in herbaceous saline vegetation, followed closely by built-up areas, and then scrub and shrubland. Nest densities of 34 per ha, and occupancy rates of 0.27 were recorded for herbaceous saline vegetation habitats. However, the extent of impacts of the Asian paper wasp remains relatively restricted because of narrow climate tolerances and spatial restriction of preferred habitats. A step-wise process based on geographic information systems and species distribution models, in combination with factors such as distribution, density, and predation, create a useful tool that allows the extent of impacts of invasive species to be assessed across large spatial scales. These models will be useful for conservation managers as they provide easy visual interpretation of results, and can help prioritise where direct conservation action or control of the invader are required. PMID:24949248

  19. Climate impacts of short-lived climate forcers versus CO2 from biodiesel: a case of the EU on-road sector.

    PubMed

    Lund, Marianne T; Berntsen, Terje K; Fuglestvedt, Jan S

    2014-12-16

    Biofuels are proposed to play an important role in several mitigation strategies to meet future CO2 emission targets for the transport sector but remain controversial due to significant uncertainties in net impacts on environment, society, and climate. A switch to biofuels can also affect short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), which provide significant contributions to the net climate impact of transportation. We quantify the radiative forcing (RF) and global-mean temperature response over time to EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs and the impact of 20% (B20) and 100% (B100) replacement of fossil diesel by biodiesel. SLCFs are compared to impacts of on-road CO2 using different approaches from existing literature to account for biodiesel CO2. Given the best estimates for changes in emissions when replacing fossil diesel with biodiesel, the net positive RF from EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs of 3.4 mW/m(2) is reduced by 15% and 80% in B20 and B100, respectively. Over time the warming of SLCFs is likely small compared to biodiesel CO2 impacts. However, SLCFs may be relatively more important for the total warming than in the fossil fuel case if biodiesel from feedstock with very short rotation periods and low land-use-change impacts replaces a high fraction of fossil diesel.

  20. Knowledge-intensive global optimization of Earth observing system architectures: a climate-centric case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva, D.

    2014-10-01

    Requirements from the different disciplines of the Earth sciences on satellite missions have become considerably more stringent in the past decade, while budgets in space organizations have not increased to support the implementation of new systems meeting these requirements. At the same time, new technologies such as optical communications, electrical propulsion, nanosatellite technology, and new commercial agents and models such as hosted payloads are now available. The technical and programmatic environment is thus ideal to conduct architectural studies that look with renewed breadth and adequate depth to the myriad of new possible architectures for Earth Observing Systems. Such studies are challenging tasks, since they require formidable amounts of data and expert knowledge in order to be conducted. Indeed, trade-offs between hundreds or thousands of requirements from different disciplines need to be considered, and millions of combinations of instrument technologies and orbits are possible. This paper presents a framework and tool to support the exploration of such large architectural tradespaces. The framework can be seen as a model-based, executable science traceability matrix that can be used to compare the relative value of millions of different possible architectures. It is demonstrated with an operational climate-centric case study. Ultimately, this framework can be used to assess opportunities for international collaboration and look at architectures for a global Earth observing system, including space, air, and ground assets.

  1. Integration and Typologies of Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Case Study from Australian Wheat Sheep Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-09-01

    Although the integrated indicator methods have become popular for assessing vulnerability to climate change, their proliferation has introduced a confusing array of scales and indicators that cause a science-policy gap. I argue for a clear adaptation pathway in an “integrative typology” of regional vulnerability that matches appropriate scales, optimal measurements and adaptive strategies in a six-dimensional and multi-level analysis framework of integration and typology inspired by the “5W1H” questions: “Who is concerned about how to adapt to the vulnerability of what to what in some place (where) at some time (when)?” Using the case of the vulnerability of wheat, barley and oats to drought in Australian wheat sheep zones during 1978–1999, I answer the “5W1H” questions through establishing the “six typologies” framework. I then optimize the measurement of vulnerability through contrasting twelve kinds of vulnerability scores with the divergence of crops yields from their regional mean. Through identifying the socioeconomic constraints, I propose seven generic types of crop-drought vulnerability and local adaptive strategy. Our results illustrate that the process of assessing vulnerability and selecting adaptations can be enhanced using a combination of integration, optimization and typology, which emphasize dynamic transitions and transformations between integration and typology.

  2. Integration and Typologies of Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Case Study from Australian Wheat Sheep Zones

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Although the integrated indicator methods have become popular for assessing vulnerability to climate change, their proliferation has introduced a confusing array of scales and indicators that cause a science-policy gap. I argue for a clear adaptation pathway in an “integrative typology” of regional vulnerability that matches appropriate scales, optimal measurements and adaptive strategies in a six-dimensional and multi-level analysis framework of integration and typology inspired by the “5W1H” questions: “Who is concerned about how to adapt to the vulnerability of what to what in some place (where) at some time (when)?” Using the case of the vulnerability of wheat, barley and oats to drought in Australian wheat sheep zones during 1978–1999, I answer the “5W1H” questions through establishing the “six typologies” framework. I then optimize the measurement of vulnerability through contrasting twelve kinds of vulnerability scores with the divergence of crops yields from their regional mean. Through identifying the socioeconomic constraints, I propose seven generic types of crop-drought vulnerability and local adaptive strategy. Our results illustrate that the process of assessing vulnerability and selecting adaptations can be enhanced using a combination of integration, optimization and typology, which emphasize dynamic transitions and transformations between integration and typology. PMID:27670975

  3. Assessing the geomorphological sensitivity of cold climate mountains to climate-driven permafrost degradation: the case of the Russian Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, Hanne; Nyssen, Jan; Sannel, Britta; Goossens, Rudi; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Babin, Valery; Bourgeois, Jean; Lanckriet, Sil; Frankl, Amaury

    2016-04-01

    In cold regions, climate change related permafrost thawing is causing geomorphic processes to intensify. This is especially the case in mountain regions, where several studies indicate increased geomorphic activity with the recent thawing of permafrost bodies. In addition to the effect on geomorphic processes, permafrost degradation also results in increased CO2 and CH4 emissions. This causes a positive feedback mechanism on climate change processes. For both the intensity of geomorphic processes and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, little information exists for mountain areas in the permafrost belt worldwide. The Russian Altai Mountains are marginally glaciated and house sporadic and discontinuous permafrost. Due to global warming, temperature and precipitation are changing rapidly in the area, at rates higher than the global average. This result in highly dynamic environmental processes, making the Altai Mountains a potential area to understand the interrelations between geomorphology and permafrost, as influenced by climate change. Due to its marginal nature, permafrost degradation is rapid in the Russian Altai Mountains, and related geomorphological processes (e.g. landslides) are therefore accelerating. Therefore, a geomorphological time-depth analysis will be done focusing on geomorphic permafrost indicators such as rock glaciers, solifluction, permafrost creep, polygon patterned ground, palsas and thermokarst. Mapping the present day situation will be based on fieldwork, existing maps, satellite imagery and ASTER Digital Elevation Models. A specific geomorphological map representing the (peri)glacial geomorphology of the 1960s based on CORONA images will be prepared. In addition, 3D-photomodelling of rock glaciers and solifluction lobes will reveal short-term geomorphic dynamics. To understand the permafrost dynamics (1960s-2100) of the area, a statistical-empirical permafrost model will be used, using topo-climatic factors and temperature data from

  4. Street Wise Part 2: Educating Children for Safe Bicycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crider, Linda B.; Hall, Amanda K.

    2006-01-01

    This part of the "Street Wise" series incorporates essential bicycle safety skills into a one week bike unit, designed for 3rd through 6th graders. These skills require much repetition and practice but can help children develop safe traffic behaviors that save lives, such as stopping, scanning, signaling, street crossing, and avoiding hazards.…

  5. Dusty WDs in the WISE all sky survey ∩ SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Sara D.; Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A.; Brown, Warren R.

    2014-05-10

    A recent cross-correlation between the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 White Dwarf Catalog with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm performed by Debes et al. resulted in the discovery of 52 candidate dusty white dwarfs (WDs). However, the 6'' WISE beam allows for the possibility that many of the excesses exhibited by these WDs may be due to contamination from a nearby source. We present MMT+SAO Wide-Field InfraRed Camera J- and H-band imaging observations (0.''5-1.''5 point spread function) of 16 of these candidate dusty WDs and confirm that four have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) consistent with a dusty disk and are not accompanied by a nearby source contaminant. The remaining 12 WDs have contaminated WISE photometry and SEDs inconsistent with a dusty disk when the contaminating sources are not included in the photometry measurements. We find the frequency of disks around single WDs in the WISE ∩ SDSS sample to be 2.6%-4.1%. One of the four new dusty WDs has a mass of 1.04 M {sub ☉} (progenitor mass 5.4 M {sub ☉}) and its discovery offers the first confirmation that massive WDs (and their massive progenitor stars) host planetary systems.

  6. Discovering Pair-wise Synergies in Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Cao, Dan; Gao, Jun; Yuan, Zheming

    2016-01-01

    Informative gene selection can have important implications for the improvement of cancer diagnosis and the identification of new drug targets. Individual-gene-ranking methods ignore interactions between genes. Furthermore, popular pair-wise gene evaluation methods, e.g. TSP and TSG, are helpless for discovering pair-wise interactions. Several efforts to discover pair-wise synergy have been made based on the information approach, such as EMBP and FeatKNN. However, the methods which are employed to estimate mutual information, e.g. binarization, histogram-based and KNN estimators, depend on known data or domain characteristics. Recently, Reshef et al. proposed a novel maximal information coefficient (MIC) measure to capture a wide range of associations between two variables that has the property of generality. An extension from MIC(X; Y) to MIC(X1; X2; Y) is therefore desired. We developed an approximation algorithm for estimating MIC(X1; X2; Y) where Y is a discrete variable. MIC(X1; X2; Y) is employed to detect pair-wise synergy in simulation and cancer microarray data. The results indicate that MIC(X1; X2; Y) also has the property of generality. It can discover synergic genes that are undetectable by reference feature selection methods such as MIC(X; Y) and TSG. Synergic genes can distinguish different phenotypes. Finally, the biological relevance of these synergic genes is validated with GO annotation and OUgene database. PMID:27470995

  7. Finding the Faintest Exozodi and Asteroid Belt Analogs in WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Rahul; Metchev, S.; Heinze, A.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of circumstellar dust in the terrestrial planet zone and asteroid belt regions of stars can be ascertained from the excess flux from main sequence stars in the near to mid-infrared wavelengths. Finding dust in these regions around stars is significant as it traces material related to terrestrial planet formation. In this study, we use the WISE All-Sky Survey data to detect circumstellar debris disks at the 12 and 22 μm bandpasses (W3 and W4, respectively). We present the detection of a sample of over 220 exozodi and asteroid belt analog candidates, 74% of which are brand new detections all at confidence levels >95%. This was done by cross-matching Hipparcos main-sequence stars with the WISE All-Sky Data Release for stars within 75 pc and outside the galactic plane (|b|>5°) and then seeking color excesses at W3 and W4. In addition to applying the standard WISE photometric flags and filters to remove contaminants from our sample, we also improved our selection techniques by correcting for previously unknown systematic behavior in the WISE photometry. Our debris disk candidates are reliable detections as well as unprecedentedly faint, due in large part to these improved selection techniques.

  8. Hot DOGs: The Most Luminous Galaxies Found by WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wu, Jingwen; Griffith, Roger; Yan, Lin; Stern, Daniel; Stanford, Adam; Blain, Andrew; Benford, Dominic; Bridge, Carrie; Assef, Roberto; Petty, Sara

    2013-02-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has achieved its fundamental goal by delivering its all-sky survey at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 (micron) (W1, W2, W3, and W4), reaching sensitivities hundreds of times deeper than IRAS. One of the two primary science objectives for WISE is to identify the most luminous galaxies in the Universe (Ultra-Luminous IR Galaxies, or ULIRGs). We have used WISE photometry to select an all- sky sample of objects which are extremely luminous, and for which Herschel far-IR follow-up observations are underway. The objects are prominent in W3 and W4, but faint or undetected in W1 and W2. Available spectroscopy and far IR photometry for these objects show they typically have redshifts z > 2 and luminosities over 10^13 L_odot, with about 10% exceeding 10^14 L_odot and rivaling the brightest known QSOs. Their dust is more than twice as hot as other IR luminous objects: they are hot dust obscured galaxies or ``hot DOGs," and may represent a new phase in galaxy evolution. We request NOAO time to obtain redshifts and optical and near IR photometry for the all-sky sample of the brightest hot DOGs, all of which are in our Herschel program. With existing and allocated observations, this request should complete the acquisition of these crucial data for this primary WISE science objective.

  9. Hot DOGs: The Most Luminous Galaxies Found by WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wu, Jingwen; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Wright, Edward

    2013-08-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has achieved its fundamental goal by delivering an all-sky survey at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 (micron) (W1, W2, W3, and W4), reaching sensitivities hundreds of times deeper than IRAS. One of the two primary science objectives for WISE is to identify the most luminous galaxies in the Universe. We have used WISE photometry to select an all-sky sample of objects which are extremely luminous, and for which Herschel far-IR follow-up observations are 99% complete. The objects are prominent in W3 and W4, but faint or undetected in W1 and W2. The spectroscopy and far IR photometry for these objects show they typically have redshifts z > 2 and luminosities over 10^13 L_⊙, with about 5 - 10% exceeding 10^14 L_⊙ and rivaling the brightest known QSOs. Their dust is more than twice as hot as other IR luminous objects: they are hot dust obscured galaxies or ``hot DOGs," and may represent a new phase in galaxy evolution. Because our 2012B allocation had mixed weather, we request 2013B NOAO time to complete the collection of redshifts and optical and near IR photometry for this all-sky sample of the brightest hot DOGs. With existing and allocated observations, this request should complete the acquisition of these crucial data for this primary WISE science objective.

  10. Discovering Pair-wise Synergies in Microarray Data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Cao, Dan; Gao, Jun; Yuan, Zheming

    2016-01-01

    Informative gene selection can have important implications for the improvement of cancer diagnosis and the identification of new drug targets. Individual-gene-ranking methods ignore interactions between genes. Furthermore, popular pair-wise gene evaluation methods, e.g. TSP and TSG, are helpless for discovering pair-wise interactions. Several efforts to discover pair-wise synergy have been made based on the information approach, such as EMBP and FeatKNN. However, the methods which are employed to estimate mutual information, e.g. binarization, histogram-based and KNN estimators, depend on known data or domain characteristics. Recently, Reshef et al. proposed a novel maximal information coefficient (MIC) measure to capture a wide range of associations between two variables that has the property of generality. An extension from MIC(X; Y) to MIC(X1; X2; Y) is therefore desired. We developed an approximation algorithm for estimating MIC(X1; X2; Y) where Y is a discrete variable. MIC(X1; X2; Y) is employed to detect pair-wise synergy in simulation and cancer microarray data. The results indicate that MIC(X1; X2; Y) also has the property of generality. It can discover synergic genes that are undetectable by reference feature selection methods such as MIC(X; Y) and TSG. Synergic genes can distinguish different phenotypes. Finally, the biological relevance of these synergic genes is validated with GO annotation and OUgene database. PMID:27470995

  11. Teaching Statistics with Web Technology: The WISE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aberson, Christopher L.; Berger, Dale E.; Healy, Michael R.; Romero, Victoria L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the WISE (Web Interface for Statistics Education) that was developed to enhance student learning and understanding of core statistical concepts relevant in higher education. Discusses the use of Web technology; the impact on teaching; barriers to computer-based learning; and impact on student learning. (LRW)

  12. A new Y dwarf search probing the limits of WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggett, Sandy; Pinfield, David; Ruiz, Maria Teresa; Marley, Mark; Saumon, Didier; Faherty, Jackie; Smart, Ricky; Gomes, Joana; Day-Jones, Avril

    2013-08-01

    We propose to use FLAMINGOS-2, GNIRS and NIRI to follow-up candidate Y dwarfs from a new search of the WISE catalog. Our method uses WISE multiple measurements and photometric profile fit information to identify non-variable point sources which are detected only in the W2-band, the band most sensitive to very cool brown dwarfs. This search identifies 121 previously unknown candidates down to a S/N=8 limit and probes the lowest Teff that WISE is sensitive to. Initial near-IR followup produced photometry for 13 sources, of which 9 are T8 and earlier T types, three are new 500K T9 dwarfs and one is a new 400K Y0 dwarf. When followup is complete we should approximately double the known number of WISE brown dwarfs cooler than 500K. In 13B we request time to obtain J-band photometry for 85 sources, which make up 75% of our remaining unmatched sample. We expect to find 8 new Y dwarfs, for which we will also obtain H-band photometry. For the brightest new Y dwarfs we will obtain spectra. We expect there will be up to three more semesters where we request time for this project, to image and followup the remaining 25% of our sample, and confirm and characterize new Y dwarfs.

  13. Australian Waste Wise Schools Program: Its Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy

    2010-01-01

    The Waste Wise Schools program has a longstanding history in Australia. It is an action-based program that encourages schools to move toward zero waste through their curriculum and operating practices. This article provides a review of the program, finding that it has had notable success in reducing schools' waste through a "reduce, reuse, and…

  14. Features of Wisdom: Prototypical Attributes of Wise People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciel, Anna G.; And Others

    Features of everyday conceptions of a "wise person" were examined, based on a model of wisdom-related knowledge (Baltes & Smith, 1990). The goal was to examine whether the psychological theory underlying this model is consistent with lay conceptions of wisdom, and whether everyday conceptions contain additional features not contained in the…

  15. Climate change and adaptation of the health sector: The case of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Confalonieri, Ulisses EC; Menezes, Júlia Alves; de Souza, Carina Margonari

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases form a group of health problems highly susceptible to the influences of climate. Adaptation to protect human population health from the changes in infectious disease epidemiology expected to occur as a consequence of climate change involve actions in the health systems as well as in other non-health sectors. In the health sector strategies such as enhanced and targeted epidemiological and entomological surveillance and the development of epidemic early warning systems informed by climate scenarios are needed. Measures in other sectors such as meteorology, civil defense and environmental sanitation will also contribute to a reduction in the risk of infection under climate change. PMID:26177788

  16. Adaptation to climate through flowering phenology: a case study in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Burgarella, Concetta; Chantret, Nathalie; Gay, Laurène; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Bonhomme, Maxime; Tiffin, Peter; Young, Nevin D; Ronfort, Joelle

    2016-07-01

    Local climatic conditions likely constitute an important selective pressure on genes underlying important fitness-related traits such as flowering time, and in many species, flowering phenology and climatic gradients strongly covary. To test whether climate shapes the genetic variation on flowering time genes and to identify candidate flowering genes involved in the adaptation to environmental heterogeneity, we used a large Medicago truncatula core collection to examine the association between nucleotide polymorphisms at 224 candidate genes and both climate variables and flowering phenotypes. Unlike genome-wide studies, candidate gene approaches are expected to enrich for the number of meaningful trait associations because they specifically target genes that are known to affect the trait of interest. We found that flowering time mediates adaptation to climatic conditions mainly by variation at genes located upstream in the flowering pathways, close to the environmental stimuli. Variables related to the annual precipitation regime reflected selective constraints on flowering time genes better than the other variables tested (temperature, altitude, latitude or longitude). By comparing phenotype and climate associations, we identified 12 flowering genes as the most promising candidates responsible for phenological adaptation to climate. Four of these genes were located in the known flowering time QTL region on chromosome 7. However, climate and flowering associations also highlighted largely distinct gene sets, suggesting different genetic architectures for adaptation to climate and flowering onset. PMID:27144929

  17. Climate change and adaptation of the health sector: The case of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Confalonieri, Ulisses E C; Menezes, Júlia Alves; Margonari de Souza, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases form a group of health problems highly susceptible to the influences of climate. Adaptation to protect human population health from the changes in infectious disease epidemiology expected to occur as a consequence of climate change involve actions in the health systems as well as in other non-health sectors. In the health sector strategies such as enhanced and targeted epidemiological and entomological surveillance and the development of epidemic early warning systems informed by climate scenarios are needed. Measures in other sectors such as meteorology, civil defense and environmental sanitation will also contribute to a reduction in the risk of infection under climate change.

  18. Adaptation to climate through flowering phenology: a case study in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Burgarella, Concetta; Chantret, Nathalie; Gay, Laurène; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Bonhomme, Maxime; Tiffin, Peter; Young, Nevin D; Ronfort, Joelle

    2016-07-01

    Local climatic conditions likely constitute an important selective pressure on genes underlying important fitness-related traits such as flowering time, and in many species, flowering phenology and climatic gradients strongly covary. To test whether climate shapes the genetic variation on flowering time genes and to identify candidate flowering genes involved in the adaptation to environmental heterogeneity, we used a large Medicago truncatula core collection to examine the association between nucleotide polymorphisms at 224 candidate genes and both climate variables and flowering phenotypes. Unlike genome-wide studies, candidate gene approaches are expected to enrich for the number of meaningful trait associations because they specifically target genes that are known to affect the trait of interest. We found that flowering time mediates adaptation to climatic conditions mainly by variation at genes located upstream in the flowering pathways, close to the environmental stimuli. Variables related to the annual precipitation regime reflected selective constraints on flowering time genes better than the other variables tested (temperature, altitude, latitude or longitude). By comparing phenotype and climate associations, we identified 12 flowering genes as the most promising candidates responsible for phenological adaptation to climate. Four of these genes were located in the known flowering time QTL region on chromosome 7. However, climate and flowering associations also highlighted largely distinct gene sets, suggesting different genetic architectures for adaptation to climate and flowering onset.

  19. New Exozodi and Asteroid Belt Analogs using WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Rahul; Metchev, Stanimir; Heinze, Aren

    2015-01-01

    The presence of circumstellar dust in the terrestrial planet zone and asteroid belt regions of stars can be ascertained from the excess flux from main sequence stars in the mid-infrared wavelengths. Finding dust in these regions is significant as it traces material related to terrestrial planet formation. The WISE All-Sky survey presents an opportunity to extend the population of faint disks to flux levels 100x fainter than disks detected by IRAS.We use the WISE All-Sky Survey data to detect circumstellar debris disks at the 12 and 22 μm bandpasses (W3 and W4, respectively). We present the detection of a sample of over 214 exozodi and asteroid belt analog candidates, 45% of which are brand new detections at confidence levels >99.5%. This was done by cross-matching Hipparcos main-sequence stars with the WISE All-Sky Data Release for stars within 75 pc and outside the galactic plane (|b|>5 deg) and then seeking color excesses at W3 and W4. In addition to applying the standard WISE photometric flags and filters to remove contaminants from our sample, we also improved our selection techniques by correcting for previously unknown systematic behavior in the WISE photometry, thereby including bright saturated stars into our sample. Our debris disk candidates are reliable detections as well as unprecedentedly faint, due in large part to these improved selection techniques. These new nearby excess hosts are optimal targets for direct imaging campaigns to characterize the disk morphology and to provide a larger sample of well characterized disks with which to understand the overall exoplanetary system architecture.

  20. The First Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxy Discovered by WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Assef, Roberto; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie; Condon, J. J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Cutri, Roc; Evans, Neal J., III; Gelino, Chris; Griffith, Roger L.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Jarrett, Tom; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Masci, Frank J.; Mason, Brian S.; Petty, Sara; Sayers, Jack; Stanford, S. Adam; Stern, Daniel; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer of the z = 2.452 source WISEJ181417.29+341224.9, the first hyperluminous source found in the WISE survey. WISE 1814+3412 is also the prototype for an all-sky sample of approximately 1000 extremely luminous "W1W2-dropouts" (sources faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 micrometers and well detected at 12 or 22 micrometers). The WISE data and a 350 micrometers detection give a minimum bolometric luminosity of 3.7 x 10(exp 13) solar luminosity, with approximately 10(exp 14) solar luminosity plausible. Followup images reveal four nearby sources: a QSO and two Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z = 2.45, and an M dwarf star. The brighter LBG dominates the bolometric emission. Gravitational lensing is unlikely given the source locations and their different spectra and colors. The dominant LBG spectrum indicates a star formation rate approximately 300 solar mass yr(exp -1), accounting for less than or equal to 10 percent of the bolometric luminosity. Strong 22 micrometer emission relative to 350 micrometer implies that warm dust contributes significantly to the luminosity, while cooler dust normally associated with starbursts is constrained by an upper limit at 1.1 mm. Radio emission is approximately 10? above the far-infrared/radio correlation, indicating an active galactic nucleus is present. An obscured AGN combined with starburst and evolved stellar components can account for the observations. If the black hole mass follows the local MBH-bulge mass relation, the implied Eddington ratio is approximately greater than 4. WISE 1814+3412 may be a heavily obscured object where the peak AGN activity occurred prior to the peak era of star formation.

  1. Infrared Astronomy Professional Development for K-12 Educators: WISE Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    K-12 educators need effective and relevant astronomy professional development. WISE Telescope (Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer) and Spitzer Space Telescope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico during the summer of 2009. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance of objects in the universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. The stations included an overview via lecture and power point, the use of ultraviolet beads to determine ultraviolet exposure, the study of WISE lenticulars and diagramming of infrared data, listening to light by using speakers hooked up to photoreceptor cells, looking at visible light through diffraction glasses and diagramming the data, protocols for using astronomy based research in the classroom, and infrared thermometers to compare environmental conditions around the observatory. An overview of LIDAR physics was followed up by a simulated LIDAR mapping of the topography of Mars. We will outline specific steps for K-12 infrared astronomy professional development, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional K-12 professional development. Funding was provided by WISE Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, Starbucks, Arecibo Observatory, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the Washington Space Grant Consortium.

  2. Hydrologic climate change: are the existing dams still safe? The Flumendosa case study in Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccioni, G.; Montaldo, N.; Saba, A.

    2009-04-01

    The problem of the hydraulic safety of existing dams is becoming crucial due to the recent increase of floods. In Sardinia dams were built for both electric production and water supply for irrigation and civil uses during the 1920-1960 period. Recent floods showed a significant increase in magnitude and frequency, supporting the hypothesis of a hydrologic climate change. Are the existing dams still safe? For answering the question 1) a method for estimating the flood hydrograph with return period of 2000 years also accounting for possible climate change is developed, 2) an hydrologic model is implemented, and 3) the hydraulic safety of existing dams is tested. The case study is the Flumendosa river basin (area of about 1300 km2) located in central-eastern Sardinia (Italy), whose reservoir system (3 dams) is the main water supply of southern Sardinia, including its largest city, Cagliari. The smallest dam is located in the upper part of the basin with a drainage area of about 50 km2. At this dam, during the December 2004 flood an extremely high peak discharge of around 2000 m3/s was observed (total daily rain was of 600 mm). In the basin the soils are generally of modest thickness, the vegetation throughout the basin has been in part altered by human activities, with many areas (before covered by scrubs) converted to pasture. Urbanized areas are a minor component. Rainfall and discharge data of historical floods (from 1940) were acquired so that a fully evaluation of the hydrologic model has been performed. The distributed hydrologic model is an event model (FEST) which assesses runoff through a simplified approach based on Soil Conservation Service equations and runoff propagation through the Muskingum-Cunge approach. The FEST model well simulates historical and recent floods. The results demonstrated that the dams are not safe for the estimated flood with return period of 2000 year, but also demonstrated the extreme uncertainty in the estimate of floods with

  3. A methodology for risk assessment of municipal infrastructure due to climate change: a case study of London, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowering, E.; Peck, A.; Simonovic, S.

    2009-12-01

    climate change scenario. Identifying regions of high risk is important in disaster management and preparedness. These results will be available in municipal policy development and decision making. This methodology is applied as a case study to the City of London, Ontario, Canada.

  4. Climate change adaptation under uncertainty in the developing world: A case study of sea level rise in Kiribati

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, S. D.; Webber, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have the greatest impact in parts of the developing world. At the 2010 meeting of U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change in Cancun, industrialized countries agreed in principle to provide US$100 billion per year by 2020 to assist the developing world respond to climate change. This "Green Climate Fund" is a critical step towards addressing the challenge of climate change. However, the policy and discourse on supporting adaptation in the developing world remains highly idealized. For example, the efficacy of "no regrets" adaptation efforts or "mainstreaming" adaptation into decision-making are rarely evaluated in the real world. In this presentation, I will discuss the gap between adaptation theory and practice using a multi-year case study of the cultural, social and scientific obstacles to adapting to sea level rise in the Pacific atoll nation of Kiribati. Our field research reveals how scientific and institutional uncertainty can limit international efforts to fund adaptation and lead to spiraling costs. Scientific uncertainty about hyper-local impacts of sea level rise, though irreducible, can at times limit decision-making about adaptation measures, contrary to the notion that "good" decision-making practices can incorporate scientific uncertainty. Efforts to improve institutional capacity must be done carefully, or they risk inadvertently slowing the implementation of adaptation measures and increasing the likelihood of "mal"-adaptation.

  5. Strengths-Based Assessment of Middle School Climate: A Case Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive school reform requires all schools to conduct systematic, schoolwide evaluations of climate and safety. This article discusses a strengths-based school climate assessment model that identifies positive interactions and reinforcement of existing strengths to build a safety plan. Researchers conducted a qualitative cross-sectional…

  6. Modelling Impacts of Climate Change: Case Studies using the New Generation of Erosion Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change is expected to impact upon a number of soil erosion drivers and processes, which should be taken into account when designing a modelling strategy. The fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) (Parry et al., 2007; Solomon et al., 2007) reviews a...

  7. A Big Data Guide to Understanding Climate Change: The Case for Theory-Guided Data Science.

    PubMed

    Faghmous, James H; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-09-01

    Global climate change and its impact on human life has become one of our era's greatest challenges. Despite the urgency, data science has had little impact on furthering our understanding of our planet in spite of the abundance of climate data. This is a stark contrast from other fields such as advertising or electronic commerce where big data has been a great success story. This discrepancy stems from the complex nature of climate data as well as the scientific questions climate science brings forth. This article introduces a data science audience to the challenges and opportunities to mine large climate datasets, with an emphasis on the nuanced difference between mining climate data and traditional big data approaches. We focus on data, methods, and application challenges that must be addressed in order for big data to fulfill their promise with regard to climate science applications. More importantly, we highlight research showing that solely relying on traditional big data techniques results in dubious findings, and we instead propose a theory-guided data science paradigm that uses scientific theory to constrain both the big data techniques as well as the results-interpretation process to extract accurate insight from large climate data. PMID:25276499

  8. A Big Data Guide to Understanding Climate Change: The Case for Theory-Guided Data Science.

    PubMed

    Faghmous, James H; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-09-01

    Global climate change and its impact on human life has become one of our era's greatest challenges. Despite the urgency, data science has had little impact on furthering our understanding of our planet in spite of the abundance of climate data. This is a stark contrast from other fields such as advertising or electronic commerce where big data has been a great success story. This discrepancy stems from the complex nature of climate data as well as the scientific questions climate science brings forth. This article introduces a data science audience to the challenges and opportunities to mine large climate datasets, with an emphasis on the nuanced difference between mining climate data and traditional big data approaches. We focus on data, methods, and application challenges that must be addressed in order for big data to fulfill their promise with regard to climate science applications. More importantly, we highlight research showing that solely relying on traditional big data techniques results in dubious findings, and we instead propose a theory-guided data science paradigm that uses scientific theory to constrain both the big data techniques as well as the results-interpretation process to extract accurate insight from large climate data.

  9. A Big Data Guide to Understanding Climate Change: The Case for Theory-Guided Data Science

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vipin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Global climate change and its impact on human life has become one of our era's greatest challenges. Despite the urgency, data science has had little impact on furthering our understanding of our planet in spite of the abundance of climate data. This is a stark contrast from other fields such as advertising or electronic commerce where big data has been a great success story. This discrepancy stems from the complex nature of climate data as well as the scientific questions climate science brings forth. This article introduces a data science audience to the challenges and opportunities to mine large climate datasets, with an emphasis on the nuanced difference between mining climate data and traditional big data approaches. We focus on data, methods, and application challenges that must be addressed in order for big data to fulfill their promise with regard to climate science applications. More importantly, we highlight research showing that solely relying on traditional big data techniques results in dubious findings, and we instead propose a theory-guided data science paradigm that uses scientific theory to constrain both the big data techniques as well as the results-interpretation process to extract accurate insight from large climate data. PMID:25276499

  10. Climate change and biofuel wheat: A case study of Southern Saskatchewan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed potential impacts of climate change on wheat production as a biofuel crop in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer-Cropping System Model (DSSAT-CSM) was used to simulate biomass and grain yield under three climate change scenarios ...

  11. Climate change impacts on mass movements--case studies from the European Alps.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, M; Tiranti, D; Huggel, C

    2014-09-15

    This paper addresses the current knowledge on climate change impacts on mass movement activity in mountain environments by illustrating characteristic cases of debris flows, rock slope failures and landslides from the French, Italian, and Swiss Alps. It is expected that events are likely to occur less frequently during summer, whereas the anticipated increase of rainfall in spring and fall could likely alter debris-flow activity during the shoulder seasons (March, April, November, and December). The magnitude of debris flows could become larger due to larger amounts of sediment delivered to the channels and as a result of the predicted increase in heavy precipitation events. At the same time, however, debris-flow volumes in high-mountain areas will depend chiefly on the stability and/or movement rates of permafrost bodies, and destabilized rock glaciers could lead to debris flows without historic precedents in the future. The frequency of rock slope failures is likely to increase, as excessively warm air temperatures, glacier shrinkage, as well as permafrost warming and thawing will affect and reduce rock slope stability in the direction that adversely affects rock slope stability. Changes in landslide activity in the French and Western Italian Alps will likely depend on differences in elevation. Above 1500 m asl, the projected decrease in snow season duration in future winters and springs will likely affect the frequency, number and seasonality of landslide reactivations. In Piemonte, for instance, 21st century landslides have been demonstrated to occur more frequently in early spring and to be triggered by moderate rainfalls, but also to occur in smaller numbers. On the contrary, and in line with recent observations, events in autumn, characterized by a large spatial density of landslide occurrences might become more scarce in the Piemonte region.

  12. Climate change impacts on mass movements--case studies from the European Alps.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, M; Tiranti, D; Huggel, C

    2014-09-15

    This paper addresses the current knowledge on climate change impacts on mass movement activity in mountain environments by illustrating characteristic cases of debris flows, rock slope failures and landslides from the French, Italian, and Swiss Alps. It is expected that events are likely to occur less frequently during summer, whereas the anticipated increase of rainfall in spring and fall could likely alter debris-flow activity during the shoulder seasons (March, April, November, and December). The magnitude of debris flows could become larger due to larger amounts of sediment delivered to the channels and as a result of the predicted increase in heavy precipitation events. At the same time, however, debris-flow volumes in high-mountain areas will depend chiefly on the stability and/or movement rates of permafrost bodies, and destabilized rock glaciers could lead to debris flows without historic precedents in the future. The frequency of rock slope failures is likely to increase, as excessively warm air temperatures, glacier shrinkage, as well as permafrost warming and thawing will affect and reduce rock slope stability in the direction that adversely affects rock slope stability. Changes in landslide activity in the French and Western Italian Alps will likely depend on differences in elevation. Above 1500 m asl, the projected decrease in snow season duration in future winters and springs will likely affect the frequency, number and seasonality of landslide reactivations. In Piemonte, for instance, 21st century landslides have been demonstrated to occur more frequently in early spring and to be triggered by moderate rainfalls, but also to occur in smaller numbers. On the contrary, and in line with recent observations, events in autumn, characterized by a large spatial density of landslide occurrences might become more scarce in the Piemonte region. PMID:24630951

  13. How do the media affect public perception of climate change and geohazards? An Italian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquaré, Federico A.; Oppizzi, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    This paper uses a combination of a qualitative approach and a quantitative, software-based approach to explore the Italian print media construction of climate change and geohazards between 2007 and 2010. We have broken down our analysis in two sections: the first one deals with the coverage of climate change; the second one focuses on the media representation of hydrogeological hazards and extreme events in Italy. Our software-based, qualitative and quantitative analysis of 1253 storylines from two major Italian broadsheets (the La Repubblica and the Corriere della Sera) has enabled us to assess the presence of typical journalistic frames such as conflict and dramatization, as well as newly-introduced ones such as "prevention vs damages", and "weather vs climate". Our results show that the two newspapers appear to have different "agendas" that might have different impacts on their own readerships: the La Repubblica has been on the forefront of forging a broad public consensus on the need for actions aimed at tackling climate change, whereas the Corriere della Sera has gradually built a journalistic agenda aimed at minimizing the urgency of the climate change problem. As regards the media's representation of hydrogeological hazards, we have confirmed what assessed by previous research, i.e. that Italian journalists still prefer to focus on damages rather than prevention; on a better note, the tendency of the Italian press to confuse weather with climate, blaming climate change for extreme rainfalls causing landslides and floods, has decreased in the last four years.

  14. Farm Level Adaptation to Climate Change: The Case of Farmer's in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2013-07-01

    In Ethiopia, climate change and associated risks are expected to have serious consequences for agriculture and food security. This in turn will seriously impact on the welfare of the people, particularly the rural farmers whose main livelihood depends on rain-fed agriculture. The level of impacts will mainly depend on the awareness and the level of adaptation in response to the changing climate. It is thus important to understand the role of the different factors that influence farmers' adaptation to ensure the development of appropriate policy measures and the design of successful development projects. This study examines farmers' perception of change in climatic attributes and the factors that influence farmers' choice of adaptation measures to climate change and variability. The estimated results from the climate change adaptation models indicate that level of education, age and wealth of the head of the household; access to credit and agricultural services; information on climate, and temperature all influence farmers' choices of adaptation. Moreover, lack of information on adaptation measures and lack of finance are seen as the main factors inhibiting adaptation to climate change. These conclusions were obtained with a Multinomial logit model, employing the results from a survey of 400 smallholder farmers in three districts in Tigray, northern Ethiopian.

  15. Farm level adaptation to climate change: the case of farmer's in the Ethiopian highlands.

    PubMed

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2013-07-01

    In Ethiopia, climate change and associated risks are expected to have serious consequences for agriculture and food security. This in turn will seriously impact on the welfare of the people, particularly the rural farmers whose main livelihood depends on rain-fed agriculture. The level of impacts will mainly depend on the awareness and the level of adaptation in response to the changing climate. It is thus important to understand the role of the different factors that influence farmers' adaptation to ensure the development of appropriate policy measures and the design of successful development projects. This study examines farmers' perception of change in climatic attributes and the factors that influence farmers' choice of adaptation measures to climate change and variability. The estimated results from the climate change adaptation models indicate that level of education, age and wealth of the head of the household; access to credit and agricultural services; information on climate, and temperature all influence farmers' choices of adaptation. Moreover, lack of information on adaptation measures and lack of finance are seen as the main factors inhibiting adaptation to climate change. These conclusions were obtained with a Multinomial logit model, employing the results from a survey of 400 smallholder farmers in three districts in Tigray, northern Ethiopian.

  16. American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the metropolitan region of Manaus, Brazil: association with climate variables over time.

    PubMed

    Ferreira de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; Toshie Kayano, Mary; Lima Carvalho, Afrânio

    2015-05-18

    A temporal series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and other environmental parameters covering the years 2002- 2009 was used for the study of the potential association between the climate and the number of cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Manaus Metropolitan Region (MMR), State of Amazonas, Brazil. The results show that CL has a marked seasonality and a strong linkage with local climate conditions. Dry and warm conditions favor the vector, while the maximum number of CL cases occurs during the following wet season. This has a clear relation to the El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the results presented here show that uncharacteristic dry conditions in the MMR follow El Niño after a lag period of 3 months, while wet conditions follow La Niña, again after a lag period of 3 months. El Niño brings dry conditions with warming of the land surface leading to increased growth of trees and bushes as indicated by rising NDVI values, eventually producing increased numbers of CL cases, with a peak of new cases occurring 4 to 5 months later. La Niña, on the other hand, produces wet and cool weather, which is less favorable for the leishmaniasis vector and therefore results in comparatively lower number of CL cases. Since these seasonal climate changes affect the dynamics of the CL vector, and thus the number of CL cases, a close watch of the ENSO phenomenon and the weather type it brings should be useful for monitoring and control of CL in the MMR.

  17. Barriers to use of geospatial data for adaptation to climate change and variability: case studies in public health.

    PubMed

    Aron, Joan L

    2006-11-01

    This paper presents two case studies of the barriers to the use of geospatial data in the context of public health adaptation to climate change and variability. The first case study is on the hazards of coastal zone development in the United States with the main emphasis on Hurricane Katrina. An important barrier to the use of geospatial data is that the legal system does not support restrictions on land use intended to protect the coastal zone. Economic interests to develop New Orleans and the Mississippi River, both over the long term and the short term, had the effect of increasing the impact of the hurricane. The second case study is epidemics of climate-sensitive diseases with the main emphasis on malaria in Africa. Limits to model accuracy may present a problem in using climate data for an early warning system, and some geographic locations are likely to be more suitable than others. Costs of the system, including the costs of errors, may also inhibit implementation. Deriving societal benefits from geospatial data requires an understanding of the particular decision contexts and organizational processes in which knowledge is developed and used. The data by themselves will not usually generate a societal response. Scientists working in applications should develop partnerships to address the use of geospatial data for societal benefit.

  18. Integrating science, economics and law into policy: The case of carbon sequestration in climate change policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Kenneth

    Carbon sequestration, the extraction and storage of carbon from the atmosphere by biomass, could potentially provide a cost-effective means to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. The claims on behalf of carbon sequestration may be inadvertently overstated, however. Several key observations emerge from this study. First, although carbon sequestration studies all report results in terms of dollars per ton, the definition of that term varies significantly, meaning that the results of various analyses can not be meaningfully compared. Second, when carbon sequestration is included in an energy-economy model of climate change policy, it appears that carbon sequestration could play a major, if not dominant role in a national carbon emission abatement program, reducing costs of emissions stabilization by as much as 80 percent, saving tens of billions of dollars per year. However, the results are very dependant upon landowners' perceived risk. Studies may also have overstated the potential for carbon sequestration because they have not considered the implementation process. This study demonstrates that three factors will reduce the cost-effectiveness of carbon sequestration. First, the implementation costs associated with measurement and governance of the government-private sector relation are higher than in the case of carbon source control. Second, legal constraints limit the range of instruments that the government can use to induce private landowners to expand their carbon sinks. The government will likely have to pay private parties to expand their sinks, or undertake direct government production. In either case, additional revenues will be required, introducing social costs associated with excess burden. Third, because of the very long time involved in developing carbon sinks (up to several decades) the government may not be able to make credible commitments against exactions of one type or another that would effectively reduce the value of private sector investments

  19. Fluid simulations with atomistic resolution: a hybrid multiscale method with field-wise coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, Matthew K.; Lockerby, Duncan A.; Reese, Jason M.

    2013-12-15

    We present a new hybrid method for simulating dense fluid systems that exhibit multiscale behaviour, in particular, systems in which a Navier–Stokes model may not be valid in parts of the computational domain. We apply molecular dynamics as a local microscopic refinement for correcting the Navier–Stokes constitutive approximation in the bulk of the domain, as well as providing a direct measurement of velocity slip at bounding surfaces. Our hybrid approach differs from existing techniques, such as the heterogeneous multiscale method (HMM), in some fundamental respects. In our method, the individual molecular solvers, which provide information to the macro model, are not coupled with the continuum grid at nodes (i.e. point-wise coupling), instead coupling occurs over distributed heterogeneous fields (here referred to as field-wise coupling). This affords two major advantages. Whereas point-wise coupled HMM is limited to regions of flow that are highly scale-separated in all spatial directions (i.e. where the state of non-equilibrium in the fluid can be adequately described by a single strain tensor and temperature gradient vector), our field-wise coupled HMM has no such limitations and so can be applied to flows with arbitrarily-varying degrees of scale separation (e.g. flow from a large reservoir into a nano-channel). The second major advantage is that the position of molecular elements does not need to be collocated with nodes of the continuum grid, which means that the resolution of the microscopic correction can be adjusted independently of the resolution of the continuum model. This in turn means the computational cost and accuracy of the molecular correction can be independently controlled and optimised. The macroscopic constraints on the individual molecular solvers are artificial body-force distributions, used in conjunction with standard periodicity. We test our hybrid method on the Poiseuille flow problem for both Newtonian (Lennard-Jones) and non

  20. 78 FR 79691 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; The SunWise Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; The SunWise Program AGENCY... to submit an information collection request (ICR) for ] ``The SunWise Program'' (EPA ICR No. 1904.08... OMB. Abstract: The SunWise Program is a school and community-based sun safety education program...

  1. Method for Estimating Operational Loads on Aerospace Structures Using Span-Wisely Distributed Surface Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a new method for estimating operational loads (bending moments, shear loads, and torques) acting on slender aerospace structures using distributed surface strains (unidirectional strains). The surface strain-sensing stations are to be evenly distributed along each span-wise strain-sensing line. A depth-wise cross section of the structure along each strain-sensing line can then be considered as an imaginary embedded beam. The embedded beam was first evenly divided into multiple small domains with domain junctures matching the strain-sensing stations. The new method is comprised of two steps. The first step is to determine the structure stiffness (bending or torsion) using surface strains obtained from a simple bending (or torsion) loading case, for which the applied bending moment (or torque) is known. The second step is to use the strain-determined structural stiffness (bending or torsion), and a new set of surface strains induced by any other loading case to calculate the associated operational loads (bending moments, shear loads, or torques). Performance of the new method for estimating operational loads was studied in light of finite-element analyses of several example structures subjected to different loading conditions. The new method for estimating operational loads was found to be fairly accurate, and is very promising for applications to the flight load monitoring of flying vehicles with slender wings.

  2. Problems, Prescriptions and Potential in Actionable Climate Change Science - A Case Study from California Coastal Marsh Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, G. M.; Ambrose, R. F.; Thorne, K.; Takekawa, J.; Brown, L. N.; Fejtek, S.; Gold, M.; Rosencranz, J.

    2015-12-01

    Frustrations regarding the provision of actionable science extend to both producers and consumers. Scientists decry the lack of application of their research in shaping policy and practices while decision makers bemoan the lack of applicability of scientific research to the specific problems at hand or its narrow focus relative to the plethora of engineering, economic and social considerations that they must also consider. Incorporating climate change adds additional complexity due to uncertainties in estimating many facets of future climate, the inherent variability of climate and the decadal scales over which significant changes will develop. Recently a set of guidelines for successful science-policy interaction was derived from the analysis of transboundary water management. These are; 1 recognizing that science is a crucial but bounded input into the decision-making processes, 2 early establishment of conditions for collaboration and shared commitment among participants, 3 understanding that science-policy interactions are enhanced through greater collaboration and social or group-learning processes, 4 accepting that the collaborative production of knowledge is essential to build legitimate decision-making processes, and 5 engaging boundary organizations and informal networks as well as formal stakeholders. Here we present as a case study research on California coastal marshes, climate change and sea-level that is being conducted by university and USGS scientists under the auspices of the Southwest Climate Science Center. We also present research needs identified by a seperate analysis of best practices for coastal marsh restoration in the face of climate change that was conducted in extensive consultation with planners and managers. The initial communication, scientific research and outreach-dissemination of the marsh scientfic study are outlined and compared to best practices needs identified by planners and the science-policy guidelines outlined above

  3. Linking Climate, Hydrology and Groundwater in High-Resolution Transient Groundwater Flow Models: a Case Study For a Climate Change Impacts Assessment in Grand Forks, BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scibek, J.; Allen, D. M.; Whitfield, P.; Wei, M.

    2004-05-01

    A case study of an unconfined aquifer in the Grand Forks valley in south-central BC was used to develop methodology for linking climate models, hydrologic models, and groundwater models to investigate future impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. A three dimensional groundwater flow model of variable spatial resolution (constrained by borehole spacing) was implemented in MODFLOW, and calibrated to observation well data. Multiple scenarios of the hydraulic conductivity fields were used in a sensitivity analysis. A new methodology was developed for generating spatially-distributed and temporally-varying recharge zonation for the surficial aquifer, using GIS linked to the one-dimensional HELP (USEPA) hydrologic model that estimates aquifer recharge. The recharge model accounts for soil distribution, vadose zone depth and hydraulic conductivity, extent of impermeable areas, surficial geology, and vadose zone thickness. Production well pumping and irrigation return flow during the summer season were included in recharge computations. Although recharge was computed as monthly averages per climate scenario, it is driven by physically-based daily weather inputs generated by a stochastic weather generator and calibrated to local observed climate. Four year long climate scenarios were run, each representing one typical year in the present and future (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s), by perturbing the historical weather according to the downscaled CGCM1 general circulation model results (Environment Canada). CGCM1 model outputs were calibrated for local conditions during the downscaling procedure. These include absolute and relative changes in precipitation; including indirect measures of precipitation intensity, dry and wet spell lengths, temperature, and solar radiation for the evapotranspiration model. CGCM1 downscaling was also used to predict basin-scale runoff for the Kettle River upstream of Grand Forks. This river exerts strong control on the groundwater levels

  4. Estimating farmers' willingness to pay for climate change adaptation: the case of the Malaysian agricultural sector.

    PubMed

    Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Junsheng, Ha; Akhtar, Rulia; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Kari, Fatimah Binti

    2015-02-01

    This paper estimates Malaysian farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in the Malaysian agricultural sector. We used the contingent valuation method (CVM) for a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues in the Malaysian agricultural sector. Structured questionnaires were distributed among the sampled farmers. The study found that 74 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme and that several socioeconomic and motivation factors have greater influence on their WTP. This paper clearly specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support policy makers to better design an efficient adaptation framework for adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change. PMID:25632900

  5. Climate change impacts on marine water quality: The case study of the Northern Adriatic sea.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, J; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Zabeo, A; Brigolin, D; Carniel, S; Pastres, R; Marcomini, A

    2016-01-30

    Climate change is posing additional pressures on coastal ecosystems due to variations in water biogeochemical and physico-chemical parameters (e.g., pH, salinity) leading to aquatic ecosystem degradation. With the main aim of analyzing the potential impacts of climate change on marine water quality, a Regional Risk Assessment methodology was developed and applied to coastal marine waters of the North Adriatic. It integrates the outputs of regional biogeochemical and physico-chemical models considering future climate change scenarios (i.e., years 2070 and 2100) with site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators. Results showed that salinity and temperature will be the main drivers of changes, together with macronutrients, especially in the area of the Po' river delta. The final outputs are exposure, susceptibility and risk maps supporting the communication of the potential consequences of climate change on water quality to decision makers and stakeholders and provide a basis for the definition of adaptation and management strategies.

  6. Estimating farmers' willingness to pay for climate change adaptation: the case of the Malaysian agricultural sector.

    PubMed

    Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Junsheng, Ha; Akhtar, Rulia; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Kari, Fatimah Binti

    2015-02-01

    This paper estimates Malaysian farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in the Malaysian agricultural sector. We used the contingent valuation method (CVM) for a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues in the Malaysian agricultural sector. Structured questionnaires were distributed among the sampled farmers. The study found that 74 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme and that several socioeconomic and motivation factors have greater influence on their WTP. This paper clearly specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support policy makers to better design an efficient adaptation framework for adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change.

  7. VoxelStats: A MATLAB Package for Multi-Modal Voxel-Wise Brain Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mathotaarachchi, Sulantha; Wang, Seqian; Shin, Monica; Pascoal, Tharick A; Benedet, Andrea L; Kang, Min Su; Beaudry, Thomas; Fonov, Vladimir S; Gauthier, Serge; Labbe, Aurélie; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, behavioral outcomes are highly associated with the variability on brain regional structure or neurochemical phenotypes. Similarly, in the context of neurodegenerative conditions, neuroimaging reveals that cognitive decline is linked to the magnitude of atrophy, neurochemical declines, or concentrations of abnormal protein aggregates across brain regions. However, modeling the effects of multiple regional abnormalities as determinants of cognitive decline at the voxel level remains largely unexplored by multimodal imaging research, given the high computational cost of estimating regression models for every single voxel from various imaging modalities. VoxelStats is a voxel-wise computational framework to overcome these computational limitations and to perform statistical operations on multiple scalar variables and imaging modalities at the voxel level. VoxelStats package has been developed in Matlab(®) and supports imaging formats such as Nifti-1, ANALYZE, and MINC v2. Prebuilt functions in VoxelStats enable the user to perform voxel-wise general and generalized linear models and mixed effect models with multiple volumetric covariates. Importantly, VoxelStats can recognize scalar values or image volumes as response variables and can accommodate volumetric statistical covariates as well as their interaction effects with other variables. Furthermore, this package includes built-in functionality to perform voxel-wise receiver operating characteristic analysis and paired and unpaired group contrast analysis. Validation of VoxelStats was conducted by comparing the linear regression functionality with existing toolboxes such as glim_image and RMINC. The validation results were identical to existing methods and the additional functionality was demonstrated by generating feature case assessments (t-statistics, odds ratio, and true positive rate maps). In summary, VoxelStats expands the current methods for multimodal imaging analysis by allowing the

  8. VoxelStats: A MATLAB Package for Multi-Modal Voxel-Wise Brain Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mathotaarachchi, Sulantha; Wang, Seqian; Shin, Monica; Pascoal, Tharick A.; Benedet, Andrea L.; Kang, Min Su; Beaudry, Thomas; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Gauthier, Serge; Labbe, Aurélie; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, behavioral outcomes are highly associated with the variability on brain regional structure or neurochemical phenotypes. Similarly, in the context of neurodegenerative conditions, neuroimaging reveals that cognitive decline is linked to the magnitude of atrophy, neurochemical declines, or concentrations of abnormal protein aggregates across brain regions. However, modeling the effects of multiple regional abnormalities as determinants of cognitive decline at the voxel level remains largely unexplored by multimodal imaging research, given the high computational cost of estimating regression models for every single voxel from various imaging modalities. VoxelStats is a voxel-wise computational framework to overcome these computational limitations and to perform statistical operations on multiple scalar variables and imaging modalities at the voxel level. VoxelStats package has been developed in Matlab® and supports imaging formats such as Nifti-1, ANALYZE, and MINC v2. Prebuilt functions in VoxelStats enable the user to perform voxel-wise general and generalized linear models and mixed effect models with multiple volumetric covariates. Importantly, VoxelStats can recognize scalar values or image volumes as response variables and can accommodate volumetric statistical covariates as well as their interaction effects with other variables. Furthermore, this package includes built-in functionality to perform voxel-wise receiver operating characteristic analysis and paired and unpaired group contrast analysis. Validation of VoxelStats was conducted by comparing the linear regression functionality with existing toolboxes such as glim_image and RMINC. The validation results were identical to existing methods and the additional functionality was demonstrated by generating feature case assessments (t-statistics, odds ratio, and true positive rate maps). In summary, VoxelStats expands the current methods for multimodal imaging analysis by allowing the

  9. VoxelStats: A MATLAB Package for Multi-Modal Voxel-Wise Brain Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mathotaarachchi, Sulantha; Wang, Seqian; Shin, Monica; Pascoal, Tharick A; Benedet, Andrea L; Kang, Min Su; Beaudry, Thomas; Fonov, Vladimir S; Gauthier, Serge; Labbe, Aurélie; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, behavioral outcomes are highly associated with the variability on brain regional structure or neurochemical phenotypes. Similarly, in the context of neurodegenerative conditions, neuroimaging reveals that cognitive decline is linked to the magnitude of atrophy, neurochemical declines, or concentrations of abnormal protein aggregates across brain regions. However, modeling the effects of multiple regional abnormalities as determinants of cognitive decline at the voxel level remains largely unexplored by multimodal imaging research, given the high computational cost of estimating regression models for every single voxel from various imaging modalities. VoxelStats is a voxel-wise computational framework to overcome these computational limitations and to perform statistical operations on multiple scalar variables and imaging modalities at the voxel level. VoxelStats package has been developed in Matlab(®) and supports imaging formats such as Nifti-1, ANALYZE, and MINC v2. Prebuilt functions in VoxelStats enable the user to perform voxel-wise general and generalized linear models and mixed effect models with multiple volumetric covariates. Importantly, VoxelStats can recognize scalar values or image volumes as response variables and can accommodate volumetric statistical covariates as well as their interaction effects with other variables. Furthermore, this package includes built-in functionality to perform voxel-wise receiver operating characteristic analysis and paired and unpaired group contrast analysis. Validation of VoxelStats was conducted by comparing the linear regression functionality with existing toolboxes such as glim_image and RMINC. The validation results were identical to existing methods and the additional functionality was demonstrated by generating feature case assessments (t-statistics, odds ratio, and true positive rate maps). In summary, VoxelStats expands the current methods for multimodal imaging analysis by allowing the

  10. Bi-level multi-source learning for heterogeneous block-wise missing data.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Shuo; Yuan, Lei; Fan, Wei; Wang, Yalin; Thompson, Paul M; Ye, Jieping

    2014-11-15

    Bio-imaging technologies allow scientists to collect large amounts of high-dimensional data from multiple heterogeneous sources for many biomedical applications. In the study of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), neuroimaging data, gene/protein expression data, etc., are often analyzed together to improve predictive power. Joint learning from multiple complementary data sources is advantageous, but feature-pruning and data source selection are critical to learn interpretable models from high-dimensional data. Often, the data collected has block-wise missing entries. In the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), most subjects have MRI and genetic information, but only half have cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measures, a different half has FDG-PET; only some have proteomic data. Here we propose how to effectively integrate information from multiple heterogeneous data sources when data is block-wise missing. We present a unified "bi-level" learning model for complete multi-source data, and extend it to incomplete data. Our major contributions are: (1) our proposed models unify feature-level and source-level analysis, including several existing feature learning approaches as special cases; (2) the model for incomplete data avoids imputing missing data and offers superior performance; it generalizes to other applications with block-wise missing data sources; (3) we present efficient optimization algorithms for modeling complete and incomplete data. We comprehensively evaluate the proposed models including all ADNI subjects with at least one of four data types at baseline: MRI, FDG-PET, CSF and proteomics. Our proposed models compare favorably with existing approaches.

  11. A WISE VIEW OF STAR FORMATION IN LOCAL GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Sun Mi; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Stern, Daniel; Stanford, Spencer A.; Brodwin, Mark; Jarrett, Thomas

    2011-12-10

    We present results from a systematic study of star formation in local galaxy clusters using 22 {mu}m data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The 69 systems in our sample are drawn from the Cluster Infall Regions Survey, and all have robust mass determinations. The all-sky WISE data enable us to quantify the amount of star formation, as traced by 22 {mu}m, as a function of radius well beyond R{sub 200}, and investigate the dependence of total star formation rate upon cluster mass. We find that the fraction of star-forming galaxies increases with cluster radius but remains below the field value even at 3R{sub 200}. We also find that there is no strong correlation between the mass-normalized total specific star formation rate and cluster mass, indicating that the mass of the host cluster does not strongly influence the total star formation rate of cluster members.

  12. Tolerance to multiple climate stressors: A case study of Douglas-fir drought and cold hardiness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A; St. Clair, John Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Summary: 1. Drought and freeze events are two of the most common forms of climate extremes which result in tree damage or death, and the frequency and intensity of both stressors may increase with climate change. Few studies have examined natural covariation in stress tolerance traits to cope with multiple stressors among wild plant populations. 2. We assessed the capacity of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii), an ecologically and economically important species in the northwestern USA, to tolerate both drought and cold stress on 35 populations grown in common gardens. We used principal components analysis to combine drought and cold hardiness trait data into generalized stress hardiness traits to model geographic variation in hardiness as a function of climate across the Douglas-fir range. 3. Drought and cold hardiness converged among populations along winter temperature gradients and diverged along summer precipitation gradients. Populations originating in regions with cold winters had relatively high tolerance to both drought and cold stress, which is likely due to overlapping adaptations for coping with winter desiccation. Populations from regions with dry summers had increased drought hardiness but reduced cold hardiness, suggesting a trade-off in tolerance mechanisms. 4. Our findings highlight the necessity to look beyond bivariate trait–climate relationships and instead consider multiple traits and climate variables to effectively model and manage for the impacts of climate change on widespread species.

  13. Evaluating Climate Predictability Signals in Response to Forcing: Mount Pinatubo as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddis, A. L.; Drake, J.; Evans, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions serve as a benchmark for assessing aspects of predictability because they provide a sudden global impulse to the Earth's climate system. In particular, the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines is of interest since it was the largest aerosol perturbation to the stratosphere in the twentieth century and the most intensely observed eruption on record. Using instrumental measurements during the eruption, the predictive capabilities of climate models may be evaluated and the predictability of climate variables under forcing may be inferred. In this study, the evolution of the climate response to volcanic forcing is simulated in the Community Earth System Model, CESM1.0, using ensembles of forced and unforced global climate model runs. The predictability signals of all atmospheric climate model variables are systematically calculated using a unitless signal to noise ratio. The signals are compared to determine the most sensitive variables. Additionally, this work examines spatial predictability patterns, important for regional predictability, by mapping the signals globally and using empirical orthogonal functions. Phase plots are employed to highlight the response of variables to forcing, and comparisons with observations of the eruption are made to provide validation of the results.

  14. Social vulnerability and climate variability in southern Brazil: a TerraPop case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, S. B.; Fitch, C. A.; Kugler, T.; Doxsey-Whitfield, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability is an inherent characteristic of the Earth's climate, including but not limited to climate change. It affects and impacts human society in different ways, depending on the underlying socioeconomic vulnerability of specific places, social groups, households and individuals. This differential vulnerability presents spatial and temporal variations, and is rooted in historical patterns of development and relations between human and ecological systems. This study aims to assess the impact of climate variability on livelihoods and well-being, as well as their changes over time and across space, and for rural and urban populations. The geographic focus is Southern Brazil-the states of Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul-- and the objectives include (a) to identify and map critical areas or hotspots of exposure to climate variability (temperature and precipitation), and (b) to identify internal variation or differential vulnerability within these areas and its evolution over time (1980-2010), using newly available integrated data from the Terra Populus project. These data include geo-referenced climate and agricultural data, and data describing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals, households and places.

  15. The AllWISE Motion Survey, Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Kellogg, Kendra; Schneider, Adam C.; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Cushing, Michael C.; Greco, Jennifer; Mace, Gregory N.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Lansbury, George B.; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Martin, Emily C.; McLean, Ian S.; Schurr, Steven D.; Cutri, Roc M.; Conrow, Tim

    2016-06-01

    We use the AllWISE Data Release to continue our search for Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-detected motions. In this paper, we publish another 27,846 motion objects, bringing the total number to 48,000 when objects found during our original AllWISE motion survey are included. We use this list, along with the lists of confirmed WISE-based motion objects from the recent papers by Luhman and by Schneider et al., and candidate motion objects from the recent paper by Gagné et al., to search for widely separated, common-proper-motion systems. We identify 1039 such candidate systems. All 48,000 objects are further analyzed using color-color and color-mag plots to provide possible characterizations prior to spectroscopic follow-up. We present spectra of 172 of these, supplemented with new spectra of 23 comparison objects from the literature, and provide classifications and physical interpretations of interesting sources. Highlights include: (1) the identification of three G/K dwarfs that can be used as standard candles to study clumpiness and grain size in nearby molecular clouds because these objects are currently moving behind the clouds, (2) the confirmation/discovery of several M, L, and T dwarfs and one white dwarf whose spectrophotometric distance estimates place them 5-20 pc from the Sun, (3) the suggestion that the Na i “D” line be used as a diagnostic tool for interpreting and classifying metal-poor late-M and L dwarfs, (4) the recognition of a triple system including a carbon dwarf and late-M subdwarf, for which model fits of the late-M subdwarf (giving [Fe/H] ≈ -1.0) provide a measured metallicity for the carbon star, and (5) a possible 24 pc distant K5 dwarf + peculiar red L5 system with an apparent physical separation of 0.1 pc.

  16. WISE Constraints on the Particle Properties in Saturn's Phoebe Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.; Verbiscer, A. J.; Skrutskie, M. F.

    2012-05-01

    Saturn's diffuse outer Phoebe Ring is an immense disk-like structure oriented edge-on as viewed from Earth; it is 30 million km (500 Saturn ra dii) wide and 2.5 million km (40 Saturn radii) thick. The ring's particles are thought to originate primarily from the planet's dark irregular satellite Phoebe (mean radius 107km). The ring was discovered by Spitzer 24-micron imaging (Verbiscer et al., Nature 2009) and recently recovered by WISE (Skrutskie et al., DPS 2011) at 22 microns. The WISE images, which show the full extent of the ring for the first time, nicely complement the more sensitive but spatially-limited Spitzer data. Usually, ring particle populations can be determined observationally from spectral and phase angle information, but as observations of the Phoebe ring are extremely limited, we instead rely on dynamical arguments. Small particles in the Phoebe ring are expected to be driven to eccentricities in excess of Phoebe's e=0.16 by radiation pressure over 30-year timescales. Over million-year timescales, the dust distribution migrates inward via Poynting-Robertson drag, and most of the material finds its way onto the dark side of Iapetus. We model these processes numerically and build up synthetic ring profiles, making various assumptions about the unknown particle size distribution. We produce radial intensity profiles which we compare to the WISE data as well as vertical profiles which are most constrained by Spitzer. Our procedure is more robust than the onion-peeling technique used by ring scientists because it does not require the assumption of circular orbits. We find that the WISE data cannot be fit by a simple power law particle size distribution as is commonly assumed for rings. Instead, we show that the majority of the flux in the outer parts of the ring is be due to a significant excess of particles with sizes larger than several centimeters.

  17. Data federations: AstroWise and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentijn, Edwin A.

    2015-12-01

    The AstroWise information system is operational for the production of the results of a number astronomical survey programmes with OmegaCAM@VST and MUSE@VLT. In different forms it has also been applied to the Lofar radiotelescope, life science projects and business applications. I will discuss the common "data federation"aspects of these projects, and the data federation aspects of the Euclid Archive System.

  18. Exploring the Universe with WISE and Cloud Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2011-01-01

    WISE is a recently-completed astronomical survey mission that has imaged the entire sky in four infrared wavelength bands. The large quantity of science images returned consists of 2,776,922 individual snapshots in various locations in each band which, along with ancillary data, totals around 110TB of raw, uncompressed data. Making the most use of this data requires advanced computing resources. I will discuss some initial attempts in the use of cloud computing to make this large problem tractable.

  19. The AllWISE Motion Survey, Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Kellogg, Kendra; Schneider, Adam C.; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Cushing, Michael C.; Greco, Jennifer; Mace, Gregory N.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Lansbury, George B.; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Martin, Emily C.; McLean, Ian S.; Schurr, Steven D.; Cutri, Roc M.; Conrow, Tim

    2016-06-01

    We use the AllWISE Data Release to continue our search for Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-detected motions. In this paper, we publish another 27,846 motion objects, bringing the total number to 48,000 when objects found during our original AllWISE motion survey are included. We use this list, along with the lists of confirmed WISE-based motion objects from the recent papers by Luhman and by Schneider et al., and candidate motion objects from the recent paper by Gagné et al., to search for widely separated, common-proper-motion systems. We identify 1039 such candidate systems. All 48,000 objects are further analyzed using color–color and color–mag plots to provide possible characterizations prior to spectroscopic follow-up. We present spectra of 172 of these, supplemented with new spectra of 23 comparison objects from the literature, and provide classifications and physical interpretations of interesting sources. Highlights include: (1) the identification of three G/K dwarfs that can be used as standard candles to study clumpiness and grain size in nearby molecular clouds because these objects are currently moving behind the clouds, (2) the confirmation/discovery of several M, L, and T dwarfs and one white dwarf whose spectrophotometric distance estimates place them 5–20 pc from the Sun, (3) the suggestion that the Na i “D” line be used as a diagnostic tool for interpreting and classifying metal-poor late-M and L dwarfs, (4) the recognition of a triple system including a carbon dwarf and late-M subdwarf, for which model fits of the late-M subdwarf (giving [Fe/H] ≈ ‑1.0) provide a measured metallicity for the carbon star, and (5) a possible 24 pc distant K5 dwarf + peculiar red L5 system with an apparent physical separation of 0.1 pc.

  20. Regional and Household Adaptation Strategies to Climate Extremes: the Case Study of the Beava River Basin, the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duží, Barbora; Stojanov, Robert; Vikhrov, Dmytro

    2013-04-01

    We investigate regional and household adaptation strategies in the region affected by climate extremes, focusing on floods occurrence during past 15 years period. The main research question is: What is the overall state of adaptation measurements to climate extremes on the Bečva river basin? Target area is located along upper and middle part of the Bečva river basin in the east of the Czech Republic. The main theoretical concepts draw from differentiations between coping/adaptation strategies to climate extremes and theory of focusing event as a starter of changes in attention and agenda of problem solution. We apply mixed empirical research and case study approach. First we use qualitative research to serve as an initial entrance to the issue, to find out the perception of adaptation progress and preparedness to climate extremes on regional level. We conducted deep interviews (N=20) with relevant stakeholders. We proceed with quantitative research through the conducting face-to face questionnaires with household residents (N=305) in no, low and no risk area in relation to flood occurrence. We designed set of questions to find out relation among experiences with flood, the level of damages and applied emergency and adaptation measurements.

  1. Climate change vulnerability assessments as catalysts for social learning: four case studies in south-eastern Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2012-01-01

    Technical assessments of vulnerability and/or risk are increasingly being undertaken to assess the impacts of climate change. Underlying this is the belief that they will bring clarity to questions regarding the scale of institutional investments required, plausible adaptation policies and measures, and the timing of their implementation. Despite the perceived importance of technical assessments in 'evidence-based' decision environments, assessments cannot be undertaken independent of values and politics, nor are they capable of eliminating the uncertainty that clouds decision-making on climate adaptation As such, assessments can trigger as many questions as they answer, leaving practitioners and stakeholders to question their value. This paper explores the value of vulnerability/risk assessments in climate change adaptation planning processes as a catalyst for learning in four case studies in Southeastern Australia. Data were collected using qualitative interviews with stakeholders involved in the assessments and analysed using a social learning framework. This analysis revealed that detailed and tangible strategies or actions often do not emerge directly from technical assessments. However, it also revealed that the assessments became important platforms for social learning. In providing these platforms, assessments present opportunities to question initial assumptions, explore multiple framings of an issue, generate new information, and galvanise support for collective actions. This study highlights the need for more explicit recognition and understanding of the important role social learning plays in climate change vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning more broadly.

  2. Usability testing of AsthmaWise with older adults.

    PubMed

    Burns, Pippa; Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Don; Caputi, Peter

    2013-05-01

    There are many reasons why online self-management education is attractive to both patients and providers. AsthmaWise, an online self-management program, was developed using a Moodle platform, to enable older adults to learn asthma self-management skills. This study aimed to improve AsthmaWise through conducting: usability testing with a sample of end users; a cognitive walk-through undertaken by an independent health researcher; and assessment of content readability. A Perceived Health Web Site Usability Questionnaire score of 67% was achieved, indicating that there were usability issues that needed to be addressed. The cognitive walk-through and readability assessment identified unique issues that were not identified through usability testing with end users. The testing process allowed issues to be identified and rectified before piloting AsthmaWise, creating a more accessible and refined end product. The involvement of the site designer in the testing process was valuable and is highly recommended. This study shows that usability testing involving both end users and experts is an essential part of the design process that is relatively easy and inexpensive to undertake and can be effectively conducted by a nonexpert. PMID:23542306

  3. Selecting Populations for Non-Analogous Climate Conditions Using Universal Response Functions: The Case of Douglas-Fir in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Debojyoti; Wang, Tongli; Andre, Konrad; Konnert, Monika; Lexer, Manfred J.; Matulla, Christoph; Schueler, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Identifying populations within tree species potentially adapted to future climatic conditions is an important requirement for reforestation and assisted migration programmes. Such populations can be identified either by empirical response functions based on correlations of quantitative traits with climate variables or by climate envelope models that compare the climate of seed sources and potential growing areas. In the present study, we analyzed the intraspecific variation in climate growth response of Douglas-fir planted within the non-analogous climate conditions of Central and continental Europe. With data from 50 common garden trials, we developed Universal Response Functions (URF) for tree height and mean basal area and compared the growth performance of the selected best performing populations with that of populations identified through a climate envelope approach. Climate variables of the trial location were found to be stronger predictors of growth performance than climate variables of the population origin. Although the precipitation regime of the population sources varied strongly none of the precipitation related climate variables of population origin was found to be significant within the models. Overall, the URFs explained more than 88% of variation in growth performance. Populations identified by the URF models originate from western Cascades and coastal areas of Washington and Oregon and show significantly higher growth performance than populations identified by the climate envelope approach under both current and climate change scenarios. The URFs predict decreasing growth performance at low and middle elevations of the case study area, but increasing growth performance on high elevation sites. Our analysis suggests that population recommendations based on empirical approaches should be preferred and population selections by climate envelope models without considering climatic constrains of growth performance should be carefully appraised before

  4. Learning climate in dental hygiene education: a longitudinal case study of a Japanese and Canadian programme.

    PubMed

    Saito, A; Sunell, S; Rucker, L; Wilson, M; Sato, Y; Cathcart, G

    2010-05-01

    Educational climates have been found to have important influences on learning, but little feedback has been obtained from dental hygiene students. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the learning climate in Japanese and Canadian dental hygiene programmes for the purpose of making positive changes. A survey instrument with 10 dimensions relating to learning climate was adapted from business and dental models, and designated as the Dental Hygiene Student Learning Climate Survey (DHS-LCS). Higher scores indicated a more positive and supportive learning climate, and lower scores indicated an environment that is potentially less desirable. Students enrolled in a Japanese and a Canadian dental hygiene programme participated in this four-year study from 2005 to 2008. A total of 402 surveys were returned for an average response rate of 62%. The mean total DHS-LCS score of Canadian students was statistically significantly higher than that of Japanese students (P < 0.001) in all years tested, indicating that the Canadian students' perceptions of their learning environment were more favourable than those of the Japanese students. Based on the analyses of the DHS-LCS data, interventions to improve learning climates were designed and implemented. There were statistically significant improvements (P < 0.01) in DHS-LCS scores of Japanese and Canadian students over the years of the study, suggesting that student-centred interventions improved the perceived learning environment. The instrument appears to be helpful in identifying student concerns and can be used to implement interventions to help support a healthier learning climate.

  5. Climate effects of emission standards: the case for gasoline and diesel cars.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Berntsen, Terje; Fuglestvedt, Jan S; Rypdal, Kristin

    2012-05-01

    Passenger transport affects climate through various mechanisms involving both long-lived and short-lived climate forcers. Because diesel cars generally emit less CO(2) than gasoline cars, CO(2) emission taxes for vehicle registrations and fuels enhance the consumer preference for diesel cars over gasoline cars. However, with the non-CO(2) components, which have been changed and will be changed under the previous and upcoming vehicle emission standards, what does the shift from gasoline to diesel cars mean for the climate mitigation? By using a simple climate model, we demonstrate that, under the earlier emissions standards (EURO 3 and 4), a diesel car causes a larger warming up to a decade after the emissions than a similar gasoline car due to the higher emissions of black carbon and NO(X) (enhancing the O(3) production). Beyond a decade, the warming caused by a diesel car becomes, however, weaker because of the lower CO(2) emissions. As the latter emissions standards (EURO 5 and 6) are phased in, the short-term warming due to a diesel car becomes smaller primarily due to the lower black carbon emissions. Thus, although results are subject to restrictive assumptions and uncertainties, the switch from gasoline to diesel cars encouraged by CO(2) taxes does not contradict with the climate mitigation focusing on long-term consequences. PMID:22436085

  6. Climate effects of emission standards: the case for gasoline and diesel cars.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Berntsen, Terje; Fuglestvedt, Jan S; Rypdal, Kristin

    2012-05-01

    Passenger transport affects climate through various mechanisms involving both long-lived and short-lived climate forcers. Because diesel cars generally emit less CO(2) than gasoline cars, CO(2) emission taxes for vehicle registrations and fuels enhance the consumer preference for diesel cars over gasoline cars. However, with the non-CO(2) components, which have been changed and will be changed under the previous and upcoming vehicle emission standards, what does the shift from gasoline to diesel cars mean for the climate mitigation? By using a simple climate model, we demonstrate that, under the earlier emissions standards (EURO 3 and 4), a diesel car causes a larger warming up to a decade after the emissions than a similar gasoline car due to the higher emissions of black carbon and NO(X) (enhancing the O(3) production). Beyond a decade, the warming caused by a diesel car becomes, however, weaker because of the lower CO(2) emissions. As the latter emissions standards (EURO 5 and 6) are phased in, the short-term warming due to a diesel car becomes smaller primarily due to the lower black carbon emissions. Thus, although results are subject to restrictive assumptions and uncertainties, the switch from gasoline to diesel cars encouraged by CO(2) taxes does not contradict with the climate mitigation focusing on long-term consequences.

  7. Running climate model in the commercial cloud computing environment: A case study using Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Huang, X.; Jiao, C.; Flanner, M.; Raeker, T.; Palen, B.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical model is the major tool used in the studies of climate change and climate projection. Because of the enormous complexity involved in such climate models, they are usually run on supercomputing centers or at least high-performance computing clusters. The cloud computing environment, however, offers an alternative option for running climate models. Compared to traditional supercomputing environment, cloud computing offers more flexibility yet also extra technical challenges. Using the CESM (community earth system model) as a case study, we test the feasibility of running the climate model in the cloud-based virtual computing environment. Using the cloud computing resources offered by Amazon Web Service (AWS) Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and an open-source software, StarCluster, which can set up virtual cluster, we investigate how to run the CESM on AWS EC2 and the efficiency of parallelization of CESM on the AWS virtual cluster. We created virtual computing cluster using StarCluster on the AWS EC2 instances and carried out CESM simulations on such virtual cluster. We then compared the wall-clock time for one year of CESM simulation on the virtual cluster with that on a local high-performance computing (HPC) cluster with infiniband connections and operated by the University of Michigan. The results show that the CESM model can be efficiently scaled with number of CPUs on the AWS EC2 virtual computer cluster, and the parallelization efficiency is comparable to that on local HPC cluster. For standard configuration of the CESM at a spatial resolution of 1.9-degree latitude and 2.5-degree longitude, increasing the number of CPUs from 16 to 64 leads to a more than twice reduction in wall-clock running time and the scaling is nearly linear. Beyond 64 CPUs, the communication latency starts to overweight the saving of distributed computing and the parallelization efficiency becomes nearly level off.

  8. Climate driven life histories: the case of the Mediterranean storm petrel.

    PubMed

    Soldatini, Cecilia; Albores-Barajas, Yuri Vladimir; Massa, Bruno; Gimenez, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Seabirds are affected by changes in the marine ecosystem. The influence of climatic factors on marine food webs can be reflected in long-term seabird population changes. We modelled the survival and recruitment of the Mediterranean storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus melitensis) using a 21-year mark-recapture dataset involving almost 5000 birds. We demonstrated a strong influence of prebreeding climatic conditions on recruitment age and of rainfall and breeding period conditions on juvenile survival. The results suggest that the juvenile survival rate of the Mediterranean subspecies may not be negatively affected by the predicted features of climate change, i.e., warmer summers and lower rainfall. Based on considerations of winter conditions in different parts of the Mediterranean, we were able to draw inferences about the wintering areas of the species for the first time. PMID:24728099

  9. Climate driven life histories: the case of the Mediterranean storm petrel.

    PubMed

    Soldatini, Cecilia; Albores-Barajas, Yuri Vladimir; Massa, Bruno; Gimenez, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Seabirds are affected by changes in the marine ecosystem. The influence of climatic factors on marine food webs can be reflected in long-term seabird population changes. We modelled the survival and recruitment of the Mediterranean storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus melitensis) using a 21-year mark-recapture dataset involving almost 5000 birds. We demonstrated a strong influence of prebreeding climatic conditions on recruitment age and of rainfall and breeding period conditions on juvenile survival. The results suggest that the juvenile survival rate of the Mediterranean subspecies may not be negatively affected by the predicted features of climate change, i.e., warmer summers and lower rainfall. Based on considerations of winter conditions in different parts of the Mediterranean, we were able to draw inferences about the wintering areas of the species for the first time.

  10. ROLE OF INSTITUTIONAL CLIMATE IN FOSTERING DIVERSITY IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH WORKFORCE: A CASE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Gary C.; Hurd, Yasmin; Palermo, Ann-Gel S.; Delbrune, Denise; Saran, Suman; Zony, Chati; Krulwich, Terry A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the barriers to diversity in biomedical research, describes the evolution and efforts to address climate issues to enhance the ability to attract, retain and develop underrepresented minorities (URM) - underrepresented minorities whose underrepresentation is found both in science and medicine, in the graduate school biomedical research doctoral programs (PhD and MD/PhD) at Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM). We also describe the potential beneficial impact of having a climate that supports diversity and inclusion in the biomedical research workforce. MSSM diversity climate efforts are discussed as part of a comprehensive plan to increase diversity in all institutional programs PhD, MD/PhD, MD, and at the residency, post doctoral fellow, and faculty levels. Lessons learned from four decades of targeted programs and activities at MSSM may be of value to other institutions interested in improving diversity in the biomedical science and academic medicine workforce. PMID:22786740

  11. Organizational Climate and Work Addiction in Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, 2014: a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee, Noora; Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Zare, Vahid; Mohammadi, Mahan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The occupational nature of employees in headquarters units of the University requires them to deal with support issues. Thus, there is some pressure on these employees to complete their assignments on time so that employees in the line units can accurately and expeditiously perform their duties. As a result, work addiction behaviors are sometimes observed among the headquarters personnel. Considering the importance of work addiction and recognizing the factors that intensify it, this study investigated the relationship between organizational climate and the work addiction of headquarters personnel at the Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences. Methods This descriptive-analytic study was conducted using stratified random sampling of 151 University employees in 2014. The data collection tool was an organizational climate questionnaire, which was supplemented by the Work Addiction Risk Test (WART). The data were analyzed using the Pearson test, Spearman test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the Kruskal-Wallis test using IBM-SPSS version 20. Results The findings of this study showed that the organizational climate was at a moderate level, and employees were in the danger level in terms of work addiction. In addition, among the dimensions of organizational climate, the risk dimension had a significant relationship with work addiction (p<0.05), and the dimensions of structure and responsibility were significantly different from occupational group and monthly salary (p<0.05). Single employees showed a significant difference from married employees in the two dimensions of criteria and conflict (p<0.05). Conclusion Since the organizational climate score was low and the work addiction score was at the high-risk level, this issue demands more attention of senior managers and human resource officers of organizations to improve the organizational climate and increase employees’ awareness of work addiction

  12. Structural properties of fluids interacting via piece-wise constant potentials with a hard core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Andrés; Yuste, Santos B.; de Haro, Mariano López; Bárcenas, Mariana; Orea, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The structural properties of fluids whose molecules interact via potentials with a hard core plus two piece-wise constant sections of different widths and heights are presented. These follow from the more general development previously introduced for potentials with a hard core plus n piece-wise constant sections [A. Santos, S. B. Yuste, and M. Lopez de Haro, Condens. Matter Phys. 15, 23602 (2012)], 10.5488/CMP.15.23602 in which use was made of a semi-analytic rational-function approximation method. The results of illustrative cases comprising eight different combinations of wells and shoulders are compared both with simulation data and with those that follow from the numerical solution of the Percus-Yevick and hypernetted-chain integral equations. It is found that the rational-function approximation generally predicts a more accurate radial distribution function than the Percus-Yevick theory and is comparable or even superior to the hypernetted-chain theory. This superiority over both integral equation theories is lost, however, at high densities, especially as the widths of the wells and/or the barriers increase.

  13. Biomimicry as an approach for sustainable architecture case of arid regions with hot and dry climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouabdallah, Nabila; M'sellem, Houda; Alkama, Djamel

    2016-07-01

    This paper aims to study the problem of thermal comfort inside buildings located in hot and arid climates. The principal idea behind this research is using concepts based on the potential of nature as an instrument that helps creating appropriate facades with the environment "building skin". The biomimetic architecture imitates nature through the study of form, function, behaviour and ecosystems of biological organisms. This research aims to clarify the possibilities that can be offered by biomimicry architecture to develop architectural bio-inspired building's design that can help to enhance indoor thermal ambiance in buildings located in hot and dry climate which helps to achieve thermal comfort for users.

  14. Evaluating climate variables, indexes and thresholds governing Arctic urban sustainability: case study of Russian permafrost regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, O. A.; Kokorev, V.

    2013-12-01

    Addressing Arctic urban sustainability today forces planners to deal with the complex interplay of multiple factors, including governance and economic development, demography and migration, environmental changes and land use, changes in the ecosystems and their services, and climate change. While the latter can be seen as a factor that exacerbates the existing vulnerabilities to other stressors, changes in temperature, precipitation, snow, river and lake ice, and the hydrological regime also have direct implications for the cities in the North. Climate change leads to reduced demand for heating energy, on one hand, and heightened concerns about the fate of the infrastructure built upon thawing permafrost, on the other. Changes in snowfall are particularly important and have direct implications for the urban economy, as together with heating costs, expenses for snow removal from streets, airport runways, roofs and ventilation corridors underneath buildings erected on pile foundations on permafrost constitute the bulk of the city's maintenance budget. Many cities are located in river valleys and are prone to flooding that leads to enormous economic losses and casualties, including human deaths. The severity of the northern climate has direct implications for demographic changes governed by regional migration and labor flows. Climate could thus be viewed as an inexhaustible public resource that creates opportunities for sustainable urban development. Long-term trends show that climate as a resource is becoming more readily available in the Russian North, notwithstanding the general perception that globally climate change is one of the challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In this study we explore the sustainability of the Arctic urban environment under changing climatic conditions. We identify key governing variables and indexes and study the thresholds beyond which changes in the governing climatic parameters have significant impact on the economy

  15. Is there a need for government interventions to adapt energy infrastructures to climate change? A German case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groth, Markus; Cortekar, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    The option of adapting to climate change is becoming more and more important in climate change policy. Hence, responding to climate change now involves both mitigation to address the cause and adaptation as a response to already ongoing and expected changes. These changes also have relevance for the current and future energy sector in Germany. An energy sector that in the course of the German Energiewende also has to deal with a fundamental shift in energy supply from fossil fuel to renewable energies in the next decades. Thereby it needs to be considered that the energy sector is one critical infrastructure in the European Union that needs to be protected. Critical infrastructures can be defined as organisations or facilities of special importance for the country and its people where failure or functional impairment would lead to severe supply bottlenecks, significant disturbance of public order or other dramatic consequences. Regarding the adaptation to climate change, the main question is, whether adaptation options will be implemented voluntarily by companies or not. This will be the case, when the measure is considered a private good and is economically beneficial. If, on the contrary, the measure is considered a public good, additional incentives are needed. Based on a synthesis of the current knowledge regarding the possible impacts of climate change on the German energy sector along its value-added chain, the paper points out, that the power distribution and the grid infrastructure is consistently attributed the highest vulnerability. Direct physical impacts and damages to the transmission and distribution grids, utility poles, power transformers, and relay stations are expected due to more intense extreme weather events like storms, floods or thunderstorms. Furthermore fundaments of utility poles can be eroded and relay stations or power transformers can be flooded, which might cause short circuits etc. Besides these impacts causing damage to the physical

  16. A case study of teaching social responsibility to doctoral students in the climate sciences.

    PubMed

    Børsen, Tom; Antia, Avan N; Glessmer, Mirjam Sophia

    2013-12-01

    The need to make young scientists aware of their social responsibilities is widely acknowledged, although the question of how to actually do it has so far gained limited attention. A 2-day workshop entitled "Prepared for social responsibility?" attended by doctoral students from multiple disciplines in climate science, was targeted at the perceived needs of the participants and employed a format that took them through three stages of ethics education: sensitization, information and empowerment. The workshop aimed at preparing doctoral students to manage ethical dilemmas that emerge when climate science meets the public sphere (e.g., to identify and balance legitimate perspectives on particular types of geo-engineering), and is an example of how to include social responsibility in doctoral education. The paper describes the workshop from the three different perspectives of the authors: the course teacher, the head of the graduate school, and a graduate student. The elements that contributed to the success of the workshop, and thus make it an example to follow, are (1) the involvement of participating students, (2) the introduction of external expertise and role models in climate science, and (3) a workshop design that focused on ethical analyses of examples from the climate sciences.

  17. Culture, climate change and farm-level groundwater management: An Australian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, Matthew R.; Curtis, Allen L.

    2016-05-01

    Cultural factors - values, beliefs, and norms - provide important insights into the environmental attitudes, risk perceptions, and behaviors of the general population. Little is known, however, about the ostensibly complex relationships linking those elements of culture to climate change risk perceptions, especially in the context of farm level decision in the ground water context. This paper addresses that gap through an analysis of survey data provided by irrigators in the Namoi catchment of Australia's Murray-Darling Basin. We use Values-Beliefs-Norms theory to construct multivariate models of the relationship between ground water irrigators' interpretations of climate change risks and their implementation of adaptive water conservation practices. Results indicate that these cultural factors are important explanations of irrigators' climate change risk perceptions, and these risk perceptions are related to adaptive ground water management strategies at the farm level. The implications of the findings are discussed for research on the culture-environment nexus and for outreach designed to encourage agricultural adaptations to climate change.

  18. Climate change: The challenges for public health preparedness and response- An Indian case study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajan R.; Deepa, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Extremes weather changes surpassing their usual statistical ranges and tumbling records in India could be an early warning bell of global warming. Extreme weather events like the recent record setting in western Indian city of Mumbai or all time high fatalities due to the heat wave in southern Indian states or increasing vulnerability of easten Indian states to flood could all be a manifestation of climate change in the Asian subcontinent. While the skeptics may be inclined to dismiss these events as simple local aberrations, when viewed in an epidemiological paradigm in terms of person, time and space couple with frequency, intensity and fatalities, it could well be an early manifestation of climate change. Global warming poses serious challenge to the health sector and hence warrants emergency health preparedness and response. Climate-sensitive diseases are among the largest global killers, hence major brunt of global climate change in terms of adverse health impact will be mostly borne by poor and developing countries in Asia, given the levels of poverty, nutional levels and poor public health infrastructure. PMID:21957376

  19. Do Climate Change Policies Promote or Conflict with Subjective Wellbeing: A Case Study of Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miaomiao; Huang, Yining; Hiscock, Rosemary; Li, Qin; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L; Sabel, Clive E

    2016-03-01

    As public expectations for health rise, health measurements broaden from a focus on death, disease, and disability to wellbeing. However, wellbeing hasn't been incorporated into the framework of climate change policy decision-making in Chinese cities. Based on survey data (n = 763) from Suzhou, this study used Generalized Estimation Equation approach to model external conditions associated with wellbeing. Then, semi-quantitative analyses were conducted to provide a first indication to whether local climate change policies promote or conflict with wellbeing through altering these conditions. Our findings suggested: (i) Socio-demographic (age, job satisfaction, health), psychosocial (satisfaction with social life, ontological security/resilience) and environmental conditions (distance to busy road, noise annoyance and range hoods in the kitchen) were significantly associated with wellbeing; (ii) None of existing climate change strategies in Suzhou conflict with wellbeing. Three mitigation policies (promotion of tertiary and high-tech industry, increased renewable energy in buildings, and restrictions on car use) and one adaption policy (increasing resilience) brought positive co-benefits for wellbeing, through the availability of high-satisfied jobs, reduced dependence on range hoods, noise reduction, and valuing citizens, respectively. This study also provided implications for other similar Chinese cities that potential consequences of climate change interventions for wellbeing should be considered. PMID:27007389

  20. Fossils and Fossil Climate: The Case for Equable Continental Interiors in the Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, Scott L.; Greenwood, David R.

    1993-08-01

    There are many methods for inferring terrestrial palaeoclimates from palaeontological data, including the size and species diversity of ectothermic vertebrates, the locomotor and dental adaptations of mammals, characteristics of leaf shape, size, and epidermis, wood anatomy, and the climatic preferences of nearest living relatives of fossil taxa. Estimates of palaeotemperature have also been based on stable oxygen isotope ratios in shells and bones. Interpretation of any of these data relies in some way on uniformitarian assumptions, although at different levels depending on the method. Most of these methods can be applied to a palaeoclimatic reconstruction for the interior of North America during the early Eocene, which is thought to be the warmest interval of global climate in the Cenozoic. Most of the data indicate warm equable climates with little frost. Rainfall was variable, but strong aridity was local or absent. The inferred palaeoclimate is very different from the present climate of the region and from model simulations for the Eocene. This suggests that models fail to incorporate forcing factors that were present at that time, that they treat the heat regime of continents unrealistically, and/or that model inputs such as sea surface temperature gradients or palaeotopography are incorrect.

  1. Motivated recall in the service of the economic system: The case of anthropogenic climate change.

    PubMed

    Hennes, Erin P; Ruisch, Benjamin C; Feygina, Irina; Monteiro, Christopher A; Jost, John T

    2016-06-01

    The contemporary political landscape is characterized by numerous divisive issues. Unlike many other issues, however, much of the disagreement about climate change centers not on how best to take action to address the problem, but on whether the problem exists at all. Psychological studies indicate that, to the extent that sustainability initiatives are seen as threatening to the socioeconomic system, individuals may downplay environmental problems in order to defend and protect the status quo. In the current research, participants were presented with scientific information about climate change and later asked to recall details of what they had learned. Individuals who were experimentally induced (Study 1) or dispositionally inclined (Studies 2 and 3) to justify the economic system misremembered the evidence to be less serious, and this was associated with increased skepticism. However, when high system justifiers were led to believe that the economy was in a recovery, they recalled climate change information to be more serious than did those assigned to a control condition. When low system justifiers were led to believe that the economy was in recession, they recalled the information to be less serious (Study 3). These findings suggest that because system justification can impact information processing, simply providing the public with scientific evidence may be insufficient to inspire action to mitigate climate change. However, linking environmental information to statements about the strength of the economic system may satiate system justification needs and break the psychological link between proenvironmental initiatives and economic risk. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27123575

  2. Existing Whole-House Case Study: Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit - Sunnyvale, California

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    In this project, the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House and Building America program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, and upgrading the heating and cooling system.

  3. The Dynamics of Climate Change: A Case Study in Organisational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasdell, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Based in the discipline of applied consultancy-research, this paper seeks to present a synthesis-review of the social dynamics underlying the stalled negotiations of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Its aim is to enhance understanding of the processes involved, to offer a working agenda to the organizational…

  4. A Case Study of School Climate Improvement at an Urban Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieberg, H. Jerome

    This paper uses the Organized Universe as a framework for describing a successful four-year program to improve the school climate at a junior high school in Houston. The program began in the Summer of 1978 and was part of a larger Teacher Corps project that included four urban inner city schools. The organizers of the project used a management…

  5. Vulnerability of indigenous health to climate change: a case study of Uganda's Batwa Pygmies.

    PubMed

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Dingle, Kathryn; Ford, James D; Lee, Celine; Lwasa, Shuaib; Namanya, Didas B; Henderson, Jim; Llanos, Alejandro; Carcamo, Cesar; Edge, Victoria

    2012-09-01

    The potential impacts of climate change on human health in sub-Saharan Africa are wide-ranging, complex, and largely adverse. The region's Indigenous peoples are considered to be at heightened risk given their relatively poor health outcomes, marginal social status, and resource-based livelihoods; however, little attention has been given to these most vulnerable of the vulnerable. This paper contributes to addressing this gap by taking a bottom-up approach to assessing health vulnerabilities to climate change in two Batwa Pygmy communities in rural Uganda. Rapid Rural Appraisal and PhotoVoice field methods complemented by qualitative data analysis were used to identify key climate-sensitive, community-identified health outcomes, describe determinants of sensitivity at multiple scales, and characterize adaptive capacity of Batwa health systems. The findings stress the importance of human drivers of vulnerability and adaptive capacity and the need to address social determinants of health in order to reduce the potential disease burden of climate change. PMID:22703884

  6. Climate change impacts on marine water quality: The case study of the Northern Adriatic sea.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, J; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Zabeo, A; Brigolin, D; Carniel, S; Pastres, R; Marcomini, A

    2016-01-30

    Climate change is posing additional pressures on coastal ecosystems due to variations in water biogeochemical and physico-chemical parameters (e.g., pH, salinity) leading to aquatic ecosystem degradation. With the main aim of analyzing the potential impacts of climate change on marine water quality, a Regional Risk Assessment methodology was developed and applied to coastal marine waters of the North Adriatic. It integrates the outputs of regional biogeochemical and physico-chemical models considering future climate change scenarios (i.e., years 2070 and 2100) with site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators. Results showed that salinity and temperature will be the main drivers of changes, together with macronutrients, especially in the area of the Po' river delta. The final outputs are exposure, susceptibility and risk maps supporting the communication of the potential consequences of climate change on water quality to decision makers and stakeholders and provide a basis for the definition of adaptation and management strategies. PMID:26152856

  7. Do Climate Change Policies Promote or Conflict with Subjective Wellbeing: A Case Study of Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miaomiao; Huang, Yining; Hiscock, Rosemary; Li, Qin; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L; Sabel, Clive E

    2016-03-21

    As public expectations for health rise, health measurements broaden from a focus on death, disease, and disability to wellbeing. However, wellbeing hasn't been incorporated into the framework of climate change policy decision-making in Chinese cities. Based on survey data (n = 763) from Suzhou, this study used Generalized Estimation Equation approach to model external conditions associated with wellbeing. Then, semi-quantitative analyses were conducted to provide a first indication to whether local climate change policies promote or conflict with wellbeing through altering these conditions. Our findings suggested: (i) Socio-demographic (age, job satisfaction, health), psychosocial (satisfaction with social life, ontological security/resilience) and environmental conditions (distance to busy road, noise annoyance and range hoods in the kitchen) were significantly associated with wellbeing; (ii) None of existing climate change strategies in Suzhou conflict with wellbeing. Three mitigation policies (promotion of tertiary and high-tech industry, increased renewable energy in buildings, and restrictions on car use) and one adaption policy (increasing resilience) brought positive co-benefits for wellbeing, through the availability of high-satisfied jobs, reduced dependence on range hoods, noise reduction, and valuing citizens, respectively. This study also provided implications for other similar Chinese cities that potential consequences of climate change interventions for wellbeing should be considered.

  8. Do Climate Change Policies Promote or Conflict with Subjective Wellbeing: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miaomiao; Huang, Yining; Hiscock, Rosemary; Li, Qin; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L.; Sabel, Clive E.

    2016-01-01

    As public expectations for health rise, health measurements broaden from a focus on death, disease, and disability to wellbeing. However, wellbeing hasn’t been incorporated into the framework of climate change policy decision-making in Chinese cities. Based on survey data (n = 763) from Suzhou, this study used Generalized Estimation Equation approach to model external conditions associated with wellbeing. Then, semi-quantitative analyses were conducted to provide a first indication to whether local climate change policies promote or conflict with wellbeing through altering these conditions. Our findings suggested: (i) Socio-demographic (age, job satisfaction, health), psychosocial (satisfaction with social life, ontological security/resilience) and environmental conditions (distance to busy road, noise annoyance and range hoods in the kitchen) were significantly associated with wellbeing; (ii) None of existing climate change strategies in Suzhou conflict with wellbeing. Three mitigation policies (promotion of tertiary and high–tech industry, increased renewable energy in buildings, and restrictions on car use) and one adaption policy (increasing resilience) brought positive co–benefits for wellbeing, through the availability of high-satisfied jobs, reduced dependence on range hoods, noise reduction, and valuing citizens, respectively. This study also provided implications for other similar Chinese cities that potential consequences of climate change interventions for wellbeing should be considered. PMID:27007389

  9. Water Resources Risks and the Climate Resilience Toolkit: Tools, Case Studies, and Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, E. K.; Blodgett, D. L.; Booth, N.

    2014-12-01

    The Water Resources Risk topic of the Climate Resilience Toolkit (CRT) is designed to provide decision support, technical, and educational resources to communities, water resource managers, policy analysts, and water utilities working to increase the resilience of water resources to climate change. We highlight the partnerships (between federal and state agencies, non-governmental organizations, and private partners), tools (e.g., downscaled climate products, historical and real-time water data, and decision support) and success stories that are informing the CRT Water Resources Risks Theme content, and identify remaining needs in available resources for building resilience of water resources to climate change. The following questions will frame the content of the Water Resources Risk CRT: How are human and natural components of the hydrologic cycle changing? How can communities and water managers plan for uncertain future conditions? How will changing water resources impact food production, energy resources, ecosystems, and human health? What water resources data are of high value to society and are they easily accessible? Input on existing tools, resources, or potential partnerships that could be used to further develop content and fill gaps in the Water Resources CRT is welcome. We also invite ideas for water resources 'innovation challenges', in which technology developers work to create tools to that enhance the capacity of communities and managers to increase resilience of water resources at the local and regional scales.

  10. Making the links: do we connect climate change with health? A qualitative case study from Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Climate change has been described as the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. Typically framed as an environmental issue, some suggest this view has contributed to public ambivalence and hence a lack of public engagement. The lack of understanding of climate change as a significant environmental health risk on the part of the lay public represents a significant barrier to behaviour change. We therefore need to think about reframing the impact of climate change from an environmental to a health issue. This paper builds on calls for increased understanding of the public’s views of human health risks associated with climate change, focusing on facilitators and barriers to behaviour change. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews (n = 22) with residents of the Golden Horseshoe region of Southern Ontario were conducted between August 2010 and January 2011. Topics included individual and community health, climate change, and facilitators and barriers to behaviour change. Results Few participants recognized the role of the environment in the context of either individual and community health. When asked about health concerns specific to their community, however, environmental issues were mentioned frequently. Health effects as possible impacts of global environmental change were mentioned by 77% of participants when prompted, but this link was not described in great detail or within the context of impacting their communities or themselves. Participants were willing to act in environmentally friendly ways, and possible incentives to undertake behaviour change such as decreasing cost were described. Health co-benefits were not identified as incentives to engaging in mitigative or adaptive behaviours. Conclusions The results support recent calls for reframing the impact of climate change from an environmental to a public health issue in order to increase public engagement in adaptive and mitigative behaviour change. While previous research

  11. Downscaling future climate projections to the watershed scale: a north San Francisco Bay estuary case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micheli, Elisabeth; Flint, Lorraine; Flint, Alan; Weiss, Stuart; Kennedy, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    We modeled the hydrology of basins draining into the northern portion of the San Francisco Bay Estuary (North San Pablo Bay) using a regional water balance model (Basin Characterization Model; BCM) to estimate potential effects of climate change at the watershed scale. The BCM calculates water balance components, including runoff, recharge, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and stream flow, based on climate, topography, soils and underlying geology, and the solar-driven energy balance. We downscaled historical and projected precipitation and air temperature values derived from weather stations and global General Circulation Models (GCMs) to a spatial scale of 270 m. We then used the BCM to estimate hydrologic response to climate change for four scenarios spanning this century (2000–2100). Historical climate patterns show that Marin’s coastal regions are typically on the order of 2 °C cooler and receive five percent more precipitation compared to the inland valleys of Sonoma and Napa because of marine influences and local topography. By the last 30 years of this century, North Bay scenarios project average minimum temperatures to increase by 1.0 °C to 3.1 °C and average maximum temperatures to increase by 2.1 °C to 3.4 °C (in comparison to conditions experienced over the last 30 years, 1981–2010). Precipitation projections for the 21st century vary between GCMs (ranging from 2 to 15% wetter than the 20th-century average). Temperature forcing increases the variability of modeled runoff, recharge, and stream discharge, and shifts hydrologic cycle timing. For both high- and low-rainfall scenarios, by the close of this century warming is projected to amplify late-season climatic water deficit (a measure of drought stress on soils) by 8% to 21%. Hydrologic variability within a single river basin demonstrated at the scale of subwatersheds may prove an important consideration for water managers in the face of climate change. Our results suggest that in arid

  12. Impact of regional afforestation on climatic conditions in metropolitan areas: case study of Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stysiak, Aleksander Andrzej; Bergen Jensen, Marina; Mahura, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Like most other places, European metropolitan areas will face a range of climate-related challenges over the next decades that may influence the nature of urban life across the continent. Under future urbanization and climate change scenarios the well-being and comfort of the urban population might become progressively compromised. In urban areas, the effects of the warming climate will be accelerated by combination of Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) and extreme heat waves. The land cover composition directly influences atmospheric variability, and can either escalate or downscale the projected changes. Vegetation, forest ecosystems in particular, are anticipated to play an important role in modulating local and regional climatic conditions, and to be vital factor in the process of adapting cities to warming climate. This study investigates the impact of forest and land-cover change on formation and development of temperature regimes in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area (CPH-MA). Potential to modify the UHI effect in CPH-MA is estimated. Using 2009 meteorological data, and up-to-date 2012 high resolution land-cover data we employed the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) modeling system to simulate air temperature (at 2 meter height) fields for a selected period in July 2009. Employing research tools (such as METGRAF meteorological software and Geographical Information Systems) we then estimated the influence of different afforestation and urbanization scenarios with new forests being located after the Danish national afforestation plan, after proximity to the city center, after dominating wind characteristics, and urbanization taking place as densification of the existing conurbation. This study showed the difference in temperature up to 3.25°C, and the decrease in the spatial extent of temperature fields up to 68%, depending on the selected scenario. Performed simulations demonstrated

  13. Effects of water table dynamics on regional climate: A case study over east Asian monsoon area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xing; Xie, Zhenghui; Zheng, Jing; Tian, Xiangjun; Yang, Zongliang

    2008-11-01

    Groundwater is an important component of the hydrologic cycle, and its anomaly will result in variations of soil moisture, water, and energy balances between the land surface and atmosphere, which ultimately influence climate. In this study, we implement a groundwater model into the regional climate model RegCM3, which is called RegCM3_GW, and investigate the effects of water table dynamics on regional climate. Numerical experiments by RegCM3_GW and RegCM3 over the east Asian monsoon area show that incorporating the water table dynamics into the regional climate model reduces the systematic biases of the simulated precipitation by 38.5% and 39.8% over semiarid and humid regions, respectively, and increases the bias slightly by 5.6% over semihumid regions. To seek the reasons for the differences of simulated precipitation, we analyze the atmospheric water vapor budget and the local water cycle among the water table, soil moisture, evapotranspiration (ET), and convective precipitation. It is found that the top and root zone soil layers become wetter and enhance the bare soil evaporation but do not always increase the transpiration. Because of the variations of each ET's component, the obvious enhancements of ET occur in semiarid regions and contribute to more instable profiles of pseudoequivalent potential temperature. The atmospheric moisture budget analysis indicates that the recycling rate and precipitation efficiency increase greatly over semiarid regions, which presents a local aquifer-atmosphere feedback, while the variations of atmospheric water vapor transport control the development of precipitation over semihumid and humid regions. Therefore, the effects of water table dynamics on regional climate consist of the local aquifer-atmosphere interaction and the changes of circulation originated from ambient aquifer-atmosphere interaction, and the latter factor plays an important role in the monsoon area. Sensitivity of the results to a change in convection

  14. Past Climate Change and Plant Evolution in Western North America: A Case Study in Rosaceae

    PubMed Central

    Töpel, Mats; Antonelli, Alexandre; Yesson, Chris; Eriksen, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Species in the ivesioid clade of Potentilla (Rosaceae) are endemic to western North America, an area that underwent widespread aridification during the global temperature decrease following the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum. Several morphological features interpreted as adaptations to drought are found in the clade, and many species occupy extremely dry habitats. Recent phylogenetic analyses have shown that the sister group of this clade is Potentilla section Rivales, a group with distinct moist habitat preferences. This has led to the hypothesis that the ivesioids (genera Ivesia, Horkelia and Horkeliella) diversified in response to the late Tertiary aridification of western North America. We used phyloclimatic modeling and a fossil-calibrated dated phylogeny of the family Rosaceae to investigate the evolution of the ivesioid clade. We have combined occurrence- and climate data from extant species, and used ancestral state reconstruction to model past climate preferences. These models have been projected into paleo-climatic scenarios in order to identify areas where the ivesioids may have occurred. Our analysis suggests a split between the ivesioids and Potentilla sect. Rivales around Late Oligocene/Early Miocene (∼23 million years ago, Ma), and that the ivesioids then diversified at a time when summer drought started to appear in the region. The clade is inferred to have originated on the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains from where a westward range expansion to the Sierra Nevada and the coast of California took place between ∼12-2 Ma. Our results support the idea that climatic changes in southwestern North America have played an important role in the evolution of the local flora, by means of in situ adaptation followed by diversification. PMID:23236369

  15. Past climate change and plant evolution in Western North America: a case study in Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Töpel, Mats; Antonelli, Alexandre; Yesson, Chris; Eriksen, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Species in the ivesioid clade of Potentilla (Rosaceae) are endemic to western North America, an area that underwent widespread aridification during the global temperature decrease following the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum. Several morphological features interpreted as adaptations to drought are found in the clade, and many species occupy extremely dry habitats. Recent phylogenetic analyses have shown that the sister group of this clade is Potentilla section Rivales, a group with distinct moist habitat preferences. This has led to the hypothesis that the ivesioids (genera Ivesia, Horkelia and Horkeliella) diversified in response to the late Tertiary aridification of western North America. We used phyloclimatic modeling and a fossil-calibrated dated phylogeny of the family Rosaceae to investigate the evolution of the ivesioid clade. We have combined occurrence- and climate data from extant species, and used ancestral state reconstruction to model past climate preferences. These models have been projected into paleo-climatic scenarios in order to identify areas where the ivesioids may have occurred. Our analysis suggests a split between the ivesioids and Potentilla sect. Rivales around Late Oligocene/Early Miocene (∼23 million years ago, Ma), and that the ivesioids then diversified at a time when summer drought started to appear in the region. The clade is inferred to have originated on the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains from where a westward range expansion to the Sierra Nevada and the coast of California took place between ∼12-2 Ma. Our results support the idea that climatic changes in southwestern North America have played an important role in the evolution of the local flora, by means of in situ adaptation followed by diversification.

  16. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE JOVIAN TROJAN POPULATION: TAXONOMY

    SciTech Connect

    Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R.; Nugent, C. R.

    2012-11-01

    We present updated/new thermal model fits for 478 Jovian Trojan asteroids observed with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using the fact that the two shortest bands used by WISE, centered on 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m, are dominated by reflected light, we derive albedos of a significant fraction of these objects in these bands. While the visible albedos of both the C-, P-, and D-type asteroids are strikingly similar, the WISE data reveal that the albedo at 3.4 {mu}m is different between C-/P- and D-types. The albedo at 3.4 {mu}m can thus be used to classify the objects, with C-/P-types having values less than 10% and D-types have values larger than 10%. Classifying all objects larger than 50 km shows that the D-type objects dominate both the leading cloud (L {sub 4}), with a fraction of 84%, and trailing cloud (L {sub 5}), with a fraction of 71%-80%. The two clouds thus have very similar taxonomic distribution for these large objects, but the leading cloud has a larger number of these large objects, L {sub 4}/L {sub 5} = 1.34. The taxonomic distribution of the Jovian Trojans is found to be different from that of the large Hildas, which is dominated by C- and P-type objects. At smaller sizes, the fraction of D-type Hildas starts increasing, showing more similarities with the Jovian Trojans. If this similarity is confirmed through deeper surveys, it could hold important clues to the formation and evolution of the two populations. The Jovian Trojans does have similar taxonomic distribution to that of the Jovian irregular satellites, but lacks the ultra red surfaces found among the Saturnian irregular satellites and Centaur population.

  17. WISE Constraints on the Particle Properties in Saturn's Phoebe Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Verbiscer, A. J.

    2012-05-01

    Saturn's diffuse outer Phoebe Ring is an immense disk-like structure oriented edge-on as viewed from Earth; it is 30 million km (500 Saturn radii) wide and 2.5 million km (40 Saturn radii) thick. The ring's particles are thought to originate from the planet's dark irregular satellites, primarily Phoebe (mean radius 107km) but also a handful of other moonlets with radii smaller than 10km. The ring was discovered by 24 micron imaging by Spitzer (Verbiscer et al., Nature 2009) and recently recovered by WISE (Skrutskie et al., DPS 2011) at 22 microns. The WISE images, which show the full extent of the ring for the first time, nicely complement the Spitzer data, which has better signal to noise. Usually, ring particle populations can be determined observationally from spectral and phase angle information, but as these observations are extremely limited, we instead rely on dynamical arguments. Small particles in the Phoebe ring are expected to be driven to eccentricities in excess of Phoebe's e=0.16 by radiation pressure over 30-year timescales. Over million-year timescales, the dust distribution migrates inward via Poynting-Robertson drag, and most of the material is delivered to Iapetus' dark side. We model these processes numerically and build up synthetic ring profiles, making various assumptions about the unknown particle size distribution. We produce radial intensity profiles which we compare to the WISE data as well as vertical profiles which are most constrained by Spitzer. Our procedure is more robust than the onion-peeling technique used by ring scientists because it does not require the assumption of circular orbits. We find that the ring is made up of particles between 10 microns and a few centimeters in radius and will report on further constraints that arise from more detailed modeling of size distributions as well as potential asymmetries seen in the data.

  18. Using climate response functions in analyzing electricity production variables. A case study from Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tøfte, Lena S.; Martino, Sara; Mo, Birger

    2016-04-01

    This study analyses whether and to which extent today's hydropower system and reservoirs in Mid-Norway are able to balance new intermittent energy sources in the region, in both today's and tomorrow's climate. We also investigate if the electricity marked model EMPS gives us reasonable results also when run in a multi simulation mode without recalibration. Climate related energy (CRE) is influenced by the weather, the system for energy production and transport, and by market mechanisms. In the region of Mid-Norway, nearly all power demand is generated by hydro-electric facilities. Due to energy deficiency and limitations in the power grid the region experiences a deficit of electricity. The region is likely to experience considerable investments in wind power and small-scale hydropower and the transmission grid within and out of the region will probably be extended, so this situation might change. In addition climate change scenarios for the region agree on higher temperatures, more precipitation in total and a larger portion of the precipitation coming as rain instead of snow, as well as we expect slightly higher wind speed and more storms during the winter. Changing temperatures will also change the electricity demand. EMPS is a tool for forecasting and planning in electricity markets, developed for optimization and simulation of hydrothermal power systems with a considerable share of hydro power. It takes into account transport constraints and hydrological differences between major areas or regional subsystems. During optimization the objective is to minimize the expected cost in the whole system subject to all constraints. Incremental water values (marginal costs for hydropower) are computed for each area using stochastic dynamic programming. A heuristic approach is used to treat the interaction between areas. In the simulation part of the model total system costs are minimized week by week for each climate scenario in a linear problem formulation. A detailed

  19. Exponentially accurate approximations to piece-wise smooth periodic functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, James; Banerjee, Saheb

    1995-01-01

    A family of simple, periodic basis functions with 'built-in' discontinuities are introduced, and their properties are analyzed and discussed. Some of their potential usefulness is illustrated in conjunction with the Fourier series representations of functions with discontinuities. In particular, it is demonstrated how they can be used to construct a sequence of approximations which converges exponentially in the maximum norm to a piece-wise smooth function. The theory is illustrated with several examples and the results are discussed in the context of other sequences of functions which can be used to approximate discontinuous functions.

  20. Bit-wise arithmetic coding for data compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the problem of compressing a uniformly quantized independent and identically distributed (IID) source. We present a new compression technique, bit-wise arithmetic coding, that assigns fixed-length codewords to the quantizer output and uses arithmetic coding to compress the codewords, treating the codeword bits as independent. We examine the performance of this method and evaluate the overhead required when used block-adaptively. Simulation results are presented for Gaussian and Laplacian sources. This new technique could be used as the entropy coder in a transform or subband coding system.

  1. Analyzing and modeling CRE in a changing climate and energy system - a case study from Mid-Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tøfte, Lena S.; Sauterleute, Julian F.; Kolberg, Sjur A.; Warland, Geir

    2014-05-01

    Climate related energy (CRE) is influenced by both weather, the system for energy transport and market mechanisms. In the COMPLEX-project, Mid-Norway is a case study where we analyze co-fluctuations between wind and hydropower resources; how co-fluctuations may change in the long-term; which effects this has on the power generation; and how the hydropower system can be operated optimally in this context. In the region Mid-Norway, nearly all power demand is generated by hydro-electric facilities, and the region experiences a deficit of electricity. This is both due to energy deficiency and limitations in the power grid system. In periods of low inflow and situations with high electricity demand (i.e. winter), power must be imported from neighboring regions. In future, this situation might change with the development of renewable energy sources. The region is likely to experience considerable investments in wind power and small-scale hydropower. In relation to the deployment of wind power and small-scale hydropower and security of supply, the transmission grid within and out of the region is extended. With increasing production of intermittent energy sources as wind and small-scale hydro, dependencies and co-fluctuations between rain and wind are to be analyzed due to spatial and temporal scale, in the present and a future climate. Climate change scenarios agree on higher temperatures, more precipitation in total and a larger portion of the precipitation coming as rain in this region, and the average wind speed as well as the frequency of storms along the coast is expected to increase slightly during the winter. Changing temperatures will also change the electricity needs, as electricity is the main source for heating in Norway. It's important to study if and to which extent today's hydropower system and reservoirs are able to balance new intermittent energy sources in the region, in both today's and tomorrow's climate. The case study includes down-scaling of climate

  2. Systems Science, Catastrophe Theory, and Sub-regional Climate Change: 5 Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickrey, G.

    2015-12-01

    We have performed 5 studies utilizing catastrophe theory to analyze several anthropogenic and broader biological factors in order to ascertain current and future climate changes for sub-regions generally characterized by the following: Appalachian Tennessee; South Southeastern Alaska; Sierra Nevada California; Ohio River Basin; North Central Illinois. Research to date has demonstrated a direct correlation to IPCC and external data sources; an ability to refine feedback predictions; and accuracy through modeling past-to-present structures. Further verification of process is being pursued. Should the data continue to register as verifiable, the finery will enable accurate analysis of current and future climate conditions in various sub-regions, with the model being replicable and distributable globally through web mechanisms for localized use. Analysis may then be employed as a driver for sub-regional mitigation and adaptation policy-making and programs.

  3. Model robustness as a confirmatory virtue: The case of climate science.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Elisabeth A

    2015-02-01

    I propose a distinct type of robustness, which I suggest can support a confirmatory role in scientific reasoning, contrary to the usual philosophical claims. In model robustness, repeated production of the empirically successful model prediction or retrodiction against a background of independently-supported and varying model constructions, within a group of models containing a shared causal factor, may suggest how confident we can be in the causal factor and predictions/retrodictions, especially once supported by a variety of evidence framework. I present climate models of greenhouse gas global warming of the 20th Century as an example, and emphasize climate scientists' discussions of robust models and causal aspects. The account is intended as applicable to a broad array of sciences that use complex modeling techniques.

  4. Model robustness as a confirmatory virtue: The case of climate science.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Elisabeth A

    2015-02-01

    I propose a distinct type of robustness, which I suggest can support a confirmatory role in scientific reasoning, contrary to the usual philosophical claims. In model robustness, repeated production of the empirically successful model prediction or retrodiction against a background of independently-supported and varying model constructions, within a group of models containing a shared causal factor, may suggest how confident we can be in the causal factor and predictions/retrodictions, especially once supported by a variety of evidence framework. I present climate models of greenhouse gas global warming of the 20th Century as an example, and emphasize climate scientists' discussions of robust models and causal aspects. The account is intended as applicable to a broad array of sciences that use complex modeling techniques. PMID:26109411

  5. Vector Fields Simplification-A Case Study of Visualizing Climate Modeling and Simulation Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Foote, Harlan P.; Leung, Lai R.; Jurrus, Elizabeth R.; Adams, Daniel R.; Thomas, James J.

    2006-10-01

    In our study of regional climate modeling and simulation, we frequently encounter vector fields that are crowded with large numbers of critical points. A critical point in a flow is where vector field vanishes. While these critical points accurately reflect topology of the vector fields, in our study only a subset them is worth further investigation. We present a filtering tech-nique based on the vorticity of the vector fields to eliminate less interesting and sometimes sporadic critical points in a mul-tiresolution fashion. The neighboring regions of the preserved features, which are characterized by strong shear and circulation, potential locations of weather instability. We apply our fea-ture-filtering technique to a regional climate modeling data covering East Asia in the summer of 1991.

  6. The Impacts of Climate-Change on Estuarine Flooding: a Pacific Northwest Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, K. A.; Cheng, T.; Hill, D. F.; Beamer, J. P.; Garcia-Medina, G.

    2014-12-01

    While understanding of climate change's impact on coastal systems has recently seen great improvements, there still remains much to be understood, especially for systems as hydraulically complex as estuaries. The hydrodynamic climate in estuarine waters is controlled by multiple factors such as boundary conditions offshore (tides, waves), across the surface (winds), at the upper estuary margin (streamflow), as well as mean sea level. On the decadal to century scale, climate change modulated variability in these forcings will effect state of the overall system resulting in changes to experienced extreme water level events. A study of climate change impacts on two Pacific Northwest estuaries is presently underway. ADCIRC-SWAN is being used to conduct multi-decadal simulations of water levels across the study estuaries. A GCM-RCM configuration was selected from the NARCCAP project and then bias-corrected against the observation-based NARR data. This was separated into two data streams (historical and future) which were then run through a set of models in order to develop forcing for ADCIRC-SWAN. At the open ocean boundary, the model is forced with wave output from the WaveWatch III model. The free surface of the model is forced with surface winds and pressure. The streamflow boundaries are forced with hydrographs obtained from the Micromet - Snowmodel - Hydroflow suite of runoff routing models. The ADCIRC-SWAN output provides time series data on total water levels (TWLs) throughout the model domain. These time series can be used to construct CDFs of water elevation at any site of interest and also to derive return periods for extreme water level events. Of particular interest to this study is how these products change from the historical to future runs and which processes (changing offshore waves, changing streamflow) are primarily responsible for the observed changes in flooding characteristics.

  7. Climatic variability, plasticity, and dispersal: A case study from Lake Tana, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Grove, Matt; Lamb, Henry; Roberts, Helen; Davies, Sarah; Marshall, Mike; Bates, Richard; Huws, Dei

    2015-10-01

    The numerous dispersal events that have occurred during the prehistory of hominin lineages are the subject of longstanding and increasingly active debate in evolutionary anthropology. As well as research into the dating and geographic extent of such dispersals, there is an increasing focus on the factors that may have been responsible for dispersal. The growing body of detailed regional palaeoclimatic data is invaluable in demonstrating the often close relationship between changes in prehistoric environments and the movements of hominin populations. The scenarios constructed from such data are often overly simplistic, however, concentrating on the dynamics of cyclical contraction and expansion during severe and ameliorated conditions respectively. This contribution proposes a two-stage hypothesis of hominin dispersal in which populations (1) accumulate high levels of climatic tolerance during highly variable climatic phases, and (2) express such heightened tolerance via dispersal in subsequent low-variability phases. Likely dispersal phases are thus proposed to occur during stable climatic phases that immediately follow phases of high climatic variability. Employing high resolution palaeoclimatic data from Lake Tana, Ethiopia, the hypothesis is examined in relation to the early dispersal of Homo sapiens out of East Africa and into the Levant. A dispersal phase is identified in the Lake Tana record between c. 112,550 and c. 96,975 years ago, a date bracket that accords well with the dating evidence for H. sapiens occupation at the sites of Qafzeh and Skhul. Results are discussed in relation to the complex pattern of H. sapiens dispersal out of East Africa, with particular attention paid to the implications of recent genetic chronologies for the origin of non-African modern humans. PMID:26472274

  8. Online participation in climate change adaptation: A case study of agricultural adaptation measures in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bojovic, Dragana; Bonzanigo, Laura; Giupponi, Carlo; Maziotis, Alexandros

    2015-07-01

    The new EU strategy on adaptation to climate change suggests flexible and participatory approaches. Face-to-face contact, although it involves time-consuming procedures with a limited audience, has often been considered the most effective participatory approach. In recent years, however, there has been an increase in the visibility of different citizens' initiatives in the online world, which strengthens the possibility of greater citizen agency. This paper investigates whether the Internet can ensure efficient public participation with meaningful engagement in climate change adaptation. In elucidating issues regarding climate change adaptation, we developed an eParticipation framework to explore adaptation capacity of agriculture to climate change in Northern Italy. Farmers were mobilised using a pre-existing online network. First they took part in an online questionnaire for revealing their perceptions of and reactions to the impacts of ongoing changes in agriculture. We used these results to suggest a portfolio of policy measures and to set evaluation criteria. Farmers then evaluated these policy options, using a multi criteria analysis tool with a simple user-friendly interface. Our results showed that eParticipation is efficient: it supports a rapid data collection, while involving high number of participants. Moreover, we demonstrated that the digital divide is decreasingly an obstacle for using online spaces for public engagement. This research does not present eParticipation as a panacea. Rather, eParticipation was implemented with well-established participatory approaches to both validate the results and, consequently, communicate meaningful messages on local agricultural adaptation practices to regional decision-makers. Feedbacks from the regional decision-makers showed their interest in using eParticipation to improve communication with farmers in the future. We expect that, with further Internet proliferation, eParticipation may allow the inclusion of

  9. Effect of Climate-Induced Change in Crop Yields on Emigration: The Case of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Krueger, A. B.; Feng, S.

    2009-05-01

    Researchers have suggested several channels through which future global warming could trigger mass migration across country borders. This paper examines one of them by focusing on the effect of climate- induced crop failures on out-migration. Using data from Mexico, we identify and estimate elasticity of emigration with respect to changes in crop yield, which sheds light on the possible magnitudes of migrant flows for other areas of the world under different climate change scenarios. We choose Mexico as the study object as it is by far the largest migrant-sending country, with an estimated number of emigrants living in the United States to be well over 10 million. In addition, over 20% of Mexico population directly relies on the agricultural sector, which is heavily dependent on climate. For example, the prolonged drought from 1996 to 1998 in northern Mexico resulted in mass crop failures and the death of livestock. Historically, farmers have been using emigration as an adaptation strategy to cope with crop yield reductions. We first examine the relationship between corn yields and climate variables for the period of 1980-2000, using state-level data. We find significant positive effects of annual precipitation and annual average temperature, but a negative effect of summer temperature on corn yields. The effects of both annual and summer temperatures are also nonlinear. Our analyses of other crops such as wheat yield very similar results. Using Mexico Census micro data, we calculate the number of emigrants from each state for the periods of 1990-1995 and 1995-2000. We then regress changes in the number of emigrants on changes in crop yields, instrumented by changes in temperatures and precipitation. Our preferred specification gives an elasticity of -4, which suggests that a 25% reduction in crop yields would double the number of emigrants. The null hypothesis of no effect is rejected at the 5% significance level.

  10. Online participation in climate change adaptation: A case study of agricultural adaptation measures in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bojovic, Dragana; Bonzanigo, Laura; Giupponi, Carlo; Maziotis, Alexandros

    2015-07-01

    The new EU strategy on adaptation to climate change suggests flexible and participatory approaches. Face-to-face contact, although it involves time-consuming procedures with a limited audience, has often been considered the most effective participatory approach. In recent years, however, there has been an increase in the visibility of different citizens' initiatives in the online world, which strengthens the possibility of greater citizen agency. This paper investigates whether the Internet can ensure efficient public participation with meaningful engagement in climate change adaptation. In elucidating issues regarding climate change adaptation, we developed an eParticipation framework to explore adaptation capacity of agriculture to climate change in Northern Italy. Farmers were mobilised using a pre-existing online network. First they took part in an online questionnaire for revealing their perceptions of and reactions to the impacts of ongoing changes in agriculture. We used these results to suggest a portfolio of policy measures and to set evaluation criteria. Farmers then evaluated these policy options, using a multi criteria analysis tool with a simple user-friendly interface. Our results showed that eParticipation is efficient: it supports a rapid data collection, while involving high number of participants. Moreover, we demonstrated that the digital divide is decreasingly an obstacle for using online spaces for public engagement. This research does not present eParticipation as a panacea. Rather, eParticipation was implemented with well-established participatory approaches to both validate the results and, consequently, communicate meaningful messages on local agricultural adaptation practices to regional decision-makers. Feedbacks from the regional decision-makers showed their interest in using eParticipation to improve communication with farmers in the future. We expect that, with further Internet proliferation, eParticipation may allow the inclusion of

  11. Shifts in Climate Foster Exceptional Opportunities for Species Radiation: The Case of South African Geraniums

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I.; Peres-Neto, Pedro R.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is often assumed to be a major driver of biodiversity loss. However, it can also set the stage for novel diversification in lineages with the evolutionary ability to colonize new environments. Here we tested if the extraordinary evolutionary success of the genus Pelargonium was related to the ability of its species to capitalize on the climate niche variation produced by the historical changes in southern Africa. We evaluated the relationship between rates of climate niche evolution and diversification rates in the main Pelargonium lineages and disentangled the roles of deep and recent historical events in the modification of species niches. Pelargonium clades exhibiting higher ecological differentiation along summer precipitation (SPP) gradients also experienced higher diversification rates. Faster rates of niche differentiation in spatially structured variables, along with lower levels of niche overlap among closely related species, suggest recent modification in species niches (e.g. dispersal or range shift) and niche lability. We suggest that highly structured SPP gradients established during the aridification process within southern Africa, in concert with niche lability and low niche overlap, contributed to species divergence. These factors are likely to be responsible for the extensive diversification of other lineages in this diversity hot spot. PMID:24358250

  12. Divergence maintained by climatic selection despite recurrent gene flow: a case study of Castanopsis carlesii (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Surget-Groba, Yann; Gao, Shaoxiong

    2016-09-01

    Local adaptation to different environments has the potential to maintain divergence between populations despite recurrent gene flow and is an important driver for generating biological diversity. In this study, we investigate the role of adaptation in the maintenance of two parapatric varieties of a forest tree. We used sequence variation of chloroplastic DNA and restriction site-associated DNA to investigate the genetic structure of two varieties of Castanopsis carlesii in subtropical China and relate it to climatic variation. We used niche reconstruction methods to investigate niche differentiation between the two varieties and to estimate the past distribution of this species. A deep divergence was observed between the two varieties, but evidence of introgression and genetic admixture was detected in two phenotypically and geographically intermediate populations. Niche reconstruction suggests that the distribution of the two varieties was disjunct during periods of global cooling and that the two varieties occupy significantly different niches. The genetic structure was mainly driven by environmental factors, and 13 outlier loci under divergent selection were correlated with climatic variation. These results suggest that the two varieties evolved in allopatry and came back into secondary contact after the last glacial maximum and that they are an evolutionary example of divergence maintained by climatic selection despite recurrent gene flow. PMID:27447352

  13. INVESTIGATION OF EXISTING POLICIES CONTRIBUTION TO PROMOTING CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION -A CASE STUDY IN TOKYO-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijioka, Yasuaki; Oka, Kazutaka; Takano, Saneyuki; Yoshikawa, Minoru; Ichihashi, Arata

    The impacts of global warming are already appearing in various regions of the world. Therefore, in addition to strongly promoting mitigation policies, it is an urgent need to study and implement adaptation policies from a long-term perspective in preparation for some possible negative impacts. The Japanese Government has long promoted various countermeasures for disaster prevention, environmental management, food production and protection of the nation's health. These counterm easures are considered to have potential effects asclimate change adaptation. This study investigated to what extent the existing policies for Tokyo can contribute to its climate change adaptation on the basis of comprehensively organizing targeted fields an dindicators in which adaptation policies should be taken. Research results indicated that the existing policies could be useful as climate change adaptation in many fields and indicators. Furthermore, the present problems were clarified accompanied with implementation of climate change adaptation at the municipalities' level, and solutions were proposed on how to use scientific knowledge to solve the problems.

  14. Distributional effects of climate change taxation: the case of the UK.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Guan, Dabo; Contestabile, Monica; Minx, Jan; Barrett, John

    2010-05-15

    Current economic instruments aimed at climate change mitigation focus mainly on CO(2) emissions, but efficient climate mitigation needs to focus on other greenhouse gases as well as CO(2). This study investigates the distributional effects of climate change taxes on households belonging to different income and lifestyle groups; and it compares the effects of a CO(2) tax with a multiple GHG tax in the UK in terms of cost efficiency and distributional effects. Results show that a multi GHG tax is more efficient than a CO(2) tax due to lower marginal abatement costs, and that both taxes are regressive, with lower income households paying a relatively larger share of their income for the taxes than higher income households. A shift from a CO(2) tax to a GHG tax will reduce and shift the tax burden between consumption categories such as from energy-intensive products to food products. Consumers have different abilities to respond to the tax and change their behavior due to their own socio-economic attributes as well as the physical environment such as the age of the housing stock, location, and the availability of infrastructure. The housing-related carbon emissions are the largest component of the CO(2) tax payments for low income groups and arguments could be made for compensation of income losses and reduction of fuel poverty through further government intervention. PMID:20429551

  15. Elaboration of climatic maps using GIS. Case study: Olãnesti drainage basin, Romania.

    PubMed

    Tîrlã, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Creating precise climatic maps (temperature and precipitation map especially) on small areas such as drainage basins or landform units is always very useful for ecology of plants, distribution of vegetation and also different types of agricultural land. The geographic information system (GIS) analysis of several key-factors (aspect and slope of terrain, insolation degree, thermal gradient, geology and structure of landforms) offers the necessary tools to operate with in order to create an accurate climatic map. This method was applied in order to create a map showing the distribution of temperatures in the Olanesti drainages basin, a 235 km2 area located at middle latitude, in Romania. After creating the DEM, aspect and slope of the terrain, reclassifying categories and calculating the thermal gradient, a map showing the distribution of the annual mean temperature is obtained. Other climatic parameters could be calculated for small areas too, with precise results. These demonstrate that not only elevation and mathematical location of an area are important factors in the distribution of temperature, but also the aspect, the gradient, the insolation, the type of rock and the structure. PMID:23424850

  16. Shifts in climate foster exceptional opportunities for species radiation: the case of South african geraniums.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I; Peres-Neto, Pedro R

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is often assumed to be a major driver of biodiversity loss. However, it can also set the stage for novel diversification in lineages with the evolutionary ability to colonize new environments. Here we tested if the extraordinary evolutionary success of the genus Pelargonium was related to the ability of its species to capitalize on the climate niche variation produced by the historical changes in southern Africa. We evaluated the relationship between rates of climate niche evolution and diversification rates in the main Pelargonium lineages and disentangled the roles of deep and recent historical events in the modification of species niches. Pelargonium clades exhibiting higher ecological differentiation along summer precipitation (SPP) gradients also experienced higher diversification rates. Faster rates of niche differentiation in spatially structured variables, along with lower levels of niche overlap among closely related species, suggest recent modification in species niches (e.g. dispersal or range shift) and niche lability. We suggest that highly structured SPP gradients established during the aridification process within southern Africa, in concert with niche lability and low niche overlap, contributed to species divergence. These factors are likely to be responsible for the extensive diversification of other lineages in this diversity hot spot. PMID:24358250

  17. Divergence maintained by climatic selection despite recurrent gene flow: a case study of Castanopsis carlesii (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Surget-Groba, Yann; Gao, Shaoxiong

    2016-09-01

    Local adaptation to different environments has the potential to maintain divergence between populations despite recurrent gene flow and is an important driver for generating biological diversity. In this study, we investigate the role of adaptation in the maintenance of two parapatric varieties of a forest tree. We used sequence variation of chloroplastic DNA and restriction site-associated DNA to investigate the genetic structure of two varieties of Castanopsis carlesii in subtropical China and relate it to climatic variation. We used niche reconstruction methods to investigate niche differentiation between the two varieties and to estimate the past distribution of this species. A deep divergence was observed between the two varieties, but evidence of introgression and genetic admixture was detected in two phenotypically and geographically intermediate populations. Niche reconstruction suggests that the distribution of the two varieties was disjunct during periods of global cooling and that the two varieties occupy significantly different niches. The genetic structure was mainly driven by environmental factors, and 13 outlier loci under divergent selection were correlated with climatic variation. These results suggest that the two varieties evolved in allopatry and came back into secondary contact after the last glacial maximum and that they are an evolutionary example of divergence maintained by climatic selection despite recurrent gene flow.

  18. Distributional effects of climate change taxation: the case of the UK.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Guan, Dabo; Contestabile, Monica; Minx, Jan; Barrett, John

    2010-05-15

    Current economic instruments aimed at climate change mitigation focus mainly on CO(2) emissions, but efficient climate mitigation needs to focus on other greenhouse gases as well as CO(2). This study investigates the distributional effects of climate change taxes on households belonging to different income and lifestyle groups; and it compares the effects of a CO(2) tax with a multiple GHG tax in the UK in terms of cost efficiency and distributional effects. Results show that a multi GHG tax is more efficient than a CO(2) tax due to lower marginal abatement costs, and that both taxes are regressive, with lower income households paying a relatively larger share of their income for the taxes than higher income households. A shift from a CO(2) tax to a GHG tax will reduce and shift the tax burden between consumption categories such as from energy-intensive products to food products. Consumers have different abilities to respond to the tax and change their behavior due to their own socio-economic attributes as well as the physical environment such as the age of the housing stock, location, and the availability of infrastructure. The housing-related carbon emissions are the largest component of the CO(2) tax payments for low income groups and arguments could be made for compensation of income losses and reduction of fuel poverty through further government intervention.

  19. WISE Discovery of Hyper Luminous Galaxies at z=2-4 and Their Implications for Galaxy and AGN Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Chao Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Wu, Jingwen; Bridge, Carrie; Assef, Roberto; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Robert L.; Jarrett, Thomas; Lonsdale, Carol; Petty, Sara; Sayers, Jack; Stanford, Adam; Stern, Daniel; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2014-01-01

    On behalf of the WISE Science team, we present the discovery of a class of distant dust-enshrouded galaxies with extremely high luminosity. These galaxies are selected to have extreme red colors in the mid-IR using NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). They are faint in the optical and near-IR, predominantly at zeta = 2-4, and with IR luminosity > 10(exp 13) Solar Luminosity, making them Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (HyLIRGs). SEDs incorporating the WISE, Spitzer, and Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometry indicate hot dust dominates the bolometric luminosity, presumably powered by AGN. Preliminary multi-wavelength follow-up suggests that they are different from normal populations in the local M-sigma relation. Their low source density implies that these objects are either intrinsically rare, or a short-lived phase in a more numerous population. If the latter is the case, these hot, dust-enshrouded galaxies may be an early stage in the interplay between AGN and galaxies.

  20. The Effect of a Case-Based Reasoning Instructional Model on Korean High School Students' Awareness in Climate Change Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Jinwoo; Kim, Hyoungbum; Chae, Dong-hyun; Kim, Eunjeong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the case-based reasoning instructional model on learning about climate change unit. Results suggest that students showed interest because it allowed them to find the solution to the problem and solve the problem for themselves by analogy from other cases such as crossword puzzles in an…

  1. Ground-based Submm/mm Follow-up Observations For Wise Selected Hyper-luminous Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, C.; Benford, D.; Bridge, C.; Eisenhardt, P.; Blain, A.; Sayers, J.; Petty, S.; WISE Team

    2012-01-01

    One of the major objectives of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission is to search for the most luminous galaxies in the universe. The most productive method so far to select hyper luminous galaxies from WISE is to select targets that undetectable by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 microns, while clearly detected at 12 and 22 microns, the so called W12 dropout galaxies. We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory to follow-up these high-z (z=1.6-4.6) galaxies with SHARC-II at 350 to 850 microns, and BOLOCAM at 1.1 mm. Based on Spitzer 3.3 and 4.7 microns follow-ups, WISE W3, W4, and CSO observations, we constructed the SEDs and estimate the infrared luminosity and dust temperature for these W12 dropout galaxies. The inferred infrared luminosities are at least 10^13 to 10^14 solar luminosities, making them one of the most luminous population. The typical SEDs of these galaxies are flat from mid-IR to submillimeter, peaking at shorter wavelengths than other infrared luminous galaxies, indicating hotter dust temperature than known populations. Their SEDs can not be well fitted with existing templates, suggesting they may be a distinct new population. They may be extreme cases of Dust-Obsecured Galaxies (DOGs) with very high luminosities and dust temperature, and tracing a short transiting phase with booming luminosity at the peak epoch of AGN/starburst galaxy evolution.

  2. AWAIC: A WISE Astronomical Image Co-adder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masci, Frank J.; Fowler, J. W.; Cutri, R. M.

    2009-05-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a NASA Midex mission launching in late 2009 that will survey the entire sky at 3.3, 4.7, 12, and 23 microns with sensitivities up to three orders of magnitude beyond those achieved with IRAS. One of its products is a digital Image Atlas that will combine survey exposures within predefined tiles on the sky. To support this, we have developed a generic frame co-addition tool, AWAIC, for execution in the automated pipeline. We review AWAIC's algorithms, functions and products. The software includes preparatory steps such as frame background matching and outlier detection. Frame co-addition is based on using the detector's Point Response Function (PRF) as an interpolation kernel. This kernel reduces the impact of prior-masked pixels; enables the creation of an optimal matched filtered product for point source detection; and most important, it allows for optional resolution enhancement (HiRes) to yield a "model" of the sky that is consistent with the measurements within their uncertainties. This is accomplished through a Richardson-Lucy like procedure, extended to include non-isoplanatic PRFs, prior noise weighting, variance estimation, and ringing suppression. HiRes is not in the WISE automated processing plan. Ancillary products include images of uncertainties, depth-of-coverage, and outlier locations. AWAIC supports the FITS standard with all common projections and coordinate systems. It will be made portable in the near future.

  3. AWAIC: A WISE Astronomical Image Co-adder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masci, Franck J.; Fowler, J.; Cutri, R.; Science Data Center, WISE

    2009-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a NASA Midex mission launching in late 2009 that will survey the entire sky at 3.3, 4.7, 12, and 23 microns with sensitivities up to three orders of magnitude beyond those achieved with IRAS. One of its products is a digital Image Atlas that will combine survey exposures within predefined tiles on the sky. To support this, we have developed a generic frame co-addition tool, AWAIC, for execution in the automated pipeline. Here we describe AWAIC's algorithms, functionality, and products. The software includes preparatory steps such as frame background matching and outlier detection. Frame co-addition is based on using the detector's Point Response Function (PRF) as an interpolation kernel. This kernel reduces the impact of prior-masked pixels; enables the creation of an optimal matched filtered product for point source detection; and most important, it allows for resolution enhancement (HiRes) to yield a "model" of the sky that is consistent with the observations within their uncertainties. This is accomplished through a Richardson-Lucy like procedure, extended to include non-isoplanatic PRFs, prior noise weighting, variance estimation, and ringing-artifact suppression. HiRes is not in the WISE automated processing plan. Ancillary products include images of uncertainties, depth-of-coverage, and outlier locations. AWAIC supports the FITS standard with all common projections and coordinate systems, and will be made portable in the near future.

  4. A WISE Census of Young Stellar Objects in Canis Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, William J.; Padgett, Deborah L.; Stapelfeldt, Karl L.; Sewiło, Marta

    2016-08-01

    With the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we searched for young stellar objects (YSOs) in a 100 deg2 region centered on the lightly studied Canis Major star-forming region. Applying stringent magnitude cuts to exclude the majority of extragalactic contaminants, we find 144 Class I candidates and 335 Class II candidates. The sensitivity to Class II candidates is limited by their faintness at the distance to Canis Major (assumed as 1000 pc). More than half the candidates (53%) are found in 16 groups of more than four members, including four groups with more than 25 members each. The ratio of Class II to Class I objects, N II/N I, varies from 0.4 to 8.3 in just the largest four groups. We compare our results to those obtainable with combined Two Micron All Sky Survey and post-cryogenic Spitzer Space Telescope data; the latter approach recovers missing Class II sources. Via a comparison to protostars characterized with the Herschel Space Observatory, we propose new WISE color criteria for flat-spectrum and Class 0 protostars, finding 80 and 7 of these, respectively. The distribution of YSOs in CMa OB1 is consistent with supernova-induced star formation, although the diverse N II/N I ratios are unexpected if this parameter traces age and the YSOs are due to the same supernova. Less massive clouds feature larger N II/N I ratios, suggesting that initial conditions play a role in determining this quantity.

  5. Characterization of WISE Debris Disk Stars - 2013B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, Deborah; Liu, Wilson; Morales, Farisa; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2013-08-01

    We propose to acquire low dispersion spectra with the SOAR Goodman Spectrograph of new debris disk stars identified from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE survey of the entire sky. Despite many targeted surveys for stellar disks in the solar neighborhood by Spitzer Space Telescope, the census of disks remains incomplete at mid-IR sensitivity levels better than the IRAS limits. The improved sensitivity and spatial resolution of the all-sky WISE survey for debris disks (Padgett et al., submitted) has recently improved this situation, identifying Hipparcos and Tycho stars with mid-infrared excess out to distances of 120 pc. With the SOAR spectrograph we will characterize the new candidate debris disk stars in the southern sky, providing a uniform set of stellar classifications and information on a range of spectroscopic activity indicators related to stellar age. These data will help to constrain the stellar properties of an important new set of solar neighbors with evidence of planetary systems.

  6. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE HILDA POPULATION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Blauvelt, E.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T.; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Wilkins, A.; Spahr, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Walker, R.; Cutri, R.; Wright, E.

    2012-01-10

    We present the preliminary analysis of 1023 known asteroids in the Hilda region of the solar system observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The sizes of the Hildas observed range from {approx}3 to 200 km. We find no size-albedo dependency as reported by other projects. The albedos of our sample are low, with a weighted mean value of p{sub V} = 0.055 {+-} 0.018, for all sizes sampled by the NEOWISE survey. We observed a significant fraction of the objects in the two known collisional families in the Hilda population. It is found that the Hilda collisional family is brighter, with a weighted mean albedo of p{sub V} = 0.061 {+-} 0.011, than the general population and dominated by D-type asteroids, while the Schubart collisional family is darker, with a weighted mean albedo of p{sub V} = 0.039 {+-} 0.013. Using the reflected sunlight in the two shortest WISE bandpasses, we are able to derive a method for taxonomic classification of {approx}10% of the Hildas detected in the NEOWISE survey. For the Hildas with diameter larger than 30 km, there are 67{sup +7}{sub -15}% D-type asteroids and 26{sup +17}{sub -5%} C-/P-type asteroids (with the majority of these being P-types).

  7. A WISE survey of circumstellar disks in Taurus

    SciTech Connect

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.

    2014-04-01

    We have compiled photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm from the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for all known members of the Taurus complex of dark clouds. Using these data and photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have identified members with infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks and have estimated the evolutionary stages of the detected disks, which include 31 new full disks and 16 new candidate transitional, evolved, evolved transitional, and debris disks. We have also used the WISE All-Sky Source Catalog to search for new disk-bearing members of Taurus based on their red infrared colors. Through optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we have confirmed 26 new members with spectral types of M1-M7. The census of disk-bearing stars in Taurus should now be largely complete for spectral types earlier than ∼M8 (M ≳ 0.03 M {sub ☉}).

  8. A possible WISE counterpart of the New Optical Transient SSS130101:122222-311525

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2013-01-01

    Following the CRTS detection of a new optical transient near the Galactic plane (b~30 deg), SSS130101:122222 (ATel #4699), we searched in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010 AJ, 140, 1868) catalog and found a possible WISE pre-burst counterpart, WISE J122221.66-311524.6, with an offset of 0.5 arcsec.

  9. Scaling Astro-WISE to LOFAR long term archive. From KIDS to LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begeman, K.; Belikov, A. N.; Boxhoorn, D.; Dijkstra, F.; Holties, H. A.; Renting, G. A.; Vermaas, N.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2013-01-01

    The Astro-WISE information system was developed to handle data processing for the KIDS survey. In this paper we describe the adaptation of the WISE concept to allow scaling to support archives containing tens of petabytes of stored data and the changes we introduced to accommodate the system for the LOFAR Long Term Archive. With this we provide an example of how Astro-WISE technology can be adapted to support a wider range and scale of data.

  10. Climate change and viticulture in Mediterranean climates: the complex response of socio-ecosystems. A comparative case study from France and Australia (1955-2040)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lereboullet, A.-L.; Beltrando, G.; Bardsley, D. K.

    2012-04-01

    The wine industry is very sensitive to extreme weather events, especially to temperatures above 35°C and drought. In a context of global climate change, Mediterranean climate regions are predicted to experience higher variability in rainfall and temperatures and an increased occurrence of extreme weather events. Some viticultural systems could be particularly at risk in those regions, considering their marginal position in the growth climatic range of Vitis vinifera, the long commercial lifespan of a vineyard, the high added-value of wine and the volatile nature of global markets. The wine industry, like other agricultural systems, is inserted in complex networks of climatic and non-climatic (other physical, economical, social and legislative) components, with constant feedbacks. We use a socio-ecosystem approach to analyse the adaptation of two Mediterranean viticultural systems to recent and future increase of extreme weather events. The present analysis focuses on two wine regions with a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (CSb type in the Köppen classification): Côtes-du-Roussillon in southern France and McLaren Vale in southern Australia. Using climate data from two synoptic weather stations, Perpignan (France) and Adelaide (Australia), with time series running from 1955 to 2010, we highlight changes in rainfall patterns and an increase in the number of days with Tx >35°c since the last three decades in both regions. Climate models (DRIAS project data for France and CSIRO Mk3.5 for Australia) project similar trends in the future. To date, very few projects have focused on an international comparison of the adaptive capacity of viticultural systems to climate change with a holistic approach. Here, the analysis of climate data was complemented by twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews with key actors of the two regional wine industries, in order to analyse adaptation strategies put in place regarding recent climate evolution. This mixed-methods approach

  11. Water storage under changing climates: A case study of small farm dams in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J.; Preston, N.; Jackson, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    In many regions of the world, climate change scenarios predict a trend towards drier conditions. In agricultural areas, less rainfall during planting and growing periods will exacerbate existing water supply issues, with communities striving to find alternative water storage options. In New Zealand, both government and agricultural interest groups are promoting the construction of storage ponds (both small-scale ponds for farm use and larger reservoirs for community use) to tackle this issue. This paper investigates the use of small farm dams as a means of providing secure water storage while also considering downstream environmental impacts. New Zealand has thousands of small stock water and irrigation dams that interrupt streamflow, primarily located on first-order streams. With climate change scenarios predicting a 3-4% decrease in annual precipitation in some regions, it is expected that dam numbers will increase in the future. However, little is known about the impact of these dams on the downstream environment in terms of water quantity, quality, sediment transfer, and stream morphology at either the local or regional scale. A combination of field-based methods and modelling is used to quantify the overall impact of farm dams on the downstream system in an agricultural catchment in the Hawke’s Bay region of New Zealand. Results show that farm dams reduce overall discharge and flood peaks, but sustain winter flows for a longer duration between rainfall events. The dams also create a lowering of water quality and a decrease in the transfer of sediment, with aggradation occurring in downstream channel reaches. Implications at the wider catchment scale are discussed, along with improved management practices which could allow for both water security and the protection of the environment. Results have implications for regions of the world which face drier conditions under changing climate regimes and need environmentally and socio-economically sustainable water

  12. Water stress, energy security and adaptation under changing climate: case study of Zeravshan river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khujanazarov, T.; Namura, R.; Touge, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Toderich, K.

    2014-12-01

    Zeravshan a transboundary river in Central Asia is a snow-glacier fed river originating in Tajikistan that use only 4% of its resources, further flows to Uzbekistan who fully utilize river resources for irrigation. Such disparity in river usage causes Tajikistan to consider heavy investments in hydropower dams that will increase social and political tension between counterparts. Traditional irrigation under arid climate causes high rates of water losses in infiltration and evapotranspiration leading to land. Water stress analysis and water resources distribution under climate change and possible adaptation measures were investigated. The framework includes model to analyze available water resources and assessment of the basin efficiency including dam operation and irrigation demand, based on it adaptation measures were suggested. Comparison of the increasing irrigation efficiency in downstream to the 10% rate can decrease water requirements on early stages, however there are still large deficiency of the water resources in the peak irrigation season. Dam operation to benefit irrigation has positive impact while can't compensate the needs of energy in winter months. Cooperation of the both sides are required to address such changes in river flow as interest lies on opposite side. Increasing irrigation efficiency through using return marginal waters and salt tolerant crops under water stress were suggested. The plants were tested on several sites in the downstream of the river using mineralized return waters. The results suggest that using such plants can provide additional outcome for the local community while decreasing demand of the water resources and improving soil conditions. Combination of dam operation for energy production and increasing irrigation efficiency additionally by using return waters can provide a beneficial scenario for the region under future climate change. However, it will require strong political will to address energy swap to achieve nexus

  13. Climatic gradient and δ13C values of plants: A case study from the Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirave, Pranav; Sanyal, Prasanta

    2016-04-01

    Change in atmospheric conditions is believed to be responsible for the evolution of plants. In an evolving atmosphere, gymnosperms appeared during the Carboniferous Period and appearance and diversification of angiosperms occurred during the Cretaceous time. In a symbiotic environment, difference in the response of these plant types to the climatic factors can be studied for parallel correlation. To monitor plants response with the changing climatic factors, variations in plants δ13Cleaf value can be used as one of the indicators. To investigate the variation in δ13Cleaf values in response to water availability, air temperature and a change in pCO2 pressure with elevation, five gymnosperm (Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, Pinus roxburghii, Pinus gerardiana and Abies pindrow) and two angiosperm (Betula utilis and Eucalyptus globulus) species were collected along an altitude gradient in the Himalayan mountain ranges. The studied sites cover ca. 3.5 km elevation transect. The δ13Cleaf value for Cedrus Deodara changes with altitude and mean annual precipitation (MAP). A sensitivity of 2.9 ‰ km‑1 and 0.3 ‰ /100 mm was calculated for the altitude range of 1.5 km and precipitation range of 700 mm respectively. Although Pinus wallichiana do not show a correlation between elevation and δ13Cleaf value, a negative correlation between MAP and δ13Cleaf value with an average sensitivity of 0.2 ‰ /100 mm for the precipitation range of 900 mm is obtained. Comparison of results acquired from both gymnosperm and angiosperm species shows that gymnosperms are comparatively more sensitive to the climatic factors than angiosperms growing in a similar environmental setting.

  14. Climatic gradient and δ13C values of plants: A case study from the Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirave, Pranav; Sanyal, Prasanta

    2016-04-01

    Change in atmospheric conditions is believed to be responsible for the evolution of plants. In an evolving atmosphere, gymnosperms appeared during the Carboniferous Period and appearance and diversification of angiosperms occurred during the Cretaceous time. In a symbiotic environment, difference in the response of these plant types to the climatic factors can be studied for parallel correlation. To monitor plants response with the changing climatic factors, variations in plants δ13Cleaf value can be used as one of the indicators. To investigate the variation in δ13Cleaf values in response to water availability, air temperature and a change in pCO2 pressure with elevation, five gymnosperm (Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, Pinus roxburghii, Pinus gerardiana and Abies pindrow) and two angiosperm (Betula utilis and Eucalyptus globulus) species were collected along an altitude gradient in the Himalayan mountain ranges. The studied sites cover ca. 3.5 km elevation transect. The δ13Cleaf value for Cedrus Deodara changes with altitude and mean annual precipitation (MAP). A sensitivity of 2.9 ‰ km-1 and 0.3 ‰ /100 mm was calculated for the altitude range of 1.5 km and precipitation range of 700 mm respectively. Although Pinus wallichiana do not show a correlation between elevation and δ13Cleaf value, a negative correlation between MAP and δ13Cleaf value with an average sensitivity of 0.2 ‰ /100 mm for the precipitation range of 900 mm is obtained. Comparison of results acquired from both gymnosperm and angiosperm species shows that gymnosperms are comparatively more sensitive to the climatic factors than angiosperms growing in a similar environmental setting.

  15. Implementation of Future Climate Satellite Cloud Algorithms: Case of the GCOM-C/SGLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dim, J. R.; Murakami, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Takamura, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Change Observation Mission-Climate/Second Generation GLobal Imager (GCOM-C/SGLI) is a future Earth observation satellite to be launched in 2015. Its major objective is the monitoring of long-term climate changes. A major factor of these changes is the cloud impact. A new cloud algorithm adapted to the spectral characteristics of the GCOM-C/SGLI and the products derived are currently tested. The tests consist of evaluating the performance of the cloud optical thickness (COT) and the cloud particle effective radius (CLER) against simulation data, and equivalent products derived from a compatible satellite, the Terra/MODerate resolution Image Spectrometer (Terra/MODIS). In addition to these tests, the sensitivity of the products derived from this algorithm, to external and internal cloud related parameters, is analyzed. The base-map of the initial data input for this algorithm is made of geometrically corrected radiances of the Advanced Earth Observation Satellite II/GLobal Imager (ADEOS-II/GLI) and the GCOM-C/SGLI simulated radiances. The results of these performance tests, based on timely matching products, show that the GCOM-C/SGLI algorithm performs relatively well for averagely overcast scenes, with an agreement rate of ±20% with the satellite simulation products and the Terra/MODIS COT and CLER. A negative bias is however frequently observed, with the GCOM-C/SGLI retrieved parameters showing higher values at high COT levels. The algorithm also seems less reactive to thin and small particles' clouds mainly in land areas, compared to Terra/MODIS data and the satellite simulation products. Sensitivity to varying ground albedo, cloud phase, cloud structure and cloud location are analyzed to understand the influence of these parameters on the results obtained. Possible consequences of these influences on long-term climate variations and the bases for the improvement of the present algorithm in various cloud types' conditions are discussed.

  16. Data Processing, Archiving and Distribution at the WISE Science Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, Roc M.; Conrow, T.; Alles, R.; Brandenberg, H.; Evans, T.; Fowler, J.; Gelino, C.; Jarrett, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Marsh, K.; Masci, F.; McCallon, H.; Padgett, D.; Wheelock, S.; Yan, L.; Tholen, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), scheduled for launch in November 2009, will conduct an imaging survey of the entire sky in the 3.3, 4.7, 12 and 23 micron bands. Each day during its six-month mission WISE will scan 4800 sq.deg. of the sky, and will downlink approximately 50GB of raw science imaging data and engineering telemetry. The Infrared Processing and Analysis Center is the WISE Science Data Center (WSDC) and is responsible for processing, archiving and distribution of WISE science data. We describe the five elements of the WISE Science Data (WSDS) that will carry out these functions: INGEST which receives and merges science and ancillary data from WISE Mission Operations Center and stages for processing; PIPELINES which performs image calibration, source extraction and calibration on both single-exposure and coadded WISE images; QA which performs automated science data quality assessment and scoring; ARCHIVE which provides storage of and access to raw and processed WISE data products and metadata; FPG which extracts the final WISE Image Atlas and Source Catalog from the "working databases" generated by the data processing system and prepares them for public release; and EXEC which manages job execution and compute and storage resources for the other WSDS elements.

  17. Zoning vulnerability of climate change in variation of amount and trend of precipitation - Case Study: Great Khorasan province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modiri, Ehsan; Modiri, Sadegh

    2015-04-01

    Climatic hazards have complex nature that many of them are beyond human control. Earth's climate is constantly fluctuating and trying to balance itself. More than 75% of Iran has arid and semi-arid climate thus assessment of climate change induced threats and vulnerabilities is essential. In order to investigate the reason for the changes in amount and trend of precipitation parameter, 17 synoptic stations have been selected in the interval of the establishment time of the station until 2013. These stations are located in three regions: Northern, Razavi and Southern Khorasan. For quality control of data in Monthly, quarterly and annual total precipitation of data were tested and checked by run test. Then probable trends in each of the areas was assessed by Kendall-tau test. Total annual precipitation of each station is the important factor that increase the sensitivity of vulnerability in the area with low rainfall. Annual amount of precipitation moving from north to south has been declining, though in different fields that they have different geomorphologic characteristics controversies occur. But clearly can be observed average of precipitation decline with decreasing latitude. There were positive trends in the annual precipitation in 6 stations, negative trends in 10 stations, as well as one station, has no trend. The remarkable notice is that all stations have a positive trend were in the northern region in the case study. These stations had been in ranging from none to Moderate classification of threats and vulnerability. After the initialization parameters to classify levels of risks and vulnerability, the two measures of mean annual precipitation and the trends of this fluctuation were combined together. This classification was created in five level for stations. Accordingly Golmakan, Ghochan, Torbate heydarieh, Bojnord and Mashhad were in none threat level. Khoor of Birjand and Boshruyeh have had complete stage of the threat level and had the greatest

  18. Co-Adapting Water Demand and Supply to Changing Climate in Agricultural Water Systems, A Case Study in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Mainardi, M.; Arias Munoz, C.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasing uncertainties in the hydrologic cycle due to changes in climate and land use will challenge water resources planning and management in the next decade. Improving agricultural productivity is particularly critical, being this sector the one characterized by the highest water demand. Moreover, to meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades, even though water availability is expected to decrease due to climate change impacts. Agricultural systems are called to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crop patterns and the corresponding water demand, or maximizing the efficiency in the water supply modifying irrigation scheduling and adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques) in order to re-optimize the use of limited water resources. Although many studies have assessed climate change impacts on agricultural practices and water management, most of them assume few scenarios of water demand or water supply separately, while an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Moreover, current practices are generally established according to historical agreements and normative constraints and, in the absence of dramatic failures, the shift toward more efficient water management is not easily achievable. In this work, we propose to activate an information loop between farmers and water managers to improve the effectiveness of agricultural water management practices by matching the needs of the farmers with the design of water supply strategies. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). A distributed-parameter, dynamic model of the system allows to simulate crop growth and the final yield over a range of hydro-climatic conditions, irrigation strategies and water-related stresses. The spatial component of the

  19. Climate Change Mitigation Challenge for Wood Utilization-The Case of Finland.

    PubMed

    Soimakallio, Sampo; Saikku, Laura; Valsta, Lauri; Pingoud, Kim

    2016-05-17

    The urgent need to mitigate climate change invokes both opportunities and challenges for forest biomass utilization. Fossil fuels can be substituted by using wood products in place of alternative materials and energy, but wood harvesting reduces forest carbon sink and processing of wood products requires material and energy inputs. We assessed the extended life cycle carbon emissions considering substitution impacts for various wood utilization scenarios over 100 years from 2010 onward for Finland. The scenarios were based on various but constant wood utilization structures reflecting current and anticipated mix of wood utilization activities. We applied stochastic simulation to deal with the uncertainty in a number of input variables required. According to our analysis, the wood utilization decrease net carbon emissions with a probability lower than 40% for each of the studied scenarios. Furthermore, large emission reductions were exceptionally unlikely. The uncertainty of the results were influenced clearly the most by the reduction in the forest carbon sink. There is a significant trade-off between avoiding emissions through fossil fuel substitution and reduction in forest carbon sink due to wood harvesting. This creates a major challenge for forest management practices and wood utilization activities in responding to ambitious climate change mitigation targets.

  20. Climate Change Mitigation Challenge for Wood Utilization-The Case of Finland.

    PubMed

    Soimakallio, Sampo; Saikku, Laura; Valsta, Lauri; Pingoud, Kim

    2016-05-17

    The urgent need to mitigate climate change invokes both opportunities and challenges for forest biomass utilization. Fossil fuels can be substituted by using wood products in place of alternative materials and energy, but wood harvesting reduces forest carbon sink and processing of wood products requires material and energy inputs. We assessed the extended life cycle carbon emissions considering substitution impacts for various wood utilization scenarios over 100 years from 2010 onward for Finland. The scenarios were based on various but constant wood utilization structures reflecting current and anticipated mix of wood utilization activities. We applied stochastic simulation to deal with the uncertainty in a number of input variables required. According to our analysis, the wood utilization decrease net carbon emissions with a probability lower than 40% for each of the studied scenarios. Furthermore, large emission reductions were exceptionally unlikely. The uncertainty of the results were influenced clearly the most by the reduction in the forest carbon sink. There is a significant trade-off between avoiding emissions through fossil fuel substitution and reduction in forest carbon sink due to wood harvesting. This creates a major challenge for forest management practices and wood utilization activities in responding to ambitious climate change mitigation targets. PMID:27074531

  1. Modeling Vulnerability and Resilience to Climate Change: A Case Study of India and Indian States

    SciTech Connect

    Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2005-09-01

    The vulnerability of India and Indian states to climate change was assessed using the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicator Prototype (VRIP). The model was adapted from the global/country version to account for Indian dietary practices and data availability with regard to freshwater resources. Results (scaled to world values) show nine Indian states to be moderately resilient to climate change, principally because of low sulfur emissions and a relatively large percentage of unmanaged land. Six states are more vulnerable than India as a whole, attributable largely to sensitivity to sea storm surges. Analyses of results at the state level (Orissa, and comparisons between Maharashtra and Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh) demonstrate the value of VRIP analyses used in conjunction with other socioeconomic information to address initial questions about the sources of vulnerability in particular places. The modeling framework allows analysts and stakeholders to systematically evaluate individual and sets of indicators and to indicate where the likely vulnerabilities are in the area being assessed.

  2. Urban effects on regional climate: A case study in the Phoenix-Tucson Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Dominguez, F.; Gupta, H. V.

    2014-12-01

    Human activity in urban environments impacts climate from the local to the global scale by changing the atmospheric composition and impacting components of the water and energy cycles. Specifically land use and land cover change due to urban expansion changes the surface albedo, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the surface. Consequently, the energy balance in urban region is different from that of natural surfaces. In this research, we apply the coupled WRF-NOAH-UCM, which includes a detailed urban radiation scheme, to evaluate the changes in regional climate that would arise due to projected urbanization in the Phoenix-Tucson corridor, in Arizona. We use the land cover data for 2005 and projections to 2050 (for areas north to Tucson from Maricopa Association of Governments (MAG) using the Red Dot Algorithm (RDA), and for areas around Tucson and South is from SLEUTH model) with historical North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data as the lateral boundary condition. Result shows that temperature changes are well defined and reflect the urban heat island (UHI) effect within the areas experiencing LULCC. The heat index is also examined, the magnitude of change is similar to that of temperature change. The timing of the maximum and minimum temperature is delayed by approximately one hour. Precipitation was analyzed according to both the occurrence of rainfall and according to flow regime, however no clear evidence of changes in precipitation amount or occurrence was found due to urbanization.

  3. On the relationship between personal experience, affect and risk perception: The case of climate change

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Examining the conceptual relationship between personal experience, affect, and risk perception is crucial in improving our understanding of how emotional and cognitive process mechanisms shape public perceptions of climate change. This study is the first to investigate the interrelated nature of these variables by contrasting three prominent social-psychological theories. In the first model, affect is viewed as a fast and associative information processing heuristic that guides perceptions of risk. In the second model, affect is seen as flowing from cognitive appraisals (i.e., affect is thought of as a post-cognitive process). Lastly, a third, dual-process model is advanced that integrates aspects from both theoretical perspectives. Four structural equation models were tested on a national sample (N = 808) of British respondents. Results initially provide support for the “cognitive” model, where personal experience with extreme weather is best conceptualized as a predictor of climate change risk perception and, in turn, risk perception a predictor of affect. Yet, closer examination strongly indicates that at the same time, risk perception and affect reciprocally influence each other in a stable feedback system. It is therefore concluded that both theoretical claims are valid and that a dual-process perspective provides a superior fit to the data. Implications for theory and risk communication are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25678723

  4. Actionable Science in Practice: Co-Producing Climate Change Information for Water Utility Vulnerability Assessments. Four Case Studies from the Water Utility Climate Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, L.; Behar, D. H.; Fleming, P.; Asefa, T.; Heyn, K.; Brooks, K.; Cohn, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Piloting Utility Modeling Applications (PUMA) project featured four water utilities - New York, Tampa Bay, Seattle, and Portland - from the Water Utility Climate Alliance (WUCA) who worked in collaboration with local climate science consortiums to hand-pick or develop locally appropriate tools, projections, and approaches to understand the impact of climate change on drinking water supplies. These utilities pursued customized approaches based on specific utility needs and learned important lessons in conducting assessments that may be of interest to the wider adaptation community. In addition, these projects are examples of succesfull environments in which utility managers worked collaboratively and iteratively with climate scientists to understand both utility concerns and the ability or limitations of today's climate science to respond to those concerns. Broader lessons that cut across the pilots are presented in a closing chapter.

  5. The WISE Survey of the Near-Earth Asteroids (NEOWISE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grav, Tommy; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R.; Stevenson, R.; Carolyn, N.; McMillan, R. S.; Walker, R. G.; Spahr, T. B.; Wright, E. L.; WISE Team; NEOWISE Team

    2013-06-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a NASA Explorer class mission that has imaged the entire sky twice between January, 2010 and January, 2011 at four wavelengths spanning the near through mid-IR with sensitivities hundreds of times greater than previous surveys. Through a NASA funded project, called NEOWISE, we have systematically searched the WISE data for new and previously known asteroids, detecting over 158,000 objects (of which more than 30,000 were new discoveries). The NEOWISE project have resulted in a highly uniform survey of the near-Earth object (NEO) population at thermal infrared wavelengths ranging from 3 to 22 μm, allowing us to refine estimates of their numbers, sizes, and albedos. The survey detected NEOs the same way whether they were previously known or not, subject to the availability of ground-based follow-up observations, resulting in the discovery of more than 130 new NEOs. The survey's uniform sensitivity, observing cadence, and image quality have permitted extrapolation of the 429 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) detected by NEOWISE during the fully cryogenic portion of the WISE mission to the larger population. An additional 88 NEAs were observed in the post-cryogenic phase of the mission, with 12 of these being discoveries. Using the dataset and debiasing the results, we find that there are 981 ± 19 NEAs larger than 1 km and 20,500±3000 NEAs larger than 100 m [3]. We show that the Spaceguard goal of detecting 90% of all 1 km NEAs has been met, and that the cumulative size distribution is best represented by a broken power law with a slope of 1.32±0.14 below 1.5 km. This power-law slope produces about 13,200±1900 NEAs with diameter larger than 140 m. The results show that the overall number for the NEA population between 100 and 1000 m is somewhat lower than previous estimates. We also present the results of an analysis of the sub-populations within the near-Earth asteroids, including the Atens, Apollos, Amors, and those

  6. Improved LRG Selection Algorithms combining Optical And WISE (Infrared) Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Abhishek; Newman, J.; eBOSS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Luminous red galaxies (LRGs) are the most massive galaxies in nearby universe of z < 1.0 which appear to have formed the bulk of their stars at early times. Mostly ellipticals, they are associated with massive dark matter halos and hence cluster very strongly which makes them an excellent tracer of the large-scale structure of the Universe. LRGs at z < 0.6 can be selected efficiently using optical photometry, but at z >0.6 this becomes increasingly difficult. Here we present the results of new techniques now being applied to select LRGs at redshifts 0.6 < z < 1 utilizing SDSS and WISE photometry in combination. Old stellar populations exhibit a global maximum in their SED at a wavelength of 1.6 μm, commonly referred to as the '1.6 μm bump'. Since LRGs possess very few young stars, this feature generally dominates their overall spectral energy distribution. The lowest wavelength channel in WISE is centered at 3.4 μm, causing LRGs that are at 1 to be extremely bright in this band compared to the optical. As a result, the r-W1 vs. r-i color-color diagram (where W1 is the 3.4 μm WISE AB magnitude) provides an efficient tool for selecting high-redshift LRGs while avoiding stars. In this poster, we present new results from efforts to optimize the color cut used to select LRGs, yielding samples with a very low stellar contamination rate, but a high fraction of galaxies that are both at z>0.6 and intrinsically red in color. Studying their properties and distribution can also help us determine the mechanisms by which these rare objects form. We have tested this method using photometric redshifts and spectroscopic redshifts in the COSMOS field and DEEP2 fields respectively. LRGs selected with this method are the targets for future-generation surveys such as eBOSS and DESI and undergoing surveys like, SEQUELS BOSS ancillary survey which aim at high precision measurement of BAO.

  7. WISE Identified Young Stellar Objects In BRC 38

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, John; Rebull, L. M.; Laurence, W.; Marshall, R.; Murphy, M.; Orr, L.; Whitworth, C.; Burton, A.; Corris, T.; Goodey, S.; McGinnis, S.; Laurence, C.; Aschman, O.; Kikuchi, R.; Prather, J.; Whitley, L.; Billings, C.; Mader, C.

    2014-01-01

    Bright rimmed clouds (BRCs) are dense clumps of gas and dust within HII regions at the edges of molecular clouds; while the BRCs themselves are dark, their rims are optically bright from illumination by nearby O or B stars. Many BRCs show evidence of active star formation possibly triggered by the ionizing radiation from the nearby O or B stars. The large molecular cloud IC1396 is home to eleven BRCs thought to be driven by the O6.5V star HD206267. BRC 38 is located in the north of IC1396, at 21:40:42 +58:16:13. The immediate ~5'x5' region around BRC 38 has been extensively studied in many wavelengths from X-rays to infrared (IR), identifying ~100 young stellar objects (YSOs). We used data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to expand the search for YSOs to a 20 arcminute radius from the center of BRC 38. Starting with approximately 7000 sources identified in the WISE catalog, we used an updated version of the IR color selection scheme developed by Koenig et al. (2012) to identify ~40 objects having IR colors consistent with those of YSOs; some overlapping with the literature YSO candidates. Combining confirmed and candidate YSOs from literature with those we identified by color selection, we find 115 unique objects of interest. For each of these sources, we analyzed (a) the WISE, 2MASS, and Spitzer images to determine if they were point-like sources; (b) their IR colors to determine if they exhibited a clear IR excess; and (c) their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to determine if they had an SED shape consistent with their identification as YSO candidates. Our work adds several new YSO candidates to the list of YSOs in and near BRC 38 and newly identifies IR excesses for many of the previously identified YSOs in the region. We looked for evidence of triggered star formation in BRC 38, but are limited in our conclusions by small-number statistics. Support is provided for this work by the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP

  8. Vulnerability to Climate Change in Rural Saskatchewan: Case Study of the Rural Municipality of Rudy No. 284

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Jeremy; Wittrock, Virginia; Kulshreshtha, Surendra; Wheaton, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    With the likelihood of future changes in climate and climate variability, it is important to understand how human systems may be vulnerable. Rural communities in Saskatchewan having agricultural-based economies are particularly dependent on climate and could be among the most vulnerable human systems in Canada. Future changes in climate are likely…

  9. WISE infrared properties of OH megamaser galaxies: Guide for future FAST OHM searching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, JiangShui; Wang, JunZhi; Li, Di

    2015-08-01

    All 119 OH maser galaxies (110 out of them are megamasers, i.e., LOH > 10 Lsun) published so far were compiled and were cross-identified with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalog, to investigate the middle infrared (MIR) properties of OH maser galaxies. The WISE magnitude data at the 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 μm (W1 to W4 band) were collected for the OH maser sample and one control sample, which are non-detection sources. The color-color diagrams show that both OH megamaser (OHM) and non-OHM (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) are far away from the single blackbody model line and many of them can follow the path described by the power-law model. The active galaxy nuclei (AGN) fraction is about 40% for both OHM and non-OHM (U)LIRGs, according to the AGN criteria W1-W2 ≥ 0.8. Among the Arecibo survey sample, OHM sources tend to have a lower luminosity at short MIR wavelengths (e.g., 3.4 μm and 4.6 μm) than that of non-OHM sources, which should come from the low OHM fraction among the survey sample with large 3.4 μm and 4.6 μm luminosity. The OHM fraction tends to increase with cooler MIR colors (larger F22 μm/F3.4 μm). In the case of the power-law model, we derived the spectral indices for our samples. For the Arecibo survey sample, OHM (U)LIRGs tend to have larger spectral index α22-12 than non-OHM sources, which agrees with previous results. One significant correlation exists between the WISE infrared luminosity at 22 μm and the color [W1]-[W4] for the Arecibo OHM hosts. In summary, these clues should provide suitable constraints on the sample selection for future OH megamaser surveys through the Five hundred aperture spherical telescope (FAST). Further potentials on FAST OH megamasers research are investigated, including detectability, sky density of OH megamasers etc.

  10. Using Peatland Archives to Assess Climate Forcing of Holocene Vegetational Changes: Case Studies From the Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, S. T.; Booth, R. K.; Andersen, J.; Hotchkiss, S.; Huang, Y.; Lesser, M.; Minckley, T.; Nichols, J.; Pendall, E.; Reeves, K.; Taylor, M.

    2006-12-01

    A dilemma has long confronted paleoecologists: pollen data are required to assess past vegetational changes, and at the same time pollen data serve as a primary source of paleoclimate inference. Paleoecologists have had to use the same data sets to infer past climate changes and the ecological responses to those changes. The emergence of independent paleoclimate proxies and archives is providing relief from this dilemma. Peatland archives are especially effective at providing independent paleoclimatic records, owing to their sensitivity to climate variation, their subcentennial to subdecadal temporal precision, and the multiplicity of available proxies. Pollen records can be obtained from the same stratigraphic levels as paleoclimate proxies, and peatland records can also be compared with lake-based pollen and macrofossil records at regional scales. Peatland records of mid- to late Holocene climate change and variability, together with pollen and macrofossil records from peatlands and lakes in the Great Lakes region of North America, resolve some long-standing questions and controversies concerning the causation of vegetational changes in the region. We present three case studies where peatlands have played a pivotal role. 1. Hemlock populations plummeted across eastern North America 5400 yr BP. The extent, rapidity, and synchrony of the event suggested that it resulted from a widespread pathogen outbreak, similar to the early 20th Century chestnut blight in the same region. However, some have argued for climate as a primary mechanism. Paleohydrological records from a kettle bog in northeastern Lower Michigan indicate an abrupt decline in water-table depth 5400 yr BP that persisted for the next 2500 years, coincident with the hemlock decline. Pathogens may have played a proximal role, but an abrupt climate shift was the ultimate driver of the hemlock decline. 2. Holocene expansions of yellow birch and beech in their northwestern ranges were episodic, alternating

  11. Climate change adaptation & mitigation strategies for Water-Energy-Land Nexus management in Mediterranean region: Case study of Catalunya (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-01

    water where it is a scarce resource. Linkage of water & Energy to the land has been established through irrigated agriculture which has seen an increasing trend in the case study area. A detail scenario planning for regional water-energy demand and supply in conjunction with different climate change and economic growth scenarios are considered. For each future scenario of climate change, the goal is to obtain a ranking of a set of possible actions with regards to different types of indicators (costs, environmental etc.). The analytical method used is based on outranking models for decision aid with hierarchical structures of criteria and ranking alternatives using partial preorders based on pairwise preference relations. The proposed method has several advantages such as the management of heterogeneous scales of measurement without requiring any artificial transformation and the management of uncertainty by means of comparisons at a qualitative level in terms of the decision maker preferences. Result shows that such an integrated ("nexus") approach is likely to build resilience and reduces vulnerability to the combination of pressures acting upon the Mediterranean region's water systems, including climate-related shocks.

  12. Implications of climate change scenarios for agriculture in alpine regions--a case study in the Swiss Rhone catchment.

    PubMed

    Fuhrer, J; Smith, P; Gobiet, A

    2014-09-15

    Coping with climate change in agriculture requires knowledge of trends in agro-climatic conditions with a focus at the smaller scales where decisions are taken. As part of the EU FP7 ACQWA project, the situation was analyzed for agriculture in the case of the Swiss Rhone catchment (Valais) where cultivation of permanent crops (orchards and vineyards) and livestock production are the most important agro-economic activities. The aim of this study was to use daily data from four downscaled and bias corrected transient climate change scenarios to analyze changes in water and temperature related indices over the period 1951-2050 for three locations (Aigle, Sion, Montana) that are representative of different production zones in the catchment. The results indicate that most relevant implications are caused by projected changes in temperature and not in precipitation. They indicate an extension of the thermal growing season with potentially positive effects on pasture and livestock production, most pronounced at the mountain site (Montana), but a trend towards increasing risks of frost in permanent crops and in heat stress for livestock at the valley bottom (Aigle, Sion). The increase in water requirement for irrigation in 2021-2050 relative to 1981-2009 is moderate (4-16%, depending on location). However, in years with low amounts of snow and rain, in small catchments with a nival regime, reduced water supply by rivers could restrict the surface area of grassland that can be irrigated, particularly during springtime. It is concluded that coping with heat-related risks may be most needed at the lower cropland and pasture sites while water-related issues would become more relevant in more elevated locations where pasture-based livestock production is the dominant type of agricultural land use.

  13. Implications of climate change scenarios for agriculture in alpine regions--a case study in the Swiss Rhone catchment.

    PubMed

    Fuhrer, J; Smith, P; Gobiet, A

    2014-09-15

    Coping with climate change in agriculture requires knowledge of trends in agro-climatic conditions with a focus at the smaller scales where decisions are taken. As part of the EU FP7 ACQWA project, the situation was analyzed for agriculture in the case of the Swiss Rhone catchment (Valais) where cultivation of permanent crops (orchards and vineyards) and livestock production are the most important agro-economic activities. The aim of this study was to use daily data from four downscaled and bias corrected transient climate change scenarios to analyze changes in water and temperature related indices over the period 1951-2050 for three locations (Aigle, Sion, Montana) that are representative of different production zones in the catchment. The results indicate that most relevant implications are caused by projected changes in temperature and not in precipitation. They indicate an extension of the thermal growing season with potentially positive effects on pasture and livestock production, most pronounced at the mountain site (Montana), but a trend towards increasing risks of frost in permanent crops and in heat stress for livestock at the valley bottom (Aigle, Sion). The increase in water requirement for irrigation in 2021-2050 relative to 1981-2009 is moderate (4-16%, depending on location). However, in years with low amounts of snow and rain, in small catchments with a nival regime, reduced water supply by rivers could restrict the surface area of grassland that can be irrigated, particularly during springtime. It is concluded that coping with heat-related risks may be most needed at the lower cropland and pasture sites while water-related issues would become more relevant in more elevated locations where pasture-based livestock production is the dominant type of agricultural land use. PMID:23830922

  14. Concerns About Climate Change Mitigation Projects: Summary of Findings from Case Studies in Brazil, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Andrasko, Kenneth; Makundi, Willy; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre; Ravinandranath, N.H.; Melli, Anandi; Rangachari, Anita; Amaz, Mireya; Gay, Carlos; Friedmann, Rafael; Goldberg, Beth; van Horen, Clive; Simmonds, Gillina; Parker, Gretchen

    1998-11-01

    The concept of joint implementation as a way to implement climate change mitigation projects in another country has been controversial ever since its inception. Developing countries have raised numerous issues at the project-specific technical level, and broader concerns having to do with equity and burden sharing. This paper summarizes the findings of studies for Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa, four countries that have large greenhouse gas emissions and are heavily engaged in the debate on climate change projects under the Kyoto Protocol. The studies examine potential or current projects/programs to determine whether eight technical concerns about joint implementation can be adequately addressed. They conclude that about half the concerns were minor or well managed by project developers, but concerns about additionality of funds, host country institutions and guarantees of performance (including the issues of baselines and possible leakage) need much more effort to be adequately addressed. All the papers agree on the need to develop institutional arrangements for approving and monitoring such projects in each of the countries represented. The case studies illustrate that these projects have the potential to bring new technology, investment, employment and ancillary socioeconomic and environmental benefits to developing countries. These benefits are consistent with the goal of sustainable development in the four study countries. At a policy level, the studies' authors note that in their view, the Annex I countries should consider limits on the use of jointly implemented projects as a way to get credits against their own emissions at home, and stress the importance of industrialized countries developing new technologies that will benefit all countries. The authors also observe that if all countries accepted caps on their emissions (with a longer time period allowed for developing countries to do so) project-based GHG mitigation would be significantly

  15. DUE PERMAFROST: A Circumpolar Remote Sensing Service for Permafrost - Evaluation Case Studies and Intercomparison with Regional Climate Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Birgit; Bartsch, Annett; Elger, Kirsten; Rinke, Annette; Klehmet, Katharina; Matthes, Heidrun; Gellhorn, Catrin; Buchhorn, Marcel; Soliman, Aiman; Duguay, Claude

    2013-04-01

    The ESA Data User Element (DUE) Permafrost project provides a Circumpolar remote sensing service for permafrost-related applications. The data products are freely downloadable (http://www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/permafrost) and published at the PANGAEA World Data Centre (DUE Permafrost Project Consortium, 2012). Remote sensing products are land surface temperature, surface soil moisture, ground frozen/non frozen state, terrain parameters, land cover parameters, and surface waters. Snow parameters (snow extent and snow water equivalent) can be derived from the DUE project GlobSnow (http://www.globsnow.info). The time series of Circumpolar land surface temperature and surface soil moisture offer weekly and monthly averaged data products from 2007 to 2010, Circumpolar ground frozen/non frozen state is provided as daily dataset. The ongoing service will also include the time series of 2011 and 2012. The Circumpolar terrain and land cover products are static, e.g. the first Circumpolar Digital Elevation Model (DEM) north of 55° N with a spatial resolution of 100 m (S. Maurizio & T. Strozzi, 2012). Evaluation is crucial to test the scientific validity of the DUE Permafrost data products for high-latitude permafrost landscapes. The primary programme providing ground data is the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) initiated by the International Permafrost Association (IPA) in the 1990s. The involvement of scientific stakeholders and the IPA, and the ongoing evaluation of the remote sensing derived products make the DUE Permafrost products widely accepted by the scientific community. Evaluation case studies of DUE Permafrost remote-sensing derived products (e.g., land surface temperature and ground frozen/non frozen state) show good agreement with ground data from GTN-P monitoring sites in Alaska and Siberia. The Helmholtz Climate Initiative REKLIM (Regionale Klimaänderungen/Regional climate change) is a climate research program where regional observations and

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Insulated Siding Retrofit in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the U.S. Department of Energy’s team Building America Partner¬ship for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC) worked with Kinsley Construction Company to evaluate the real-world performance of insulated sid¬ing when applied to an existing home. A 1960s home was selected for analysis. It is located in a cold climate (zone 6) where the addition of insulated siding and a carefully detailed water-resistive barrier have the potential to offer significant benefits. In particular, the team quantified building airtightness and heating energy use as a function of outdoor temperatures before and after the installa¬tion of the insulated siding.

  17. Technology Solutions Case Study: High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    M. Hoeschele, A. German, E. Weitzel, R. Chitwood

    2015-08-01

    Ducts in conditioned space (DCS) represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. Various strategies exist for incorporating ducts within the conditioned thermal envelope. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation) to solicit builder involvement in California to participate in field demonstrations of various DCS strategies. Builders were given incentives and design support in exchange for providing site access for construction observation, diagnostic testing, and builder survey feedback. Information from the project was designed to feed into California's 2016 Title 24 process, but also to serve as an initial mechanism to engage builders in more high performance construction strategies. This Building America project complemented information collected in the California project with BEopt simulations of DCS performance in hot/dry climate regions.

  18. Lessons from the construction of a climate change adaptation plan: A Broads wetland case study.

    PubMed

    Turner, R Kerry; Palmieri, Maria Giovanna; Luisetti, Tiziana

    2016-10-01

    The dynamic nature of environmental change in coastal areas means that a flexible "learning by doing" management strategy has a number of advantages. This article lays out the principles of such a strategy and then assesses an actual planning and management process focused on climate change consequences for the Broads wetland on the East coast of England. The management strategy focused on the concept of ecosystem services (stocks and flows) provided by the coastal wetland and the threats and opportunities posed to the area by sea level rise and other climate change impacts. The analysis explores the process by which an adaptive management plan has been formulated and coproduced by a combination of centralized (vertical) and stakeholder social network (horizontal) arrangements. The process values where feasible the ecosystem services under threat and prioritizes response actions. Coastal management needs a careful balance between strategic requirements imposed at a national scale and local schemes that affect regional and/or local communities and social networks. These networks aided by electronic media have allowed groups to engage more rapidly and effectively with policy proposals. However, successful deliberation is conditioned by a range of context specific factors, including the type of social networks present and their relative competitive and/or complementary characteristics. The history of consultation and dialogue between official agencies and stakeholders also plays a part in contemporary deliberation processes and the success of their outcomes. Among the issues highlighted are the multiple dimensions of nature's value; the difficulty of quantifying some ecosystem service changes, especially for cultural services; and the problem of "stakeholder fatigue" complicating engagement arrangements. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:719-725. © 2016 SETAC.

  19. Lessons from the construction of a climate change adaptation plan: A Broads wetland case study.

    PubMed

    Turner, R Kerry; Palmieri, Maria Giovanna; Luisetti, Tiziana

    2016-10-01

    The dynamic nature of environmental change in coastal areas means that a flexible "learning by doing" management strategy has a number of advantages. This article lays out the principles of such a strategy and then assesses an actual planning and management process focused on climate change consequences for the Broads wetland on the East coast of England. The management strategy focused on the concept of ecosystem services (stocks and flows) provided by the coastal wetland and the threats and opportunities posed to the area by sea level rise and other climate change impacts. The analysis explores the process by which an adaptive management plan has been formulated and coproduced by a combination of centralized (vertical) and stakeholder social network (horizontal) arrangements. The process values where feasible the ecosystem services under threat and prioritizes response actions. Coastal management needs a careful balance between strategic requirements imposed at a national scale and local schemes that affect regional and/or local communities and social networks. These networks aided by electronic media have allowed groups to engage more rapidly and effectively with policy proposals. However, successful deliberation is conditioned by a range of context specific factors, including the type of social networks present and their relative competitive and/or complementary characteristics. The history of consultation and dialogue between official agencies and stakeholders also plays a part in contemporary deliberation processes and the success of their outcomes. Among the issues highlighted are the multiple dimensions of nature's value; the difficulty of quantifying some ecosystem service changes, especially for cultural services; and the problem of "stakeholder fatigue" complicating engagement arrangements. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:719-725. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26946335

  20. Impact of Urban Growth on Surface Climate: A Case Study in Oran, Algeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Safia, Abdelmounaine; Masek, Jeffrey; Peters-Lidars, Christaq; Imhoff, Marc L.

    2008-01-01

    We develop a land use map discriminating urban surfaces from other cover types over a semiarid region in North Africa and use it in a land surface model to assess the impact of urbanized land on surface energy, water and carbon balances. Unlike in temperate climates where urbanization creates a marked heat island effect, this effect is not strongly marked in semiarid regions. During summer, the urban class results in an additional warming of 1.45 C during daytime and 0.81 C at night compared to that simulated for needleleaf trees under similar climate conditions. Seasonal temperatures show urban areas warmer than their surrounding during summer and slightly cooler in winter. The hydrological cycle is practically "shut down" during summer and characterized by relatively large amount of runoff in winter. We estimate the annual amount of carbon uptake to 1.94 million metric tons with only 11.9% assimilated during the rainy season. However, if urbanization expands to reach 50% of the total area excluding forests, the annual total carbon uptake will decline by 35% and the July mean temperature would increase only 0.10 C, compared to current situation. In contrast, if urbanization expands to 50% of the total land excluding forests and croplands but all short vegetation is replaced by native broadleaf deciduous trees, the annual carbon uptake would increase 39% and the July mean temperature would decrease by 0.9 C, compared to current configuration. These results provide guidelines for urban planners and land use managers and indicate possibilities for mitigating the urban heat.

  1. Enlarging the Societal Pie Through Wise Legislation: A Psychological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Baron, Jonathan; Bazerman, Max H; Shonk, Katherine

    2006-06-01

    We offer a psychological perspective to explain the failure of governments to create near-Pareto improvements. Our tools for analyzing these failures reflect the difficulties people have trading small losses for large gains: the fixed-pie approach to negotiations, the omission bias and status quo bias, parochialism and dysfunctional competition, and the neglect of secondary effects. We examine the role of human judgment in the failure to find wise trade-offs by discussing diverse applications of citizen and government decision making, including AIDS treatment, organ-donation systems, endangered-species protection, subsidies, and free trade. Our overall goal is to offer a psychological approach for understanding suboptimality in government decision making.

  2. Ecological effects of climate change on salt marsh wildlife: a case study from a highly urbanized estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorne, Karen M.; Takekawa, John Y.; Elliott-Fisk, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal areas are high-risk zones subject to the impacts of global climate change, with significant increases in the frequencies of extreme weather and storm events, and sea-level rise forecast by 2100. These physical processes are expected to alter estuaries, resulting in loss of intertidal wetlands and their component wildlife species. In particular, impacts to salt marshes and their wildlife will vary both temporally and spatially and may be irreversible and severe. Synergistic effects caused by combining stressors with anthropogenic land-use patterns could create areas of significant biodiversity loss and extinction, especially in urbanized estuaries that are already heavily degraded. In this paper, we discuss current ideas, challenges, and concerns regarding the maintenance of salt marshes and their resident wildlife in light of future climate conditions. We suggest that many salt marsh habitats are already impaired and are located where upslope transgression is restricted, resulting in reduction and loss of these habitats in the future. In addition, we conclude that increased inundation frequency and water depth will have negative impacts on the demography of small or isolated wildlife meta-populations as well as their community interactions. We illustrate our points with a case study on the Pacific Coast of North America at San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge in California, an area that supports endangered wildlife species reliant on salt marshes for all aspects of their life histories.

  3. How rural land use management facilitates drought risk adaptation in a changing climate - A case study in arid northern China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yongdeng; Zhang, Hailin; Chen, Fu; Zhang, Linbo

    2016-04-15

    Under a warming climate, frequent drought and water scarcity in northern China have severely disrupted agricultural production and posed a substantial threat to farmers' livelihoods. Based on first-hand data collected through in-depth interviews with local managers and farmer households, this study evaluated the effectiveness of rural land use management in mitigating drought risk, ensuring food security and improving farmers' livelihoods. Our findings indicate that a) reforestation on low-yield cropland not only can improve the eco-environment but can also prominently mitigate the production risk to local farmers; b) replacing the traditional border irrigation with sprinkler irrigation has substantially curbed agricultural water usage and increased the per unit of output; and c) in recent years, instead of planting water-intensive grain crops, local farmers cultivated more forage crops to raise animals, which greatly diversified their income sources and reduced the drought risk of agricultural production. By performing an empirical case study in drought-prone Inner Mongolia, this study provides decision-makers with insights into how to strategically adapt to drought risk and reduce rural poverty within the broader context of climate change.

  4. How rural land use management facilitates drought risk adaptation in a changing climate - A case study in arid northern China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yongdeng; Zhang, Hailin; Chen, Fu; Zhang, Linbo

    2016-04-15

    Under a warming climate, frequent drought and water scarcity in northern China have severely disrupted agricultural production and posed a substantial threat to farmers' livelihoods. Based on first-hand data collected through in-depth interviews with local managers and farmer households, this study evaluated the effectiveness of rural land use management in mitigating drought risk, ensuring food security and improving farmers' livelihoods. Our findings indicate that a) reforestation on low-yield cropland not only can improve the eco-environment but can also prominently mitigate the production risk to local farmers; b) replacing the traditional border irrigation with sprinkler irrigation has substantially curbed agricultural water usage and increased the per unit of output; and c) in recent years, instead of planting water-intensive grain crops, local farmers cultivated more forage crops to raise animals, which greatly diversified their income sources and reduced the drought risk of agricultural production. By performing an empirical case study in drought-prone Inner Mongolia, this study provides decision-makers with insights into how to strategically adapt to drought risk and reduce rural poverty within the broader context of climate change. PMID:26815296

  5. Predicting Local Dengue Transmission in Guangzhou, China, through the Influence of Imported Cases, Mosquito Density and Climate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Shaowei; Yin, Wenwu; Bi, Peng; Zhang, Honglong; Wang, Chenggang; Liu, Xiaobo; Chen, Bin; Yang, Weizhong; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Each year there are approximately 390 million dengue infections worldwide. Weather variables have a significant impact on the transmission of Dengue Fever (DF), a mosquito borne viral disease. DF in mainland China is characterized as an imported disease. Hence it is necessary to explore the roles of imported cases, mosquito density and climate variability in dengue transmission in China. The study was to identify the relationship between dengue occurrence and possible risk factors and to develop a predicting model for dengue’s control and prevention purpose. Methodology and Principal Findings Three traditional suburbs and one district with an international airport in Guangzhou city were selected as the study areas. Autocorrelation and cross-correlation analysis were used to perform univariate analysis to identify possible risk factors, with relevant lagged effects, associated with local dengue cases. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract principal components and PCA score was used to represent the original variables to reduce multi-collinearity. Combining the univariate analysis and prior knowledge, time-series Poisson regression analysis was conducted to quantify the relationship between weather variables, Breteau Index, imported DF cases and the local dengue transmission in Guangzhou, China. The goodness-of-fit of the constructed model was determined by pseudo-R2, Akaike information criterion (AIC) and residual test. There were a total of 707 notified local DF cases from March 2006 to December 2012, with a seasonal distribution from August to November. There were a total of 65 notified imported DF cases from 20 countries, with forty-six cases (70.8%) imported from Southeast Asia. The model showed that local DF cases were positively associated with mosquito density, imported cases, temperature, precipitation, vapour pressure and minimum relative humidity, whilst being negatively associated with air pressure, with different time

  6. Can Climate Information be relevant to decision making for Agriculture on the 1-10 year timescale? Case studies from southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Mariko

    2016-04-01

    Climate forecasts have been developed to assist decision making in sectors averse to, and affected by, climate risks, and agriculture is one of those. In agriculture and food security, climate information is now used on a range of timescales, from days (weather), months (seasonal outlooks) to decades (climate change scenarios). Former researchers have shown that when seasonal climate forecast information was provided to farmers prior to decision making, farmers adapted by changing their choice of planting seeds and timing or area planted. However, it is not always clear that the end-users' needs for climate information are met and there might be a large gap between information supplied and needed. It has been pointed out that even when forecasts were available, they were often not utilized by farmers and extension services because of lack of trust in the forecast or the forecasts did not reach the targeted farmers. Many studies have focused on the use of either seasonal forecasts or longer term climate change prediction, but little research has been done on the medium term, that is, 1 to 10 year future climate information. The agriculture and food system sector is one potential user of medium term information, as land use policy and cropping systems selection may fall into this time scale and may affect farmers' decision making process. Assuming that reliable information is provided and it is utilized by farmers for decision making, it might contribute to resilient farming and indeed to longer term food security. To this end, we try to determine the effect of medium term climate information on farmers' strategic decision making process. We explored the end-users' needs for climate information and especially the possible role of medium term information in agricultural system, by conducting interview surveys with farmers and agricultural experts. In this study, the cases of apple production in South Africa, maize production in Malawi and rice production in Tanzania

  7. Spectrophotometric characterization of high proper motion sources from WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamín, J. C.; Ivanov, V. D.; Minniti, D.; Smart, R. L.; Mužić, K.; Mendez, R. A.; Beletsky, Y.; Bayo, A.; Gromadzki, M.; Kurtev, R.

    2015-12-01

    The census of the solar neighbourhood is almost complete for stars and becoming more complete in the brown dwarf regime. Spectroscopic, photometric and kinematic characterization of nearby objects helps us to understand the local mass function, the binary fraction, and provides new targets for sensitive planet searches. We aim to derive spectral types and spectrophotometric distances of a sample of new high proper motion sources found with the WISE (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer) satellite, and obtain parallaxes for those objects that fall within the area observed by the Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea survey (VVV). We used low-resolution spectroscopy and template fitting to derive spectral types, multiwavelength photometry to characterize the companion candidates and obtain photometric distances. Multi-epoch imaging from the VVV survey was used to measure the parallaxes and proper motions for three sources. We confirm a new T2 brown dwarf within ˜15 pc. We derived optical spectral types for 24 sources, mostly M dwarfs within 50 pc. We addressed the wide binary nature of 16 objects found by the WISE mission and previously known high proper motion sources. Six of these are probably members of wide binaries, two of those are new, and present evidence against the physical binary nature of two candidate binary stars found in the literature, and eight that we selected as possible binary systems. We discuss a likely microlensing event produced by a nearby low-mass star and a galaxy, that is to occur in the following five years.

  8. WISE DISCOVERY OF LOW-METALLICITY BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Roger L.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Wu Yanling; Yan Lin; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Wu Jingwen; Blain, Andrew; Harrison, Fiona; Madsen, Kristin; Stanford, Spencer A.; Wright, Edward L.

    2011-07-20

    We report two new low-metallicity blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), WISEP J080103.93+264053.9 (hereafter W0801+26) and WISEP J170233.53+180306.4 (hereafter W1702+18), discovered using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We identified these two BCDs from their extremely red colors at mid-infrared wavelengths and obtained follow-up optical spectroscopy using the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on Keck I. The mid-infrared properties of these two sources are similar to the well-studied, extremely low metallicity galaxy SBS 0335-052E. We determine metallicities of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.75 and 7.63 for W0801+26 and W1702+18, respectively, placing them among a very small group of very metal deficient galaxies (Z {<=} 1/10 Z{sub sun}). Their >300 A H{beta} equivalent widths, similar to SBS 0335-052E, imply the existence of young (<5 Myr) star-forming regions. We measure star formation rates of 2.6 and 10.9 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} for W0801+26 and W1702+18, respectively. These BCDs, showing recent star formation activity in extremely low metallicity environments, provide new laboratories for studying star formation in extreme conditions and are low-redshift analogs of the first generation of galaxies to form in the universe. Using the all-sky WISE survey, we discuss a new method to identify similar star-forming, low-metallicity BCDs.

  9. Projecting the range of potential future climate change as an aid in the assessment of the effectiveness of the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, K.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program was organized to develop an in-place disposal capability for low-level nuclear waste for the US Department of Energy at the Hanford Site in south-eastern Washington. Layered earthen and engineered barriers are being developed by Westinghouse Hanford Company and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory that will function in what is presently a semiarid environment (annual precipitation 150 mm) for at least 1,000 yr by limiting the infiltration of water through the waste. The Long-Term Climate Change Task is one of several key barrier tasks. Based on the recommendation of a panel of internationally recognized climate and modeling experts, climatic data for this task is being acquired in a step-wise and multi-disciplinary manner. The specific research strategy includes literature review and specialized studies to obtain pollen-derived climatic reconstruction, documented historic weather patterns, and Global Circulation Model output of potential future climate changes related to both the greenhouse effect and the cycling into the next ice age. The specific goals of the task are to: (1) obtain defensible probabilistic projections of the long-term climate variability in the Hanford Site region at many different time scales into the future, (2) develop several test case climate scenarios that bracket the range of potential future climate, and (3) use the climate scenarios both to test and to model protective barrier performance.

  10. Uncertainties in predicting species distributions under climate change: a case study using Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae), a widespread agricultural pest.

    PubMed

    Meynard, Christine N; Migeon, Alain; Navajas, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many species are shifting their distributions due to climate change and to increasing international trade that allows dispersal of individuals across the globe. In the case of agricultural pests, such range shifts may heavily impact agriculture. Species distribution modelling may help to predict potential changes in pest distributions. However, these modelling strategies are subject to large uncertainties coming from different sources. Here we used the case of the tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi), an invasive pest that affects some of the most important agricultural crops worldwide, to show how uncertainty may affect forecasts of the potential range of the species. We explored three aspects of uncertainty: (1) species prevalence; (2) modelling method; and (3) variability in environmental responses between mites belonging to two invasive clades of T. evansi. Consensus techniques were used to forecast the potential range of the species under current and two different climate change scenarios for 2080, and variance between model projections were mapped to identify regions of high uncertainty. We revealed large predictive variations linked to all factors, although prevalence had a greater influence than the statistical model once the best modelling strategies were selected. The major areas threatened under current conditions include tropical countries in South America and Africa, and temperate regions in North America, the Mediterranean basin and Australia. Under future scenarios, the threat shifts towards northern Europe and some other temperate regions in the Americas, whereas tropical regions in Africa present a reduced risk. Analysis of niche overlap suggests that the current differential distribution of mites of the two clades of T. evansi can be partially attributed to environmental niche differentiation. Overall this study shows how consensus strategies and analysis of niche overlap can be used jointly to draw conclusions on invasive threat

  11. Uncertainties in predicting species distributions under climate change: a case study using Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae), a widespread agricultural pest.

    PubMed

    Meynard, Christine N; Migeon, Alain; Navajas, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many species are shifting their distributions due to climate change and to increasing international trade that allows dispersal of individuals across the globe. In the case of agricultural pests, such range shifts may heavily impact agriculture. Species distribution modelling may help to predict potential changes in pest distributions. However, these modelling strategies are subject to large uncertainties coming from different sources. Here we used the case of the tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi), an invasive pest that affects some of the most important agricultural crops worldwide, to show how uncertainty may affect forecasts of the potential range of the species. We explored three aspects of uncertainty: (1) species prevalence; (2) modelling method; and (3) variability in environmental responses between mites belonging to two invasive clades of T. evansi. Consensus techniques were used to forecast the potential range of the species under current and two different climate change scenarios for 2080, and variance between model projections were mapped to identify regions of high uncertainty. We revealed large predictive variations linked to all factors, although prevalence had a greater influence than the statistical model once the best modelling strategies were selected. The major areas threatened under current conditions include tropical countries in South America and Africa, and temperate regions in North America, the Mediterranean basin and Australia. Under future scenarios, the threat shifts towards northern Europe and some other temperate regions in the Americas, whereas tropical regions in Africa present a reduced risk. Analysis of niche overlap suggests that the current differential distribution of mites of the two clades of T. evansi can be partially attributed to environmental niche differentiation. Overall this study shows how consensus strategies and analysis of niche overlap can be used jointly to draw conclusions on invasive threat

  12. Evaluation of users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities using pair-wise comparison approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainol, R.; Ahmad, F.; Nordin, N. A.; Aripin, A. W. M.

    2014-02-01

    Global climate change issues demand people of the world to change the way they live today. Thus, current cities need to be redeveloped towards less use of carbon in their day to day operations. Pedestrianized environment is one of the approaches used in reducing carbon foot print in cities. Heritage cities are the first to be looked into since they were built in the era in which motorized vehicles were minimal. Therefore, the research explores users' satisfaction on assessment of physical attributes of pedestrianization in Melaka Historical City, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It aims to examine users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities provided within the study area using pair wise questionnaire comparison approach. A survey of 200 respondents using random sampling was conducted in six different sites namely Jonker Street, Church Street, Kota Street, Goldsmith Street, Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower and Merdeka Street to River Cruise terminal. The survey consists of an assessment tool based on a nine-point scale of users' satisfaction level of pathway properties, zebra pedestrian crossing, street furniture, personal safety, adjacent to traffic flow, aesthetic and amenities. Analytical hierarchical process (AHP) was used to avoid any biasness in analyzing the data collected. Findings show that Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower as the street that scores the highest satisfaction level that fulfils all the required needs of a pedestrianized environment. Similar assessment elements can be used to evaluate existing streets in other cities and these criteria should also be used in planning for future cities.

  13. Facilitating a stakeholder-led approach to the development of Mediterranean climate services: co-ordinating the CLIM-RUN case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodess, C. M.

    2012-04-01

    The CLIM-RUN case studies provide a real-world context for bringing together experts on the demand and supply side of climate services. They are essential to the CLIM-RUN objective of using iterative and bottom-up (i.e., stakeholder led) approaches for optimizing the two-way information transfer between climate experts and stakeholders. The region of interest for CLIM-RUN is the Mediterranean, which is a recognised climate change hotspot (i.e., a region particularly sensitive and vulnerable to global warming) and which does not currently have developed climate service networks such as exist in a number of Central and Northern European countries. The case studies focus on the energy and tourism sectors, but also include a cross-cutting study on wild fires (an issue of increasing concern in the Mediterranean) as well as a cross-sectorial integrated case study for the Venice lagoon. They span coastal (e.g., Tunisia and Croatia), island (e.g., Cyprus) and mountain (e.g., Savoie) environments, the eastern (e.g., Greece) to western (e.g., Spain, Morocco) Mediterranean regions, and regional to local foci. Stakeholder involvement has been critical from the start of the project in March 2011, with a series of targeted workshops helping to define the framework for each case study. Two specific workshop objectives were to (i) better understand who are the climate services stakeholders and (ii) what they need/want from climate services (both in terms of data products and broader knowledge). Many of the workshops were held in local languages to maximise stakeholder participation, with expert knowledge provided by the CLIM-RUN climate and stakeholder expert teams (the CET and SET). Following the workshops, CET members are 'translating' the user needs into specific requirements from climate observations and models and identifying areas where additional modelling and analysis are required. As part of the central co-ordination of the case studies, a perception and data needs

  14. How can crop intra-specific biodiversity mitigate the vulnerability of agricultural systems to climate change? A case study on durum wheat in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Eugenia; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Menenti, Massimo; Bonfante, Antonello; De Lorenzi, Fracesca

    2014-05-01

    Climate evolution may lead to changes in the amount and distribution of precipitations and to reduced water availability, with constraints on the cultivation of some crops. Recently, foreseen crop responses to climate change raise a crucial question for the agricultural stakeholders: are the current production systems resilient to this change? An active debate is in progress about the definition of adaptation of agricultural systems, particularly about the integrated assessment of climate stressors, vulnerability and resilece towards the evaluation of climate impact on agricultural systems. Climate change represents a risk for rain-fed agricultural systems, where irrigations cannot compensate reductions in precipitations. The intra-specific biodiversity of crops can be a resource towards adaptation. The knowledge of the responses to environmental conditions (temperature and water availability) of different cultivars can allow to identify options for adaptation to future climate. Simulation models of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, driven by different climate scenarios, can describe present and foreseen soil water regime. The present work deals with a case-study on the adaptive capacity of durum wheat to climate change. The selected study area is a hilly region in Southern Italy (Fortore Beneventano, Campania Region). Two climate cases were studied: "reference" (1961-1990) and "future" (2021-2050). A mechanistic model of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SWAP) was run to determine the water regime in some soil units, representative of the soil variability in the study area. From model output, the Relative Evapotranspiration Deficit (RETD) was determined as an indicator of hydrological conditions during the crop growing period for each year and climate case; and periods with higher frequencies of soil water deficits were identified. The timing of main crop development stages was calculated. The occurrence of water deficit at different

  15. WISE Science: Web-based Inquiry in the Classroom. Technology, Education--Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotta, James D.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2009-01-01

    This book shares the lessons learned by a large community of educational researchers and science teachers as they designed, developed, and investigated a new technology-enhanced learning environment known as WISE: The Web-Based Inquiry Science Environment. WISE offers a collection of free, customizable curriculum projects on topics central to the…

  16. Evaluation of the Wise Guys Male Responsibility Curriculum: Participant-Control Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruchow, Harvey William; Brown, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although males are often the initiators of teen sexual activity, pregnancy prevention programs generally target females. To address this deficiency, the Wise Guys Male Responsibility Curriculum was developed to be delivered to adolescent males in weekly classroom sessions. Methods: Seventh grade participants (n = 124) in the Wise Guys…

  17. Assessing High Order Thinking of Students Participating in the "WISE" Project in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Revital; Hochberg, Nurit

    2003-01-01

    Studied the higher order thinking of 53 Israeli ninth graders in 3 schools using the Web-Based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE) learning environment to study about malaria. Findings show that all students used higher order thinking skills and that their English was good enough to use the WISE learning environment in the Israeli setting. (SLD)

  18. Impact of HealthWise South Africa on Polydrug Use and High-Risk Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibbits, Melissa K.; Smith, Edward A.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Flisher, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the HealthWise South Africa HIV and substance abuse prevention program at impacting adolescents' polydrug use and sexual risk behaviors. HealthWise is a school-based intervention designed to promote social-emotional skills, increase knowledge and refusal skills relevant to substance use and…

  19. Viewing Violence, Mental Illness and Addiction through a Wise Practices Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley-Esquimaux, Cynthia C.; Snowball, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The progressive approaches First Nations, Metis, and Inuit communities use to address health and wellness concerns are rarely written about or acknowledged in a positive manner. This paper speaks to a concept introduced through the Canadian Aboriginal Aids Network (CAAN) entitled "wise practices". CAAN saw a "wise practices" model as more useful…

  20. 75 FR 54143 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The SunWise...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The SunWise..., parents, and educators (informal and external educators). Title: The SunWise Program. ICR numbers: EPA ICR... control numbers in certain EPA regulations is consolidated in 40 CFR part 9. Abstract: The goal of the...

  1. Sun Savvy Students: Free Teaching Resources from EPA's SunWise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Jordan, Luke

    2008-01-01

    With summer in full swing and the sun is naturally on our minds, what better time to take advantage of a host of free materials provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Sun Wise program. Sun Wise aims to teach students and teachers about the stratospheric ozone layer, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and how to be safe while in the Sun.…

  2. More Than a Pretty Picture: Making WISE Data Accessible to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Nancy; Mendez, B.; Fricke, K.; Wright, E. L.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Cutri, R. M.; Hurt, R.; WISE Team

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has surveyed the sky in four bands of infrared light, creating a treasure trove of data. This data is of interest not only to the professional astronomical community, but also to educators, students and the general public. The Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program for WISE is creating opportunities to make WISE data accessible to these audiences through the Internet as well as through teacher professional development programs. Shortly after WISE took its first light image in January 2010, images have been featured weekly on the WISE website. These images serve to engage the general public through "pretty pictures” that are accompanied by educational captions. Social media such as Facebook and Twitter are used to further engage the public with the images. For a more comprehensive view of WISE images, we are creating a guided tour of the infrared sky on the WorldWide Telescope. The public will be able to use the free WorldWide Telescope software to interact with WISE images and listen to narration that describes features of the Universe as seen in infrared light. We are also developing resources for teachers and students to access WISE data when in becomes public in 2011 to learn about astronomical imaging and to conduct authentic scientific investigations.

  3. Key Elements of Observing Practice: A Data Wise DVD and Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudett, Kathryn Parker; City, Elizabeth A.; Russell, Marcia K.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the bestselling book "Data Wise: A Step-by-Step Guide to Using Assessment Results to Improve Teaching and Learning", and its companion volume, "Data Wise in Action", this DVD and Facilitator's Guide offer insight into one of the most challenging steps in capturing data about school performance: observing and analyzing instructional…

  4. The SunWise School Program Guide: A School Program that Radiates Good Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2003

    2003-01-01

    To help educators raise sun safety awareness, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the SunWise School Program, a national education program for children in grades K through 8. SunWise Partner Schools sponsor classroom and schoolwide activities that raise children's awareness of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation,…

  5. Parenting Interventions Implementation Science: How Delivery Format Impacts the Parenting Wisely Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Katie L.; Bacallao, Martica; Smokowski, Paul R.; Robertson, Caroline I. B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the implementation and effectiveness of Parenting Wisely, an Internet-based parenting skills intervention. The study assesses whether parents benefit from Parenting Wisely participation and whether the delivery format influences program effectiveness. Method: This study uses a quasi-experimental design.…

  6. The Influence of the Climate Change on Landslide Disasters in Western Japan -Hiroshima's case-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Tetsuya; Aditian, Aril

    2015-04-01

    In last year 2014 and 2012, tremendous landslides due to heavy rainfalls occurred in western Japan. Especially in August 2014, serious landslide disasters induced by the extremely heavy rainfall caused over 70 people's death in Hiroshima. Most of them were caused by debris flows from shallow landslides on granite forest slopes on August 20. In Hiroshima, long-term increase in rainfalls was not obvious, while this trend was found in other area such as Kyushu district. However, in western Japan, the influence of climate change emerged in the increase of vapor concentration caused by rising water surface temperature in East China Sea and that brought the extreme rainfall. The landslide (debris flow) disasters in Hiroshima have distinctive characteristics in terms of followings: (1) the source of debris flows (directly flowing down from mostly shallow landslides), (2) their usual equivalent friction coefficient "Mf" i.e. relative travel distance for Granite (values between 0.174 and 0.554). (3) the peculiar meteorological condition of frontogenesis with vapor convergence on the stationary front and around the Pacific high pressure that can generate the heavy precipitation (above 101 mm/hr, total 256 mm). (4) Contrary to Mf values above, they caused heavy disaster at downstream area with the urban development on hillside slopes. We found that the Mf becomes bigger (relatively short travel distance) as the return period of disasters"Tr"becomes shorter as evaluating in the next formula: Mf = 0.278 Tr^(-3.32). If the return period becomes shorter due to climate change (it is possible), Mf may become bigger. However, the cities such as Hiroshima, Kobe or Nagasaki in western Japan which have the urban area at hillside will be more prone to severe debris flow disasters. (5) Also, theoretically, we may have more slope failures and debris flows per area "N/A" if the rainfall increment "dR" increases. The "increasing ratio in N/A" is given by next equation: (N/A)/(N0/A)=((R0 + d

  7. Case study of climatic changes in Martian fluvial systems at Xanthe Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, Akos

    2014-06-01

    An unnamed valley system was analyzed in Xanthe Terra south of Havel Vallis on Mars where three separate episodes of fluvial activity could be identified with different morphology, water source and erosional processes, inferring formation under different climatic conditions. The oldest scattered valleys (1. group) form interconnecting network and suggest areally distributed water source. Later two valley types formed from confined water source partly supported by possible subsurface water. The smaller upper reaches (2. group) with three separate segments and also a similar aged but areal washed terrain suggest contribution from shallow subsurface inflow. These valleys fed the main channel (3. group), which morphology (wide, theater shaped source, few tributaries, steep walls) is the most compatible with the subsurface sapping origin. While the first valley group formed in the Noachian, the other two, more confined groups are younger. Their crater density based age value is uncertain, and could be only 1200 million years. After these three fluvial episodes etch pitted, heavily eroded terrain formed possibly by ice sublimation driven collapse. More recently (60-200 million years ago) dunes covered the bottom of the valleys, and finally the youngest event took place when mass movements produced debris covered the valleys' slopes with sediments along their wall around 5-15 million years ago, suggesting wind activity finished earlier than the mass movements in the region. This small area represents the sequence of events probably appeared on global scale: the general cooling and drying environment of Mars. Comparing the longitudinal profiles here to other valleys in Xanthe Terra, convex shaped valley profiles are usually connected to steep terrains. The location of erosional base might play an important role in their formation that can be produced convex shapes where the erosional base descended topographically (by deep impact crater or deep outflow channel formation

  8. Glacier Runoff and Human Vulnerability to Climate Change: The Case of Export Agriculture in Peru (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, M.

    2013-12-01

    There is growing concern about the effects of climate change and ensuing glacier shrinkage on water supplies for mountain communities worldwide. The issue is only becoming more complex as researchers seek to quantify glacier contributions to streamflow and to pinpoint when and how much glacier runoff will likely change as a result of future climate change and glacier variation. Additionally, some researchers are beginning to recognize the importance of understanding the human dimensions of glacier retreat to identify which social groups (stakeholders) use glacier runoff and how much they use, as well as what socio-environmental forces affect both water supplies and water use. This presentation examines these societal aspects of glacier runoff to analyze human vulnerability to hydrological changes in Peru's Santa River watershed below the most glaciated tropical mountain range in the world, the Cordillera Blanca. Specifically, it focuses on the billion-dollar export-oriented agricultural industry within the Chavimochic irrigation project, which uses Santa River water to irrigate approximately 80,000 hectares in the coastal desert region. Since the 1980s, Santa River water has allowed Chavimochic to sustain a major export economy, provide jobs in the agro-industry and related services, stimulate human migration, enhance or alter livelihoods, generate hydroelectricity, supply drinking water, and shape urban growth and land use practices. All of these variables are dependent on glacier meltwater from the Cordillera Blanca, especially during the dry season when glaciers provide most of the Santa River's water. In short, hundreds of thousands of people have come to depend on glacier runoff, thus revealing their high level of vulnerability to hydrological fluctuations in a glacier-fed watershed. What's more, people worldwide rely on the asparagus, avocados, and artichokes grown with glacier runoff. Consequently, the export-oriented agriculture, through the "virtual water

  9. Alternative Assessment for Learner Engagement in a Climate of Performativity: Lessons from an English Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David; Simmons, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    In many education systems, young peoples' "disaffection" is increasingly equated with non-participation in education, training and employment. There is also an expectation that educational activity can provide a key response to this situation. Drawing upon a case study of a successful development project based in Bristol, England which utilized an…

  10. Climate change negotiation simulations for students: responses across gender and age.A case study: San Francisco State University World Climate Exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheva, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    For decades, role-play and simulation exercises have been utilized for learning and policy decision making. While the power of Model UN simulations in building first-person experience and understanding of complex international issues is well known, the effectiveness of simulations for inspiring citizen engagement in scientific public-policy issues is little studied. My work hypothesizes that climate-change negotiation simulations can enhance students' scientific literacy and policy advocacy. It aims to determine how age and gender influence the responsiveness of students to such simulations. During the 2015 fall semester, I am conducting World Climate exercises for fellow graduate and undergraduate students at San Francisco State University. At the end of the exercise, I will have collected the responses to an anonymous questionnaire in which the participants indicate age and gender. The questionnaire asks participants to describe their hopes and fears for the future and to propose public and personal actions for achieving a strong climate change agreement. I am tracking differences to determine whether participants' age and gender correlate with particular patterns of feeling and thinking. My future research will aim to determine whether and how strongly the World Climate Exercise has affected participants' actual policy engagement. This work will also reflect on my experiences as a World Climate facilitator. I will describe the facilitation process and then discuss some of my observations from the sessions. I will specify the challenges I have encountered and suggest strategies that can strengthen the learning process. World Climate is a computer-simulation-based climate change negotiations role-playing exercise developed by Climate Interactive in partnership with the System Dynamics Group at the MIT Sloan School of Management.

  11. Implications of Climate Change on the Heat Budget of Lentic Systems Used for Power Station Cooling: Case Study Clinton Lake, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; García, Marcelo H

    2016-01-01

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change-in particular higher air temperatures-on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling.

  12. Implications of climate change on the heat budget of lentic systems used for power station cooling: Case study Clinton Lake, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P. Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2016-01-01

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change--in particular higher air temperatures--on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling.

  13. Implications of Climate Change on the Heat Budget of Lentic Systems Used for Power Station Cooling: Case Study Clinton Lake, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; García, Marcelo H

    2016-01-01

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change-in particular higher air temperatures-on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling. PMID:26556581

  14. Brief Communication: An update of the article "Modeling flood damages under climate change conditions - a case study for Germany"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattermann, F. F.; Huang, S.; Burghoff, O.; Hoffmann, P.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2015-12-01

    In our first study on possible flood damages under climate change in Germany, we reported that a considerable increase in flood related losses can be expected in future, warmer, climate. However, the general significance of the study was limited by the fact that outcome of only one Global Climate Model (GCM) was used as large scale climate driver, while many studies report that GCM models are often the largest source of uncertainty in impact modeling. Here we show that a much broader set of global and regional climate model combinations as climate driver shows trends which are in line with the original results and even give a stronger increase of damages.

  15. Reconstructing high-resolution climate using CT scanning of unsectioned stalagmites: A case study identifying the mid-Holocene onset of the Mediterranean climate in southern Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Izabela W.; Baldini, James U. L.; Baldini, Lisa M.; McDermott, Frank; Marsden, Stuart; Standish, Christopher D.; Richards, David A.; Andreo, Bartolomé; Slater, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    The forcing mechanisms responsible for the mid-Holocene onset of the Mediterranean-type climate in south-western Europe are currently unclear, but understanding these is critical for accurate climate projections under future greenhouse gas warming. Additionally, regional studies that present conflicting patterns for the onset and advancement of Mediterranean climatic conditions complicate definitively ascribing causality. Here, we use a new high resolution stalagmite density record obtained non-destructively using Computed Tomography (CT scanning) to reconstruct southern Iberian climate between 9.3 and 2.9 ka BP. We suggest that stalagmite density can be used as a water-excess proxy, with lower densities associated with more variable drip rates, possibly reflecting increased seasonality consistent with expectations from previous studies of speleothem textures and crystal fabrics. Our results reveal an early Holocene humid interval and mid-Holocene year-round aridity that preceded the onset of Mediterranean climate at 5.3 ka BP in southern Iberia. Using this new dataset combined with previously published results, we link the gradual advancement of the Mediterranean climate to the southward migration of the North Atlantic Subtropical High induced by an orbitally driven decrease in Northern Hemisphere insolation. Future anthropogenic warming could result in a reversal of this trend, a northward migration of the North Atlantic Subtropical High, and a return to year-round aridity in south-western Europe.

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Durable Interior Foundation Insulation Retrofits for Cold Climates, Cloquet, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-01

    Thermal and moisture problems in existing basements create a unique challenge as the exterior face of the wall is not easily or inexpensively accessible. This approach by the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team addresses thermal and moisture management from the interior face of the wall without disturbing the exterior soil and landscaping. It is effective at reducing energy loss through the wall principally during the heating season. The team conducted experiments at the Cloquet Residential Research Facility to test the heat and moisture performance of four hollow masonry block wall systems and two rim-joist systems. These systems were retrofitted with interior insulation in compliance with the 2012 IECC. The research showed for the first time that, for masonry block walls in a cold climate, a solid bond beam or equivalent provides adequate resistance to moisture transport from a hollow core to the rim-joist cavity. Thus, a solid top course is a minimum requirement for an interior retrofit insulation system.

  17. WISE J061213.85-303612.5: a new T-dwarf binary candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huélamo, N.; Ivanov, V. D.; Kurtev, R.; Girard, J. H.; Borissova, J.; Mawet, D.; Mužić, K.; Cáceres, C.; Melo, C. H. F.; Sterzik, M. F.; Minniti, D.

    2015-06-01

    Context. T and Y dwarfs are among the coolest and least luminous objects detected, and they can help to understand the properties of giant planets. Up to now, there are more than 350 T dwarfs that have been identified thanks to large imaging surveys in the infrared, and their multiplicity properties can shed light on the formation process. Aims: The aim of this work is to look for companions around a sample of seven ultracoool objects. Most of them have been discovered by the WISE observatory and have not been studied before for multiplicity. Methods: We observed a sample six T dwarfs and one L9 dwarf with the Laser Guide Star (LGS) and NAOS-CONICA, the adaptive optics (AO) facility, and the near infrared camera at the ESO Very Large Telescope. We observed all the objects in one or more near-IR filters (JHKs). Results: From the seven observed objects, we have identified a subarcsecond binary system, WISE J0612-3036, composed of two similar components with spectral types of T6. We measure a separation of ρ = 350 ± 5 mas and a position angle of PA = 235 ± 1°. Using the mean absolute magnitudes of T6 dwarfs in the 2MASS JHKs bands, we estimate a distance of d = 31 ± 6 pc and derive a projected separation of ρ ~ 11 ± 2 au. Another target, WISE J2255-3118, shows a very faint object at 1.̋3 in the Ks image. The object is marginally detected in H, and we derive a near infrared color of H - Ks> 0.1 mag. HST/WFC3 public archival data reveals that the companion candidate is an extended source. Together with the derived color, this suggests that the source is most probably a background galaxy. The five other sources are apparently single, with 3-σ sensitivity limits between H = 19-21 for companions at separations ≥0.̋5. Conclusions: WISE 0612-3036 is probably a new T-dwarf binary composed of two T6 dwarfs. As in the case of other late T-dwarf binaries, it shows a mass ratio close to 1, although its projected separation, ~11 au, is larger than the average (~5 au

  18. Full-depth Coadds of the WISE and NEOWISE-Reactivation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Aaron M.; Lang, Dustin; Schlegel, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission's NEOWISE-Reactivation program, an entire year of post-reactivation W1 and W2 exposures has been made publicly available in 2015. This data set consists of ˜2.5 million new exposures in each band, effectively doubling the amount of WISE imaging available at 3.4μm and 4.6μm relative to the AllWISE release. However, no full sky coadds have yet been published which incorporate both pre and post-reactivation WISE imaging. We are creating a custom, full-sky set of coadds combining all W1 and W2 exposures from both the AllWISE and NEOWISE-Reactivation mission phases, employing the unWISE image coaddition framework (Lang 2014), which preserves the native WISE angular resolution and is optimized for forced photometry. We anticipate that our resulting unWISE data products will have a broad range of applications, from studies of quasar variability to the identification of faint moving objects in the solar neighborhood. Using our full-depth coadds, we plan to perform W1 and W2 forced photometry at the positions of ˜400 million SDSS sources, extending to WISE depths 0.4 magnitudes fainter than previously possible. Our full-depth unWISE coadds will represent an important input for DESI target selection, and preliminary versions are already in use within the DECam Legacy Survey (DECaLS) reduction pipeline.

  19. Development of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fengchuan; Cutri, Roc; Greanias, George; Duval, Valerie; Eisenhardt, Peter; Elwell, John; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Howard, Joan; Irace, William; Mainzer, Amanda; Razzaghi, Andrea; Royer, Donald; Wright, Edward L.

    2008-07-01

    WISE is a NASA MIDEX mission to survey the entire sky in four bands from 3 to 25 microns with sensitivity about 500 times greater than the IRAS survey. WISE will find the most luminous galaxies in the universe, find the closest stars to the Sun, and detect most of the main belt asteroids larger than 3 km. WISE launch is scheduled in November, 2009 on a Delta 7320-10 to a 525 km Sun-synchronous polar orbit. This paper gives an overview of WISE including development status and management approach. WISE flight system design is single string with selected redundancy and graceful degradation. Wherever possible, design heritage from prior missions is pursued and properly reviewed to reduce development time and cost. Further risk reduction is achieved since the WISE spacecraft has no deployable mechanisms and no propulsion. Nonetheless, a complex space mission with a sophisticated cryogenic IR telescope such as WISE demands a partnership of multiple organizations in government research, academia, and industry. With a cost cap and relatively short development schedule, it is essential for all WISE partners to work seamlessly together. This is accomplished by a single management team representing all key partners and disciplines in science, systems engineering, mission assurance, project and contract management. WISE uses a variety of management tools including frequent team interaction, schedule, milestone and critical path analysis, risk analysis, reliability analysis, earned value analysis, configuration management, and management of schedule and budget reserves. After a successful mission critical design review in June, 2007, WISE has completed building most of the flight hardware, and started integration and test within payload and spacecraft.

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Cold Climate Foundation Wall Hygrothermal Research Facility, Cloquet, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    This case study describes the University of Minnesota’s Cloquet Residential Research Facility (CRRF) in northern Minnesota, which features more than 2,500 ft2 of below-grade space for building systems foundation hygrothermal research. Here, the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team researches ways to improve the energy efficiency of the building envelope, including wall assemblies, basements, roofs, insulation, and air leakage.

  1. Summarising climate and air quality (ozone) data on self-organising maps: a Sydney case study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ningbo; Betts, Alan; Riley, Matt

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the classification and visualisation utility of the self-organising map (SOM) method in the context of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, using gridded NCEP/NCAR geopotential height reanalysis for east Australia, together with multi-site meteorological and air quality data for Sydney from the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage Air Quality Monitoring Network. A twice-daily synoptic classification has been derived for east Australia for the period of 1958-2012. The classification has not only reproduced the typical synoptic patterns previously identified in the literature but also provided an opportunity to visualise the subtle, non-linear change in the eastward-migrating synoptic systems influencing NSW (including Sydney). The summarisation of long-term, multi-site air quality/meteorological data from the Sydney basin on the SOM plane has identified a set of typical air pollution/meteorological spatial patterns in the region. Importantly, the examination of these patterns in relation to synoptic weather types has provided important visual insights into how local and synoptic meteorological conditions interact with each other and affect the variability of air quality in tandem. The study illustrates that while synoptic circulation types are influential, the within-type variability in mesoscale flows plays a critical role in determining local ozone levels in Sydney. These results indicate that the SOM can be a useful tool for assessing the impact of weather and climatic conditions on air quality in the regional airshed. This study further promotes the use of the SOM method in environmental research.

  2. Remote Sensing in a Changing Climate and Environment: the Rift Valley Fever Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourre, Y. M.; Lacaux, J.-P.; Vignolles, C.; Lafaye, M.

    2012-07-01

    Climate and environment are changing rapidly whilst global population already reached 7 billions people. New public health challenges are posed by new and re-emerging diseases. Innovation is a must i.e., 1) using high resolution remote sensing, 2) re-invent health politics and trans-disciplinary management. The above are part of the 'TransCube Approach' i.e., Transition, Translation, and Transformation. The new concept of Tele-epidemiology includes such approach. A conceptual approach (CA) associated with Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in Senegal is presented. Ponds are detected using high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite images and radar data from space. Data on rainfall events obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (NASA/JAXA) are combined with in-situ data. Localization of vulnerable and parked hosts (obtained from QuickBird satellite) is also used. The dynamic spatio-temporal distribution and aggressiveness of RVF mosquitoes, are based on total rainfall amounts, ponds' dynamics and entomological observations. Detailed risks maps (hazards + vulnerability) in real-time are expressed in percentages of parks where animals are potentially at risks. This CA which simply relies upon rainfall distribution from space, is meant to contribute to the implementation of the RVF early warning system (RVFews). It is meant to be applied to other diseases and elsewhere. This is particularly true in new places where new vectors have been rapidly adapting (such as Aedes albopictus) whilst viruses (such as West Nile and Chikungunya,) circulate from constantly moving reservoirs and increasing population.

  3. Health impact from climatic extremes: a case study of Asian dust storms in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Yi-Jen; Chien, Lung-Chang; Yang, Chiang-Hsin; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2013-04-01

    Asian dust storm (ADS) originates in the deserts of Mongolia and northern China in every winter and spring seasons, and its impacts on adverse human health were widely investigated and discussed. Recent records show that the frequency and magnitude of ADS are increasing due to changes of environmental and climatic conditions. It is worthwhile to investigate the health impact of these environmental extremes. This study applies a structural spatiotemporal modeling approach to investigate the changes of spatiotemporal variation of a health indicator during and after ADS periods. The health indicator is the daily clinic visits of conjunctivitis in the children population during 2002-2007 among 41 districts across Taipei City and New Taipei City in Taiwan. Results show positively significant effects of children's conjunctivitis clinic visits happened during ADS periods with elevated percentages of relative rate by 1.48% (95% CI = 0.79, 2.17) for preschool children (0~6 years of age) and 9.48% (95% CI = 9.03, 9.93) for schoolchildren (7~14 years of age). The impact even lasted one week after ADS finished by 2.32% (95% CI = 1.98, 2.66) for schoolchildren, but not for preschool children. Moreover, air pollutants NO2 and O3 also contributed significant influence. The spatial pattern of children's conjunctivitis clinic visits demonstrates that stronger spatial vulnerabilities occurred in most populated metropolitan districts in Taipei. Hence, we concluded that ADS may significantly increase the risks of children's conjunctivitis during ADS periods and one week after ADS periods, especially in schoolchildren.

  4. Ontology Re-engineering Use Case: Extending SWEET to map Climate and Forecasting Vocabulary Terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, R.; Graves, S.; Raskin, R.

    2006-05-01

    A common problem faced while developing metadata for scientific data archives is that of keywords. Although keywords are an effective way for searching the resource catalogs, data archive designers may select from one of many different controlled vocabularies to describe their holdings. For example, in Earth Science, Climate and Forecasting (CF Convention) is a controlled vocabulary commonly used within the Modeling community. Similarly, the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) keywords list is the convention used within the NASA Earth Science Program. The use of controlled vocabularies allows searches on the resource catalogs to be accurate and complete, but the burden of framing the precise query falls on the shoulders of the users. The user has to know the keyword before hand in order to perform a "free text" search. This might be perfectly acceptable in smaller projects where the users are specialized and have the required knowledge, but is impractical in larger projects where the users may have varied levels of domain knowledge. One solution to this problem is the use of an ontology, where the ontology contains higher level abstract concepts and the corresponding mapping to the different controlled vocabulary terms. This use of ontologies eliminates the barrier of entry based on domain knowledge and provides easy-to-use search capabilities to the users. In this presentation, we will describe an ontology designed and created to address this problem. However, this ontology required re-engineering of higher level ontologies, namely the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies, instead of the initial creation of an ontology. Since the traditional methodologies for creating an ontology do not account for reengineering and reuse of higher level ontologies, we propose a new modified methodology. This presentation will describe this methodology and also explore some of the issues and challenges involved in the construction of an

  5. Summarising climate and air quality (ozone) data on self-organising maps: a Sydney case study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ningbo; Betts, Alan; Riley, Matt

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the classification and visualisation utility of the self-organising map (SOM) method in the context of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, using gridded NCEP/NCAR geopotential height reanalysis for east Australia, together with multi-site meteorological and air quality data for Sydney from the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage Air Quality Monitoring Network. A twice-daily synoptic classification has been derived for east Australia for the period of 1958-2012. The classification has not only reproduced the typical synoptic patterns previously identified in the literature but also provided an opportunity to visualise the subtle, non-linear change in the eastward-migrating synoptic systems influencing NSW (including Sydney). The summarisation of long-term, multi-site air quality/meteorological data from the Sydney basin on the SOM plane has identified a set of typical air pollution/meteorological spatial patterns in the region. Importantly, the examination of these patterns in relation to synoptic weather types has provided important visual insights into how local and synoptic meteorological conditions interact with each other and affect the variability of air quality in tandem. The study illustrates that while synoptic circulation types are influential, the within-type variability in mesoscale flows plays a critical role in determining local ozone levels in Sydney. These results indicate that the SOM can be a useful tool for assessing the impact of weather and climatic conditions on air quality in the regional airshed. This study further promotes the use of the SOM method in environmental research. PMID:26787272

  6. Role of waste management with regard to climate protection: a case study.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Albert; Mauschitz, Gerd

    2008-02-01

    According to the Kyoto Protocol and the burden-sharing agreement of the European Union, Austria is required to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the years 2008 to 2012 in order to achieve an average reduction of 13%, based on the level of emissions for the year 1990. The present contribution gives an overview of the history of GHG emission regulation in Austria and identifies the progress made towards the realization of the national climate strategy to attain the GHG emission targets. The contribution uses Austria as an example of the way in which proper waste management can help to reduce GHG emissions. The GHG inventories show that everything must be done to minimize the carbon input due to waste deposition at landfill sites. The incineration of waste is particularly helpful in reducing GHG emissions. The waste-to-energy by incineration plants and recovery of energy yield an ecologically proper treatment of waste using state-of-the-art techniques of a very high standard. The potential for GHG reduction of conventional waste treatment technologies has been estimated by the authors. A growing number of waste incinerators and intensified co-incineration of waste in Austrian industry will both help to reduce national GHG emissions substantially. By increasing the number and capacity of plants for thermal treatment of waste the contribution of proper waste management to the national target for reduction of GHG emissions will be in the range of 8 to 14%. The GHG inventories also indicate that a potential CO2 reduction of about 500 000 t year(-1) is achievable by co-incineration of waste in Austrian industry.

  7. Exploring Faculty Diversity in the South: A Case Study on Campus Climate and Leadership Commitment to the Recruitment and Retention of African American Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Angie Monique

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore faculty diversity in the South by examining the campus climate and leadership commitment to the recruitment and retention of African American faculty. The Critical Race Theory (CRT) concept of storytelling captured the participants' personal experiences and perceptions. Three higher…

  8. OpWise: Operons aid the identification of differentially expressedgenes in bacterial microarray experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2005-11-23

    Differentially expressed genes are typically identified by analyzing the variation between replicate measurements. These procedures implicitly assume that there are no systematic errors in the data even though several sources of systematic error are known. Results-OpWise estimates the amount of systematic error in bacterial microarray data by assuming that genes in the same operon have matching expression patterns. OpWise then performs a Bayesian analysis of a linear model to estimate significance. In simulations, OpWise corrects for systematic error and is robust to deviations from its assumptions. In several bacterial data sets, significant amounts of systematic error are present, and replicate-based approaches overstate the confidence of the changers dramatically, while OpWise does not. Finally, OpWise can identify additional changers by assigning genes higher confidence if they are consistent with other genes in the same operon. Although microarray data can contain large amounts of systematic error, operons provide an external standard and allow for reasonable estimates of significance. OpWise is available at http://microbesonline.org/OpWise.

  9. GridWise Transactive Energy Framework (DRAFT Version)

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, Ronald B.

    2013-11-06

    Over the past decade, the use of demand response and other flexible distributed resources for market efficiency and grid reliability has grown dramatically. Federal and state policy objectives point to an important role for customers’ loads, generation and storage in the management of an increasingly unpredictable power system. As we consider the need to substantially scale the use of flexible distributed energy resources, there has been growing attention to the need to address not only the economics, but also the control system implications to ensure grid reliability. This has led to a focus on an area of activity called “Transactive Energy.” Transactive Energy refers to the combination of economic and control techniques to improve grid reliability and efficiency. These techniques may also be used to optimize operations within a customer’s facility. The Department of Energy has supported the GridWise® Architecture Council (“the Council”) in developing a conceptual framework that can be used in developing architectures, and designing solutions related to transactive energy. The goal of this effort is to encourage and facilitate collaboration among the many stakeholders involved in the transformation of the power system and thereby advance the practical implementation of transactive energy.

  10. Transformation Invariant Control of Voxel-Wise False Discovery Rate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junning; Shi, Yonggang; Toga, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple testing for statistical maps remains a critical and challenging problem in brain mapping. Since the false discovery rate (FDR) criterion was introduced to the neuroimaging community a decade ago, many variations have been proposed, mainly to enhance detection power. However, a fundamental geometrical property known as transformation invariance has not been adequately addressed, especially for the voxel-wise FDR. Correction of multiple testing applied after spatial transformation is not necessarily equivalent to transformation applied after correction in the original space. Without the invariance property, assigning different testing spaces will yield different results. We find that normalized residuals of linear models with Gaussian noises are uniformly distributed on a unit high-dimensional sphere, independent of t-statistics and F-statistics. By defining volumetric measure in the hyper-spherical space mapped by normalized residuals, instead of the image’s Euclidean space, we can achieve invariant control of the FDR under diffeomorphic transformation. This hyper-spherical measure also reflects intrinsic “volume of randomness” in signals. Experiments with synthetic, semi-synthetic and real images demonstrate that our method significantly reduces FDR inconsistency introduced by the choice of testing spaces. PMID:27101602

  11. A Climate Change Screening Tool for Assessment of Adaptation in Water Sector: a case study in the Haihe River Basin(China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Jinxia; Zhang, Yongyong

    2009-04-01

    The impending of climate changes has already presented risks to the efficiency and effectiveness of development investments globally. In order to minimize negative impacts and maximize opportunities, adaptations to climate changes play a crucial role in development planning and project management increasingly. But before the adaptation designing and implementation, it should be evaluated. An interdisciplinary screening frame work was developed to evaluate the adaptations in this paper. It includes 6 parts, which are project description, problems analysis, identifying climate-sensitive components, semi-quantitative analysis, benefit-cost analysis and multi criteria analysis. In this paper, we selected the "Water Conservation Project of China" funded by World Bank as case study. One of the main objectives of this project is to reduce the scarcity in Haihe River Basin in North China. The applying of modified CAPSIM-PODIUM illustrated, in 2030, climate change will significantly impact on water demand, supply and scarcity in Haihe River Basin. To rebalance the water scarcity caused by climate change, a mixing price policy, which is easier to bring into effect than other price policy was selected. The result of evaluation showed it will be both economic efficiency based on benefit-cost analysis, and technologic possible when we take irrigation efficiency into consideration in future. For "do nothing policy" is also a choice responding to climate change, we used multi criteria analysis, which is an important compensation of Benefit-Cost analysis , to compare it with "mix water pricing policy". The score of "mix water pricing policy" was higher than "do nothing policy" in this case study, which means it's a feasible policy to reduce water scarcity caused by economic development and climate change in Haihe River Basin.

  12. Instability of the Ackerman-Carroll-Wise model, and problems with massive vectors during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Himmetoglu, Burak; Peloso, Marco; Contaldi, Carlo R.

    2009-03-15

    We prove that the anisotropic inflationary background of the Ackerman-Carroll-Wise model, characterized by a fixed-norm vector field, is unstable. We found the instability by explicitly solving the linearized equations for the most general set of perturbations around this background, and by noticing that the solutions diverge close to horizon crossing. This happens because one perturbation becomes a ghost at that moment. A simplified computation, with only the perturbations of the vector field included, shows the same instability, clarifying the origin of the problem. We then discuss several other models, with a particular emphasis on the case of a nonminimal coupling to the curvature, in which vector fields are used either to support an anisotropic expansion, or to generate cosmological perturbations on an isotropic background. In many cases, the mass squared of the vector needs to be negative; we show that, as a consequence, the longitudinal vector mode is a ghost (a field with negative kinetic term, and negative energy, and not simply a tachyon). We comment on problems that arise at the quantum level. In particular, the presence of a ghost can be a serious difficulty for the UV completion that such models require in the subhorizon regime.

  13. Climate Change, Resource Management and Human Safety in the Watershed -The Nishinotani Stream Case Study, Kyushu; Japan-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago-Fandiño, V.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is occurring already and heavy rain appears to be one of the many indicators. This requires revisiting the integration of resource management and policy making particularly in mountainous areas exposed to flashfloods with the view of increasing human safety too. Devastating flooding took place in the main island of Kyushu due to heavy rain during the second week of July 2012 causing major devastation in various watershed, cities and towns. This event has been tagged as unprecedented although a similar one with records of 27 inches of rain occurred in 1953 as reported in the literature and newspapers of the time. Levels of 7 inches per hour and about 31 inches of raining 72 hours were recorded in certain parts of the island causing most of the rivers to burst their banks, and produce large landslides in Kumamoto, Oita, Fukushima and Saga Prefectures. One of the many impacted upper watersheds belong to the Hoshino-Yokoyamawa river in the Minou Renzan mountains in Yame City; Fukuoka Prefecture. The Yokoyamawa waters flow downstream within high concrete walls with sporadic containments while receiving various affluents along its course. This type of embankment's design is typical of steep river courses and large seasonal discharge fluctuations, which is typical of many rivers in Japan. Along the embankments there are forest areas mainly of Japanese cedar (Sugi), bamboo trees as well as rice growing terraces and farmer houses. The lack of proper environmental management, safe planning by the local municipalities and peoples awareness came to light in many areas after the floods resulting in large damage. A particular case in point was identified in the Nishinotani stream, which feeds the Yokoyamawa River where a large farmer's house and rice field was built directly facing the stream flow direction. Furthermore, the municipality built a small bridge over the stream to allow for traffic. Both proved to be most inappropriate and unwise decisions causing

  14. Local Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Local Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun

    2013-10-01

    Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government

  15. Climate change adaptation options in rainfed upland cropping systems in the wet tropics: A case study of smallholder farms in North-West Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Touch, Van; Martin, Robert John; Scott, Jeannette Fiona; Cowie, Annette; Liu, De Li

    2016-11-01

    While climate change is confirmed to have serious impacts on agricultural production in many regions worldwide, researchers have proposed various measures that farmers can apply to cope with and adapt to those changes. However, it is often the case that not every adaptation measure would be practical and adoptable in a specific region. Farmers may have their own ways of managing and adapting to climate change that need to be taken into account when considering interventions. This study aimed to engage with farmers to: (1) better understand small-holder knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to perceived or expected climate change; and (2) document cropping practices, climate change perceptions, constraints to crop production, and coping and adaptation options with existing climate variability and expected climate change. This study was conducted in 2015 in Sala Krau village near Pailin (12°52'N, 102°45'E) and Samlout (12°39'N, 102°36'E) of North-West Cambodia. The methods used were a combination of focus group discussions and one-on-one interviews where 132 farming households were randomly selected. We found that farmers were conscious of changes in climate over recent years, and had a good understanding of likely future changes. While farmers are aware of some practices that can be modified to minimize risk and cope with anticipated changes, they are reluctant to apply them. Furthermore; there are no government agricultural extension services provided at the village level and farmers have relied on each other and other actors in the value chain network for information to support their decision-making. There is a lack of knowledge of the principles of conservation agriculture that urgently require agricultural extension services in the region to build farmer ability to better cope and adapt to climate change. PMID:27479240

  16. Climate change adaptation options in rainfed upland cropping systems in the wet tropics: A case study of smallholder farms in North-West Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Touch, Van; Martin, Robert John; Scott, Jeannette Fiona; Cowie, Annette; Liu, De Li

    2016-11-01

    While climate change is confirmed to have serious impacts on agricultural production in many regions worldwide, researchers have proposed various measures that farmers can apply to cope with and adapt to those changes. However, it is often the case that not every adaptation measure would be practical and adoptable in a specific region. Farmers may have their own ways of managing and adapting to climate change that need to be taken into account when considering interventions. This study aimed to engage with farmers to: (1) better understand small-holder knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to perceived or expected climate change; and (2) document cropping practices, climate change perceptions, constraints to crop production, and coping and adaptation options with existing climate variability and expected climate change. This study was conducted in 2015 in Sala Krau village near Pailin (12°52'N, 102°45'E) and Samlout (12°39'N, 102°36'E) of North-West Cambodia. The methods used were a combination of focus group discussions and one-on-one interviews where 132 farming households were randomly selected. We found that farmers were conscious of changes in climate over recent years, and had a good understanding of likely future changes. While farmers are aware of some practices that can be modified to minimize risk and cope with anticipated changes, they are reluctant to apply them. Furthermore; there are no government agricultural extension services provided at the village level and farmers have relied on each other and other actors in the value chain network for information to support their decision-making. There is a lack of knowledge of the principles of conservation agriculture that urgently require agricultural extension services in the region to build farmer ability to better cope and adapt to climate change.

  17. Local farmers' perceptions of climate change and local adaptive strategies: a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun

    2013-10-01

    Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and

  18. The Ĝ Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies. III. The Reddest Extended Sources in WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Wright, Jason T.; Maldonado, Jessica; Povich, Matthew S.; Sigurđsson, Steinn; Mullan, Brendan

    2015-04-01

    Nearby Type iii (galaxy-spanning) Kardashev supercivilizations would have high mid-infrared (MIR) luminosities. We have used the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to survey ∼ 1× {{10}5} galaxies for extreme MIR emission, 1 × 103 times more galaxies than the only previous such search. We have calibrated the WISE All-sky Catalog pipeline products to improve their photometry for extended sources. We present 563 extended sources with |b|≥slant 10 and red MIR colors, having visually vetted them to remove artifacts. No galaxies in our sample host an alien civilization reprocessing more than 85% of its starlight into the MIR, and only 50 galaxies, including Arp 220, have MIR luminosities consistent with \\gt 50% reprocessing. Ninety of these (likely) extragalactic sources have little literature presence; in most cases, they are likely barely resolved galaxies or pairs of galaxies undergoing large amounts of star formation. Five are new to science and deserve further study. The Be star 48 Librae sits within a MIR nebula, and we suggest that it may be creating dust. WISE, 2MASS, and Spitzer imagery shows that IRAS 04287+6444 is consistent with a previously unnoticed, heavily extinguished cluster of young stellar objects. We identify five “passive” (i.e., red) spiral galaxies with unusually high MIR and low NUV luminosity. We search a set of H i dark galaxies for MIR emission and find none. These 90 poorly understood sources and 5 anomalous passive spirals deserve follow-up via both SETI and conventional astrophysics.

  19. Influence of historical land use transformation on the Greater Horn of Africa climate: Case Study over Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyah, R. O.; Otieno, V. O.

    2010-12-01

    The behavior of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is largely influenced by its contact with the planetary surface. The land surface characteristics that include the surface roughness, albedo, moisture availability among others control the Land-atmosphere interaction. These surface conditions play a major role in turbulence transfer of mass, momentum and heat and provide a vital physical link between the atmosphere and the surface of the earth. In this study, we investigate relationship between land use/cover and regional patterns of precipitation and temperature over central highlands of the Greater Horn of Africa (Kenya) using both remote sensing techniques and model simulations. ERDAS imagine 9.3, a remote sensing tool, is employed in land use/land cover classification over Kenya for realistic model land cover representation. Idealized land use/cover scenarios (borrowing from the ERDAS classifications) are used in regional climate simulations (using RegCM3 model) since existing observations are inadequate to determine the extent and severity of historical land use changes. Our case study periods are for the years 1986, 1995 and 2000. We also focus on the two primary rainfall season over the study domain centered on March-April-May (MAM) and October-November-December (OND). Preliminary results shows areas of rainfall maximum over the western, central and coastal parts of Kenya tend to be co-located with Forest and agricultural zones. Analysis of precipitation variability over the years 1986, 1995 and 2000 in the neighborhood of inland lakes, in particular Lake Victoria (largest lake in Africa) shows persistent precipitation throughout the year. This we attribute to local convection induced by topography and Lake induced circulations and associated convection. Our analysis also shows a decline in MAM seasonal rainfall between the period 1986 to 2000 and a slight increase of OND seasonal rainfall over the same period. The decrease in MAM seasonal rainfall can be

  20. WISE TF: A MID-INFRARED, 3.4 {mu}m EXTENSION OF THE TULLY-FISHER RELATION USING WISE PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Lagattuta, David J.; Mould, Jeremy R.; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Hong Tao; Springob, Christopher M.; Masters, Karen L.; Koribalski, Baerbel S.; Jones, D. Heath

    2013-07-10

    We present a mid-infrared Tully-Fisher (TF) relation using photometry from the 3.4 {mu}m W1 band of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite. The WISE TF relation is formed from 568 galaxies taken from the all-sky 2MASS Tully-Fisher (2MTF) galaxy catalog, spanning a range of environments including field, group, and cluster galaxies. This constitutes the largest mid-infrared TF relation constructed to date. After applying a number of corrections to galaxy magnitudes and line widths, we measure a master TF relation given by M{sub corr} = -22.24 - 10.05[log (W{sub corr}) - 2.5], with an average dispersion of {sigma}{sub WISE} = 0.686 mag. There is some tension between WISE TF and a preliminary 3.6 {mu}m relation, which has a shallower slope and almost no intrinsic dispersion. However, our results agree well with a more recent relation constructed from a large sample of cluster galaxies. We additionally compare WISE TF to the near-infrared 2MTF template relations, finding a good agreement between the TF parameters and total dispersions of WISE TF and the 2MTF K-band template. This fact, coupled with typical galaxy colors of (K - W1) {approx} 0, suggests that these two bands are tracing similar stellar populations, including the older, centrally-located stars in the galactic bulge which can (for galaxies with a prominent bulge) dominate the light profile.

  1. Brief Communication: An update of the article "Modelling flood damages under climate change conditions - a case study for Germany"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokko Hattermann, Fred; Huang, Shaochun; Burghoff, Olaf; Hoffmann, Peter; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.

    2016-07-01

    In our first study on possible flood damages under climate change in Germany, we reported that a considerable increase in flood-related losses can be expected in a future warmer climate. However, the general significance of the study was limited by the fact that outcome of only one global climate model (GCM) was used as a large-scale climate driver, while many studies report that GCMs are often the largest source of uncertainty in impact modelling. Here we show that a much broader set of global and regional climate model combinations as climate drivers show trends which are in line with the original results and even give a stronger increase of damages.

  2. Building America Case Study: Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole House Retrofit, Stockton, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    ARBI

    2014-09-01

    The Stockton house retrofit is a two-story tudor style single family deep retrofit in the hot-dry climate of Stockton, CA. The home is representative of a deep retrofit option of the scaled home energy upgrade packages offered to targeted neighborhoods under the pilot Large-Scale Retrofit Program (LSRP) administered by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI). Deep retrofit packages expand on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Site energy savings with the deep retrofit were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case, and 15% higher than the savings estimated for the standard retrofit package. Energy savings were largely a result of the water heater upgrade, and a combination of the envelope sealing, insulation and HVAC upgrade. The HVAC system was of higher efficiency than the building code standard. Overall the financed retrofit would have been more cost effective had a less expensive HVAC system been selected and barriers to wall insulation remedied. The homeowner experienced improved comfort throughout the monitored period and was satisfied with the resulting utility bill savings.

  3. Climate change policies and capital vintage effects: the cases of US pulp and paper, iron and steel, and ethylene.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Matthias; Davidsdottir, Brynhildur; Amato, Anthony

    2004-03-01

    Changes in material use, energy use and emissions profiles of industry are the result of complex interrelationships among a multitude of technological and economic drivers. To better understand and guide such changes requires that attention is paid to the time-varying consequences that technology and economic influences have on an industry's choice of inputs and its associated (desired and undesired) outputs. This paper lays out an approach to improving our understanding of the dynamics of large industrial systems. The approach combines engineering and econometric analysis with a detailed representation of an industry's capital stock structure. A transparent dynamic computer modeling approach is chosen to integrate information from these analyses in ways that foster participation of stakeholders from industry and government agencies in all stages of the modeling process-from problem definition and determination of system boundaries to generation of scenarios and interpretation of results. Three case studies of industrial energy use in the USA are presented-one each for the iron and steel, pulp and paper, and ethylene industry. Dynamic models of these industries are described and then used to investigate alternative carbon emissions and investment-led policies. A comparison of results clearly points towards two key issues: the need for industry specific policy approaches in order to effectively influence industrial energy use, fuel mix and carbon emissions, and the need for longer time horizons than have typically been chosen for the analysis of industrial responses to climate change policies.

  4. Estimating the efficiency of P/V systems under a changing climate - the case study of Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillakis, Manolis; Panagea, Ioanna; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    The effect of climate change on P/V output is studied for the region of Greece. Solar radiation and temperature data from 9 RCMs of ENSEMBLES EU FP6 project are used to estimate the effect of these two parameters on the future P/V systems output over Greece. Examining the relative contributions of temperature and irradiance, a significant reduction due to the temperature increase is projected which is however outweighed by the irradiance increase, resulting an overall output increase in photovoltaic systems. Nonetheless, in some cases the temperature increase is too large to be compensated by the increase irradiance resulting reduction of PV output up to 3. This is projected after 2050s for the eastern parts of the Greek mainland, Aegean islands and some areas in Crete. Results show that the PV output is projected to have an increasing trend in all regions of Greece until 2050, and a steeper increase trend further until 2100. Moreover, high resolution topographic information was combined to the PV output results, producing high resolution of favorability for future PV systems installation.

  5. Identifying stakeholder-relevant climate change impacts: a case study in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenni, K.; Graves, D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Hatten, James R.; Mastin, Mark C.; Mesa, Matthew G.; Montag, J.; Nieman, Timothy; Voss, Frank D.; Maule, Alec G.

    2014-01-01

    Designing climate-related research so that study results will be useful to natural resource managers is a unique challenge. While decision makers increasingly recognize the need to consider climate change in their resource management plans, and climate scientists recognize the importance of providing locally-relevant climate data and projections, there often remains a gap between management needs and the information that is available or is being collected. We used decision analysis concepts to bring decision-maker and stakeholder perspectives into the applied research planning process. In 2009 we initiated a series of studies on the impacts of climate change in the Yakima River Basin (YRB) with a four-day stakeholder workshop, bringing together managers, stakeholders, and scientists to develop an integrated conceptual model of climate change and climate change impacts in the YRB. The conceptual model development highlighted areas of uncertainty that limit the understanding of the potential impacts of climate change and decision alternatives by those who will be most directly affected by those changes, and pointed to areas where additional study and engagement of stakeholders would be beneficial. The workshop and resulting conceptual model highlighted the importance of numerous different outcomes to stakeholders in the basin, including social and economic outcomes that go beyond the physical and biological outcomes typically reported in climate impacts studies. Subsequent studies addressed several of those areas of uncertainty, including changes in water temperatures, habitat quality, and bioenergetics of salmonid populations.

  6. Assessing indigenous knowledge systems and climate change adaptation strategies in agriculture: A case study of Chagaka Village, Chikhwawa, Southern Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkomwa, Emmanuel Charles; Joshua, Miriam Kalanda; Ngongondo, Cosmo; Monjerezi, Maurice; Chipungu, Felistus

    In Malawi, production from subsistence rain fed agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate change and variability. In response to the adverse effects of climate change and variability, a National Adaptation Programme of Action is used as framework for implementing adaptation programmes. However, this framework puts limited significance on indigenous knowledge systems (IKS). In many parts of the world, IKS have shown potential in the development of locally relevant and therefore sustainable adaptation strategies. This study was aimed at assessing the role of IKS in adaptation to climate change and variability in the agricultural sector in a rural district of Chikhwawa, southern Malawi. The study used both qualitative data from focus group and key informant interviews and quantitative data from household interviews and secondary data to address the research objectives. The study established that the local communities are able to recognise the changes in their climate and local environment. Commonly mentioned indicators of changing climatic patterns included delayed and unpredictable onset of rainfall, declining rainfall trends, warming temperatures and increased frequency of prolonged dry spells. An analysis of empirical data corroborates the people's perception. In addition, the community is able to use their IKS to adapt their agricultural systems to partially offset the effects of climate change. Like vulnerability to climate change, IKS varies over a short spatial scale, providing locally relevant adaptation to impacts of climate change. This paper therefore advocates for the integration of IKS in programmes addressing adaptation to climate change and vulnerability. This will serve to ensure sustainable and relevant adaptation strategies.

  7. Adapting to climate change despite scientific uncertainty: A case study of coastal protection from sea-level rise in Kiribati

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change adaptation is an increasing focus of international aid. At recent meetings of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the developed world agreed to rapidly increase international assistance to help developing countries, like the low-lying island nation of Kiribati, respond to the impacts of climate change. These emerging adaptation efforts must proceed despite the large and partially irreducible scientific uncertainty about the magnitude of those future climate impacts. In this study, we use the example of efforts to adapt to sea-level rise in Kiribati to document the challenges facing such internationally-funded climate change adaptation projects given the scientific uncertainty about climate impacts. Drawing on field and document research, we describe the scientific uncertainty about projected sea-level rise in Tarawa, the capital of Kiribati, how that uncertainty can create trade-offs between adaptation measures, and the social, political and economic context in which adaptation decisions must be made. The analysis shows there is no 'silver bullet' adaptation strategy in countries like Kiribati, given the long-term scientific uncertainty about sea-level rise and the environment of climate change aid. The existence of irreducible scientific uncertainty does not preclude effective climate change adaptation, but instead requires adaptation programs that embrace multiple strategies and planning horizons, and continually build on and re-adjust previous investments. This work highlights the importance of sustained international climate change financing, as proposed in UNFCCC negotiations.

  8. Characterizing the redshifts and luminosities of WISE selected obscured AGN using SALT optical spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hviding, Raphael E.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Hainline, Kevin N.; Carroll, Christopher M.; DiPompeo, Mike A.; Jones, Mackenzie L.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of several optical spectroscopic surveys covering over 100 candidate luminous obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified by their mid-infrared emission detected with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). These galaxies were selected based on red WISE colors and galaxy-like optical emission, and were studied using long-slit optical spectroscopy with the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). Our spectra were analyzed to obtain redshifts and emission line flux ratios for each galaxy. These results verify that WISE is an effective section method for luminous obscured AGN, allow for the characterization of redshifts and luminosities of the WISE color selected obscured AGN population, and could potentially contribute to large statistical studies of obscured AGN distributions in the future.

  9. Focal plane detectors for the WISE 12- and 23-μm bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, H. H.; Mattson, R. B.; Stapelbroek, M. G.; Masterjohn, S. A.; Larsen, M. F.; Elwell, J. D.

    2007-09-01

    DRS Sensors & Targeting Systems, under contract to the Space Dynamics Laboratory of Utah State University, is providing the focal plane detector system for NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The focal plane detector system consists of two mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal plane module assemblies (FPMAs), two arsenic doped silicon (Si:As) Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) FPMAs, electronics to drive the FPMAs and report digital data from them, and the cryogenic and ambient temperature cabling that connect the FPMAs and electronics. The MCT and Si:As BIB focal plane arrays (FPAs) utilized in the WISE FPMAs are both megapixel class indium-bump hybridized devices fabricated by Teledyne Imaging Systems and DRS Sensors & Targeting Systems, respectively. This paper reports performance of the WISE Si:As BIB FPAs that are used for the WISE 12- and 23-μm wavelength bands.

  10. Estimating the uncertainty of the impact of climate change on alluvial aquifers. Case study in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Emanuele; Camici, Stefania; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso; Pica, Federico; Preziosi, Elisabetta

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence that the precipitation pattern in Europe is trending towards more humid conditions in the northern region and drier conditions in the southern and central-eastern regions. However, a great deal of uncertainty concerns how the changes in precipitations will have an impact on water resources, particularly on groundwater, and this uncertainty should be evaluated on the basis of that coming from 1) future climate scenarios of Global Circulation Models (GCMs) and 2) modeling chains including the downscaling technique, the infiltration model and the calibration/validation procedure used to develop the groundwater flow model. With the aim of quantifying the uncertainty of these components, the Valle Umbra porous aquifer (Central Italy) has been considered as a case study. This aquifer, that is exploited for human consumption and irrigation, is mainly fed by the effective infiltration from the ground surface and partly by the inflow from the carbonate aquifers bordering the valley. A numerical groundwater flow model has been developed through the finite difference MODFLOW2005 code and it has been calibrated and validated considering the recharge regime computed through a Thornthwaite-Mather infiltration model under the climate conditions observed in the period 1956-2012. Future scenarios (2010-2070) of temperature and precipitation have been obtained from three different GMCs: ECHAM-5 (Max Planck Institute, Germany), PCM (National Centre Atmospheric Research) and CCSM3 (National Centre Atmospheric Research). Each scenario has been downscaled (DSC) to the data of temperature and precipitation collected in the baseline period 1960-1990 at the stations located in the study area through two different statistical techniques (linear rescaling and quantile mapping). Then, stochastic rainfall and temperature time series are generated through the Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses model (NSRP) for precipitation and the Fractionally Differenced ARIMA model (FARIMA

  11. WISE J163940.83-684738.6: A Y DWARF IDENTIFIED BY METHANE IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Tinney, C. G.; Salter, Graeme; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Wright, Edward L.; Cushing, Michael C.

    2012-11-01

    We have used methane imaging techniques to identify the near-infrared counterpart of the bright Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) source WISE J163940.83-684738.6. The large proper motion of this source ( Almost-Equal-To 3.''0 yr{sup -1}) has moved it, since its original WISE identification, very close to a much brighter background star-it currently lies within 1.''5 of the J = 14.90 {+-} 0.04 star 2MASS 16394085-6847446. Observations in good seeing conditions using methane-sensitive filters in the near-infrared J band with the FourStar instrument on the Magellan 6.5 m Baade telescope, however, have enabled us to detect a near-infrared counterpart. We have defined a photometric system for use with the FourStar J2 and J3 filters, and this photometry indicates strong methane absorption, which unequivocally identifies it as the source of the WISE flux. Using these imaging observations we were then able to steer this object down the slit of the Folded-port Infrared Echellette spectrograph on a night of 0.''6 seeing, and so obtain near-infrared spectroscopy confirming a Y0-Y0.5 spectral type. This is in line with the object's near-infrared-to-WISE J3 - W2 color. Preliminary astrometry using both WISE and FourStar data indicates a distance of 5.0 {+-} 0.5 pc and a substantial tangential velocity of 73 {+-} 8 km s{sup -1}. WISE J163940.83-684738.6 is the brightest confirmed Y dwarf in the WISE W2 passband and its distance measurement places it among the lowest luminosity sources detected to date.

  12. THE WISE LIGHT CURVES OF Z CAMELOPARDALIS DURING OUTBURST: EVIDENCE FOR SYNCHROTRON EMISSION?

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas E.

    2014-08-10

    The WISE mission happened to observe the cataclysmic variable Z Cam at the peak of an outburst. The WISE single exposure data shows that Z Cam was highly variable at 12 μm, but only marginally so at shorter wavelengths. The rapid variability at 12 μm, and the fact that these observations occurred close to visual maximum suggests that, like SS Cyg, Z Cam is a synchrotron source.

  13. Quasar probabilities and redshifts from WISE mid-IR through GALEX UV photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Bovy, J.; Myers, A. D.; Lang, D.

    2015-09-01

    Extreme deconvolution (XD) of broad-band photometric data can both separate stars from quasars and generate probability density functions for quasar redshifts, while incorporating flux uncertainties and missing data. Mid-infrared photometric colours are now widely used to identify hot dust intrinsic to quasars, and the release of all-sky WISE data has led to a dramatic increase in the number of IR-selected quasars. Using forced photometry on public WISE data at the locations of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) point sources, we incorporate this all-sky data into the training of the XDQSOz models originally developed to select quasars from optical photometry. The combination of WISE and SDSS information is far more powerful than SDSS alone, particularly at z > 2. The use of SDSS+WISE photometry is comparable to the use of SDSS+ultraviolet+near-IR data. We release a new public catalogue of 5537 436 (total; 3874 639 weighted by probability) potential quasars with probability PQSO > 0.2. The catalogue includes redshift probabilities for all objects. We also release an updated version of the publicly available set of codes to calculate quasar and redshift probabilities for various combinations of data. Finally, we demonstrate that this method of selecting quasars using WISE data is both more complete and efficient than simple WISE colour-cuts, especially at high redshift. Our fits verify that above z ˜ 3 WISE colours become bluer than the standard cuts applied to select quasars. Currently, the analysis is limited to quasars with optical counterparts, and thus cannot be used to find highly obscured quasars that WISE colour-cuts identify in significant numbers.

  14. Understanding of crop phenology using satellite-based retrievals and climate factors - a case study on spring maize in Northeast China plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, Yanmin; Xie, Donghui; Wang, Peijuan; Wu, Menxin

    2014-03-01

    Land surface phenology is an efficient bio-indicator for monitoring terrestrial ecosystem variation in response to climate change. Numerous studies point out climate change plays an important role in modulating vegetation phenological events, especially in agriculture. In turn, surface changes caused by geo-biological processes can affect climate transition regionally and perhaps globally, as concluded by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2001. Large amounts of research concluded that crops, as one of the most sensitive bio-indicators for climate change, can be strongly influenced by local weather such as temperature, moisture and radiation. Thus, investigating the details of weather impact and the feedback from crops can help improve our understanding of the interaction between crops and climate change at satellite scale. Our efforts start from this point, via case studies over the famous agriculture region in the Northeast China's plain to examine the response of spring maize under temperature and moisture stress. MODIS-based daily green vegetation information together with frequent field specification of the surface phenology as well as continuous measurements of the routine climatic factors during seven years (2003-2009) is used in this paper. Despite the obvious difference in scale between satellite estimations and field observations, the inter- and intra-annual variation of maize in seven-years' growth was captured successfully over three typical spring maize regions (Fuyu, Changling, and Hailun) in Northeast China. The results demonstrate that weather conditions such as changes of temperature and moisture stress provide considerable contribution to the year-to-year variations in the timing of spring maize phenological events.

  15. Gravitational attraction of a vertical pyramid model of flat top-and-bottom with depth-wise parabolic density variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokula, Anand P.; Sastry, Rambhatla G.

    2015-12-01

    In 3D gravity modelling, right rectangular vertical prism model with linear and nonlinear density and polyhedral bodies with linear density variation exist in geophysical literature. Here, we propose a vertical pyramid model with depth-wise parabolic density contrast variation. Initially, we validate our analytic expression against the gravity effect of a right rectangular parallelepiped of constant density contrast. We provide two synthetic examples and a case study for illustrating the effectiveness of our pyramid model in gravity modelling. The included case study of Los Angeles basin, California demonstrates the comparative advantages of our pyramid model over a conventional right rectangular vertical prism model. Our pyramid model could be quite effective as a building block for evaluating the gravity effect of an arbitrarily-shaped 3D or 2.5-D source(s).

  16. Integrated analysis of the climate change effects on water availability for catchment management. The case of the Ésera River (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solera, Abel; Segura, Carlos; Bussi, Gianbattista; Momblanch, Andrea; Francés, Félix

    2014-05-01

    The analysis of the impact of climate change on water resources is of primary importance in Mediterranean Areas. Mean precipitation is expected to decrease, although an increase in its torrentiality is foreseen, and temperature is expected to increase. In addition, growing urban water demand and new environmental requirements also contribute to increase water stress. To achieve an improved use of water resources, new and detailed studies of the impact of the climate change are needed. Due to the high complexity of rainfall-runoff processes and the need to incorporate climate change effect in them, physically based distributed models are proposed as a tool for assessing and analysing the climate change impact on water discharge. In this case, the distributed conceptual TETIS model was employed. This model was previously calibrated and validated in order to reproduce the hydrological cycle of a Mediterranean-influenced catchment, the Ésera River (Spain), under current climate conditions. Then, the TETIS model was driven by the results of a climatic model (precipitation and temperature series) under three climatic scenarios: current climate (or control scenario), A2 and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios. Water discharge series were generated at different points of the catchment. The model results pointed out that a global decrease in water yield is devised, being around 33% and 37% for scenario A2 and B2 respectively. Water discharge series were subsequently used in the analysis of climate change impact on water resources and water use in the studied river basin. To do so, a water allocation model was built, calibrated and validated under current streamflow conditions for the Ésera River. It considered all the water management infrastructures, water uses and environmental requirements. The results from TETIS for the three different scenarios were introduced as inputs to the water management model, what allowed performing three simulations. The outcomes

  17. Astro-WISE Processing of Wide-field Images and Other Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddelmeijer, H.; Williams, O. R.; McFarland, J. P.; Belikov, A.

    2012-09-01

    Astro-WISE (Vriend et al. 2012) is the Astronomical Wide-field Imaging System for Europe (Valentijn et al. 2007). It is a scientific information system which consists of hardware and software federated over about a dozen institutes throughout Europe. It has been developed to exploit the ever increasing avalanche of data produced by astronomical surveys and data intensive scientific experiments in general. The demo explains the architecture of the Astro-WISE information system and shows the use of Astro-WISE interfaces. Wide-field astronomical images are derived from the raw image to the final catalog according to the user's request. The demo is based on the standard Astro-WISE guided tour, which can be accessed from the Astro-WISE website. The typical Astro-WISE data processing chain is shown, which can be used for data handling for a variety of different instruments, currently 14, including OmegaCAM, MegaCam, WFI, WFC, ACS/HST, etc.

  18. The impact of climate change on water provision under a low flow regime: a case study of the ecosystems services in the Francoli river basin.

    PubMed

    Marquès, Montse; Bangash, Rubab Fatima; Kumar, Vikas; Sharp, Richard; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2013-12-15

    Mediterranean basin is considered one of the most vulnerable regions of the world to climate change and with high probability to face acute water scarcity problem in the coming years. Francolí River basin (NE Spain), located in this vulnerable region is selected as a case study to evaluate the impact of climate change on the delivery of water considering the IPCC scenarios A2 and B1 for the time spans 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. InVEST model is applied in a low flow river as a new case study, which reported successful results after its model validation. The studied hydrological ecosystem services will be highly impacted by climate change at Francolí River basin. Water yield is expected to be reduced between 11.5 and 44% while total drinking water provisioning will decrease between 13 and 50% having adverse consequences on the water quality of the river. Focusing at regional scale, Prades Mountains and Brugent Tributary provide most of the provision of water and also considered highly vulnerable areas to climate change. However, the most vulnerable part is the northern area which has the lowest provision of water. Francolí River basin is likely to experience desertification at this area drying Anguera and Vallverd tributaries.

  19. Indoor climate.

    PubMed

    Höppe, P R

    1993-09-15

    In industrialized countries most of the time is spent indoors. The basic ambient parameters for a thermally comfortable indoor climate are air temperature, air velocity, humidity and radiation pattern. Besides the thermal component, the concentrations of air pollutants in the indoor air are also of importance for wellbeing and health. Their levels are influenced both by the outdoor concentrations and the indoor emissions. The increasing use of air conditioning systems in many cases has not resulted in improving the indoor climate but causes a wide range of irritations and health problems summarized as 'sick building syndrome'.

  20. WISE Y dwarfs as probes of the brown dwarf-exoplanet connection

    SciTech Connect

    Beichman, C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Michael C.; Dodson-Robinson, Sally; Marley, Mark S.; Morley, Caroline V.; Wright, E. L.

    2014-03-10

    We have determined astrometric positions for 15 WISE-discovered late-type brown dwarfs (six T8-9 and nine Y dwarfs) using the Keck-II telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope. Combining data from 8 to 20 epochs we derive parallactic and proper motions for these objects, which puts the majority within 15 pc. For ages greater than a few Gyr, as suggested from kinematic considerations, we find masses of 10-30 M {sub Jup} based on standard models for the evolution of low-mass objects with a range of mass estimates for individual objects, depending on the model in question. Three of the coolest objects have effective temperatures ∼350 K and inferred masses of 10-15 M {sub Jup}. Our parallactic distances confirm earlier photometric estimates and direct measurements and suggest that the number of objects with masses below about 15 M {sub Jup} must be flat or declining, relative to higher mass objects. The masses of the coldest Y dwarfs may be similar to those inferred for recently imaged planet-mass companions to nearby young stars. Objects in this mass range, which appear to be rare in both the interstellar and protoplanetary environments, may both have formed via gravitational fragmentation—the brown dwarfs in interstellar clouds and companion objects in a protoplanetary disk. In both cases, however, the fact that objects in this mass range are relatively infrequent suggests that this mechanism must be inefficient in both environments.

  1. WISE 2005: vascular responses to 60-day bed rest in women.

    PubMed

    Hughson, R L; Shoemaker, J K; Arbeille, Ph; Dyson, K S; Edgell, H; Kerbeci, P; Mattar, L; Zuj, K; Greaves, D K

    2007-07-01

    WISE-2005 studied 24 women during a 60-day head down bed rest (HDBR) who look part in an exercise countermeasure (LBNP-treadmill plus flywheel, EX) and no-exercise (No-EX). We conducted a series of experiments to explore changes in cardiovascular function and the ability of EX to prevent these changes. Resting arterial diameter in the arm was not affected but the leg arteries (femoral and popliteal) were significantly reduced in Np-EX, but was increased in EX. In this study we report on drug stimulated responses with sublingual nitroglycerin and infused isoproterenol. Heart rate increased in response to nitroglycerin with larger increases in No-EX after HDBR. Likewise during isoproterenol infusion the HR increase was greater after HDBR in the No-EX group. In all cases, the higher HR was associated with lower stroke volume in No-EX while stroke volume was protected in EX. These data do not support a change in sensitivity of beta-adrenergic receptors after HDBR. The leg vascular resistance decreased in response to isoproterenol and it decreased to a greater extent in No-EX than EX. These data were consistent with observations of lower leg vascular resistance during orthostatic challenge tests after HDBR. We conclude that consistent changes in cardiovascular function in the No-EX were detected by different methods that point to mechanisms contributing to orthostatic intolerance after HDBR. PMID:18372696

  2. Engaging Visitors in Climate Change Communication: A Case Study of Southern Florida's National Parks and Wildlife Refuges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Caroline A.; Thompson, Jessica Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Through the lens of place-based climate change communication, this manuscript compares results from internal and external assessments of capacity to communicate about climate change at national parks and refuges in southern Florida. The internal survey sample included agency staff, stakeholders, community partners, and concessionaires; the…

  3. The Influences of Leadership Style and School Climate to Faculty Psychological Contracts: A Case of S University in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hui-Chin; Fu, Chi-Jung

    2006-01-01

    This study was to investigate the impacts of leadership style and school climate on faculty psychological contracts. Demographic variables were also tested. The findings indicated that overall perceptions of the faculties toward leadership style, school climate, and psychological contract were favorable. Moreover, leadership style and school…

  4. Validation of a model with climatic and flow scenario analysis: case of Lake Burrumbeet in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Webb, John

    2016-05-01

    Forecast evaluation is an important topic that addresses the development of reliable hydrological probabilistic forecasts, mainly through the use of climate uncertainties. Often, validation has no place in hydrology for most of the times, despite the parameters of a model are uncertain. Similarly, the structure of the model can be incorrectly chosen. A calibrated and verified dynamic hydrologic water balance spreadsheet model has been used to assess the effect of climate variability on Lake Burrumbeet, southeastern Australia. The lake level has been verified to lake level, lake volume, lake surface area, surface outflow and lake salinity. The current study aims to increase lake level confidence model prediction through historical validation for the year 2008-2013, under different climatic scenario. Based on the observed climatic condition (2008-2013), it fairly matches with a hybridization of scenarios, being the period interval (2008-2013), corresponds to both dry and wet climatic condition. Besides to the hydrologic stresses uncertainty, uncertainty in the calibrated model is among the major drawbacks involved in making scenario simulations. In line with this, the uncertainty in the calibrated model was tested using sensitivity analysis and showed that errors in the model can largely be attributed to erroneous estimates of evaporation and rainfall, and surface inflow to a lesser. The study demonstrates that several climatic scenarios should be analysed, with a combination of extreme climate, stream flow and climate change instead of one assumed climatic sequence, to improve climate variability prediction in the future. Performing such scenario analysis is a valid exercise to comprehend the uncertainty with the model structure and hydrology, in a meaningful way, without missing those, even considered as less probable, ultimately turned to be crucial for decision making and will definitely increase the confidence of model prediction for management of the water

  5. Farmers' perceptions of and adaptation strategies to climate change and their determinants: the case of Punjab province, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abid, M.; Scheffran, J.; Schneider, U. A.; Ashfaq, M.

    2015-05-01

    Climate change is a global environmental threat to all economic sectors, particularly the agricultural sector. Pakistan is one of the countries negatively affected by climate change due to its high exposure to extreme events and low adaptive capacity. In Pakistan, farmers are the primary stakeholders in agriculture and are more at risk due to climate vulnerability. Based on farm household data from 450 households collected from three districts in three agroecological zones in the Punjab province of Pakistan, this study examines how farmers perceive climate change and how they adapt their farming in response to perceived changes in climate. The results demonstrate that awareness of climate change is widespread throughout the area, and farm households make adjustments to adapt their agriculture in response to climatic change. Overall 58% of the farm households adapted their farming to climate change. Changing crop varieties, changing planting dates, planting of shade trees and changing fertilizers were the main adaptation methods implemented by farm households in the study area. The results from the binary logistic model reveal that education, farm experience, household size, land area, tenancy status, ownership of a tube well, access to market information, information on weather forecasting and agricultural extension services all influence farmers' choices of adaptation measures. The results also indicate that adaptation to climate change is constrained by several factors such as lack of information, lack of money, resource constraints and shortage of irrigation water in the study area. Findings of the study suggest the need for greater investment in farmer education and improved institutional setup for climate change adaptation to improve farmers' wellbeing.

  6. Farmers' perceptions of and adaptation strategies to climate change and their determinants; the case of Punjab province, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abid, M.; Scheffran, J.; Schneider, U. A.; Ashfaq, M.

    2014-10-01

    Climate change is a global environmental threat to all economic sectors, particularly the agricultural sector. Pakistan is one of the negatively affected countries from climate change due to its high exposure to extreme events and low adaptive capacity. In Pakistan, farmers are the primary stakeholders in agriculture and are more at risk due to climate vulnerability. Based on farm household data of 450 households collected from three districts in three agro-ecological zones in Punjab province of Pakistan, this study examined how farmers perceive climate change and how they adapt their farming in response to perceived changes in climate. The results demonstrate that awareness to climate change persists in the area, and farm households make adjustments to adapt their agriculture in response to climatic change. Overall 58% of the farm households adapted their farming to climate change. Changing crop varieties, changing planting dates, plantation of trees and changing fertilizer were the main adaptation methods implemented by farm households in the study area. Results from the binary logistic model revealed that education, farm experience, household size, land area, tenancy status, ownership of tube-well, access to market information, information on weather forecasting and extension all influence the farmers' choice of adaptation measures. Results also indicate that adaptation to climate change is constrained by several factors such as lack of information; lack of money; resource constraint and shortage of irrigation water in the study area. Findings of the study suggest the need of greater investment in farmer education and improved institutional setup for climate change adaptation to improve farmers' wellbeing.

  7. Validation of a model with climatic and flow scenario analysis: case of Lake Burrumbeet in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Webb, John

    2016-05-01

    Forecast evaluation is an important topic that addresses the development of reliable hydrological probabilistic forecasts, mainly through the use of climate uncertainties. Often, validation has no place in hydrology for most of the times, despite the parameters of a model are uncertain. Similarly, the structure of the model can be incorrectly chosen. A calibrated and verified dynamic hydrologic water balance spreadsheet model has been used to assess the effect of climate variability on Lake Burrumbeet, southeastern Australia. The lake level has been verified to lake level, lake volume, lake surface area, surface outflow and lake salinity. The current study aims to increase lake level confidence model prediction through historical validation for the year 2008-2013, under different climatic scenario. Based on the observed climatic condition (2008-2013), it fairly matches with a hybridization of scenarios, being the period interval (2008-2013), corresponds to both dry and wet climatic condition. Besides to the hydrologic stresses uncertainty, uncertainty in the calibrated model is among the major drawbacks involved in making scenario simulations. In line with this, the uncertainty in the calibrated model was tested using sensitivity analysis and showed that errors in the model can largely be attributed to erroneous estimates of evaporation and rainfall, and surface inflow to a lesser. The study demonstrates that several climatic scenarios should be analysed, with a combination of extreme climate, stream flow and climate change instead of one assumed climatic sequence, to improve climate variability prediction in the future. Performing such scenario analysis is a valid exercise to comprehend the uncertainty with the model structure and hydrology, in a meaningful way, without missing those, even considered as less probable, ultimately turned to be crucial for decision making and will definitely increase the confidence of model prediction for management of the water

  8. Using expert opinion to prioritize impacts of climate change on sea turtles' nesting grounds.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, M M P B; Cinner, J E

    2010-12-01

    Managers and conservationists often need to prioritize which impacts from climate change to deal with from a long list of threats. However, data which allows comparison of the relative impact from climatic threats for decision-making is often unavailable. This is the case for the management of sea turtles in the face of climate change. The terrestrial life stages of sea turtles can be negatively impacted by various climatic processes, such as sea level rise, altered cyclonic activity, and increased sand temperatures. However, no study has systematically investigated the relative impact of each of these climatic processes, making it challenging for managers to prioritize their decisions and resources. To address this we offer a systematic method for eliciting expert knowledge to estimate the relative impact of climatic processes on sea turtles' terrestrial reproductive phase. For this we used as an example the world's largest population of green sea turtles and asked 22 scientists and managers to answer a paper based survey with a series of pair-wise comparison matrices that compared the anticipated impacts from each climatic process. Both scientists and managers agreed that increased sand temperature will likely cause the most threat to the reproductive output of the nGBR green turtle population followed by sea level rise, then altered cyclonic activity. The methodology used proved useful to determine the relative impact of the selected climatic processes on sea turtles' reproductive output and provided valuable information for decision-making. Thus, the methodological approach can potentially be applied to other species and ecosystems of management concern. PMID:20702026

  9. Using expert opinion to prioritize impacts of climate change on sea turtles' nesting grounds.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, M M P B; Cinner, J E

    2010-12-01

    Managers and conservationists often need to prioritize which impacts from climate change to deal with from a long list of threats. However, data which allows comparison of the relative impact from climatic threats for decision-making is often unavailable. This is the case for the management of sea turtles in the face of climate change. The terrestrial life stages of sea turtles can be negatively impacted by various climatic processes, such as sea level rise, altered cyclonic activity, and increased sand temperatures. However, no study has systematically investigated the relative impact of each of these climatic processes, making it challenging for managers to prioritize their decisions and resources. To address this we offer a systematic method for eliciting expert knowledge to estimate the relative impact of climatic processes on sea turtles' terrestrial reproductive phase. For this we used as an example the world's largest population of green sea turtles and asked 22 scientists and managers to answer a paper based survey with a series of pair-wise comparison matrices that compared the anticipated impacts from each climatic process. Both scientists and managers agreed that increased sand temperature will likely cause the most threat to the reproductive output of the nGBR green turtle population followed by sea level rise, then altered cyclonic activity. The methodology used proved useful to determine the relative impact of the selected climatic processes on sea turtles' reproductive output and provided valuable information for decision-making. Thus, the methodological approach can potentially be applied to other species and ecosystems of management concern.

  10. Climate downscaling effects on predictive ecological models: a case study for threatened and endangered vertebrates in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bucklin, David N.; Watling, James I.; Speroterra, Carolina; Brandt, Laura A.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Romañach, Stephanie S.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution (downscaled) projections of future climate conditions are critical inputs to a wide variety of ecological and socioeconomic models and are created using numerous different approaches. Here, we conduct a sensitivity analysis of spatial predictions from climate envelope models for threatened and endangered vertebrates in the southeastern United States to determine whether two different downscaling approaches (with and without the use of a regional climate model) affect climate envelope model predictions when all other sources of variation are held constant. We found that prediction maps differed spatially between downscaling approaches and that the variation attributable to downscaling technique was comparable to variation between maps generated using different general circulation models (GCMs). Precipitation variables tended to show greater discrepancies between downscaling techniques than temperature variables, and for one GCM, there was evidence that more poorly resolved precipitation variables contributed relatively more to model uncertainty than more well-resolved variables. Our work suggests that ecological modelers requiring high-resolution climate projections should carefully consider the type of downscaling applied to the climate projections prior to their use in predictive ecological modeling. The uncertainty associated with alternative downscaling methods may rival that of other, more widely appreciated sources of variation, such as the general circulation model or emissions scenario with which future climate projections are created.

  11. Urban Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Europe: A Case Study for Antwerp, Berlin and Almada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves. For example, the summer 2003 European heat wave caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. As around 75% of Europe's population resides in urban areas, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of seasonal to decadal-scale climate variability on urban areas and their populations. This study aims at downscaling the spatially coarse resolution CMIP5 climate predictions to the local urban scale and investigating the relation between heat waves and the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect). The resulting heat stress effect is not only driven by climatic variables but also impacted by urban morphology. Moreover, the exposure varies significantly with the geographical location. All this information is coupled with relevant socio-economic datasets such as population density, age structure, etc. focussing on human health. The analyses are conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (BE), Berlin (DE) and Almada (PT) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. The end-user needs have been consolidated in a climate services plan including the production of heat risk exposure maps and the analysis of various scenarios considering e.g. the uncertainty of the global climate predictions, urban expansion over time and the impact of mitigation measures such as green roofs. The results of this study will allow urban planners and policy makers facing the challenges of climate change and develop sound strategies for the design and management of climate resilient cities.

  12. Applying Climate Compatible Development and economic valuation to coastal management: A case study of Kenya's mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    Huxham, Mark; Emerton, Lucy; Kairo, James; Munyi, Fridah; Abdirizak, Hassan; Muriuki, Tabitha; Nunan, Fiona; Briers, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Mangrove forests are under global pressure. Habitat destruction and degradation persist despite longstanding recognition of the important ecological functions of mangroves. Hence new approaches are needed to help stakeholders and policy-makers achieve sound management that is informed by the best science. Here we explore how the new policy concept of Climate Compatible Development (CCD) can be applied to achieve better outcomes. We use economic valuation approaches to combine socio-economic data, projections of forest cover based on quantitative risk mapping and storyline scenario building exercises to articulate the economic consequences of plausible alternative future scenarios for the mangrove forests of the South Kenya coast, as a case study of relevance to many other areas. Using data from 645 household surveys, 10 focus groups and 74 interviews conducted across four mangrove sites, and combining these with information on fish catches taken at three landing sites, a mangrove carbon trading project and published data allowed us to make a thorough (although still partial) economic valuation of the forests. This gave a current value of the South Coast mangroves of USD 6.5 million, or USD 1166 ha(-1), with 59% of this value on average derived from regulating services. Quantitative risk mapping, projecting recent trends over the next twenty years, suggests a 43% loss of forest cover over that time with 100% loss at the most vulnerable sites. Much of the forest lost between 1992 and 2012 has not been replaced by high value alternative land uses hence restoration of these areas is feasible and may not involve large opportunity costs. We invited thirty eight stakeholders to develop plausible storyline scenarios reflecting Business as Usual (BAU) and CCD - which emphasises sustainable forest conservation and management - in twenty years time, drawing on local and regional expert knowledge of relevant policy, social trends and cultures. Combining these scenarios with

  13. Applying Climate Compatible Development and economic valuation to coastal management: A case study of Kenya's mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    Huxham, Mark; Emerton, Lucy; Kairo, James; Munyi, Fridah; Abdirizak, Hassan; Muriuki, Tabitha; Nunan, Fiona; Briers, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Mangrove forests are under global pressure. Habitat destruction and degradation persist despite longstanding recognition of the important ecological functions of mangroves. Hence new approaches are needed to help stakeholders and policy-makers achieve sound management that is informed by the best science. Here we explore how the new policy concept of Climate Compatible Development (CCD) can be applied to achieve better outcomes. We use economic valuation approaches to combine socio-economic data, projections of forest cover based on quantitative risk mapping and storyline scenario building exercises to articulate the economic consequences of plausible alternative future scenarios for the mangrove forests of the South Kenya coast, as a case study of relevance to many other areas. Using data from 645 household surveys, 10 focus groups and 74 interviews conducted across four mangrove sites, and combining these with information on fish catches taken at three landing sites, a mangrove carbon trading project and published data allowed us to make a thorough (although still partial) economic valuation of the forests. This gave a current value of the South Coast mangroves of USD 6.5 million, or USD 1166 ha(-1), with 59% of this value on average derived from regulating services. Quantitative risk mapping, projecting recent trends over the next twenty years, suggests a 43% loss of forest cover over that time with 100% loss at the most vulnerable sites. Much of the forest lost between 1992 and 2012 has not been replaced by high value alternative land uses hence restoration of these areas is feasible and may not involve large opportunity costs. We invited thirty eight stakeholders to develop plausible storyline scenarios reflecting Business as Usual (BAU) and CCD - which emphasises sustainable forest conservation and management - in twenty years time, drawing on local and regional expert knowledge of relevant policy, social trends and cultures. Combining these scenarios with

  14. Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Data Release Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Conrow, T.; Bauer, J.; Benford, D.; Brandenburg, H.; Dailey, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Evans, T.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Fowler, J.; Gelino, C.; Grillmair, C.; Harbut, M.; Hoffman, D.; Jarrett, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Leisawitz, D.; Liu, W.; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, K.; Masci, F.; McCallon, H.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M. E.; Royer, D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Stanford, S. A.; Wyatt, P. L.; Tholen, D.; Tsai, C. W.; Wachter, S.; Wheelock, S. L.; Yan, L.; Alles, R.; Beck, R.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; McCollum, B.; McGehee, P.; Papin, M.; Wittman, M.

    2012-03-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) surveyed the entire sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns in 2010, achieving 5-sigma point source sensitivities per band better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic. The WISE All-Sky Data Release, conducted on March 14, 2012, incorporates all data taken during the full cryogenic mission phase, 7 January 2010 to 6 August 2010, that were processed with improved calibrations and reduction algorithms. Release data products include: (1) an Atlas of 18,240 match-filtered, calibrated and coadded image sets; (2) a Source Catalog containing positions and four-band photometry for over 563 million objects, and (3) an Explanatory Supplement. Ancillary products include a Reject Table that contains 284 million detections that were not selected for the Source Catalog because they are low signal-to-noise ratio or spurious detections of image artifacts, an archive of over 1.5 million sets of calibrated WISE Single-exposure images, and a database of 9.4 billion source extractions from those single-images, and moving object tracklets identified by the NEOWISE program (Mainzer et al. 2011). The WISE All-Sky Data Release products supersede those from the WISE Preliminary Data Release (Cutri et al. 2011). The Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the WISE data. The Supplement contains an overview of the WISE mission, facilities, and operations, a detailed description of WISE data processing algorithms, a guide to the content and formats of the image and tabular data products, and cautionary notes that describe known limitations of the All-Sky Release products. Instructions for accessing the WISE data products via the services of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive are provided. The Supplement also provides analyses of the achieved sky coverage, photometric and astrometric characteristics and completeness and reliability of the All

  15. Decadal Climate Information Needs of Stakeholders for Decision Support in Water and Agriculture Production Sectors: A Case Study in the Missouri River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, V. M.; Knutson, C.; Rosenberg, N.

    2012-12-01

    Many decadal climate prediction efforts have been initiated under the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. There is considerable ongoing discussion about model deficiencies, initialization techniques, and data requirements, but not much attention is being given to decadal climate information (DCI) needs of stakeholders for decision support. We report the results of exploratory activities undertaken to assess DCI needs in water resources and agriculture sectors, using the Missouri River Basin (the Basin) as a case study. This assessment was achieved through discussions with 120 representative stakeholders. Stakeholders' awareness of decadal dry and wet spells and their societal impacts in the Basin is established; and stakeholders' DCI needs and potential barriers to their use of DCI are enumerated. We find that impacts, including economic impacts, of DCV on water and agricultural production in the Basin are distinctly identifiable and characterizable. Stakeholders have clear notions about their needs for DCI and have offered specific suggestions as to how these might be met. But, while stakeholders are eager to have climate information, including decadal climate outlooks (DCOs), there are many barriers to the use of such information. The first and foremost is that the credibility of DCOs is yet to be established. Secondly, the nature of institutional rules and regulations, laws, and legal precedents that pose obstacles to the use of DCOs must be better understood and means to modify these, where possible, must be sought. For the benefit of climate scientists, these and other stakeholder needs will also be articulated in this talk. We are engaged in a project to assess simulation and hindcast skills of DCV phenomena and their associations with hydro-meteorological variability in the Basin in the HadCM3, GFDL-CM2.1, NCAR CCSM4, and MIROC5 global coupled models participating in the WCRP's CMIP5 project. Results from this project

  16. Impacts of Climate and Land-cover Changes on Water Resources in a Humid Subtropical Watershed: a Case Study from East Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates an interconnected system of climate change - land cover - water resources for a watershed in humid subtropical climate from 1970 to 2009. A 0.7°C increase in temperature and a 16.3% increase in precipitation were observed in our study area where temperature had no obvious increase trend and precipitation showed definite increasing trend compared to previous studies. The main trend of land-cover change was conversion of vegetation and barren lands to developed and crop lands affected by human intervention, and forest and grass to bush/shrub which considered to be caused by natural climate system. Precipitation contribution to the other hydrologic parameters for a humid subtropical basin is estimated to be 51.9% of evapotranspiration, 16.3% of surface runoff, 0.9% of groundwater discharge, 19.3% of soil water content, and 11.6% of water storage. It shows little higher evapotranspiration and considerably lower surface runoff compare to other humid climate area due to vegetation dominance of land cover. Hydrologic responses to climate and land cover changes are increases of surface runoff, soil water content, evapotranspiration by 15.0%, 2.7%, and 20.1%, respectively, and decrease of groundwater discharge decreased by 9.2%. Surface runoff is relatively stable with precipitation while groundwater discharge and soil water content are sensitive to land cover changes especially human intervention. If temperature is relatively stable, it is considered to be land cover plays important role in evapotranspiration. Citation: Heo, J., J. Yu, J. R. Giardino, and H. Cho (2015), Impacts of climate and land-cover changes on water resources in a humid subtropical watershed: a case study from East Texas, USA, Water Environ. J., 29, doi:10.1111/wej.12096

  17. Do choosing wisely tools meet criteria for patient decision aids? A descriptive analysis of patient materials

    PubMed Central

    Légaré, France; Hébert, Jessica; Goh, Larissa; Lewis, Krystina B; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Ester; Robitaille, Hubert; Stacey, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Choosing Wisely is a remarkable physician-led campaign to reduce unnecessary or harmful health services. Some of the literature identifies Choosing Wisely as a shared decision-making approach. We evaluated the patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada to determine whether they meet the criteria for shared decision-making tools known as patient decision aids. Design Descriptive analysis of all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials. Data source In May 2015, we selected all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials from its official website. Main outcomes and measures Four team members independently extracted characteristics of the English materials using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) modified 16-item minimum criteria for qualifying and certifying patient decision aids. The research team discussed discrepancies between data extractors and reached a consensus. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of the 24 patient materials assessed, 12 were about treatments, 11 were about screening and 1 was about prevention. The median score for patient materials using IPDAS criteria was 10/16 (range: 8–11) for screening topics and 6/12 (range: 6–9) for prevention and treatment topics. Commonly missed criteria were stating the decision (21/24 did not), providing balanced information on option benefits/harms (24/24 did not), citing evidence (24/24 did not) and updating policy (24/24 did not). Out of 24 patient materials, only 2 met the 6 IPDAS criteria to qualify as patient decision aids, and neither of these 2 met the 6 certifying criteria. Conclusions Patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada do not meet the IPDAS minimal qualifying or certifying criteria for patient decision aids. Modifications to the Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials would help to ensure that they qualify as patient decision aids and thus as more effective shared decision-making tools. PMID:27566638

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The AllWISE motion survey (AllWISE2) (Kirkpatrick+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Kellogg, K.; Schneider, A. C.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Cushing, M. C.; Greco, J.; Mace, G. N.; Gelino, C. R.; Wright, E. L.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Stern, D.; Faherty, J. K.; Sheppard, S. S.; Lansbury, G. B.; Logsdon, S. E.; Martin, E. C.; McLean, I. S.; Schurr, S. D.; Cutri, R. M.; Conrow, T.

    2016-07-01

    Observations for the spectroscopic follow-up of interesting AllWISE sources are listed in Table 4. Optical follow-up was conducted with the Palomar/Double Spectrograph on the Hale 5m telescope on Palomar Mountain, California, as our primary optical spectrograph in the northern hemisphere. It was used during the UT nights of 2014 January 26, February 23/24, April 22, June 25/26, July 21, September 27, October 24, and November 15 as well as 2015 June 08, September 07, and December 10. The Boller & Chivens Spectrograph (BCSpec) on the 2.5m Irenee duPont telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, served as our primary optical spectrograph in the southern hemisphere and was used on the UT nights of 2014 April 30, May 01-04, and November 16-20. Spectra of 10 objects were obtained on the UT nights of 2014 July 03-04 and 2015 December 07-10 at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 3.58m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla, Chile. Spectra of seven objects were obtained on the UT nights of 2014 June 26, 2015 August 13, and 2015 December 05 with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) at the 10m W. M. Keck Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. SpeX on the NASA 3m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, served as our primary near-infrared spectrograph in the northern hemisphere. The UT dates of observation were 2014 November 11 and 2015 January 27, May 08-09, June 27, July 03-05, and July 20. The Folded-port Infrared Echellette (FIRE) at the 6.5m Walter Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, served as our primary near-infrared spectrograph in the southern hemisphere. The UT dates of observation were 2014 August 07-09, 2015 February 08, and 2015 May 31. Several sources were also observed with the Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSPEC) at the 10m W. M. Keck Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The observation dates were UT 2014 April 12 and December 03, and 2015 July 03 and July 11. (9 data files).

  19. Predicting the impacts of climate change on a globally distributed species: the case of the loggerhead turtle.

    PubMed

    Witt, M J; Hawkes, L A; Godfrey, M H; Godley, B J; Broderick, A C

    2010-03-15

    Marine turtles utilise terrestrial and marine habitats and several aspects of their life history are tied to environmental features that are altering due to rapid climate change. We overview the likely impacts of climate change on the biology of these species, which are likely centred upon the thermal ecology of this taxonomic group. Then, focusing in detail on three decades of research on the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta L.), we describe how much progress has been made to date and how future experimental and ecological focus should be directed. Key questions include: what are the current hatchling sex ratios from which to measure future climate-induced changes? What are wild adult sex ratios and how many males are necessary to maintain a fertile and productive population? How will climate change affect turtles in terms of their distribution?

  20. Electricity Consumption Risk Map - The use of Urban Climate Mapping for smarter analysis: Case study for Birmingham, UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes Azevedo, Juliana; Burghardt, René; Chapman, Lee; Katzchner, Lutz; Muller, Catherine L.

    2015-04-01

    Climate is a key driving factor in energy consumption. However, income, vegetation, building mass structure, topography also impact on the amount of energy consumption. In a changing climate, increased temperatures are likely to lead to increased electricity consumption, affecting demand, distribution and generation. Furthermore, as the world population becomes more urbanized, increasing numbers of people will need to deal with not only increased temperatures from climate change, but also from the unintentional modification of the urban climate in the form of urban heat islands. Hence, climate and climate change needs to be taken into account for future urban planning aspects to increase the climate and energy resilience of the community and decrease the future social and economic costs. Geographical Information Systems provide a means to create urban climate maps as part of the urban planning process. Geostatistical analyses linking these maps with demographic and social data, enables a geo-statistical analysis to identify linkages to high-risk groups of the community and vulnerable areas of town and cities. Presently, the climatope classification is oriented towards thermal aspects and the ventilation quality (roughness) of the urban areas but can also be adapted to take into account other structural "environmental factors". This study aims to use the climatope approach to predict areas of potential high electricity consumption in Birmingham, UK. Several datasets were used to produce an average surface temperature map, vegetation map, land use map, topography map, building height map, built-up area roughness calculations, an average air temperature map and a domestic electricity consumption map. From the correlations obtained between the layers it is possible to average the importance of each factor and create a map for domestic electricity consumption to understand the influence of environmental aspects on spatial energy consumption. Based on these results city

  1. Assessing climate change impacts on wetlands in a flow regulated catchment: A case study in the Macquarie Marshes, Australia.

    PubMed

    Fu, Baihua; Pollino, Carmel A; Cuddy, Susan M; Andrews, Felix

    2015-07-01

    Globally wetlands are increasingly under threat due to changes in water regimes as a result of river regulation and climate change. We developed the Exploring CLimAte Impacts on Management (EXCLAIM) decision support system (DSS), which simulates flow-driven habitat condition for 16 vegetation species, 13 waterbird species and 4 fish groups in the Macquarie catchment, Australia. The EXCLAIM DSS estimates impacts to habitat condition, considering scenarios of climate change and water management. The model framework underlying the DSS is a probabilistic Bayesian network, and this approach was chosen to explicitly represent uncertainties in climate change scenarios and predicted ecological outcomes. The results suggest that the scenario with no climate change and no water resource development (i.e. flow condition without dams, weirs or water license entitlements, often regarded as a surrogate for 'natural' flow) consistently has the most beneficial outcomes for vegetation, waterbird and native fish. The 2030 dry climate change scenario delivers the poorest ecological outcomes overall, whereas the 2030 wet climate change scenario has beneficial outcomes for waterbird breeding, but delivers poor outcomes for river red gum and black box woodlands, and fish that prefer river channels as habitats. A formal evaluation of the waterbird breeding model showed that higher numbers of observed nest counts are typically associated with higher modelled average breeding habitat conditions. The EXCLAIM DSS provides a generic framework to link hydrology and ecological habitats for a large number of species, based on best available knowledge of their flood requirements. It is a starting point towards developing an integrated tool for assessing climate change impacts on wetland ecosystems.

  2. The ecology of Anopheles mosquitoes under climate change: case studies from the effects of deforestation in East African highlands.

    PubMed

    Afrane, Yaw A; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2012-02-01

    Climate change is expected to lead to latitudinal and altitudinal temperature increases. High-elevation regions such as the highlands of Africa and those that have temperate climate are most likely to be affected. The highlands of Africa generally exhibit low ambient temperatures. This restricts the distribution of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of malaria, filariasis, and O'nyong'nyong fever. The development and survival of larval and adult mosquitoes are temperature dependent, as are mosquito biting frequency and pathogen development rate. Given that various Anopheles species are adapted to different climatic conditions, changes in climate could lead to changes in species composition in an area that may change the dynamics of mosquito-borne disease transmission. It is important to consider the effect of climate change on rainfall, which is critical to the formation and persistence of mosquito breeding sites. In addition, environmental changes such as deforestation could increase local temperatures in the highlands; this could enhance the vectorial capacity of the Anopheles. These experimental data will be invaluable in facilitating the understanding of the impact of climate change on Anopheles.

  3. Recovery of coastal ecosystems after large tsunamis in various climatic zones - review of cases from tropical, temperate and polar zones (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczucinski, W.

    2013-12-01

    Large tsunamis cause significant changes in coastal ecosystems. They include modifications in shoreline position, sediment erosion and deposition, new initial soil formation, salination of soils and waters, removal of vegetation, as well as direct impact on humans and infrastructure. The processes and rate of coastal zone recovery from large tsunamis has been little studied but during the last decade a noteworthy progress has been made. This study focus on comparison of recovery processes in various climatic zones, namely in monsoonal-tropical, temperate and polar zone. It is based on own observation and monitoring in areas affected by 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Thailand, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in Japan and 2000 Paatuut landslide-generated tsunami in Vaigat Strait (west Greenland), as well as on review of published studies from those areas. The particular focus is on physical and biological recoveries of beaches, recovery of coastal vegetation, new soil formation in eroded areas and those covered by tsunami deposits, marine salt removal from soils, surface- and groundwater, as well as landscape adjustment after the tsunamis. The beach zone - typically the most tsunami-eroded zone, has been recovered already within weeks to months and has been observed to be in the pre-tsunami equilibrium stage within one year in all the climate zones, except for sediment-starved environments. The existing data on beach ecosystems point also to relatively fast recovery of meio- and macrofauna (within weeks to several months). The recovery of coastal vegetation depends on the rate of salt removal from soils or on the rate of soil formation in case of its erosion or burial by tsunami deposits. The salt removal have been observed to depend mainly on precipitation and effective water drainage. In tropical climate with seasonal rainfall of more 3000 mm the salt removal was fast, however, in temperate climate with lower precipitation and flat topography the salinities still exceeded

  4. Climate and the Timing of Imported Cases as Determinants of the Dengue Outbreak in Guangzhou, 2014: Evidence from a Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Robert C.; Marshall, John M.; Yang, Zhicong; Gong, Peng

    2016-01-01

    As the world’s fastest spreading vector-borne disease, dengue was estimated to infect more than 390 million people in 2010, a 30-fold increase in the past half century. Although considered to be a non-endemic country, mainland China had 55,114 reported dengue cases from 2005 to 2014, of which 47,056 occurred in 2014. Furthermore, 94% of the indigenous cases in this time period were reported in Guangdong Province, 83% of which were in Guangzhou City. In order to determine the possible determinants of the unprecedented outbreak in 2014, a population-based deterministic model was developed to describe dengue transmission dynamics in Guangzhou. Regional sensitivity analysis (RSA) was adopted to calibrate the model and entomological surveillance data was used to validate the mosquito submodel. Different scenarios were created to investigate the roles of the timing of an imported case, climate, vertical transmission from mosquitoes to their offspring, and intervention. The results suggested that an early imported case was the most important factor in determining the 2014 outbreak characteristics. Precipitation and temperature can also change the transmission dynamics. Extraordinary high precipitation in May and August, 2014 appears to have increased vector abundance. Considering the relatively small number of cases in 2013, the effect of vertical transmission was less important. The earlier and more frequent intervention in 2014 also appeared to be effective. If the intervention in 2014 was the same as that in 2013, the outbreak size may have been over an order of magnitude higher than the observed number of new cases in 2014.The early date of the first imported and locally transmitted case was largely responsible for the outbreak in 2014, but it was influenced by intervention, climate and vertical transmission. Early detection and response to imported cases in the spring and early summer is crucial to avoid large outbreaks in the future. PMID:26863623

  5. Climate and the Timing of Imported Cases as Determinants of the Dengue Outbreak in Guangzhou, 2014: Evidence from a Mathematical Model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qu; Jing, Qinlong; Spear, Robert C; Marshall, John M; Yang, Zhicong; Gong, Peng

    2016-02-01

    As the world's fastest spreading vector-borne disease, dengue was estimated to infect more than 390 million people in 2010, a 30-fold increase in the past half century. Although considered to be a non-endemic country, mainland China had 55,114 reported dengue cases from 2005 to 2014, of which 47,056 occurred in 2014. Furthermore, 94% of the indigenous cases in this time period were reported in Guangdong Province, 83% of which were in Guangzhou City. In order to determine the possible determinants of the unprecedented outbreak in 2014, a population-based deterministic model was developed to describe dengue transmission dynamics in Guangzhou. Regional sensitivity analysis (RSA) was adopted to calibrate the model and entomological surveillance data was used to validate the mosquito submodel. Different scenarios were created to investigate the roles of the timing of an imported case, climate, vertical transmission from mosquitoes to their offspring, and intervention. The results suggested that an early imported case was the most important factor in determining the 2014 outbreak characteristics. Precipitation and temperature can also change the transmission dynamics. Extraordinary high precipitation in May and August, 2014 appears to have increased vector abundance. Considering the relatively small number of cases in 2013, the effect of vertical transmission was less important. The earlier and more frequent intervention in 2014 also appeared to be effective. If the intervention in 2014 was the same as that in 2013, the outbreak size may have been over an order of magnitude higher than the observed number of new cases in 2014.The early date of the first imported and locally transmitted case was largely responsible for the outbreak in 2014, but it was influenced by intervention, climate and vertical transmission. Early detection and response to imported cases in the spring and early summer is crucial to avoid large outbreaks in the future.

  6. Climate and the Timing of Imported Cases as Determinants of the Dengue Outbreak in Guangzhou, 2014: Evidence from a Mathematical Model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qu; Jing, Qinlong; Spear, Robert C; Marshall, John M; Yang, Zhicong; Gong, Peng

    2016-02-01

    As the world's fastest spreading vector-borne disease, dengue was estimated to infect more than 390 million people in 2010, a 30-fold increase in the past half century. Although considered to be a non-endemic country, mainland China had 55,114 reported dengue cases from 2005 to 2014, of which 47,056 occurred in 2014. Furthermore, 94% of the indigenous cases in this time period were reported in Guangdong Province, 83% of which were in Guangzhou City. In order to determine the possible determinants of the unprecedented outbreak in 2014, a population-based deterministic model was developed to describe dengue transmission dynamics in Guangzhou. Regional sensitivity analysis (RSA) was adopted to calibrate the model and entomological surveillance data was used to validate the mosquito submodel. Different scenarios were created to investigate the roles of the timing of an imported case, climate, vertical transmission from mosquitoes to their offspring, and intervention. The results suggested that an early imported case was the most important factor in determining the 2014 outbreak characteristics. Precipitation and temperature can also change the transmission dynamics. Extraordinary high precipitation in May and August, 2014 appears to have increased vector abundance. Considering the relatively small number of cases in 2013, the effect of vertical transmission was less important. The earlier and more frequent intervention in 2014 also appeared to be effective. If the intervention in 2014 was the same as that in 2013, the outbreak size may have been over an order of magnitude higher than the observed number of new cases in 2014.The early date of the first imported and locally transmitted case was largely responsible for the outbreak in 2014, but it was influenced by intervention, climate and vertical transmission. Early detection and response to imported cases in the spring and early summer is crucial to avoid large outbreaks in the future. PMID:26863623

  7. DNA barcodes and species distribution models evaluate threats of global climate changes to genetic diversity: a case study from Nanorana parkeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-wei; Zhang, Bao-lin; Chen, Hong-man; Jin, Jie-qiong; Yang, Jun-xiao; Wang, Yun-yu; Jiang, Ke; Murphy, Robert W; Zhang, Ya-ping; Che, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic global climate changes are one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Distribution modeling can predict the effects of climate changes and potentially their effects on genetic diversity. DNA barcoding quickly identifies patterns of genetic diversity. As a case study, we use DNA barcodes and distribution models to predict threats under climate changes in the frog Nanorana parkeri, which is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Barcoding identifies major lineages W and E. Lineage W has a single origin in a refugium and Lineage E derives from three refugia. All refugia locate in river valleys and each greatly contributes to the current level of intraspecific genetic diversity. Species distribution models suggest that global climate changes will greatly influence N. parkeri, especially in the level of genetic diversity, because two former refugia will fail to provide suitable habitat. Our pipeline provides a novel application of DNA barcoding and has important implications for the conservation of biodiversity in southern areas of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  8. Climate impacts on environmental risks evaluated from space: a contribution to social benefits within the GEOSS Health Area: The case of Rift Valley Fever in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourre, Y. M.

    2009-12-01

    Climate and environment vary on many spatio-temporal scales, including climate change, with impacts on ecosystems, vector-borne diseases and public health worldwide. This study is to enable societal benefits from a conceptual approach by mapping climatic and environmental conditions from space and understanding the mechanisms within the Health Social Benefit GEOSS area. The case study is for Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in Senegal is presented. Ponds contributing to mosquitoes’ thriving, were identified from remote sensing using high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite images. Additional data on ponds’ dynamics and rainfall events (obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) were combined with hydrological in-situ data. Localization of vulnerable hosts such as parked cattle (from QuickBird satellite) are also used. Dynamic spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes vexans density (one of the main RVF vectors) is based on the total rainfall amount and ponds’ dynamics. While Zones Potentially Occupied by Mosquitoes (ZPOM) are mapped, detailed risks areas, i.e. zones where hazards and vulnerability occur, are expressed in percentages of parks where cattle is potentially exposed to mosquitoes’ bites. This new conceptual approach, using remote-sensing techniques belonging to GEOSS, simply relies upon rainfall distribution also evaluated from space. It is meant to contribute to the implementation of integrated operational early warning system within the health application communities since climatic and environmental conditions (both natural and anthropogenic) are changing rapidly.

  9. Screening regional management options for their impact on climate resilience: an approach and case study in the Venen-Vechtstreek wetlands in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wardekker, J A; Wildschut, D; Stemberger, S; van der Sluijs, J P

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater systems provide various resources and services. These are often vulnerable to climate change and other pressures. Therefore, enhancing resilience to climate change is important for their long term viability. This paper explores how management options can be evaluated on their resilience implications. The approach included five steps: (1) characterizing the system, (2) characterizing the impacts of climate change and other disturbances, (3) inventorying management options, (4) assessing the impacts of these on climate resilience, and (5) follow-up analysis. For the resilience assessment, we used a set of 'resilience principles': homeostasis, omnivory, high flux, flatness, buffering, and redundancy. We applied the approach in a case study in a Dutch wetlands region. Many options in the region's management plan contribute to resilience, however, the plan underutilised several principles, particularly flatness, but also redundancy and omnivory for agriculture, and high flux for nature. Co-benefits was identified as an important additional criterion to obtain support for adaptation from local stakeholders, such as farmers. The approach provided a relatively quick and participatory way to screen options. It allowed us to consider multiple impacts and sectors, multiple dimensions of resilience, and stakeholder perspectives. The results can be used to identify gaps or pitfalls, and set priorities for follow-up analyses. PMID:27386233

  10. Screening regional management options for their impact on climate resilience: an approach and case study in the Venen-Vechtstreek wetlands in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wardekker, J A; Wildschut, D; Stemberger, S; van der Sluijs, J P

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater systems provide various resources and services. These are often vulnerable to climate change and other pressures. Therefore, enhancing resilience to climate change is important for their long term viability. This paper explores how management options can be evaluated on their resilience implications. The approach included five steps: (1) characterizing the system, (2) characterizing the impacts of climate change and other disturbances, (3) inventorying management options, (4) assessing the impacts of these on climate resilience, and (5) follow-up analysis. For the resilience assessment, we used a set of 'resilience principles': homeostasis, omnivory, high flux, flatness, buffering, and redundancy. We applied the approach in a case study in a Dutch wetlands region. Many options in the region's management plan contribute to resilience, however, the plan underutilised several principles, particularly flatness, but also redundancy and omnivory for agriculture, and high flux for nature. Co-benefits was identified as an important additional criterion to obtain support for adaptation from local stakeholders, such as farmers. The approach provided a relatively quick and participatory way to screen options. It allowed us to consider multiple impacts and sectors, multiple dimensions of resilience, and stakeholder perspectives. The results can be used to identify gaps or pitfalls, and set priorities for follow-up analyses.

  11. Sifting planetary mass objects at the limits of the WISE survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinfield, David James; Leggett, Sandy; Gromadzki, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    Large scale infrared imaging surveys have facilitated the discovery of sub-stellar objects in the field and as wide companions, with mass down to a few Jupiters and Teff as low as ~250K. This population may have diverse origins with formation in both circumstellar and interstellar environments, with much work still needed to properly understand the "brown dwarf-exoplanet connection". The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is currently providing the greatest sensitivity to free-floating planetary mass objects, and has revealed a new classification that covers "habitable zone" temperatures - the Y dwarfs. WISE scans the sky in a way that yields time-domain as well as colour/brightness/morphology information, and offers an expanded opportunity to discriminate between genuine sources and noise signatures near the survey limits, as well as scope to reveal very high proper motion objects in the solar neighbourhood. I have developed a Bayesian search methodology to identify the coolest faintest objects in WISE, from within the reservoir of faint contamination and noise signals. I define multi-parameter probability distributions using controlled sampling of the AllWISE database. The coolest sub-stellar objects are detected in the WISE W2 band, but are un-detected at W1, so my analysis prioritises sources that display source-like and noise-like properties respectively in these two bands. I will review the followup observations that allow me to confirm or reject candidate Y dwarfs, and present recent discoveries from the programme.

  12. Candidate Very-Low-Mass Companions to Nearby Stars Found in the WISE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennen, Anne; Dutcher, D.; Lepine, S.; Faherty, J.

    2012-01-01

    We report the identification in the Wide-Field Survey Explorer (WISE) preliminary release of 36 probable very-low-mass companions to nearby stars from the SUPERBLINK proper motion catalogue. We examined all WISE sources within one arcminute of a subset of 156,000 SUPERBLINK stars with proper motions between 0.040 and 0.015 seconds of arc per year, photometric distances within 100 parsecs, and positions at least seven degrees from the galactic plane. Using proper motions calculated by comparing the WISE positions of the sources to those of their counterparts in the 2MASS Catalogue, we identified all WISE sources sharing a common proper motion with the SUPERBLINK star. We eliminated all sources detected in the Palomar Sky Survey blue plates, keeping only those red enough to be low-mass or brown dwarf companions. We used WISE and 2MASS colors to select only objects consistent with being M, L, or T dwarfs, leaving only 36 likely companions. Based on their color and assumed distances, we estimate the 36 low-mass companions to be either late M or early L dwarfs. Follow-up spectroscopic observations will be required for confirmation and formal spectral classification of the companions. We acknowledge the American Museum of Natural History and the National Science Foundation for their support.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WISE Preliminary Data Release (Cutri+ 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; et al.

    2012-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; see Wright et al. 2010AJ....140.1868W) is a NASA Medium Class Explorer mission that conducted a digital imaging survey of the entire sky in the 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22um mid-infrared bandpasses (hereafter W1, W2, W3 and W4). WISE will produce and release to the world astronomical and educational communities and general public a digital Image Atlas covering the sky in the four survey bands, and a reliable Source Catalog containing accurate photometry and astrometry for over 300 million objects. The WISE Catalog and Atlas will enable a broad variety of research efforts ranging from the search for the closest stars and brown dwarfs to the most luminous galaxies in the Universe. WISE science data products will serve as an important reference data set for planning observations and interpreting data obtained with future ground and space-borne observatories, such as JWST. WISE was launched on 2009-12-14 from Vandenberg SLC2W. (1 data file).

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AllWISE Data Release (Cutri+ 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; see Wright et al. 2010AJ....140.1868W) is a NASA Medium Class Explorer mission that conducted a digital imaging survey of the entire sky in the 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22um mid-infrared bandpasses (hereafter W1, W2, W3 and W4). The AllWISE program extends the work of the successful Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission by combining data from the cryogenic and post-cryogenic survey phases to form the most comprehensive view of the mid-infrared sky currently available. AllWISE has produced a new Source Catalog and Image Atlas with enhanced sensitivity and accuracy compared with earlier WISE data releases. Advanced data processing for AllWISE exploits the two complete sky coverages to measure source motions for each Catalog source, and to compile a massive database of light curves for those objects. (1 data file).

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AllWISE Data Release (Cutri+ 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; et al.

    2013-11-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; see Wright et al. 2010AJ....140.1868W) is a NASA Medium Class Explorer mission that conducted a digital imaging survey of the entire sky in the 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22um mid-infrared bandpasses (hereafter W1, W2, W3 and W4). The AllWISE program extends the work of the successful Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission by combining data from the cryogenic and post-cryogenic survey phases to form the most comprehensive view of the mid-infrared sky currently available. AllWISE has produced a new Source Catalog and Image Atlas with enhanced sensitivity and accuracy compared with earlier WISE data releases. Advanced data processing for AllWISE exploits the two complete sky coverages to measure source motions for each Catalog source, and to compile a massive database of light curves for those objects. (1 data file).

  16. Plasticity in functional traits in the context of climate change: a case study of the subalpine forb Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jill T; Gezon, Zachariah J

    2015-04-01

    Environmental variation often induces shifts in functional traits, yet we know little about whether plasticity will reduce extinction risks under climate change. As climate change proceeds, phenotypic plasticity could enable species with limited dispersal capacity to persist in situ, and migrating populations of other species to establish in new sites at higher elevations or latitudes. Alternatively, climate change could induce maladaptive plasticity, reducing fitness, and potentially stalling adaptation and migration. Here, we quantified plasticity in life history, foliar morphology, and ecophysiology in Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae), a perennial forb native to the Rocky Mountains. In this region, warming winters are reducing snowpack and warming springs are advancing the timing of snow melt. We hypothesized that traits that were historically advantageous in hot and dry, low-elevation locations will be favored at higher elevation sites due to climate change. To test this hypothesis, we quantified trait variation in natural populations across an elevational gradient. We then estimated plasticity and genetic variation in common gardens at two elevations. Finally, we tested whether climatic manipulations induce plasticity, with the prediction that plants exposed to early snow removal would resemble individuals from lower elevation populations. In natural populations, foliar morphology and ecophysiology varied with elevation in the predicted directions. In the common gardens, trait plasticity was generally concordant with phenotypic clines from the natural populations. Experimental snow removal advanced flowering phenology by 7 days, which is similar in magnitude to flowering time shifts over 2-3 decades of climate change. Therefore, snow manipulations in this system can be used to predict eco-evolutionary responses to global change. Snow removal also altered foliar morphology, but in unexpected ways. Extensive plasticity could buffer against immediate fitness

  17. Plasticity in functional traits in the context of climate change: a case study of the subalpine forb Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jill T; Gezon, Zachariah J

    2015-04-01

    Environmental variation often induces shifts in functional traits, yet we know little about whether plasticity will reduce extinction risks under climate change. As climate change proceeds, phenotypic plasticity could enable species with limited dispersal capacity to persist in situ, and migrating populations of other species to establish in new sites at higher elevations or latitudes. Alternatively, climate change could induce maladaptive plasticity, reducing fitness, and potentially stalling adaptation and migration. Here, we quantified plasticity in life history, foliar morphology, and ecophysiology in Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae), a perennial forb native to the Rocky Mountains. In this region, warming winters are reducing snowpack and warming springs are advancing the timing of snow melt. We hypothesized that traits that were historically advantageous in hot and dry, low-elevation locations will be favored at higher elevation sites due to climate change. To test this hypothesis, we quantified trait variation in natural populations across an elevational gradient. We then estimated plasticity and genetic variation in common gardens at two elevations. Finally, we tested whether climatic manipulations induce plasticity, with the prediction that plants exposed to early snow removal would resemble individuals from lower elevation populations. In natural populations, foliar morphology and ecophysiology varied with elevation in the predicted directions. In the common gardens, trait plasticity was generally concordant with phenotypic clines from the natural populations. Experimental snow removal advanced flowering phenology by 7 days, which is similar in magnitude to flowering time shifts over 2-3 decades of climate change. Therefore, snow manipulations in this system can be used to predict eco-evolutionary responses to global change. Snow removal also altered foliar morphology, but in unexpected ways. Extensive plasticity could buffer against immediate fitness

  18. Perception, experience, and indigenous knowledge of climate change and variability: the case of Accra, a sub-Saharan African city

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Codjoe, Samuel N.A.; Owusu, George; Burkett, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Several recent international assessments have concluded that climate change has the potential to reverse the modest economic gains achieved in many developing countries over the past decade. The phenomenon of climate change threatens to worsen poverty or burden populations with additional hardships, especially in poor societies with weak infrastructure and economic well-being. The importance of the perceptions, experiences, and knowledge of indigenous peoples has gained prominence in discussions of climate change and adaptation in developing countries and among international development organizations. Efforts to evaluate the role of indigenous knowledge in adaptation planning, however, have largely focused on rural people and their agricultural livelihoods. This paper presents the results of a study that examines perceptions, experiences, and indigenous knowledge relating to climate change and variability in three communities of metropolitan Accra, which is the capital of Ghana. The study design is based on a three-part conceptual framework and interview process involving risk mapping, mental models, and individual stressor cognition. Most of the residents interviewed in the three communities of urban Accra attributed climate change to the combination of deforestation and the burning of firewood and rubbish. None of the residents associated climate change with fossil fuel emissions from developed countries. Numerous potential adaptation strategies were suggested by the residents, many of which have been used effectively during past drought and flood events. Results suggest that ethnic residential clustering as well as strong community bonds in metropolitan Accra have allowed various groups and long-settled communities to engage in the sharing and transmission of knowledge of weather patterns and trends. Understanding and building upon indigenous knowledge may enhance the design, acceptance, and implementation of climate change adaptation strategies in Accra and

  19. Climate impacts on environmental risks evaluated from space: a conceptual approach to the case of Rift Valley Fever in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Tourre, Yves M.; Lacaux, Jean-Pierre; Vignolles, Cécile; Lafaye, Murielle

    2009-01-01

    Background Climate and environment vary across many spatio-temporal scales, including the concept of climate change, which impact on ecosystems, vector-borne diseases and public health worldwide. Objectives To develop a conceptual approach by mapping climatic and environmental conditions from space and studying their linkages with Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in Senegal. Design Ponds in which mosquitoes could thrive were identified from remote sensing using high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite images. Additional data on pond dynamics and rainfall events (obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) were combined with hydrological in-situ data. Localisation of vulnerable hosts such as penned cattle (from QuickBird satellite) were also used. Results Dynamic spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes vexans density (one of the main RVF vectors) is based on the total rainfall amount and ponds’ dynamics. While Zones Potentially Occupied by Mosquitoes are mapped, detailed risk areas, i.e. zones where hazards and vulnerability occur, are expressed in percentages of areas where cattle are potentially exposed to mosquitoes’ bites. Conclusions This new conceptual approach, using precise remote-sensing techniques, simply relies upon rainfall distribution also evaluated from space. It is meant to contribute to the implementation of operational early warning systems for RVF based on both natural and anthropogenic climatic and environmental changes. In a climate change context, this approach could also be applied to other vector-borne diseases and places worldwide. PMID:20052381

  20. Sixth-Grade Students' Progress in Understanding the Mechanisms of Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visintainer, Tammie; Linn, Marcia

    2015-04-01

    Developing solutions for complex issues such as global climate change requires an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This study reports on the impact of a technology-enhanced unit designed to improve understanding of global climate change, its mechanisms, and their relationship to everyday energy use. Global Climate Change, implemented in the Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE), engages sixth-grade students in conducting virtual investigations using NetLogo models to foster an understanding of core mechanisms including the greenhouse effect. Students then test how the greenhouse effect is enhanced by everyday energy use. This study draws on three data sources: (1) pre- and post-unit interviews, (2) analysis of embedded assessments following virtual investigations, and (3) contrasting cases of two students (normative vs. non-normative understanding of the greenhouse effect). Results show the value of using virtual investigations for teaching the mechanisms associated with global climate change. Interviews document that students hold a wide range of ideas about the mechanisms driving global climate change. Investigations with models help students use evidence-based reasoning to distinguish their ideas. Results show that understanding the greenhouse effect offers a foundation for building connections between everyday energy use and increases in global temperature. An impediment to establishing coherent understanding was the persistence of an alternative conception about ozone as an explanation for climate change. These findings illustrate the need for regular revision of curriculum based on classroom trials. We discuss key design features of models and instructional revisions that can transform the teaching and learning of global climate change.

  1. WISE Non-Detection of the AXP 4U 0142+61 at Mid-IR Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Wang, Z.

    2011-07-01

    Mid-IR imaging of the field of the anomalous X-ray pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 was carried out with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) between 2010 Feb. 3-7 at WISE bands 3.4, 4.6, 11.6, and 22.1 microns (Wright et al. 2010, ApJ, 140, 1868). We analyzed the four band images of the source field from the WISE preliminary data release (http://wise2.ipac.caltech.edu/docs/release/prelim/index.html).

  2. Potential role of vegetation feedback in the climate sensitivity of high-latitude regions: A case study at 6000 years B.P.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kutzbach, J.-E.; Bartlein, P.J.; Foley, J.A.; Harrison, S.P.; Hosteller, S.W.; Liu, Z.; Prentice, I.C.; Webb, T.

    1996-01-01

    Previous climate model simulations have shown that the configuration of the Earth's orbit during the early to mid-Holocene (approximately 10-5 kyr) can account for the generally warmer-than-present conditions experienced by the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere. New simulations for 6 kyr with two atmospheric/mixed-layer ocean models (Community Climate Model, version 1, CCM1, and Global ENvironmental and Ecological Simulation of Interactive Systems, version 2, GENESIS 2) are presented here and compared with results from two previous simulations with GENESIS 1 that were obtained with and without the albedo feedback due to climate-induced poleward expansion of the boreal forest. The climate model results are summarized in the form of potential vegetation maps obtained with the global BIOME model, which facilitates visual comparisons both among models and with pollen and plant macrofossil data recording shifts of the forest-tundra boundary. A preliminary synthesis shows that the forest limit was shifted 100-200 km north in most sectors. Both CCM1 and GENESIS 2 produced a shift of this magnitude. GENESIS 1 however produced too small a shift, except when the boreal forest albedo feedback was included. The feedback in this case was estimated to have amplified forest expansion by approximately 50%. The forest limit changes also show meridional patterns (greatest expansion in central Siberia and little or none in Alaska and Labrador) which have yet to be reproduced by models. Further progress in understanding of the processes involved in the response of climate and vegetation to orbital forcing will require both the deployment of coupled atmosphere-biosphere-ocean models and the development of more comprehensive observational data sets.

  3. Fourier analysis of cell-wise Block-Jacobi splitting in two-dimensional geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, Massimiliano; Warsa, James S; Kelley, Timothy M

    2009-01-01

    A Fourier analysis is conducted in two-dimensional (2D) geometry for the discrete-ordinates (SN) approximation of the neutron transport problem solved with Richardson iteration (Source Iteration) using the cell-wise Block-Jacobi (B1) algorithm. The results of the Fourier analysis show that convergence of cell-wise BJ can degrade, leading to a spectral radius equal to 1, in problems containing optically thin cells. For problems containing cells that are optically thick, instead, the spectral radius tends to O. Hence, in the optically thick-cell regime, cell-wise BJ is rapidly convergent even for problems that are scattering dominated, with a scattering ratio c close to I.

  4. BodyWise: evaluating a pilot body image group for patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Mountford, Victoria A; Brown, Amy; Bamford, Bryony; Saeidi, Saeideh; Morgan, John F; Lacey, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Body image disturbance can be enduring and distressing to individuals with eating disorders and effective treatments remain limited. This pilot study evaluated a group-based treatment-BodyWise-developed for use in full and partial hospitalization with patients with anorexia nervosa at low weight. A partial crossover waitlist design was used. BodyWise (N = 50) versus treatment as usual (N = 40) were compared on standardized measures of body image disturbance. Results demonstrated significant improvement in the group compared to treatment as usual for the primary outcome measure (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Shape Concern subscale) and other manifestations of body image disturbance including body checking and body image quality of life. BodyWise appeared acceptable to participants, and was easy to deliver within the pragmatics of a busy eating disorder service. There is potential for its wider dissemination as a precursor to more active body image interventions.

  5. Land use and management change under climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies: a U.S. case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mu, Jianhong E.; Wein, Anne; McCarl, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of crop management adaptation and climate mitigation strategies on land use and land management, plus on related environmental and economic outcomes. We find that crop management adaptation (e.g. crop mix, new species) increases Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 1.7 % under a more severe climate projection while a carbon price reduces total forest and agriculture GHG annual flux by 15 % and 9 %, respectively. This shows that trade-offs are likely between mitigation and adaptation. Climate change coupled with crop management adaptation has small and mostly negative effects on welfare; mitigation, which is implemented as a carbon price starting at $15 per metric ton carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent with a 5 % annual increase rate, bolsters welfare carbon payments. When both crop management adaptation and carbon price are implemented the effects of the latter dominates.

  6. Refining Climate Change Projections for Organisms with Low Dispersal Abilities: A Case Study of the Caspian Whip Snake

    PubMed Central

    Sahlean, Tiberiu C.; Gherghel, Iulian; Papeş, Monica; Strugariu, Alexandru; Zamfirescu, Ştefan R.

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is one of the most important threats to biodiversity. Ectothermic organisms such as amphibians and reptiles are especially vulnerable as climatic conditions affect them directly. Ecological niche models (ENMs) are increasingly popular in ecological studies, but several drawbacks exist, including the limited ability to account for the dispersal potential of the species. In this study, we use ENMs to explore the impact of global climate change on the Caspian whip snake (Dolichophis caspius) as model for organisms with low dispersal abilities and to quantify dispersal to novel areas using GIS techniques. Models generated using Maxent 3.3.3 k and GARP for current distribution were projected on future climatic scenarios. A cost-distance analysis was run in ArcGIS 10 using geomorphological features, ecological conditions, and human footprint as “costs” to dispersal of the species to obtain a Maximum Dispersal Range (MDR) estimate. All models developed were statistically significant (P<0.05) and recovered the currently known distribution of D. caspius. Models projected on future climatic conditions using Maxent predicted a doubling of suitable climatic area, while GARP predicted a more conservative expansion. Both models agreed on an expansion of suitable area northwards, with minor decreases at the southern distribution limit. The MDR area calculated using the Maxent model represented a third of the total area of the projected model. The MDR based on GARP models recovered only about 20% of the total area of the projected model. Thus, incorporating measures of species’ dispersal abilities greatly reduced estimated area of potential future distributions. PMID:24670422

  7. Multi crop model climate risk country-level management design: case study on the Tanzanian maize production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, E.

    2015-12-01

    Future climate projections indicate that a very serious consequence of post-industrial anthropogenic global warming is the likelihood of the greater frequency and intensity of extreme hydrometeorological events such as heat waves, droughts, storms, and floods. The design of national and international policies targeted at building more resilient and environmentally sustainable food systems needs to rely on access to robust and reliable data which is largely absent. In this context, the improvement of the modelling of current and future agricultural production losses using the unifying language of risk is paramount. In this study, we use a methodology that allows the integration of the current understanding of the various interacting systems of climate, agro-environment, crops, and the economy to determine short to long-term risk estimates of crop production loss, in different environmental, climate, and adaptation scenarios. This methodology is applied to Tanzania to assess optimum risk reduction and maize production increase paths in different climate scenarios. The simulations carried out use inputs from three different crop models (DSSAT, APSIM, WRSI) run in different technological scenarios and thus allowing to estimate crop model-driven risk exposure estimation bias. The results obtained also allow distinguishing different region-specific optimum climate risk reduction policies subject to historical as well as RCP2.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios. The region-specific risk profiles obtained provide a simple framework to determine cost-effective risk management policies for Tanzania and allow to optimally combine investments in risk reduction and risk transfer.

  8. Effects of crop growth and development on regional climate: a case study over East Asian monsoon area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Xie, Zhenghui

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the CERES phenological growth and development functions were implemented into the regional climate model, RegCM3 to give a model denoted as RegCM3_CERES. This model was used to represent interactions between regional climate and crop growth processes. The effects of crop growth and development processes on regional climate were then studied based on two 20-year simulations over the East Asian monsoon area conducted using the original regional climate model RegCM3, and the coupled RegCM3_CERES model. The numerical experiments revealed that incorporating the crop growth and development processes into the regional climate model reduced the root mean squared error of the simulated precipitation by 2.2-10.7% over north China, and the simulated temperature by 5.5-30.9% over the monsoon region in eastern China. Comparison of the simulated results obtained using RegCM3_CERES and RegCM3 showed that the most significant changes associated with crop modeling were the changes in leaf area index which in turn modify the aspects of surface energy and water partitions and lead to moderate changes in surface temperature and, to some extent, rainfall. Further analysis revealed that a robust representation of seasonal changes in plant growth and developmental processes in the regional climate model changed the surface heat and moisture fluxes by modifying the vegetation characteristics, and that these differences in simulated surface fluxes resulted in different structures of the boundary layer and ultimately affected the convection. The variations in leaf area index and fractional vegetation cover changed the distribution of evapotranspiration and heat fluxes, which could potentially lead to anomalies in geopotential height, and consequently influenced the overlying atmospheric circulation. These changes would result in redistribution of the water and energy through advection. Nevertheless, there are significant uncertainties in modeling how monsoon dynamics responds

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AllWISE motion survey (Kirkpatrick+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Schneider, A.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Gelino, C. R.; Mace, G. N.; Wright, E. L.; Logsdon, S. E.; McLean, I. S.; Cushing, M. C.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Stern, D.; Balokovic, M.; Burgasser, A. J.; Faherty, J. K.; Lansbury, G. B.; Rich, J. A.; Skrzypek, N.; Fowler, J. W.; Cutri, R. M.; Masci, F. J.; Conrow, T.; Grillmair, C. J.; McCallon, H. L.; Beichman, C. A.; Marsh, K. A.

    2016-05-01

    The AllWISE processing pipeline has measured motions for all objects detected on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) images taken between 2010 January and 2011 February. In this paper, we discuss new capabilities made to the software pipeline in order to make motion measurements possible, and we characterize the resulting data products for use by future researchers. Using a stringent set of selection criteria, we find 22445 objects that have significant AllWISE motions, of which 3525 have motions that can be independently confirmed from earlier Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) images, yet lack any published motions in SIMBAD. Another 58 sources lack 2MASS counterparts and are presented as motion candidates only. Limited spectroscopic follow-up of this list has already revealed eight new L subdwarfs. These may provide the first hints of a "subdwarf gap" at mid-L types that would indicate the break between the stellar and substellar populations at low metallicities (i.e., old ages). Another object in the motion list --WISEA J154045.67-510139.3-- is a bright (J~9mag) object of type M6; both the spectrophotometric distance and a crude preliminary parallax place it ~6pc from the Sun. We also compare our list of motion objects to the recently published list of 762 WISE motion objects from Luhman (2014, J/ApJ/781/4). While these first large motion studies with WISE data have been very successful in revealing previously overlooked nearby dwarfs, both studies missed objects that the other found, demonstrating that many other nearby objects likely await discovery in the AllWISE data products. (4 data files).

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WISE IR excesses for stars within 75pc (Patel+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, R. I.; Metchev, S. A.; Heinze, A.

    2014-06-01

    We present a sensitive search for WISE W3 (12μm) and W4 (22μm) excesses from warm optically thin dust around Hipparcos main sequence stars within 75pc from the Sun. We use contemporaneously measured photometry from WISE, remove sources of contamination, and derive and apply corrections to saturated fluxes to attain optimal sensitivity to >10μm excesses. We use data from the WISE All-Sky Survey Catalog rather than the AllWISE release because we find that its saturated photometry is better behaved, allowing us to detect small excesses even around saturated stars in WISE. Our new discoveries increase by 45% the number of stars with warm dusty excesses and expand the number of known debris disks (with excess at any wavelength) within 75pc by 29%. We identify 220 Hipparcos debris disk host stars, 108 of which are new detections at any wavelength. We present the first measurement of a 12μm and/or 22μm excess for 10 stars with previously known cold (50-100K) disks. We also find five new stars with small but significant W3 excesses, adding to the small population of known exozodi, and we detect evidence for a W2 excess around HIP 96562 (F2V), indicative of tenuous hot (780K) dust. As a result of our WISE study, the number of debris disks with known 10-30μm excesses within 75pc (379) has now surpassed the number of disks with known >30μm excesses (289, with 171 in common), even if the latter have been found to have a higher occurrence rate in unbiased samples. (3 data files).

  11. POWER-ENHANCED MULTIPLE DECISION FUNCTIONS CONTROLLING FAMILY-WISE ERROR AND FALSE DISCOVERY RATES

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Edsel A.; Habiger, Joshua D.; Wu, Wensong

    2014-01-01

    Improved procedures, in terms of smaller missed discovery rates (MDR), for performing multiple hypotheses testing with weak and strong control of the family-wise error rate (FWER) or the false discovery rate (FDR) are developed and studied. The improvement over existing procedures such as the Šidák procedure for FWER control and the Benjamini–Hochberg (BH) procedure for FDR control is achieved by exploiting possible differences in the powers of the individual tests. Results signal the need to take into account the powers of the individual tests and to have multiple hypotheses decision functions which are not limited to simply using the individual p-values, as is the case, for example, with the Šidák, Bonferroni, or BH procedures. They also enhance understanding of the role of the powers of individual tests, or more precisely the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) functions of decision processes, in the search for better multiple hypotheses testing procedures. A decision-theoretic framework is utilized, and through auxiliary randomizers the procedures could be used with discrete or mixed-type data or with rank-based nonparametric tests. This is in contrast to existing p-value based procedures whose theoretical validity is contingent on each of these p-value statistics being stochastically equal to or greater than a standard uniform variable under the null hypothesis. Proposed procedures are relevant in the analysis of high-dimensional “large M, small n” data sets arising in the natural, physical, medical, economic and social sciences, whose generation and creation is accelerated by advances in high-throughput technology, notably, but not limited to, microarray technology. PMID:25018568

  12. Thermal Intertias of Main-Belt Asteroids from Wise Thermal Infrared Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanus, Josef; Delbo', Marco; Durech, Josef; Alí-Lagoa, Victor

    2014-11-01

    By means of a modified thermophysical model (TPM) that takes into account asteroid shape and pole uncertainties, we analyze the thermal infrared data acquired by the NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) of about 300 asteroids with derived convex shape models. We adopt convex shape models from the DAMIT database (Durech et al., 2010, A&A 513, A46) and present new determinations based on optical disk-integrated photometry and the lightcurve inversion method (Kaasalainen & Torppa, 2001, Icarus 153, 37). This work more than double the number of asteroids with determined thermophysical properties. We also discuss cases in which shape uncertainties prevent the determination of reliable thermophysical properties. This is per-se a novel result, as the effect of shape has been often neglected in thermophysical modeling of asteroids.We also present the main results of the statistical study of derived thermophysical parameters within the whole population of MBAs and within few asteroid families. The thermal inertia increases with decreasing size, but a large range of thermal inertia values is observed within the similar size ranges between 10-100 km. Surprisingly, we derive low (<20J m^{-2} s^{-1/2} K^{-1}) thermal inertia values for several asteroids with sizes D>10 km, indicating a very fine and mature regolith on these small bodies. The work of JH and MD was carried under the contract 11-BS56-008 (SHOCKS) of the French Agence National de la Recherche (ANR), and JD has been supported by the grant GACR P209/10/0537 of the Czech Science Foundation.

  13. The "Wireless Sensor Networks for City-Wide Ambient Intelligence (WISE-WAI)" Project.

    PubMed

    Casari, Paolo; Castellani, Angelo P; Cenedese, Angelo; Lora, Claudio; Rossi, Michele; Schenato, Luca; Zorzi, Michele

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed technical overview of some of the activities carried out in the context of the "Wireless Sensor networks for city-Wide Ambient Intelligence (WISE-WAI)" project, funded by the Cassa di Risparmio di Padova e Rovigo Foundation, Italy. The main aim of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale wireless sensor network deployments, whereby tiny objects integrating one or more environmental sensors (humidity, temperature, light intensity), a microcontroller and a wireless transceiver are deployed over a large area, which in this case involves the buildings of the Department of Information Engineering at the University of Padova. We will describe how the network is organized to provide full-scale automated functions, and which services and applications it is configured to provide. These applications include long-term environmental monitoring, alarm event detection and propagation, single-sensor interrogation, localization and tracking of objects, assisted navigation, as well as fast data dissemination services to be used, e.g., to rapidly re-program all sensors over-the-air. The organization of such a large testbed requires notable efforts in terms of communication protocols and strategies, whose design must pursue scalability, energy efficiency (while sensors are connected through USB cables for logging and debugging purposes, most of them will be battery-operated), as well as the capability to support applications with diverse requirements. These efforts, the description of a subset of the results obtained so far, and of the final objectives to be met are the scope of the present paper. PMID:22408513

  14. A Second-Order Accurate, Component-Wise TVD Scheme for Nonlinear, Hyperbolic Conservation Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Heng; Liu, Yu-Ping

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, we present a two-step, component-wise TVD scheme for nonlinear, hyperbolic conservation laws, which is obtained by combining the schemes of Mac Cormack and Warming-Beam. The scheme does not necessitate the characteristic decompositions of the usual TVD schemes. It employs component-wise limiting; hence the programming is much simpler, especially for complicated coupled systems. For Euler systems of conservation laws, we found the scheme is two times faster in computation than the usual TVD schemes based on field-by-field decomposition limiting. A lot of numerical results show primarily the value of the new method.

  15. Properties of the solar neighbor WISE J072003.20-084651.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. D.; Vaisanen, P.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Beletsky, Y.; Mamajek, E. E.; Mužić, K.; Beamín, J. C.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Pourbaix, D.; Gandhi, P.; Gulbis, A.; Monaco, L.; Saviane, I.; Kurtev, R.; Mawet, D.; Borissova, J.; Minniti, D.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The severe crowding towards the Galactic plane suggests that the census of nearby stars in that direction may be incomplete. Recently, Scholz reported a new M9 object at an estimated distance d ≃ 7 pc (WISE J072003.20-084651.2; hereafter WISE J0720) at Galactic latitude b = 2.3°. Aims: Our goals are to determine the physical characteristics of WISE J0720, its kinematic properties, and to address the question of whether it is a binary object, as was suggested in the discovery paper. Methods: Optical and infrared spectroscopy from the Southern African Large Telescope and Magellan, respectively, and spectral energy distribution fitting were used to determine the spectral type of WISE J0720. The measured radial velocity, proper motion, and parallax yielded its Galactic velocities. We also investigated if WISE J0720 may show X-ray activity based on archival data. Results: Our spectra are consistent with spectral type L0±1. We find no evidence for binarity, apart from a minor 2σ level difference in the radial velocities taken at two different epochs. The spatial velocity of WISE J0720 does not connect it to any known moving group; instead, it places the object with high probability in the old thin disk or in the thick disk. The spectral energy distribution fit hints at excess in the 12 μm and 22 μm WISE bands which may be due to a redder companion, but the same excess is visible in other late-type objects, and it more likely implies a shortcoming of the models (e.g., problems with the effective wavelengths of the filters for these extremely cool objects, etc.) rather than a disk or redder companion. The optical spectrum shows some Hα emission, indicative of stellar activity. Archival X-ray observations yield no detection. Conclusions: WISE J0720 is a new member of the solar neighborhood, the third nearest L dwarf. Our data do not support the hypothesis of its binary nature. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), the

  16. The First Hundred Brown Dwarfs Discovered by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Michael C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Wright, Edward L.; Mainzer, Amanda K.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; McLean, Ian S.; Bauer, James M.; Benford, Dominic J.; Lake, Sean E.; Petty, Sara M.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Beichman, Charles; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Stern, Daniel; Vacca, William D.

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based spectroscopic verification of six Y dwarfs also Cushing et al.), eighty-nine T dwarfs, eight L dwarfs, and one M dwarf identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Eighty of these are cold brown dwarfs with spectral types > or =T6, six of which have been announced earlier in Mainzer et al. and I3urgasser et al. We present color-color and colortype diagrams showing the locus of M, L, T, and Y dwarfs in WISE color space. "

  17. Monitoring the future behaviour of urban drainage system under climate change: a case study from north-western England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, Yassin Z.

    2014-11-01

    Catchments hydrological conditions and responses are anticipated to be affected by the changes in weather patterns, increasing in climate variability and extreme rainfall. Thus, engineers have no choice but to consider climate change in their practices in order to adapt and serve the public interests. This paper is an exploration of the impacts of climate change on the hydrology that underlies the hydraulic design of urban drainage system. Future rainfall has been downscaled from the Global Climate Model (GCM) employing a hybrid Generalised Linear Model (GLM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) downscaling techniques under different greenhouse emission scenarios. The output from this model is applied to a combined sewer system of an urban drainage catchment in the Northwest of England during the 21st Century to monitor its future behaviour in winter and summer seasons. Potential future changes in rainfall intensity are expected to alter the level of service of the system, causing more challenges in terms of surface flooding and increase in surcharge level in sewers. The results obtained demonstrate that there is a real chance for these effects to take place and therefore would require more attention from designers and catchment managers.

  18. Projections of Water Stress Based on an Ensemble of Socioeconomic Growth and Climate Change Scenarios: A Case Study in Asia.

    PubMed

    Fant, Charles; Schlosser, C Adam; Gao, Xiang; Strzepek, Kenneth; Reilly, John

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of future water resources is of paramount importance and is affected by many factors, including population, wealth and climate. Inherent in current methods to estimate these factors in the future is the uncertainty of their prediction. In this study, we integrate a large ensemble of scenarios--internally consistent across economics, emissions, climate, and population--to develop a risk portfolio of water stress over a large portion of Asia that includes China, India, and Mainland Southeast Asia in a future with unconstrained emissions. We isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth from the effects of climate change in order to identify the primary drivers of stress on water resources. We find that water needs related to socioeconomic changes, which are currently small, are likely to increase considerably in the future, often overshadowing the effect of climate change on levels of water stress. As a result, there is a high risk of severe water stress in densely populated watersheds by 2050, compared to recent history. There is strong evidence to suggest that, in the absence of autonomous adaptation or societal response, a much larger portion of the region's population will live in water-stressed regions in the near future. Tools and studies such as these can effectively investigate large-scale system sensitivities and can be useful in engaging and informing decision makers.

  19. Projections of Water Stress Based on an Ensemble of Socioeconomic Growth and Climate Change Scenarios: A Case Study in Asia.

    PubMed

    Fant, Charles; Schlosser, C Adam; Gao, Xiang; Strzepek, Kenneth; Reilly, John

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of future water resources is of paramount importance and is affected by many factors, including population, wealth and climate. Inherent in current methods to estimate these factors in the future is the uncertainty of their prediction. In this study, we integrate a large ensemble of scenarios--internally consistent across economics, emissions, climate, and population--to develop a risk portfolio of water stress over a large portion of Asia that includes China, India, and Mainland Southeast Asia in a future with unconstrained emissions. We isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth from the effects of climate change in order to identify the primary drivers of stress on water resources. We find that water needs related to socioeconomic changes, which are currently small, are likely to increase considerably in the future, often overshadowing the effect of climate change on levels of water stress. As a result, there is a high risk of severe water stress in densely populated watersheds by 2050, compared to recent history. There is strong evidence to suggest that, in the absence of autonomous adaptation or societal response, a much larger portion of the region's population will live in water-stressed regions in the near future. Tools and studies such as these can effectively investigate large-scale system sensitivities and can be useful in engaging and informing decision makers. PMID:27028871

  20. Can Teacher Collaboration Overcome Barriers to Interdisciplinary Learning in a Disciplinary University? A Case Study Using Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pharo, E. J.; Davison, A.; Warr, K.; Nursey-Bray, M.; Beswick, K.; Wapstra, E.; Jones, C.

    2012-01-01

    A teacher network was formed at an Australian university in order to better promote interdisciplinary student learning on the complex social-environmental problem of climate change. Rather than leaving it to students to piece together disciplinary responses, eight teaching academics collaborated on the task of exposing students to different types…