Science.gov

Sample records for climatique quelles perspectives

  1. Numerical simulations of the QUELL experiment in SULTAN

    SciTech Connect

    Marinucci, C.

    1995-03-01

    The QUench Experiment on Long Length (QUELL) in the SULTAN Facility is planned to investigate the quench propagation and detection of a conductor with ITER relevant geometry and scaled performance. The objective of this study is to show the ability of QUELL to provide quench conditions relevant for ITER and to simulate the system performance, dealing in particular with the design aspects of the power supply, cryogenic system and heaters. The numerical analysis was performed with GANDALF - a 1-D code to analyze Dual Channel Cable-in-Conduit Conductors. A numerical convergence test and a comparison with another code and with analytical results have confirmed the validity of the simulations.

  2. The quench experiment on long length cable-in-conduit conductor (QUELL) in SULTAN

    SciTech Connect

    Anghel, A.

    1995-03-01

    A description of the QUELL experiment at the SULTAN facility, its objectives and plan is given. After reviewing the quench properties of the Cable in Conduit Conductors and a short review of the theoretical background foreseen for the interpretation of the experimental results, information are given concerning the QUELL sample layout, quench sensors, cryogenic system, power supplies, current bus, current leads and data acquisition system. A detailed test plan and information on the experiment time schedule are also presented.

  3. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    Le sujet de cette these concerne la modelisation numerique du climat regional. L'objectif principal de l'exercice est de developper un modele climatique regional ayant les capacites de simuler des phenomenes de meso-echelle spatiale. Notre domaine d'etude se situe sur la Cote Ouest nord americaine. Ce dernier a retenu notre attention a cause de la complexite du relief et de son controle sur le climat. Les raisons qui motivent cette etude sont multiples: d'une part, nous ne pouvons pas augmenter, en pratique, la faible resolution spatiale des modeles de la circulation generale de l'atmosphere (MCG) sans augmenter a outrance les couts d'integration et, d'autre part, la gestion de l'environnement exige de plus en plus de donnees climatiques regionales determinees avec une meilleure resolution spatiale. Jusqu'alors, les MCG constituaient les modeles les plus estimes pour leurs aptitudes a simuler le climat ainsi que les changements climatiques mondiaux. Toutefois, les phenomenes climatiques de fine echelle echappent encore aux MCG a cause de leur faible resolution spatiale. De plus, les repercussions socio-economiques des modifications possibles des climats sont etroitement liees a des phenomenes imperceptibles par les MCG actuels. Afin de circonvenir certains problemes inherents a la resolution, une approche pratique vise a prendre un domaine spatial limite d'un MCG et a y imbriquer un autre modele numerique possedant, lui, un maillage de haute resolution spatiale. Ce processus d'imbrication implique alors une nouvelle simulation numerique. Cette "retro-simulation" est guidee dans le domaine restreint a partir de pieces d'informations fournies par le MCG et forcee par des mecanismes pris en charge uniquement par le modele imbrique. Ainsi, afin de raffiner la precision spatiale des previsions climatiques de grande echelle, nous developpons ici un modele numerique appele FIZR, permettant d'obtenir de l'information climatique regionale valide a la fine echelle spatiale

  4. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  5. Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Shari; Camerini, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service Asylum office. Uses the perspective of two movie producers as they filmed a documentary film, "Well-founded Fear", about asylum and refugee protection. Includes information on how to order a classroom aid and the film. (CMK)

  6. Etude de l'affaiblissement du comportement mecanique du pergelisol du au rechauffement climatique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buteau, Sylvie

    Le rechauffement climatique predit pour les prochaines decennies, aura des impacts majeurs sur le pergelisol qui sont tres peu documentes pour l'instant. La presente etude a pour but d'evaluer ces impacts sur les proprietes mecaniques du pergelisol et sa stabilite a long terme. Une nouvelle technique d'essai de penetration au cone a taux de deformation controle, a ete developpee pour caracteriser en place le pergelisol. Ces essais geotechniques et la mesure de differentes proprietes physiques ont ete effectues sur une butte de pergelisol au cours du printemps 2000. Le developpement et l'utilisation d'un modele geothermique 1D tenant compte de la thermodependance du comportement mecanique ont permis d'evaluer que les etendues de pergelisol chaud deviendraient instables a la suite d'un rechauffement de l'ordre de 5°C sur cent ans. En effet, la resistance mecanique du pergelisol diminuera alors rapidement jusqu'a 11,6 MPa, ce qui correspond a une perte relative de 98% de la resistance par rapport a un scenario sans rechauffement.

  7. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  8. Les séquelles de brûlures cervicocéphaliques chez l’enfant

    PubMed Central

    Sankale, A.A.; Ndiaye, A.; Ndoye, A.; Ndiaye, L.; Ndoye, M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary La peau, barrière protectrice de l’organisme, est très exposée aux agressions et donc aux brûlures. Le but de ce travail est d’apprécier les particularités des séquelles de brûlure cervicofaciales chez l’enfant en milieu sub-saharien et d’évaluer leur prise en charge. Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective réalisée dans le service de Chirurgie Pédiatrique du Centre Hospitalo-universitaire Aristide Le Dantec de Dakar (Sénégal). Vingt-sept dossiers de patients ont été colligés entre mai 2001 et avril 2008. L’âge moyen lors de la consultation était de 6,7 ans et le sex ratio m:f de 1,7:1. La topographie des séquelles se répartit ainsi: la face (66,7%), le cou (29,6%) et le cuir chevelu (11,1%). Concernant le type de séquelles, les brides prédominaient (33,3%), suivies des cicatrices chéloïdiennes ou hypertrophiques (25,9%), des ectropions de paupières (18,5%), des alopécies du cuir chevelu (11,1%), des ulcérations chroniques (7,4%) et de dyschromie (3,7%). Le traitement a été chirurgical dans 55,7% des cas: plasties en Z suivies ou non d’une greffe de peau pour les brides et libération de bride suivie d’une greffe pour les ectropions de paupières. Pour ce qui concerne les patients opérés, la morbidité opératoire a été de 20% et la mortalité opératoire nulle. Les cicatrices chéloïdiennes ont fait l’objet d’un traitement médical par infiltrations de dermocorticoïdes. Au-delà de l’urgence, les brûlures cervicofaciales de l’enfant entraînent un préjudice esthétique et fonctionnel important. L’amélioration de leur pronostic passe par la qualité des premiers soins et par la sensibilisation des parents aux risques d’accidents domestiques. PMID:21991239

  9. Prothèse totale de hanche dans les séquelles de coxalgie: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Benbouha, Abdelatif; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Abdou; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El yaacoubi, Moradh

    2016-01-01

    La coxalgie entraine des destructions ostéo-cartilagineuses de l'articulation de la hanche, ces lésions sont responsables de douleurs intenses provoquant des gènes fonctionnelles et des limitations dans la vie quotidienne. Leur traitement chirurgical est encore mal codifié. Notre objectif est de montrer à travers cette étude l'intérêt de l'arthroplastie totale de hanche associée à la chimiothérapie antituberculeuse pour l'amélioration de la qualité de vie des patients. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective portant sur 10 cas de prothèses totales de hanche posées sur séquelles de coxalgie au service de traumatologie-orthopédie du centre hospitalier universitaire Rabat de 2002 à 2011. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de 38 ans. La découverte de la coxalgie s'est faite dans des circonstances différentes en fonction des patients. La voie d'abord que nous avons utilisé est exclusivement postéro-externe de Moore. Les prothèses posées ont toute été cimentées. Quatre patients ont nécessité la reconstruction du cotyle. La biopsie peropératoire est positive chez un patient, négative chez les neuf restants. Tous les patients ont été mis sous traitement antituberculeux. Aucune récidive n'a été notée après un recul minimal de 3 ans. Les résultats selon la cotation de Merle d'Aubigné sont jugés bons. En cas de destruction osseuse avancée avec retentissement fonctionnel très mal supporté chez le sujet d’âge mûr, l'arthroplastie totale demeure le traitement de choix des séquelles de coxalgie sous couverture systématique d'une chimiothérapie antituberculeuse efficace. PMID:27642444

  10. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  11. Les séquelles de brûlures cervicales: aspects épidémiologique, clinique et thérapeutique au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Rafik, Amine; Chabak, Hakim; Diouri, Mounia; Bahechar, Naïma; Chlihi, Abdessamad

    2015-01-01

    Les séquelles de brûlures cervicales représentent une entité fréquente des séquelles de brûlure, elles affectent la fonction, l'esthétique et l’état psychologique des patients et peuvent être de traitement difficile. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective étalée sur 5 ans de Mars 2009 au Octobre2014, réalisée au centre national des brûlés et de chirurgie plastique au CHU Ibn Rochd Casablanca. Nous avons analysé les caractéristiques épidémiologiqueset cliniques ainsi que les indications et les résultats thérapeutiques chez 300 patients présentant des rétractions cervicales post-brûlure, suivis dans notre formation. Les jeunes femmes étaient le plus souvent touchées (56%). la brûlure thermique par flamme de butane dans le cadre d'accident domestique était l’étiologie la plus fréquente (91%).75% des patients ont été pris en charge dans un délai de 18 mois après avoir présenté une incapacité fonctionnelle. Les brides cervicales modérées et sévères sont les plus fréquentes et représentent respectivement 60% et 16% des cas. Le traitement chirurgical a fait appel aux greffes cutanées dans 67%des cas, aux plasties locales dans 24%des cas et aux lambeaux dans 24% des cas, les résultats sont jugés bons dans 75%des cas et moyens dans 18% des cas, tandis que les cas restants (7%) ont nécessité une reprise chirurgicale. Le traitement des brides cervicales doit être associé à un programme de rééducation adapté, afin d'assurer la pérennité des résultats fonctionnels et esthétiques. PMID:26301017

  12. Les perspectives de l'énergie nucléaire dans le cadre des changements climatiquesThe future of nuclear energy in relation with climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautray, Robert

    2001-12-01

    Electronuclear energy associated with hydrogen production can replace fossil fuels while emitting as few greenhouse gases as renewable energies. Besides waste management for which a solution has to be rapidly demonstrated, other key issues are to be examined to complete the demonstration of the viability of electronuclear energy. First, waste management and evolution of plutonium and its daughters must be considered together. A basic study has already been performed but what else to be done is huge and cannot be achieved in France (because of its geological and geographic features, because of the rural distribution of its population, etc.), except if a substantial and quite focused endeavour could bring concerned populations and workers, protection and confidence - which requires from the latter, represented by their elected representatives and thus by a public authority, that they work out "a general protection and confidence criterion for concerned populations and workers". The unique solution in order to protect public health from a potential major danger is to bury as soon as possible all of the ultimate waste products, keeping in mind all of the unfavourable factors such as residual power of these products, their mobility in the confining geological beds and then through aquifers. There are so many categories of waste products whose treatment requires different durations, that storing is necessary in order to make them compatible after sorting by means of chemical separation (called reprocessing). Among all of these potential risks, the present-day most serious one, by far, is that of plutonium and its daughters, which are the most potentially radiotoxic. The unique solution consists in a separation of plutonium (and its daughters), followed by its fissions until a rather complete reduction in a product able to be buried after dilution in a matrix (for example, vitrification). But that solution faces serious handicaps. The examination of waste products and especially of the potentially most dangerous and difficult to treat, that is plutonium (and its daughters), leads thus necessarily to a 'plutonium (and its daughters) plan'. Nuclear safety is a major preoccupation. The French electronuclear stock is a recognized success and when it will be necessary to replace the latter, it will be possible to use the European Pressurized Reactor French-German project; the latter includes protections against very unlikely events and its implementation would be a factor of substantial progress for nuclear safety. Radioprotection, as well as its scientific bases, epidemiology and radiobiology, have funding that is not at the level of the funding devoted to the technical and industrial realizations. As for proliferation, it can be noticed that the countries that have recently at their disposal nuclear weapons have done it independently of their eventual electronuclear stock and furthermore each of the latter used a different scientific and technical process. As for the eventual relations between reprocessing and proliferation, the problem should be solved if the total produced plutonium could be denatured in the reactors of the electronuclear stock. It must be noticed that the major potential danger would rather be the dispersion of radiotoxic products about which the department of ONU in charge of all of these questions is aware of increasing contraband from eastern Europe since some years.

  13. Arthroplastie totale du coude sur séquelles d'ostéoarthrite négligée-à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Shimi, Mohammed; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2011-01-01

    L'arthroplastie totale au cours des séquelles d'infection ostéo-articulaire a été destinée surtout pour la hanche et le genou. Cependant, peu de travaux ont étaient consacrée pour l'articulation du coude. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente, âgée de 26 ans, ayant présentée dans l'enfance une ostéoarthrite du coude traitée traditionnellement, mais qui a développé progressivement une instabilité sévère du coude. Après l'implantation d'une prothèse semi-contrainte de Coonrad-Morrey non cimentée, le résultat est très satisfaisant jusqu’à deux ans de recul, avec un gain de la mobilité en flexion de 110 degrés et en extension de 5 degrés, l'index de performance pour le coude selon la Mayo Clinic de 80/100. Nous n'avons pas de complication à déplorer. PMID:22355439

  14. Sociological Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townley, Charles; Middleton, Mike

    This monograph examines sociological perspectives and their applications. It is intended to help the college student coming to sociology for the first time to recognize that there are several perspectives within sociology and to disentangle the mass of terms associated with each. The first distinctive sociological perspective came from the work of…

  15. International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  16. La greffe de peau totale dans le traitement des séquelles de brûlures de la main et des doigts: A propos de 84 cas

    PubMed Central

    Boukind, S.; Droussi, H.; Elatiqi, O.K.; Dlimi, M.; Dhaidah, O.; Ejjiyar, M.; Quaboul, M.; Dehhaze, A.; Fkhar, S.; Elamrani, D.; Benchamkha, Y.; Ettalbi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective s’étendant de septembre 2004 à septembre 2012 sur les données de à propos de 84 patients présentant des séquelles de brûlure majeures de la main. Ces patients étaient traités chirurgicalement par une greffe de peau totale. Le but de cette étude est, donc, d’insister sur la simplicité de cette technique et surtout son efficacité et sa fiabilité. L’âge moyen de la survenue de la brûlure était de 4 ans. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 18,3 ans (2-62 ans), avec prédominance masculine dans 60% des cas. L’agent causal le plus fréquent était un agent thermique - le plus souvent un liquide chaud (56%). Le délai moyen entre la fin de la cicatrisation et la prise en charge des séquelles était de 36 mois (2 mois - 16 ans). Dans 69 cas (82.5%), les lésions étaient localisées au niveau de la face palmaire de la main. Les séquelles ont été dominées par les rétractions digitales (65%) dont le déficit fonctionnel est évident. Une greffe de peau totale a été réalisée chez tous nos patients après libération des brides et excision des placards cicatriciels. Les rétractions commissurales ont été traitées par des plasties en Z. Dans 95% des cas, le prélèvement de peau totale était réalisé au niveau du pli inguinal. Le recul moyen était de 5,5 ans (1-8 ans). 11 patients ont été perdus de vu. Les résultats après cicatrisation complète et rééducation ont été jugés satisfaisants (bons) dans 62 cas (85%), et assez bons dans 11 cas (15%). Un traitement initial bien conduit et effectué dans les meilleures conditions permet non seulement de réduire le nombre de séquelles des brûlures mais encore de les rendre moins sévères. PMID:26336368

  17. Les systems educatifs a La Reunion et l'ile Maurice: Quelle efficacite sociale? (Education Systems on the Islands of Reunion and Mauritius: What are the Social Effects?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Si Moussa, Azzedine; Tupin, Frederic

    1999-01-01

    Examines, from a comparative perspective, the impact of political decisions on education and also the way in which the different educational systems on the islands of Mauritius and Reunion affect the democratisation of learning. Compares the educational trajectories of pupils from numerous schools, and shows that the expected social effects are…

  18. Editorial: Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Cliff; Swartz, Barb

    1983-01-01

    Discusses an accompanying centerfold which not only combines physics and history but also focuses on the matter of perspective. Names of scientists and their accomplishments as well as cultural and political milestones are included in the centerfold. (JN)

  19. Community perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    General aviation is considered from the perspective of the local community's decision-making process in determining its needs for access to general aviation services. The decision-making model, preliminary decision, community characteristics, and planning processes are discussed.

  20. Traitement des séquelles de brûlures de la main dans les pays à ressources limitées ; notre expérience en république démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kibadi, K.; Moutet, F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les séquelles de brûlures de la main sont encore fréquentes dans les pays à ressources limitées. Trente-deux patients, représentant 38 mains, ont été admis et traités, entre le 1er décembre 2010 et le 1er mai 2014 aux Cliniques Universitaires de Kinshasa en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC). nous avons observé 22 patients (69 %) dans le groupe de jeunes (patients âgés de moins de 18 ans), et 10 patients (31 %) chez les adultes (18 à 59 ans). Aucun patient dans le groupe de seniors (60 ans et plus) n’a été observé. Dans le groupe de jeunes, la tranche d’âge de 1 à 5 ans a été la plus atteinte avec 13 malades (40 %). l’accident à la maison était le plus fréquent (72 %). le mécanisme de la brûlure était le plus souvent thermique par flammes (51 %) ou par liquide chaud (34 %). les rétractions et brides sont les lésions le plus observées (84 %). la rétraction dorsale globale « main en griffe» est observée chez 40 % de patients traités, associée à des cicatrices hypertrophiques et chéloïdiennes dans 84 % de cas. Chez les 32 mains traitées chirurgicalement, des excision-greffes ont été réalisées dans 43,7 %, des lambeaux locaux dans 43,7 % et des lambeaux à distance dans 12,5 % de cas. A la sortie de l’hôpital, 84 % de « bons » résultats ont été observés. le suivi a été de 18 mois. le traitement des séquelles de brûlures de la main est possible dans ces pays, exemple de la rDC. Mais les défis à surmonter dans ces pays sont nombreux : la faible accessibilité aux techniques actuelles de la chirurgie plastique, la prise en charge initiale inadéquate des brûlures, la pauvreté. PMID:26668560

  1. Les systèmes éducatifs à la reé et l'île maurice: Quelle efficacité sociale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si Moussa, Azzedine; Tupin, Frédéric

    1999-11-01

    The islands of Mauritius and Réunion have contrasting educational policies. This article examines, from a comparative perspective, not only the impact of political decisions on education but also the way in which the different educational systems in the two islands affect the democratisation of learning. In order to do this, the authors compare the educational trajectories of different pupils from a range of schools in Mauritius and Réunion. Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches, it is possible to show that the expected social effects are moderated in the course of teaching. While the adoption of mass education is a prerequisite for democratisation, it must be recognised that systems also operate selectively with regard to variables such as sex, age or social origin, depending on what transpires in schools on a daily basis.

  2. Hungarian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montvay, István; Biró, Tamás

    Rolf Hagedorn is introduced from the personal perspective of two Hungarian physics generations. A colleague (IM) and a student (TB) recount memories and events from the early-70-s to mid-80-s, and evaluate Hagedorn's impact on present particle and nuclear Hungarian physics community.

  3. Maintaining Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arthur M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflects on the long personal and professional relationship between the author and Dr. Raymond Schultz. Analyzes the changing function of community colleges since the 1960s and examines three recent shifts in the community college concept. Suggests that community college education programs should emphasize a historical perspective. (CAM)

  4. FAA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Tom

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Federal Aviation Administration's perspective on improvements on aircraft icing. The most important areas that are discussed include: 1) Improvements in SLD engineering tools to meet concerns about means of compliance (MOC); and 2) 3-D iced aerodynamics.

  5. Perspective Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Joni

    2002-01-01

    One fourth grade class studied Van Gogh by investigating his art and life on the computer, painting still lifes, then learning to draw in perspective, creating colorful images of their own bedrooms using Van Gogh's bedroom as a model. Students extended their learning by examining relevant literature and completing timelines, biographical reports,…

  6. Inverse perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinsky, Margaret

    2006-02-01

    This paper will discuss the potentiality towards a methodology for creating perceptual shifts in virtual reality (VR) environments. A perceptual shift is a cognitive recognition of having experienced something extra-marginal, on the boundaries of normal awareness, outside of conditioned attenuation. Definitions of perceptual shifts demonstrate a historical tradition for the wonder of devices as well as analyze various categories of sensory and optical illusions. Neuroscience and cognitive science attempt to explain perceptual shifts through biological and perceptual mechanisms using the sciences. This paper explores perspective, illusion and projections to situate an artistic process in terms of perceptual shifts. Most VR environments rely on a single perceptual shift while there remains enormous potential for perceptual shifts in VR. Examples of artwork and VR environments develop and present this idea.

  7. Cosmic Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    2008-07-01

    1. Astronomy in ancient and medieval China Joseph Needham; 2. Indian astronomy: an historical perspective B. V. Subbarayappa; 3. Making of astronomy in ancient India Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya; 4. The impact of astronomy on the development of western science Jean-Claude Pecker; 5. Man and the Universe Hubert Reeves; 6. Understanding the Universe - challenges and directions in modern observational astronomy Harlan Smith, Jr: 7. Frontiers in cosmology Fred Hoyle; 8. Did the Universe originate in a big bang? Jayant Narlikar; 9. The dark matter problem Bernard Carr; 10. Geometry and the Universe C. V. Vishveshwara; 11. The origin and evolution of life Cyril Ponnamperuma; 12. The anthropic principle: self selection as an adjunct to natural selection Brandon Carter; 13. Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence Ivan Kelly, Roger Culver and Peter Loptson; 14. Astronomy and science fiction Allen Janis.

  8. Cosmic Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    1989-09-01

    1. Astronomy in ancient and medieval China Joseph Needham; 2. Indian astronomy: an historical perspective B. V. Subbarayappa; 3. Making of astronomy in ancient India Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya; 4. The impact of astronomy on the development of western science Jean-Claude Pecker; 5. Man and the Universe Hubert Reeves; 6. Understanding the Universe - challenges and directions in modern observational astronomy Harlan Smith, Jr: 7. Frontiers in cosmology Fred Hoyle; 8. Did the Universe originate in a big bang? Jayant Narlikar; 9. The dark matter problem Bernard Carr; 10. Geometry and the Universe C. V. Vishveshwara; 11. The origin and evolution of life Cyril Ponnamperuma; 12. The anthropic principle: self selection as an adjunct to natural selection Brandon Carter; 13. Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence Ivan Kelly, Roger Culver and Peter Loptson; 14. Astronomy and science fiction Allen Janis.

  9. Die Quelle (Secondary German Resource Book).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

    This resource book is intended to be used with the companion program guide, and is so arranged that it can be put in a loose leaf binder and incorporated with other notes. It is divided as follows: (1) a discussion in outline form of prescribed material including three methods of organizing the program, a complete indication of the contents of the…

  10. Perspectives of Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, M. Frances; And Others

    A model has been developed that proposes five different perspectives on the curriculum--the ideal, formal, perceived, operational, and experiential. Each perspective has a different data source, and it is hypothesized that each perspective will produce a different picture of "the curriculum." Data collection for a national study of schooling will…

  11. An Attainable Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Castaneda, Viann Pedersen

    Concordia College (Minnesota) has established a global studies curriculum that encourages the development of a global perspective in future business leaders. Global perspective is seen as having five dimensions: (1) perspective consciousness; (2) "state of the planet" awareness; (3) cross-cultural awareness; (4) knowledge of global dynamics; and…

  12. Les cyclones tropicaux et le changement climatique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Jean-Claude; Royer, Jean-François; Chauvin, Fabrice

    2008-09-01

    Results from observations and modelling studies, a number of which having been used to support the conclusions of the IPCC fourth assessment report, are presented. For the past and present-day (since 1970) periods, the increase of strong cyclonic activity over the North Atlantic Ocean appears to be in good correlation with increasing temperature of the ocean surface. For regions where observational data are of lesser quality, the increasing trend is less clear. In fact, assessing long-term changes is made difficult due to both the multi-decennial natural variability and the lesser coverage of observations before satellites were made available. Indirect observational data, such as those derived from quantitative estimations of damage caused by tropical cyclones, suffer from many artefacts and do not allow the resolving of the issue either. For the future, only numerical three-dimensional climate models can be used. They nevertheless run presently with too-large grid-sizes, so that their results are still not converging. Various simulations lead indeed to different results, and it is very often difficult to find the physical reasons for these differences. One concludes by indicating some ways through which numerical simulations could be improved, leading to a decrease of uncertainties affecting the prediction of cyclonic activity over the next decades.

  13. Hands-On Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Marc; Crannell, Annalisa; Maki, Dan; Hodgson, Ted

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the mathematics underlying the construction of perspective images of three-dimensional objects. Through hands-on applications and the use of standard secondary content, the article presents perspective art in a away that is accessible to secondary teachers and their students.

  14. Assessing Individuals' Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Kelly Carter; Braskamp, David C.; Braskamp, Larry A.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the Global Perspective Inventory (GPI), a survey instrument that measures participants' global perspective in terms of cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal domains--each in terms of both development and acquisition. A summary of the recent research on the GPI is provided along with a discussion of potential uses.

  15. Disciplinary Perspectives on Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluskey, Stephen C.

    This chapter examines the contributions of major academic disciplines to archaeoastronomy, beginning with a consideration of several indicators of the participation of scholars from various fields. We then consider examples of research from astronomy and the physical sciences; anthropology, archaeology, and the social sciences; and the historical disciplines to see how they reflect their disciplinary perspectives. The questions drawn from these varied disciplinary perspectives stimulate different strands of research, enriching the study of astronomies in cultures.

  16. Perception of Perspective Angles.

    PubMed

    Erkelens, Casper J

    2015-06-01

    We perceive perspective angles, that is, angles that have an orientation in depth, differently from what they are in physical space. Extreme examples are angles between rails of a railway line or between lane dividers of a long and straight road. In this study, subjects judged perspective angles between bars lying on the floor of the laboratory. Perspective angles were also estimated from pictures taken from the same point of view. Converging and diverging angles were judged to test three models of visual space. Four subjects evaluated the perspective angles by matching them to nonperspective angles, that is, angles between the legs of a compass oriented in the frontal plane. All subjects judged both converging and diverging angles larger than the physical angle and smaller than the angles in the proximal stimuli. A model of shallow visual space describes the results. According to the model, lines parallel to visual lines, vanishing at infinity in physical space, converge to visual lines in visual space. The perceived shape of perspective angles is incompatible with the perceived length and width of the bars. The results have significance for models of visual perception and practical implications for driving and flying in poor visibility conditions. PMID:27433312

  17. Oahu: perspective from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Gary E.

    1982-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides us with a unique perspective from space. This perspective is synoptic in nature and provides regional views of most of the land areas of the earth. The orbital characteristics of the Landsat system are such that repetitive imagery of the same area may be obtained. Because of the permanent nature of the imagery, it may be retrieved for comparative analysis at any time. Comparisons of this image of Oahu with maps of the island (for example, the Oahu, Hawaii, 1:250,000-scale topographic map) will enable the reader to readily identify the place names discussed in this article and permit a more detailed interpretation of the image.

  18. Celebrating Thanksgiving from Different Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on different methods to teach grades K-12 about Thanksgiving from an inclusive perspective. Provides background information and activities from the perspectives of Native Americans, such as teaching about the Wampanoag and Squanto tribes, and also from the perspective of the pilgrims. (CMK)

  19. Perspectives on Selfhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Brewster

    1978-01-01

    In this article selfhood is examined from three perspectives: evolutionary or phylogenic, cross-cultural and transhistorical, and developmental or ontogenetic. The view presented is offered as a basis for hope in interpreting our human nature to ourselves and in increasing our individual and collective capacity for self-direction. (Author/EB)

  20. Old Perspectives on Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Blacquiere-Clarkson, John

    1976-01-01

    Presents a perspective on evolution which includes an explanation of the textbook theory of evolution, a review of evolutionary theory before Darwin, and an outline of Darwin's early theories. Describes a rethinking of evolutionary theory to include natural selection, conservative selection, discontinous evolution, catastrophism, and the…

  1. Perspective, May 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a commentary assessing the meaning of college- and career-readiness. In doing so, it addresses some of the questions Achieve gets asked most frequently, including: What subjects are most important in defining "Readiness"? What does…

  2. Perspective, October 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This issue contains a report on the highlights of the fifth annual American Diploma Project (ADP) Network Leadership Team Meeting in Washington, D.C. Achieve's most well attended annual meeting, but also its most successful to date. While a variety of topics were…

  3. ADDIE: Perspectives in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boling, Elizabeth; Easterling, Wylie V.; Hardre, Patricia L.; Howard, Craig D.; Roman, Tiffany Anne

    2011-01-01

    In an asynchronous forum responding to a prompt positing that ADDIE (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) might be used in teaching instructional design (ID) as a safety net for designers without native talent, instructors and practitioners of ID revealed mixed perspectives on the role of ADDIE in design. Critical theory…

  4. Perspectives on Family Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Assistance Center, New York, NY.

    This joint publication of the journals of the Literacy Assistance Center (LAC) and the National Even Start Association (NESA) focuses on innovative practices and theory in family literacy education, offers an array of perspectives to members of the literacy community, and critically examines some assumptions about literacy in general, as well as…

  5. Families in Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingoldsby, Bron B., Ed.; Smith, Suzanna, Ed.

    Covering contemporary Third World as well as Western families, this teaching text addresses topics essential for developing a multicultural perspective on the family. It is an ideal text for comparative family courses and includes exercises (as well as exercise guidelines for instructors) developed to challenge students' existing viewpoints and…

  6. Understanding the Parent's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Sally Smith's contribution to the world of children with learning disabilities is well documented, particularly by the other contributors to this journal. An area deserving attention, but one usually overlooked, is Smith's understanding of the parent's perspective--the challenges of parenting a child with learning disabilities. It was a priceless…

  7. Perspectives. Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet, 2008

    2008-01-01

    PEPNet's "Perspectives" is the collaborative newsletter of the four PEPNet regional centers. This newsletter combines each centers individual strengths into a single resource that can be used on a national level. This issue focuses on the following topics: (1) PEPNet FAQs on Web, in Print; (2) Some Speech-to-Text FAQs; (3) Speech-to-Text…

  8. Perspective, December 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This issue includes a feature on the U.S. Department of Education's Race to the Top (RTTT) competition, which gives states an unprecedented opportunity to build the tools to measure results; guide decision-making and investments; and provoke honest conversations about…

  9. Perspectives on TESOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard

    The state of the art in teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) is characterized by diversity in philosophies, activities, and materials. It has been summarized in a variety of reports. The perspectives developed here are a supplement to the other reports rather than a summary. Aspects of the state of the art are examined through…

  10. From a Parent's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    The series of articles on parenting compiled in this book bridges the gap between educational theory and the everyday problems parents must deal with. The book's perspective encourages parents to be gentle, flexible, observant, and not too attached to expectations. The first chapter, "Surviving Parenthood," discusses topics such as managing…

  11. From Spirit's Perspective (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the perspective from the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit before and after its automated stand-up process. After standing up, the rover is approximately 12 inches higher off of the lander, resulting in a better view of the surrounding terrain.

  12. Perspective, April 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This issue includes a report describing how the American Diploma Project (ADP) Network selected Delaware and Tennessee from among 16 finalists as the winners of the first phase of Race to the Top (RTTT) grants. This issue also reports that: (1) The National Governors…

  13. Hyperemesis gravidarum: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Fergus P; Lutomski, Jennifer E; Greene, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is a complex condition with a multifactorial etiology characterized by severe intractable nausea and vomiting. Despite a high prevalence, studies exploring underlying etiology and treatments are limited. We performed a literature review, focusing on articles published over the last 10 years, to examine current perspectives and recent developments in hyperemesis gravidarum. PMID:25125986

  14. Keeping Barns in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomash, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a landscape project using Grant Wood's paintings as an example. As part of the project, the students are required to include a barn in their picture. This project is a great opportunity to study an Iowa artist who did landscape painting and to study perspective. This is also an excellent project for teaching…

  15. International HRD Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on international perspectives on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Human Resource Development Practices in American and Chinese High-technology Companies in Taiwan" (Hsin-yi Chen), uses quantitative and qualitative data on HRD practices in high-technology companies in the…

  16. A Personal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lee

    The manager of a London youth center presents a personal perspective on some of the difficulties that exist for young people in today's society, particularly those faced by young Black males. Following the sudden death of his mother and teenage years dominated by the values of the street, he took control of his life by seeking knowledge and…

  17. Perspective, March 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a report stating how over the past five years, since the National Governors Association (NGA) and Achieve co-sponsored the National Education Summit on High Schools, states have made impressive progress in aligning their high school…

  18. Aerial Perspective Artistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson centering on aerial perspective artistry of students and offers suggestions on how art teachers should carry this project out. This project serves to develop students' visual perception by studying reproductions by famous artists. This lesson allows one to imagine being lured into a landscape capable of captivating…

  19. Black Families. Interdisciplinary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.; Stewart, James B., Ed.

    Since the early 1960s, the black family has been characterized as pathological. This six-part collection of 18 research studies presents alternative approaches to understanding the special characteristics of black families. Part I, "Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives," comprises a comparison of the pioneering work of W. E. B. Du Bois and…

  20. Applied Linguistics: Brazilian Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalcanti, Marilda C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present perspectives in Applied Linguistics (AL) against the background of a historical overview of the field in Brazil. I take the stance of looking at AL as a field of knowledge and as a professional area of research. This point of view directs my reflections towards research-based Applied Linguistics carried out from…

  1. Perspective, March 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This issue includes a commentary on the efforts of the states to adopt college- and career-ready policies. "Closing the Expectations Gap, 2009"--Achieve's fourth annual report--shows that states have continued to make steady progress on adopting policies aimed at…

  2. Perspective, May 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a report presenting the recommendations made by Achieve to the Senate HELP (Health, Education, Labor and Pensions) Committee for the improvement of the college and career readiness of all students. This issue also reports: (1) 37…

  3. Perspective, June 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a report stating how the number of states that ensure the college and career readiness of their students has increased since Achieve first started tracking progress on the college- and career-ready policy agenda five years ago. This…

  4. Hakka in Wellentheorie Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.

    1992-01-01

    A review of some of the interesting aspects of Hakka dialect studies precedes a discussion of areas needing further linguistic study, such as its resemblance to and contacts with other Chinese dialects, tonal correspondences, and the study of Chinese dialects from a Wellentheorie perspective. (53 references) (CB)

  5. Family Perspectives on Prematurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three (J), 2003

    2003-01-01

    In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

  6. Perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue.

  7. Teacher Empowerment: Three Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Aimee

    To help administrators understand the organizational, social, and ideological forces impeding their efforts to empower teachers, this paper provides three critiques of teacher empowerment proposals from functionalist, structural Marxist, and poststructural perspectives. Although the 1980s reform reports promote a type of empowerment that accords…

  8. Medical Perspectives on Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchadourian, Herant A.

    1976-01-01

    Written for the layman, this article describes the concept of adulthood in human biology as observed from the perspective of the naturally unfolding human life cycle. Specific male and female physical characteristics are examined and psychiatric viewpoints on adulthood are presented. (DDB)

  9. National Cancer Institute Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Rosemary S.L. . E-mail: rw26f@nih.gov; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2006-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Perspectives this year presented information on the systemic targeted radionuclide therapy (STaRT) research projects: (1) being investigated at the NCI's Intramural Center for Cancer Research; (2) funded by NCI's Radiation Research Program and other extramural programs; and (3) the appropriate National Institutes of Health/NCI funding mechanisms applicable to researchers for obtaining funds for STaRT projects.

  10. International perspectives and initiatives.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jeannette

    2007-03-01

    This article introduces a new column which will explore the way different regions and nation states are dealing with the challenges of managing health information. The intention is to draw together trends which are relevant to both health science librarians and health informatics professionals. This inaugural piece maps out the territory. It provides a rationale for the column, along with evidence of current initiatives to articulate a global perspective on the application of communication and information technologies to health information. PMID:17331146

  11. The architect's perspective on the tour and map perspective.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Athina

    2015-09-01

    Literature in linguistics suggests that when people are asked to provide an oral spatial description, they usually provide a body-centered narrative; they adopt a Tour Perspective, that is, an imaginary tour of the space rather than a Map Perspective, that is, a description focused on spatial relations as seen from above (Linde and Labov in Language 51(1):924-939, 1975; Howald in Discursive constraints on space in narrative: evidence from guilty plea discourse, eVox 3, 2009). I conducted a pilot experiment to address the following questions: Does the formal knowledge of architects--their familiarity with plan drawings and maps--override the tendency to adopt the tour perspective? Does the tour perspective depend on the actual experience of space? Twenty-two graduate students in architecture were asked to respond to the following questions: (1) "Can you describe the layout of your apartment?" (2) "Can you describe the layout of an ideal apartment?" In the responses to the first question most participants used the tour perspective. In the responses to the second question most participants used the map perspective. The results provide evidence that architects' formal knowledge does not override the preference of the tour perspective in descriptions of experienced space. Moreover, that the tour perspective is associated with the actual experience of space.

  12. Volcanoes. A planetary perspective.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, P.

    In this book, the author gives an account of the familiar violent aspects of volcanoes and the various forms that eruptions can take. He explores why volcanoes exist at all, why volcanoes occur where they do, and how examples of major historical eruptions can be interpreted in terms of physical processes. Throughout he attempts to place volcanism in a planetary perspective, exploring the pre-eminent role of submarine volcanism on Earth and the stunning range of volcanic phenomena revealed by spacecraft exploration of the solar system.

  13. Zika virus: Indian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Yadav, Pragya D

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective.

  14. Rowing competitions and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Alfinio; Bernhardt, Stephen A.; Shipman, Henry L.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is about integrating the use of graphing technology (specifically, GeoGebra) with principles of motion, principles of perspective, and the concept of vanishing points to model a dynamic event. Students were asked to analyse video images of a rowing competition filmed with a single camera positioned perpendicular to the race. The fixed position of the camera in such races makes it difficult to determine whether a scull closer to the camera is actually overtaking another, more distant scull. The paper illustrates how students in their first year at the university can integrate the use of technology, science, mathematics, and writing to solve a real world problem involving motion.

  15. Perspective: relativistic effects.

    PubMed

    Autschbach, Jochen

    2012-04-21

    This perspective article discusses some broadly-known and some less broadly-known consequences of Einstein's special relativity in quantum chemistry, and provides a brief outline of the theoretical methods currently in use, along with a discussion of recent developments and selected applications. The treatment of the electron correlation problem in relativistic quantum chemistry methods, and expanding the reach of the available relativistic methods to calculate all kinds of energy derivative properties, in particular spectroscopic and magnetic properties, requires on-going efforts. PMID:22519307

  16. Perspectives on reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Camp, A.L.

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  17. Perspective: relativistic effects.

    PubMed

    Autschbach, Jochen

    2012-04-21

    This perspective article discusses some broadly-known and some less broadly-known consequences of Einstein's special relativity in quantum chemistry, and provides a brief outline of the theoretical methods currently in use, along with a discussion of recent developments and selected applications. The treatment of the electron correlation problem in relativistic quantum chemistry methods, and expanding the reach of the available relativistic methods to calculate all kinds of energy derivative properties, in particular spectroscopic and magnetic properties, requires on-going efforts.

  18. Zika virus: Indian perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N.; Yadav, Pragya D.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  19. Zika virus: Indian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Yadav, Pragya D

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  20. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  1. Ecological perspectives in health research

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, L.; Hawe, P.

    2005-01-01

    An ecological perspective on health emphasises both individual and contextual systems and the interdependent relations between the two. Origins of this approach have emanated from multiple disciplines over the past century or more. This article provides a glossary of perspectives, processes, and settings that pertain to an ecological approach in health research. PMID:15598720

  2. Teaching with a Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Percy

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of teaching from a global perspective far outweigh the disadvantages. Teaching from a global perspective provides the employer with global workers. Such teaching produces students who possess the knowledge of languages, culture, social systems, dress, religion, and cultural norms, as well as skills for employment in the global…

  3. Overhearing Single and Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 spontaneous speech experiments, this study found that multiple perspectives improved overhearers' abilities to select abstract shapes from an array, although single-perspective descriptions were more detailed. Prior findings that overhearers performed better when listening in on dialogues (Fox Tree, 1999) can best be understood as an…

  4. International Perspectives on Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holford, John, Ed.; Jarvis, Peter, Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

    This book contains 30 papers providing international perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Edgar Faure after 25 Years" (Roger Boshier); "Public Rhetoric and Public Policy" (Colin Griffin); "Lifelong Learning and the European Union" (Barry J. Hake); "Critical Perspectives and New Beginnings" (Michael Collins);…

  5. Putting Motor Resonance in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Perceiving another person's actions changes the spatial perspective people use to describe objects in a scene, possibly because seeing human action induces people to map the actions, including their spatial context, to their own body and motor representations [Lozano, S. C., Hard, B. M., & Tversky, B. (2007). Putting action in perspective.…

  6. Perspective: Geometrically frustrated assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grason, Gregory M.

    2016-09-01

    This perspective will overview an emerging paradigm for self-organized soft materials, geometrically frustrated assemblies, where interactions between self-assembling elements (e.g., particles, macromolecules, proteins) favor local packing motifs that are incompatible with uniform global order in the assembly. This classification applies to a broad range of material assemblies including self-twisting protein filament bundles, amyloid fibers, chiral smectics and membranes, particle-coated droplets, curved protein shells, and phase-separated lipid vesicles. In assemblies, geometric frustration leads to a host of anomalous structural and thermodynamic properties, including heterogeneous and internally stressed equilibrium structures, self-limiting assembly, and topological defects in the equilibrium assembly structures. The purpose of this perspective is to (1) highlight the unifying principles and consequences of geometric frustration in soft matter assemblies; (2) classify the known distinct modes of frustration and review corresponding experimental examples; and (3) describe outstanding questions not yet addressed about the unique properties and behaviors of this broad class of systems.

  7. Perspectives on Agile Coaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Steven; Lundh, Erik; Davies, Rachel; Eckstein, Jutta; Larsen, Diana; Vilkki, Kati

    There are many perspectives to agile coaching including: growing coaching expertise, selecting the appropriate coach for your context; and eva luating value. A coach is often an itinerant who may observe, mentor, negotiate, influence, lead, and/or architect everything from team organization to system architecture. With roots in diverse fields ranging from technology to sociology coaches have differing motivations and experience bases. This panel will bring together coaches to debate and discuss various perspectives on agile coaching. Some of the questions to be addressed will include: What are the skills required for effective coaching? What should be the expectations for teams or individu als being coached? Should coaches be: a corporate resource (internal team of consultants working with multiple internal teams); an integral part of a specific team; or external contractors? How should coaches exercise influence and au thority? How should management assess the value of a coaching engagement? Do you have what it takes to be a coach? - This panel will bring together sea soned agile coaches to offer their experience and advice on how to be the best you can be!

  8. Toxicology ontology perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Barry; Apic, Gordana; Carthew, Philip; Clark, Dominic; Cook, David; Dix, Ian; Escher, Sylvia; Hastings, Janna; Heard, David J; Jeliazkova, Nina; Judson, Philip; Matis-Mitchell, Sherri; Mitic, Dragana; Myatt, Glenn; Shah, Imran; Spjuth, Ola; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Toldo, Luca; Watson, David; White, Andrew; Yang, Chihae

    2012-01-01

    The field of predictive toxicology requires the development of open, public, computable, standardized toxicology vocabularies and ontologies to support the applications required by in silico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology methods and related analysis and reporting activities. In this article we review ontology developments based on a set of perspectives showing how ontologies are being used in predictive toxicology initiatives and applications. Perspectives on resources and initiatives reviewed include OpenTox, eTOX, Pistoia Alliance, ToxWiz, Virtual Liver, EU-ADR, BEL, ToxML, and Bioclipse. We also review existing ontology developments in neighboring fields that can contribute to establishing an ontological framework for predictive toxicology. A significant set of resources is already available to provide a foundation for an ontological framework for 21st century mechanistic-based toxicology research. Ontologies such as ToxWiz provide a basis for application to toxicology investigations, whereas other ontologies under development in the biological, chemical, and biomedical communities could be incorporated in an extended future framework. OpenTox has provided a semantic web framework for the implementation of such ontologies into software applications and linked data resources. Bioclipse developers have shown the benefit of interoperability obtained through ontology by being able to link their workbench application with remote OpenTox web services. Although these developments are promising, an increased international coordination of efforts is greatly needed to develop a more unified, standardized, and open toxicology ontology framework.

  9. Generation Y Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Garret; Painting, Kristen; Barrera, Aaron; Skytland, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Are you familiar with the famed Generation Y, or "Gen Yers?" Generation Y is projected to be 47 percent of the workforce by 2014. They were born roughly between 1977 and 2000, but that is definitely not their only defining factor. But who is this group, and what do they have to do with the future of the space program and the Johnson Space Center (JSC)? During 2007, a group of Gen Yers at JSC participated on a committee to address the NASA Headquarters strategic communications plan. Fitzpatrick, along with his co-authors, created a presentation to share the Gen Yers' perspective on their generation in conjunction with the strategic communications strategy released. This knowledge capture (KC) event is that presentation.

  10. Perspectives in health economics.

    PubMed

    Phelps, C E

    1995-01-01

    This paper, originally presented at the Institute d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, October 12, 1993, provides a perspective on envisioned changes in the practice of health economics. Foreseen changes include: (1) Study of more homogeneous units of analysis; (2) More original data gathering; (3) Increased attention to uncertainty and the supply of and demand for information; (4) Increased attention to institutional structures and their effects on economic behaviour; (5) Expansion of relevant tools for studying economic issues in health care; and (6) Continuing breakdown of disciplinary barriers between health economics and other disciplines. Of these, the two overriding features will be increased emphasis on understanding the many roles of uncertainty in economic behaviour, institutions, and outcomes in health care, and in the use of more and more 'micro' data to study these issues. PMID:8563833

  11. Perspectives on health.

    PubMed

    Huch, M H

    1991-01-01

    On May 12, 1989, in Pittsburgh, six nurse leaders participated in a panel discussion on health at Discovery International, Inc.'s Nurse Theorist Conference. The participants were Imogene King, Nola Pender, Betty Neuman, Martha E. Rogers, Afaf Meleis and Rosemarie Rizzo Parse. The goal of the conferences was to present views on the meaning of health from different perspectives. The panel discussion provided the nurse leaders with an opportunity to engage in a dialogue about health. Five of the participants answered the questions posed and the conference keynote speaker Afaf Meleis responded. Four questions were posed to the panel relating to the meaning of health, the uniqueness of nursing, and nurse-person relationships. The dialogue of the panel discussion follows. PMID:2000198

  12. Quelling Cabin Noise in Turboprop Aircraft via Active Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.; Laba, Keith E.; Padula, Sharon L.

    1997-01-01

    Cabin noise in turboprop aircraft causes passenger discomfort, airframe fatigue, and employee scheduling constraints due to OSHA standards for exposure to high levels of noise. The noise levels in the cabins of turboprop aircraft are typically 10 to 30 decibels louder than commercial jet noise levels. However. unlike jet noise the turboprop noise spectrum is dominated by a few low frequency tones. Active structural acoustic control is a method in which the control inputs (used to reduce interior noise) are applied directly to a vibrating structural acoustic system. The control concept modeled in this work is the application of in-plane force inputs to piezoceramic patches bonded to the wall of a vibrating cylinder. The goal is to determine the force inputs and locations for the piezoceramic actuators so that: (1) the interior noise is effectively damped; (2) the level of vibration of the cylinder shell is not increased; and (3) the power requirements needed to drive the actuators are not excessive. Computational experiments for data taken from a computer generated model and from a laboratory test article at NASA Langley Research Center are provided.

  13. Brain resuscitation. Ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Omery, A; Caswell, D

    1989-03-01

    Brain resuscitation is the newest in a long line of treatment protocols that is designed to aid us in sustaining not just life, but quality life in the critical care setting. Like other, previously established protocols, it is not value free. Its implementation brings ethical considerations that must be addressed. If the issues are not addressed, there is the real danger that the resulting moral dilemmas will overwhelm the nurse. In brain resuscitation, there are at least three ethical issues that must be recognized. These are the role of resuscitation in the life process, allocation of scarce resources, and participation in research. To address these issues, nurses will have to be aware of the ethical principle and/or perspectives involved. For some of these issues, the solutions will have to come from nursing's national organizations, such as the American Association of Critical Care Nurses. Other solutions presented will require the nurse to come to an individual decision regarding the ethics of brain resuscitation. The journey to the conclusion of this discussion will end with disappointment for those who sought an algorhythm or decision tree with which to make definitive decisions in regard to ethical decisions about brain resuscitation. To have assumed that such an absolute discussion in regard to the ethical perspectives related to brain resuscitation is possible or even desirable would have been to deny the moral/ethical responsibilities of the nurse who practices in a critical care setting. While these ethical responsibilities can be overwhelmingly burdensome, they can also be opportunities. They can be positive opportunities for our health care colleagues, our patients, and ourselves. PMID:2803694

  14. Perspectives in geology. Circular 525

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this symposium present diverse perspectives in geology, mineral resources, paleontology, and environmental concerns. Papers within the scope of EDB have been entered individually into the data base. (ACR)

  15. [Research and perspectives in parasitology].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi-jun; Yin, Ji-gang

    2007-08-01

    This article reviews the recent achievements in parasitology including new diagnostic techniques, molecular mechanism of parasitic pathogenesis, drug resistance, antigenic variation, parasite genomics and proteomics. The perspective development in the area is also discussed.

  16. Life After Laughter: One Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    Encourages laughter as a way to relieve stress and gain a new perspective on problems. Suggests that counselors take responsibility for enjoying their careers by incorporating laughter in their work. (ABB)

  17. Career perspective: Peter D Wagner.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    This perspective focuses on key career decisions, explaining the basis of those decisions. In so doing, it exemplifies the unexpected influences of serendipity and the interaction between serendipity and planned events in shaping the career of one individual. PMID:24229460

  18. Medication counselling: physicians' perspective.

    PubMed

    Bonnerup, Dorthe Krogsgaard; Lisby, Marianne; Eskildsen, Anette Gjetrup; Saedder, Eva Aggerholm; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2013-12-01

    Medication reviews have the potential to lower the incidence of prescribing errors. To benefit from a medication review, the prescriber must adhere to medication counselling. Adherence rates vary from 39 to 100%. The aim of this study was to examine counselling-naive hospital physicians' perspectives and demands to medication counselling as well as study factors that might increase adherence to the counselling. The study was conducted as a questionnaire survey among physicians at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire was developed based on focus group interviews and literature search, and was pilot-tested among 30 physicians before being sent to 669 physicians. The questionnaire consisted of 35 items divided into four categories: attitudes (19 items), behaviours (3 items), assessment (8 items) and demographics (5 items). The response rate was 60% (400/669). Respondents were employed at psychiatric, medical or surgical departments. Eighty-five per cent of respondents agreed that patients would benefit of an extra medication review, and 72% agreed that there was a need for external medication counselling. The most important factor that could increase adherence was the clinical relevance of the counselling as 78% rated it of major importance. The most favoured method for receiving counselling was via the electronic patient record.

  19. A Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Summary The emergence of global history has been one of the more notable features of academic history over the past three decades. Although historians of disease were among the pioneers of one of its earlier incarnations—world history—the recent “global turn” has made relatively little impact on histories of health, disease, and medicine. Most continue to be framed by familiar entities such as the colony or nation-state or are confined to particular medical “traditions.” This article aims to show what can be gained from taking a broader perspective. Its purpose is not to replace other ways of seeing or to write a new “grand narrative” but to show how transnational and transimperial approaches are vital to understanding some of the key issues with which historians of health, disease, and medicine are concerned. Moving on from an analysis of earlier periods of integration, the article offers some reflections on our own era of globalization and on the emerging field of global health. PMID:26725408

  20. AIDS: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-08-01

    Each country currently experiencing an AIDS epidemic did not believe that the epidemics would develop, but they did and more than 6 million people have since died. However, if the governments of the approximately 2.3 billion people who live in developing countries where HIV/AIDS has not yet spread to the general population, together with the international community and nongovernmental organizations, act promptly, many lives will be saved. The World Bank publication "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic" brings, for the first time, an economic perspective to the problem of AIDS. The author considers how developing country governments should respond to the AIDS epidemic when they also face so many other major and pressing problems related to raising more than 1 billion people out of severe poverty. While AIDS is an important problem which must be immediately addressed, using resources to help people with AIDS will come at the expense of other objectives such as sending children to school, providing safe drinking water, and building infrastructure. The serious nature of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and what governments should do are considered. PMID:12294026

  1. Astrobiology: Future Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Irvine, W. M.; Owen, T.; Becker, L.; Blank, J.; Brucato, J. R.; Colangeli, L.; Derenne, S.; Dutrey, A.; Despois, D.; Lazcano, A.; Robert, F.

    2004-07-01

    Astrobiology, a new exciting interdisciplinary research field, seeks to unravel the origin and evolution of life wherever it might exist in the Universe. The current view of the origin of life on Earth is that it is strongly connected to the origin and evolution of our planet and, indeed, of the Universe as a whole. We are fortunate to be living in an era where centuries of speculation about the two ancient and fundamental problems: the origin of life and its prevalence in the Universe are being replaced by experimental science. The subject of Astrobiology can be approached from many different perspectives. This book is focused on abiogenic organic matter from the viewpoint of astronomy and planetary science and considers its potential relevance to the origins of life on Earth and elsewhere. Guided by the review papers in this book, the concluding chapter aims to identify key questions to motivate future research and stimulate astrobiological applications of current and future research facilities and space missions. Today’s rich array of new spacecraft, telescopes and dedicated scientists promises a steady flow of discoveries and insights that will ultimately lead us to the answers we seek.

  2. Perspectives of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, Amand

    2003-04-01

    The organizers of this meeting have asked me to present perspectives of nuclear physics. This means to identify the areas where nuclear physics will be expanding in the next future. In six chapters a short overview of these areas will be given, where I expect that nuclear physics will develop quite fast: (1) Quantum Chromodynamics and effective field theories in the confinement region. (2) Nuclear structure at the limits. (3) High energy heavy ion collisions. (4) Nuclear astrophysics. (5) Neutrino physics. (6) Test of physics beyond the standard model by rare processes. After a survey over these six points I will pick out a few topics where I will go more in details. There is no time to give for all six points detailed examples. I shall discuss the following examples of the six topics mentionned above: (1) The perturbative chiral quark model and the nucleon Σ-term. (2) VAMPIR (Variation After Mean field Projection In Realistic model spaces and with realistic forces) as an example of the nuclear structure renaissance. (3) Measurement of important astrophysical nuclear reactions in the Gamow peak. (4) The solar neutrino problem. As examples for testing new physics beyond the standard model by rare processes I had prepared to speak about the measurement of the electric neutron dipole moment and of the neutrinoless double beta decay. But the time is limited and so I have to skip these points, although they are extremely interesting.

  3. Chaos: A historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lighthill, James

    In this introductory lecture I'd like to offer a broad historical perspective regarding the relatively recent general recognition: (a) that mechanical systems satisfying Newton's laws may be subject to the essentially unpredictable type of behavior which the word CHAOS describes—in other words, the recognition (b) that quantum effects are not required; (c) so that, notwithstanding Heisenberg, uncertainty is there on the basis of the good old classical mechanics based on Newton's Laws. But first of all I'll remind you that there are two kinds of laws in science, which we may exemplify by Kepler's Laws and Newton's Laws. Kepler in 1609 completed some very detailed observations of the motions of Mars; together with a full geometrical description of them, in the Copernican sun-centered flame of reference, as motions in a constant orbit in the shape of an ellipse with the Sun as focus. A decade later Kepler had published the Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae (a rather more substantial work than the Dialogo which later got Galileo into some difficulties), and had there described in detail his most famous discovery: Kepler's three empirical laws concerning planetary orbits. These laws, of the elliptical shapes of orbits, of the radius covering equal areas in equal times, and of the proportionality of the square of the orbital period to the cube of the major axis, were shown from the observations to be closely satisfied by the Earth and by the five then known planets; and furthermore, by the four satellites of Jupiter which Galileo had recently discovered.

  4. Decontamination: a microbiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Graham, G S

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of decontamination is to protect healthcare workers who handle medical devices from infectious diseases that may be present on those devices. Ideally, the decontamination process should provide both cleaning and biocidal activity. A wide range of equipment, from automatic washer/sterilizers to semi-automated washer/sanitizers are commercially available to satisfy this need. The primary difference between these pieces of equipment, from a microbiology perspective, is in the level of safety they provide. A summary comparison of the decontamination methods is shown in Table 1. Without a doubt, steam sterilization as a method of decontamination provides a greater safety level than may be required. However, the question is, "Do disinfection and sanitization provide an adequate safety level?" Although items do not necessarily need to be sterile to be safe to handle, sterilization processes provide the greatest margin of safety because of the significant microbial lethality and the ability to effectively monitor the process via biological indicators. Sterilization effectively eliminates the concern regarding the nearly unanswerable question of bioburden. Unfortunately, not all items are capable of being processed through a washer/sterilizer. Therefore, consideration must be given to the process compatibility of each device. Disinfection processes provide the next level of safety. Unfortunately, there is no recognized or accepted method for quantitatively describing or monitoring a thermal disinfection process. As is the case with sterilization consideration must be given to the process compatibility of each device. Sanitization provides the lowest level of safety for the decontamination process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10285793

  5. Patient perspectives of telemedicine quality

    PubMed Central

    LeRouge, Cynthia M; Garfield, Monica J; Hevner, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the quality attributes required for effective telemedicine encounters from the perspective of the patient. Methods We used a multi-method (direct observation, focus groups, survey) field study to collect data from patients who had experienced telemedicine encounters. Multi-perspectives (researcher and provider) were used to interpret a rich set of data from both a research and practice perspective. Results The result of this field study is a taxonomy of quality attributes for telemedicine service encounters that prioritizes the attributes from the patient perspective. We identify opportunities to control the level of quality for each attribute (ie, who is responsible for control of each attribute and when control can be exerted in relation to the encounter process). This analysis reveals that many quality attributes are in the hands of various stakeholders, and all attributes can be addressed proactively to some degree before the encounter begins. Conclusion Identification of the quality attributes important to a telemedicine encounter from a patient perspective enables one to better design telemedicine encounters. This preliminary work not only identifies such attributes, but also ascertains who is best able to address quality issues prior to an encounter. For practitioners, explicit representation of the quality attributes of technology-based systems and processes and insight on controlling key attributes are essential to implementation, utilization, management, and common understanding. PMID:25565781

  6. A functional perspective on personality.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Marco; Costantini, Giulio; Hughes, Sean; De Houwer, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Personality psychology has made enormous progresses over the years by accumulating empirical evidence on how patterns of stable individual differences in behaviours can be clustered systematically at different levels of abstraction (i.e. traits and facets) and how they can predict important consequential outcomes. At the same time, functionally orientated researchers have accumulated a vast body of knowledge on environment-behaviour relations and the underlying behavioural principles, that is, abstract descriptions of the way in which behaviour is a function of elements in the past and present environment. We explore a functional perspective on personality that attempts to bridge the two domains and to exploit the best of both worlds. From this functional perspective, personality refers to the impact of the individual on different types of environment-behaviour relations as well as on the way other factors moderate those relations. We discuss the potential of this functional perspective on personality to organise existing scientific knowledge and inspire future research.

  7. Experimental manipulations of perspective taking and perspective switching in expressive writing.

    PubMed

    Seih, Yi-Tai; Chung, Cindy K; Pennebaker, James W

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that those who naturally vary their pronoun use over the course of expressive writing subsequently report the greatest improvements in physical and mental health. To explore possible perspective taking or perspective switching effects, two studies manipulated writing perspectives about emotional events from either a first-person, second-person, or third-person perspective. In Study 1, 55 students were randomly assigned to one of the three writing perspectives and were asked to write from the same perspective for three 5-minute writing sessions. In Study 2, 129 students wrote for three 5-minute sessions, one from each perspective in a counterbalanced order. The results showed that writing from a first-person perspective conferred more perceived benefits and was associated with using more cognitive mechanism words, whether engaged in perspective taking or perspective switching.

  8. Experimental manipulations of perspective taking and perspective switching in expressive writing.

    PubMed

    Seih, Yi-Tai; Chung, Cindy K; Pennebaker, James W

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that those who naturally vary their pronoun use over the course of expressive writing subsequently report the greatest improvements in physical and mental health. To explore possible perspective taking or perspective switching effects, two studies manipulated writing perspectives about emotional events from either a first-person, second-person, or third-person perspective. In Study 1, 55 students were randomly assigned to one of the three writing perspectives and were asked to write from the same perspective for three 5-minute writing sessions. In Study 2, 129 students wrote for three 5-minute sessions, one from each perspective in a counterbalanced order. The results showed that writing from a first-person perspective conferred more perceived benefits and was associated with using more cognitive mechanism words, whether engaged in perspective taking or perspective switching. PMID:21824030

  9. Psychoanalytic perspectives on adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    King, R A; Apter, A

    1996-01-01

    From the beginning of the twentieth century, youthful suicide has posed both a clinical and a theoretical challenge for psychoanalysis. This paper examines several paradigmatic cases of completed suicide in order to illustrate important psychodynamic aspects of adolescent suicide. The contributions of the developmental psychoanalytic perspective to our understanding of adolescent self-destructiveness are discussed, with particular emphasis on Anna Freud's concept of developmental lines toward self-care and self-regulation. The applications of this developmental psychoanalytic perspective to clinical research on vulnerability to adolescent suicide are reviewed. PMID:9029973

  10. Fructose in perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Whether dietary fructose (as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup) has unique effects separate from its role as carbohydrate, or, in fact, whether it can be considered inherently harmful, even a toxin, has assumed prominence in nutrition. Much of the popular and scientific media have already decided against fructose and calls for regulation and taxation come from many quarters. There are conflicting data, however. Outcomes attributed to fructose — obesity, high triglycerides and other features of metabolic syndrome — are not found in every experimental test and may be more reliably caused by increased total carbohydrate. In this review, we try to put fructose in perspective by looking at the basic metabolic reactions. We conclude that fructose is best understood as part of carbohydrate metabolism. The pathways of fructose and glucose metabolism converge at the level of the triose-phosphates and, therefore, any downstream effects also occur with glucose. In addition, a substantial part of ingested fructose is turned to glucose. Regulation of fructose metabolism per se, is at the level of substrate control — the lower Km of fructokinase compared to glucokinase will affect the population of triose-phosphates. Generally deleterious effects of administering fructose alone suggest that fructose metabolism is normally controlled in part by glucose. Because the mechanisms of fructose effects are largely those of a carbohydrate, one has to ask what the proper control should be for experiments that compare fructose to glucose. In fact, there is a large literature showing benefits in replacing total carbohydrate with other nutrients, usually fat, and such experiments sensibly constitute the proper control for comparisons of the two sugars. In terms of public health, a rush to judgement analogous to the fat-cholesterol-heart story, is likely to have unpredictable outcome and unintended consequences. Popular opinion cannot be ignored in this problem and comparing fructose

  11. Fructose in perspective.

    PubMed

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2013-01-01

    Whether dietary fructose (as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup) has unique effects separate from its role as carbohydrate, or, in fact, whether it can be considered inherently harmful, even a toxin, has assumed prominence in nutrition. Much of the popular and scientific media have already decided against fructose and calls for regulation and taxation come from many quarters. There are conflicting data, however. Outcomes attributed to fructose - obesity, high triglycerides and other features of metabolic syndrome - are not found in every experimental test and may be more reliably caused by increased total carbohydrate. In this review, we try to put fructose in perspective by looking at the basic metabolic reactions. We conclude that fructose is best understood as part of carbohydrate metabolism. The pathways of fructose and glucose metabolism converge at the level of the triose-phosphates and, therefore, any downstream effects also occur with glucose. In addition, a substantial part of ingested fructose is turned to glucose. Regulation of fructose metabolism per se, is at the level of substrate control - the lower Km of fructokinase compared to glucokinase will affect the population of triose-phosphates. Generally deleterious effects of administering fructose alone suggest that fructose metabolism is normally controlled in part by glucose. Because the mechanisms of fructose effects are largely those of a carbohydrate, one has to ask what the proper control should be for experiments that compare fructose to glucose. In fact, there is a large literature showing benefits in replacing total carbohydrate with other nutrients, usually fat, and such experiments sensibly constitute the proper control for comparisons of the two sugars. In terms of public health, a rush to judgement analogous to the fat-cholesterol-heart story, is likely to have unpredictable outcome and unintended consequences. Popular opinion cannot be ignored in this problem and comparing fructose to

  12. A perspective on obesity.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ruth W; Broadnax, Pier A

    2003-01-01

    This article represents another approach to the topic of obesity in African-American women. It will not give the usual statistical data on obesity in African American women, because as African-American women, it is known that a greater majority is at risk. Instead the article represents a historical, cultural and psychosocial journey in attempting to understand obesity in African-American women from this perspective. The following thoughts are reflective of interactions with African-American women who have struggled with their weight and who have strived to understand the dynamics of their dilemma of being overweight and/or obese in America. This article explains that obesity in African-American women is more than an alteration in ones physiological processes. For some African-American women obesity is the essence of ones being and it has had a deleterious impact on them. Obesity in the African-American woman is not as simplistic as perceived. It is more than the management of the intake of food. Obesity is also more than the type of food that African-American women prepare and consume. Obesity in this sense maybe linked to the very essence of the women's cultural, historical and psychosocial well being. Being large can be a familial characteristic bearing no connection to the consumption and preparation of food. Important to the latter concept, and essential to the understanding of obesity in African-American women, it needs to be remembered that food may have many symbolic meanings. The symbols may be of a cultural and psychological nature and could be consciously unknown to the individual. Whatever the situation, it needs to be clear that for many African-Americans, obesity is not merely a medical problem. Being obese in America, and particularly for African-American women, has a far-reaching effect. It has reek havoc on the cultural psyche of the African-American women. The popular cultural concept conveyed by all types of media, is one of being thin and

  13. Growth outcome: nutritionist perspective.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Fattore, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to a fundamental role of early nutrition on rates of growth and development, and later health. We may identify three major fields of scientific interest and clinical application. (1) In developing countries poor growth is associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, mainly lower respiratory infections and diarrhea. In these settings, failure to promote compensatory growth may have negative short-term consequences, and the nutritionist's task is the primary prevention of nutrient deficiencies to promote the full expression of the individual genetic potential, while allowing for recovery of early secondary functional deficiencies. (2) A second challenge for nutritionists is represented by the approach to growth impairments in rare disorders, ranging from congenital disorders to chronic infections. Most disorders are favorably influenced by improved nutritional status and better growth, and patients may satisfactorily reach adolescence, pubertal and reproductive age, up to ageing. Even for the less positive conditions, an improvement in the quality of life for families is in any case a rewarding aim. (3) A third challenge is represented by the definition of the role of nutrition on growth in physiological conditions for all individuals. Concern has been raised about the potential adverse long-term consequences of accelerated child growth rates, possibly resulting in a predisposition to develop non-communicable chronic diseases in the adult age. Accordingly, this hypothesis might explain the benefits of breastfeeding in terms of slower early growth, and the fetal origins hypothesis in terms of adverse postnatal catch-up growth in infants born small. Therefore, growth as viewed by a pediatric nutritionist perspective is a complex matter, ranging from the early stages of intrauterine development up to adult ages and ageing processes. Cost/benefit analyses of interventions on growth such as cost per DALYs

  14. Enhanced Patient-Centred Care: Physiotherapists' Perspectives on the Impact of International Clinical Internships on Canadian Practice.

    PubMed

    Mesaroli, Giulia; Bourgeois, Anne-Marie; McCurry, Ellen; Condren, Allison; Petropanagos, Peter; Fraser, Michelle; Nixon, Stephanie A

    2015-01-01

    Objectif : Explorer les perspectives des physiothérapeutes ayant participé à un stage clinique à l'étranger dans un pays à revenu faible ou intermédiaire dans le cadre de leur formation en physiothérapie dans un programme d'études canadien afin d'évaluer l'incidence de ce stage sur leur pratique de la physiothérapie au Canada. Méthodes : Cette étude descriptive qualitative s'est faite à partir d'entrevues semi-structurées détaillées. Les données ont été organisées au moyen de Nvivo, tandis qu'un codage inductif et déductif a été utilisé pour analyser les données et élargir les thèmes. Résultats : Les 13 physiothérapeutes exerçant au Canada qui ont été interviewés ont décrit trois compétences renforcées par leur stage: (1) la réflexion critique sur la culture, les valeurs et la pratique; (2) les aptitudes à communiquer et (3) la créativité et la débrouillardise. Il semble que ces compétences se seraient transférées dans la pratique canadienne en améliorant la capacité des participants à offrir des soins axés sur le client, plus précisément grâce à une meilleure compréhension des valeurs et des déterminants sociaux de la santé des clients, quelle que soit la région du Canada ou la clientèle. Conclusions : Pour les étudiants en physiothérapie qui envisagent un stage clinique à l'étranger, les conclusions de l'étude montrent l'incidence que pourrait avoir un tel stage sur la pratique canadienne. Pour les programmes universitaires de physiothérapie, les conclusions de l'étude peuvent orienter les décisions quant à l'ampleur des investissements dans les stages cliniques à l'étranger en tant qu'occasions d'apprentissage destinées à améliorer la pratique au Canada.

  15. Geography Education for "An Attainable Global Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Phil; Pawson, Eric; Solem, Michael; Ray, Waverly

    2014-01-01

    This article considers approaches to promoting global perspectives as both cognitive and affective learning outcomes within geography education. Particular attention is paid to the work of Robert Hanvey, who proposed "An Attainable Global Perspective" in the 1970s, which explicitly ties to the content and perspectives embedded in…

  16. Facing Global Challenges: A European University Perspective. Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swail, Watson Scott

    2014-01-01

    This EPI Policy Perspectives covers a presentation given at the European University Association Annual Convention (March 20, 2009, in Prague, Czech Republic) that addresses the Bologna process in the European Union. The process raised many questions regarding the role of the university, and the entire tertiary/postsecondary system of education.…

  17. Perspective Taking in Older Age Revisited: A Motivational Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xin; Fung, Helene H.; Stanley, Jennifer T.; Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Ho, Man Yee

    2013-01-01

    How perspective-taking ability changes with age (i.e., whether older adults are better at understanding others' behaviors and intentions and show greater empathy to others or not) is not clear, with prior empirical findings on this phenomenon yielding mixed results. In a series of experiments, we investigated the phenomenon from a…

  18. Global Perspectives Through Children's Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickell, Pat; Kennedy, Mike

    1987-01-01

    Part of the "How To Do It" series published by the National Council for the Social Studies, this special insert describes how to encourage the development of a global perspective through the medium of games. Sixteen games from various countries around the world are described. (JDH)

  19. Social Competence: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Harris, Jerry D.

    1984-01-01

    Effective peer relations and the enhancement of social interactions in young children play a central role in the discussion of social competence. Developmental issues relevant to the assessment of social competence including perspective taking, conceptions of friendship, interpersonal strategies and problem solving, moral judgments, and…

  20. International Refugees: A Geographical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demko, George J.; Wood, William B.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the problem of international refugees from a geographical perspective. Focuses on sub-saharan Africa, Afghanistan, Central America, and southeast Asia. Concludes that geographers can and should use their skills and intellectual tools to address and help resolve this global problem. (JDH)

  1. Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Literacy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of conference papers explores the application of a range of different disciplinary perspectives to studying literacy, drawing not only on newer linguistic and cognitive psychological orientations, but also on cultural anthropology, sociolinguistics, reader-response theory, critical theory, and poststructuralist theory. The…

  2. University Rankings in Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pusser, Brian; Marginson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses global postsecondary ranking systems by using critical-theoretical perspectives on power. This research suggests rankings are at once a useful lens for studying power in higher education and an important instrument for the exercise of power in service of dominant norms in global higher education. (Contains 1 table and 1…

  3. HPLC: Early and Recent Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karger, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a perspective on what it was like in the early days of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and several of the key developments. Focuses on the advances in HPLC generally, and more specifically for the biological sciences, that were necessary for the method to reach the preeminent stage of today. Contains 20 references. (JRH)

  4. Hawthorne Academy: The University Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazee, Bruce M.; Frazee, Felicia F.

    2005-01-01

    This article revisits the Trinity University and Hawthorne School partnership since the first case study written 10 years ago. This new perspective analyzes the teacher education program-particularly beliefs and attitudes about it and changes made to the program-with an eye to two primary themes: preparing future teachers and Hawthorne's Core…

  5. A Neuroscience Perspective on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Dendy; Norrgran, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    We briefly discuss memory types and three modern principles of neuroscience: 1) Protein growth at the synapse, 2) the three-brain theory, and 3) the interplay of the hippocampus, the neocortex, and the prefrontal cortex. To illustrate the potential of this perspective, four applications of these principles are provided.

  6. Current Perspectives in Distributive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaurens, Mary K., Ed.; Trapnell, Gail, Ed.

    The volume on current perspectives in distributive education contains 29 individually authored articles organized into three sections. The first section on program conceptualization deals with the following subjects: the evolution of distributive education, program planning, advisory committees, placement services, postsecondary distributive…

  7. Psycholinguistics: A Second Language Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Evelyn Marcussen

    Perspectives of the field of psycholinguistics and second language research are examined to provide a broader understanding of language learning and language behavior. Psycholinguistics, which uses the approaches of psychology and linguistics is defined as the search for an understanding of how humans comprehend and produce language. Based on the…

  8. Fresh Perspectives on School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrero, David J.

    2004-01-01

    School choice advocacy is dominated by perspectives that reflect a tendency to regard public schooling as a private service commodity. In recent years, numerous works of Anglo-American political philosophy, sociology and legal theory have attempted to restore a conception of public schooling as an institution that cultivates civic virtue.…

  9. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  10. Perspectives from Marketing Internship Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Scott R.; Tomkovick, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    Internship research published in marketing and business education journals primarily examine student perspectives about internships or reports results based on other business disciplines. To more accurately understand how employers perceive marketing interns and internships, 352 managers located in the Midwestern United States were surveyed.…

  11. Faculty Perspectives on Administrator Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, James L.

    The sources of faculty perspectives on the personal effectiveness of administrators are analyzed. It is proposed that faculty will be predisposed to see administrators in different lights, depending on structural elements in decision making and the orientation of the faculty members. Attention is directed to Talcott Parson's theory for classifying…

  12. Nature and Nationhood: Danish Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnack, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian state. On the other hand,…

  13. Mathematical Induction: Deductive Logic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Hamide

    2016-01-01

    Many studies mentioned the deductive nature of Mathematical Induction (MI) proofs but almost all fell short in explaining its potential role in the formation of the misconceptions reported in the literature. This paper is the first of its kind looking at the misconceptions from the perspective of the abstract of the deductive logic from one's…

  14. OD: Perspectives, Processes and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kur, C. Edward

    1981-01-01

    Reviewing the development of organizational development (OD) since 1969, the author describes the emerging values and historical perspectives of the field, provides a cross-section of processes and theories, and clarifies the changing relationship between the organizational development and human resource development fields. (LRA)

  15. Children and ESL: Integrating Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Pat, Ed.; Enright, D. Scott, Ed.

    Seven essays address aspects of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction for children, seen from a variety of perspectives: research, teaching, and ethnography. They include: "Introduction: Children and ESL" (D. Scott Enright, Pat Rigg); "ESL Teachers as Language Advocates for Children" (Courtney Cazden); "ESL Children's Writing: What We've…

  16. Comparative Perspectives on Literacy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Brian V.

    Three possible directions for literacy research in the United Kingdom (UK), in terms of three comparative perspectives are (1) cross-cultural, (2) academic/practitioner, and (3) adult/school. Walter Ong's argument that with the advent of writing human consciousness and ways of thinking were altered fundamentally, underlies many of the claims for…

  17. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

  18. A Perspective on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Perspective on Rural Education" (Miller); "You Want Them to Learn What?" (Jones); "Rural Education" (Baker, Burns); "Metnet" (Frick); "Rural Education and Training in Egypt" (Swan, Aly); "Mentors, Youth at Risk, and Rural Education Programs" (Wingenbach); "Designing Effective Adult Education Programs: Needs and Objectives" and "Design,…

  19. Semantic Theory: A Linguistic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Don L. F.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    This book attempts to bring linguists and language teachers up to date on the latest developments in semantics. A survey of the role of semantics in linguistics and other academic areas is followed by a historical perspective of semantics in American linguistics. Various semantic models are discussed. Anomaly, ambiguity, and discourse are…

  20. A Sociocognitive Perspective on Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Judith A.

    Though most definitions of literacy focus solely on the uses of reading and writing, a sociocognitive perspective that incorporates social practices, conceptions of reading and writing, and literacy as a way of thinking is more productive. Within this view, literacy is culturally based, involves the higher intellectual skills, and is learned by…

  1. Perspectives on 2014 Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2015-06-01

    In celebration of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, this issue of Hippocampus includes a collection of commentaries from a broad range of perspectives on the significance of position coding neurons in the hippocampal region. From the perspective of this student of hippocampal physiology, it is argued that place cells and grid cells reflect the outcome of experiments that strongly select the information available and correspondingly observe singular "trigger features" of these neurons. Notably, however, in more naturalistic situations where multiple dimensions of information are available, hippocampal neurons have mixed selectivity wherein population-firing patterns reflect the organization of many features of experience. Thus, while discoveries on position coding were major breakthroughs in penetrating the hippocampal code, future studies exploring more complex behaviors hold the promise of revealing the full contribution of the hippocampal region to cognition and memory.

  2. Fratricide: a forensic psychiatric perspective.

    PubMed

    Bourget, Dominique; Gagné, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Analyses of fratricide rates based on national homicide data have provided some general information pertaining to offenders and victims of sibling homicide but are limited by data constraints to examining a few major variables. Exploring fratricide from a forensic psychiatric perspective could uncover other related factors and provide insight into why some individuals murder their siblings. In a retrospective study of data from coroners' files on domestic homicide pertaining to individuals killed by their siblings over a 10-year period in Quebec, Canada, we identified several specific offender and victim characteristics and circumstances surrounding offenses. The impact of mental illness and substance abuse on fratricidal behavior is indicated, underscoring the importance of identifying existing psychopathology. From a forensic psychiatric perspective, we identify characteristic patterns and discuss potential dynamics operating in fratricide. We raise some issues relevant to treatment and prevention, including the fact that most cases are alcohol-related, impulsive, and unpredictable until the moment they occur.

  3. Commissioning: perspectives from the ground.

    PubMed

    Dawda, Paresh; True, Angelene; Wells, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    Primary Health Networks (PHNs) have been tasked with two key objectives to be achieved through commissioning. Public value aims can be achieved by developing operational capability in the context of an authorising environment. Public value will need to focus on system level outcomes from multiple perspectives, including a consumer perspective. The authorising environment will require policymakers to allow time for PHNs to mature into their role. It will require an environment of effective collaboration amongst multiple stakeholders including consumers. The operational capability will need to ensure highly competent managers and clinical leadership working in a symbiotic relationship. Although some Medicare Locals demonstrated commissioning capacity and capability, this will need to be scaled up at-pace in the new healthcare landscape in order for PHNs to optimally fulfil their roles. PMID:27469048

  4. Perspectives on 2014 Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2015-06-01

    In celebration of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, this issue of Hippocampus includes a collection of commentaries from a broad range of perspectives on the significance of position coding neurons in the hippocampal region. From the perspective of this student of hippocampal physiology, it is argued that place cells and grid cells reflect the outcome of experiments that strongly select the information available and correspondingly observe singular "trigger features" of these neurons. Notably, however, in more naturalistic situations where multiple dimensions of information are available, hippocampal neurons have mixed selectivity wherein population-firing patterns reflect the organization of many features of experience. Thus, while discoveries on position coding were major breakthroughs in penetrating the hippocampal code, future studies exploring more complex behaviors hold the promise of revealing the full contribution of the hippocampal region to cognition and memory. PMID:25787853

  5. Intersectional perspective in elderly care

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta, Marta; Rämgård, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that power relationships at workplaces are constructed by power structures. Processes related to power always influence the working conditions for (in this study in elderly care) the working groups involved. Power structures are central for intersectional analysis, in the sense that the intersectional perspective highlights aspects such as gender and ethnicity (subjective dimensions) and interrelates them to processes of power (objective dimension). This qualitative study aims to explore in what way an intersectional perspective could contribute to increased knowledge of power structures in a nursing home where the employees were mostly immigrants from different countries. By using reflexive dialogues related to an intersectional perspective, new knowledge which contributes to the employees’ well-being could develop. Narrative analysis was the method used to conduct this study. Through a multi-stage focus group on six occasions over 6 months, the staff were engaged in intersectional and critical reflections about power relationship with the researchers, by identifying patterns in their professional activities that could be connected to their subjectivities (gender, ethnicity, etc.). The result of this study presents three themes that express the staff's experiences and connect these experiences to structural discrimination. 1) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of professionalism; 2) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of collaboration; and 3) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of discrimination. The result demonstrates that an intersectional perspective reinforces the involved abilities, during the conversations, into being clear about, for example, their experiences of discrimination, and consequently developing a better understanding of their professionalism and collaboration. Such deeper reflections became possible through a process of consciousness raising, strengthening the employee's self

  6. Intersectional perspective in elderly care.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Marta; Rämgård, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that power relationships at workplaces are constructed by power structures. Processes related to power always influence the working conditions for (in this study in elderly care) the working groups involved. Power structures are central for intersectional analysis, in the sense that the intersectional perspective highlights aspects such as gender and ethnicity (subjective dimensions) and interrelates them to processes of power (objective dimension). This qualitative study aims to explore in what way an intersectional perspective could contribute to increased knowledge of power structures in a nursing home where the employees were mostly immigrants from different countries. By using reflexive dialogues related to an intersectional perspective, new knowledge which contributes to the employees' well-being could develop. Narrative analysis was the method used to conduct this study. Through a multi-stage focus group on six occasions over 6 months, the staff were engaged in intersectional and critical reflections about power relationship with the researchers, by identifying patterns in their professional activities that could be connected to their subjectivities (gender, ethnicity, etc.). The result of this study presents three themes that express the staff's experiences and connect these experiences to structural discrimination. 1) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of professionalism; 2) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of collaboration; and 3) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of discrimination. The result demonstrates that an intersectional perspective reinforces the involved abilities, during the conversations, into being clear about, for example, their experiences of discrimination, and consequently developing a better understanding of their professionalism and collaboration. Such deeper reflections became possible through a process of consciousness raising, strengthening the employee's self

  7. Perspectives on nonpoint source pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings from the national conference. Papers were presented under the following topic headings: Perspectives on Nonpoint Source Pollution; Legal Aspects of Nonpoint Source Pollution; Institutional/Financial Aspects of Nonpoint Source Controls; Ground Water Quality; Estuarine Quality; Streams and Rivers; Livestock Waste Management; Economics of Nonpoint Source Pollution; Agricultural Issues; Urban Issues; Rural Issues; Land Use Issues; Water Quality Criteria and Standards; and Cross Boundary Nonpoint Source Pollution: The Implications.

  8. Ozone attainment: A different perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, W.B. )

    1988-01-01

    Recent attention on the ozone non-attainment issue has been focused on Washington. Both Congress and the EPA have made efforts at addressing the post-1987 crisis in the many non-attainment areas. In contrast to the political activity, this paper presents some interesting technical perspectives on ozone attainment for many areas of the U.S.. Issues such as transport, climate and natural ozone sources are discussed in the context of exceedance frequency for several geographical areas of the country.

  9. Pine nut allergy in perspective.

    PubMed

    Falliers, C J

    1989-03-01

    Anaphylaxis and other acute allergic reactions following the ingestion of pine--or pinon--nuts are documented and reviewed in perspective. Systemic allergic reactions to other relatively uncommon or "exotic" foods are also considered. Although hypersensitivity to more than one type of "nuts" is reported by some individuals, no significant cross-reactivity between any of these, or between pine pollen, pine resin, and pine nuts has been demonstrated.

  10. Industry perspectives on biomarker qualification

    PubMed Central

    Womack, AW

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers have the potential to expedite drug development, increase patient safety, and optimize clinical response. Yet few have achieved regulatory qualification. A survey was conducted to clarify industry's perspective on biomarker qualification and identify the most promising biomarkers for drug development. The results across toxicities/clinical areas highlight challenges in regulatory qualification, although early prioritization and alignment on an evidentiary standard framework are key factors in facilitating biomarker development and qualification. PMID:26378777

  11. Therapeutic perspectives in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent

    2011-12-01

    Therapy of atopic dermatitis should comprise emollients, topical glucocorticosteroids, or calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapies, immunosuppressants like cyclosporin A, and other treatments. All these treatments should be improved, thanks to research. But new therapeutic perspectives should be given by topical anti-inflammatory substances, selective glucocorticoid receptor agonists, probiotics, interferon γ, TNFα inhibitors, inhibition of T cells or B cells, inhibition of IgE binding, and many other possibilities.

  12. Psychodynamic Perspective on Therapeutic Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Nancy A.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of boundaries in therapeutic work most often focuses on boundary maintenance, risk management factors, and boundary violations. The psychodynamic meaning and clinical management of boundaries in therapeutic relationships remains a neglected area of discourse. Clinical vignettes will illustrate a psychodynamic, developmental-relational perspective using boundary dilemmas to deepen and advance the therapeutic process. This article contributes to the dialogue about the process of making meaning and constructing therapeutically useful and creative boundaries that further the psychotherapeutic process. PMID:10523432

  13. Cyberaddictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2014-12-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen, 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina, 2012; Nadeau & et al. 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant, 2011. The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013); Coulombe (2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al. 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5, others question the operational and practical basis for the diagnostic criteria (Block, 2008). Through a review of litterature and results from research findings; the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for the cyberaddiction phenomenon. By a psychosocial perspective, we mean the inclusion of social determinants (weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, poverty, unemployment, etc) and not only the individual characteristics associated with the disease model in the addiction field. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology ? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. As a conclusion, a demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction. PMID:25173593

  14. Cyberaddictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2014-12-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen, 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina, 2012; Nadeau & et al. 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant, 2011. The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013); Coulombe (2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al. 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5, others question the operational and practical basis for the diagnostic criteria (Block, 2008). Through a review of litterature and results from research findings; the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for the cyberaddiction phenomenon. By a psychosocial perspective, we mean the inclusion of social determinants (weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, poverty, unemployment, etc) and not only the individual characteristics associated with the disease model in the addiction field. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology ? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. As a conclusion, a demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction.

  15. A Phenomenological Perspective of Educating Students at the Matt Garcia Learning Center: Resiliency Development, Responsibility Development and Relationship Building Development Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Robert Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The professional educators of Matt Garcia Learning Center (MGLC) have undertaken a monumental task of providing education to students considered to be significantly at-risk in a public school of choice. These educators are focusing on quelling the "negative success trajectory" prevalent for each of the students of MGLC. Understanding the…

  16. Approaching Adult Education Literature Using the Donlevy Template of Perspectives: A Focus on the Psychological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, James G.; Donlevy, Tia Rice

    1998-01-01

    Provides brief descriptions of adult education from technological, psychological, ideological, and sociological perspectives. Author examines the psychological perspective, highlighting the work of Jack Mezirow (transformation theory), Roger Gould (seven-step adult development process), Patricia Cranton (Understanding and Promoting Transformative…

  17. Teaching plastic surgery from different perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cable, Christian; Chong, Tae; Pratt, Daniel D

    2012-06-01

    Just as everyone has a different learning style, teachers too approach the task from different perspectives. There are five basic teaching perspectives or styles: transmission, apprenticeship, developmental, nurturing, and social justice. The acronym BIAS is useful to describe the beliefs, intentions, assessments, and strategies associated with each perspective. The authors present a hypothetical 1-week rotation in plastic and reconstructive surgery in which a student encounters instructors who embody the five basic teaching perspectives. By presenting these perspectives, the authors introduce valuable teaching techniques that can benefit all those charged with the education of learners along the spectrum from premedical to continuing education venues. Educational objectives include the following: (1) explain and illustrate different approaches to effective teaching in plastic surgery; (2) introduce readers to the Teaching Perspectives Inventory as a means of determining their primary teaching style; and (3) argue for a "plurality of the good" in teaching.

  18. Alcoholism and homosexuality: a theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Nardi, P M

    1982-01-01

    Although causal relationships between homosexuality and alcoholism have not been established, the myths and assumptions surrounding this issue are numerous. Much of the available literature on the subject is from a psychoanalytic perspective, emphasizing latent homosexuality as a cause of alcoholism. Very little is from the perspective of gay and lesbian populations. This paper analyzes the assumptions underlying the biological and genetic approaches, learning theory, psychoanalytic perspectives, and sociological models as they relate to alcoholism and homosexuality.

  19. Conceptual perspective and lexical choice in acquisition.

    PubMed

    Clark, E V

    1997-07-01

    Adult speakers choose among perspectives when they talk, with different words picking out different perspectives (e.g., the dog, our pet, that animal). The many-perspectives account of lexical acquisition proposes that children learn to take alternative perspectives along with the words they acquire, and, therefore, from the first, readily apply multiple terms to the same objects or events. And adults offer children pragmatic directions about the meanings of new words and hence about new perspectives. In contrast, the one-perspective account proposes that children are able, at first, to use only one term to talk about an object or event. Evidence for the many-perspectives account comes from a range of sources: children spontaneously use more than one term for the same object (horse and chair for a toy horse); they construct novel words to mark alternate perspectives (Dalmation-dog vs. dog); they shift perspective when asked (from cat to animal, or sailor to bear for anthropomorphic characters); and they readily learn new terms for talking about already-labelled kinds. Children sometimes fail to learn new words or fail to relate them to words already known, but only in situations that lack adequate pragmatic directions.

  20. A Piagetian Constructivist Perspective on Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Clement B. G.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses specifically on Jean Piaget's theory of development. Examines Piaget's ideas about constructivism and explores the application of this theoretical perspective to the conceptualization of curriculum development. (MG)

  1. A user's Perspective on Software

    SciTech Connect

    Isadoro T. Carlino

    2006-10-24

    The user is often the most overlooked component of control system design. At Jefferson Lab the control system is almost entirely digital in nature, with little feedback except that which is deliberately designed into the control system. In the complex control room environment a good design can enhance the user's abilities to preform good science. A bad design can leave the user frustrated and contribute significantly to down time, when science is not being done. Key points of use and design from the user's perspective are discussed, along with some techniques which have been adopted at Jefferson Lab to improve the user experience and produce better, more usable software.

  2. Perspectives in active liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Apala; Cristina, Marchetti M; Virga, Epifanio G

    2014-11-28

    Active soft matter is a young, growing field, with potential applications to a wide variety of systems. This Theme Issue explores this emerging new field by highlighting active liquid crystals. The collected contributions bridge theory to experiment, mathematical theories of passive and active nematics, spontaneous flows to defect dynamics, microscopic to continuum levels of description, spontaneous activity to biological activation. While the perspectives offered here only span a small part of this rapidly evolving field, we trust that they might provide the interested reader with a taste for this new class of non-equilibrium systems and their rich behaviour.

  3. Current Perspectives on Cognitive Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2016-01-01

    To what extent is cognition influenced by a person’s cultural background? This question has remained controversial in large fields of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive psychology, and is also underexplored in anthropology. In this perspective article, findings from a recent wave of cross-cultural studies will be outlined with respect to three aspects of cognition: perception and categorization, number representation and counting, and explanatory frameworks and beliefs. Identifying similarities and differences between these domains allows for general conclusions regarding cognitive diversity and helps to highlight the importance of culturally shaped content for a comprehensive understanding of cognition. PMID:27148118

  4. Justice from the victim's perspective.

    PubMed

    Herman, Judith Lewis

    2005-05-01

    What are the meanings of justice, as seen from the perspective of victims of violent crime? Are victims' visions of justice represented by the conventional legal system? Are they represented by restorative justice? The author engages these questions, drawing on in-depth interviews with 22 victims of violent crime. It is argued that survivors' views of justice do not fit well into either retributive or restorative models. This has implications for current efforts to use restorative models in cases of violence against women.

  5. Electrical stimulation: a societal perspective.

    PubMed

    Gater, D R; McDowell, S M; Abbas, J J

    2000-01-01

    Societal perspective on functional electrical stimulation is colored by media influence, popular thought, and political climate as much as by the science that supports it. The purpose of this article is to examine how these influences facilitate or inhibit the application of electrical stimulation in today's world and to describe the challenges facing the use of electrical stimulation in the future. Emphasis will be placed on perceived need, cost, and available resources and how these factors must be addressed to utilize functional electrical stimulation successfully in society.

  6. Macroevolutionary perspectives to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Condamine, Fabien L; Rolland, Jonathan; Morlon, Hélène

    2013-05-01

    Predicting how biodiversity will be affected and will respond to human-induced environmental changes is one of the most critical challenges facing ecologists today. Here, we put current environmental changes and their effects on biodiversity in a macroevolutionary perspective. We build on research in palaeontology and recent developments in phylogenetic approaches to ask how macroevolution can help us understand how environmental changes have affected biodiversity in the past, and how they will affect biodiversity in the future. More and more paleontological and phylogenetic data are accumulated, and we argue that much of the potential these data have for understanding environmental changes remains to be explored. PMID:23331627

  7. Environmental justice: a criminological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Michael J.; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    This article examines studies related to environmental justice in the criminological literature and from a criminological perspective. Criminologists have long been concerned with injustices in the criminal justice system related to the enforcement of criminal law. In the 1990s, following the emergence of green criminology, a handful of criminologists have drawn attention to environmental justice as an extension of more traditional criminological studies of justice and injustice. Relevant criminological studies of environmental justice are reviewed, and suggestions for future environmental justice research are offered.

  8. [Schizophrenia: Recent data, future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Leiderman, Eduardo A

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating mental disorders. During the last years, new findings have been done in the physiopathology of the disorder such as the influence of inflammation, glial changes, neural oscillations and alterations in the gabaergic interneurons. Furthermore, new conceptualizations have led to research of new therapeutics both biological and psychotherapeutic. The perspectives of the diagnostic refinement and the new therapeutics allow us to be optimistic and imagine the possibility in the future when individuals with schizophrenia could fully integrate to the society. PMID:26672502

  9. A Spanish perspective on LD.

    PubMed

    González, J E; Valle, I H

    1999-01-01

    This article offers an overview of special education in Spain, specifically in the area of learning disabilities (LD). The term LD in Spain implies a different conception of the definition that enjoys considerable international agreement and consensus. We give a historical perspective of Spanish legislation and place the proposed definition of LD in the context of recent school reform in Spain. The support services model and the assessment practices and instructional approaches in the LD field are described. Finally, some educational implications of the new school reform regarding teacher training programs to assist special educational needs are presented. PMID:15508246

  10. Trauma from a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Ray, Susan L

    2008-01-01

    Trauma from widespread collective violence such as genocide and ethnic cleansing has not been discussed from a global perspective. It will be argued that the Western medical model of diagnostic labeling is inadequate for understanding victims of collective violence from around the world. Phenomenology and liberation philosophy will be discussed as alternatives to understanding trauma from collective violence that move beyond the Western medical model of diagnostic labeling. The insights gained from these alternative approaches will contribute to the development of nursing education, research, and practice relevant to the health of victims of collective violence around the globe.

  11. Perspectives in active liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Apala; Cristina, Marchetti M.; Virga, Epifanio G.

    2014-01-01

    Active soft matter is a young, growing field, with potential applications to a wide variety of systems. This Theme Issue explores this emerging new field by highlighting active liquid crystals. The collected contributions bridge theory to experiment, mathematical theories of passive and active nematics, spontaneous flows to defect dynamics, microscopic to continuum levels of description, spontaneous activity to biological activation. While the perspectives offered here only span a small part of this rapidly evolving field, we trust that they might provide the interested reader with a taste for this new class of non-equilibrium systems and their rich behaviour. PMID:25332386

  12. Educators' implicit perspectives on wisdom: a comparison between interpersonal and intrapersonal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Ming; Cheng, Ying-Yao; Wu, Pi-Ju; Hsueh, Hsiu-I

    2014-12-01

    This research aimed to investigate educators' implicit perspectives on wisdom in order to compare interpersonal and intrapersonal perspectives and to help identify similarities or differences between these two theoretical perspectives. A total of 56 educators in Taiwan were interviewed individually. We utilised the grounded theory method to analyse the qualitative data. Results showed that both interpersonal and intrapersonal perspectives converged on four core components of wisdom: intrapsychic integration, actions in service of problem solving and ideal implementation, positive results and feedback and adjustments. The interpersonal perspective referred to external characteristics, and admiration and influence, whereas the intrapersonal perspective included greater detail about intrapsychic integration and action strategies than did the interpersonal perspective. We close with a discussion both of how wisdom appears to span across different fields and how the present results might feed into the teaching of wisdom in schools. PMID:25355665

  13. Educators' implicit perspectives on wisdom: a comparison between interpersonal and intrapersonal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Ming; Cheng, Ying-Yao; Wu, Pi-Ju; Hsueh, Hsiu-I

    2014-12-01

    This research aimed to investigate educators' implicit perspectives on wisdom in order to compare interpersonal and intrapersonal perspectives and to help identify similarities or differences between these two theoretical perspectives. A total of 56 educators in Taiwan were interviewed individually. We utilised the grounded theory method to analyse the qualitative data. Results showed that both interpersonal and intrapersonal perspectives converged on four core components of wisdom: intrapsychic integration, actions in service of problem solving and ideal implementation, positive results and feedback and adjustments. The interpersonal perspective referred to external characteristics, and admiration and influence, whereas the intrapersonal perspective included greater detail about intrapsychic integration and action strategies than did the interpersonal perspective. We close with a discussion both of how wisdom appears to span across different fields and how the present results might feed into the teaching of wisdom in schools.

  14. ASD Academic Transitions: Trends in Parental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cindy; McCoy, Kathleen M.; Zucker, Stanley H.; Mathur, Sarup R.

    2014-01-01

    Academic transitions are a necessary and important part of an ASD student's life. Parental involvement and perspective is a vital part of each transition planning process. The primary goal of this research was to identify trends in parent perspectives regarding ASD academic transitions through meta-synthesis of current research. The research…

  15. Autonomous Learning from a Social Cognitive Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton, Michael K.; Rhea, Nancy E.

    2006-01-01

    The current perspective of autonomous learning defines it as the agentive exhibition of resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in self-directed learning. As a form of human agency, it has been argued in the literature that this perspective should be consistent with Bandura's (1986) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The purpose of this article…

  16. Global Perspectives: Some Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Global Perspectives, New York, NY.

    To enlighten the reader on the status, objectives, and needs of global education, this paper poses and answers questions related to global perspectives. A global perspective is interpreted to include heightened awareness and understanding of the global system as well as increased consciousness of the intimate relationship of self, humankind, and…

  17. Recognizing Privilege: Rural, Urban, and International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, Sunny L.; Rinfret, Sara; Davitt, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Forms of White oppression in the United States are hierarchically evaluated through male-dominated society. This paper concentrates on a different perspective--White, female privilege through the experiences and self-reflections of narratives from three geographical perspectives--rural, urban, and international. Within the theoretical frameworks…

  18. Academic Perspectives on Internationalisation in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertova, Patricie

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the perspectives of senior academics on internationalisation of higher education across three countries: England, Czech Republic and Australia. In particular, it investigates the perspectives and experiences of academics in a range of leadership positions in university faculties and schools. The research utilises a critical…

  19. Attachment Representations and Time Perspective in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; D'Alessio, Maria; Pallini, Susanna; Baiocco, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between attachment to parents and peers, time perspective and psychological adjustment in adolescence. 2,665 adolescents (M age = 17.03 years, SD = 1.48) completed self-report measures about parent and peer attachment, time perspective, sympathy and self-determination. Subjects were divided into four groups…

  20. Development and Desire: A Postmodern Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy

    Three theoretical perspectives guide this discussion of teacher development: symbolic interactionism, critical social theory, and theories of postmodernity. Drawing on these perspectives, key dimensions of teacher development can be addressed. Good teaching involves competence in technical skills, but it also involves moral purpose; emotional…

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN'S ABILITY TO COORDINATE PERSPECTIVES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, JACK W.

    THE PERSPECTIVE ABILITY TEST INVOLVED 285 CHILDREN BETWEEN 66 AND 155 MONTHS OF AGE. TO MEASURE ABILITY TO COORDINATE PERSPECTIVE, THE RESEARCHER BUILT A CIRCULAR TABLE WITH AN ISLAND DISC MODELED AND PAINTED TO REPRESENT WATERS AND MOUNTAINOUS LAND. TWENTY COLOR PHOTOGRAPHS WERE TAKEN FROM DIFFERENT EQUALLY SPACED VANTAGE POINTS. THE SUBJECTS…

  2. Virtual Learning Environments: Three Implementation Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Universities worldwide offer web-based courses distributed by virtual learning environments (VLEs). A common theoretical framework for implementing VLEs is the pedagogical perspective of instructional design. In this paper, three perspectives of implementation from information systems implementation research and organization theory are presented:…

  3. Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

  4. Taking Perspective: Context, Culture, and History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo M.; Suárez-Orozco, Carola

    2013-01-01

    There are important lessons to be learned from taking a comparative perspective in considering migration. Comparative examination of immigration experiences provides a way to glean common denominators of adaptation while considering the specificity of sending and receiving contexts and cultures. Equally important is a historical perspective that…

  5. Negative Effects from Psychological Treatments: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The author offers a 40-year perspective on the observation and study of negative effects from psychotherapy or psychological treatments. This perspective is placed in the context of the enormous progress in refining methodologies for psychotherapy research over that period of time, resulting in the clear demonstration of positive effects from…

  6. Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsokova, Diana; Tarr, Jane

    2012-01-01

    What is an inclusive school community? How do stakeholders perceive their roles and responsibilities towards inclusive school communities? How can school communities become more inclusive through engagement with individual perspectives? "Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities" captures and presents the voices of a wide range of…

  7. Data Sharing from a Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheville, R. Alan

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses questions of data sharing from the perspective of a former NSF program officer. A brief comparison of policy and research perspectives is made to highlight different values in these two communities. Data sharing is framed as one means to support dialog between researchers and those involved in policy. Other uses of data…

  8. Personal pronouns and perspective taking in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Ricard, M; Girouard, P C; Décarie, T G

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the evolution of visual perspective-taking skills in relation to the comprehension and production of first, second and third person pronouns. Twelve French-speaking and 12 English-speaking children were observed longitudinally from 1.6 until they had acquired all pronouns and succeeded on all tasks. Free-play sessions and three tasks were used to test pronominal competence. Four other tasks assessed Level-1 perspective-taking skills: two of these tasks required the capacity to consider two visual perspectives, and two others tested the capacity to coordinate three such perspectives. The results indicated that children's performance on perspective-taking tasks was correlated with full pronoun acquisition. Moreover, competence at coordinating two visual perspectives preceded the full mastery of first and second person pronouns, and competence at coordinating three perspectives preceded the full mastery of third person pronouns when a strict criterion was adopted. However, with less stringent criteria, the sequence from perspective taking to pronoun acquisition varied either slightly or considerably. These findings are discussed in the light of the 'specificity hypothesis' concerning the links between cognition and language, and also in the context of the recent body of research on the child's developing theory of mind.

  9. Perspective-Based Learning in Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Robb

    2009-01-01

    An extensive research literature in education and psychology demonstrates positive effects of perspective-taking on various forms of learning. Until recently, perspective-taking has been limited to the mental simulation of how someone with different beliefs, knowledge, physical location, etc., perceives an object or event. Over the last decade…

  10. "Learning Perspective" in the Asian Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinil, Kim

    A "schooling perspective" has become the foundation of the modern educational system. It portrays instruction-centered education in which the instructor is responsible for the success or failure of education. On the other hand, a "learning perspective" characterizes education as the learners' intentional activity to attain new knowledge, ways of…

  11. Analyzing Educational Policies: A Learning Design Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Paul; Jackson, Kara

    2012-01-01

    In this article we describe and illustrate an analytical perspective in which educational policies are viewed as designs for supporting learning. From the learning design perspective, a policy comprises 3 components that we term the what, how, and "why of policy": the goals for the learning of members of the group targeted by the policy, the…

  12. Evolution of Theoretical Perspectives in My Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Valerie K.

    2009-11-01

    Over the past 10 years I have been using socio-cultural theoretical perspectives to understand how people learn physics in a highly interactive, inquiry-based physics course such as Physics and Everyday Thinking [1]. As a result of using various perspectives (e.g. Distributed Cognition and Vygotsky's Theory of Concept Formation), my understanding of how these perspectives can be useful for investigating students' learning processes has changed. In this paper, I illustrate changes in my thinking about the role of socio-cultural perspectives in understanding physics learning and describe elements of my thinking that have remained fairly stable. Finally, I will discuss pitfalls in the use of certain perspectives and discuss areas that need attention in theoretical development for PER.

  13. Leadership from an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Pamela Austin

    2004-01-01

    Leadership development can be considered from its science, which addresses business skills, and it can be considered from the art of leadership, which addresses the management of relationships. There is also the third frame of the "leader within." In this frame, art and science are blended, melded, and matured into the unique shape of each individual's expression of leadership behavior. This third perspective also addresses the cultural diversity of leadership. It permits a comparison of the American leadership experience with the evolving leadership development in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). The framework used to discuss cultural diversity of leadership development is the Center for Nursing Leadership's Dimensions of Leadership. These dimensions are a set of values, beliefs, and behaviors that look at leadership beyond the traditional skill sets. The dimensions include (1) holding the truth; (2) quest for adventure toward knowing; (3) appreciation of ambiguity; (4) holding multiple perspectives without judgment; (5) discovery of potential; (6) nurturing the emotional and intellectual self; (7) keeping commitments to oneself; and (9) diversity as a vehicle to wholeness. These dimensions explore emerging leadership shifts occuring in nurse leaders in CEE. When the CEE and American experience are compared using these dimensions, nurse leaders have far more in common, despite the cultural differences.

  14. [Growing old differently: Transdisciplinary perspective].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, H-P

    2015-04-01

    Growing old differently: the phrase is intended to call something other to mind than merely the fact that images and forms of old age and aging have multiplied and diversified to an enormous extent. The suggestion put forward here is that otherness (as opposed to mere differences) should be positively reinforced. In other words, it is not just a matter of noting different forms of old age and aging but more than this, of seeking out opportunities for aging differently. In order to explore this, the article follows an older strand of theory, which has recently come to be frequently quoted in gerontology: the phenomenology of difference as reasoned analytically by Lévinas and Sartre and applied to gerontology by Améry and de Beauvoir. Here, opportunities for aging crucially depend on the way we look at it, how we observe and describe it and not least, how gerontology frames it. A distinction is made between two perspectives and their associated consequences for old age: alienation and alterity. Alienation means looking at old age above all as a disconcerting "other", as a perplexing, problematic deviation from the norm of vitality. Alterity, by contrast, refers to different options for living life in old age: options to be explored and opened up in contradistinction to cultural or academic alienation. Not least, the article appeals for diversity in scholarly approaches and for cross-disciplinary perspectives.

  15. Perspectives on Aging Vestibular Function.

    PubMed

    Anson, Eric; Jeka, John

    2015-01-01

    Much is known about age-related anatomical changes in the vestibular system. Knowledge regarding how vestibular anatomical changes impact behavior for older adults continues to grow, in line with advancements in diagnostic testing. However, despite advancements in clinical diagnostics, much remains unknown about the functional impact that an aging vestibular system has on daily life activities such as standing and walking. Modern diagnostic tests are very good at characterizing neural activity of the isolated vestibular system, but the tests themselves are artificial and do not reflect the multisensory aspects of natural human behavior. Also, the majority of clinical diagnostic tests are passively applied because active behavior can enhance performance. In this perspective paper, we review anatomical and behavioral changes associated with an aging vestibular system and highlight several areas where a more functionally relevant perspective can be taken. For postural control, a multisensory perturbation approach could be used to bring balance rehabilitation into the arena of precision medicine. For walking and complex gaze stability, this may result in less physiologically specific impairments, but the trade-off would be a greater understanding of how the aging vestibular system truly impacts the daily life of older adults. PMID:26779116

  16. Decent Work: A Psychological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Blustein, David L; Olle, Chad; Connors-Kellgren, Alice; Diamonti, A J

    2016-01-01

    This contribution, which serves as the lead article for the Research Topic entitled "From Meaning of Working to Meaningful Lives: The Challenges of Expanding Decent Work," explores current challenges in the development and operationalization of decent work. Based on an initiative from the International Labor Organization [ILO] (1999) decent work represents an aspirational statement about the quality of work that should be available to all people who seek to work around the globe. Within recent years, several critiques have been raised about decent work from various disciplines, highlighting concerns about a retreat from the social justice ethos that had initially defined the concept. In addition, other scholars have observed that decent work has not included a focus on the role of meaning and purpose at work. To address these concerns, we propose that a psychological perspective can help to revitalize the decent work agenda by infusing a more specific focus on individual experiences and by reconnecting decent work to its social justice origins. As an illustration of the advantages of a psychological perspective, we explore the rise of precarious work and also connect the decent work agenda to the Psychology-of-Working Framework and Theory (Blustein, 2006; Duffy et al., 2016). PMID:27047430

  17. Patient Perspectives on Biosimilar Insulin.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Alasdair R; Venkat, Manu V; Brown, Adam S; Dong, Jessica P; Ran, Nina A; Hirsch, James S; Close, Kelly L

    2014-01-01

    Given that a new wave of biosimilar insulins will likely enter the market in coming years, it is important to understand patient perspectives on these biosimilars. A survey (N = 3214) conducted by the market research company dQ&A, which maintains a 10 000-patient panel of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in roughly equal measure, investigated these perspectives. The survey asked whether patients would switch to a hypothetical less expensive biosimilar insulin that was approved by their provider. Approximately 66% of respondents reported that they would "definitely" or "likely" use a biosimilar insulin, while 17% reported that they were "unlikely" to use or would "definitely not use" such a product. Type 2 diabetes patients demonstrated slightly more willingness to use biosimilars than type 1 diabetes patients. Common patient concerns included whether biosimilars would be as effective as reference products (~650 respondents), whether side effect profiles would deviate from those of reference products (~220 respondents), and the design of the delivery device (~50 respondents). While cost savings associated with biosimilar insulins could increase patient uptake, especially among patients without health insurance (some recent estimates suggest that biosimilars will come at a substantial discount), patients may still need assurance that a cheaper price tag is not necessarily associated with substandard quality. Overall, the dQ&A survey indicates that the majority of patients are willing to consider biosimilar insulins, but manufacturers will need to work proactively to address and assuage patient concerns regarding efficacy, safety, drug administration, and other factors. PMID:24876533

  18. Cast shadows in wide perspective.

    PubMed

    Pont, Sylvia C; Wijntjes, Maarten W A; Oomes, Augustinus H J; van Doom, Andrea; van Nierop, Onno; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink, Jan J

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the apparent spatial layout of cast shadows up to very wide fields of view. We presented up to 130 degrees wide images in which two 'flat poles' were standing on a green lawn under a cloudless blue sky on a sunny day. The poles threw sharp cast shadows on the green, of which one was fixed. The observer's task was to adjust the azimuth of the shadow of the other pole such that it fitted the scene. The source elevation was kept constant. The two cast shadows are, of course, parallel in physical space, but generically not in the picture plane because of the wide perspective. We found that observers made huge systematic errors, indicating that, generically, they fail to account for these perspective effects. The systematic deviations could be well described by a weighted linear combination of the directions in the picture plane and in the physical space, with weights that depended on the positions of, and distance between, the poles.

  19. Technology Adoption: an Interaction Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitorus, Hotna M.; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    The success of a new technology depends on how well it is accepted by its intended users. Many technologies face the problem of low adoption rate, despite the benefits. An understanding of what makes people accept or reject a new technology can help speed up the adoption rate. This paper presents a framework for technology adoption based on an interactive perspective, resulting from a literature study on technology adoption. In studying technology adoption, it is necessary to consider the interactions among elements involved in the system, for these interactions may generate new characteristics or new relationships. The interactions among elements in a system adoption have not received sufficient consideration in previous studies of technology adoption. Based on the proposed interaction perspective, technology adoption is elaborated by examining interactions among the individual (i.e. the user or prospective user), the technology, the task and the environment. The framework is formulated by adopting several theories, including Perceived Characteristics of Innovating, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Technology Acceptance Model, Task-Technology Fit and usability theory. The proposed framework is illustrated in the context of mobile banking adoption. It is aimed to offer a better understanding of determinants of technology adoption in various contexts, including technology in manufacturing systems.

  20. Molecular imprinting: perspectives and applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingxin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Wenhui; Wu, Xiaqing; Li, Jinhua

    2016-04-21

    Molecular imprinting technology (MIT), often described as a method of making a molecular lock to match a molecular key, is a technique for the creation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with tailor-made binding sites complementary to the template molecules in shape, size and functional groups. Owing to their unique features of structure predictability, recognition specificity and application universality, MIPs have found a wide range of applications in various fields. Herein, we propose to comprehensively review the recent advances in molecular imprinting including versatile perspectives and applications, concerning novel preparation technologies and strategies of MIT, and highlight the applications of MIPs. The fundamentals of MIPs involving essential elements, preparation procedures and characterization methods are briefly outlined. Smart MIT for MIPs is especially highlighted including ingenious MIT (surface imprinting, nanoimprinting, etc.), special strategies of MIT (dummy imprinting, segment imprinting, etc.) and stimuli-responsive MIT (single/dual/multi-responsive technology). By virtue of smart MIT, new formatted MIPs gain popularity for versatile applications, including sample pretreatment/chromatographic separation (solid phase extraction, monolithic column chromatography, etc.) and chemical/biological sensing (electrochemical sensing, fluorescence sensing, etc.). Finally, we propose the remaining challenges and future perspectives to accelerate the development of MIT, and to utilize it for further developing versatile MIPs with a wide range of applications (650 references). PMID:26936282

  1. Decent Work: A Psychological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Blustein, David L.; Olle, Chad; Connors-Kellgren, Alice; Diamonti, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution, which serves as the lead article for the Research Topic entitled “From Meaning of Working to Meaningful Lives: The Challenges of Expanding Decent Work,” explores current challenges in the development and operationalization of decent work. Based on an initiative from the International Labor Organization [ILO] (1999) decent work represents an aspirational statement about the quality of work that should be available to all people who seek to work around the globe. Within recent years, several critiques have been raised about decent work from various disciplines, highlighting concerns about a retreat from the social justice ethos that had initially defined the concept. In addition, other scholars have observed that decent work has not included a focus on the role of meaning and purpose at work. To address these concerns, we propose that a psychological perspective can help to revitalize the decent work agenda by infusing a more specific focus on individual experiences and by reconnecting decent work to its social justice origins. As an illustration of the advantages of a psychological perspective, we explore the rise of precarious work and also connect the decent work agenda to the Psychology-of-Working Framework and Theory (Blustein, 2006; Duffy et al., 2016). PMID:27047430

  2. Molecular imprinting: perspectives and applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingxin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Wenhui; Wu, Xiaqing; Li, Jinhua

    2016-04-21

    Molecular imprinting technology (MIT), often described as a method of making a molecular lock to match a molecular key, is a technique for the creation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with tailor-made binding sites complementary to the template molecules in shape, size and functional groups. Owing to their unique features of structure predictability, recognition specificity and application universality, MIPs have found a wide range of applications in various fields. Herein, we propose to comprehensively review the recent advances in molecular imprinting including versatile perspectives and applications, concerning novel preparation technologies and strategies of MIT, and highlight the applications of MIPs. The fundamentals of MIPs involving essential elements, preparation procedures and characterization methods are briefly outlined. Smart MIT for MIPs is especially highlighted including ingenious MIT (surface imprinting, nanoimprinting, etc.), special strategies of MIT (dummy imprinting, segment imprinting, etc.) and stimuli-responsive MIT (single/dual/multi-responsive technology). By virtue of smart MIT, new formatted MIPs gain popularity for versatile applications, including sample pretreatment/chromatographic separation (solid phase extraction, monolithic column chromatography, etc.) and chemical/biological sensing (electrochemical sensing, fluorescence sensing, etc.). Finally, we propose the remaining challenges and future perspectives to accelerate the development of MIT, and to utilize it for further developing versatile MIPs with a wide range of applications (650 references).

  3. Trafficking: a perspective from Asia.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, R

    2000-01-01

    The main theme of this article is market development and trafficking as a business. It touches upon most of the aspects of the phenomenon, which have been encountered elsewhere, and translates them into the relatively unfamiliar context of many of the Asian and South-East Asian economies. Equally, the literature cited is also probably unfamiliar. Themes touched upon include democratization, inter-state relations, human rights, and scale and perspectives, together with the problems of definitions, theory, and the reliability of data. The directions and characteristics of trafficking flows together with routes and border control are also considered. Coordinated official responses to criminality and criminal organizations, as well as to trafficked individuals, are beginning to emerge. There is a note of caution sounded that contextual and cultural perspectives, particularly on sex workers, must be viewed somewhat differently to those in Western societies. The article concludes that as long as countries in Asia maintain their policies of restrictive immigration, trafficking can be expected to continue and almost certainly increase. This is because accelerating development creates demand for labor at various skill levels and because even in times of recession migrants and brokers will seek to side-step attempts to expel immigrants and restrict access to labor markets. The elimination of trafficking is unlikely to be realistically achieved through legislation and declarations of intent but by improvements in the socioeconomic status of the population.

  4. Perspective.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Lewis

    2015-01-01

    I am a developmental biologist, but I started off as a civil engineer. I did some research on soil mechanics but decided to change to biology. A friend changed my life when he told me about the mechanics of cell division, on which I did my PhD at Kings College. I then worked on the morphogenesis of the sea urchin embryo and became interested in how embryos are patterned, and I proposed positional information as a basic mechanism. I was a professor at the Middlesex Hospital Medical School, where we concentrated on how the chick limb developed.

  5. Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Patricia, Ed.

    Designed to encourage informed and critical thinking on contemporary political issues and processes, the articles, case studies, and activities in this student handbook can be incorporated into secondary school social studies units on government or current events. Eight chapters cover the presidency, the federal bureaucracy, the Congress, the…

  6. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Dance education provides a language that allows students and teachers to express themselves in new ways and to think through ideas differently. All students deserve the opportunity to learn things in new ways, to internalize information and rephrase it, to understand their world and contribute to it. All students deserve the opportunity to…

  7. Cosmological Inflation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demos

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief review of Cosmological Inflation from the personal perspective of the speaker who almost 30 years ago proposed a way of resolving the problem of Cosmological Horizon by employing certain notions and developments from the field of High Energy Physics. Along with a brief introduction of the Horizon and Flatness problems of standard cosmology, this lecture concentrates on personal reminiscing of the notions and ideas that prevailed and influenced the author's thinking at the time. The lecture then touches upon some more recent developments related to the subject including exact solutions to conformal gravity that provide a first principles emergence of a characteristic acceleration in the universe and concludes with some personal views concerning the direction that the cosmology field has taken in the past couple of decades and certain speculations some notions that may indicate future directions of research.

  8. Critical perspectives on historical collapse

    PubMed Central

    Butzer, Karl W.; Endfield, Georgina H.

    2012-01-01

    Historical collapse of ancient states or civilizations has raised new awareness about its possible relevance to current issues of sustainability, in the context of global change. This Special Feature examines 12 case studies of societies under stress, of which seven suffered severe transformation. Outcomes were complex and unpredictable. Five others overcame breakdown through environmental, political, or socio-cultural resilience, which deserves as much attention as the identification of stressors. Response to environmental crises of the last millennium varied greatly according to place and time but drew from traditional knowledge to evaluate new information or experiment with increasing flexibility, even if modernization or intensification were decentralized and protracted. Longer-term diachronic experience offers insight into how societies have dealt with acute stress, a more instructive perspective for the future than is offered by apocalyptic scenarios. PMID:22371580

  9. Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.; Guerin, Scott A.; St. Jacques, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    Memory is prone to distortions that can have serious consequences in everyday life. Here we integrate emerging evidence that several types of memory distortions – imagination inflation, gist-based and associative memory errors, and post-event misinformation – reflect adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory, but produce distortions as a consequence of doing so. We consider recent cognitive and neuroimaging studies that link these distortions with adaptive processes, including simulation of future events, semantic and contextual encoding, creativity, and memory updating. We also discuss new evidence concerning factors that can influence the occurrence of memory distortions, such as sleep and retrieval conditions, as well as conceptual issues related to the development of an adaptive perspective. PMID:21908231

  10. Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Soli, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Although siblings are a fixture of family life, research on sibling relationships lags behind that on other family relationships. To stimulate interest in sibling research and to serve as a guide for future investigations by family scholars, we review four theoretical psychologically oriented perspectives—(a) psychoanalytic-evolutionary, (b) social psychological, (c) social learning, and (d) family-ecological systems—that can inform research on sibling relationships, including perspectives on the nature and influences on developmental, individual, and group differences in sibling relationships. Given that most research on siblings has focused on childhood and adolescence, our review highlights these developmental periods, but we also incorporate the limited research on adult sibling relationships, including in formulating suggestions for future research on this fundamental family relationship. PMID:21731581

  11. Biofield Science: Current Physics Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kafatos, Menas C; Chevalier, Gaétan; Chopra, Deepak; Hubacher, John; Kak, Subhash; Theise, Neil D

    2015-11-01

    This article briefly reviews the biofield hypothesis and its scientific literature. Evidence for the existence of the biofield now exists, and current theoretical foundations are now being developed. A review of the biofield and related topics from the perspective of physical science is needed to identify a common body of knowledge and evaluate possible underlying principles of origin of the biofield. The properties of such a field could be based on electromagnetic fields, coherent states, biophotons, quantum and quantum-like processes, and ultimately the quantum vacuum. Given this evidence, we intend to inquire and discuss how the existence of the biofield challenges reductionist approaches and presents its own challenges regarding the origin and source of the biofield, the specific evidence for its existence, its relation to biology, and last but not least, how it may inform an integrated understanding of consciousness and the living universe.

  12. Perspective on resonances of metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Min, Li; Huang, Lirong

    2015-07-27

    Electromagnetic resonance as the most important characteristic of metamaterials enables lots of exotic phenomena, such as invisible, negative refraction, man-made magnetism, etc. Conventional LC-resonance circuit model as the most authoritative and classic model is good at explaining and predicting the fundamental resonance wavelength of a metamaterial, while feels hard for high-order resonances, especially for resonance intensity (strength of resonance, determining on the performance and efficiency of metamaterial-based devices). In present work, via an easy-to-understand mass-spring model, we present a different and comprehensive insight for the resonance mechanism of metamaterials, through which both the resonance wavelengths (including the fundamental and high-order resonance wavelengths) and resonance intensities of metamaterials can be better understood. This developed theory has been well verified by different-material and different-structure resonators. This perspective will provide a broader space for exploring novel optical devices based on metamaterials (or metasurfaces).

  13. Perspectives on sustainable waste management.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Marco J

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable waste management is a goal that all societies must strive to maintain. Currently nearly 80% of global wastes are sent to landfill, with a significant amount lacking proper design or containment. The increased attention to environmental impacts of human activities and the increasing demand for energy and materials have resulted in a new perspective on waste streams. Use of waste streams for energy and materials recovery is becoming more prevalent, especially in developed regions of the world, such as Europe, the United States, and Japan. Although currently these efforts have a small impact on waste disposal, use of waste streams to extract value very likely will increase as society becomes more aware of the options available. This review presents an overview of waste management with a focus on following an expanded waste hierarchy to extract value specifically from municipal solid waste streams.

  14. An attachment perspective on psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    MIKULINCER, MARIO; SHAVER, PHILIP R.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, attachment theory, which was originally formulated to describe and explain infant-parent emotional bonding, has been applied to the study of adolescent and adult romantic relationships and then to the study of psychological processes, such as interpersonal functioning, emotion regulation, coping with stress, and mental health. In this paper, we offer a brief overview of the attachment perspective on psychopathology. Following a brief account of attachment theory, we go on to explain how the study of individual differences in adult attachment intersects with the study of psychopathology. Specifically, we review research findings showing that attachment insecurity is a major contributor to mental disorders, and that the enhancement of attachment security can facilitate amelioration of psychopathology. PMID:22294997

  15. Antiviral perspectives for chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Deepti; Cherian, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that has a major health impact in humans and causes acute febrile illness in humans accompanied by joint pains and, in many cases, persistent arthralgia lasting for weeks to years. CHIKV reemerged in 2005-2006 in several parts of the Indian Ocean islands and India after a gap of 32 years, causing millions of cases. The re-emergence of CHIKV has also resulted in numerous outbreaks in several countries in the eastern hemisphere, with a threat to further expand in the near future. However, there is no vaccine against CHIKV infection licensed for human use, and therapy for CHIKV infection is still mainly limited to supportive care as antiviral agents are yet in different stages of testing or development. In this review we explore the different perspectives for chikungunya treatment and the effectiveness of these treatment regimens and discuss the scope for future directions.

  16. Orbital Debris: A Policy Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing orbital debris from a policy perspective is shown. The contents include: 1) Voyage through near-Earth Space-animation; 2) What is Orbital Debris?; 3) Orbital Debris Detectors and Damage Potential; 4) Hubble Space Telescope; 5) Mir Space Station Solar Array; 6) International Space Station; 7) Space Shuttle; 8) Satellite Explosions; 9) Satellite Collisions; 10) NASA Orbital Debris Mitigation Guidelines; 11) International Space Station Jettison Policy; 12) Controlled/Uncontrolled Satellite Reentries; 13) Return of Space Objects; 14) Orbital Debris and U.S. National Space Policy; 15) U.S Government Policy Strategy; 16) Bankruptcy of the Iridium Satellite System; 17) Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC); 18) Orbital Debris at the United Nations; 19) Chinese Anti-satellite System; 20) Future Evolution of Satellite Population; and 21) Challenge of Orbital Debris

  17. A coastal perspective on security.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Steven D; Nadeau, John

    2003-11-14

    This paper examines security issues from the unique perspective of our nation's coastlines and associated infrastructure. It surveys ongoing efforts to secure offshore shipping lanes, as well as the transportation systems and huge capital investments on the narrow strip of land intersecting with coastal waters. The paper recounts the extraordinary demands recently placed on the Coast Guard, port authorities and other agencies charged with offshore security. New federal requirements such as port assessments continue to be mandated, while solutions to finding are still unfolding. An up-to-date summary of maritime security functions is provided. Those requirements are compared and contrasted with security guidelines and regulatory demands placed upon mobile and fixed assets of the Chemical Process Industry (CPI) in coastal environs. These span the gamut from recommendations by industry groups and professional organizations, to federal and state requirements, to insurance demands, to general duty obligations.

  18. Synthetic biology: a utilitarian perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I examine the positive and negative features of synthetic biology ('SynBio') from a utilitarian ethical perspective. The potential beneficial outcomes from SynBio in the context of medicine are substantial; however it is not presently possible to predict precise outcomes due to the nascent state of the field. Potential negative outcomes from SynBio also exist, including iatrogenesis and bioterrorism; however it is not yet possible to quantify these risks. I argue that the application of a 'precautionary' approach to SynBio is ethically fraught, as is the notion that SynBio-associated knowledge ought to be restricted. I conclude that utilitarians ought to support a broadly laissez-faire stance in respect of SynBio.

  19. Sparsity and the Bayesian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starck, J.-L.; Donoho, D. L.; Fadili, M. J.; Rassat, A.

    2013-04-01

    Sparsity has recently been introduced in cosmology for weak-lensing and cosmic microwave background (CMB) data analysis for different applications such as denoising, component separation, or inpainting (i.e., filling the missing data or the mask). Although it gives very nice numerical results, CMB sparse inpainting has been severely criticized by top researchers in cosmology using arguments derived from a Bayesian perspective. In an attempt to understand their point of view, we realize that interpreting a regularization penalty term as a prior in a Bayesian framework can lead to erroneous conclusions. This paper is by no means against the Bayesian approach, which has proven to be very useful for many applications, but warns against a Bayesian-only interpretation in data analysis, which can be misleading in some cases.

  20. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Hafize Emine; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Özen, Seza

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations. PMID:27051312

  1. Synthetic biology: a utilitarian perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I examine the positive and negative features of synthetic biology ('SynBio') from a utilitarian ethical perspective. The potential beneficial outcomes from SynBio in the context of medicine are substantial; however it is not presently possible to predict precise outcomes due to the nascent state of the field. Potential negative outcomes from SynBio also exist, including iatrogenesis and bioterrorism; however it is not yet possible to quantify these risks. I argue that the application of a 'precautionary' approach to SynBio is ethically fraught, as is the notion that SynBio-associated knowledge ought to be restricted. I conclude that utilitarians ought to support a broadly laissez-faire stance in respect of SynBio. PMID:24010857

  2. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Hafize Emine; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Özen, Seza

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations. PMID:27051312

  3. Biofield Science: Current Physics Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Gaétan; Chopra, Deepak; Hubacher, John; Kak, Subhash; Theise, Neil D.

    2015-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the biofield hypothesis and its scientific literature. Evidence for the existence of the biofield now exists, and current theoretical foundations are now being developed. A review of the biofield and related topics from the perspective of physical science is needed to identify a common body of knowledge and evaluate possible underlying principles of origin of the biofield. The properties of such a field could be based on electromagnetic fields, coherent states, biophotons, quantum and quantum-like processes, and ultimately the quantum vacuum. Given this evidence, we intend to inquire and discuss how the existence of the biofield challenges reductionist approaches and presents its own challenges regarding the origin and source of the biofield, the specific evidence for its existence, its relation to biology, and last but not least, how it may inform an integrated understanding of consciousness and the living universe. PMID:26665039

  4. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  5. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  6. Anxiety impairs spontaneous perspective calculation: Evidence from a level-1 visual perspective-taking task.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew R; Simpson, Austin J

    2016-11-01

    Reasoning about other people's mental states is central to social life. Yet, even neuro-typical adults sometimes have perspective-taking difficulties, particularly when another's perspective conflicts with their own. In two experiments, we examined the cognitive mechanisms underlying an affective factor known to hinder perspective taking in adults: anxiety. Using a level-1 visual perspective-taking task, we found that incidentally experiencing anxiety, relative to neutral feelings and anger, impaired the spontaneous calculation of what another social agent can see. Feeling anxious did not, however, impede perspective calculation with a non-social entity, suggesting that anxiety's disruptive effects may be particularly pronounced for social aspects of cognition. These findings help elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of incidental emotions on perspective taking and inform debates about "implicit" forms of mentalizing. PMID:27522111

  7. Textbook Questions in Context-Based and Traditional Chemistry Curricula Analysed from a Content Perspective and a Learning Activities Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overman, Michelle; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    In this study, questions in context-based and traditional chemistry textbooks were analysed from two perspectives that are at the heart of chemistry curricula reforms: a content perspective and a learning activities perspective. To analyse these textbook questions, we developed an instrument for each perspective. In total, 971 textbook questions…

  8. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: A REGULATORY PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosensors show the potential to complement laboratory-based analytical methods for environmental applications. Although biosensors for potential environmental-monitoring applications have been reported for a wide range of environmental pollutants, from a regulatory perspective, ...

  9. Alternative Work Schedules: A Labor Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalusky, John L.

    1977-01-01

    The compressed work week, flexitime, and job sharing are discussed from the labor perspective. The author suggests that it is unlikely that unions will endorse flexible work arrangements that jeopardize the eight-hour-day concept. (LBH)

  10. Four Perspectives on L2 Pragmatic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Gabrielle

    2001-01-01

    Assesses the contributions made by different approaches to interlanguage pragmatics as a subfield of second language acquisition. Discusses how four particular perspectives on pragmatic development relate to each other. (Author/VWL)

  11. Dual Enrollment Participation from the Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanny, M. Allison

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the experiences of five high school students previously enrolled in dual enrollment courses, and discusses the perceived benefits and disadvantages of these experiences from the student perspective.

  12. Urban transportation: Perspectives on mobility and choice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor); Arnold, G. R.; Bird, J. W.; Brooks, C. M. (Editor); Cobb, W. E.; Cross, J. E.; Darby, L. F.; Erb, N. H.; Ficht, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A study of urban transportation systems are presented characterized by intensive scrutiny of many ideas, philosophies, and academic perspectives. This report is intended to communicate some dimensions of the urban transportation problem to the general public.

  13. Depression and Higher Education: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehlman, Beth

    1977-01-01

    Calls attention to some of the more obvious and interesting parallels between the 1930s and 1970s and suggests that such comparisons might be fruitful in gaining perspective on the problems faced in higher education today. (Author/IRT)

  14. An inside perspective on anabolic steroid abuse

    PubMed Central

    Schaive, Chad; Kohler, Tobias S.

    2016-01-01

    Steroid abuse is common across gyms across the world. This unique article features an inside perspective/opinion in a question and answer format from a former steroid user/high level body builder. PMID:27141450

  15. Perspective: Emergent magnetic phenomena at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Yuri

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of emergent magnetic phenomena is of fundamental and technological interest. This perspective highlights recent promising examples of emergent ferromagnetism at complex oxide interfaces in the context of spin based electronics.

  16. A Perspective on Physical Organic Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A perspective on the development of mechanistic carbene chemistry is presented. The author will point out questions that have been answered, and a next generation of questions will be proposed. PMID:24571434

  17. An inside perspective on anabolic steroid abuse.

    PubMed

    Schaive, Chad; Kohler, Tobias S

    2016-04-01

    Steroid abuse is common across gyms across the world. This unique article features an inside perspective/opinion in a question and answer format from a former steroid user/high level body builder. PMID:27141450

  18. The Perspective Structure of Visual Space.

    PubMed

    Erkelens, Casper J

    2015-10-01

    Luneburg's model has been the reference for experimental studies of visual space for almost seventy years. His claim for a curved visual space has been a source of inspiration for visual scientists as well as philosophers. The conclusion of many experimental studies has been that Luneburg's model does not describe visual space in various tasks and conditions. Remarkably, no alternative model has been suggested. The current study explores perspective transformations of Euclidean space as a model for visual space. Computations show that the geometry of perspective spaces is considerably different from that of Euclidean space. Collinearity but not parallelism is preserved in perspective space and angles are not invariant under translation and rotation. Similar relationships have shown to be properties of visual space. Alley experiments performed early in the nineteenth century have been instrumental in hypothesizing curved visual spaces. Alleys were computed in perspective space and compared with reconstructed alleys of Blumenfeld. Parallel alleys were accurately described by perspective geometry. Accurate distance alleys were derived from parallel alleys by adjusting the interstimulus distances according to the size-distance invariance hypothesis. Agreement between computed and experimental alleys and accommodation of experimental results that rejected Luneburg's model show that perspective space is an appropriate model for how we perceive orientations and angles. The model is also appropriate for perceived distance ratios between stimuli but fails to predict perceived distances. PMID:27648222

  19. The Perspective Structure of Visual Space.

    PubMed

    Erkelens, Casper J

    2015-10-01

    Luneburg's model has been the reference for experimental studies of visual space for almost seventy years. His claim for a curved visual space has been a source of inspiration for visual scientists as well as philosophers. The conclusion of many experimental studies has been that Luneburg's model does not describe visual space in various tasks and conditions. Remarkably, no alternative model has been suggested. The current study explores perspective transformations of Euclidean space as a model for visual space. Computations show that the geometry of perspective spaces is considerably different from that of Euclidean space. Collinearity but not parallelism is preserved in perspective space and angles are not invariant under translation and rotation. Similar relationships have shown to be properties of visual space. Alley experiments performed early in the nineteenth century have been instrumental in hypothesizing curved visual spaces. Alleys were computed in perspective space and compared with reconstructed alleys of Blumenfeld. Parallel alleys were accurately described by perspective geometry. Accurate distance alleys were derived from parallel alleys by adjusting the interstimulus distances according to the size-distance invariance hypothesis. Agreement between computed and experimental alleys and accommodation of experimental results that rejected Luneburg's model show that perspective space is an appropriate model for how we perceive orientations and angles. The model is also appropriate for perceived distance ratios between stimuli but fails to predict perceived distances.

  20. The Perspective Structure of Visual Space

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Luneburg’s model has been the reference for experimental studies of visual space for almost seventy years. His claim for a curved visual space has been a source of inspiration for visual scientists as well as philosophers. The conclusion of many experimental studies has been that Luneburg’s model does not describe visual space in various tasks and conditions. Remarkably, no alternative model has been suggested. The current study explores perspective transformations of Euclidean space as a model for visual space. Computations show that the geometry of perspective spaces is considerably different from that of Euclidean space. Collinearity but not parallelism is preserved in perspective space and angles are not invariant under translation and rotation. Similar relationships have shown to be properties of visual space. Alley experiments performed early in the nineteenth century have been instrumental in hypothesizing curved visual spaces. Alleys were computed in perspective space and compared with reconstructed alleys of Blumenfeld. Parallel alleys were accurately described by perspective geometry. Accurate distance alleys were derived from parallel alleys by adjusting the interstimulus distances according to the size-distance invariance hypothesis. Agreement between computed and experimental alleys and accommodation of experimental results that rejected Luneburg’s model show that perspective space is an appropriate model for how we perceive orientations and angles. The model is also appropriate for perceived distance ratios between stimuli but fails to predict perceived distances. PMID:27648222

  1. Perspective View, San Andreas Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is California's famous San Andreas Fault. The image, created with data from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. This segment of the fault lies west of the city of Palmdale, Calif., about 100 kilometers (about 60 miles) northwest of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. Two large mountain ranges are visible, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains in the upper right. Another fault, the Garlock Fault lies at the base of the Tehachapis; the San Andreas and the Garlock Faults meet in the center distance near the town of Gorman. In the distance, over the Tehachapi Mountains is California's Central Valley. Along the foothills in the right hand part of the image is the Antelope Valley, including the Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve. The data used to create this image were acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    SRTM uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space

  2. Cultural psychiatry: international perspectives. Epilogue.

    PubMed

    Fàbrega, H

    2001-09-01

    The psychiatry of the 21st century will have to be different from the psychiatry of the 20th century. The latter began its journey in a socially, compartmentalized world in which sharp categories and boundaries for the definition of mental illness were assumed to be relevant. International psychiatry completed its hegemonic hold over the territory of mental health and illness with a commanding home-stretch run of success borne in the confidence and optimism of its neurobiologic and culture free program and agenda. The world in which psychiatry now exists, however is changing rapidly and will continue to change and so of necessity will the practice of psychiatry need to change. This issue offers a guidelines and a vision of the direction that should be followed. Migration and transnational communication and awareness of cultural differences are changing the character of communities around the world. These changes considered in the context of world wide political economic factors are bringing into close physical and symbolic juxtaposition persons from distinct nations and ethnic groups. Clashes in world views, attitudes, spiritual orientation, and general philosophic and moral outlook are becoming ever-present realities of urban centers around the world. In traditional contexts and among persons who do not physically migrate, the power of communications media manages to psychologically migrate them; that is, to challenge their local, native cultural traditions about mental health with the scientific perspectives about mental health and illness. Advances in the social and cultural sciences have underscored ways in which assumptions of reductionism and universalism need to be chastened with an appreciation of human differences and humane considerations as these relate to mental health problems. The science of psychiatry of the 21st century will have to accomodate to this new creolized world of ethnic pluralism, cultural differences, and clashing perspectives between

  3. Perspective View, San Andreas Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is the San Andreas Fault in an image created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. This segment of the fault lies west of the city of Palmdale, California, about 100 kilometers (about 60 miles) northwest of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. This area is at the junction of two large mountain ranges, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains on the right. Quail Lake Reservoir sits in the topographic depression created by past movement along the fault. Interstate 5 is the prominent linear feature starting at the left edge of the image and continuing into the fault zone, passing eventually over Tejon Pass into the Central Valley, visible at the upper left.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994

  4. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  5. SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN vSHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

  6. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1) screening; (2) physical training; (3) nutrition and rest; (4) specialized dance health care; and (5) becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. PMID:24379726

  7. Cosmological Inflation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, D.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately twenty five years ago a novel proposal was made to explain two of the outstanding cosmological conundrums, namely those of the Horizon Problem and the Flatness Problem of the Universe. These are the fact that widely separated parts of the sky that have never been in causal contact during the evolution of the Universe have apparently the same CMB temperature and the fact that the mean density of the Universe is very close to the critical one, i.e. very close to the density that separates the closed and open models. These coincidences implied that the corresponding initial condition of the Universe must have been set to exquisite accuracy. This novel proposal posted that at these very early times, the energy density of the Universe was dominated by a fluid which had the equation state attributed to the vacuum (i.e. dominated by tension rather than pressure) and that this led to an exponential expansion of the Universe which was "inflated" by many orders of magnitude of its original size. It was then shown that this "inflation" could provide a resolution of the above outstanding problems. The talk will cover the speaker's personal perspective and contributions to this idea and the subsequent developments over the following 25 years since its inception.

  8. Scientific perspectives on music therapy.

    PubMed

    Hillecke, Thomas; Nickel, Anne; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2005-12-01

    What needs to be done on the long road to evidence-based music therapy? First of all, an adequate research strategy is required. For this purpose the general methodology for therapy research should be adopted. Additionally, music therapy needs a variety of methods of allied fields to contribute scientific findings, including mathematics, natural sciences, behavioral and social sciences, as well as the arts. Pluralism seems necessary as well as inevitable. At least two major research problems can be identified, however, that make the path stony: the problem of specificity and the problem of eclecticism. Neuroscientific research in music is giving rise to new ideas, perspectives, and methods; they seem to be promising prospects for a possible contribution to a theoretical and empirical scientific foundation for music therapy. Despite the huge heterogeneity of theoretical approaches in music therapy, an integrative model of working ingredients in music therapy is useful as a starting point for empirical studies in order to question what specifically works in music therapy. For this purpose, a heuristic model, consisting of five music therapy working factors (attention modulation, emotion modulation, cognition modulation, behavior modulation, and communication modulation) has been developed by the Center for Music Therapy Research (Viktor Dulger Institute) in Heidelberg. Evidence shows the effectiveness of music therapy for treating certain diseases, but the question of what it is in music therapy that works remains largely unanswered. The authors conclude with some questions to neuroscientists, which we hope may help elucidate relevant aspects of a possible link between the two disciplines.

  9. Schizotypy From a Developmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Debbané, Martin; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    The schizotypy construct focuses attention on the liability to develop schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, yet traditionally, the schizotypy models have put more emphasis on stress-vulnerability interactions rather than developmental dynamics of emerging risk for psychopathology. Indeed, developmental accounts of this emerging personality trait have rarely been explicitly formulated. In this position article, we wish to convey some of the basic developmental tenets of schizotypy, and how they can inform high-risk research. Firstly, we tackle the state vs trait issue to outline the possible relationship between high-risk states and trait schizotypy. Second, we review the evidence suggesting that the consolidation of schizotypy, encompassing its 3 main dimensions, could be considered as a developmental mediator between very early risk factors and transition into high-risk states. Importantly, developmental dynamics between endophenotypes, as well as transactional and epigenetics mechanisms should enter modern conceptualizations of schizotypy. Finally, we present a developmental psychopathology perspective of schizotypy sensitive to both the multifinality and equifinality of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. We conclude that schizotypy represents a crucial construct in a fully-developmental study of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. PMID:25548385

  10. Behavioral inhibition: a neurobiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Barak E

    2006-08-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) during early childhood has been associated with subsequent development of anxiety disorders. However, understanding of the neuroanatomical substrates of BI in humans generally has not kept pace with that of anxiety disorders. Recent interpretations and implementations of Gray's and Kagan's concepts of BI are examined from the perspective of current neurobiological models. Particular attention is given to evidence pointing to conceptual and operational limitations of self-report scales purported to measure trait BI in adults, and especially to inconsistent correlations between such behavioral inhibition system (BIS) scores and amygdala and autonomic responses to fear- or startle-inducing stimuli. Evidence showing a dissociation of both BI and trait anxiety from the amygdala is considered. Possible reasons for the poor association between BIS and trait anxiety self-report scale scores and predicted physiological outputs of the BIS are identified. Reasons to distinguish between the neural bases of BI as against trait anxiety also are discussed. The need to critically examine the role of the amygdala in BI and trait anxiety, as well as to consider other brain areas that appear to be involved in subserving these emotional traits, is emphasized. PMID:16879790

  11. Thrombolytic agents: a clinician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Solomon, H A

    1987-08-24

    Clinicians and researchers often have different perspectives: Clinicians deal with patients as individuals; researchers deal with them as members of groups whose characteristics can be defined statistically. Clinicians should be cautious and skeptical about new therapies, therefore, because the applicability of group-successful treatment to individual subjects is not always appropriate. In deciding whether to use the new thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction, clinicians should consider the factors that limit as well as those that support its use. As a clinician, I ultimately favor its use because intracoronary thrombosis is almost ubiquitous in acute infarction, and thrombolytic therapy addresses this basic problem. Fortunately, acute infarction is an evolutionary process, giving us time to take action. Since the extent of necrotic myocardium determines prognosis, and reperfusion can limit infarction size, salvaging myocardium should improve the outcome. Thrombolytic therapy can usually be administered quickly, easily, and safely. It requires minimal laboratory monitoring but careful clinical monitoring. Signs of successful therapy are easily recognized clinically, as are the signs of reocclusion if it occurs. The problem of the best treatment to follow thrombolytic therapy remains unsolved. But the thrombolytic component of overall management of a patient with acute myocardial infarction is worthwhile. PMID:3631115

  12. Assisted reproductive practice: religious perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Joscph G

    2005-03-01

    It is important to those who practise reproductive techniques to learn about different religious perspectives related to reproductive health problems. Religious groups are active in influencing the public regarding bioethical positions, and this is particularly evident with issues concerning procreation, abortion and infertility therapy. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. The attitude toward reproductive practice varies among Christian groups. While assisted reproduction is not accepted by the Vatican, it may be practised by Protestant, Anglican and other denominations. According to traditional Christian views, beginning at conception, the embryo has moral status as a human being, and thus most assisted reproductive technologies are forbidden. According to Islam, the procedures of IVF and embryo transfer are acceptable, although they can be performed only for husband and wife. Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. This paper presents the attitude of monotheistic religions to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning.

  13. Erotomanic stalking in evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Brüne, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Erotomania, the delusion of being loved by another person, comprises marked sex differences concerning prevalence rates and behavior. Whereas traditional psychiatry has considered erotomania to be almost entirely restricted to women, recent studies have revealed that criminal offenses associated with the condition occur much more frequently in men. The main hypothesis of this article is that these findings may be explained in terms of evolutionary theory. Erotomania, accordingly, may be viewed as a pathological variant of a specific sexual strategy that evolved under selection pressures of the human environment of evolutionary adaptedness. The overt behavior is related to the pursuit of long-term mating, its potentially beneficial effect on inclusive fitness of the individual, and disparate strategies of the sexes to ensure sexual fidelity of the potential partner. Therefore, the evolutionary approach provides a plausible explanation as to why forensically relevant erotomania prevails in men. The pathological process of delusional misinterpretation of perceived signals from the social environment itself may result from poor reality testing due to a failure of social meta-cognition. The evolutionary perspective may provide additional insights into the nature of sex-specific behaviors and may improve our understanding of forensically relevant behaviors. PMID:12579619

  14. Novel Perspectives for Hadron Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-03-09

    I discuss several novel and unexpected aspects of quantum chromodynamics. These include: (a) the nonperturbative origin of intrinsic strange, charm and bottom quarks in the nucleon at large x; the breakdown of pQCD factorization theorems due to the lensing effects of initial- and final-state interactions; (b) important corrections to pQCD scaling for inclusive reactions due to processes in which hadrons are created at high transverse momentum directly in the hard processes and their relation to the baryon anomaly in high-centrality heavy-ion collisions; and (c) the nonuniversality of quark distributions in nuclei. I also discuss some novel theoretical perspectives in QCD: (a) light-front holography - a relativistic color-confining first approximation to QCD based on the AdS/CFT correspondence principle; (b) the principle of maximum conformality - a method which determines the renormalization scale at finite order in perturbation theory yielding scheme independent results; (c) the replacement of quark and gluon vacuum condensates by 'in-hadron condensates' and how this helps to resolve the conflict between QCD vacuum and the cosmological constant.

  15. Infrastructure Commons in Economic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischmann, Brett M.

    This chapter briefly summarizes a theory (developed in substantial detail elsewhere)1 that explains why there are strong economic arguments for managing and sustaining infrastructure resources in an openly accessible manner. This theory facilitates a better understanding of two related issues: how society benefits from infrastructure resources and how decisions about how to manage or govern infrastructure resources affect a wide variety of public and private interests. The key insights from this analysis are that infrastructure resources generate value as inputs into a wide range of productive processes and that the outputs from these processes are often public goods and nonmarket goods that generate positive externalities that benefit society as a whole. Managing such resources in an openly accessible manner may be socially desirable from an economic perspective because doing so facilitates these downstream productive activities. For example, managing the Internet infrastructure in an openly accessible manner facilitates active citizen involvement in the production and sharing of many different public and nonmarket goods. Over the last decade, this has led to increased opportunities for a wide range of citizens to engage in entrepreneurship, political discourse, social network formation, and community building, among many other activities. The chapter applies these insights to the network neutrality debate and suggests how the debate might be reframed to better account for the wide range of private and public interests at stake.

  16. Voluntary euthanasia: a utilitarian perspective.

    PubMed

    Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.

  17. Prophylactic oophorectomy: a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Moscucci, Ornella; Clarke, Aileen

    2007-01-01

    Removal of a woman's ovaries (known as bilateral oophorectomy, ovariectomy or, historically, ovariotomy) is undertaken in a number of countries. An estimated 19 000 women aged <60 years had a bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy in the UK in 2003, either as a planned response to an increased specific genetic risk of ovarian or breast cancer or, more frequently, as a prophylactic measure to prevent ovarian cancer. Despite its popularity, however, a full evaluation of the risks, costs and benefits of prophylactic oophorectomy in the absence of genetic markers and at the time of hysterectomy has not yet been undertaken. This paper seeks to provide a historical perspective on current practice by outlining approaches to the ovary in Britain from the 19th century onwards. Historically, ovarian removal has raised many questions about the costs and benefits of surgery. The aim of this article is to highlight the issues, and in so doing, to contribute to a more informed assessment of current practice. PMID:17325391

  18. Evolutionary Perspective in Child Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Ze’ev

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child’s growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment. PMID:23908815

  19. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications - minoxidil and finasteride - are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  20. Cardiovascular disease: an economical perspective.

    PubMed

    Lazzini, A; Lazzini, S

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent a relevant problem worldwide. Data from World Health Organization (W.H.O.) demonstrate that they are one of the principle causes of death: 30% of all losses of human life throughout the world are due to heart diseases. Such data buries a substantial economic cost considering both the direct component, first of all the national health expense, and the indirect part, such as absenteeism rate, productivity loss, quality of life and, more generally, social costs. The future scenario pictured by the W.H.O. reveals a negative trend due to an increasing in the rate of morbidity and mortality especially in Emerging Countries. One of the solution to stem the costs - economic and not - connected to cardiovascular diseases is to empower the prevention activities overall the actions of primary prevention. This require a change in the traditional patient-physician relationship management model to get to an organizational model centred on patient and based on a proactive approach. In this perspective in the paper will be analysed the principal changes that occurred in the Italian national healthcare system and in particular the strategic plans and actions in theme of cardiovascular prevention.

  1. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  2. Patient Perspectives of Medical Confidentiality

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Pamela; Mora, Susan; Merz, Jon F; Jones, Nora L

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To lay the groundwork for a better understanding of patient views on medical confidentiality. DESIGN Studies were found by searching medline, bioethicsline, and selected bibliographies. Articles concerning physician perspectives or implications of legal and administrative regulations were excluded. Only peer-reviewed journal articles reporting original research on patients' confidentiality views and conduct were included. MAIN RESULTS Many patients are unaware of or misunderstand their legal or ethical right to medical confidentiality protections, which leads them to both over- and underestimate confidentiality protections. The possibility that medical information might be revealed, intentionally or not, to acquaintances in a clinic or other social community troubles patients as much as information release to insurers or employers. A significant minority of patients distrust confidentiality protections, leading some to report that they delay or forgo medical care. If doubtful that confidentiality will be upheld, patients will act independently to protect information. CONCLUSIONS Our review found a wider variety of understandings and beliefs about medical confidentiality among patients than are often indicated in the writings of practitioners or legal experts. As medical confidentiality regulations evolve, these differences need to be recognized and accounted for in interactions between practitioners and patients. PMID:12911650

  3. Interprofessional education: the student perspective.

    PubMed

    Lumague, Melodie; Morgan, Alisha; Mak, Diana; Hanna, Mary; Kwong, Joanne; Cameron, Colette; Zener, Dori; Sinclair, Lynne

    2006-06-01

    The Toronto Rehabilitation Institute (Toronto Rehab) is a current leader in the movement of interprofessional education (IPE) initiatives in Ontario, Canada. Nine students from seven different health care disciplines, including medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy, social work, and speech language pathology participated in the second IPE clinical placement in the winter of 2005 on Toronto Rehab's Stroke inpatient unit. In an effort to increase interprofessional collaboration, improve communication skills, foster respect and enhance knowledge of the different roles each discipline plays on the health care team, these students met together over a five week period and participated in interprofessional group sessions led by different health care professional leaders from the unit. This paper discusses the students' perspectives on this IPE experience and the corresponding benefits and challenges. All participants in the study recognized the importance of interprofessional teamwork in patient care and agreed that all health care education should include opportunities enabling them to develop the skills, behaviours and attitudes needed for interprofessional collaboration. PMID:16777792

  4. microRNA: Diagnostic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Faruq, Omar; Vecchione, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers are biological measures of a biological state. An ideal marker should be safe and easy to measure, cost efficient, modifiable with treatment, and consistent across gender and ethnic groups. To date, none of the available biomarkers satisfy all of these criteria. In addition, the major limitations of these markers are low specificity, sensitivity, and false positive results. Recently identified, microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, evolutionarily conserved small non-coding RNA (about 22–25 nt long), also known as micro-coordinators of gene expression, which have been shown to be an effective tools to study the biology of diseases and to have great potential as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. In fact, it has been demonstrated that miRNAs play a pivotal role in the regulation of a wide range of developmental and physiological processes and their deficiencies have been related to a number of disease. In addition, miRNAs are stable and can be easily isolated and measured from tissues and body fluids. In this review, we provide a perspective on emerging concepts and potential usefulness of miRNAs as diagnostic markers, emphasizing the involvement of specific miRNAs in particular tumor types, subtypes, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, and forensic test. PMID:26284247

  5. Evolutionary perspective in child growth.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2011-07-01

    Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child's growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment.

  6. The Social Perspective Taking Process: What Motivates Individuals to Take Another's Perspective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlbach, Hunter; Brinkworth, Maureen E.; Wang, Ming-Te

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: A growing literature describes multiple benefits of social perspective taking--many of which are particularly important for schools. Despite these potential benefits for administrators, counselors, teachers, and students, little is known about social perspective taking as a process. Purpose/Research Question: If educational…

  7. Effect of Computer-Aided Perspective Drawings on Spatial Orientation and Perspective Drawing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtulus, Aytac

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of computer-aided Perspective Drawings on eighth grade primary school students' achievement in Spatial Orientation and Perspective Drawing. The study made use of pre-test post-test control group experimental design. The study was conducted with thirty 8th grade students attending a primary school…

  8. The Social Perspective Taking Process: Strategies and Sources of Evidence in Taking Another's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlbach, Hunter; Brinkworth, Maureen E.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Research indicates that social perspective taking--the capacity to discern the thoughts and feelings of others--plays a role in many important outcomes in schools. Despite the potential benefits for students and educators, little is known about social perspective taking (SPT) as a process. Purpose/Research Question: If…

  9. A cognitive perspective on mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Holas, Pawel; Jankowski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness, the core teaching of the Buddhist tradition, has been receiving serious attention from the West in recent decades as evidence of the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for emotional distress have become available. Although traditional Buddhist texts have described the mechanisms of mindfulness and the way to cultivate it in great detail, much is still not known from the perspective of Western science. In particular, there is no general agreement on the conceptualization and operationalization of mindfulness. Several conceptual models of mindfulness (referred to as "state" or "trait") have been put forward to elucidate different aspects of this phenomenon, but none has gained sufficient empirical validation. This article proposes a new cognitive model of mindfulness. It has been our goal to describe and interrelate a relatively comprehensive group of determinants of a state of mindfulness, the consequences of its regular practicing, the mechanisms responsible for its beneficial effects, and the feedback mechanisms operating between the various constituents of the model. Within this model, the primary emphasis has been placed on understanding the cognitive processes shaping a state of mindfulness (i.e., the links between consciousness, meta-awareness and the unconscious), and on their determinants (i.e., the executive functions of attention and the components of working memory). A metacognitive system promoting mindfulness, as well as the general capability of the central executive system, is suggested as a factor explaining individual differences in mindfulness, whereas decentering, self-compassion, and reduction of self-focused attention are proposed as mechanisms mediating beneficial changes. We hope that the model presented will encourage further discussion and orient future studies in the area of mindfulness. PMID:22506609

  10. Perspectives on acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Théroux, Pierre

    2005-10-01

    The occurrence of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) represents a dramatic stage in the otherwise relatively slow and progressive course of coronary artery disease, bringing into perspective its life-threatening implications. The modern era of aggressive management of these syndromes was first introduced by the establishment of the coronary care unit, and later by the development of reperfusion therapies, which led, within two decades, to a reduction in death rates of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction from 30% or more to less than 10%. The insights gained into the pathophysiology of ACSs, combined with increasingly efficient risk stratification schemes in screening patients with non-ST segment ACS, have given a boost to the development of antithrombotic therapies. Acetylsalicylic acid, as well as the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and heparin with the addition of an intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist and/or the addition of an ADP P2Y12 receptor blocker, when combined with an invasive strategy targeting revascularization of the culprit coronary lesion (when appropriate), have successfully reduced the rates of adverse clinical outcomes in non-ST segment elevation ACS from 25% to 10%. These rates, however, did not improve further during the past few years, while the number of such patients is increasing to now account for the majority of admissions to coronary care units. A new research focus in cardiology is emerging, following the discovery that culprit lesions may be multiple and multifocal in association with a more diffuse inflammatory state. New therapeutic frontiers are thus being suggested to control the most fundamental mechanisms involved in ACSs and related to inflammation and autoimmunity. PMID:16234889

  11. Hypoglycemia from a cardiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Sanon, Vani P; Sanon, Saurabh; Kanakia, Rushit; Yu, Hu; Araj, Faris; Oliveros, Rene; Chilton, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Hypoglycemia in people with diabetes mellitus (DM) has been potentially linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Pathophysiologically, hypoglycemia triggers activation of the sympathoadrenal system, leading to an increase in counter-regulatory hormones and, consequently, increased myocardial workload and oxygen demand. Additionally, hypoglycemia triggers proinflammatory and hematologic changes that provide the substrate for possible myocardial ischemia in the already-diseased diabetic cardiovascular system. Hypoglycemia creates electrophysiologic alterations causing P-R-interval shortening, ST-segment depression, T-wave flattening, reduction of T-wave area, and QTc-interval prolongation. Patients who experience hypoglycemia are at an increased risk of silent ischemia as well as QTc prolongation and consequent arrhythmias. The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial showed an increase in all-cause mortality with intensive glycemic control, whereas the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) study and Veteran's Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT) showed no benefit with aggressive glycemic control. Women, elderly patients, and those with renal insufficiency are more vulnerable to hypoglycemic events. In fact, hypoglycemia is the most common metabolic complication experienced by older patients with DM in the United States. The concurrent use of medications like β-blockers warrants caution in DM because they can mask warning signs of hypoglycemia. Here we aim to elucidate the pathophysiology, review the electrocardiographic changes, analyze the current clinical literature, and consider the safety considerations of hypoglycemia as it relates to the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, in the current era of DM and its vascular ramifications, hypoglycemia from a cardiologist's perspective deserves due attention.

  12. A feminist perspective on divorce.

    PubMed

    Carbone, J R

    1994-01-01

    Feminist perspectives on divorce proceed from the ways in which women's positions at divorce systematically differ from men's positions. Although there has been a large-scale increase in mothers' labor force participation, there has been no corresponding increase in fathers' domestic contributions, and women continue to bear the overwhelming responsibility for child rearing. In substantial part because of this division of labor within the family, divorcing women, on average, face bleaker financial prospects and enjoy closer emotional ties to their children than do their former husbands. Existing divorce law, with its emphasis on each party's self-sufficiency, limited provision for child support, and gender-neutral custody principles, does not fully recognize or address these differences. Feminists differ in the responses they propose to these issues. "Liberal feminists" believe that women's domestic responsibilities will inevitably place them at a disadvantage and favor policies that encourage men to assume a proportionate share of family responsibilities. "Cultural feminists," or "feminists of difference," believe that it is not the fact that women care for children but that child rearing is so undervalued which is the source of the problem. "Radical feminists" believe that it is impossible to know whether women's involvement in child rearing would differ from men's in a different society and focus on the ways in which marriage and work force policies perpetuate male dominance. All agree, however, that existing law contributes to the relative impoverishment of many women and children and that, even when the rules purport to be gender-neutral, they are administered in systematically biased ways.

  13. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Katharine; Sisco, Mark; Bedrosian, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) in the United States among women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer, particularly young women. Approximately one-third of women <40 years old are undergoing CPM in the US. Most studies have shown that the CPM trend is mainly patient-driven, which reflects a changing environment for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. The most common reason that women choose CPM is based on misperceptions about CPM’s effect on survival and overestimation of their contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. No prospective studies have shown survival benefit to CPM, and the CBC rate for most women is low at 10 years. Fear of recurrence is also a big driver of CPM decisions. Nonetheless, studies have shown that women are mostly satisfied with undergoing CPM, but complications and subsequent surgeries with reconstruction have been associated with dissatisfaction with CPM. Studies on surgeon’s perspectives on CPM are sparse but show that the most common reasons surgeons discuss CPM with patients is because of a suspicious family history or for a patient who is a confirmed BRCA mutation carrier. Studies on the cost–effectiveness of CPM have been conflicting and are highly dependent on patient’s quality of life after CPM. Most recent guidelines for CPM are contradictory. Future areas of research include the development of interventions to better inform patients about CPM, modification of the guidelines to form a more consistent statement, longer term studies on CBC risk and CPM’s effect on survival, and prospective studies that track the psychosocial effects of CPM on body image and sexuality. PMID:27382334

  14. Orthopaedic perspective on bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Alan P; O’Toole, Gary C

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of cancer is increasing worldwide, with the advent of a myriad of new treatment options, so is the overall survival of these patients. However, from an orthopaedic perspective, there comes the challenge of treating more patients with a variety of metastatic bone lesions. The consequences of such lesions can be significant to the patient, from pain and abnormal blood results, including hypercalcemia, to pathological fracture. Given the multiple options available, the treatment of bone metastasis should be based on a patient-by patient manner, as is the case with primary bone lesions. It is imperative, given the various lesion types and locations, treatment of bone metastasis should be performed in an individualised manner. We should consider the nature of the lesion, the effect of treatment on the patient and the overall outcome of our decisions. The dissemination of primary lesions to distant sites is a complex pathway involving numerous cytokines within the tumour itself and the surrounding microenvironment. To date, it is not fully understood and we still base a large section of our knowledge on Pagets historic “seed and soil” theory. As we gain further understanding of this pathway it will allow us develop more medical based treatments. The treatment of primary cancers has long been provided in a multi-disciplinary setting to achieve the best patient outcomes. This should also be true for the treatment of bone metastases. Orthopaedic surgeons should be involved in the multidisciplinary treatment of such patients given that there are a variety of both surgical fixation methods and non-operative methods at our disposal. PMID:23878778

  15. A computational perspective on autism.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Ari; Patterson, Jaclyn Sky; Angelaki, Dora E

    2015-07-28

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests as a heterogeneous set of social, cognitive, motor, and perceptual symptoms. This system-wide pervasiveness suggests that, rather than narrowly impacting individual systems such as affection or vision, autism may broadly alter neural computation. Here, we propose that alterations in nonlinear, canonical computations occurring throughout the brain may underlie the behavioral characteristics of autism. One such computation, called divisive normalization, balances a neuron's net excitation with inhibition reflecting the overall activity of the neuronal population. Through neural network simulations, we investigate how alterations in divisive normalization may give rise to autism symptomatology. Our findings show that a reduction in the amount of inhibition that occurs through divisive normalization can account for perceptual consequences of autism, consistent with the hypothesis of an increased ratio of neural excitation to inhibition (E/I) in the disorder. These results thus establish a bridge between an E/I imbalance and behavioral data on autism that is currently absent. Interestingly, our findings implicate the context-dependent, neuronal milieu as a key factor in autism symptomatology, with autism reflecting a less "social" neuronal population. Through a broader discussion of perceptual data, we further examine how altered divisive normalization may contribute to a wide array of the disorder's behavioral consequences. These analyses show how a computational framework can provide insights into the neural basis of autism and facilitate the generation of falsifiable hypotheses. A computational perspective on autism may help resolve debates within the field and aid in identifying physiological pathways to target in the treatment of the disorder.

  16. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yao, Katharine; Sisco, Mark; Bedrosian, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) in the United States among women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer, particularly young women. Approximately one-third of women <40 years old are undergoing CPM in the US. Most studies have shown that the CPM trend is mainly patient-driven, which reflects a changing environment for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. The most common reason that women choose CPM is based on misperceptions about CPM's effect on survival and overestimation of their contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. No prospective studies have shown survival benefit to CPM, and the CBC rate for most women is low at 10 years. Fear of recurrence is also a big driver of CPM decisions. Nonetheless, studies have shown that women are mostly satisfied with undergoing CPM, but complications and subsequent surgeries with reconstruction have been associated with dissatisfaction with CPM. Studies on surgeon's perspectives on CPM are sparse but show that the most common reasons surgeons discuss CPM with patients is because of a suspicious family history or for a patient who is a confirmed BRCA mutation carrier. Studies on the cost-effectiveness of CPM have been conflicting and are highly dependent on patient's quality of life after CPM. Most recent guidelines for CPM are contradictory. Future areas of research include the development of interventions to better inform patients about CPM, modification of the guidelines to form a more consistent statement, longer term studies on CBC risk and CPM's effect on survival, and prospective studies that track the psychosocial effects of CPM on body image and sexuality. PMID:27382334

  17. Protist taxonomy: an ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Bland J

    2004-04-29

    This is an exploration of contemporary protist taxonomy within an ecological perspective. As it currently stands, the 'morphospecies' does not accommodate the information that might support a truly ecological species concept for the protists. But the 'morphospecies' is merely a first step in erecting a taxonomy of the protists, and it is expected to become more meaningful in the light of genetic, physiological and ecological research in the near future. One possible way forward lies in the recognition that sexual and asexual protists may all be subject to forces of cohesion that result in (DNA) sequence-similarity clusters. A starting point would then be the detection of 'ecotypes'--where genotypic and phenotypic clusters correspond; but for that we need better information regarding the extent of clonality in protists, and better characterization of ecological niches and their boundaries. There is some progress with respect to the latter. Using the example of a community of ciliated protozoa living in the stratified water column of a freshwater pond, it is shown to be possible to gauge the potential of protists to partition their local environment into ecological niches. Around 40 morphospecies can coexist in the superimposed water layers, which presumably represent different ecological niches, but we have yet to discover if these are discrete or continuously variable. It is a myth that taxonomic problems are more severe for protists than for animals and plants. Most of the fundamental problems associated with species concepts (e.g. asexuals, sibling species, phenotypic variation) are distributed across biota in general. The recent history of the status of Pfiesteria provides a model example of an integrated approach to solving what are essentially taxonomic problems.

  18. A computational perspective on autism

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Ari; Patterson, Jaclyn Sky; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests as a heterogeneous set of social, cognitive, motor, and perceptual symptoms. This system-wide pervasiveness suggests that, rather than narrowly impacting individual systems such as affection or vision, autism may broadly alter neural computation. Here, we propose that alterations in nonlinear, canonical computations occurring throughout the brain may underlie the behavioral characteristics of autism. One such computation, called divisive normalization, balances a neuron’s net excitation with inhibition reflecting the overall activity of the neuronal population. Through neural network simulations, we investigate how alterations in divisive normalization may give rise to autism symptomatology. Our findings show that a reduction in the amount of inhibition that occurs through divisive normalization can account for perceptual consequences of autism, consistent with the hypothesis of an increased ratio of neural excitation to inhibition (E/I) in the disorder. These results thus establish a bridge between an E/I imbalance and behavioral data on autism that is currently absent. Interestingly, our findings implicate the context-dependent, neuronal milieu as a key factor in autism symptomatology, with autism reflecting a less “social” neuronal population. Through a broader discussion of perceptual data, we further examine how altered divisive normalization may contribute to a wide array of the disorder’s behavioral consequences. These analyses show how a computational framework can provide insights into the neural basis of autism and facilitate the generation of falsifiable hypotheses. A computational perspective on autism may help resolve debates within the field and aid in identifying physiological pathways to target in the treatment of the disorder. PMID:26170299

  19. Rheumatology outcomes: the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Carr, Alison; Hewlett, Sarah; Hughes, Rod; Mitchell, Helene; Ryan, Sarah; Carr, Maggie; Kirwan, John

    2003-04-01

    Our aim was to explore the patient's perspective of outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to identify which outcomes are important to patients and how patients calibrate what constitutes a meaningful change in those outcomes. A qualitative study was performed using focus groups in 5 clinical centers in different geographical locations in the UK. Each group contained 6 to 9 patients with RA who were purposefully sampled to include men and women with a range of age, disease duration, functional disability, work disability, and current disease activity. Each focus group lasted around 1 h and addressed 3 questions: What outcomes from treatment are important to RA patients? What makes patients satisfied or dissatisfied with a treatment? How do patients decide that a treatment is working? Patients identified as important not only physical outcomes such as pain and disability, but also fatigue and a general feeling of wellness. The relative importance of these outcomes depended on the stage of disease and on specific situations, such as a disease flare. Satisfaction was influenced by communication, access to treatment, and treatment efficacy. Treatment efficacy was related to symptom reduction, with the magnitude of reduction necessary for efficacy dependent on the stage of disease. For example, large changes were deemed necessary with disease of long duration, while in early disease, even small changes could be important. Our data support existing knowledge of the importance of pain and mobility as treatment outcomes, but raise new and important issues: Some outcomes of importance to patients are not currently measured and there are no measures available to capture them. Existing measures need to be calibrated to take account of the differing importance of outcomes at different stages of disease and variations in the magnitude of change within the same outcome that indicate treatment efficacy. PMID:12672221

  20. Protist taxonomy: an ecological perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, Bland J

    2004-01-01

    This is an exploration of contemporary protist taxonomy within an ecological perspective. As it currently stands, the 'morphospecies' does not accommodate the information that might support a truly ecological species concept for the protists. But the 'morphospecies' is merely a first step in erecting a taxonomy of the protists, and it is expected to become more meaningful in the light of genetic, physiological and ecological research in the near future. One possible way forward lies in the recognition that sexual and asexual protists may all be subject to forces of cohesion that result in (DNA) sequence-similarity clusters. A starting point would then be the detection of 'ecotypes'--where genotypic and phenotypic clusters correspond; but for that we need better information regarding the extent of clonality in protists, and better characterization of ecological niches and their boundaries. There is some progress with respect to the latter. Using the example of a community of ciliated protozoa living in the stratified water column of a freshwater pond, it is shown to be possible to gauge the potential of protists to partition their local environment into ecological niches. Around 40 morphospecies can coexist in the superimposed water layers, which presumably represent different ecological niches, but we have yet to discover if these are discrete or continuously variable. It is a myth that taxonomic problems are more severe for protists than for animals and plants. Most of the fundamental problems associated with species concepts (e.g. asexuals, sibling species, phenotypic variation) are distributed across biota in general. The recent history of the status of Pfiesteria provides a model example of an integrated approach to solving what are essentially taxonomic problems. PMID:15253347

  1. Adapting perspectives to facilitate knowledge assimilation

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R.L.; Webster, R.B.

    1998-12-31

    The notion of perspective when supported in knowledge representation can allow the representation of multiple and varying points of view, some of which may even be inconsistent with one another. In an object-based knowledge representation methodology created and used by the authors, a perspective is defined by consolidating a number of objects and a number of those objects` associated attributes and methods into a view. This view can help partition a knowledge domain into separate portions. A separate portion represents an individual`s view of the knowledge domain. Representation of multiple and varying perspectives may add to the existing knowledge as well as reveal paths to additional knowledge. A simple example is presented where perspectives are used to represent game playing strategies and levels of expertise in those strategies. Players` perspectives are adapted and changed to provide additional knowledge and insight into further game playing strategies. Results show improvement in the playing of the games. Additionally, a more complex problem for applying these techniques is introduced.

  2. Time perspective and physical activity among central Appalachian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gulley, Tauna

    2013-04-01

    Time perspective is a cultural behavioral concept that reflects individuals' orientations or attitudes toward the past, present, or future. Individuals' time perspectives influence their choices regarding daily activities. Time perspective is an important consideration when teaching adolescents about the importance of being physically active. However, little is known about the relationship between time perspective and physical activity among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the time perspective of central Appalachian adolescents and explore the relationship between time perspective and physical activity. This study was guided by The theory of planned behavior (TPB). One hundred and ninety-three students completed surveys to examine time perspective and physical activity behaviors. Data were collected in one school. Results of this study can inform school nurses and high school guidance counselors about the importance of promoting a future-oriented time perspective to improve physical activity and educational outcomes.

  3. The Social Role of Engineers: A Philosophical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1991-01-01

    The perspectives that distinguish engineers and the public they serve and the educational implications of those perspectives are discussed. The philosophies of utilitarianism, ethical egoism, positivism, and idealism are presented in terms of engineers and the public. (KR)

  4. Listening to Their Stories: Students' Perspectives about Campus Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Jim

    2006-01-01

    This chapter explores students' perspectives regarding campus gambling by listening to their gambling-related experiences and stories. Similarly, the chapter presents the perspective of a senior student affairs officer regarding campus gambling.

  5. Broader Perspective on Ecosystem Sustainability: Consequences for Decision Making

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the concept of ecosystem sustainability has a long-term focus, it is often viewed from a static system perspective. Because most ecosystems are dynamic, we explore sustainability assessments from three additional perspectives: resilient systems; systems where tipping poi...

  6. Health Disparities and Discrimination: Three Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; Krieger, Janice R.; Warren, Jennifer R.; Hecht, Michael L.; Okuyemi, Kola

    2010-01-01

    This article presents three perspectives on health discrimination and disparities, organized around different conceptualizations of the way “space” perpetuates health disparities. The first two perspectives are grounded in conceptualizing space in a physical sense by exploring the manifestation of discrimination as a problem both among and within nations. The third perspective juxtaposes geographical space with cyberspace. The internet, with its ability to blur sense of place, social demarcations, and behavior is often considered a panacea that can eliminate the health disparities. The internet, however, may not be fulfilling its promise as an equal source of health information for all and disparities related to international and rural geography remain problematic. Solutions are proposed for reducing health disparities based on The Principle of Cultural Grounding (Hecht & Krieger, 2006; Hecht & Miller-Day, in press). PMID:20694161

  7. ICT4D: A Computer Science Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutinen, Erkki; Tedre, Matti

    The term ICT4D refers to the opportunities of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as an agent of development. Research in that field is often focused on evaluating the feasibility of existing technologies, mostly of Western or Far East Asian origin, in the context of developing regions. A computer science perspective is complementary to that agenda. The computer science perspective focuses on exploring the resources, or inputs, of a particular context and on basing the design of a technical intervention on the available resources, so that the output makes a difference in the development context. The modus operandi of computer science, construction, interacts with evaluation and exploration practices. An analysis of a contextualized information technology curriculum of Tumaini University in southern Tanzania shows the potential of the computer science perspective for designing meaningful information and communication technology for a developing region.

  8. Health Disparities and Discrimination: Three Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; Krieger, Janice R; Warren, Jennifer R; Hecht, Michael L; Okuyemi, Kola

    2008-10-01

    This article presents three perspectives on health discrimination and disparities, organized around different conceptualizations of the way "space" perpetuates health disparities. The first two perspectives are grounded in conceptualizing space in a physical sense by exploring the manifestation of discrimination as a problem both among and within nations. The third perspective juxtaposes geographical space with cyberspace. The internet, with its ability to blur sense of place, social demarcations, and behavior is often considered a panacea that can eliminate the health disparities. The internet, however, may not be fulfilling its promise as an equal source of health information for all and disparities related to international and rural geography remain problematic. Solutions are proposed for reducing health disparities based on The Principle of Cultural Grounding (Hecht & Krieger, 2006; Hecht & Miller-Day, in press). PMID:20694161

  9. Nature of motor control: perspectives and issues.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Michael T; Fonseca, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Four perspectives on motor control provide the framework for developing a comprehensive theory of motor control in biological systems. The four perspectives, of decreasing orthodoxy, are distinguished by their sources of inspiration: neuroanatomy, robotics, self-organization, and ecological realities. Twelve major issues that commonly constrain (either explicitly or implicitly) the understanding of the control and coordination of movement are identified and evaluated within the framework of the four perspectives. The issues are as follows: (1) Is control strictly neural? (2) Is there a divide between planning and execution? (3) Does control entail a frequently involved knowledgeable executive? (4) Do analytical internal models mediate control? (5) Is anticipation necessarily model dependent? (6) Are movements preassembled? (7) Are the participating components context independent? (8) Is force transmission strictly myotendinous? (9) Is afference a matter of local linear signaling? (10) Is neural noise an impediment? (11) Do standard variables (of mechanics and physiology) suffice? (12) Is the organization of control hierarchical?

  10. Does visual perspective matter in imitation?

    PubMed

    Sambrook, T D

    1998-01-01

    Theories purporting to explain the cognitive processes underlying imitation and its taxonomic distribution have proliferated in recent years but a common assumption is that imitators must adopt a model's mental or visual perspective. Data on thirty-six adult subjects were used to test the hypothesis that imitative learning of knots would suffer a decrement proportional to the disparity of visual perspectives on the task that the subject held between observation and performance. There was no significant effect of visual perspective on performance, nor was there a trend in the predicted direction. This was in spite of significant preferences on the part of subjects for minimising the angle of disparity, assessed both by their behaviour and introspective report. The cognitive basis for human imitation is discussed in the light of these findings.

  11. Algorithmic Perspectives on Problem Formulations in MDO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Lewis, Robert Michael

    2000-01-01

    This work is concerned with an approach to formulating the multidisciplinary optimization (MDO) problem that reflects an algorithmic perspective on MDO problem solution. The algorithmic perspective focuses on formulating the problem in light of the abilities and inabilities of optimization algorithms, so that the resulting nonlinear programming problem can be solved reliably and efficiently by conventional optimization techniques. We propose a modular approach to formulating MDO problems that takes advantage of the problem structure, maximizes the autonomy of implementation, and allows for multiple easily interchangeable problem statements to be used depending on the available resources and the characteristics of the application problem.

  12. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  13. The World Society Perspective: Concepts, Assumptions, and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.

    2012-01-01

    For decades the world society perspective has influenced comparative research on a broad range of issues across the social sciences. The perspective emerged to make sense of an empirical puzzle: why did nation-state after nation-state expand mass schooling after World War II? The perspective evolved to address broader issues such as the authority…

  14. The Role of Reader Perspective in Language Comprehension and Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, George L., III

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of reader perspective on encoding, storage, and retrieval processes and how this effect differs as a function of cognitive style. In both experiments, subjects read a passage from one of two assigned perspectives (a burglar or a prospective home buyer) or from no assigned perspective. In the…

  15. Time Perspective and Physical Activity among Central Appalachian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulley, Tauna

    2013-01-01

    Time perspective is a cultural behavioral concept that reflects individuals' orientations or attitudes toward the past, present, or future. Individuals' time perspectives influence their choices regarding daily activities. Time perspective is an important consideration when teaching adolescents about the importance of being physically…

  16. Taking versus Confronting Visual Perspectives in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Merzsch, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that 3-year-olds can take other people's visual perspectives not only when they perceive different things (Level 1) but even when they see the same thing differently (Level 2). One hypothesis is that 3-year-olds are good perspective takers but cannot confront different perspectives on the same object (Perner, Stummer,…

  17. A Framework for Understanding International Perspectives on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.

    2012-01-01

    International perspectives on education have existed since the first world travelers brought stories back from their travels abroad, but the ways these perspectives are presented and understood varies as much as the cultures and communities themselves. This introduction to international perspectives on education provides a framework, which relies…

  18. Taking someone else's spatial perspective: Natural stance or effortful decentring?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Gabriel; Spence, Charles; Auvray, Malika

    2016-03-01

    When perceiving stimuli, self-centred and decentred perspectives can be adopted. In the present study, we investigate whether perceivers have a natural perspective that constrains their spatial perception, with some people perceiving better with self-centred than decentred perspectives and vice versa for other people. We used a recognition task of tactile ambiguous letters (b, d, p, and q) presented on the stomach, for which three perspectives can be adopted (trunk-centred, head-centred, and decentred). At first, the participants were free to adopt any perspective they wanted. Then, either the same or a different perspective was imposed on them. Without constraints, 80% of the participants adopted a self-centred perspective (50% trunk-centred, 30% head-centred) and 20% a decentred one. The perspective adopted freely appears to be natural as recognition performance decreases with a different perspective and returns to its previous high level with the same perspective. Thus, to perceive space, some perceivers adopt naturally a perspective centred on themselves whereas others take naturally others' perspective.

  19. Learning and Development: A Global Perspective. Symposium Series 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Alan, Ed.; Ploman, Edward W., Ed.

    Fourteen papers presented at the Global Learning Symposium examine the learning perspective and its relationship to problems of world development. The learning perspective is compared and contrasted with the education perspective to reflect the degree to which the distinction reveals new knowledge on existing problems. Papers and presenters are:…

  20. Perspective-Shifts in Event Descriptions in Tamil Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narasimhan, Bhuvana; Gullberg, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Children are able to take multiple perspectives in talking about entities and events. But the nature of children's sensitivities to the complex patterns of perspective-taking in adult language is unknown. We examine perspective-taking in four- and six-year-old Tamil-speaking children describing placement events, as reflected in the use of a…

  1. A Semiotic Perspective of Mathematical Activity: The Case of Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernest, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A semiotic perspective on mathematical activity provides a way of conceptualizing the teaching and learning of mathematics that transcends and encompasses both psychological perspectives focussing exclusively on mental structures and functions, and performance-focussed perspectives concerned only with student's behaviours. Instead it considers the…

  2. Taking someone else's spatial perspective: Natural stance or effortful decentring?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Gabriel; Spence, Charles; Auvray, Malika

    2016-03-01

    When perceiving stimuli, self-centred and decentred perspectives can be adopted. In the present study, we investigate whether perceivers have a natural perspective that constrains their spatial perception, with some people perceiving better with self-centred than decentred perspectives and vice versa for other people. We used a recognition task of tactile ambiguous letters (b, d, p, and q) presented on the stomach, for which three perspectives can be adopted (trunk-centred, head-centred, and decentred). At first, the participants were free to adopt any perspective they wanted. Then, either the same or a different perspective was imposed on them. Without constraints, 80% of the participants adopted a self-centred perspective (50% trunk-centred, 30% head-centred) and 20% a decentred one. The perspective adopted freely appears to be natural as recognition performance decreases with a different perspective and returns to its previous high level with the same perspective. Thus, to perceive space, some perceivers adopt naturally a perspective centred on themselves whereas others take naturally others' perspective. PMID:26722709

  3. Cyberbullying: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Jieun; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted in different countries have focused on empirical research and literature reviews on prevalence, consequences, and strategies relative to cyberbullying; however, there is a lack of research regarding cyberbullying from a cross-cultural perspective. This article reviews recent research on cyberbullying and presents…

  4. Talk-in-Interaction: Multilingual Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hanh thi, Ed.; Kasper, Gabriele, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Talk-in-interaction: Multilingual perspectives" offers original studies of interaction in a range of languages and language varieties, including Chinese, English, Japanese, Korean, Spanish, Swahili, Thai, and Vietnamese; monolingual and bilingual interactions; and activities designed for second or foreign language learning. Conducted from the…

  5. New Perspectives in Rheumatology: Avoiding Antimalarial Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, James T; Mount, George R; Youssef, Jameel; Lin, Phoebe

    2016-08-01

    This report inaugurates New Perspectives in Rheumatology, a series of authoritative articles that focus on recent scientific and clinical developments and their potential to reshape rheumatology practice. Anticipated topics include the implementation of new guidelines and emerging information from clinical and translational research. Richard J. Bucala, MD, PhDEditor-in-ChiefRobert Terkeltaub, MDCo-Editor and Review Article Editor. PMID:27111663

  6. Perspectives on Numeracy: Reflections from International Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Dave; Gal, Iddo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines perspectives regarding the mathematical skills expected of adults and school graduates, comparing ideas developed as part of two major multinational comparative assessments of skills: the Programme for International Student Assessment and the Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (also known as the OECD…

  7. Safe Space: Student Perspectives on Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Lynn C.; Steiner, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Based on data from a survey of 121 baccalaureate and master of social work students at a western university, this study explores students' perspectives of "safe" and "unsafe" classroom environments. The majority reported that being in a safe classroom changed both what and how much they learned. Students offered a wide range of instructor, fellow…

  8. Family-Centred Care: A Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjorngaard, Tina

    2011-01-01

    This commentary is informed by the author's multiple perspectives as a parent of a 12-year-old girl with cerebral palsy, as a social worker, and as a critical disability advocate and activist. While the author occupies these subject positions simultaneously, they are not necessarily always confluent with one another. She struggles with, and is, at…

  9. Student Perspectives on Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungblut, Jens; Vukasovic, Martina; Stensaker, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    The study provides an insight into student perspectives on quality in higher education, using Harvey and Green conceptualizations as the point of departure, and exploring the linkages between the views on quality, the developments of the Bologna Process and related national reforms, as well as students' motivation for and expectations from higher…

  10. Dynamical Systems Perspective of Wolfram's Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courbage, M.; Kamiński, B.

    2013-01-01

    Leon Chua, following Wolfram, devoted a big effort to understand deeply the wealth of complexity of the rules of all elementary one-dimensional cellular automata from the point of view of the nonlinear dynamicist. Here we complete this point of view by a dynamical system perspective, extending them to the limit of infinite number of sites.

  11. Male Teacher Shortage: Black Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors draw on the perspectives of black teachers to provide a more nuanced analysis of male teacher shortage. Interviews with two Caribbean teachers in Toronto, Canada, are employed to illuminate the limits of an explanatory framework that foregrounds the singularity of gender as a basis for advocating male teachers as role…

  12. Perspective of a Reproductive Rights Attorney.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltrow, Lynn M.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the issue of drug-exposed infants from the perspective of a reproductive rights attorney. States genuinely interested in promoting healthy children will stop ignoring women or treating them as potential child abusers and will change the current punitive legal focus to a focus on treatment. (SLD)

  13. Empirical Clinical Practice from a Feminist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanoff, Andre; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews criticism of empirical clinical practice which uses gender differences and conflict between quantitative and qualitative research methodologies to describe rift between practitioners and researchers. Offers alternative view emphasizing view's congruence with ethics of good practice and feminist perspectives. Addresses criticism of use of…

  14. Recreation and Leisure Service: A Humanistic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James F.

    Primarily geared to introductory college level courses, this book deals with the history, foundations, community development, and implications of recreation and leisure in American society. It is an attempt to present this information with a new humanistic perspective reflecting a concern for the dignity and worth of man and the development of…

  15. International Perspectives in Leadership Development: Part I.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-08-01

    In this first part of a two-part series, leadership development perspectives are shared from interviews and experiences gained while visiting Taiwan and China. Each country has a distinctive culture and needs, yet both are rapidly rising to strengthen the leadership capacity of nurses and are increasingly a source of advances in global leadership and organizational science.

  16. Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace Foundation, The, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This Wallace Perspective paper summarizes key findings of a newly-published book, "Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals: The Secondary Principal's Guide," that argues that school counselors could be much more active players in improving student learning. The book, which bases its conclusions heavily on Wallace's Transforming School…

  17. Critical and Postmodern Perspectives on Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgore, Deborah W.

    2001-01-01

    In critical theory, knowledge is a rational human product, power is possessed by subjects, knowledge frees subjects from power, and learning occurs through critical reflection. In a postmodern perspective, knowledge is tentative, power is expressed by subjects, knowledge is an expression of power, and learning occurs through deconstruction and…

  18. Theorizing Democratic Education from a Senian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCesare, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing body of literature and general interest in the intersection between the capabilities approach (CA) and education, little work has been done so far to theorize democratic education from a CA perspective. This essay attempts to do so by, first, getting clear about the theory of democracy that has emerged from Amartya Sen's…

  19. A spacefaring people: Perspectives on early spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roland, A.

    1985-01-01

    The early years of space flight are discussed. An historical perspective is offered. Satellites and politics, management of large scale technology, the state of the literature of space, the domestic and international ramifications of space activity, and rationales for space exploration are discussed.

  20. Teaching Probability: A Socio-Constructivist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Sashi

    2015-01-01

    There is a considerable and rich literature on students' misconceptions in probability. However, less attention has been paid to the development of students' probabilistic thinking in the classroom. This paper offers a sequence, grounded in socio-constructivist perspective for teaching probability.

  1. Teaching Nonverbal Communication from a Humanities Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Marvin D.

    1984-01-01

    The amorphous nature of nonverbal study can benefit from the unifying yet pluralistic perspective of the humanities and liberal arts. Those who teach, write, and create under the broad rubric of the humanities appreciate the complexity of human life and try to honor the subtle and the special in human actions and creations. When addressed from…

  2. Promoting Rigorous Validation Practice: An Applied Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Camara, Wayne J.

    2012-01-01

    As researchers at a testing organization concerned with the appropriate uses and validity evidence for our assessments, we provide an applied perspective related to the issues raised in the focus article. Newton's proposal for elaborating the consensus definition of validity is offered with the intention to reduce the risks of inadequate…

  3. The European Perspective on Women's Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macha, Hildegard; Bauer, Quirin J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors show the perspective on women's leadership in Europe. The authors present the European data on the educational status of girls and women at schools and universities and in academic careers. Data from Germany is presented as an example to provide evidence of some details. First, the authors point out four contradictions…

  4. Viewing 3D MRI data in perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiying; Chin, Chialei

    2000-10-01

    In medical imaging applications, 3D morphological data set is often presented in 2D format without considering visual perspective. Without perspective, the resulting image can be counterintuitive to natural human visual perception, specially in a setting of MR guided neurosurgical procedure where depth perception is crucial. To address this problem we have developed a new projection scheme that incorporates linear perspective transformation in various image reconstructions, including MR angiographical projection. In the scheme, an imaginary picture plane (PP) can be placed within or immediately in front of a 3D object, and the stand point (SP) of an observer is fixed at a normal viewing distance os 25 cm in front of the picture plane. A clinical 3D angiography data set (TR/TF/Flipequals30/5.4/15) was obtained from a patient head on a 1.5T MR scanner in 4 min 10 sec (87.5% rectangular, 52% scan). The length, width and height of the image volume were 200mm, 200mm and 72.4mm respectively, corresponding to an effective matrix size of 236x512x44 in transverse orientation (512x512x88 after interpolation). Maximum intensity project (MaxIP) algorithm was used along the viewing trace of perspective projection than rather the parallel projection. Consecutive 36 views were obtained at a 10 degree interval azimuthally. When displayed in cine-mode, the new MaxIP images appeared realistic with an improved depth perception.

  5. Multidimensional Perspectives on Principal Leadership Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beycioglu, Kadir, Ed.; Pashiardis, Petros, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Exceptional management skills are crucial to success in educational environments. As school leaders, principals are expected to effectively supervise the school system while facing a multitude of issues and demands. "Multidimensional Perspectives on Principal Leadership Effectiveness" combines best practices and the latest approaches in…

  6. Federal Regulations: Perspective from the University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharias, Donald W.

    Historical perspectives on federal regulations are examined since 1958 along with five dilemmas that cause universities to improve university operations by reforms in current federal regulations. The National Defense Education Act of 1958 and the Higher Education Act (NDEA) of 1965 are often identified as two of the major milestones in the…

  7. A Spacefaring People: Perspectives on Early Spaceflight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Alex

    A conference on the history of space activity was convened at Yale University in 1981 and perspectives from history, political science, journalism, politics, science, and literature were exchanged. The essays in this publication serve as the proceedings for that conference. The papers are presented in four major theme areas. These include: (1)…

  8. Theoretical Perspectives of How Digital Natives Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivunja, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Marck Prensky, an authority on teaching and learning especially with the aid of Information and Communication Technologies, has referred to 21st century children born after 1980 as "Digital Natives". This paper reviews literature of leaders in the field to shed some light on theoretical perspectives of how Digital Natives learn and how…

  9. Perspectives on Communicating with the Net Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Lynn; Milligan, Anastasia Trekles

    2008-01-01

    Lynn Zimmerman and Anastasia Trekles Milligan examine technological communication from the perspectives of two instructors, one a digital immigrant and the other a digital native. Today's students are digital natives, reared in a world permeated by interactive technology; as a result, they are used to a model of communication that is significantly…

  10. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2011. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2011-01-01

    Since the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) first began conducting its Alumni Perspectives Surveys 11 years ago, several "truths" about graduate business school alumni have consistently stood the test of time: They are and remain eminently employable. They constantly rate the value of the degree highly. This year's results are…

  11. International Perspectives on Science Communication Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewenstein, Bruce V.

    1997-01-01

    Uses the fields of science communication and science journalism to explore different cultural perspectives in science with attention to ethics and values. Provides examples of the kinds of issues that can be raised for students who go overseas and suggests the types of thinking and learning that these issues can stimulate. (Author/VWL)

  12. Child Language Disability: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Montfort Supple, Marie; Soderpalm, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the historical foundations of the identification of language disorders in childhood through an international perspective. It describes the development of the profession of speech-language pathology, initially in Western Europe and later in North America. The roles played by key researchers in the area of child language are…

  13. Multimodal Student Interaction Online: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Therese Ornberg

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the influence of tool and task design on student interaction in language learning at a distance. Interaction in a multimodal desktop video conferencing environment, FlashMeeting, is analyzed from an ecological perspective with two main foci: participation rates and conversational feedback strategies. The quantitative…

  14. Deaf-Blind Perspectives, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Peggy, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These three issues of "Deaf-Blind Perspectives" feature the following articles: (1) "A Group for Students with Usher Syndrome in South Louisiana" (Faye Melancon); (2) "Simply Emily," which discusses a budding friendship between a girl with deaf-blindness and a peer; (3) "Intervener Update" (Peggy Malloy and Betsy Bixler), which summarizes services…

  15. Primary-Secondary Transfer: A Science Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    It is a recurring debate many people have probably been engaged in: why do pupils appear to under-perform in the lower years of secondary school? In the latest in their "Perspectives on education" series, "Primary-secondary transfer in science" (Wellcome Trust, 2009), the Wellcome Trust addresses this problematic area with respect to UK science…

  16. Hiroshima: Perspectives on the Atomic Bombing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Amy

    In this curriculum module students analyze both U.S. and Japanese perspectives of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. The activities integrate Howard Gardner's work on multiple intelligences. The module is recommended as a supplement to textbook coverage of the war in the Pacific and of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. It can be used to support both…

  17. Test Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodas, Jaee; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper examines test anxiety from a cross-cultural perspective with specific reference to the Indian and American cultures. The construct of test anxiety has been examined in many cultures all over the world. In this review, the importance of understanding and incorporating contextual factors in cross-cultural research is emphasized.…

  18. East-West Perspectives on Elder Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and conceptualizes the meaning of lifelong learning from two cultural perspectives--East and West. It examines the different principles underpinning lifelong learning that explain why and how elders in the two cultures engage differently in continued learning. Finally, it discusses the cultural impact on elder learning by…

  19. A Multimodal Perspective on Textuality and Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewitt, Carey

    2007-01-01

    Textuality is often thought of in linguistic terms; for instance, the talk and writing that circulate in the classroom. In this paper I take a multimodal perspective on textuality and context. I draw on illustrative examples from school Science and English to examine how image, colour, gesture, gaze, posture and movement--as well as writing and…

  20. EXETRA Perspectives: Concepts in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry L.; Edginton, Christopher R.

    Fifteen papers address issues in therapeutic recreation for disabled persons from the perspectives of practitioners, educators, and students. The following papers are presented. "Therapeutic Recreation Service: The Past and Challenging Present" (H. Sessoms); "Therapeutic Recreatiion in an Era of Limits: A Crisis...A Challenge... An Opportunity"…

  1. Perspectives of College Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the perspectives of college students with Asperger's syndrome (AS) concerning their primary social needs, and their experiences of how those social needs are met at the higher education level. Individuals with AS who were enrolled in or had completed at least one semester of an undergraduate program, or graduated from a college…

  2. Comparative "Glocal" Perspectives on European Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caena, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a PhD study, which offers comparative perspectives on teacher education in a period of reforms, inquiring into stakeholders' perceptions in English, French, Italian and Spanish contexts as case studies. The interaction of needs and constraints in European initial teacher education within higher education…

  3. Critical Perspectives on Methodology in Pedagogic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The emancipatory dimension to higher education represents one of the sector's most compelling characteristics, but it remains important to develop understanding of the sources of determination that shape practice. Drawing on critical realist perspectives, we explore generative mechanisms by which methodology in pedagogic research affects the…

  4. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2010. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2010-01-01

    During the months of April and September of 2009, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) conducted the Alumni Perspectives Survey, a longitudinal study of prior respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey of management students nearing graduation. A total of 3,708 alumni responded to the April 2009 survey,…

  5. Museums and Adults Learning: Perspectives from Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Alan, Ed.; Stannett, Annette, Ed.

    This book contains 28 papers presenting perspectives from Europe on museums and adult learning. The papers, each of which is devoted to a specific country, examine topics such as the following: further education and inservice training; programs for unemployed individuals; lectures and open days; elderly visitors; immigrants; refugees; disabled…

  6. Providing a Global Perspective: An Educator's Duty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achterberg, Cheryl

    2002-01-01

    Creating opportunities for international education, both at home and abroad as well as through virtual means, is an important challenge in higher education today. This article presents some strategies for expanding students' options for learning abroad. A new model for learning abroad that aids in promoting a global perspective is discussed. (BF)

  7. New Perspectives on Teacher Education in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharaf, Adel

    2006-01-01

    This brief paper is part of a larger research project which examined the historical background of teaching in the Kuwaiti educational system before and after the Gulf War in 1990 in order to propose a new perspective on teacher education in Kuwait, particularly with regard to religious education. The author is interested in whether others have a…

  8. Women in Education. Perspectives in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Patricia Cayo

    This book, one of a five-volume series dealing with perspectives in American education, discusses the education of women. The purpose of the series is to provide a better understanding of the educational process and the relation of education to human welfare. Chapters one and two examine women and schools by discussing the function of education…

  9. Children's Perspectives in a Game Programming Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tholander, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    In the Playground project, we applied a constructionist learning perspective in order to build a computational learning environment in which children could design and build their own video games. In this paper, we present results from a study where children were given semi-structured programming tasks in an adventure game designed to investigate…

  10. How Many Impulsivities? A Discounting Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel

    2013-01-01

    People discount the value of delayed and uncertain outcomes, and how steeply individuals discount is thought to reflect how impulsive they are. From this perspective, steep discounting of delayed outcomes (which fails to maximize long-term welfare) and shallow discounting of probabilistic outcomes (which fails to adequately take risk into account)…

  11. Investigating School Leadership Practice: A Distributed Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Halverson, Richard; Diamond, John B.

    2001-01-01

    Argues for scholarship that investigates leadership practice; specifically, the practice of leading classroom instruction. Articulates a distributed perspective, grounded in activity theory and distributed cognition, to frame such investigations. Suggests that school leadership is best understood as a distributed practice stretched over the…

  12. Language Origin from an Emergentist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Jinyun; Holland, John H.

    2006-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been a surge of interest in the origin of language across a wide range of disciplines. Emergentism provides a new perspective to integrate investigations from different areas of study. This paper discusses how the study of language acquisition can contribute to the inquiry, in particular when computer modeling is…

  13. Academic Perspectives in Substance Abuse Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark

    Academic perspectives are reviewed for consultation in substance abuse within four general issues: consultation paradigms, research consultation and psychology, sources for consultation, and academic issues. The mental health/crisis intervention model is the most common consultation paradigm. Most consultation research in the substance abuse area…

  14. Special Needs and Dance: An Insider's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Judith

    2015-01-01

    This article is the result of an interview with Judith Nelson conducted by Madeline Cantor. Madeline is the Associate Director of the Dance Program at Bryn Mawr College and a colleague and friend of Judith Nelson. In this article, Judith offers her perspective as a dance educator who teaches students with disabilities, and as a parent of a child…

  15. Investigating Transitions in Mathematics from Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicknell, Brenda; Riley, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on school transition for 15 mathematically gifted Year 6 and Year 8 students. The data are extracted from a longitudinal qualitative study that examined student and parent perspectives, and programme provision for mathematically gifted and talented students before and after a change of schools. The students moved from primary…

  16. Trait-Based Perspectives of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaccaro, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    The trait-based perspective of leadership has a long but checkered history. Trait approaches dominated the initial decades of scientific leadership research. Later, they were disdained for their inability to offer clear distinctions between leaders and nonleaders and for their failure to account for situational variance in leadership behavior.…

  17. Software Development Management: Empirical and Analytical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Keumseok

    2011-01-01

    Managing software development is a very complex activity because it must deal with people, organizations, technologies, and business processes. My dissertation consists of three studies that examine software development management from various perspectives. The first study empirically investigates the impacts of prior experience with similar…

  18. Another Perspective: An Interview with David Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ruth A.; Johnson, Kelli

    2005-01-01

    To provide another perspective on evaluation within nonformal settings, "New Directions for Evaluation" recently interviewed David Smith, the coordinator of the Professional Learning to Close the Achievement Gap program for the Kansas City, Kansas, Public Schools, who has extensive background in education and educational research. He formerly held…

  19. Employers' Perspectives of Employees' Personal Financial Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Rita; Carnes, Lana

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine employers' perspectives of employees' personal financial literacy. Executives rated credit card use and budgeting as the most important personal financial literacy skills that employees should have. They stated that strong personal financial literacy skills allow an employee to focus on work activity…

  20. Perspectives on Change of Custody among Stepsiblings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihinger-Tallman, Marilyn

    In an attempt to understand perceptions of custody arrangements from the perspective of children with a focus on sibling and stepsibling relationships, exploratory research was conducted. Lengthy, unstructured interviews were conducted with 12 college students who ranged in age from 18 to 37. Data were gathered on family communication and…

  1. Historical Perspectives on the Current Education Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane, Ed.; Vinovskis, Maris, Ed.

    This document contains 14 individual papers by prominent scholars who provide a historical perspective on current educational reforms. The three essays in part 1 examine some of the major changes in educational development and reform. These include: (1) "Antiquarianism and American Education: Assimilation, Adjustment, Access" (Patricia Graham);…

  2. Excellent Teachers' Perspectives on Excellent Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Jared W.; Ismail, Emad; Buskist, William

    2016-01-01

    Studies of master teaching have investigated a set of qualities that define excellent teaching. However, few studies have investigated master teachers' perspectives on excellent teaching and how it may differ from other faculty or students. The current study investigated award-winning teachers' (N = 50) ratings of the 28 qualities on the teacher…

  3. Red Scare Rhetoric: A Weaverian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Donald R.

    An analysis of political rhetoric from a perspective suggested by the theories of Richard M. Weaver indicates that during the post-World War I and post-World War II eras, the United States experienced interplays of sociohistorical variables that prevented the nation from rapidly returning to a tension-free experience of peacetime living.…

  4. Native Perspectives on Childbearing and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Heather F.

    This ethnographic study sought to understand, from the native perspective, the traditional childbearing values and practices of Coast Salish peoples and the difficulties in maintaining these in a society that is not oriented to native values and practices. Observations and interviews were carried out over a 4-year period on the Songhees reserve in…

  5. Early Sport Specialization: A Psychological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Specializing too early in life can lead to emotional stress, loss of motivation, and burnout, but the research is inadequate to resolve the question of whether early specialization or diversification is more beneficial from a psychological perspective. Nevertheless, some best practices are recommended based on the known benefits and detriments.…

  6. Humility in Learning: A Confucian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Little research exists on humility in human learning and from a cultural perspective. This article reviews current research and conceptualizes humility as a basic human potential that can become a virtue when cultivated. But the cultivation depends on the cultural values placed on humility. Although humility is recognized in the West, ambivalence…

  7. The Future of Copyright Management: European Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battisti, Michele

    This paper presents European perspectives on the future of copyright management. The first section is an overview of intellectual property rights in Europe, including differences between copyright countries and "droit d'auteur" countries. The second section addresses European Community legal policy, including examples related to the directives for…

  8. Future Perspectives of Biocybernetic Research in Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This paper describes the future perspectives of biocybernetic communication research applied to television, i.e., the measurement of the information impact of television on both individual human beings and groups in terms of energetic changes in the human body. A summary of the recent state of the art of biocybernetic research includes discussions…

  9. Perspectives on Elder Abuse in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konig, Julia; Leembruggen-Kallberg, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    This study of 74 German citizens analyzed perspectives on the behaviors of adult children toward their elderly parents, with a focus on the behaviors that were considered to be extremely, moderately, or mildly abusive. Physical and psychological aggression, psychological neglect, and neglect/abandonment were most frequently cited as examples of…

  10. European Universities and Their International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Robin H.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation was prepared in response to a request from the European University Association for a brief comparative analysis of higher education internationalization in Europe and North America from a North American perspective. After adapting de Wit's four-category definition of internationalization (academic programs, technical assistance,…

  11. HRD: International Perspectives on Development and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Merrick, Ed.; Mann, Pete, Ed.

    This anthology contains 16 papers devoted to 3 aspects of human resources development (HRD): the institutional perspective on learning for development, the key actors in HRD, and the role of HRD in improving individual and organizational performance. The papers are: "Human Resources Development and Adjustment" (Kanawaty); "People-Oriented…

  12. Reflecting: Perspectives on the College Presidency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides Stephen J. Nelson's perspectives on challenges faced by college presidents today, how and when to use the bully pulpit of the college presidency, and advice for future college presidents. Nelson recently wrote his fifth book about college presidents, "College Presidents Reflect: Life in and out of the Ivory…

  13. Perspectives on Japan: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, John J., Ed.; Schneider, Donald O., Ed.

    Provided are some perspectives, ideas, and resources for teaching about Japan and the Japanese. A major objective is to provide an opportunity for K-12 students to study a culture that can be both compared and contrasted to their own. Following an introduction, which provides a rationale for teaching about Japan, there are three major parts.…

  14. Reconstructing Mathematics Pedagogy from a Constructivist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Martin A.

    1995-01-01

    Begins with an overview of the constructivist perspective and the pedagogical theory development upon which a constructivist teaching experiment with 20 prospective elementary teachers was based. Derives a theoretical framework for mathematics pedagogy with a focus on decisions about content and mathematical tasks. (49 references) (Author/DDD)

  15. A new perspective with weed management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till cropping systems are increasing land productivity. Herbicides are a crucial tool for weed management in no-till, but weed resistance is decreasing control efficacy and increasing input costs. Producers are seeking a broader perspective with weed management. One approach is to disrupt weed...

  16. Equidistant Intervals in Perspective Photographs and Paintings

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Human vision is extremely sensitive to equidistance of spatial intervals in the frontal plane. Thresholds for spatial equidistance have been extensively measured in bisecting tasks. Despite the vast number of studies, the informational basis for equidistance perception is unknown. There are three possible sources of information for spatial equidistance in pictures, namely, distances in the picture plane, in physical space, and visual space. For each source, equidistant intervals were computed for perspective photographs of walls and canals. Intervals appear equidistant if equidistance is defined in visual space. Equidistance was further investigated in paintings of perspective scenes. In appraisals of the perspective skill of painters, emphasis has been on accurate use of vanishing points. The current study investigated the skill of painters to depict equidistant intervals. Depicted rows of equidistant columns, tiles, tapestries, or trees were analyzed in 30 paintings and engravings. Computational analysis shows that from the middle ages until now, artists either represented equidistance in physical space or in a visual space of very limited depth. Among the painters and engravers who depict equidistance in a highly nonveridical visual space are renowned experts of linear perspective.

  17. Social Class and Education: Global Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois, Ed.; Dolby, Nadine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Social Class and Education: Global Perspectives" is the first empirically grounded volume to explore the intersections of class, social structure, opportunity, and education on a truly global scale. Fifteen essays from contributors representing the US, Europe, China, Latin America and other regions offer an unparralleled examination of how social…

  18. Workers' Perspectives on Vocational Rehabilitation Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Wessel, Julie M.; Harder, Henry G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to consider the vocational rehabilitation (VR) process from the perspective of VR consumers. To better understand the experiences of workers who were injured on the job and participated in VR rehabilitation services, 27 semistructured interviews were completed; 24 were completed face-to-face and 3 were…

  19. Undergraduate Consumer Affairs Program Needs: Employers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Kathryn; Saboe-Wounded Head, Lorna; Cho, Soo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Forty-six Consumer Affairs (CA) internship supervisors were surveyed to identify critical knowledge and skills demonstrated by interns and to examine the importance of knowledge and skills needed in the workplace from the supervisors' perspectives.The knowledge and skills measured were identified through program goals. Results revealed that CA…

  20. Post-Colonialism Perspectives on Educational Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Chuan-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Educational competition has always been the puzzle issue of educational researches. In this article, I analyze several aspects of educational competition within the perspective of post-colonialism discourse. In the political aspect, Taiwanese education is linked with political power, to present the post-colonial spirit by continuing dynastic…

  1. Redefining Literacy from an Egalitarian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Maggie

    2007-01-01

    The equality framework developed in the Equality Studies Centre, University College Dublin (UCD), provides a useful base for thinking about literacy from an equality perspective. Neo-liberal, critical and situated approaches to literacy have made minimal impact in the Irish context where only 6 per cent of those with unmet literacy needs…

  2. Journal Editorship: Mentoring, Democratic, and International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    This essay builds on a review of studies in education. Journal editorship is explored from the mentoring, democratic, and international perspectives. Trends are examined within the publishing culture around these three editorial functions. Theoretical groundwork is provided for exploring contemporary journal editorship and its challenges and…

  3. Performance Management for Teachers: Headteachers' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Gill; Wragg, Ted; Wragg, Caroline; Chamberlin, Rosemary

    2003-01-01

    Traces introduction and implementation of one strand of UK government's performance-related pay strategy, Performance Management, from the perspective of 12 primary and secondary head teachers of schools located in three different regions of England. Finds that while heads may not be against performance-related pay in principle, its practical…

  4. Voluntary Environmental Programs: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prakash, Aseem; Potoski, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental programs (VEPs) are institutions for inducing firms to produce environmental goods beyond legal requirements. A comparative perspective on VEPs shows how incentives to sponsor and participate in VEPs vary across countries in ways that reveal their potential and limitations. Our brief survey examines conditions under which…

  5. Light sterile neutrinos: Status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    The indications in favor of the existence of light sterile neutrinos at the eV scale found in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments is reviewed. The future perspectives of short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and the connections with β-decay measurements of the neutrino masses and with neutrinoless double-β decay experiments are discussed.

  6. Scientist-Practitioner Perspectives on Test Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, James W., Ed.; Goodyear, Rodney K., Ed.

    The focus of this book is on the way professionals use and make sense of test assessment data in their counseling. The book is oriented specifically toward those training to be psychologists or counselors, especially those interested in a scientist-practitioner orientation to clinical practice. Each of the chapters presents a perspective on test…

  7. Leisure: Perspectives on Education and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Max

    This compilation of essays presents a broad introduction to substantive issues entering into leisure studies, placing emphasis on the matters of values, goals, and lifestyles. Specific educational perspectives are discussed through such aspects as language, futurology, the arts and recreation, and human values and religion. Related social policy…

  8. Defining Quality Child Care: Multiple Stakeholder Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrist, Amanda W.; Thompson, Stacy D.; Norris, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple perspectives regarding the definition of quality child care, and how child care quality can be improved, were examined using a focus group methodology. Participants were representatives from stakeholder groups in the child care profession, including child care center owners and directors (3 groups), parents (3 groups), child caregivers (3…

  9. Popcorn Story Frames from a Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLella, Carol Ann

    Popcorn story frames from a multicultural perspective are holistic outlines that in the reading/writing process facilitate comprehension for all cultures learning to read and write stories. Popcorn story frames are structured and modeled in a horizontal fashion just like popcorn pops in a horizontal fashion. The frames are designed for learners…

  10. An Indian Perspective of Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Floy C.; Henry, Steven L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses self-esteem and child development within the context of the Indian perspective of the wholeness of life. Associates the four directions of the Medicine Wheel and common Indian symbols and interpretations of these directions with four social elements related to self-esteem: empowerment, uniqueness, attachment, and role models. (SV)

  11. Equidistant Intervals in Perspective Photographs and Paintings

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Human vision is extremely sensitive to equidistance of spatial intervals in the frontal plane. Thresholds for spatial equidistance have been extensively measured in bisecting tasks. Despite the vast number of studies, the informational basis for equidistance perception is unknown. There are three possible sources of information for spatial equidistance in pictures, namely, distances in the picture plane, in physical space, and visual space. For each source, equidistant intervals were computed for perspective photographs of walls and canals. Intervals appear equidistant if equidistance is defined in visual space. Equidistance was further investigated in paintings of perspective scenes. In appraisals of the perspective skill of painters, emphasis has been on accurate use of vanishing points. The current study investigated the skill of painters to depict equidistant intervals. Depicted rows of equidistant columns, tiles, tapestries, or trees were analyzed in 30 paintings and engravings. Computational analysis shows that from the middle ages until now, artists either represented equidistance in physical space or in a visual space of very limited depth. Among the painters and engravers who depict equidistance in a highly nonveridical visual space are renowned experts of linear perspective. PMID:27698983

  12. Career Theory from an International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Jean; Lenz, Janet

    2005-01-01

    The Career Theory in an International Perspective group highlighted 7 approaches: action theory, self-construction model, transition model, dynamics of entering the workforce, narrative in career guidance, dilemma approach, and interactive identity construction. Three main characteristics appear to be common to these different contributions: (a)…

  13. The MEG experiment: status and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolo, Donato

    2010-03-30

    The MEG experiment, a sensitive search for the mu->egamma decay, has started operating in September 2008. Analysis of data collected during the initial three months of operation is still ongoing and soon to be finalized. The detector performance during Run 2008 is reviewed, with remarks on perspectives for Run 2009.

  14. Remote sensing-a geophysical perspective.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    1985-01-01

    In this review of developments in the field of remote sensing from a geophysical perspective, the subject is limited to the electromagnetic spectrum from 0.4 mu m to 25cm. Three broad energy categories are covered: solar reflected, thermal infrared, and microwave.-from Authorremote sensing electromagnetic spectrum solar reflected thermal infrared microwave geophysics

  15. The Large Public University. CFO Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessell, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    "CFO Perspectives" is a series of white papers that examines at role of the CFO within different institutional or operational settings. Each white paper, available free from the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) and released periodically during 2012, NACUBO's 50th anniversary year, focuses on the…

  16. Ethical Perspectives: Leadership Subscales Applied to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Sherry K.; Kavich, Larry L.

    Ethical perspectives are needed to gain insight into the history of leader behavior, especially as related to the current emphasis on contingency and Path-Goal Theories. An instrument to help select professionals who reflect ethical traits is the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire with 12 leadership subscales (LBDQ, Form XII). Selected…

  17. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  18. National Qualification Frameworks: Developing Research Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernie, Scott; Pilcher, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Arguments for National Qualification Frameworks (NQF) are compelling. Indeed, such frameworks are now an international phenomenon. Yet, few studies take a critical perspective and challenge the broad assumptions underpinning NQF. Arguments presented in this paper attempt to open a debate within the higher education community that draws attention…

  19. Women-Family in Quality Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatimah, Rika P. L.; Aziz, J. Abdul; Ibrahim, K.

    2008-01-01

    Bringing together women and family in quality perspective brings about interesting discussions in this paper. By integrating previous studies and considering expert opinions, we determine the variables and dimensions with respect to women's existence regarding their roles both in the family and at work. Many activities carried out by women…

  20. A Perspective on Marketing Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John E.

    1990-01-01

    This document presents a model for program planning and decision making for teacher education in marketing and discusses teacher education policy in the context of the model. The first section explains the document's background and perspective. The second section places marketing teacher education in the context of a larger marketing education…

  1. Learning to Lead: A Practitioner Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Maddy

    2014-01-01

    This reflective essay presents a personal account of experiences and models that have shaped the development of the author as a leader in tertiary education. It is presented from the perspective of a practitioner whose career has led her through academic and administrative roles in Australian and UK institutions into her current position as…

  2. Thinking about Religion from a Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Brant; Smith, Fred

    The Student Text begins with a comparison of Eastern and Western World Religions. The three interrelated Abrahamic faiths are compared with Hindu-Buddhist traditions. Subsequent chapter titles are: "New Religions,""Religion and Morality,""Religion and Science,""Religion and Human Life,""A Historical Perspective" and "Getting Together." An…

  3. Motor neuron disease: a chemical perspective.

    PubMed

    Wood, Laura K; Langford, Steven J

    2014-08-14

    This Perspective provides a background to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease and specifically amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and gives an overview of the many pathways, both genetically inheritable and sporadic, that may lead to the premature activation of apoptotic pathways in neurons, as well as current and proposed approaches toward interrupting these pathways.

  4. Decolonizing the Curriculum for Global Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subedi, Binaya

    2013-01-01

    In this article Binaya Subedi explores the multiple ways the idea of "global" is theorized within the school curriculum and suggests the utility of approaching the idea of global perspectives through decolonizing frameworks. In particular, she explores the deficit, accommodation, and decolonization approaches as offering three ways that…

  5. 2012 Alumni Perspectives Survey. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Conducted in September 2011, this Alumni Perspectives Survey by the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) is a longitudinal study of respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey, the annual GMAC[R] exit survey of graduate management students in their final year of business school. This 12th annual report includes responses…

  6. Researcher Perspectives on Class Size Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graue, Elizabeth; Rauscher, Erica

    2009-01-01

    This article applies to class size research Grant and Graue's (1999) position that reviews of research represent conversations in the academic community. By extending our understanding of the class size reduction conversation beyond published literature to the perspectives of researchers who have studied the topic, we create a review that includes…

  7. Parenting Education in Australia: A Structural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, June

    This paper offers critical reflections on parenting education in its social context. The paper is informed by a feminist perspective, and by a structural approach to practice that emphasizes the importance of changing social structures. An introductory section explores the impact of the ideologies of the traditional family, and of motherhood and…

  8. Developing Second Language Literacy: A Vygotskyan Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alice M.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the development of students' writing competence in English, their second language. Explores Lev S. Vygotsky's perspective of the dialectal relationship between language and cognition. Discusses Vygotskyan concepts of mediation, higher mental functions, interaction, internalization, proximal development, and problem solving. (KEH)

  9. A Moral Cosmopolitan Perspective on Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obelleiro, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, scholars have turned to cosmopolitanism as a framework for thinking through issues of language and citizenship. In this article, I present Daisaku Ikeda's philosophy of cosmopolitan education and compare it with others' in the extant literature. I examine, from a philosophical perspective, its roots in the Mahayana tradition of…

  10. Defining Adapted Physical Activity: International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Sherrill, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen's social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative…

  11. Interviewing Child Witnesses: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda

    1998-01-01

    Reviews suggestions derived from the clinical and experimental literatures for interviewing child witnesses to abuse. Guidelines for questioning children are provided and phases of a forensic interview are outlined in a step-by-step fashion. The suggestions presented highlight a developmental perspective designed to facilitate children's memory…

  12. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Career Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark; Duarte, Maria Eduarda; Glavin, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    The authors present an overview of the discussion and presentations that took place concerning techniques and assessment in educational and vocational guidance at the recent symposium "International Perspectives on Career Development." Two topics were examined. The 1st focused on the theoretical foundations of and psychometric issues in career…

  13. Active Learning: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marilyn

    The purposes of the first two parts of this literature review are to clarify the concept of active learning and discuss the use and value of active learning models. In Part I, the perspectives of five historical proponents of active learning, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Dewey, Kilpatrick, and Piaget, are discussed. The views of four contemporary…

  14. Market Segmentation from a Behavioral Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge; Pallister, John

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847…

  15. Overview of PVQAT: Update and Perspectives (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Yamamichi, M.; Sample, T.; Kelly, G.; Govind, R.

    2015-02-01

    The presentation provides an overview of PVQAT: International PV Quality Assurance Task Force - historical perspective, projects, climate - specific (use - environment -specific) durability testing, consistency of manufacturing, system verification, IECRE vs PVQAT, how to become involved, current status and multiyear targets, goals for today.

  16. Dealing with Human Death: The Floating Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Gary M.

    1991-01-01

    Explores approach to dealing with human death. Describes floating perspective, based on insights from Choron and Jaspers, as suggesting it is possible to deal with human death by refraining from taking ultimate position on the problem. Position encourages openness to death. Examines role of anxiety and describes possible meaningful outcomes of…

  17. Inquiry in Science Education: International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; BouJaoude, Saouma; Duschl, Richard; Lederman, Norman G.; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Niaz, Mansoor; Treagust, David; Tuan, Hsiao-lin

    2004-01-01

    This paper set emerged from an international symposium that aimed to shed light on issues associated with the enactment of inquiry both as means (i.e., inquiry as an instructional approach) and as ends (i.e., inquiry as a learning outcome) in precollege science classrooms. The symposium contributors were charged with providing perspectives from…

  18. Holism in Teacher Development: A Goethean Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberski, Iddo; McNally, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Teaching has moved gradually from being seen as an art or craft to an evidence-based techno-rational profession. However, within Steiner-Waldorf schools, teachers are largely autonomous and seen, like their pupils, as always "coming into being", through the development of an objective imaginative faculty. This perspective is derived from Steiner's…

  19. Process Perspectives: Community Education As Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, John W.; And Others

    The purpose of this collection of papers is to define and explain the concept of process orientation, especially as applied to community education. The major presentation begins by tracing the central importance of process orientation through a review of literature within community education. Then a variety of different perspectives on process…

  20. Perspectives. Fall-Winter 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Technical Assistance Center (NETAC), Rochester Institute of Technology, 2006

    2006-01-01

    PEPNet's "Perspectives" is the collaborative newsletter of the four PEPNet regional centers. This newsletter combines each centers' individual strengths into a single resource that can be used on a national level. The issue focuses on the following topics: (1) IDEA and transition to life beyond high school (Sharaine J. Rawlinson); (2) PEPNet…

  1. Global Perspectives on Child Welfare. Preface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the effects of a global perspective on awareness of issues affecting child welfare worldwide, including warfare, land mines, AIDS, child labor, child sexual exploitation, and immigration. Considers programs and policies from other countries, including nongovernmental organizations, that can be replicated worldwide to better children's…

  2. Perspectives on Interlanguage Phonetics and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroy, Rafael, Ed.; Gutierrez, Francisco, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this special issue include the following: "Allophonic Splits in L2 Phonology: The Questions of Learnability" (Fred R. Eckman, Abdullah Elreyes, Gregory K. Iverson); "Native Language Influence in Learners' Assessment of English Focus" (M. L. Garcia Lecumberri); "Obstruent Voicing in English and Polish. A Pedagogical Perspective" (Wiktor…

  3. Student Discipline: Legal, Empirical, and Educational Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J. John, III, Ed.; Bennett, Christine, Ed.

    This book presents four perspectives on student discipline: legal and historical, empirical, educational, and futuristic. Part I examines the legal history of student discipline in papers by J. John Harris III, Richard E. Fields, and A. Reynaldo Contreras (Chapter 1); Richard E. Fields (Chapter 2); and David G. Carter, Sr. and Cynthia L. Jackson…

  4. Elementary Social Studies: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muire, Sharon Pray; Frazee, Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Examines appropriate map learning experiences for elementary school children based on inferences derived from Piaget's research on cognitive development. Addresses the eight skills developed in most map learning programs: 1) interpreting symbols, 2) envisioning perspective, 3) locating places, 4) determining direction, 5) computing distance, 6)…

  5. Affirmative Action: From the Perspective of Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Roosevelt, Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a historical perspective of affirmative action, examining the case for and the case against affirmative action and offering guidelines for advancing toward the goals of equal opportunity and a community that engages all of its citizens. This information is presented within the context of diversity, with a focus on diversity management.…

  6. Perspective Role-Taking in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lynn D.; Gollin, Eugene S.

    1977-01-01

    In a task in which 4- and 7-year-old children were asked to select a photograph depicting the visual perspective of a puppet which was placed at various locations around a dollhouse, three types of errors were examined in relation to the shielded vs. nonshielded condition, age, and type of vantage point. (SB)

  7. [Health after Fukushima. A current perspective].

    PubMed

    Zeeb, H; Müller, S

    2011-07-01

    This short paper reflects on the current situation after the Fukushima nuclear accident and the potential health consequences of the disaster. We discuss perspectives related to radiation protection activities as well as to epidemiologic monitoring and research in the affected regions in order to assess long-term effects of the accident. PMID:21698543

  8. Revisiting Metaphors for Education: A Student's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikitina, Larisa; Furuoka, Fumitaka

    2011-01-01

    This study examines metaphors about learning produced by a group of eighteen students at a big public university in Malaysia. The learner perspective is placed within a wider discourse on education in order to explore whether the images employed by the learners to describe their learning reflect the dominant conception of education as…

  9. Grief as a Social Emotion: Theoretical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakoby, Nina R.

    2012-01-01

    The article explores a sociological perspective on grief as a social emotion. Focusing on the social bond with the deceased, the self-concept of the survivor or the power of feeling rules, general sociological theories of emotions (symbolic interactionism, structural theory, behavioral theory) have the potential to deepen the understanding of…

  10. Viewing Mobile Learning from a Pedagogical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Matthew; Schuck, Sandra; Burden, Kevin; Aubusson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mobile learning is a relatively new phenomenon and the theoretical basis is currently under development. The paper presents a pedagogical perspective of mobile learning which highlights three central features of mobile learning: authenticity, collaboration and personalisation, embedded in the unique timespace contexts of mobile learning. A…

  11. Prospective Teachers' Perspectives on Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria L.; Robinson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] is a cooperative learning experience that we felt could challenge our prospective teachers thinking about teaching and support their connection of theory and practice during an initial course on learning to teach mathematics. We studied seventy-four prospective teachers' perspectives on MLS over four sections of…

  12. Language Competence in Movement: A Child's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how, in a multilingual perspective, language competence is experienced, talked about and practiced by language users themselves. By viewing children as active co-creators of the spaces in which language is used, this article contributes to a research tradition in which focus is shifted from viewing the individual's language…

  13. Makiguchian Perspectives in Language Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatano, Kazuma

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author applies Makiguchi Tsunesaburo's (1871-1944) perspectives to language policy and planning (LPP). One theoretical question in LPP theory is why individuals opt to use particular languages and varieties of languages in certain contexts. The author contends that Makiguchi's theory of value can be used to systematically…

  14. Globalisation and Comparative Education: A Caribbean Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisy, Pearlette

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenon of globalization argues for a broader world view that makes allowances for cultural diversity. Caribbean states have a history of living and working with people from diverse backgrounds, and could make a contribution to the new perspective through closer engagement with the field of comparative education, which has always stressed…

  15. Alumni Perspectives Survey. 2014 Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    Alumni are a powerful force in building a business school's brand. They recommend programs to prospective students, they connect current students to job opportunities, and they contribute significantly to building a school's legacy. The findings in the 2014 Alumni Perspectives Survey Report provide a current snapshot of nearly 21,000 business…

  16. Moral Leadership in Education: An Indian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapre, Padmakar M.; Ranade, Mridula D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses reasons for emergence of management concepts in Indian education. Reviews Western literature on leadership and offers an Indian perspective on leadership. Provides overview of the lives of three famous Indian leaders who demonstrated the essence of moral leadership: Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, and Mahatma Gandhi. Draws…

  17. Educational Inequalities and Opportunity in Economic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Mary Jean

    1991-01-01

    Discusses educational equality and inequality from an economist's perspective. Considers human capital theory and interpretation of life cycles in learning and earning. Addresses schooling and experience components of changes in the inequality of earned incomes, educational expansion, and inequalities in schooling. Explores the roles of skill…

  18. Preparing Teachers of Tomorrow with Global Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Sittason, Kelli S.

    2009-01-01

    Global education advances global perspectives and prepares globally competent citizens. Globally competent citizens know they have an impact on the world and that the world influences them. Global competency is often viewed in terms of three attributes: knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Given the importance of preparing pre-service teachers who…

  19. Volunteers in Leisure. A Management Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedrick, Ted; Henderson, Karla

    The first chapter of this monograph presents some major themes and fundamental issues surrounding leisure activities volunteers and their management from a system perspective. Chapter 2 discusses the results of a survey conducted to obtain a status report of selected volunteer system characteristics. The third chapter focuses on dealing with…

  20. A Feminist Multicultural Perspective on Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary Lee; Gizara, Sharon; Hope, Anna Crombach; Phelps, Rosemary; Steward, Robbie; Weitzman, Lauren

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen members of the Section for the Advancement of Women conference work group identified themes and issues relevant to a feminist multicultural perspective on supervision. Issues raised included feminist silence and White privilege, the importance of self-examination, the courage to be anxious, personal commitment to uncertainty, and isolation…

  1. Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery: Current and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gilshtein, Hayim; Duek, Simon-Daniel; Khoury, Wisam

    2016-06-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is part of the colorectal surgeons' armamentarium for over 2 decades. Since its first implementation for the resection of benign and T1 malignant lesions in the rectum several new indications were developed and it carries additional promise for further extension in upcoming years. Herein we review the technique, its current indications, novel implications, and future perspectives.

  2. Teachers' Knowledge: Review from Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Siping

    2010-01-01

    Background: The international science competitions show that students from different countries perform differently in subjects such as mathematics, physics and chemistry. In the literature comparative empirical studies tried to address the reasons for cross-national students' differences in performance from different perspectives such as teaching…

  3. Criticality safety evaluation - an endusers's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S T

    1999-05-06

    This paper presents criticality safety evaluations from an enduser's perspective. Overall issues related to a criticality safety evaluation in an operations support setting are discussed. A work flow process is presented which shows the key steps in conducting an effective criticality evaluation. Finally, a few suggestions are given to assist newcomers to this field.

  4. Perspective Taking Promotes Action Understanding and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Martin Hard, Bridgette; Tversky, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    People often learn actions by watching others. The authors propose and test the hypothesis that perspective taking promotes encoding a hierarchical representation of an actor's goals and subgoals-a key process for observational learning. Observers segmented videos of an object assembly task into coarse and fine action units. They described what…

  5. Migration and Development: A Theoretical Perspective 1

    PubMed Central

    De Haas, Hein

    2010-01-01

    The debate on migration and development has swung back and forth like a pendulum, from developmentalist optimism in the 1950s and 1960s, to neo‐Marxist pessimism over the 1970s and 1980s, towards more optimistic views in the 1990s and 2000s. This paper argues how such discursive shifts in the migration and development debate should be primarily seen as part of more general paradigm shifts in social and development theory. However, the classical opposition between pessimistic and optimistic views is challenged by empirical evidence pointing to the heterogeneity of migration impacts. By integrating and amending insights from the new economics of labor migration, livelihood perspectives in development studies and transnational perspectives in migration studies – which share several though as yet unobserved conceptual parallels – this paper elaborates the contours of a conceptual framework that simultaneously integrates agency and structure perspectives and is therefore able to account for the heterogeneous nature of migration‐development interactions. The resulting perspective reveals the naivety of recent views celebrating migration as self‐help development “from below”. These views are largely ideologically driven and shift the attention away from structural constraints and the vital role of states in shaping favorable conditions for positive development impacts of migration to occur. PMID:26900199

  6. Reading as Situated Language: A Sociocognitive Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, James Paul

    2001-01-01

    Situates reading within a broad perspective that integrates work on cognition, language, social interaction, society, and culture. Argues that reading and writing cannot be separated from speaking, listening, and interacting, on the one hand, or using language to think about and act on the world, on the other. Introduces "social languages" as a…

  7. Sparks: Senior Perspectives Awareness Research Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Juanita; Bernick, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Describes SPARKS (Senior Perspectives Awareness Research Knowledge Seminars), a Virginia Beach (Virginia) program in which selected high school seniors meet to research, discuss, and debate topics. Students design the seminar and select the topics. Teachers organize, monitor, and evaluate. Examples of SPARKS activities, seminar topics, and field…

  8. Lifelong Learning--A Public Library Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlert, Maureen

    This paper presents a public library perspective on lifelong learning. The first section discusses the lifelong learning challenge, including the aims of the Australian National Marketing Strategy for Skills and Lifelong Learning, and findings of a national survey related to the value of and barriers to learning. The second section addresses the…

  9. A Theory of Learning (?) in Confucian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chung-ying

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I present a model of four dimensions for the idea of learning in the classical Confucian perspective. This model is intended to capture the most essential four aspects of learning which explain why self-cultivation of a human person toward an end of self-fulfillment and social transformation of humanity is possible. I shall also…

  10. Technology Education: A Perspective on Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

    This monograph has been developed to give educators a broad perspective of the technology education emphasis that is becoming prevalent in schools today, replacing industrial arts. The report is organized in four sections. The first section presents an overview of education in a highly sophisticated technological society. This section contains the…

  11. Intuitive vs Analytical Thinking: Four Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leron, Uri; Hazzan, Orit

    2009-01-01

    This article is an attempt to place mathematical thinking in the context of more general theories of human cognition. We describe and compare four perspectives--mathematics, mathematics education, cognitive psychology, and evolutionary psychology--each offering a different view on mathematical thinking and learning and, in particular, on the…

  12. Discussion from a Mathematics Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Douglas; Sarama, Julie

    2015-01-01

    In a review of the special issue, we conclude that the articles are research gems in the domain of preschool mathematics education. Most share several features, such as their perspective on research methodology and their view of mathematics thinking and learning. They address the cognitive architecture and processes and the developmental levels…

  13. Youth Perspectives of Achievement: Is Money Everything?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matope, Jasmine; Badroodien, Azeem

    2015-01-01

    This article draws from a qualitative research project completed at Victoria High School (pseudonym) in Cape Town in 2012 which explored 13 learners' perspectives of achievement and its influence on their lives and thinking. The piece problematises and analyses taken-for-granted connections between money, achievement, youth aspirations and views…

  14. Early Interventionists' Perspectives on Teaching Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Campbell, Philippa H.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of early interventionists as teachers of caregivers. The current study was conducted to better understand interventionists' perspectives about teaching caregivers. A national sample of 1,525 multidisciplinary interventionists completed an online questionnaire, which elicited information about…

  15. Developing Global Perspectives through International Management Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Maureen; Becket, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Internationalisation has risen high on the agenda of many higher education institutions, and the need to develop graduates with global perspectives is well recognised. Much attention has been given to institutional strategies for internationalisation, international students, and dealing with culturally diverse learning styles. To date, however,…

  16. Family Psychology from an Israeli Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Esther

    2001-01-01

    Describes family psychology in Israel from the perspective of geopolitical realities, culture texture, and the structure and traditions of families in Israel's multifaceted society (e.g., community disasters, war stress, immigration, and the Holocaust). Discusses the development of family psychology and institutional supports, offering a brief…

  17. The 4 Ps as a Guiding Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A 4 Ps perspective addresses immediate needs: to help institutions gain traction in their retention strategies by framing and reframing the challenges and the possible responses, by challenging some of the traditional mental models about retention that can distract or dilute those strategies, and by offering focus and coherence to institutional…

  18. Knowledge Elaboration: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyuga, Slava

    2009-01-01

    The process of knowledge elaboration is considered from the perspective of cognitive load theory. This theory assumes that the available knowledge structures in long-term memory (LTM) are used to organize and guide cognitive processing in complex learning. Accordingly, the role of external instructional guidance in the process of knowledge…

  19. Teaching for Global Perspective: A Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Patricia Betts, Ed.

    This state resource guide of approximately 250 lesson units for teaching global studies provides 18 topics and from 3-12 lessons for each topic. The topics include global perspective, using models, balance of power, conflict, development, global environment, global resources, global trade, human rights, hunger, ideologies, international…

  20. Student Perspectives of Grading in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe

    2015-01-01

    Recent state and federal legislations on educational accountability push evaluation and grading to the frontline. This study examined students' perspectives of grading in physical education. The participants included students (N = 39) from two middle schools. Data were collected through observation, student profile grading sheets and interviews.…

  1. Youth Perspectives on Bullying in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Nancy G.; Williamson, Ariel A.; Sadek, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Much of what we know about the causes and prevention of school bullying is based on research with elementary school-aged children. Few studies have captured adolescents' own views about bullying in school and in cyberspace, even though understanding youth perspectives is a critical aspect of prevention programming. Based on focus groups with…

  2. Indigenous Education and Empowerment: International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Saad, Ismael, Ed.; Champagne, Duane, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Indigenous people have often been confronted with education systems that ignore their cultural and historical perspectives. This insightful volume contributes to the understanding of indigenous empowerment through education, and creates a new foundation for implementing specialized indigenous/minority education worldwide, engaging the simultaneous…

  3. "Bildung" and Music Education: A Finnish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimonen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    The article addresses "Bildung" from a Finnish perspective and asks: Are there specific meanings of Bildung that are typical of a certain time and place? The author applies a multi-layered theory of critical positivism, adapting its three-level structure to music education and the concept of "Bildung." First, she discusses…

  4. Planning and Implementing Career Education Programs: Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crim, Alonzo A.; And Others

    The collection of six papers offers perspectives on planning and implementing career education programs. The first paper, the Introduction (David Goodwin), deals with program implementation. The second paper, Priorities in Career Education (Alonzo A. Crim), describes the historical origins of career education in the Atlanta school system with a…

  5. Ethical Perspectives on Evaluating Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpf, Dan; King, Stephanie; Blendinger, Jack; Davis, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Because the process of faculty evaluation in the community college gives rise to ethical concerns about what is evaluated, who is involved in the process, and how data are collected and used, the purpose of this paper is to provide a meaningful ethical perspective for conducting faculty evaluation. The authors discuss ethical issues that arise in…

  6. Discrepant Stakeholder Perspectives on Graduate Employability Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinash, Shelley; Crane, Linda; Judd, Madelaine-Marie; Knight, Cecily

    2016-01-01

    A literature review identified 12 strategies that have been empirically linked to improvements in graduate employability. A survey methodology was used to investigate self-reported use and/or perspectives on these strategies among four stakeholder groups. The following questions were asked: to students--What strategies are you using to improve…

  7. Systems Theory as an Historiographic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skopec, Eric Wm.

    Important in the study of rhetorical history, systems theory advocates the reading of rhetorical works in their original climates, employing a macroscopic perspective and defining research problems with reference to rhetorical systems, including the rhetoric embodied in the treatise as well as in other treatises of the place or period. The total…

  8. Job Burnout from a Communication Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Eileen Berlin

    A study tested a causal model of job burnout from a communication perspective. Drawing from Linear Force Aggregation Theory, social structure theory, and current burnout literature, the study posited direct relationships between network integration, job-related stress, and cognitive distance between perceptions of self and job. It also…

  9. Research in Teacher Education: International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisher, Richard P., Ed.; Wideen, Marvin F., Ed.

    This book was developed in response to audience interest in a symposium sponsored by the American Educational Research Association (annual meeting, Washington, D.C., 1987). The book addresses international perspectives on research in teacher education and offers the following contributions from scholars from 12 countries: "The Role Played by…

  10. Convexity Bias and Perspective Cues in the Reverse-Perspective Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Papathomas, Thomas V.; Vlajnic, Vanja M.

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to examine the roles of painted linear perspective cues, and the convexity bias that are known to influence human observers’ perception of three-dimensional (3D) objects and scenes. Reverse-perspective stimuli were used to elicit a depth-inversion illusion, in which far points on the stimulus appear to be closer than near points and vice versa, with a 2 (Type of stimulus) × 2 (Fixation mark position) design. To study perspective, two types of stimuli were used: a version with painted linear perspective cues and a version with blank (unpainted) surfaces. To examine the role of convexity, two locations were used for the fixation mark: either in a locally convex or a locally concave part of each stimulus (painted and unpainted versions). Results indicated that the reverse-perspective illusion was stronger when the stimulus contained strong perspective cues and when observers fixated a locally concave region within the scene. PMID:27482372

  11. Convexity Bias and Perspective Cues in the Reverse-Perspective Illusion.

    PubMed

    Dobias, Joshua J; Papathomas, Thomas V; Vlajnic, Vanja M

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to examine the roles of painted linear perspective cues, and the convexity bias that are known to influence human observers' perception of three-dimensional (3D) objects and scenes. Reverse-perspective stimuli were used to elicit a depth-inversion illusion, in which far points on the stimulus appear to be closer than near points and vice versa, with a 2 (Type of stimulus) × 2 (Fixation mark position) design. To study perspective, two types of stimuli were used: a version with painted linear perspective cues and a version with blank (unpainted) surfaces. To examine the role of convexity, two locations were used for the fixation mark: either in a locally convex or a locally concave part of each stimulus (painted and unpainted versions). Results indicated that the reverse-perspective illusion was stronger when the stimulus contained strong perspective cues and when observers fixated a locally concave region within the scene. PMID:27482372

  12. Patients' perspectives on antidepressant treatment in consultations with physicians.

    PubMed

    Fosgerau, Christina Fogtmann; Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2014-05-01

    Patient perspectives on antidepressant treatment and physician attention, and responses toward these in consultations with patients diagnosed with depression, are rarely studied. We analyzed video-recorded consultations with general practitioners (GPs) and psychiatrists. We used conversation analysis and systemic functional linguistics and found that the perspectives patients expressed related to the possibility of achieving, and the inability to retain, a sense of agency. Patients also presented indirect expressions of shame and expressions suggesting alienation toward medical treatment. GPs attended to patient perspectives by talking about medication indirectly. When patients expressed their perspectives, GPs responded by being nonauthoritative but also without prompting patients to elaborate on their reflections. Psychiatrists responded authoritatively and never urged patients to reflect on their perspectives. Shared decision making did not take place because physicians did not explore patients' perspectives in depth or offer their expertise by taking these perspectives into consideration.

  13. Perspective-Taking Increases Willingness to Engage in Intergroup Contact

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cynthia S.; Kenneth, Tai; Ku, Gillian; Galinsky, Adam D.

    2014-01-01

    The current research explored whether perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with stereotyped outgroup members. Across three studies, we find that perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with negatively-stereotyped targets. In Study 1, perspective-takers sat closer to, whereas stereotype suppressors sat further from, a hooligan compared to control participants. In Study 2, individual differences in perspective-taking tendencies predicted individuals' willingness to engage in contact with a hooligan, having effects above and beyond those of empathic concern. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated that perspective-taking's effects on intergroup contact extend to the target's group (i.e., another homeless man), but not to other outgroups (i.e., a man of African descent). Consistent with other perspective-taking research, our findings show that perspective-taking facilitates the creation of social bonds by increasing contact with stereotyped outgroup members. PMID:24465648

  14. Perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in intergroup contact.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cynthia S; Kenneth, Tai; Ku, Gillian; Galinsky, Adam D

    2014-01-01

    The current research explored whether perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with stereotyped outgroup members. Across three studies, we find that perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with negatively-stereotyped targets. In Study 1, perspective-takers sat closer to, whereas stereotype suppressors sat further from, a hooligan compared to control participants. In Study 2, individual differences in perspective-taking tendencies predicted individuals' willingness to engage in contact with a hooligan, having effects above and beyond those of empathic concern. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated that perspective-taking's effects on intergroup contact extend to the target's group (i.e., another homeless man), but not to other outgroups (i.e., a man of African descent). Consistent with other perspective-taking research, our findings show that perspective-taking facilitates the creation of social bonds by increasing contact with stereotyped outgroup members.

  15. A Current Perspective on Photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, E.; Muckerman, J.T.; Domen, K.

    2011-02-18

    perspective on the field of photocatalysis. It contains invited papers from leading researchers in a wide range of important aspects of the field that address materials, photophysical, photochemical, and electrocatalysis issues. The area remains primarily the domain of basic research studies because progress toward the promise offered by the early work has (at least until recently) been slow, despite its significance having become increasingly recognized. The present collection of papers deals with new semiconductor photocatalysts, molecular catalysts for hydrogen production and water oxidation, dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells, and electrochemical CO{sub 2} reduction. Overall photochemical water splitting without any applied bias potential is achieved in several systems, especially under UV irradiation. Further advances are also achieved in a few semiconductor systems, such as GaZn oxynitrides or two-step (so-called 'Z-scheme') systems to produce H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} without any sacrificial reagent under visible irradiation. When band gaps of semiconductors are narrowed to absorb more visible light for greater efficiency, or when band positions are not suitable for carrying out one-electron redox processes, multielectron catalysts are required to promote proton-coupled electron transfer reactions in producing solar fuels. In homogeneous photocatalysis systems, sacrificial reagents are typically used to investigate the catalytic activity, detailed kinetics, and mechanisms of a half reaction. Photoelectrolysis systems with immobilized catalysts (metals, metal oxides, or molecular catalysts) on electrodes can separate oxidized products, such as O{sub 2}, and reduced products, such as H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 3}OH, and others, by means of proton- or hydroxide-conducting membranes. The following paragraphs briefly summarize these contributions. In the area of UV-driven water splitting, Townsend et al. prepared Pt-and/or IrO{sub x}-coated niobate (Nb{sub 6}O{sub 17}{sup 4

  16. Empowering dialogues--the patients' perspective.

    PubMed

    Tveiten, Sidsel; Knutsen, Ingrid Ruud

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to highlight the patients' experiences and perspectives of the dialogue with the health professionals at a pain clinic. This knowledge can develop and give nuanced understanding of patient empowerment and sense of control. Qualitative content analysis was used to reveal the meaning of the patients' experiences and perspectives during focus group interviews. The findings and interpretations revealed the main theme; preconditions and opportunities for participation. The main theme was represented by four subthemes; means for common understanding, basis for collaboration, acknowledgement and legitimacy. The findings and interpretations are discussed in the light of an evolving theory on women's sense of control while experiencing chronic pain and empowerment. The dialogue is very important related to aspects of control, remoralization and demoralization and is affected by external structural factors. This underlines the importance of further research focusing on empowerment and power.

  17. [A gender perspective on medicalized childbirth].

    PubMed

    Kuo, Su-Chen

    2015-02-01

    Gender mainstreaming is a worldwide issue. The United Nations and the World Health Organization have emphasized the importance of incorporating gender perspectives and gender equity into government policy decisions. Different cultures have different attitudes toward the management of childbirth and these attitudes influence the feelings and needs of women and their partners. These needs must be better understood and satisfied. The widely held technocratic values of obstetricians influence the birthing experience of women significantly. This article uses a gender perspective to describe the medicalization of childbirth, the pharmacological pain-relief oppression of women, the prevalence of blaming women for decisions to conduct Caesarean sections, and the exclusion of men from involvement in the childbirth process. This article may be used as reference to enhance gender equality childbirth care for women.

  18. PNNL’s Shared Perspectives Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-25

    Shared Perspectives, one of the technologies within the PNNL-developed GridOPTICS capability suite, enables neighboring organizations, such as different electric utilities, to more effectively partner to solve outages and other grid problems. Shared Perspectives provides a means for organizations to safely stream information from different organizational service areas; the technology then combines and aligns this information into a common, global view, enhancing global situation awareness that can reduce the time it takes to talk through a problem and identify solutions. The technology potentially offers applications in other areas, such as disaster response; collaboration in the monitoring/assessment of real-time events (e.g., hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornadoes); as well as military uses.

  19. Long-Term Perspectives on Interstellar Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, M. A. G.

    Realizing interstellar travel by machines or living beings will require not only scientific and technological progress, but also a shared secular belief among a determined minority that this enterprise is important for the human future. Their efforts may have to extend beyond individual human lifetimes. Historical perspectives, on both the past and the future, are proposed. Interstellar probes could be a more thorough way of searching for alien forms of life and intelligence in nearby systems, particularly if there were intelligent beings there who did not employ technologies our astronomical observing devices can detect from here. Perspectives on the ethical, policy, and design issues of such close encounters with alien life and intelligence are presented. Ways of accelerating the coming of interstellar probes are suggested.

  20. Advancing drug discovery: a pharmaceutics perspective.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Current industry perspective of how discovery is conducted seems to be fragmented and does not have a unified overall outlook of how discovery challenges are being addressed. Consequently, well-defined processes and drug-likeness criteria are being viewed as "broken" and will not maintain future R&D productivity. In this commentary, an analysis of existing practices for defining successful development candidates resulted in a 5 "must do" list to help advance Drug Discovery as presented from a Pharmaceutics perspective. The 5 "must do" list includes: what an ideal discovery team model should look like, what criteria should be considered for the desired development candidate profile, what the building blocks of the development candidate should look like, and how to assess the development risks of the candidate.

  1. A different perspective: introducing positive criminology.

    PubMed

    Ronel, Natti; Elisha, Ety

    2011-04-01

    Positive criminology is a new conceptual perspective of criminology, encompassing several theories and models. Positive criminology refers to a focus on individuals' encounters with forces and influences that are experienced as positive, which distance them from deviance and crime, whether by means of formal and informal therapy programs and interventions, such as self-help groups; through emphasis of positive social elements, such as exposure to goodness, social acceptance, and reintegrative shaming; or based on positive personal traits, such as resilience and coherence. The perspective of positive criminology broadens that of traditional criminology, which focuses mainly on understanding the factors and processes that lead individuals and groups to what is defined as deviant and criminal behavior. Positive criminology is implemented in treatment and rehabilitation of individuals and groups that have demonstrated deviant and criminal behavior, by emphasizing positive experiences that may potentially prevent or discourage continued criminal behavior. Positive criminology is also expressed in prevention based on a positive approach.

  2. A perspective on space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohkami, Yoshiaki; Nakatani, Ichiro; Wakabayashi, Yasufumi; Iwata, Tsutomu

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the research and development status and perspective on space robotics in Japan. The R & D status emphasizes the current on-going projects at NASDA including the JEM Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS) to be used on Space Station Freedom and the robotics experiments on Engineering Satellite 7 (ETS-7). As a future perspective, not only NASDA, but also ISAS and other government institutes have been promoting their own research in space robotics in order to support wide spread space activities in the future. Included in this future research is an autonomous satellite retrieval experiment, a dexterous robot experiment, an on-orbit servicing platform, an IVA robot, and several moon/planetary rovers proposed by NASDA or ISAS and other organizations.

  3. Nuclear waste issues: a perspectives document

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Ciminese, F.J.

    1983-02-01

    This report contains the results of systematic survey of perspectives on the question of radioactive waste management. Sources of information for this review include the scientific literature, regulatory and government documents, pro-nuclear and anti-nuclear publications, and news media articles. In examining the sources of information, it has become evident that a major distinction can be made between the optimistic or positive viewpoints, and the pessimistic or negative ones. Consequently, these form the principal categories for presentation of the perspectives on the radioactive waste management problem have been further classified as relating to the following issue areas: the physical aspects of radiation, longevity, radiotoxicity, the quantity of radioactive wastes, and perceptual factors.

  4. Prefrontal cortical dopamine from an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-A; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we propose the hypothesis that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) acquired neotenic development as a consequence of mesocortical dopamine (DA) innervation, which in turn drove evolution of the PFC into becoming a complex functional system. Accordingly, from the evolutionary perspective, decreased DA signaling in the PFC associated with such adverse conditions as chronic stress may be considered as an environmental adaptation strategy. Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder may also be understood as environmental adaptation or a by-product of such a process that has emerged through evolution in humans. To investigate the evolutionary perspective of DA signaling in the PFC, domestic animals such as dogs may be a useful model. PMID:25617024

  5. [A gender perspective on medicalized childbirth].

    PubMed

    Kuo, Su-Chen

    2015-02-01

    Gender mainstreaming is a worldwide issue. The United Nations and the World Health Organization have emphasized the importance of incorporating gender perspectives and gender equity into government policy decisions. Different cultures have different attitudes toward the management of childbirth and these attitudes influence the feelings and needs of women and their partners. These needs must be better understood and satisfied. The widely held technocratic values of obstetricians influence the birthing experience of women significantly. This article uses a gender perspective to describe the medicalization of childbirth, the pharmacological pain-relief oppression of women, the prevalence of blaming women for decisions to conduct Caesarean sections, and the exclusion of men from involvement in the childbirth process. This article may be used as reference to enhance gender equality childbirth care for women. PMID:25631179

  6. Indoor air quality: A psychosocial perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.

  7. Corporeality, Equality, and Education: A Biopedagogical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlieghe, Joris

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author develops a new perspective on the role and the position of the human body in the world of education. The interest in the theme of corporeality is far from new, and this applies not only to the field of social sciences in general (where in the last two decades a corporeal turn has taken place, see Sheets-Johnstone 2009),…

  8. Diabetic Retinopathy: Animal Models, Therapies, and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xue; McGinnis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes. Although great efforts have been made to uncover the mechanisms underlying the pathology of DR, the exact causes of DR remain largely unknown. Because of multifactor involvement in DR etiology, currently no effective therapeutic treatments for DR are available. In this paper, we review the pathology of DR, commonly used animal models, and novel therapeutic approaches. Perspectives and future directions for DR treatment are discussed. PMID:26881246

  9. The Evolution of Syntax: An Exaptationist Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of language required elaboration of a number of independent mechanisms in the hominin lineage, including systems involved in signaling, semantics, and syntax. Two perspectives on the evolution of syntax can be contrasted. The “continuist” perspective seeks the evolutionary roots of complex human syntax in simpler combinatory systems used in animal communication systems, such as iteration and sequencing. The “exaptationist” perspective posits evolutionary change of function, so that systems today used for linguistic communication might previously have served quite different functions in earlier hominids. I argue that abundant biological evidence supports an exaptationist perspective, in general, and that it must be taken seriously when considering language evolution. When applied to syntax, this suggests that core computational components used today in language could have originally served non-linguistic functions such as motor control, non-verbal thought, or spatial reasoning. I outline three specific exaptationist hypotheses for spoken language. These three hypotheses each posit a change of functionality in a precursor circuit, and its transformation into a neural circuit or region specifically involved in language today. Hypothesis 1 suggests that the precursor mechanism for intentional vocal control, specifically direct cortical control over the larynx, was manual motor control subserved by the cortico-spinal tract. The second is that the arcuate fasciculus, which today connects syntactic and lexical regions, had its origin in intracortical connections subserving vocal imitation. The third is that the specialized components of Broca’s area, specifically BA 45, had their origins in non-linguistic motor control, and specifically hierarchical planning of action. I conclude by illustrating the importance of both homology (studied via primates) and convergence (typically analyzed in birds) for testing such evolutionary hypotheses. PMID

  10. Current and Future Perspectives in Craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seok-Gu

    2016-01-01

    Craniosynostosis has a varied clinical spectrum, ranging from isolated single suture involvement to multi-sutural fusions. Greater understanding of the pathogenesis of craniosynostosis has led to the development of practical treatment protocols. Three stages of growth have determined the approach to managing craniosynostosis : the early period, up to 12 months; the intermediate period, from 1 to 10 years; and the late period, beginning at 10 years. This review discusses current surgical management and future perspectives in craniosynostosis. PMID:27226856

  11. A perspective on CELSS control issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, Ann L.

    1990-01-01

    Some issues of Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) analysis and design are effectively addressed from a systems control perspective. CELSS system properties that may be elucidated using control theory in conjunction with mathematical and simulation modeling are enumerated. The approach that is being taken to the design of a control strategy for the Crop Growth Research Chamber (CGRC) and the relationship of that approach to CELSS plant growth unit subsystems control is described.

  12. Opportunity, Resources, and Affordability: Multistakeholder Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    CLARKE, JANICE L.; SKOUFALOS, ALEXIS; NASH, DAVID B.; TOPPY, ERIC

    2009-01-01

    On two occasions last year, the Jefferson School of Population Health convened a National Advisory Board of scientists and opinion leaders from key stakeholder groups at a high-level forum to explore different perspectives and to discuss improving access for patients who require treatment with biologic drugs. The following is the first of two articles documenting these discussions. The second article will appear in a subsequent issue of Biotechnology Healthcare. PMID:22478751

  13. [Reasons for an intercultural perspective of bioethics].

    PubMed

    Chávez Aguilar, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Bioethics must have an intercultural perspective. This is based on three facts: The principles and values around which reflection is made are related to world views and traditions, human beings are cultural beings, and current societies are considerably diverse. Based on this, bioethics will seek an adequate balance between ethical universalism and contextualism. This is a fundamental step for unconditional respect for human dignity and mutual recognition, dialogue, correlation and complementarity among diverse cultures. PMID:23338647

  14. Perspectives for Higgs and new physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouadi, Abdelhak

    2016-07-01

    The implications of the discovery of a Higgs boson at the LHC with a mass of 125GeV are summarised in the context of the Standard Model of particle physics and in new physics scenarios beyond it, taking the example of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model extension, the MSSM. The perspectives for Higgs and new physics searches at the next LHC upgrades as well as at future hadron and lepton colliders are then briefly summarized.

  15. New perspectives in offshore wind energy.

    PubMed

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-02-28

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies. PMID:25583869

  16. New perspectives in offshore wind energy

    PubMed Central

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-01-01

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies. PMID:25583869

  17. Perspectives on biological growth and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosi, D.; Ateshian, G. A.; Arruda, E. M.; Cowin, S. C.; Dumais, J.; Goriely, A.; Holzapfel, G. A.; Humphrey, J. D.; Kemkemer, R.; Kuhl, E.; Olberding, J. E.; Taber, L. A.; Garikipati, K.

    2011-01-01

    The continuum mechanical treatment of biological growth and remodeling has attracted considerable attention over the past fifteen years. Many aspects of these problems are now well-understood, yet there remain areas in need of significant development from the standpoint of experiments, theory, and computation. In this perspective paper we review the state of the field and highlight open questions, challenges, and avenues for further development. PMID:21532929

  18. French pharmacovigilance: Missions, organization and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vial, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacovigilance aims to identify unknown adverse drug reactions once clinical development is complete, in order to promote improved use of drugs, and thus a reduction in risk for every exposed patient. We describe in this article the missions of French pharmacovigilance system, including French drug agency, Regional Centers of Pharmacovigilance, health professionals, pharmaceutical companies, patients and their associations. We also develop the French pharmacovigilance organization, its perspectives and challenges, both in French and European levels.

  19. Containment performance perspectives based on IPE results

    SciTech Connect

    Lehner, J.R.; Lin, C.C.; Pratt, W.T.

    1996-12-31

    Perspectives on Containment Performance were obtained from the accident progression analyses, i.e. level 2 PRA analyses, found in the IPE submittals. Insights related to the containment failure modes, the releases associated with those failure modes, and the factors responsible for the types of containment failures and release sizes reported were gathered. The results summarized here are discussed in detail in volumes 1 and 2 of NUREG 1560. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  20. International Perspectives in Leadership Development: Part II.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    In the second part of this two-part series, leadership development perspectives are shared from the opening of the Penn Wharton China Center in Beijing. The symposium brought national leaders from Chinese academic settings and professional organizations together with thought leaders from the United States to discuss nursing leadership across the care continuum. Highlights of demographic shifts, clinical demands, and policy decisions are presented, with an eye toward future trends in professional development.