Science.gov

Sample records for climatique quelles perspectives

  1. Gestion des ressources hydriques adaptee aux changements climatiques pour la production optimale d'hydroelectricite. Etude de cas: Bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haguma, Didier

    Il est dorenavant etabli que les changements climatiques auront des repercussions sur les ressources en eau. La situation est preoccupante pour le secteur de production d'energie hydroelectrique, car l'eau constitue le moteur pour generer cette forme d'energie. Il sera important d'adapter les regles de gestion et/ou les installations des systemes hydriques, afin de minimiser les impacts negatifs et/ou pour capitaliser sur les retombees positives que les changements climatiques pourront apporter. Les travaux de la presente recherche s'interessent au developpement d'une methode de gestion des systemes hydriques qui tient compte des projections climatiques pour mieux anticiper les impacts de l'evolution du climat sur la production d'hydroelectricite et d'etablir des strategies d'adaptation aux changements climatiques. Le domaine d'etude est le bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan situe dans la partie centrale du Quebec. Une nouvelle approche d'optimisation des ressources hydriques dans le contexte des changements climatiques est proposee. L'approche traite le probleme de la saisonnalite et de la non-stationnarite du climat d'une maniere explicite pour representer l'incertitude rattachee a un ensemble des projections climatiques. Cette approche permet d'integrer les projections climatiques dans le probleme d'optimisation des ressources en eau pour une gestion a long terme des systemes hydriques et de developper des strategies d'adaptation de ces systemes aux changements climatiques. Les resultats montrent que les impacts des changements climatiques sur le regime hydrologique du bassin de la riviere Manicouagan seraient le devancement et l'attenuation de la crue printaniere et l'augmentation du volume annuel d'apports. L'adaptation des regles de gestion du systeme hydrique engendrerait une hausse de la production hydroelectrique. Neanmoins, une perte de la performance des installations existantes du systeme hydrique serait observee a cause de l'augmentation des

  2. The Role of Federal Troops in Quelling Civil Disturbance in Washington, DC, April 1968

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    of the Corps of Engineers real estate liaison representative coordinated for the use of District of Columbia school facilities by troops deployed in... 15 :17’ TAMU HISCTORY DEPT PAG’E . 002 THE USE OF FEDERAL TROOPS IN QUELLING CIVIL UNREST IN WASHINGTON , D.C., APRIL 1968 A Thesis By BARRYE LA TROYE...will address a number of questions. Did federal troops perform their mission in accordance with the policies outlined in Field Manual 19- 15 : Civil

  3. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    Le sujet de cette these concerne la modelisation numerique du climat regional. L'objectif principal de l'exercice est de developper un modele climatique regional ayant les capacites de simuler des phenomenes de meso-echelle spatiale. Notre domaine d'etude se situe sur la Cote Ouest nord americaine. Ce dernier a retenu notre attention a cause de la complexite du relief et de son controle sur le climat. Les raisons qui motivent cette etude sont multiples: d'une part, nous ne pouvons pas augmenter, en pratique, la faible resolution spatiale des modeles de la circulation generale de l'atmosphere (MCG) sans augmenter a outrance les couts d'integration et, d'autre part, la gestion de l'environnement exige de plus en plus de donnees climatiques regionales determinees avec une meilleure resolution spatiale. Jusqu'alors, les MCG constituaient les modeles les plus estimes pour leurs aptitudes a simuler le climat ainsi que les changements climatiques mondiaux. Toutefois, les phenomenes climatiques de fine echelle echappent encore aux MCG a cause de leur faible resolution spatiale. De plus, les repercussions socio-economiques des modifications possibles des climats sont etroitement liees a des phenomenes imperceptibles par les MCG actuels. Afin de circonvenir certains problemes inherents a la resolution, une approche pratique vise a prendre un domaine spatial limite d'un MCG et a y imbriquer un autre modele numerique possedant, lui, un maillage de haute resolution spatiale. Ce processus d'imbrication implique alors une nouvelle simulation numerique. Cette "retro-simulation" est guidee dans le domaine restreint a partir de pieces d'informations fournies par le MCG et forcee par des mecanismes pris en charge uniquement par le modele imbrique. Ainsi, afin de raffiner la precision spatiale des previsions climatiques de grande echelle, nous developpons ici un modele numerique appele FIZR, permettant d'obtenir de l'information climatique regionale valide a la fine echelle spatiale

  4. Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Shari; Camerini, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service Asylum office. Uses the perspective of two movie producers as they filmed a documentary film, "Well-founded Fear", about asylum and refugee protection. Includes information on how to order a classroom aid and the film. (CMK)

  5. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  6. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  7. Les séquelles de brûlures cervicocéphaliques chez l’enfant

    PubMed Central

    Sankale, A.A.; Ndiaye, A.; Ndoye, A.; Ndiaye, L.; Ndoye, M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary La peau, barrière protectrice de l’organisme, est très exposée aux agressions et donc aux brûlures. Le but de ce travail est d’apprécier les particularités des séquelles de brûlure cervicofaciales chez l’enfant en milieu sub-saharien et d’évaluer leur prise en charge. Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective réalisée dans le service de Chirurgie Pédiatrique du Centre Hospitalo-universitaire Aristide Le Dantec de Dakar (Sénégal). Vingt-sept dossiers de patients ont été colligés entre mai 2001 et avril 2008. L’âge moyen lors de la consultation était de 6,7 ans et le sex ratio m:f de 1,7:1. La topographie des séquelles se répartit ainsi: la face (66,7%), le cou (29,6%) et le cuir chevelu (11,1%). Concernant le type de séquelles, les brides prédominaient (33,3%), suivies des cicatrices chéloïdiennes ou hypertrophiques (25,9%), des ectropions de paupières (18,5%), des alopécies du cuir chevelu (11,1%), des ulcérations chroniques (7,4%) et de dyschromie (3,7%). Le traitement a été chirurgical dans 55,7% des cas: plasties en Z suivies ou non d’une greffe de peau pour les brides et libération de bride suivie d’une greffe pour les ectropions de paupières. Pour ce qui concerne les patients opérés, la morbidité opératoire a été de 20% et la mortalité opératoire nulle. Les cicatrices chéloïdiennes ont fait l’objet d’un traitement médical par infiltrations de dermocorticoïdes. Au-delà de l’urgence, les brûlures cervicofaciales de l’enfant entraînent un préjudice esthétique et fonctionnel important. L’amélioration de leur pronostic passe par la qualité des premiers soins et par la sensibilisation des parents aux risques d’accidents domestiques. PMID:21991239

  8. Prothèse totale de hanche dans les séquelles de coxalgie: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Benbouha, Abdelatif; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Abdou; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El yaacoubi, Moradh

    2016-01-01

    La coxalgie entraine des destructions ostéo-cartilagineuses de l'articulation de la hanche, ces lésions sont responsables de douleurs intenses provoquant des gènes fonctionnelles et des limitations dans la vie quotidienne. Leur traitement chirurgical est encore mal codifié. Notre objectif est de montrer à travers cette étude l'intérêt de l'arthroplastie totale de hanche associée à la chimiothérapie antituberculeuse pour l'amélioration de la qualité de vie des patients. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective portant sur 10 cas de prothèses totales de hanche posées sur séquelles de coxalgie au service de traumatologie-orthopédie du centre hospitalier universitaire Rabat de 2002 à 2011. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de 38 ans. La découverte de la coxalgie s'est faite dans des circonstances différentes en fonction des patients. La voie d'abord que nous avons utilisé est exclusivement postéro-externe de Moore. Les prothèses posées ont toute été cimentées. Quatre patients ont nécessité la reconstruction du cotyle. La biopsie peropératoire est positive chez un patient, négative chez les neuf restants. Tous les patients ont été mis sous traitement antituberculeux. Aucune récidive n'a été notée après un recul minimal de 3 ans. Les résultats selon la cotation de Merle d'Aubigné sont jugés bons. En cas de destruction osseuse avancée avec retentissement fonctionnel très mal supporté chez le sujet d’âge mûr, l'arthroplastie totale demeure le traitement de choix des séquelles de coxalgie sous couverture systématique d'une chimiothérapie antituberculeuse efficace. PMID:27642444

  9. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  10. Modelisation de l'erosion et des sources de pollution dans le bassin versant Iroquois/Blanchette dans un contexte de changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulibaly, Issa

    Principale source d'approvisionnement en eau potable de la municipalite d'Edmundston, le bassin versant Iroquois/Blanchette est un enjeu capital pour cette derniere, d'ou les efforts constants deployes pour assurer la preservation de la qualite de son eau. A cet effet, plusieurs etudes y ont ete menees. Les plus recentes ont identifie des menaces de pollution de diverses origines dont celles associees aux changements climatiques (e.g. Maaref 2012). Au regard des impacts des modifications climatiques annonces a l'echelle du Nouveau-Brunswick, le bassin versant Iroquois/Blanchette pourrait etre fortement affecte, et cela de diverses facons. Plusieurs scenarios d'impacts sont envisageables, notamment les risques d'inondation, d'erosion et de pollution a travers une augmentation des precipitations et du ruissellement. Face a toutes ces menaces eventuelles, l'objectif de cette etude est d'evaluer les impacts potentiels des changements climatiques sur les risques d'erosion et de pollution a l'echelle du bassin versant Iroquois/Blanchette. Pour ce faire, la version canadienne de l'equation universelle revisee des pertes en sol RUSLE-CAN et le modele hydrologique SWAT ( Soil and Water Assessment Tool) ont ete utilises pour modeliser les risques d'erosion et de pollution au niveau dans la zone d'etude. Les donnees utilisees pour realiser ce travail proviennent de sources diverses et variees (teledetections, pedologiques, topographiques, meteorologiques, etc.). Les simulations ont ete realisees en deux etapes distinctes, d'abord dans les conditions actuelles ou l'annee 2013 a ete choisie comme annee de reference, ensuite en 2025 et 2050. Les resultats obtenus montrent une tendance a la hausse de la production de sediments dans les prochaines annees. La production maximale annuelle augmente de 8,34 % et 8,08 % respectivement en 2025 et 2050 selon notre scenario le plus optimiste, et de 29,99 % en 2025 et 29,72 % en 2050 selon le scenario le plus pessimiste par rapport a celle

  11. Les séquelles de brûlures cervicales: aspects épidémiologique, clinique et thérapeutique au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Rafik, Amine; Chabak, Hakim; Diouri, Mounia; Bahechar, Naïma; Chlihi, Abdessamad

    2015-01-01

    Les séquelles de brûlures cervicales représentent une entité fréquente des séquelles de brûlure, elles affectent la fonction, l'esthétique et l’état psychologique des patients et peuvent être de traitement difficile. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective étalée sur 5 ans de Mars 2009 au Octobre2014, réalisée au centre national des brûlés et de chirurgie plastique au CHU Ibn Rochd Casablanca. Nous avons analysé les caractéristiques épidémiologiqueset cliniques ainsi que les indications et les résultats thérapeutiques chez 300 patients présentant des rétractions cervicales post-brûlure, suivis dans notre formation. Les jeunes femmes étaient le plus souvent touchées (56%). la brûlure thermique par flamme de butane dans le cadre d'accident domestique était l’étiologie la plus fréquente (91%).75% des patients ont été pris en charge dans un délai de 18 mois après avoir présenté une incapacité fonctionnelle. Les brides cervicales modérées et sévères sont les plus fréquentes et représentent respectivement 60% et 16% des cas. Le traitement chirurgical a fait appel aux greffes cutanées dans 67%des cas, aux plasties locales dans 24%des cas et aux lambeaux dans 24% des cas, les résultats sont jugés bons dans 75%des cas et moyens dans 18% des cas, tandis que les cas restants (7%) ont nécessité une reprise chirurgicale. Le traitement des brides cervicales doit être associé à un programme de rééducation adapté, afin d'assurer la pérennité des résultats fonctionnels et esthétiques. PMID:26301017

  12. Arthroplastie totale du coude sur séquelles d'ostéoarthrite négligée-à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Shimi, Mohammed; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2011-01-01

    L'arthroplastie totale au cours des séquelles d'infection ostéo-articulaire a été destinée surtout pour la hanche et le genou. Cependant, peu de travaux ont étaient consacrée pour l'articulation du coude. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente, âgée de 26 ans, ayant présentée dans l'enfance une ostéoarthrite du coude traitée traditionnellement, mais qui a développé progressivement une instabilité sévère du coude. Après l'implantation d'une prothèse semi-contrainte de Coonrad-Morrey non cimentée, le résultat est très satisfaisant jusqu’à deux ans de recul, avec un gain de la mobilité en flexion de 110 degrés et en extension de 5 degrés, l'index de performance pour le coude selon la Mayo Clinic de 80/100. Nous n'avons pas de complication à déplorer. PMID:22355439

  13. Evolution post-opératoire des séquelles de tuberculose pulmonaire chez les séropositifs VIH

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, Ayegnon Kouakou; Flavien, Kendja Hypolite; Raphaël, Ouédé; Démine, Blaise; Christophe, Ménéas Gueu; Marie, Ano Kounangui; Hervé, Yangni-Angaté Koffi; Yves, Tanauh

    2014-01-01

    Cette étude rapporte les aspects cliniques et évolutifs des séquelles pulmonaires tuberculeuses (SPT) opérées chez les séropositifs (VIH+). Il s'agit d'une étude prospective transversale réalisée entre Novembre 2005 et Octobre 2012. Elle a porté sur 20 patients VIH+, ayant dans leurs antécédents, une tuberculose pulmonaire (TP) traitée et déclarée guérie, et admise dans ladite période pour une chirurgie de la SPT secondaire. Une enquête sérologique VIH a été réalisée systématiquement au cours du bilan pré-opératoire. Le diagnostic pré-opératoire de la SPT, la mortalité, les complications post- opératoires (CPOP), le séjour hospitalier, le suivi à moyen terme des STP opérées ont été évalués. Les séropositifs étaient VIH1+ (n = 12; 60%), VIH1&2+ (n = 4; 20%) et VIH2+ (n = 4; 20%). La durée moyenne d’évolution des STP était de 26,22 ± 21,3 mois. Les STP étaient les pyothorax ou pleurésies enkystées (n = 16; 80%), le poumon détruit (n = 2;10%) et les dilatations de bronches (n = 2;10%). Les VIH+ ne présentaient pas d'aspergillome pulmonaire. Le séjour hospitalier moyen était 13,1 ± 10,2 jours. Le suivi total était de 82 patients-année avec une moyenne de suivi de 4,2 ± 2,3 ans (extrêmes: 1 et 7 ans). Le taux de mortalité à court et moyen terme était nul. Aucun décès post-opératoire immédiat n'a été noté. Les CPOP immédiates étaient les bullages prolongés chez 75% des immunodéprimés. Les CPOP tardives (n = 3) étaient un syndrome restrictif pulmonaire, un pyothorax persistant et une pachypleurite résiduelle restrictive. A court terme, le taux de guérison radiologique était de 80% (n = 16). PMID:24932331

  14. Macrosomie, dystocie des épaules et élongation du plexus brachial: quelle est la place de la césarienne?

    PubMed Central

    Kehila, Mehdi; Derouich, Sadok; Touhami, Omar; Belghith, Sirine; Abouda, Hassine Saber; Cheour, Mariem; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis

    2016-01-01

    L'accouchement d'un fœtus macrosome est un accouchement à haut risque de complications maternofoetales. La dystocie des épaules reste la complication fœtale la plus redoutée, amenant au recours, parfois démesuré, à la césarienne. L'objectif de ce travail est d'évaluer l'intérêt de cette césarienne préventive. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective à propos de 400 accouchements de fœtus macrosomes survenus entre Février 2010 et Décembre 2012. Nous avons aussi identifié les cas de nouveau-nés ayant eu une dystocie des épaules pendant l'année 2012 ainsi que leur poids de naissance respectifs. Les fœtus macrosomes ont pesé entre 4000g et 4500g dans 86,25% des cas et entre 4500 et 5000 dans 12,25% des cas. L'accouchement était par voie basse dans 68% des cas. Parmi les 400 accouchements de macrosomes, 9 cas de dystocie des épaules ont été enregistrés (2,25%). Tous ces cas sont survenus lors d'accouchements par voie basse. Le risque de dystocie des épaules lors d'un accouchement par voie basse a augmenté de façon significative avec l'augmentation du poids à la naissance (p<10-4). Le risque d'élongation du plexus brachial était de 11 pour mille accouchements de macrosomes par voie basse. Ce risque n'était pas corrélé au poids de naissance (p=0,38). Le risque de séquelles post-traumatiques était de 0,71%. La dystocie des épaules a concerné un fœtus macrosome dans 58 % des cas. La dystocie des épaules n'est pas une complication exclusivement associée à la macrosomie. Le dépistage des accouchements à risque et le renforcement de la formation des obstétriciens sur les manœuvres à réaliser en cas de dystocie des épaules semblent être les meilleurs moyens pour éviter ses complications. PMID:28270907

  15. Éthique de la recherche en santé mondiale : la relation Nord-Sud, quel partenariat pour quelle justice sociale ?

    PubMed

    Godard, Béatrice; Hunt, Matthew; Moube, Zéphirin

    2014-06-01

    La recherche en santé mondiale s'inscrit dans une volonté de mobiliser des connaissances au service d'interventions et de politiques publiques pour l'atteinte équitable du bien-être commun, notamment en matière de santé. Elle joue un rôle primordial en ce sens, en favorisant l'implication des communautés et leur autonomisation et de nombreuses lignes directrices supportent un tel partenariat. Néanmoins, certains enjeux éthiques sont liés au financement de la recherche, aux environnements de recherche, à la priorisation des problématiques de recherche, aux mécanismes d'évaluation éthique posent souvent un problème de justice sociale au niveau de la redistribution des ressources et de la reconnaissance des différences culturelles. Comment alors déterminer quelle est la façon « idéale » d'agir en tenant compte de la globalité des individus et du pluralisme culturel des sociétés pour « bien faire », pour satisfaire l'exigence de l'équité? Une réflexion et une démarche éthique demeurent essentielles, ainsi qu'un dialogue entre les chercheurs du Nord et du Sud, et leurs autres partenaires que sont les décideurs, les responsables locaux et les communautés. Un tel dialogue, établi dans un continuum du développement de projets de recherche à leur pérennité, peut grandement contribuer à limiter les problèmes de justice sociale et à viser un développement plus égalitaire des savoirs scientifiques. Plusieurs chercheurs se sont déjà engagés dans cette voie, et leurs initiatives devraient être encouragées pour mettre les nouveaux savoirs au service des populations.

  16. La greffe de peau totale dans le traitement des séquelles de brûlures de la main et des doigts: A propos de 84 cas

    PubMed Central

    Boukind, S.; Droussi, H.; Elatiqi, O.K.; Dlimi, M.; Dhaidah, O.; Ejjiyar, M.; Quaboul, M.; Dehhaze, A.; Fkhar, S.; Elamrani, D.; Benchamkha, Y.; Ettalbi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective s’étendant de septembre 2004 à septembre 2012 sur les données de à propos de 84 patients présentant des séquelles de brûlure majeures de la main. Ces patients étaient traités chirurgicalement par une greffe de peau totale. Le but de cette étude est, donc, d’insister sur la simplicité de cette technique et surtout son efficacité et sa fiabilité. L’âge moyen de la survenue de la brûlure était de 4 ans. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 18,3 ans (2-62 ans), avec prédominance masculine dans 60% des cas. L’agent causal le plus fréquent était un agent thermique - le plus souvent un liquide chaud (56%). Le délai moyen entre la fin de la cicatrisation et la prise en charge des séquelles était de 36 mois (2 mois - 16 ans). Dans 69 cas (82.5%), les lésions étaient localisées au niveau de la face palmaire de la main. Les séquelles ont été dominées par les rétractions digitales (65%) dont le déficit fonctionnel est évident. Une greffe de peau totale a été réalisée chez tous nos patients après libération des brides et excision des placards cicatriciels. Les rétractions commissurales ont été traitées par des plasties en Z. Dans 95% des cas, le prélèvement de peau totale était réalisé au niveau du pli inguinal. Le recul moyen était de 5,5 ans (1-8 ans). 11 patients ont été perdus de vu. Les résultats après cicatrisation complète et rééducation ont été jugés satisfaisants (bons) dans 62 cas (85%), et assez bons dans 11 cas (15%). Un traitement initial bien conduit et effectué dans les meilleures conditions permet non seulement de réduire le nombre de séquelles des brûlures mais encore de les rendre moins sévères. PMID:26336368

  17. Les systems educatifs a La Reunion et l'ile Maurice: Quelle efficacite sociale? (Education Systems on the Islands of Reunion and Mauritius: What are the Social Effects?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Si Moussa, Azzedine; Tupin, Frederic

    1999-01-01

    Examines, from a comparative perspective, the impact of political decisions on education and also the way in which the different educational systems on the islands of Mauritius and Reunion affect the democratisation of learning. Compares the educational trajectories of pupils from numerous schools, and shows that the expected social effects are…

  18. Les systems educatifs a La Reunion et l'ile Maurice: Quelle efficacite sociale? (Education Systems on the Islands of Reunion and Mauritius: What are the Social Effects?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Si Moussa, Azzedine; Tupin, Frederic

    1999-01-01

    Examines, from a comparative perspective, the impact of political decisions on education and also the way in which the different educational systems on the islands of Mauritius and Reunion affect the democratisation of learning. Compares the educational trajectories of pupils from numerous schools, and shows that the expected social effects are…

  19. Sociological Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townley, Charles; Middleton, Mike

    This monograph examines sociological perspectives and their applications. It is intended to help the college student coming to sociology for the first time to recognize that there are several perspectives within sociology and to disentangle the mass of terms associated with each. The first distinctive sociological perspective came from the work of…

  20. Sociological Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townley, Charles; Middleton, Mike

    This monograph examines sociological perspectives and their applications. It is intended to help the college student coming to sociology for the first time to recognize that there are several perspectives within sociology and to disentangle the mass of terms associated with each. The first distinctive sociological perspective came from the work of…

  1. Traitement des séquelles de brûlures de la main dans les pays à ressources limitées ; notre expérience en république démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kibadi, K.; Moutet, F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les séquelles de brûlures de la main sont encore fréquentes dans les pays à ressources limitées. Trente-deux patients, représentant 38 mains, ont été admis et traités, entre le 1er décembre 2010 et le 1er mai 2014 aux Cliniques Universitaires de Kinshasa en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC). nous avons observé 22 patients (69 %) dans le groupe de jeunes (patients âgés de moins de 18 ans), et 10 patients (31 %) chez les adultes (18 à 59 ans). Aucun patient dans le groupe de seniors (60 ans et plus) n’a été observé. Dans le groupe de jeunes, la tranche d’âge de 1 à 5 ans a été la plus atteinte avec 13 malades (40 %). l’accident à la maison était le plus fréquent (72 %). le mécanisme de la brûlure était le plus souvent thermique par flammes (51 %) ou par liquide chaud (34 %). les rétractions et brides sont les lésions le plus observées (84 %). la rétraction dorsale globale « main en griffe» est observée chez 40 % de patients traités, associée à des cicatrices hypertrophiques et chéloïdiennes dans 84 % de cas. Chez les 32 mains traitées chirurgicalement, des excision-greffes ont été réalisées dans 43,7 %, des lambeaux locaux dans 43,7 % et des lambeaux à distance dans 12,5 % de cas. A la sortie de l’hôpital, 84 % de « bons » résultats ont été observés. le suivi a été de 18 mois. le traitement des séquelles de brûlures de la main est possible dans ces pays, exemple de la rDC. Mais les défis à surmonter dans ces pays sont nombreux : la faible accessibilité aux techniques actuelles de la chirurgie plastique, la prise en charge initiale inadéquate des brûlures, la pauvreté. PMID:26668560

  2. Community perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    General aviation is considered from the perspective of the local community's decision-making process in determining its needs for access to general aviation services. The decision-making model, preliminary decision, community characteristics, and planning processes are discussed.

  3. Perspective Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Joni

    2002-01-01

    One fourth grade class studied Van Gogh by investigating his art and life on the computer, painting still lifes, then learning to draw in perspective, creating colorful images of their own bedrooms using Van Gogh's bedroom as a model. Students extended their learning by examining relevant literature and completing timelines, biographical reports,…

  4. FAA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Tom

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Federal Aviation Administration's perspective on improvements on aircraft icing. The most important areas that are discussed include: 1) Improvements in SLD engineering tools to meet concerns about means of compliance (MOC); and 2) 3-D iced aerodynamics.

  5. Die Quelle (Secondary German Resource Book).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

    This resource book is intended to be used with the companion program guide, and is so arranged that it can be put in a loose leaf binder and incorporated with other notes. It is divided as follows: (1) a discussion in outline form of prescribed material including three methods of organizing the program, a complete indication of the contents of the…

  6. Les cyclones tropicaux et le changement climatique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Jean-Claude; Royer, Jean-François; Chauvin, Fabrice

    2008-09-01

    Results from observations and modelling studies, a number of which having been used to support the conclusions of the IPCC fourth assessment report, are presented. For the past and present-day (since 1970) periods, the increase of strong cyclonic activity over the North Atlantic Ocean appears to be in good correlation with increasing temperature of the ocean surface. For regions where observational data are of lesser quality, the increasing trend is less clear. In fact, assessing long-term changes is made difficult due to both the multi-decennial natural variability and the lesser coverage of observations before satellites were made available. Indirect observational data, such as those derived from quantitative estimations of damage caused by tropical cyclones, suffer from many artefacts and do not allow the resolving of the issue either. For the future, only numerical three-dimensional climate models can be used. They nevertheless run presently with too-large grid-sizes, so that their results are still not converging. Various simulations lead indeed to different results, and it is very often difficult to find the physical reasons for these differences. One concludes by indicating some ways through which numerical simulations could be improved, leading to a decrease of uncertainties affecting the prediction of cyclonic activity over the next decades.

  7. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e.,…

  8. Cosmic Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    1989-09-01

    1. Astronomy in ancient and medieval China Joseph Needham; 2. Indian astronomy: an historical perspective B. V. Subbarayappa; 3. Making of astronomy in ancient India Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya; 4. The impact of astronomy on the development of western science Jean-Claude Pecker; 5. Man and the Universe Hubert Reeves; 6. Understanding the Universe - challenges and directions in modern observational astronomy Harlan Smith, Jr: 7. Frontiers in cosmology Fred Hoyle; 8. Did the Universe originate in a big bang? Jayant Narlikar; 9. The dark matter problem Bernard Carr; 10. Geometry and the Universe C. V. Vishveshwara; 11. The origin and evolution of life Cyril Ponnamperuma; 12. The anthropic principle: self selection as an adjunct to natural selection Brandon Carter; 13. Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence Ivan Kelly, Roger Culver and Peter Loptson; 14. Astronomy and science fiction Allen Janis.

  9. Cosmic Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    2008-07-01

    1. Astronomy in ancient and medieval China Joseph Needham; 2. Indian astronomy: an historical perspective B. V. Subbarayappa; 3. Making of astronomy in ancient India Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya; 4. The impact of astronomy on the development of western science Jean-Claude Pecker; 5. Man and the Universe Hubert Reeves; 6. Understanding the Universe - challenges and directions in modern observational astronomy Harlan Smith, Jr: 7. Frontiers in cosmology Fred Hoyle; 8. Did the Universe originate in a big bang? Jayant Narlikar; 9. The dark matter problem Bernard Carr; 10. Geometry and the Universe C. V. Vishveshwara; 11. The origin and evolution of life Cyril Ponnamperuma; 12. The anthropic principle: self selection as an adjunct to natural selection Brandon Carter; 13. Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence Ivan Kelly, Roger Culver and Peter Loptson; 14. Astronomy and science fiction Allen Janis.

  10. Perspectives on rehabilitation research.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Wayne A

    2010-02-01

    Gordon WA. Perspectives on rehabilitation research. The author provides his perspectives on both the methodologic and funding challenges faced by rehabilitation researchers. His concerns are conveyed about the devaluing of rehabilitation research by federal funding agencies and Congress.

  11. An Attainable Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Castaneda, Viann Pedersen

    Concordia College (Minnesota) has established a global studies curriculum that encourages the development of a global perspective in future business leaders. Global perspective is seen as having five dimensions: (1) perspective consciousness; (2) "state of the planet" awareness; (3) cross-cultural awareness; (4) knowledge of global…

  12. A Matter of Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-21

    OUTCOMES. Based on the theoretical work of Jean Piaget and George Herbert Mead regarding perspective-taking capability enabling non-egocentric...Development: A Sullivan- Piaget Perspective, Phoenix ed. (University of Chicago Press, 1982), 9. 27 Perrine Ruby and Jean Decety, ―How Would You Feel Versus...unnecessary risk to his mission and people. 12 Many perspective-taking concepts and theories emerged from Jean Piaget’s developmental models; for a

  13. Distortion in Perspective Projection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelso, Robert P., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a unique approach in associating perspective projection with the image beheld by the eye and demonstrates that all graphical and photographic perspective projections must contain distortion when compared to the image beheld by the eye. (Contains 8 figures.)

  14. Assessing Individuals' Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Kelly Carter; Braskamp, David C.; Braskamp, Larry A.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the Global Perspective Inventory (GPI), a survey instrument that measures participants' global perspective in terms of cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal domains--each in terms of both development and acquisition. A summary of the recent research on the GPI is provided along with a discussion of potential uses.

  15. An Attainable Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanvey, Robert G.

    A more complete understanding of global perspective is provided in this essay through an examination of the modes of thought, sensitivities, intellectual skills, and explanatory capacities which contribute to the formation of a global perspective. With an emphasis on both a formal and informal educational level, the essay is divided into five…

  16. Coastal Chile Perspective View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-04

    This perspective view from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission of coastal Chile indicates the epicenter red marker of the 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010, just offshore of the Maule region in the Bahia de Chanco.

  17. The Polyvagal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Porges, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    The Polyvagal Theory introduced a new perspective relating autonomic function to behavior that included an appreciation of autonomic nervous system as a “system,” the identification of neural circuits involved in the regulation of autonomic state, and an interpretation of autonomic reactivity as adaptive within the context of the phylogeny of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system. The paper has two objectives: First, to provide an explicit statement of the theory; and second, to introduce the features of a polyvagal perspective. The polyvagal perspective emphasizes how an understanding of neurophysiological mechanisms and phylogenetic shifts in neural regulation, leads to different questions, paradigms, explanations, and conclusions regarding autonomic function in biobehavioral processes than peripheral models. Foremost, the polyvagal perspective emphasizes the importance of phylogenetic changes in the neural structures regulating the autonomic nervous system and how these phylogenetic shifts provide insights into the adaptive function and the neural regulation of the two vagal systems PMID:17049418

  18. Disciplinary Perspectives on Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluskey, Stephen C.

    This chapter examines the contributions of major academic disciplines to archaeoastronomy, beginning with a consideration of several indicators of the participation of scholars from various fields. We then consider examples of research from astronomy and the physical sciences; anthropology, archaeology, and the social sciences; and the historical disciplines to see how they reflect their disciplinary perspectives. The questions drawn from these varied disciplinary perspectives stimulate different strands of research, enriching the study of astronomies in cultures.

  19. The Ecological Perspective in Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Donald L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews various major concepts of culture which have formed the bases of anthropological perspectives. Suggests that an ecological perspective is necessary to analyze environmental constraints on human behavior. (Author/DB)

  20. Perspectives on the profession.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ronald M

    2015-12-01

    In his presidential address to the Southwestern Surgical Congress, he examines surgery as a profession from three different perspectives: his experience as a patient, a surgeon, and a photographer. He uses photography to illustrate the importance of perspective and illumination. He respectfully suggests that we should consciously choose to reframe the profession from a different perspective that accurately reflects its beauty. He also advises that we take effort to shine a gentle, soft light on the profession, a light that will reveal the beauty, the true beauty, of the profession. And finally, he submits that it is our responsibility to consciously and faithfully maintain and defend the profession from enemies inside and outside its borders.

  1. Oahu: perspective from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Gary E.

    1982-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides us with a unique perspective from space. This perspective is synoptic in nature and provides regional views of most of the land areas of the earth. The orbital characteristics of the Landsat system are such that repetitive imagery of the same area may be obtained. Because of the permanent nature of the imagery, it may be retrieved for comparative analysis at any time. Comparisons of this image of Oahu with maps of the island (for example, the Oahu, Hawaii, 1:250,000-scale topographic map) will enable the reader to readily identify the place names discussed in this article and permit a more detailed interpretation of the image.

  2. Forest health from different perspectives

    Treesearch

    T. E. Kolb; M. R. Wagner; W. W. Covington

    1995-01-01

    Forest health is an increasingly important concept in natural resource management. However, definition of forest health is difficult and dependent on human perspective. From a utilitarian perspective, forest health has been defined by the production of forest conditions which directly satisfy human needs. From an ecosystem-centered perspective, forest health has been...

  3. Celebrating Thanksgiving from Different Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on different methods to teach grades K-12 about Thanksgiving from an inclusive perspective. Provides background information and activities from the perspectives of Native Americans, such as teaching about the Wampanoag and Squanto tribes, and also from the perspective of the pilgrims. (CMK)

  4. Perspective, December 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This issue includes a feature on the U.S. Department of Education's Race to the Top (RTTT) competition, which gives states an unprecedented opportunity to build the tools to measure results; guide decision-making and investments; and provoke honest conversations about…

  5. Evaluation Perspectives and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriven, Michael

    This article on evaluation perspectives and procedures is divided into six sections. The first section briefly discusses qualitative and quantitative research and evaluation. In the second section there is an exploration of the utility and validity of a checklist that can be used to evaluate products, as an instrument for evaluating producers, for…

  6. Patient perspectives on quality.

    PubMed

    Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Gillam, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The patient perspective is central to quality improvement. This article describes how health services are involving individuals and the public in improving healthcare. It describes the importance and different methods of accessing patient and carer feedback on satisfaction, experience and outcomes, and explores current thinking on individual involvement, engagement in commissioning, and the role of the public in redesigning health services.

  7. Families in Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingoldsby, Bron B., Ed.; Smith, Suzanna, Ed.

    Covering contemporary Third World as well as Western families, this teaching text addresses topics essential for developing a multicultural perspective on the family. It is an ideal text for comparative family courses and includes exercises (as well as exercise guidelines for instructors) developed to challenge students' existing viewpoints and…

  8. From a Parent's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    The series of articles on parenting compiled in this book bridges the gap between educational theory and the everyday problems parents must deal with. The book's perspective encourages parents to be gentle, flexible, observant, and not too attached to expectations. The first chapter, "Surviving Parenthood," discusses topics such as…

  9. Perspective, March 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a report stating how over the past five years, since the National Governors Association (NGA) and Achieve co-sponsored the National Education Summit on High Schools, states have made impressive progress in aligning their high…

  10. Childhood Education: International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hujala, Eeva, Ed.

    Education is bound to society, and different educational strategies rise from the society and culture in which people live. This book presents an international perspective on problems and challenges from early education through adult education and highlights teacher education from the point of view of individual cultures and from a cross-cultural…

  11. Perspectives on Current Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Hank; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Encapsulates several brief articles providing perspectives from the states, the 104th Congress, the Supreme Court, and the White House. Issues covered include the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act and the White House attempts to reduce the federal workforce. Authors include Hank Brown, Rita G. Koman, James L. Martin, and Joseph R. Marbach. (MJP)

  12. Hakka in Wellentheorie Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.

    1992-01-01

    A review of some of the interesting aspects of Hakka dialect studies precedes a discussion of areas needing further linguistic study, such as its resemblance to and contacts with other Chinese dialects, tonal correspondences, and the study of Chinese dialects from a Wellentheorie perspective. (53 references) (CB)

  13. Perspectives on Selfhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Brewster

    1978-01-01

    In this article selfhood is examined from three perspectives: evolutionary or phylogenic, cross-cultural and transhistorical, and developmental or ontogenetic. The view presented is offered as a basis for hope in interpreting our human nature to ourselves and in increasing our individual and collective capacity for self-direction. (Author/EB)

  14. Black Families. Interdisciplinary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.; Stewart, James B., Ed.

    Since the early 1960s, the black family has been characterized as pathological. This six-part collection of 18 research studies presents alternative approaches to understanding the special characteristics of black families. Part I, "Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives," comprises a comparison of the pioneering work of W. E. B. Du…

  15. Perspectives. Fall 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet, 2009

    2009-01-01

    PEPNet's "Perspectives" is the collaborative newsletter of the four PEPNet regional centers. This newsletter combines each centers' individual strengths into a single resource that can be used on a national level. PEPNet's mission is to improve transition services and educational access for students who are deaf or hard of hearing, including those…

  16. Perspectives. Fall 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet, 2009

    2009-01-01

    PEPNet's "Perspectives" is the collaborative newsletter of the four PEPNet regional centers. This newsletter combines each centers individual strengths into a single resource that can be used on a national level. The issue focuses on the following topics: (1) Web Tool Locates Needed Resources; (2) Family Center on Technology and Disability (Ana…

  17. Family Perspectives on Prematurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three (J), 2003

    2003-01-01

    In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

  18. International HRD Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on international perspectives on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Human Resource Development Practices in American and Chinese High-technology Companies in Taiwan" (Hsin-yi Chen), uses quantitative and qualitative data on HRD practices in high-technology companies in…

  19. Understanding the Parent's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Sally Smith's contribution to the world of children with learning disabilities is well documented, particularly by the other contributors to this journal. An area deserving attention, but one usually overlooked, is Smith's understanding of the parent's perspective--the challenges of parenting a child with learning disabilities. It was a priceless…

  20. Physics in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1972-01-01

    Presents a preview of the report by the National Academy of Science Physics Survey Committee, which deals principally with the opportunities for physicists during the 1970's. The 14 chapter report, to be available by midsummer of 1972, considers physics in a broad context and perspective both in science and technology and in the whole of the…

  1. ADDIE: Perspectives in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boling, Elizabeth; Easterling, Wylie V.; Hardre, Patricia L.; Howard, Craig D.; Roman, Tiffany Anne

    2011-01-01

    In an asynchronous forum responding to a prompt positing that ADDIE (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) might be used in teaching instructional design (ID) as a safety net for designers without native talent, instructors and practitioners of ID revealed mixed perspectives on the role of ADDIE in design. Critical theory…

  2. Perspective, May 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a report presenting the recommendations made by Achieve to the Senate HELP (Health, Education, Labor and Pensions) Committee for the improvement of the college and career readiness of all students. This issue also reports:…

  3. Family Perspectives on Prematurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three (J), 2003

    2003-01-01

    In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

  4. International HRD Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on international perspectives on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Human Resource Development Practices in American and Chinese High-technology Companies in Taiwan" (Hsin-yi Chen), uses quantitative and qualitative data on HRD practices in high-technology companies in…

  5. From Spirit's Perspective (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the perspective from the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit before and after its automated stand-up process. After standing up, the rover is approximately 12 inches higher off of the lander, resulting in a better view of the surrounding terrain.

  6. Global Perspectives and Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Although the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) has a long history, beginning with its inception in 1892 as the International Kindergarten Union, members have more recently made a commitment to value the international perspectives in their goals and actions. Since then, ACEI has adopted as its mission to "promote and support…

  7. International Perspectives. Chapter 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains seven papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities that provide an international perspective on the therapeutic community (TC) movement as it is today. Papers include: (1) "What's Happening on an International Level" (William B. O'Brien); (2) "Therapeutic Communities of America"…

  8. Keeping Barns in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomash, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a landscape project using Grant Wood's paintings as an example. As part of the project, the students are required to include a barn in their picture. This project is a great opportunity to study an Iowa artist who did landscape painting and to study perspective. This is also an excellent project for teaching…

  9. From Spirit's Perspective

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-01-09

    This frame from an animation shows the perspective from the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit before its automated stand-up process. After standing up, the rover is approximately 12 inches higher off of the lander, resulting in a better view of the surrounding terrain. An animation is available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05032

  10. Perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue.

  11. Perspectives. Fall 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Jane

    2007-01-01

    PEPNet's "Perspectives" is the collaborative newsletter of the four PEPNet regional centers. This newsletter combines each centers individual strengths into a single resource that can be used on a national level. The articles in this issue are: (1) A letter from Louise Tripoli, Project Officer, U.S. Department of Education, Office of…

  12. Families in Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingoldsby, Bron B., Ed.; Smith, Suzanna, Ed.

    Covering contemporary Third World as well as Western families, this teaching text addresses topics essential for developing a multicultural perspective on the family. It is an ideal text for comparative family courses and includes exercises (as well as exercise guidelines for instructors) developed to challenge students' existing viewpoints and…

  13. Perspectives. Fall 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet, 2009

    2009-01-01

    PEPNet's "Perspectives" is the collaborative newsletter of the four PEPNet regional centers. This newsletter combines each centers' individual strengths into a single resource that can be used on a national level. PEPNet's mission is to improve transition services and educational access for students who are deaf or hard of hearing, including those…

  14. Perspectives. Fall 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet, 2009

    2009-01-01

    PEPNet's "Perspectives" is the collaborative newsletter of the four PEPNet regional centers. This newsletter combines each centers individual strengths into a single resource that can be used on a national level. The issue focuses on the following topics: (1) Web Tool Locates Needed Resources; (2) Family Center on Technology and Disability (Ana…

  15. Keeping Barns in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomash, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a landscape project using Grant Wood's paintings as an example. As part of the project, the students are required to include a barn in their picture. This project is a great opportunity to study an Iowa artist who did landscape painting and to study perspective. This is also an excellent project for teaching…

  16. Perspective, April 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This issue includes a report describing how the American Diploma Project (ADP) Network selected Delaware and Tennessee from among 16 finalists as the winners of the first phase of Race to the Top (RTTT) grants. This issue also reports that: (1) The National…

  17. Perspectives. Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet, 2008

    2008-01-01

    PEPNet's "Perspectives" is the collaborative newsletter of the four PEPNet regional centers. This newsletter combines each centers individual strengths into a single resource that can be used on a national level. This issue focuses on the following topics: (1) PEPNet FAQs on Web, in Print; (2) Some Speech-to-Text FAQs; (3) Speech-to-Text…

  18. Perspectives on Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bents, Richard; Trygestad, JoAnn

    Students assessed as having different personality types were queried concerning their perspectives on peace. Two hundred seventy-five students (ages 14-18) from Poland, West Germany, and the United States defined peace and indicated the degree of influence they felt they have on the future. Differences in definitions of peace, optimism, and degree…

  19. Understanding the Parent's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Sally Smith's contribution to the world of children with learning disabilities is well documented, particularly by the other contributors to this journal. An area deserving attention, but one usually overlooked, is Smith's understanding of the parent's perspective--the challenges of parenting a child with learning disabilities. It was a priceless…

  20. Perspective, June 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a report stating how the number of states that ensure the college and career readiness of their students has increased since Achieve first started tracking progress on the college- and career-ready policy agenda five years…

  1. Perspectives on Literal Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toolan, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The "roadworthiness" of literal meaning is tested in this essay, which involves a review of some influential views of literal meaning and related categories advanced by Searle and other pragmaticists, from the standpoint of integrational linguistics. Implications of an integrational perspective need to be reflected in theorizing about…

  2. Perspectives for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Norris

    The operations of an institution can be viewed from three perspectives: (1) the "actual operating measurement" such as income and expenditures of a cost center at a point in time; (2) the "criterion" which reflects the established policy for a time period; and (3) the "efficiency level" wherein a balance between input and output is defined.…

  3. Perspectives on Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litten, Larry H.

    1986-01-01

    The most provocative perspectives on pricing for colleges and universities have come from the introduction of marketing into higher education. A brief review of these developments is offered to serve as an orientation for the consideration of pricing issues per se. (Author/MLW)

  4. Perspectives on Family Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Assistance Center, New York, NY.

    This joint publication of the journals of the Literacy Assistance Center (LAC) and the National Even Start Association (NESA) focuses on innovative practices and theory in family literacy education, offers an array of perspectives to members of the literacy community, and critically examines some assumptions about literacy in general, as well as…

  5. A Personal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lee

    The manager of a London youth center presents a personal perspective on some of the difficulties that exist for young people in today's society, particularly those faced by young Black males. Following the sudden death of his mother and teenage years dominated by the values of the street, he took control of his life by seeking knowledge and…

  6. Quelle source pour la lithographie dans l'EUV ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccotti, T.

    2005-06-01

    L'impressionnante évolution des performances des circuits intégrés (CI) ces trente dernières années, répond à la désormais célèbre loi de Moore. Selon la prédiction faite en 1975 par le co-fondateur d'Intel Gordon Moore et qui n'a jamais été contredite, le nombre de transistors dans un CI allait doubler tous les 18mois. De simple intuition, la loi de Moore est devenue un impératif à respecter pour l'industrie des CI et des semi-conducteurs en général. La continuité dans les années à venir d'une telle progression technologique permettrait à ce secteur économique de garder, voire augmenter, toute son importance actuelle. Augmenter le nombre des transistors dans les CI signifie principalement réduire leur taille caractéristique de gravure et par conséquent la longueur d'onde utilisée. Depuis 2000, la lithographie dans l'extrême ultraviolet (EUVL) à 13.5 nm est considérée comme la plus prometteuse parmi les technologies appelées à remplacer la lithographie actuelle qui utilise du rayonnement laser à 193 nm comme source de lumière. La réalisation d'une machine lithographique industrielle utilisant du rayonnement EUV nécessite la résolution de nombreux problèmes technologiques qui font, depuis des années, l'objet de plusieurs programmes de recherche dans le monde. Une attention toute particulière est portée à la source de rayonnement EUVcar ses caractéristiques, notamment de puissance et de propreté, vont décider du succès ou pas de l'EUVL. Le cahier des charges d'une source EUV, les différents approches pour y répondre ainsi que leurs limites seront présentés ainsi qu'un état de l'art des performances des sources actuelles.

  7. Quelle langue enseigner? (Which Language Do We Teach?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons-Ridler, Suzanne

    1982-01-01

    A speech by the president of Senegal on the need for instruction in Parisian French in his country is used as the point of departure for a discussion of such standardization. The proposal for standardization is found idealistic, and the utility of the language taught is judged more important. (MSE)

  8. Quelling Cabin Noise in Turboprop Aircraft via Active Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.; Laba, Keith E.; Padula, Sharon L.

    1997-01-01

    Cabin noise in turboprop aircraft causes passenger discomfort, airframe fatigue, and employee scheduling constraints due to OSHA standards for exposure to high levels of noise. The noise levels in the cabins of turboprop aircraft are typically 10 to 30 decibels louder than commercial jet noise levels. However. unlike jet noise the turboprop noise spectrum is dominated by a few low frequency tones. Active structural acoustic control is a method in which the control inputs (used to reduce interior noise) are applied directly to a vibrating structural acoustic system. The control concept modeled in this work is the application of in-plane force inputs to piezoceramic patches bonded to the wall of a vibrating cylinder. The goal is to determine the force inputs and locations for the piezoceramic actuators so that: (1) the interior noise is effectively damped; (2) the level of vibration of the cylinder shell is not increased; and (3) the power requirements needed to drive the actuators are not excessive. Computational experiments for data taken from a computer generated model and from a laboratory test article at NASA Langley Research Center are provided.

  9. The technician's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Rechlin, M. )

    1993-06-01

    This article is a practical approach for Third World education from a technician's perspective on the problems of international development. Forestry technician schools should become involved in international forestry development. The major example presented in this paper is the Nepal Institute of Forestry. Historically, professional foresters in Nepal were interested in managing Nepal's forests for timber and pulpwood while villagers were interested in fuelwoods and fodder. To effectively train foresters for new jobs in which they provide advice to villagers who make forest management decisions, both the cirriculum and resulting education have to be very different. But in addition teachers have to be reeducated and textbooks, lab manuals, and field exercises must be changed. Projects such as forestry management in Nepal could prove more effective if they combined research skills and problem-solving approaches of a university with the technical perspective and applied orientation of a forestry technician school.

  10. Historical perspectives on laminitis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, I P; Heymering, H

    1999-08-01

    This article attempts to provide a historical perspective regarding equine laminitis. It is designed to cover, as completely as possible, the historical record of, and the research advances made, in regards to acute and chronic laminitis. With respect to the historical record, the names given to this disease, the postulated etiologies, and the various treatment protocols are discussed. This article demonstrates the historical longevity of this disease and establishes a background for the current understanding of the disease's pathologic mechanisms and treatments.

  11. Nondestructive inspection perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froom, Douglas A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents ideas for consideration by those concerned with commercial aircraft nondestructive inspection (NDI). The perspective is that of an individual with a background in military aircraft NDI, and important differences are indicated between the commercial NDI and military NDI activities. In particular, it is significantly more expensive to implement some new NDI technology, and therefore, in-depth cost-benifit studies for commercial users are recommended.

  12. National Cancer Institute Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Rosemary S.L. . E-mail: rw26f@nih.gov; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2006-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Perspectives this year presented information on the systemic targeted radionuclide therapy (STaRT) research projects: (1) being investigated at the NCI's Intramural Center for Cancer Research; (2) funded by NCI's Radiation Research Program and other extramural programs; and (3) the appropriate National Institutes of Health/NCI funding mechanisms applicable to researchers for obtaining funds for STaRT projects.

  13. Photovoltaic research needs industry perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravi, K. V.

    1982-01-01

    An industries perspective of photovoltaic research needs is presented. Objectives and features of industry needs are discussed for the materials, devices, processes, and reliability research categories.

  14. Perspectives of the Continuing Education Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses the Continuing Education Unit's chameleon-like nature by focusing on its definition and background and possible perceptions from the academic perspective, the user group perspective and the individual learner's perspective. (AG)

  15. A Perspective on Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dennis C.

    1988-01-01

    Responds to "new scholarship on women" perspective presented in previous article by Greiner. Addresses individually each of six basic tenets involved in new perspective and examines perspective's assertions in terms of both women and men. (NB)

  16. The architect's perspective on the tour and map perspective.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Athina

    2015-09-01

    Literature in linguistics suggests that when people are asked to provide an oral spatial description, they usually provide a body-centered narrative; they adopt a Tour Perspective, that is, an imaginary tour of the space rather than a Map Perspective, that is, a description focused on spatial relations as seen from above (Linde and Labov in Language 51(1):924-939, 1975; Howald in Discursive constraints on space in narrative: evidence from guilty plea discourse, eVox 3, 2009). I conducted a pilot experiment to address the following questions: Does the formal knowledge of architects--their familiarity with plan drawings and maps--override the tendency to adopt the tour perspective? Does the tour perspective depend on the actual experience of space? Twenty-two graduate students in architecture were asked to respond to the following questions: (1) "Can you describe the layout of your apartment?" (2) "Can you describe the layout of an ideal apartment?" In the responses to the first question most participants used the tour perspective. In the responses to the second question most participants used the map perspective. The results provide evidence that architects' formal knowledge does not override the preference of the tour perspective in descriptions of experienced space. Moreover, that the tour perspective is associated with the actual experience of space.

  17. Children's pain perspectives.

    PubMed

    Esteve, R; Marquina-Aponte, V

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies on children's pain perspectives remain limited to English-speaking populations. An exploratory cross-sectional descriptive design was used to investigate the developmental progression of children's pain perspectives, including their pain experience, its definition and attributes, causality and coping. The Children's Pain Perspectives Inventory was applied to 180 healthy Spanish children. A coding system was developed following the content analysis method. Three age groups were compared: 4-6 years, corresponding to the Piagetian pre-operational stage of cognitive development; 7-11 years, corresponding to stage of concrete operations; and 12-14 years, corresponding to the period of early formal operations. In children between 4 and 6, the predominant narratives related to physical injuries, the notion of causality and the definition of pain. In children between 7 and 11, the predominant narratives were those in which pain was described as a sensation in one part of the body. The view of pain as having an emotional basis significantly increased with age and was more frequent in adolescents. In contrast, children between 4-6 and 7-11 indicated that pain occurs spontaneously. The denial of any positive aspects of pain significantly decreased with age; some children between 7 and 11 referred to the 'possibility of relief', while the view that pain is a 'learning experience' was significantly more frequent among adolescents aged between 12 and 14 years. The use of cognitive strategies to control pain significantly increased with age. Between 12 and 14 years of age, adolescents communicate pain by non-verbal behaviour and reported that they do not express demands for relief. There was a progression from concrete to more complex notions of pain as age increased. These results may be of use to health professionals and parents to understand how children at various developmental stages express and cope with pain and to develop tools that effectively assess and

  18. Perspective Projection Invariants,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME ANC ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERSO 545 Technology Square dCambridge...AD-AI67 793 PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION INVARIANTS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST 1/1~ OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB VERRI ET AL, FEB 86 AI-M-832...0R020I4 661 SEC R TVC PAGE fjSr .W IlIII UI A 8 gT@OFTNS21 07 1 MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY and CENTER

  19. Rowing competitions and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Alfinio; Bernhardt, Stephen A.; Shipman, Henry L.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is about integrating the use of graphing technology (specifically, GeoGebra) with principles of motion, principles of perspective, and the concept of vanishing points to model a dynamic event. Students were asked to analyse video images of a rowing competition filmed with a single camera positioned perpendicular to the race. The fixed position of the camera in such races makes it difficult to determine whether a scull closer to the camera is actually overtaking another, more distant scull. The paper illustrates how students in their first year at the university can integrate the use of technology, science, mathematics, and writing to solve a real world problem involving motion.

  20. Perspective: Dissipative particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Español, Pep; Warren, Patrick B.

    2017-04-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) belongs to a class of models and computational algorithms developed to address mesoscale problems in complex fluids and soft matter in general. It is based on the notion of particles that represent coarse-grained portions of the system under study and allow, therefore, reaching time and length scales that would be otherwise unreachable from microscopic simulations. The method has been conceptually refined since its introduction almost twenty five years ago. This perspective surveys the major conceptual improvements in the original DPD model, along with its microscopic foundation, and discusses outstanding challenges in the field. We summarize some recent advances and suggest avenues for future developments.

  1. Perspectives on reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Camp, A.L.

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  2. Zika virus: Indian perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N.; Yadav, Pragya D.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  3. Volcanoes. A planetary perspective.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, P.

    In this book, the author gives an account of the familiar violent aspects of volcanoes and the various forms that eruptions can take. He explores why volcanoes exist at all, why volcanoes occur where they do, and how examples of major historical eruptions can be interpreted in terms of physical processes. Throughout he attempts to place volcanism in a planetary perspective, exploring the pre-eminent role of submarine volcanism on Earth and the stunning range of volcanic phenomena revealed by spacecraft exploration of the solar system.

  4. Perspective: Nonadiabatic dynamics theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, John C.

    2012-12-01

    Nonadiabatic dynamics—nuclear motion evolving on multiple potential energy surfaces—has captivated the interest of chemists for decades. Exciting advances in experimentation and theory have combined to greatly enhance our understanding of the rates and pathways of nonadiabatic chemical transformations. Nevertheless, there is a growing urgency for further development of theories that are practical and yet capable of reliable predictions, driven by fields such as solar energy, interstellar and atmospheric chemistry, photochemistry, vision, single molecule electronics, radiation damage, and many more. This Perspective examines the most significant theoretical and computational obstacles to achieving this goal, and suggests some possible strategies that may prove fruitful.

  5. Perspective: Dissipative particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Español, Pep; Warren, Patrick B

    2017-04-21

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) belongs to a class of models and computational algorithms developed to address mesoscale problems in complex fluids and soft matter in general. It is based on the notion of particles that represent coarse-grained portions of the system under study and allow, therefore, reaching time and length scales that would be otherwise unreachable from microscopic simulations. The method has been conceptually refined since its introduction almost twenty five years ago. This perspective surveys the major conceptual improvements in the original DPD model, along with its microscopic foundation, and discusses outstanding challenges in the field. We summarize some recent advances and suggest avenues for future developments.

  6. Rural Scene Perspective Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devich, Robert N.; Weinhaus, Frederick M.

    1982-06-01

    This paper presents a method for converting Landsat imagery of natural rural scenes to horizontal viewing perspectives in a digital image processing system. The technique uses digital terrain images for a three-dimensional representation of the scene. Full color pixel-by-pixel (as opposed to skeletal or graphical) images are synthesized, and hidden pixels are eliminated. A sequence of synthesized images of the Colorado River basin is shown. Examples of panoramic and orthographic projections are also shown. An appendix presents a method for converting a contour map into a digital terrain map in raster format.

  7. Zika virus: Indian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Yadav, Pragya D

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective.

  8. International Perspectives on Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holford, John, Ed.; Jarvis, Peter, Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

    This book contains 30 papers providing international perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Edgar Faure after 25 Years" (Roger Boshier); "Public Rhetoric and Public Policy" (Colin Griffin); "Lifelong Learning and the European Union" (Barry J. Hake); "Critical Perspectives and New…

  9. Learning Disabilities: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollinger, Ruth H., Ed.; Klein, Nancy K., Ed.

    Presented are six papers originally delivered at a colloquium series on the problems of the learning disabled child, with emphasis on a multidisciplinary perspective. In "One Psychologist's Perspective on Learning Disabilities," J. Kessler provides an overview of the field with sections on definition and identification, etiology, testing as a…

  10. Counselling via a "Death Perspective."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeman, Howard

    1986-01-01

    Points out the progress in the clinical literature in helping people deal with the event of death but argues there is great neglect in the literature regarding viewing death as a perspective, and its valuable clinical use. By referring to Heidegger's contributions to existential psychology, explains what is meant by this perspective and its…

  11. International Perspectives on Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holford, John, Ed.; Jarvis, Peter, Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

    This book contains 30 papers providing international perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Edgar Faure after 25 Years" (Roger Boshier); "Public Rhetoric and Public Policy" (Colin Griffin); "Lifelong Learning and the European Union" (Barry J. Hake); "Critical Perspectives and New…

  12. Putting Motor Resonance in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Perceiving another person's actions changes the spatial perspective people use to describe objects in a scene, possibly because seeing human action induces people to map the actions, including their spatial context, to their own body and motor representations [Lozano, S. C., Hard, B. M., & Tversky, B. (2007). Putting action in perspective.…

  13. Teaching with a Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Percy

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of teaching from a global perspective far outweigh the disadvantages. Teaching from a global perspective provides the employer with global workers. Such teaching produces students who possess the knowledge of languages, culture, social systems, dress, religion, and cultural norms, as well as skills for employment in the global…

  14. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  15. Multiple Perspectives on Starting Right.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    This paper addresses multiple perspectives on the quality of early childhood care and education, including lessons learned from programs in various countries, the implications of these perspectives, and recommendations for the improvement of early childhood provision. It also examines the ideas expressed in the 1994 "Start Right" report on early…

  16. Overhearing Single and Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 spontaneous speech experiments, this study found that multiple perspectives improved overhearers' abilities to select abstract shapes from an array, although single-perspective descriptions were more detailed. Prior findings that overhearers performed better when listening in on dialogues (Fox Tree, 1999) can best be understood as an…

  17. Overhearing Single and Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 spontaneous speech experiments, this study found that multiple perspectives improved overhearers' abilities to select abstract shapes from an array, although single-perspective descriptions were more detailed. Prior findings that overhearers performed better when listening in on dialogues (Fox Tree, 1999) can best be understood as an…

  18. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  19. Perspectives, trends, and forestry opportunities

    Treesearch

    Calvin F. Bey

    1993-01-01

    It is clear that our perspective, profession, society and approach to natural resource management has changed a lot over the last century and particularly over the last 30 years. We have adjusted to many changes and will be challenged to adjust to many more in the future. Understanding the global environmental perspective and expected trends should help us as we deal...

  20. Putting Motor Resonance in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Perceiving another person's actions changes the spatial perspective people use to describe objects in a scene, possibly because seeing human action induces people to map the actions, including their spatial context, to their own body and motor representations [Lozano, S. C., Hard, B. M., & Tversky, B. (2007). Putting action in perspective.…

  1. Learning Styles: An Anthropological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockler, Michael J.

    Studies of the brain and of the human culture can be used to demonstrate the limits of traditional approaches (based on psychological perspectives which are often narrow and restrictive) to learning styles and to offer additional perspectives on the complexity of learning. The study of the hemispheres of the brain and its triune nature indicates…

  2. Ecological perspectives in health research

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, L.; Hawe, P.

    2005-01-01

    An ecological perspective on health emphasises both individual and contextual systems and the interdependent relations between the two. Origins of this approach have emanated from multiple disciplines over the past century or more. This article provides a glossary of perspectives, processes, and settings that pertain to an ecological approach in health research. PMID:15598720

  3. Symmetry and repetition in perspective.

    PubMed

    van der Vloed, Gert; Csathó, Arpád; van der Helm, Peter A

    2005-09-01

    Although ecologically relevant, perspective views of symmetries and repetitions have hardly been investigated. Any symmetry or repetition that is not oriented orthogonally to the line of sight yields perspective distortions on the retina. In this study, these distortions are analyzed in terms of first-order structures (i.e., virtual lines between corresponding points) and second-order structures (i.e., correlation quadrangles formed by two virtual lines). In the literature, these structures have been proposed to guide the detection of fron to parallel symmetry and repetition. But what about perspective views? First, the analysis in this study shows that perspective distorts the retinal first-order and second-order structures of symmetry and repetition differently. Second, the results of two experiments on this distortion difference suggest that, in perspective views, symmetry and repetition detection is not preceded by normalization but occurs directly on the basis of the retinal first-order and second-order structures.

  4. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  5. Perspectives on Agile Coaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Steven; Lundh, Erik; Davies, Rachel; Eckstein, Jutta; Larsen, Diana; Vilkki, Kati

    There are many perspectives to agile coaching including: growing coaching expertise, selecting the appropriate coach for your context; and eva luating value. A coach is often an itinerant who may observe, mentor, negotiate, influence, lead, and/or architect everything from team organization to system architecture. With roots in diverse fields ranging from technology to sociology coaches have differing motivations and experience bases. This panel will bring together coaches to debate and discuss various perspectives on agile coaching. Some of the questions to be addressed will include: What are the skills required for effective coaching? What should be the expectations for teams or individu als being coached? Should coaches be: a corporate resource (internal team of consultants working with multiple internal teams); an integral part of a specific team; or external contractors? How should coaches exercise influence and au thority? How should management assess the value of a coaching engagement? Do you have what it takes to be a coach? - This panel will bring together sea soned agile coaches to offer their experience and advice on how to be the best you can be!

  6. Hypertension: management perspectives.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Claudio; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2012-10-01

    The increasing worldwide prevalence of hypertension and the related increase in cost due to diagnosis, management and negative outcomes forces public health institutions and clinical researchers to find new strategies to improve blood pressure (BP) control. So what are the possible future perspectives for high BP management? Three main points are briefly discussed in this article: individualized therapy, the known genetic contribution to hypertension development and control, and the improvement of disease management, including perspectives on new antihypertensive drug development. It is likely that the integration of the best available current knowledge with recent diagnostic and therapeutic achievements for the management of hypertension prevention and treatment will lead to the early detection of at-risk conditions, early diagnosis, and individualized and efficacious treatment. The most promising antihypertensive drugs currently in development are innovative renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system modulators. Further drugs have potentially interesting mechanisms of action, but renalase analogs are in the very early phases of development, and available endothelin antagonists have a poor safety profile.

  7. Perspective: Geometrically frustrated assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grason, Gregory M.

    2016-09-01

    This perspective will overview an emerging paradigm for self-organized soft materials, geometrically frustrated assemblies, where interactions between self-assembling elements (e.g., particles, macromolecules, proteins) favor local packing motifs that are incompatible with uniform global order in the assembly. This classification applies to a broad range of material assemblies including self-twisting protein filament bundles, amyloid fibers, chiral smectics and membranes, particle-coated droplets, curved protein shells, and phase-separated lipid vesicles. In assemblies, geometric frustration leads to a host of anomalous structural and thermodynamic properties, including heterogeneous and internally stressed equilibrium structures, self-limiting assembly, and topological defects in the equilibrium assembly structures. The purpose of this perspective is to (1) highlight the unifying principles and consequences of geometric frustration in soft matter assemblies; (2) classify the known distinct modes of frustration and review corresponding experimental examples; and (3) describe outstanding questions not yet addressed about the unique properties and behaviors of this broad class of systems.

  8. Prosocial behavior: multilevel perspectives.

    PubMed

    Penner, Louis A; Dovidio, John F; Piliavin, Jane A; Schroeder, David A

    2005-01-01

    Current research on prosocial behavior covers a broad and diverse range of phenomena. We argue that this large research literature can be best organized and understood from a multilevel perspective. We identify three levels of analysis of prosocial behavior: (a) the "meso" level--the study of helper-recipient dyads in the context of a specific situation; (b) the micro level--the study of the origins of prosocial tendencies and the sources of variation in these tendencies; and (c) the macro level--the study of prosocial actions that occur within the context of groups and large organizations. We present research at each level and discuss similarities and differences across levels. Finally, we consider ways in which theory and research at these three levels of analysis might be combined in future intra- and interdisciplinary research on prosocial behavior.

  9. Auditory perspective taking.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Eric; Brock, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Effective communication with a mobile robot using speech is a difficult problem even when you can control the auditory scene. Robot self-noise or ego noise, echoes and reverberation, and human interference are all common sources of decreased intelligibility. Moreover, in real-world settings, these problems are routinely aggravated by a variety of sources of background noise. Military scenarios can be punctuated by high decibel noise from materiel and weaponry that would easily overwhelm a robot's normal speaking volume. Moreover, in nonmilitary settings, fans, computers, alarms, and transportation noise can cause enough interference to make a traditional speech interface unusable. This work presents and evaluates a prototype robotic interface that uses perspective taking to estimate the effectiveness of its own speech presentation and takes steps to improve intelligibility for human listeners.

  10. Perspectives for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ahring, Birgitte K

    2003-01-01

    The modern society generates large amounts of waste that represent a tremendous threat to the environment and human and animal health. To prevent and control this, a range of different waste treatment and disposal methods are used. The choice of method must always be based on maximum safety, minimum environmental impact and, as far as possible, on valorization of the waste and final recycling of the end products. One of the main trends of today's waste management policies is to reduce the stream of waste going to landfills and to recycle the organic material and the plant nutrients back to the soil. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one way of achieving this goal and it will furthermore, reduce energy consumption or may even be net energy producing. This chapter aims at provide a basic understanding of the world in which anaerobic digestion is operating today. The newest process developments as well as future perspectives will be discussed.

  11. Generation Y Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Garret; Painting, Kristen; Barrera, Aaron; Skytland, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Are you familiar with the famed Generation Y, or "Gen Yers?" Generation Y is projected to be 47 percent of the workforce by 2014. They were born roughly between 1977 and 2000, but that is definitely not their only defining factor. But who is this group, and what do they have to do with the future of the space program and the Johnson Space Center (JSC)? During 2007, a group of Gen Yers at JSC participated on a committee to address the NASA Headquarters strategic communications plan. Fitzpatrick, along with his co-authors, created a presentation to share the Gen Yers' perspective on their generation in conjunction with the strategic communications strategy released. This knowledge capture (KC) event is that presentation.

  12. Perspective: reverse evolution.

    PubMed

    Teotónio, H; Rose, M R

    2001-04-01

    For some time, the reversibility of evolution was primarily discussed in terms of comparative patterns. Only recently has this problem been studied using experimental evolution over shorter evolutionary time frames. This has raised questions of definition, experimental procedure, and the hypotheses being tested. Experimental evolution has provided evidence for multiple population genetic mechanisms in reverse evolution, including pleiotropy and mutation accumulation. It has also pointed to genetic factors that might prevent reverse evolution, such as a lack of genetic variability, epistasis, and differential genotype-by-environment interactions. The main focus of this perspective is on laboratory studies and their relevance to the genetics of reverse evolution. We discuss reverse evolution experiments with Drosophila, bacterial, and viral populations. Field studies of the reverse evolution of melanism in the peppered moth are also reviewed.

  13. Diabetes: An Investor's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Total health care expenditure in 2006 was $2.1 trillion. This figure is estimated to double within the next few years as the cost of treating diabetes and other chronic conditions continues to rise. Moreover, the baby boomer demographic is anticipated to place an enormous burden on the health care system and employer-based health insurance premiums were increased at rates as high as 10% per year in 2006. The quest to address these challenges has also created opportunities for investment, particularly in the fields of telemedicine, health care information technology, and medical technology. The author shares his business perspective, informed by years of experience as a physician and astronaut at NASA, and describes new applications of exciting technologies that deliver effective and efficient health care to diabetes patients, no matter where they may be. PMID:19885357

  14. Perspectives in numerical astrophysics:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdy, V.

    2016-12-01

    In this discussion paper, we investigate the current and future status of numerical astrophysics and highlight key questions concerning the transition to the exascale era. We first discuss the fact that one of the main motivation behind high performance simulations should not be the reproduction of observational or experimental data, but the understanding of the emergence of complexity from fundamental laws. This motivation is put into perspective regarding the quest for more computational power and we argue that extra computational resources can be used to gain in abstraction. Then, the readiness level of present-day simulation codes in regard to upcoming exascale architecture is examined and two major challenges are raised concerning both the central role of data movement for performances and the growing complexity of codes. Software architecture is finally presented as a key component to make the most of upcoming architectures while solving original physics problems.

  15. Antarctica: little paying perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanhoe, L.F.

    1981-07-01

    The continent of Antarctica has a surface of 14,200,000 sq km. It rests upon one of the deeper epicontinental platforms of the world, which descends steeply to the oceanic depths. The 200-m isobath is almost in its totality inside of the main ice zone. More than 95% of the continent itself is found under a layer of terrestrial ice composed of ca. 3,000,000 cu km of ice, with an average thickness of 2000 m. The ice and sea impede the access to the continent, and cyclonic storms surround the Antarctica in an endless sequence that moves from west to east. Almost all Antarctica geology is under ice, and only the highest places of mountains outcrop. The geologic structure is composed of 6 tectonic units. Antarctica has mineral resources, but the obstacles encountered in personnel and material movement make the Antarctica petroleum perspective very poor, since the recovery cost goes beyond the present selling price.

  16. Occator Crater in Perspective

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-09

    An image of Occator Crater draped over a digital terrain model provides a 3-D-like perspective view of the impact structure. Several bright areas can be seen in this crater. The inner part of the crater forms a type of "crater within a crater" measuring about 6 miles (10 kilometers) in diameter and 0.3 miles (0.5 miles) in depth, and contains the brightest material on all of Ceres. Occator measures about 60 miles (90 kilometers) wide. With its sharp rim and walls, and abundant terraces and landslide deposits, Occator appears to be among the youngest features on Ceres. Dawn mission scientists estimate its age to be about 78 million years old. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20179

  17. Industry perspective on Maglev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-06-01

    Most of the recent discussion and proposed legislation concerning Maglev (magnetic levitation) assumes that U.S. industry has a strong interest in Maglev and will be willing to take a proactive, cost-sharing role in the development of Maglev systems. As part of the preliminary feasibility studies on Maglev, the Federal Railroad Administration obtained the perceptions of several major U.S. corporations and identified their interest in a Maglev program, their willingness to participate, and any potential barriers to their participation. The industry perspectives were obtained through an independent and unbiased external study that included in-depth interviews with senior executives from 22 major U.S. corporations. The study, conducted during April and May 1990, was primarily directed at the development and implementation of a next-generation leapfrog Maglev system in the United States.

  18. Metabolic Perspectives on Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Travis E.; Wang, Zhe; Jansen, Robert S.; Gardete, Susana; Rhee, Kyu Y.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Accumulating evidence has left little doubt about the importance of persistence or metabolism in the biology and chemotherapy of tuberculosis. However, knowledge of the intersection between these two factors has begun to emerge only recently. Here, we provide a focused review of metabolic characteristics associated with M. tuberculosis persistence. We focus on metabolism because it is the biochemical foundation of all physiologic processes and a distinguishing hallmark of M. tuberculosis’s physiology and pathogenicity. In addition, it serves as the chemical interface between host and pathogen. However, existing knowledge derives largely from physiologic contexts in which replication is the primary biochemical objective. The goal of this review is to reframe existing knowledge of M. tuberculosis metabolism in the context of persistence where quiescence is often a key distinguishing characteristic. Such a perspective may help guide ongoing efforts to develop more efficient cures and inform on novel strategies to break the cycle of transmission sustaining the pandemic. PMID:28155811

  19. What's so difficult with adopting imagined perspectives?

    PubMed

    Avraamides, Marios N; Hatzipanayioti, Adamantini; Galati, Alexia

    2015-09-01

    Research on spatial cognition suggests that transformation processes and/or spatial conflicts may influence performance on mental perspective-taking tasks. However, conflicting findings have complicated our understanding about the processes involved in perspective-taking, particularly those giving rise to angular disparity effects, whereby performance worsens as the imagined perspective adopted deviates from one's actual perspective. Based on data from experiments involving mental perspective-taking in immediate and remote spatial layouts, we propose here a novel account for the difficulty with perspective-taking. According to this account, the main difficulty lies in maintaining an imagined perspective in working memory, especially in the presence of salient sensorimotor information.

  20. Bioinformatics: perspectives for the future.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2004-12-30

    I give here a very personal perspective of Bioinformatics and its future, starting by discussing the origin of the term (and area) of bioinformatics and proceeding by trying to foresee the development of related issues, including pattern recognition/data mining, the need to reintegrate biology, the potential of complex networks as a powerful and flexible framework for bioinformatics and the interplay between bio- and neuroinformatics. Human resource formation and market perspective are also addressed. Given the complexity and vastness of these issues and concepts, as well as the limited size of a scientific article and finite patience of the reader, these perspectives are surely incomplete and biased. However, it is expected that some of the questions and trends that are identified will motivate discussions during the IcoBiCoBi round table (with the same name as this article) and perhaps provide a more ample perspective among the participants of that conference and the readers of this text.

  1. Career perspective: Peter D Wagner.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Peter D

    2013-11-08

    This perspective focuses on key career decisions, explaining the basis of those decisions. In so doing, it exemplifies the unexpected influences of serendipity and the interaction between serendipity and planned events in shaping the career of one individual.

  2. A Perspective on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Perspective on Rural Education" (Miller); "You Want Them to Learn What?" (Jones); "Rural Education" (Baker, Burns); "Metnet" (Frick); "Rural Education and Training in Egypt" (Swan, Aly); "Mentors, Youth at Risk, and Rural Education Programs" (Wingenbach); "Designing…

  3. [Research and perspectives in parasitology].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi-jun; Yin, Ji-gang

    2007-08-01

    This article reviews the recent achievements in parasitology including new diagnostic techniques, molecular mechanism of parasitic pathogenesis, drug resistance, antigenic variation, parasite genomics and proteomics. The perspective development in the area is also discussed.

  4. Perspectives in geology. Circular 525

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this symposium present diverse perspectives in geology, mineral resources, paleontology, and environmental concerns. Papers within the scope of EDB have been entered individually into the data base. (ACR)

  5. A Perspective on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Perspective on Rural Education" (Miller); "You Want Them to Learn What?" (Jones); "Rural Education" (Baker, Burns); "Metnet" (Frick); "Rural Education and Training in Egypt" (Swan, Aly); "Mentors, Youth at Risk, and Rural Education Programs" (Wingenbach); "Designing…

  6. Humor in Counseling: Leader Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.

  7. Humor in Counseling: Leader Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.

  8. Perspectives on School Energy Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    This paper offers a general perspective of school energy use based on national surveys and a state of North Carolina perspective based on the public school laws that can have energy impact. Data from two surveys conducted in 1972-73 and 1974-75 are analyzed. Findings show a shift away from oil and a shift from direct use of coal to use of…

  9. Observer perspective imagery with stuttering.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Robyn; Menzies, Ross; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Adults who stutter are at risk of developing a range of psychological conditions. Social anxiety disorder is the most common anxiety disorder associated with stuttering. Observer perspective imagery is one cognitive process involved in the maintenance of some anxiety disorders. This involves viewing images as if looking at the self from the perspective of another. In contrast, the field perspective involves looking out from the self at the surrounding environment. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of observer perspective imagery with stuttering. The authors administered the Hackmann, Surawy and Clark (1998) semi-structured interview to 30 adults who stutter and 30 controls. Group images and impressions were compared for frequency, perspective recalled and emotional valence. The stuttering group was significantly more likely than controls to recall images and impressions from an observer rather than a field perspective for anxious situations. It is possible the present results could reflect the same attentional processing bias that occurs with anxiety disorders in the non-stuttering population. These preliminary results provide an explanation for the persistence of conditions such as social anxiety disorder with stuttering. Clinical implications are discussed.

  10. Perspective View, Garlock Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    California's Garlock Fault, marking the northwestern boundary of the Mojave Desert, lies at the foot of the mountains, running from the lower right to the top center of this image, which was created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown in February 2000. The data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. These mountains are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada and the prominent canyon emerging at the lower right is Lone Tree canyon. In the distance, the San Gabriel Mountains cut across from the leftside of the image. At their base lies the San Andreas Fault which meets the Garlock Fault near the left edge at Tejon Pass. The dark linear feature running from lower right to upper left is State Highway 14 leading from the town of Mojave in the distance to Inyokern and the Owens Valley in the north. The lighter parallel lines are dirt roads related to power lines and the Los Angeles Aqueduct which run along the base of the mountains.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  11. Perspective View, Garlock Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    California's Garlock Fault, marking the northwestern boundary of the Mojave Desert, lies at the foot of the mountains, running from the lower right to the top center of this image, which was created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown in February 2000. The data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. These mountains are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada and the prominent canyon emerging at the lower right is Lone Tree canyon. In the distance, the San Gabriel Mountains cut across from the leftside of the image. At their base lies the San Andreas Fault which meets the Garlock Fault near the left edge at Tejon Pass. The dark linear feature running from lower right to upper left is State Highway 14 leading from the town of Mojave in the distance to Inyokern and the Owens Valley in the north. The lighter parallel lines are dirt roads related to power lines and the Los Angeles Aqueduct which run along the base of the mountains.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  12. Perspectives of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, Amand

    2003-04-01

    The organizers of this meeting have asked me to present perspectives of nuclear physics. This means to identify the areas where nuclear physics will be expanding in the next future. In six chapters a short overview of these areas will be given, where I expect that nuclear physics will develop quite fast: (1) Quantum Chromodynamics and effective field theories in the confinement region. (2) Nuclear structure at the limits. (3) High energy heavy ion collisions. (4) Nuclear astrophysics. (5) Neutrino physics. (6) Test of physics beyond the standard model by rare processes. After a survey over these six points I will pick out a few topics where I will go more in details. There is no time to give for all six points detailed examples. I shall discuss the following examples of the six topics mentionned above: (1) The perturbative chiral quark model and the nucleon Σ-term. (2) VAMPIR (Variation After Mean field Projection In Realistic model spaces and with realistic forces) as an example of the nuclear structure renaissance. (3) Measurement of important astrophysical nuclear reactions in the Gamow peak. (4) The solar neutrino problem. As examples for testing new physics beyond the standard model by rare processes I had prepared to speak about the measurement of the electric neutron dipole moment and of the neutrinoless double beta decay. But the time is limited and so I have to skip these points, although they are extremely interesting.

  13. A Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Summary The emergence of global history has been one of the more notable features of academic history over the past three decades. Although historians of disease were among the pioneers of one of its earlier incarnations—world history—the recent “global turn” has made relatively little impact on histories of health, disease, and medicine. Most continue to be framed by familiar entities such as the colony or nation-state or are confined to particular medical “traditions.” This article aims to show what can be gained from taking a broader perspective. Its purpose is not to replace other ways of seeing or to write a new “grand narrative” but to show how transnational and transimperial approaches are vital to understanding some of the key issues with which historians of health, disease, and medicine are concerned. Moving on from an analysis of earlier periods of integration, the article offers some reflections on our own era of globalization and on the emerging field of global health. PMID:26725408

  14. Medication counselling: physicians' perspective.

    PubMed

    Bonnerup, Dorthe Krogsgaard; Lisby, Marianne; Eskildsen, Anette Gjetrup; Saedder, Eva Aggerholm; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2013-12-01

    Medication reviews have the potential to lower the incidence of prescribing errors. To benefit from a medication review, the prescriber must adhere to medication counselling. Adherence rates vary from 39 to 100%. The aim of this study was to examine counselling-naive hospital physicians' perspectives and demands to medication counselling as well as study factors that might increase adherence to the counselling. The study was conducted as a questionnaire survey among physicians at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire was developed based on focus group interviews and literature search, and was pilot-tested among 30 physicians before being sent to 669 physicians. The questionnaire consisted of 35 items divided into four categories: attitudes (19 items), behaviours (3 items), assessment (8 items) and demographics (5 items). The response rate was 60% (400/669). Respondents were employed at psychiatric, medical or surgical departments. Eighty-five per cent of respondents agreed that patients would benefit of an extra medication review, and 72% agreed that there was a need for external medication counselling. The most important factor that could increase adherence was the clinical relevance of the counselling as 78% rated it of major importance. The most favoured method for receiving counselling was via the electronic patient record. © 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Perspective: The glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biroli, Giulio; Garrahan, Juan P.

    2013-03-01

    We provide here a brief perspective on the glass transition field. It is an assessment, written from the point of view of theory, of where the field is and where it seems to be heading. We first give an overview of the main phenomenological characteristics, or "stylised facts," of the glass transition problem, i.e., the central observations that a theory of the physics of glass formation should aim to explain in a unified manner. We describe recent developments, with a particular focus on real space properties, including dynamical heterogeneity and facilitation, the search for underlying spatial or structural correlations, and the relation between the thermal glass transition and athermal jamming. We then discuss briefly how competing theories of the glass transition have adapted and evolved to account for such real space issues. We consider in detail two conceptual and methodological approaches put forward recently, that aim to access the fundamental critical phenomenon underlying the glass transition, be it thermodynamic or dynamic in origin, by means of biasing of ensembles, of configurations in the thermodynamic case, or of trajectories in the dynamic case. We end with a short outlook.

  16. A Striking Perspective

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    This image from NASA MESSENGER spacecraft provides a perspective view of the center portion of Carnegie Rupes, a large tectonic landform, which cuts through Duccio crater. The image shows the terrain (variations in topography) as measured by the MLA instrument and surface mapped by the MDIS instrument. The image was color-coded to highlight the variations in topography (red = high standing terrain, blue = low lying terrain). Tectonic landforms such as Carnegie Rupes form on Mercury as a response to interior planetary cooling, resulting in the overall shrinking of the planet. To make this graphic, 48 individual MDIS images were used as part of the mosaic. Instruments: Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) and Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) Latitude: 57.1° Longitude: 304.0° E Scale: Duccio crater has a diameter of roughly 105 kilometers (65 miles) Height: Portions of Carnegie Rupes are nearly 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) in height Orientation: North is roughly to the left of the image http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19422

  17. Putting words in perspective.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Anna M; Glenberg, Arthur M; Kaschak, Michael P

    2004-09-01

    In this article, we explore the nature of the conceptual knowledge retrieved when people use words to think about objects. If conceptual knowledge is used to simulate and guide action in the world, then how one can interact with an object should be reflected in the speed of retrieval and the content that is retrieved. This prediction was tested in three experiments in which a part verification procedure was used. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that speed of part verification varied with the perspective imposed on the object by the language used to name the object (e.g., "You are driving a car" or "You are fueling a car"). In Experiment 3, parts were chosen so that actions directed toward them (on the real object) require movement upward (e.g., the roof of a car) or downward (e.g., the wheels of a car). Orthogonally, responding "yes" required an upward or a downward movement to a response button. Responding in a direction incompatible with the part's location (e.g., responding downward to verify that a car has a roof) was slow relative to responding in a direction compatible with the part's location. These results provide a strong link between concept knowledge and situated action.

  18. Euthanasia: a Catholic perspective.

    PubMed

    Gula, R M

    1987-12-01

    According to the Roman Catholic perspective, we are not obliged to ward off death at all costs, but we should not deliberately intervene to bring death about. The "sanctity of life" principle, which rests on the human person's unique relationship with God, is the basis of the Church's honoring of human life as a basic value. Under this principle, direct intervention to end the life of a patient in a terminal condition would not be condoned. This negative position also follows from the religious principle of divine sovereignty--the idea that God alone is Lord over life and death, and the end of human life is not subject to a person's free judgment. Catholic moral tradition distinguishes between actions, on the one hand, or omissions that constitute intervention to put the patient to death and, on the other hand, the withholding of useless treatment that could not significantly reverse or prolong the progressive deterioration of life. The distinction rests on the difference between ordinary and extraordinary means. Also to be considered is the intention--the physician's goals versus the foreseeable yet unintended results. Thus death may not be directly sought, but it may be tolerated as an inevitable side effect of one's goal (such as the relief of suffering). These moral principles need to be rooted in the specific ways a moral community cares for its sick and dying. The religious convictions of grace and covenant and corresponding virtues of gratitude and fidelity enable the community to uphold its convictions about euthanasia.

  19. An intentional interpretive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    To the extent that the concept of intention has been addressed within behavior analysis, descriptions of intention have been general and have not specifically included important distinctions that differentiate a behavior-analytic approach from vernacular definitions of intention. A fundamental difference between a behavior-analytic approach and most other psychological approaches is that other approaches focus on the necessity of intentions to explain behavior, whereas a behavior-analytic approach is directed at understanding the interplay between behavior and environment. Behavior-analytic interpretations include the relations between the observer's behavior and the environment. From a behavior-analytic perspective, an analysis of the observer's interpretations of an individual's behavior is inherent in the subsequent attribution of intention. The present agenda is to provide a behavior-analytic account of attributing intention that identifies the establishing conditions for speaking of intention. Also addressed is the extent to which we speak of intentions when the observed individual's behavior is contingency shaped or under instructional control. PMID:22478417

  20. Perspectives on bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Alfredo; Wohlgemuth, Roland; Twardowski, Tomasz

    2017-07-13

    The insight provided by the authors of this special issue on bioeconomy give a reassuring sign of optimism, vitality and strong will to make bioeconomy a success story. Key to these advances will be inventing and shaping our future and the cooperation of people who will create new scientific and technological discoveries, developments and their implementation into industrial practice. The vibrant global megatrend bioeconomy is developing along various dimensions depending on natural and social conditions, economic development and political objectives. As value chains from producer countries and regions to their corresponding customers are interconnected globally and bioeconomies are diverse, constructive dialogues and agreed social consensus are therefore relevant worldwide. Mapping and engineering the uncharted territories of the molecular transformations, which are key to the bioeconomy, represents a great opportunity for the molecular and engineering sciences to bring in their important contributions. The development of smart bioeconomies needs excellence in science-based concepts, long-term support of innovative and mission-oriented research and a subtle equilibrium between science push and market and social pull. On the policy front, coherent and science-based policy decisions embracing bioeconomy and being consistent with each other are needed. From a global perspective, bioeconomy topics should be included in the international and national agendas on sustainable development goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. New perspectives in ecotoxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Simon A.; Kimball, Kenneth D.; McDowell, William H.; Kimball, Sarah F.

    1984-09-01

    The task of regulating potentially harmful chemicals in the environment is presently hindered by the lack of appropriate concepts and methods for evaluating the effects of anthropogenic chemicals on ecosystems. Toxicity tests at the molecular and physiological levels have been used successfully as indicators of adverse effects on test organisms and have been extrapolated to humans to establish a basis for risk assessment. However, laboratory measurements of effects upon individuals do not translate readily into potential effects upon natural populations, in part because natural populations interact with other populations and with the physical environment. Even more difficult to assess are the deleterious impacts of anthropogenic chemicals on ecosystems, because of effects on species interactions, diversity, nutrient cycling, productivity, climatic changes, and other processes. Effects on ecosystems resulting from chemical stresses are outside the realm of classical toxicology, and an ecosystem-level perspective is essential for the consideration of such effects; but the science that deals with ecosystem-level effects, ecotoxicology, is still developing. This article synthesizes the topics discussed at a workshop on ecotoxicology held by the Ecosystems Research Center at Cornell University. Topics covered include: the regulatory framework in which ecotoxicological research must be applied; ecosystem modification of toxicant fate and transport; how ecosystem composition, structure, and function are influenced by chemicals; methods currently available for predicting the effects of chemicals at the ecosystem level; and recommendations on research needs to enhance the state of the science of ecotoxicology.

  2. Enhanced Patient-Centred Care: Physiotherapists' Perspectives on the Impact of International Clinical Internships on Canadian Practice.

    PubMed

    Mesaroli, Giulia; Bourgeois, Anne-Marie; McCurry, Ellen; Condren, Allison; Petropanagos, Peter; Fraser, Michelle; Nixon, Stephanie A

    2015-01-01

    Objectif : Explorer les perspectives des physiothérapeutes ayant participé à un stage clinique à l'étranger dans un pays à revenu faible ou intermédiaire dans le cadre de leur formation en physiothérapie dans un programme d'études canadien afin d'évaluer l'incidence de ce stage sur leur pratique de la physiothérapie au Canada. Méthodes : Cette étude descriptive qualitative s'est faite à partir d'entrevues semi-structurées détaillées. Les données ont été organisées au moyen de Nvivo, tandis qu'un codage inductif et déductif a été utilisé pour analyser les données et élargir les thèmes. Résultats : Les 13 physiothérapeutes exerçant au Canada qui ont été interviewés ont décrit trois compétences renforcées par leur stage: (1) la réflexion critique sur la culture, les valeurs et la pratique; (2) les aptitudes à communiquer et (3) la créativité et la débrouillardise. Il semble que ces compétences se seraient transférées dans la pratique canadienne en améliorant la capacité des participants à offrir des soins axés sur le client, plus précisément grâce à une meilleure compréhension des valeurs et des déterminants sociaux de la santé des clients, quelle que soit la région du Canada ou la clientèle. Conclusions : Pour les étudiants en physiothérapie qui envisagent un stage clinique à l'étranger, les conclusions de l'étude montrent l'incidence que pourrait avoir un tel stage sur la pratique canadienne. Pour les programmes universitaires de physiothérapie, les conclusions de l'étude peuvent orienter les décisions quant à l'ampleur des investissements dans les stages cliniques à l'étranger en tant qu'occasions d'apprentissage destinées à améliorer la pratique au Canada.

  3. Patient perspectives of telemedicine quality

    PubMed Central

    LeRouge, Cynthia M; Garfield, Monica J; Hevner, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the quality attributes required for effective telemedicine encounters from the perspective of the patient. Methods We used a multi-method (direct observation, focus groups, survey) field study to collect data from patients who had experienced telemedicine encounters. Multi-perspectives (researcher and provider) were used to interpret a rich set of data from both a research and practice perspective. Results The result of this field study is a taxonomy of quality attributes for telemedicine service encounters that prioritizes the attributes from the patient perspective. We identify opportunities to control the level of quality for each attribute (ie, who is responsible for control of each attribute and when control can be exerted in relation to the encounter process). This analysis reveals that many quality attributes are in the hands of various stakeholders, and all attributes can be addressed proactively to some degree before the encounter begins. Conclusion Identification of the quality attributes important to a telemedicine encounter from a patient perspective enables one to better design telemedicine encounters. This preliminary work not only identifies such attributes, but also ascertains who is best able to address quality issues prior to an encounter. For practitioners, explicit representation of the quality attributes of technology-based systems and processes and insight on controlling key attributes are essential to implementation, utilization, management, and common understanding. PMID:25565781

  4. Chaos: A historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lighthill, James

    In this introductory lecture I'd like to offer a broad historical perspective regarding the relatively recent general recognition: (a) that mechanical systems satisfying Newton's laws may be subject to the essentially unpredictable type of behavior which the word CHAOS describes—in other words, the recognition (b) that quantum effects are not required; (c) so that, notwithstanding Heisenberg, uncertainty is there on the basis of the good old classical mechanics based on Newton's Laws. But first of all I'll remind you that there are two kinds of laws in science, which we may exemplify by Kepler's Laws and Newton's Laws. Kepler in 1609 completed some very detailed observations of the motions of Mars; together with a full geometrical description of them, in the Copernican sun-centered flame of reference, as motions in a constant orbit in the shape of an ellipse with the Sun as focus. A decade later Kepler had published the Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae (a rather more substantial work than the Dialogo which later got Galileo into some difficulties), and had there described in detail his most famous discovery: Kepler's three empirical laws concerning planetary orbits. These laws, of the elliptical shapes of orbits, of the radius covering equal areas in equal times, and of the proportionality of the square of the orbital period to the cube of the major axis, were shown from the observations to be closely satisfied by the Earth and by the five then known planets; and furthermore, by the four satellites of Jupiter which Galileo had recently discovered.

  5. A Cultural Perspective for Counseling Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Albert R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper attempts to view Blacks as minorities from a subcultural perspective. This perspective is brought to bear on the question of identity and the process of schooling. Discontinuities brought about by the meeting of different cultures are examined. (Author)

  6. A Cultural Perspective for Counseling Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Albert R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper attempts to view Blacks as minorities from a subcultural perspective. This perspective is brought to bear on the question of identity and the process of schooling. Discontinuities brought about by the meeting of different cultures are examined. (Author)

  7. A functional perspective on personality.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Marco; Costantini, Giulio; Hughes, Sean; De Houwer, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Personality psychology has made enormous progresses over the years by accumulating empirical evidence on how patterns of stable individual differences in behaviours can be clustered systematically at different levels of abstraction (i.e. traits and facets) and how they can predict important consequential outcomes. At the same time, functionally orientated researchers have accumulated a vast body of knowledge on environment-behaviour relations and the underlying behavioural principles, that is, abstract descriptions of the way in which behaviour is a function of elements in the past and present environment. We explore a functional perspective on personality that attempts to bridge the two domains and to exploit the best of both worlds. From this functional perspective, personality refers to the impact of the individual on different types of environment-behaviour relations as well as on the way other factors moderate those relations. We discuss the potential of this functional perspective on personality to organise existing scientific knowledge and inspire future research.

  8. Growth outcome: nutritionist perspective.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Fattore, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to a fundamental role of early nutrition on rates of growth and development, and later health. We may identify three major fields of scientific interest and clinical application. (1) In developing countries poor growth is associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, mainly lower respiratory infections and diarrhea. In these settings, failure to promote compensatory growth may have negative short-term consequences, and the nutritionist's task is the primary prevention of nutrient deficiencies to promote the full expression of the individual genetic potential, while allowing for recovery of early secondary functional deficiencies. (2) A second challenge for nutritionists is represented by the approach to growth impairments in rare disorders, ranging from congenital disorders to chronic infections. Most disorders are favorably influenced by improved nutritional status and better growth, and patients may satisfactorily reach adolescence, pubertal and reproductive age, up to ageing. Even for the less positive conditions, an improvement in the quality of life for families is in any case a rewarding aim. (3) A third challenge is represented by the definition of the role of nutrition on growth in physiological conditions for all individuals. Concern has been raised about the potential adverse long-term consequences of accelerated child growth rates, possibly resulting in a predisposition to develop non-communicable chronic diseases in the adult age. Accordingly, this hypothesis might explain the benefits of breastfeeding in terms of slower early growth, and the fetal origins hypothesis in terms of adverse postnatal catch-up growth in infants born small. Therefore, growth as viewed by a pediatric nutritionist perspective is a complex matter, ranging from the early stages of intrauterine development up to adult ages and ageing processes. Cost/benefit analyses of interventions on growth such as cost per DALYs

  9. Solar System, in Perspective

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    This artist's concept puts solar system distances in perspective. The scale bar is in astronomical units, with each set distance beyond 1 AU representing 10 times the previous distance. One AU is the distance from the sun to the Earth, which is about 93 million miles or 150 million kilometers. Neptune, the most distant planet from the sun, is about 30 AU. Informally, the term "solar system" is often used to mean the space out to the last planet. Scientific consensus, however, says the solar system goes out to the Oort Cloud, the source of the comets that swing by our sun on long time scales. Beyond the outer edge of the Oort Cloud, the gravity of other stars begins to dominate that of the sun. The inner edge of the main part of the Oort Cloud could be as close as 1,000 AU from our sun. The outer edge is estimated to be around 100,000 AU. NASA's Voyager 1, humankind's most distant spacecraft, is around 125 AU. Scientists believe it entered interstellar space, or the space between stars, on Aug. 25, 2012. Much of interstellar space is actually inside our solar system. It will take about 300 years for Voyager 1 to reach the inner edge of the Oort Cloud and possibly about 30,000 years to fly beyond it. Alpha Centauri is currently the closest star to our solar system. But, in 40,000 years, Voyager 1 will be closer to the star AC +79 3888 than to our own sun. AC +79 3888 is actually traveling faster toward Voyager 1 than the spacecraft is traveling toward it. The Voyager spacecraft were built and continue to be operated by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in Pasadena, Calif. Caltech manages JPL for NASA. The Voyager missions are a part of NASA's Heliophysics System Observatory, sponsored by the Heliophysics Division of the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. For more information about Voyager, visit: www.nasa.gov/voyager and voyager.jpl.nasa.gov . Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables

  10. Perspectives on iron absorption.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Leif; Hulthén, Lena

    2002-01-01

    Newly established relationships between dietary iron absorption and serum ferritin and between serum ferritin and iron stores permit calculation of amounts of stored iron under different conditions at steady states when absorption equals losses. The rate of growth of stores can also be calculated. All calculations are based on observations and require no model assumptions. Present analyses demonstrated an effective control of iron absorption preventing development of iron overload in otherwise healthy subjects even if the diet is fortified with iron and even if meat intake is high. There are strong relationships between iron requirements, bioavailability of dietary iron, and amounts of stored iron. Our observations that a reduction in iron stores and a calculated decrease of hemoglobin iron had the same increasing effect on iron absorption suggest that the control of iron absorption is mediated from a common cell, which may register both size of iron stores and hemoglobin iron deficit. We suggest that the hepatocyte is that cell. Nutritional iron deficiency is especially critical in menstruating women, in the latter third of pregnancy, during adolescence for both girls and boys, and in the weaning period from 4 to 6 months to 2 years of age. The body possesses remarkable, potential control systems of probable very ancient origin capable of preventing both iron deficiency and iron overload. Present problems with iron deficiency being the most frequent deficiency disorder are related to nonbiological changes in our societies over the most recent 10,000 years. This perspective on iron homeostasis or iron balance is mainly based on studies in humans of clinical and epidemiological observations, trying to understand why iron deficiency is the most frequent deficiency disorder in the world in spite of the ingenious mechanisms in the body that should prevent it. Withdrawal of iron fortification of flour in Sweden in 1994 led to a significant increase in iron deficiency

  11. Fructose in perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Whether dietary fructose (as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup) has unique effects separate from its role as carbohydrate, or, in fact, whether it can be considered inherently harmful, even a toxin, has assumed prominence in nutrition. Much of the popular and scientific media have already decided against fructose and calls for regulation and taxation come from many quarters. There are conflicting data, however. Outcomes attributed to fructose — obesity, high triglycerides and other features of metabolic syndrome — are not found in every experimental test and may be more reliably caused by increased total carbohydrate. In this review, we try to put fructose in perspective by looking at the basic metabolic reactions. We conclude that fructose is best understood as part of carbohydrate metabolism. The pathways of fructose and glucose metabolism converge at the level of the triose-phosphates and, therefore, any downstream effects also occur with glucose. In addition, a substantial part of ingested fructose is turned to glucose. Regulation of fructose metabolism per se, is at the level of substrate control — the lower Km of fructokinase compared to glucokinase will affect the population of triose-phosphates. Generally deleterious effects of administering fructose alone suggest that fructose metabolism is normally controlled in part by glucose. Because the mechanisms of fructose effects are largely those of a carbohydrate, one has to ask what the proper control should be for experiments that compare fructose to glucose. In fact, there is a large literature showing benefits in replacing total carbohydrate with other nutrients, usually fat, and such experiments sensibly constitute the proper control for comparisons of the two sugars. In terms of public health, a rush to judgement analogous to the fat-cholesterol-heart story, is likely to have unpredictable outcome and unintended consequences. Popular opinion cannot be ignored in this problem and comparing fructose

  12. Why Adoptees Search: An Existential Treatment Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jago Krueger, Mary J.; Hanna, Fred J.

    1997-01-01

    Frames the adult adoptee's search for biological roots in an existential treatment perspective. This perspective is proposed as a practical approach to understanding the complexities of the adoption experience and an adoptee's desire to search. Reviews adoption practices, existential perspectives (e.g., death), and clinical implications. Provides…

  13. Geography Education for "An Attainable Global Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Phil; Pawson, Eric; Solem, Michael; Ray, Waverly

    2014-01-01

    This article considers approaches to promoting global perspectives as both cognitive and affective learning outcomes within geography education. Particular attention is paid to the work of Robert Hanvey, who proposed "An Attainable Global Perspective" in the 1970s, which explicitly ties to the content and perspectives embedded in…

  14. Geography Education for "An Attainable Global Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Phil; Pawson, Eric; Solem, Michael; Ray, Waverly

    2014-01-01

    This article considers approaches to promoting global perspectives as both cognitive and affective learning outcomes within geography education. Particular attention is paid to the work of Robert Hanvey, who proposed "An Attainable Global Perspective" in the 1970s, which explicitly ties to the content and perspectives embedded in…

  15. Perspective Taking in Older Age Revisited: A Motivational Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xin; Fung, Helene H.; Stanley, Jennifer T.; Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Ho, Man Yee

    2013-01-01

    How perspective-taking ability changes with age (i.e., whether older adults are better at understanding others' behaviors and intentions and show greater empathy to others or not) is not clear, with prior empirical findings on this phenomenon yielding mixed results. In a series of experiments, we investigated the phenomenon from a motivational…

  16. Facing Global Challenges: A European University Perspective. Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swail, Watson Scott

    2014-01-01

    This EPI Policy Perspectives covers a presentation given at the European University Association Annual Convention (March 20, 2009, in Prague, Czech Republic) that addresses the Bologna process in the European Union. The process raised many questions regarding the role of the university, and the entire tertiary/postsecondary system of education.…

  17. Life support and euthanasia, a perspective on Shaw's new perspective.

    PubMed

    Busch, Jacob; Rodogno, Raffaele

    2011-02-01

    It has recently been suggested by Shaw (2007) that the distinction between voluntary active euthanasia, such as giving a patient a lethal overdose with the intention of ending that patient's life, and voluntary passive euthanasia, such as removing a patient from a ventilator, is much less obvious than is commonly acknowledged in the literature. This is argued by suggesting a new perspective that more accurately reflects the moral features of end-of-life situations. The argument is simply that if we consider the body of a mentally competent patient who wants to die, a kind of 'unwarranted' life support, then the distinction collapses. We argue that all Shaw has provided is a perspective that makes the conclusion that there is little distinction between voluntary active euthanasia and voluntary passive euthanasia only seemingly more palatable. In doing so he has yet to convince us that this perspective is superior to other perspectives and thus more accurately reflects the moral features of the situations pertaining to this issue.

  18. University Rankings in Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pusser, Brian; Marginson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses global postsecondary ranking systems by using critical-theoretical perspectives on power. This research suggests rankings are at once a useful lens for studying power in higher education and an important instrument for the exercise of power in service of dominant norms in global higher education. (Contains 1 table and 1…

  19. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

  20. Authors in Schools: Some Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret

    An author's school visits can be, to a degree, part of an author's workplace depending on how many visits an author undertakes during a year. From the perspective of an author, the visits need to be fulfilling in terms of feeling valued and respected. From the school's point of view, it would appear that the visit is deemed a success if the author…

  1. Teachers' Perspectives on Principal Mistreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blase, Joseph; Blase, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Although there is some important scholarly work on the problem of workplace mistreatment/abuse, theoretical or empirical work on abusive school principals is nonexistent. Symbolic interactionism was the theoretical structure for the present study. This perspective on social research is founded on three primary assumptions: (1) individuals act…

  2. United States Navy DL Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-10

    United States Navy DL Perspective CAPT Hank Reeves Navy eLearning Project Director 10 August 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Marine Corps (USMC) Navy eLearning Ongoing Shared with USMC, Coast Guard 9 NeL Help Site https://ile-help.nko.navy.mil/ile/ https://s-ile

  3. A Neuroscience Perspective on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Dendy; Norrgran, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    We briefly discuss memory types and three modern principles of neuroscience: 1) Protein growth at the synapse, 2) the three-brain theory, and 3) the interplay of the hippocampus, the neocortex, and the prefrontal cortex. To illustrate the potential of this perspective, four applications of these principles are provided.

  4. Perspectives from Marketing Internship Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Scott R.; Tomkovick, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    Internship research published in marketing and business education journals primarily examine student perspectives about internships or reports results based on other business disciplines. To more accurately understand how employers perceive marketing interns and internships, 352 managers located in the Midwestern United States were surveyed.…

  5. Educational Leadership: An Islamic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Saeeda

    2006-01-01

    Ethnocentric concepts, theories and practices in education, predominantly embedded in western philosophy and values, tend to ignore the growing multicultural nature of educational institutions. This article draws attention to the knowledge gap in mainstream literature regarding diverse perspectives of educational leadership--an issue which is…

  6. Alginate impressions: A practical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nandini, V Vidyashree; Venkatesh, K Vijay; Nair, K Chandrasekharan

    2008-01-01

    The choice of an impression material for a particular situation depends on the treatment being provided, operator preference, and so on. Even with the introduction of more advanced and more accurate rubber base impression materials, irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials have stood the test of time. This article gives a detailed perspective of how best to make alginate impressions. PMID:20142882

  7. A Neuroscience Perspective on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Dendy; Norrgran, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    We briefly discuss memory types and three modern principles of neuroscience: 1) Protein growth at the synapse, 2) the three-brain theory, and 3) the interplay of the hippocampus, the neocortex, and the prefrontal cortex. To illustrate the potential of this perspective, four applications of these principles are provided.

  8. Comparative Perspectives on Literacy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Brian V.

    Three possible directions for literacy research in the United Kingdom (UK), in terms of three comparative perspectives are (1) cross-cultural, (2) academic/practitioner, and (3) adult/school. Walter Ong's argument that with the advent of writing human consciousness and ways of thinking were altered fundamentally, underlies many of the claims for…

  9. Social Competence: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Harris, Jerry D.

    1984-01-01

    Effective peer relations and the enhancement of social interactions in young children play a central role in the discussion of social competence. Developmental issues relevant to the assessment of social competence including perspective taking, conceptions of friendship, interpersonal strategies and problem solving, moral judgments, and…

  10. Building Pedagogical Intelligence. Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Pat

    2005-01-01

    It is hard to find a campus today that does not collect student evaluations of teaching. Not everyone, it is true, puts full stock in the results, but it is hard to argue with the idea that students have important perspectives to contribute. The writer advocates that listening to students is a good idea that does not go far enough. Describing…

  11. Readers' Emotions: A Plurilingual Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivière, Marie

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the differential emotional power of languages in the book-reading practices of plurilingual readers. Within a plurilingual perspective, it aims at adding nuance to the "emotional contexts of learning hypothesis" and the "theory of language embodiment". This qualitative study is based on semi-structured…

  12. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  13. Faculty Perspectives on Administrator Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, James L.

    The sources of faculty perspectives on the personal effectiveness of administrators are analyzed. It is proposed that faculty will be predisposed to see administrators in different lights, depending on structural elements in decision making and the orientation of the faculty members. Attention is directed to Talcott Parson's theory for classifying…

  14. Gaining Perspective on Parenting Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue offers a collection of articles focusing on support groups for parents of infants and toddlers, including the following: (1) "Gaining Perspective on Parenting Groups" (Nick Carter and Cathie Harvey) which reviews the purposes, history, and essential ingredients of such groups; (2) "The MELD Experience with Parent Groups" (Joyce…

  15. Food Sharing: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Saul

    Food altruism and the consumption of food are examined from a sociological perspective which assumes that humans share food as inclusive fitness actors. Inclusive fitness implies the representation of an individual's genes in future generations through his own or others' offspring. The discussion includes characteristics of food sharing among kin…

  16. Energy Sources: An Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Constance M.

    1983-01-01

    Putting the present energy situation into an historical perspective provides meaning to today's energy concerns and demonstrates how important energy has always been to our life style. Primary energy sources of the United States from 1850 to the present are examined. (RM)

  17. New Perspectives on Compensation Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anne; Morgan, Gwen

    Low compensation, in both earnings and benefits, and the resulting high turnover of staff and low quality of programs in early childhood care and education are a national problem. Noting that how we define and view the problem, and the strategies we adopt to solve it, may differ depending on perspectives and disciplines, this paper expands the…

  18. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  19. Theoretical Perspectives for Developmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundell, Dana Britt, Ed.; Higbee, Jeanne L., Ed.

    This monograph from the University of Minnesota General College (GC) discusses theoretical perspectives on developmental education from both new and established standpoints. GC voluntarily eliminated its degree programs in order to focus on preparing under-prepared students for transfer to the university system. GC's curricular model includes a…

  20. Food Sharing: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Saul

    Food altruism and the consumption of food are examined from a sociological perspective which assumes that humans share food as inclusive fitness actors. Inclusive fitness implies the representation of an individual's genes in future generations through his own or others' offspring. The discussion includes characteristics of food sharing among kin…

  1. Learning through Collaboration: Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Gihan; Duffy, Thomas M.; Chang, Ju-yu; Lee, Jieun

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the effectiveness of collaborative learning pedagogies from the perspective of students. There is a rich history of research on collaborative learning demonstrating the effectiveness and this has led to indexing educational quality by student engagement. However, the findings from this study question the efficacy of…

  2. Social Competence: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Harris, Jerry D.

    1984-01-01

    Effective peer relations and the enhancement of social interactions in young children play a central role in the discussion of social competence. Developmental issues relevant to the assessment of social competence including perspective taking, conceptions of friendship, interpersonal strategies and problem solving, moral judgments, and…

  3. University Rankings in Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pusser, Brian; Marginson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses global postsecondary ranking systems by using critical-theoretical perspectives on power. This research suggests rankings are at once a useful lens for studying power in higher education and an important instrument for the exercise of power in service of dominant norms in global higher education. (Contains 1 table and 1…

  4. Mathematical Induction: Deductive Logic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Hamide

    2016-01-01

    Many studies mentioned the deductive nature of Mathematical Induction (MI) proofs but almost all fell short in explaining its potential role in the formation of the misconceptions reported in the literature. This paper is the first of its kind looking at the misconceptions from the perspective of the abstract of the deductive logic from one's…

  5. Teaching Regional Perspectives in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreath, Peter

    1978-01-01

    Defines Canadian regionalism in terms of geographical features and their political, social, and economic implications, rather than in terms of political and provincial boundaries. The significance of regionalism is mentioned as an important topic for Canadian studies. Increasing awareness and acceptance of regional perspectives is presented as an…

  6. Hawthorne Academy: The University Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazee, Bruce M.; Frazee, Felicia F.

    2005-01-01

    This article revisits the Trinity University and Hawthorne School partnership since the first case study written 10 years ago. This new perspective analyzes the teacher education program-particularly beliefs and attitudes about it and changes made to the program-with an eye to two primary themes: preparing future teachers and Hawthorne's Core…

  7. Perspectives on the Anorectic Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papalia, Anthony; Bode, Jacquelyn

    1981-01-01

    Studies the anorectic student who is becoming more evident on the college campus, and who often evokes strong emotional response. Stresses that realistic perspectives be maintained by college counselors and administrators. Explains the characteristics of anorexia nervosa and provides guidelines for responding to the student. (Author)

  8. Current Perspectives in Distributive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaurens, Mary K., Ed.; Trapnell, Gail, Ed.

    The volume on current perspectives in distributive education contains 29 individually authored articles organized into three sections. The first section on program conceptualization deals with the following subjects: the evolution of distributive education, program planning, advisory committees, placement services, postsecondary distributive…

  9. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  10. Comparative Perspectives on Literacy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Brian V.

    Three possible directions for literacy research in the United Kingdom (UK), in terms of three comparative perspectives are (1) cross-cultural, (2) academic/practitioner, and (3) adult/school. Walter Ong's argument that with the advent of writing human consciousness and ways of thinking were altered fundamentally, underlies many of the claims for…

  11. Online Learning: A Student Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Carolyn

    2000-01-01

    An instructor taking an online course presents her view from the perspective of student. Discussion includes assuring the online course was acceptable for traditional course transfer credit; registering; e-mailing assignments while the Web conferencing system was down; class demographics; the backlog that occurred from not checking the system…

  12. Readers' Emotions: A Plurilingual Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivière, Marie

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the differential emotional power of languages in the book-reading practices of plurilingual readers. Within a plurilingual perspective, it aims at adding nuance to the "emotional contexts of learning hypothesis" and the "theory of language embodiment". This qualitative study is based on semi-structured…

  13. Perspective Transformation and Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Mark C.

    1993-01-01

    Mezirow's concept of perspective transformation (PT) is criticized for considering examples of socially expected development as instances of PT. Individual development is both social and psychological, and PT is best considered as a developmental shift (a new world view) rather than developmental progress. (SK)

  14. John Webster: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Peter J

    2005-05-01

    A personal perspective of John Webster, with an emphasis of studies of aero-aquatic hyphomycetes and the techniques pioneered to enable them to be studied, illustrated by examples particularly from the genera with helicoid conidia, Helicodendron and Helicoon, showing flotation devices.

  15. Perspectives on science and art

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Bevil R; Livingstone, Margaret S

    2009-01-01

    Artists try to understand how we see, sometimes explicitly exploring rules of perspective or color, visual illusions, or iconography, and conversely, scientists who study vision sometimes address the perceptual questions and discoveries raised by the works of art, as we do here. PMID:17851068

  16. Five Perspectives for Leadership Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toll, Cathy A.

    2017-01-01

    New school leaders typically start out with enthusiasm--but sometime in their first year, they often find themselves disappointed, exhausted, and full of self-doubt. In this article, Cathy A. Toll discusses five perspectives that helped her enthusiasm for the job when she was a new school leader: (1) Teachers are well-intentioned, hard-working…

  17. Aeroacoustic research: An Army perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, H. A.; Schmitz, F. H.

    1978-01-01

    A short perspective of the Army aeroacoustic research program is presented that emphasizes rotary wing, aerodynamically generated noise. Exciting breakthroughs in experimental techniques and facilities are reviewed which are helping build a detailed understanding of helicopter external noise. Army and joint Army/NASA supported research programs in acoustics which promise to reduce the noise of future helicopters without severe performance penalties are included.

  18. HPLC: Early and Recent Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karger, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a perspective on what it was like in the early days of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and several of the key developments. Focuses on the advances in HPLC generally, and more specifically for the biological sciences, that were necessary for the method to reach the preeminent stage of today. Contains 20 references. (JRH)

  19. HPLC: Early and Recent Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karger, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a perspective on what it was like in the early days of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and several of the key developments. Focuses on the advances in HPLC generally, and more specifically for the biological sciences, that were necessary for the method to reach the preeminent stage of today. Contains 20 references. (JRH)

  20. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

  1. Learning through Collaboration: Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Gihan; Duffy, Thomas M.; Chang, Ju-yu; Lee, Jieun

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the effectiveness of collaborative learning pedagogies from the perspective of students. There is a rich history of research on collaborative learning demonstrating the effectiveness and this has led to indexing educational quality by student engagement. However, the findings from this study question the efficacy of…

  2. Psycholinguistics: A Second Language Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Evelyn Marcussen

    Perspectives of the field of psycholinguistics and second language research are examined to provide a broader understanding of language learning and language behavior. Psycholinguistics, which uses the approaches of psychology and linguistics is defined as the search for an understanding of how humans comprehend and produce language. Based on the…

  3. Organized camping: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Ramsing, Ron

    2007-10-01

    Organized camping has been part of the fabric of American culture for more than 150 years. Today, organized camps serve more than 11 million youth annually, a significant departure from the first camps that were created to address the challenges of urban living during the Industrial Revolution. This article provides a brief historical perspective of organized camp and its evolution.

  4. New Perspectives on Compensation Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anne; Morgan, Gwen

    Low compensation, in both earnings and benefits, and the resulting high turnover of staff and low quality of programs in early childhood care and education are a national problem. Noting that how we define and view the problem, and the strategies we adopt to solve it, may differ depending on perspectives and disciplines, this paper expands the…

  5. Organizational Relocation: A Field Perspective.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    economy -- the only possible basis of a long-term survival system. This thrust gene - rates expansion in detailed planning requirements. Coordination...UNCLASSIFIED Dobson, William C. Jr., and Edwin H. Harris, Jr. ranizational Relocation: A Field Perspective. North Carolina Department of Cime Control

  6. Four Perspectives on Educational Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Scott G.

    1992-01-01

    Educational achievement testing is discussed from four perspectives: (1) political accountability; (2) parental need for information on children's academic achievement; (3) the undue influence of achievement tests on curricula and instruction; and (4) students' views of testing. It is concluded that standardized testing has an overall negative…

  7. Perspectives from Marketing Internship Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Scott R.; Tomkovick, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    Internship research published in marketing and business education journals primarily examine student perspectives about internships or reports results based on other business disciplines. To more accurately understand how employers perceive marketing interns and internships, 352 managers located in the Midwestern United States were surveyed.…

  8. Complexity Leadership: A Theoretical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltaci, Ali; Balci, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Complex systems are social networks composed of interactive employees interconnected through collaborative, dynamic ties such as shared goals, perspectives and needs. Complex systems are largely based on "the complex system theory". The complex system theory focuses mainly on finding out and developing strategies and behaviours that…

  9. Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Literacy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of conference papers explores the application of a range of different disciplinary perspectives to studying literacy, drawing not only on newer linguistic and cognitive psychological orientations, but also on cultural anthropology, sociolinguistics, reader-response theory, critical theory, and poststructuralist theory. The…

  10. Empathy and visual perspective-taking performance.

    PubMed

    Mattan, Bradley D; Rotshtein, Pia; Quinn, Kimberly A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which visual perspective-taking performance is modulated by trait-level empathy. Participants completed a third-person visual perspective-taking task in which they judged the perspectives of two simultaneously presented avatars, designated "Self" and "Other." Depending on the trial, these avatars either held the same view (i.e., congruent) or a different view (i.e., incongruent). Analyses focused on the relationship between empathy and two perspective-taking phenomena: Selection between competing perspectives (i.e., perspective-congruence effects) and prioritization of the Self avatar's perspective. Empathy was related to improved overall performance on this task and a reduced cost of selecting between conflicting perspectives (i.e., smaller perspective-congruence effects). This effect was asymmetric, with empathy (i.e., empathic concern) levels predicting reduced interference from a conflicting perspective, especially when adopting the Self (vs. Other) avatar's perspective. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the self-other distinction and mental flexibility components of empathy.

  11. A Phenomenological Perspective of Educating Students at the Matt Garcia Learning Center: Resiliency Development, Responsibility Development and Relationship Building Development Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Robert Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The professional educators of Matt Garcia Learning Center (MGLC) have undertaken a monumental task of providing education to students considered to be significantly at-risk in a public school of choice. These educators are focusing on quelling the "negative success trajectory" prevalent for each of the students of MGLC. Understanding the…

  12. A Phenomenological Perspective of Educating Students at the Matt Garcia Learning Center: Resiliency Development, Responsibility Development and Relationship Building Development Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Robert Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The professional educators of Matt Garcia Learning Center (MGLC) have undertaken a monumental task of providing education to students considered to be significantly at-risk in a public school of choice. These educators are focusing on quelling the "negative success trajectory" prevalent for each of the students of MGLC. Understanding the…

  13. The Anthropocene: A Planetary Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbar, A. D.; Hartnett, H. E.; York, A.; Selin, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Anthropocene is a new planetary epoch defined by the emergence of human activity as one of the most important driving forces on Earth, rivaling and also stressing the other systems that govern the planet's habitability. Public discussions and debates about the challenges of this epoch tend to be polarized. One extreme denies that humans have a planetary-scale impact, while the other wishes that this impact could disappear. The tension between these perspectives is often paralyzing. Effective adaptation and mitigation requires a new perspective that reframes the conversation. We propose a planetary perspective according to which this epoch is the result of a recent major innovation in the 4 ­billion ­year history of life on Earth: the emergence of an energy-intensive planetary civilization. The rate of human energy use is already within an order of magnitude of that of the rest of the biosphere, and rising rapidly, and so this innovation is second only to the evolution of photosynthesis in terms of energy capture and utilization by living systems. Such energy use has and will continue to affect Earth at planetary scale. This reality cannot be denied nor wished away. From this pragmatic perspective, the Anthropocene is not an unnatural event that can be reversed, as though humanity is separate from the Earth systems with which we are co-evolving. Rather, it is an evolutionary transition to be managed. This is the challenge of turning a carelessly altered planet into a carefully designed and managed world, maintaining a "safe operating space" for human civilization (Steffen et al., 2011). To do so, we need an integrated approach to Earth systems science that considers humans as a natural and integral component of Earth's systems. Insights drawn from the humanities and the social sciences must be integrated with the natural sciences in order to thrive in this new epoch. This type of integrated perspective is relatively uncontroversial on personal, local, and even

  14. Perspective taking in older age revisited: a motivational perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Fung, Helene H; Stanley, Jennifer T; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Ho, Man Yee

    2013-10-01

    How perspective-taking ability changes with age (i.e., whether older adults are better at understanding others' behaviors and intentions and show greater empathy to others or not) is not clear, with prior empirical findings on this phenomenon yielding mixed results. In a series of experiments, we investigated the phenomenon from a motivational perspective. Perceived closeness between participants and the experimenter (Study 1) or the target in an emotion recognition task (Study 2) was manipulated to examine whether the closeness could influence participants' performance in faux pas recognition (Study 1) and emotion recognition (Study 2). It was found that the well-documented negative age effect (i.e., older adults performed worse than younger adults in faux pas and emotion recognition tasks) was only replicated in the control condition for both tasks. When closeness was experimentally increased, older adults enhanced their performance, and they now performed at a comparable level as younger adults. Findings from the 2 experiments suggest that the reported poorer performance of older adults in perspective-taking tasks might be attributable to a lack of motivation instead of ability to perform in laboratory settings. With the presence of strong motivation, older adults have the ability to perform equally well as younger adults.

  15. Industry Perspective on Alopecia Areata.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Amanda T

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the autoimmune basis of alopecia areata provide an opportunity to create novel effective pharmaceutical interventions. The current lack of approved therapies for alopecia areata presents a high unmet medical need, as well as a potentially attractive market opportunity. From an industry perspective, achieving clinical proof of concept (PoC) gates investments into larger approval studies. Recent investigator-initiated experience suggests that it may be possible to demonstrate rigorous PoC for new therapies in an attractive time frame with relatively fewer patients than were believed necessary in the past. However, the lack of prior regulatory approval precedent for pharmaceuticals to treat alopecia areata poses significant development challenges, and early interaction with the FDA and other stakeholders will be critically important in evaluating the path to approval and reimbursement for new treatments for this indication. This paper presents a brief industry perspective on the potential development of new alopecia areata therapeutics.

  16. Perspectives on 2014 Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2015-06-01

    In celebration of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, this issue of Hippocampus includes a collection of commentaries from a broad range of perspectives on the significance of position coding neurons in the hippocampal region. From the perspective of this student of hippocampal physiology, it is argued that place cells and grid cells reflect the outcome of experiments that strongly select the information available and correspondingly observe singular "trigger features" of these neurons. Notably, however, in more naturalistic situations where multiple dimensions of information are available, hippocampal neurons have mixed selectivity wherein population-firing patterns reflect the organization of many features of experience. Thus, while discoveries on position coding were major breakthroughs in penetrating the hippocampal code, future studies exploring more complex behaviors hold the promise of revealing the full contribution of the hippocampal region to cognition and memory.

  17. Intersectional perspective in elderly care

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta, Marta; Rämgård, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that power relationships at workplaces are constructed by power structures. Processes related to power always influence the working conditions for (in this study in elderly care) the working groups involved. Power structures are central for intersectional analysis, in the sense that the intersectional perspective highlights aspects such as gender and ethnicity (subjective dimensions) and interrelates them to processes of power (objective dimension). This qualitative study aims to explore in what way an intersectional perspective could contribute to increased knowledge of power structures in a nursing home where the employees were mostly immigrants from different countries. By using reflexive dialogues related to an intersectional perspective, new knowledge which contributes to the employees’ well-being could develop. Narrative analysis was the method used to conduct this study. Through a multi-stage focus group on six occasions over 6 months, the staff were engaged in intersectional and critical reflections about power relationship with the researchers, by identifying patterns in their professional activities that could be connected to their subjectivities (gender, ethnicity, etc.). The result of this study presents three themes that express the staff's experiences and connect these experiences to structural discrimination. 1) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of professionalism; 2) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of collaboration; and 3) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of discrimination. The result demonstrates that an intersectional perspective reinforces the involved abilities, during the conversations, into being clear about, for example, their experiences of discrimination, and consequently developing a better understanding of their professionalism and collaboration. Such deeper reflections became possible through a process of consciousness raising, strengthening the employee's self

  18. Comment on Lance Wallace's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, A.L. )

    1993-04-01

    The author uses Lance Wallace's Perspective ( A Decade of Studies of Human Exposure: What Have We Learned', Risk Analysis, Vol 13, No. 2, 1993, pp. 135-142) as a good case for much greater national attention to indoor air pollution. This article describes the reasons why so little attention has been devoted to indoor air pollution despite convincing evidence of the threats posed to the public by this aspect of pollution.

  19. The Nash equilibrium: A perspective

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Charles A.; Roth, Alvin E.

    2004-01-01

    In 1950, John Nash contributed a remarkable one-page PNAS article that defined and characterized a notion of equilibrium for n- person games. This notion, now called the “Nash equilibrium,” has been widely applied and adapted in economics and other behavioral sciences. Indeed, game theory, with the Nash equilibrium as its centerpiece, is becoming the most prominent unifying theory of social science. In this perspective, we summarize the historical context and subsequent impact of Nash's contribution. PMID:15024100

  20. Other perspectives on nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, Augustin

    2012-09-01

    In his reply to Brian Drummond's letter on "Proper perspective and nuclear power" (August p19), I am surprised that Paul Grant allowed Drummond's reference to the Nestorenko et al. publication (2009 Annals New York Acad. Sciences 1181) to pass unchallenged. This document, with its claim that the Chernobyl accident has already killed several hundred thousand people (the figure of 985,000 is mentioned), was published without peer review and has since been disowned by the New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Approaching Adult Education Literature Using the Donlevy Template of Perspectives: A Focus on the Psychological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, James G.; Donlevy, Tia Rice

    1998-01-01

    Provides brief descriptions of adult education from technological, psychological, ideological, and sociological perspectives. Author examines the psychological perspective, highlighting the work of Jack Mezirow (transformation theory), Roger Gould (seven-step adult development process), Patricia Cranton (Understanding and Promoting Transformative…

  2. Teaching plastic surgery from different perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cable, Christian; Chong, Tae; Pratt, Daniel D

    2012-06-01

    Just as everyone has a different learning style, teachers too approach the task from different perspectives. There are five basic teaching perspectives or styles: transmission, apprenticeship, developmental, nurturing, and social justice. The acronym BIAS is useful to describe the beliefs, intentions, assessments, and strategies associated with each perspective. The authors present a hypothetical 1-week rotation in plastic and reconstructive surgery in which a student encounters instructors who embody the five basic teaching perspectives. By presenting these perspectives, the authors introduce valuable teaching techniques that can benefit all those charged with the education of learners along the spectrum from premedical to continuing education venues. Educational objectives include the following: (1) explain and illustrate different approaches to effective teaching in plastic surgery; (2) introduce readers to the Teaching Perspectives Inventory as a means of determining their primary teaching style; and (3) argue for a "plurality of the good" in teaching.

  3. A Piagetian Constructivist Perspective on Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Clement B. G.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses specifically on Jean Piaget's theory of development. Examines Piaget's ideas about constructivism and explores the application of this theoretical perspective to the conceptualization of curriculum development. (MG)

  4. A Piagetian Constructivist Perspective on Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Clement B. G.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses specifically on Jean Piaget's theory of development. Examines Piaget's ideas about constructivism and explores the application of this theoretical perspective to the conceptualization of curriculum development. (MG)

  5. Direction Judgement Errors in Perspective Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, M. W.; Ellis, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    Spatial information transfer characteristics of perspective situation displays were investigated by having eight subjects judge the directions of displayed targets relative to a fixed position in the center of computer generated perspective scenes. Their errors in judging azimuth angles varied sinusoidally with the azimuth of the targets. Errors alternated between clockwise and counterclock wise from one direction quadrant to the next. As the perspective geometry was varied between telephoto lens and wide angle lens views, the direction of error gradually reversed in all quadrants. The results can be explained by systematic differences between the three-dimensional stimulus angles and the perspective projections of those angles onto the display screen.

  6. Fitting audiology within the population health perspective.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Johnston, J Cyne Topshee; Angus, Doug; Durieux-Smith, Andrée

    2006-01-01

    The population health perspective has become increasingly apparent in the medical, public health, and policy literature. This article emphasizes the value of applying the population health perspective and associated frameworks to the rehabilitative sciences and particularly to the field of audiology. Key components of the population health perspective--including the determinants of health, the importance of evidence-based practice, and the value of transdisciplinarity--are used to illustrate the relevance of population health to the field of audiology. Using these key concepts from a population health framework and examples from audiology, the adoption of a population health perspective is proposed.

  7. Teachers, Technology, and Training. Perspectives on Education and School Reform: A Focus on the Ideological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, Tia Rice; Donlevy, James G.

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes four perspectives that education and school-reform writings fall into: technological, psychological, ideological, and sociological. Focusing on the ideological perspective, briefly discusses the work of Paulo Freire, Ira Shor, and Henry Giroux, theorists representative of this perspective. The dimensions of complexity, diversity,…

  8. Quorum sensing: a quantum perspective.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sarangam; Pal, Sukla

    2016-09-01

    Quorum sensing is the efficient mode of communication in the bacterial world. After a lot of advancements in the classical theory of quorum sensing few basic questions of quorum sensing still remain unanswered. The sufficient progresses in quantum biology demands to explain these questions from the quantum perspective as non trivial quantum effects already have manifested in various biological processes like photosynthesis, magneto-reception etc. Therefore, it's the time to review the bacterial communications from the quantum view point. In this article we carefully accumulate the latest results and arguments to strengthen quantum biology through the addition of quorum sensing mechanism in the light of quantum mechanics.

  9. Environmental justice: a criminological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Michael J.; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    This article examines studies related to environmental justice in the criminological literature and from a criminological perspective. Criminologists have long been concerned with injustices in the criminal justice system related to the enforcement of criminal law. In the 1990s, following the emergence of green criminology, a handful of criminologists have drawn attention to environmental justice as an extension of more traditional criminological studies of justice and injustice. Relevant criminological studies of environmental justice are reviewed, and suggestions for future environmental justice research are offered.

  10. Pregnancy sickness: a biopsychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael S

    2012-10-01

    Pregnancy sickness is a universal phenomenon, affecting 70% to 85% of all pregnant women. The primary symptoms of pregnancy sickness are nausea, vomiting, and food aversions. In the past, pregnancy sickness was attributed to psychological disturbances of the pregnant woman. However, recent evolutionary psychological and biopsychological studies have reconsidered pregnancy sickness as an embryo-protective mechanism, an evolutionary adaptation to protect the embryo from phytotoxins and other environmental hazards. The biopsychological perspective of pregnancy sickness as an embryo-protective mechanism is presented.

  11. Green fluorescent protein: A perspective

    PubMed Central

    Remington, S James

    2011-01-01

    A brief personal perspective is provided for green fluorescent protein (GFP), covering the period 1994–2011. The topics discussed are primarily those in which my research group has made a contribution and include structure and function of the GFP polypeptide, the mechanism of fluorescence emission, excited state protein transfer, the design of ratiometric fluorescent protein biosensors and an overview of the fluorescent proteins derived from coral reef animals. Structure-function relationships in photoswitchable fluorescent proteins and nonfluorescent chromoproteins are also briefly covered. PMID:21714025

  12. Perspectives on tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Rosemary; Neiger, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    In light of the recent NCT petition to Health Minister Dr Dan Poulter MP to update guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of tongue-tied babies to avoid stress and difficulties feeding for babies and their families, discussion has been sparked amongst mothers, midwives, health visitors and breastfeeding counsellors as to how exactly services could be improved. Access to evidence-based, family-centred care is vital to address this potentially distressing condition. But are we too quick to jump in with a diagnosis that may ultimately be of no clinical significance? This articles presents two professional perspectives on the issue and highlights the pertinent research available.

  13. A user's Perspective on Software

    SciTech Connect

    Isadoro T. Carlino

    2006-10-24

    The user is often the most overlooked component of control system design. At Jefferson Lab the control system is almost entirely digital in nature, with little feedback except that which is deliberately designed into the control system. In the complex control room environment a good design can enhance the user's abilities to preform good science. A bad design can leave the user frustrated and contribute significantly to down time, when science is not being done. Key points of use and design from the user's perspective are discussed, along with some techniques which have been adopted at Jefferson Lab to improve the user experience and produce better, more usable software.

  14. Green fluorescent protein: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Remington, S James

    2011-09-01

    A brief personal perspective is provided for green fluorescent protein (GFP), covering the period 1994-2011. The topics discussed are primarily those in which my research group has made a contribution and include structure and function of the GFP polypeptide, the mechanism of fluorescence emission, excited state protein transfer, the design of ratiometric fluorescent protein biosensors and an overview of the fluorescent proteins derived from coral reef animals. Structure-function relationships in photoswitchable fluorescent proteins and nonfluorescent chromoproteins are also briefly covered.

  15. Perspective on our energy options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. H.

    The United States is going to have to depend on an increasing mix of energy recovery and conversion processes, and they all have problems. These problems are discussed from the perspective of a national laboratory which has had the opportunity to conduct research and development on many of the options. Energy options discussed are: energy conservation; liquid fuels and how to acquire the needed supply (from kerogen, enhanced oil recovery, coal liquefaction); use of natural gas; geothermal energy sources; wind and solar energy; and nuclear power.

  16. Current Perspectives on Cognitive Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2016-01-01

    To what extent is cognition influenced by a person’s cultural background? This question has remained controversial in large fields of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive psychology, and is also underexplored in anthropology. In this perspective article, findings from a recent wave of cross-cultural studies will be outlined with respect to three aspects of cognition: perception and categorization, number representation and counting, and explanatory frameworks and beliefs. Identifying similarities and differences between these domains allows for general conclusions regarding cognitive diversity and helps to highlight the importance of culturally shaped content for a comprehensive understanding of cognition. PMID:27148118

  17. Perspectives in active liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Apala; Cristina, Marchetti M; Virga, Epifanio G

    2014-11-28

    Active soft matter is a young, growing field, with potential applications to a wide variety of systems. This Theme Issue explores this emerging new field by highlighting active liquid crystals. The collected contributions bridge theory to experiment, mathematical theories of passive and active nematics, spontaneous flows to defect dynamics, microscopic to continuum levels of description, spontaneous activity to biological activation. While the perspectives offered here only span a small part of this rapidly evolving field, we trust that they might provide the interested reader with a taste for this new class of non-equilibrium systems and their rich behaviour.

  18. Educators' implicit perspectives on wisdom: a comparison between interpersonal and intrapersonal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Ming; Cheng, Ying-Yao; Wu, Pi-Ju; Hsueh, Hsiu-I

    2014-12-01

    This research aimed to investigate educators' implicit perspectives on wisdom in order to compare interpersonal and intrapersonal perspectives and to help identify similarities or differences between these two theoretical perspectives. A total of 56 educators in Taiwan were interviewed individually. We utilised the grounded theory method to analyse the qualitative data. Results showed that both interpersonal and intrapersonal perspectives converged on four core components of wisdom: intrapsychic integration, actions in service of problem solving and ideal implementation, positive results and feedback and adjustments. The interpersonal perspective referred to external characteristics, and admiration and influence, whereas the intrapersonal perspective included greater detail about intrapsychic integration and action strategies than did the interpersonal perspective. We close with a discussion both of how wisdom appears to span across different fields and how the present results might feed into the teaching of wisdom in schools.

  19. When you and I share perspectives: pronouns modulate perspective taking during narrative comprehension.

    PubMed

    Brunyé, Tad T; Ditman, Tali; Mahoney, Caroline R; Augustyn, Jason S; Taylor, Holly A

    2009-01-01

    Readers mentally simulate the objects and events described in narratives. One common assumption is that readers mentally embody an actor's perspective; alternatively, readers might mentally simulate events from an external "onlooker" perspective. Two experiments examined the role of pronouns in modulating a reader's adopted perspective when comprehending simple event sentences. Experiment 1 demonstrated that readers embody an actor's perspective when the pronoun you or I is used, but take an external perspective when he is used. Experiment 2, however, found that a short discourse context preceding the event sentence led readers to adopt an external perspective with the pronoun I. These experiments demonstrate that pronoun variation and discourse context mediate the degree of embodiment experienced during narrative comprehension: In all cases, readers mentally simulate objects and events, but they embody an actor's perspective only when directly addressed as the subject of a sentence.

  20. Towards an Irreducible Global Perspective in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, David

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the University of York's Centre for Global Education's four-dimensional model of global education, which includes inner, spatial, temporal, and issues dimensions. Presents the argument that an irreducible global perspective should include: (1) systems consciousness; (2) perspective consciousness; (3) health of planet awareness; (4)…

  1. Autonomous Learning from a Social Cognitive Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton, Michael K.; Rhea, Nancy E.

    2006-01-01

    The current perspective of autonomous learning defines it as the agentive exhibition of resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in self-directed learning. As a form of human agency, it has been argued in the literature that this perspective should be consistent with Bandura's (1986) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The purpose of this article…

  2. Perspective-Based Learning in Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Robb

    2009-01-01

    An extensive research literature in education and psychology demonstrates positive effects of perspective-taking on various forms of learning. Until recently, perspective-taking has been limited to the mental simulation of how someone with different beliefs, knowledge, physical location, etc., perceives an object or event. Over the last decade…

  3. Negative Effects from Psychological Treatments: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The author offers a 40-year perspective on the observation and study of negative effects from psychotherapy or psychological treatments. This perspective is placed in the context of the enormous progress in refining methodologies for psychotherapy research over that period of time, resulting in the clear demonstration of positive effects from…

  4. Reading within Families: Taking a Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff Hodges, Gabrielle

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a study which was designed to extend understanding of habitual and committed adolescent readers. The study brought together four theoretical perspectives -- the social, cultural, spatial and historical -- as a way of re-imagining the field of reading. The historical perspective is the one foregrounded here, offering views of…

  5. Attachment Representations and Time Perspective in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; D'Alessio, Maria; Pallini, Susanna; Baiocco, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between attachment to parents and peers, time perspective and psychological adjustment in adolescence. 2,665 adolescents (M age = 17.03 years, SD = 1.48) completed self-report measures about parent and peer attachment, time perspective, sympathy and self-determination. Subjects were divided into four groups…

  6. Science Teacher Education: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Sandra K., Ed.

    This book presents reform efforts in science teacher education from an international perspective. Chapters include: (1) "International Perspectives on Science Teacher Education: An Introduction" (Sandra K. Abell); (2) "The Development of Preservice Elementary Science Teacher Education in Australia" (Ken Appleton, Ian S. Ginns,…

  7. Development and Desire: A Postmodern Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy

    Three theoretical perspectives guide this discussion of teacher development: symbolic interactionism, critical social theory, and theories of postmodernity. Drawing on these perspectives, key dimensions of teacher development can be addressed. Good teaching involves competence in technical skills, but it also involves moral purpose; emotional…

  8. Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

  9. The Native American Woman: A Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medicine, Bea

    Presenting varied perspectives describing the Native American woman, this book is divided into six chapters as follows: (1) Native Americans and Anthropology (this chapter illustrates the way in which anthropologists have helped stereotype American Indian women); (2) The Native American Woman in Ethnographic Perspective (emphasizing role…

  10. Academic Perspectives on Internationalisation in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertova, Patricie

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the perspectives of senior academics on internationalisation of higher education across three countries: England, Czech Republic and Australia. In particular, it investigates the perspectives and experiences of academics in a range of leadership positions in university faculties and schools. The research utilises a critical…

  11. Awareness Development Across Perspectives Tool (ADAPT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    different perspectives have different corresponding actions, on which we can capitalize . The key is the possibility of switching perspectives and their...militaires de la modelisation humaine ). RTO-MP-HFM-202 14. ABSTRACT According to the Netherlands Ministry of Defence (Defence Plan 2007-2016) Modern war

  12. Science Teacher Education: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Sandra K., Ed.

    This book presents reform efforts in science teacher education from an international perspective. Chapters include: (1) "International Perspectives on Science Teacher Education: An Introduction" (Sandra K. Abell); (2) "The Development of Preservice Elementary Science Teacher Education in Australia" (Ken Appleton, Ian S. Ginns,…

  13. Studying Perspectives on Kindergarten Mealtime: Methodological Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Stine Rosenlund; Hansen, Mette Weinreich; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on a recent doctoral research project that examined the everyday life perspectives during kindergarten mealtime, this paper discusses the methodological issues related to the concepts of child and adult perspectives during mealtime, and to the children's participation in research. Through the paper, we take part in a critical discussion of…

  14. Recognizing Privilege: Rural, Urban, and International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, Sunny L.; Rinfret, Sara; Davitt, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Forms of White oppression in the United States are hierarchically evaluated through male-dominated society. This paper concentrates on a different perspective--White, female privilege through the experiences and self-reflections of narratives from three geographical perspectives--rural, urban, and international. Within the theoretical frameworks…

  15. Data Sharing from a Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheville, R. Alan

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses questions of data sharing from the perspective of a former NSF program officer. A brief comparison of policy and research perspectives is made to highlight different values in these two communities. Data sharing is framed as one means to support dialog between researchers and those involved in policy. Other uses of data…

  16. Piagetian Perspectives on Understanding Children's Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Janet B.

    1996-01-01

    Introduces theme issue on Piagetian constructivist perspective on children's understanding. Summarizes feature articles which argue that teaching should be based on Piaget's theory; and elucidate the development of social and moral understanding, perspective-taking, play, written language, friendship and popularity, and mathematics. Emphasizes the…

  17. Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsokova, Diana; Tarr, Jane

    2012-01-01

    What is an inclusive school community? How do stakeholders perceive their roles and responsibilities towards inclusive school communities? How can school communities become more inclusive through engagement with individual perspectives? "Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities" captures and presents the voices of a wide…

  18. Reading--A Perspective on Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Kaye

    A study explored the holistic nature of reading failure from the perspective of those who have endured the emotional and intellectual burden of not being able to read. Reading failure is frequently viewed from a fragmented, reductionist perspective. Getting to know and understand the individual's perception of literacy failure is ignored in the…

  19. Beginnings Workshop: Parent Perspectives on Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Three workshop articles concerning parental perspectives on discipline are presented. "Lessons from My Mother-In-Law: A Story about Discipline" discusses the generational diversity of discipline. "Parent/Staff Partnerships" addresses the importance of shared responsibility. "Perspectives on Discipline" consists of a…

  20. Central Perspectives and Debates in Organization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, W. Graham; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1983-01-01

    Classifies organizational theories, by analytical level and assumptions about human nature, into four perspectives (system-structural, strategic choice, natural selection, collective action), each with different concepts of organizational structure, behavior, change, and managerial roles. Identifies six debates generated among the perspectives and…

  1. Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsokova, Diana; Tarr, Jane

    2012-01-01

    What is an inclusive school community? How do stakeholders perceive their roles and responsibilities towards inclusive school communities? How can school communities become more inclusive through engagement with individual perspectives? "Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities" captures and presents the voices of a wide…

  2. Global Perspectives: Some Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Global Perspectives, New York, NY.

    To enlighten the reader on the status, objectives, and needs of global education, this paper poses and answers questions related to global perspectives. A global perspective is interpreted to include heightened awareness and understanding of the global system as well as increased consciousness of the intimate relationship of self, humankind, and…

  3. ASD Academic Transitions: Trends in Parental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cindy; McCoy, Kathleen M.; Zucker, Stanley H.; Mathur, Sarup R.

    2014-01-01

    Academic transitions are a necessary and important part of an ASD student's life. Parental involvement and perspective is a vital part of each transition planning process. The primary goal of this research was to identify trends in parent perspectives regarding ASD academic transitions through meta-synthesis of current research. The research…

  4. SEARCH and a computational perspective of evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kargupta, H.

    1996-05-01

    This paper develops an alternate perspective of natural evolution using the SEARCH (Search Envisioned As Relation and Class Hierarchizing) framework (Kargupta, 1995). Some problems of existing views about evolutionary computation are noted. An attempt is made to fulfill these deficiencies using a new computational perspective of gene expression based on a decomposition of blackbox optimization in terms of relations, classes, samples, and partial ordering.

  5. Central Perspectives and Debates in Organization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, W. Graham; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1983-01-01

    Classifies organizational theories, by analytical level and assumptions about human nature, into four perspectives (system-structural, strategic choice, natural selection, collective action), each with different concepts of organizational structure, behavior, change, and managerial roles. Identifies six debates generated among the perspectives and…

  6. Beginnings Workshop: Parent Perspectives on Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Three workshop articles concerning parental perspectives on discipline are presented. "Lessons from My Mother-In-Law: A Story about Discipline" discusses the generational diversity of discipline. "Parent/Staff Partnerships" addresses the importance of shared responsibility. "Perspectives on Discipline" consists of a…

  7. Performance of Literature in Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David W., Ed.; And Others

    The 33 essays that make up this volume examine the history of literature in performance from five perspectives: (1) language, (2) popular culture, (3) teaching, (4) theory, and (5) entertainment. The essays in the first section explore the basic perspective of oral performance as a factor in the development of languages themselves and their…

  8. Academic Perspectives on Internationalisation in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertova, Patricie

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the perspectives of senior academics on internationalisation of higher education across three countries: England, Czech Republic and Australia. In particular, it investigates the perspectives and experiences of academics in a range of leadership positions in university faculties and schools. The research utilises a critical…

  9. Personal pronouns and perspective taking in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Ricard, M; Girouard, P C; Décarie, T G

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the evolution of visual perspective-taking skills in relation to the comprehension and production of first, second and third person pronouns. Twelve French-speaking and 12 English-speaking children were observed longitudinally from 1.6 until they had acquired all pronouns and succeeded on all tasks. Free-play sessions and three tasks were used to test pronominal competence. Four other tasks assessed Level-1 perspective-taking skills: two of these tasks required the capacity to consider two visual perspectives, and two others tested the capacity to coordinate three such perspectives. The results indicated that children's performance on perspective-taking tasks was correlated with full pronoun acquisition. Moreover, competence at coordinating two visual perspectives preceded the full mastery of first and second person pronouns, and competence at coordinating three perspectives preceded the full mastery of third person pronouns when a strict criterion was adopted. However, with less stringent criteria, the sequence from perspective taking to pronoun acquisition varied either slightly or considerably. These findings are discussed in the light of the 'specificity hypothesis' concerning the links between cognition and language, and also in the context of the recent body of research on the child's developing theory of mind.

  10. "Learning Perspective" in the Asian Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinil, Kim

    A "schooling perspective" has become the foundation of the modern educational system. It portrays instruction-centered education in which the instructor is responsible for the success or failure of education. On the other hand, a "learning perspective" characterizes education as the learners' intentional activity to attain new knowledge, ways of…

  11. New Principals' Perspectives of Their Multifaceted Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentilucci, James L.; Denti, Lou; Guaglianone, Curtis L.

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes Symbolic Interactionism to explore perspectives of neophyte principals. Findings explain how these perspectives are modified through complex interactions throughout the school year, and they also suggest preparation programs can help new principals most effectively by teaching "soft" skills such as active listening…

  12. Evolution of Theoretical Perspectives in My Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Valerie K.

    2009-11-01

    Over the past 10 years I have been using socio-cultural theoretical perspectives to understand how people learn physics in a highly interactive, inquiry-based physics course such as Physics and Everyday Thinking [1]. As a result of using various perspectives (e.g. Distributed Cognition and Vygotsky's Theory of Concept Formation), my understanding of how these perspectives can be useful for investigating students' learning processes has changed. In this paper, I illustrate changes in my thinking about the role of socio-cultural perspectives in understanding physics learning and describe elements of my thinking that have remained fairly stable. Finally, I will discuss pitfalls in the use of certain perspectives and discuss areas that need attention in theoretical development for PER.

  13. How does narrative cue children's perspective taking?

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Fenja; Mitchell, Peter; Currie, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments with a total of 120 children between 4 and 9 years of age revealed systematic errors in the recall of deictic terms from a narrative. In some cases, the terms were inconsistent with the perspective of a protagonist. The errors occurred in all age groups and were at the same level whether the protagonist was "good" or "bad" but were less common in a narrative that did not include a protagonist. The pattern of errors suggests that children adopted a perspective within the narrative. Moreover, it seems that whereas the form of the narrative is sufficient to provoke a shift in perspective, children might find it even easier to adopt a perspective when the narrative content is about a protagonist. It thus seems that the form and the content of the narrative (that it is about a person) can combine to give a strong cue to perspective. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Sexual compliance: gender, motivational, and relationship perspectives.

    PubMed

    Impett, Emily A; Peplau, Letitia A

    2003-02-01

    This paper provides a systematic review of research on sexual compliance in heterosexual relationships. Three perspectives shed light on which individuals are the most likely to comply with a sexually interested partner's desire for sex and why. A gender perspective highlights the common male-female asymmetry in compliant sexual behavior and identifies factors that contribute to women's greater likelihood of being the sexually compliant partner. A motivational perspective distinguishes between approach and avoidance motives for compliance and considers the possible consequences of these motives for emotional reactions, sexual risk taking, and sexual violence. A relationship maintenance perspective views sexual compliance as illustrative of broader patterns of sacrifice in committed relationships. Each perspective suggests important new directions for empirical research.

  15. Perspectives on Aging Vestibular Function

    PubMed Central

    Anson, Eric; Jeka, John

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about age-related anatomical changes in the vestibular system. Knowledge regarding how vestibular anatomical changes impact behavior for older adults continues to grow, in line with advancements in diagnostic testing. However, despite advancements in clinical diagnostics, much remains unknown about the functional impact that an aging vestibular system has on daily life activities such as standing and walking. Modern diagnostic tests are very good at characterizing neural activity of the isolated vestibular system, but the tests themselves are artificial and do not reflect the multisensory aspects of natural human behavior. Also, the majority of clinical diagnostic tests are passively applied because active behavior can enhance performance. In this perspective paper, we review anatomical and behavioral changes associated with an aging vestibular system and highlight several areas where a more functionally relevant perspective can be taken. For postural control, a multisensory perturbation approach could be used to bring balance rehabilitation into the arena of precision medicine. For walking and complex gaze stability, this may result in less physiologically specific impairments, but the trade-off would be a greater understanding of how the aging vestibular system truly impacts the daily life of older adults. PMID:26779116

  16. Theoretical perspectives on narrative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Emden, C

    1998-04-01

    Narrative inquiry is gaining momentum in the field of nursing. As a research approach it does not have any single heritage of methodology and its practitioners draw upon diverse sources of influence. Central to all narrative inquiry however, is attention to the potential of stories to give meaning to people's lives, and the treatment of data as stories. This is the first of two papers on the topic and addresses the theoretical influences upon a particular narrative inquiry into nursing scholars and scholarship. The second paper, Conducting a narrative analysis, describes the actual narrative analysis as it was conducted in this same study. Together, the papers provide sufficient detail for others wishing to pursue a similar approach to do so, or to develop the ideas and procedures according to their own way of thinking. Within this first theoretical paper, perspectives from Jerome Bruner (1987) and Wade Roof (1993) are outlined. These relate especially to the notion of stories as 'imaginative constructions' and as 'cultural narratives' and as such, highlight the profound importance of stories as being individually and culturally meaningful. As well, perspectives on narrative inquiry from nursing literature are highlighted. Narrative inquiry in this instance lies within the broader context of phenomenology.

  17. Decent Work: A Psychological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Blustein, David L.; Olle, Chad; Connors-Kellgren, Alice; Diamonti, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution, which serves as the lead article for the Research Topic entitled “From Meaning of Working to Meaningful Lives: The Challenges of Expanding Decent Work,” explores current challenges in the development and operationalization of decent work. Based on an initiative from the International Labor Organization [ILO] (1999) decent work represents an aspirational statement about the quality of work that should be available to all people who seek to work around the globe. Within recent years, several critiques have been raised about decent work from various disciplines, highlighting concerns about a retreat from the social justice ethos that had initially defined the concept. In addition, other scholars have observed that decent work has not included a focus on the role of meaning and purpose at work. To address these concerns, we propose that a psychological perspective can help to revitalize the decent work agenda by infusing a more specific focus on individual experiences and by reconnecting decent work to its social justice origins. As an illustration of the advantages of a psychological perspective, we explore the rise of precarious work and also connect the decent work agenda to the Psychology-of-Working Framework and Theory (Blustein, 2006; Duffy et al., 2016). PMID:27047430

  18. [Growing old differently: Transdisciplinary perspective].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, H-P

    2015-04-01

    Growing old differently: the phrase is intended to call something other to mind than merely the fact that images and forms of old age and aging have multiplied and diversified to an enormous extent. The suggestion put forward here is that otherness (as opposed to mere differences) should be positively reinforced. In other words, it is not just a matter of noting different forms of old age and aging but more than this, of seeking out opportunities for aging differently. In order to explore this, the article follows an older strand of theory, which has recently come to be frequently quoted in gerontology: the phenomenology of difference as reasoned analytically by Lévinas and Sartre and applied to gerontology by Améry and de Beauvoir. Here, opportunities for aging crucially depend on the way we look at it, how we observe and describe it and not least, how gerontology frames it. A distinction is made between two perspectives and their associated consequences for old age: alienation and alterity. Alienation means looking at old age above all as a disconcerting "other", as a perplexing, problematic deviation from the norm of vitality. Alterity, by contrast, refers to different options for living life in old age: options to be explored and opened up in contradistinction to cultural or academic alienation. Not least, the article appeals for diversity in scholarly approaches and for cross-disciplinary perspectives.

  19. Perspectives on Aging Vestibular Function.

    PubMed

    Anson, Eric; Jeka, John

    2015-01-01

    Much is known about age-related anatomical changes in the vestibular system. Knowledge regarding how vestibular anatomical changes impact behavior for older adults continues to grow, in line with advancements in diagnostic testing. However, despite advancements in clinical diagnostics, much remains unknown about the functional impact that an aging vestibular system has on daily life activities such as standing and walking. Modern diagnostic tests are very good at characterizing neural activity of the isolated vestibular system, but the tests themselves are artificial and do not reflect the multisensory aspects of natural human behavior. Also, the majority of clinical diagnostic tests are passively applied because active behavior can enhance performance. In this perspective paper, we review anatomical and behavioral changes associated with an aging vestibular system and highlight several areas where a more functionally relevant perspective can be taken. For postural control, a multisensory perturbation approach could be used to bring balance rehabilitation into the arena of precision medicine. For walking and complex gaze stability, this may result in less physiologically specific impairments, but the trade-off would be a greater understanding of how the aging vestibular system truly impacts the daily life of older adults.

  20. Perspectives on intensity of use

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, D.

    1987-01-01

    Declining intensity of use (IU) of metals in industrialized countries has become part of the conventional wisdom. As a consequence, some important limitations of the idea are tending to get overlooked. This paper examines these limitations and offers some alternative perspectives. It demonstrates, firstly, how explanations linking the currently depressed state of the metals and mining industries to trends in IU tend to overlook the fact that declining IU has been in train for many years, in some cases since the beginning of the century. Secondly, it shows how the conventional measure of metal consumption could be, and probably is, resulting in an exaggeration of the decline in IU in industrialized countries. A third perspective counters what is seen as undue determinism in the evaluation of consumption trends and argues that more attention needs to be paid in IU analysis to the behavior of specific end-use markets. A fourth suggests that IU analysis risks overlooking important quality/value considerations. Declining tonnage use has in many instances been accompanied by a shift to the use of higher purity, higher value metals and to more sophisticated, higher value, semi-fabricated forms. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  2. Technology Adoption: an Interaction Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitorus, Hotna M.; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    The success of a new technology depends on how well it is accepted by its intended users. Many technologies face the problem of low adoption rate, despite the benefits. An understanding of what makes people accept or reject a new technology can help speed up the adoption rate. This paper presents a framework for technology adoption based on an interactive perspective, resulting from a literature study on technology adoption. In studying technology adoption, it is necessary to consider the interactions among elements involved in the system, for these interactions may generate new characteristics or new relationships. The interactions among elements in a system adoption have not received sufficient consideration in previous studies of technology adoption. Based on the proposed interaction perspective, technology adoption is elaborated by examining interactions among the individual (i.e. the user or prospective user), the technology, the task and the environment. The framework is formulated by adopting several theories, including Perceived Characteristics of Innovating, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Technology Acceptance Model, Task-Technology Fit and usability theory. The proposed framework is illustrated in the context of mobile banking adoption. It is aimed to offer a better understanding of determinants of technology adoption in various contexts, including technology in manufacturing systems.

  3. Molecular imprinting: perspectives and applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingxin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Wenhui; Wu, Xiaqing; Li, Jinhua

    2016-04-21

    Molecular imprinting technology (MIT), often described as a method of making a molecular lock to match a molecular key, is a technique for the creation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with tailor-made binding sites complementary to the template molecules in shape, size and functional groups. Owing to their unique features of structure predictability, recognition specificity and application universality, MIPs have found a wide range of applications in various fields. Herein, we propose to comprehensively review the recent advances in molecular imprinting including versatile perspectives and applications, concerning novel preparation technologies and strategies of MIT, and highlight the applications of MIPs. The fundamentals of MIPs involving essential elements, preparation procedures and characterization methods are briefly outlined. Smart MIT for MIPs is especially highlighted including ingenious MIT (surface imprinting, nanoimprinting, etc.), special strategies of MIT (dummy imprinting, segment imprinting, etc.) and stimuli-responsive MIT (single/dual/multi-responsive technology). By virtue of smart MIT, new formatted MIPs gain popularity for versatile applications, including sample pretreatment/chromatographic separation (solid phase extraction, monolithic column chromatography, etc.) and chemical/biological sensing (electrochemical sensing, fluorescence sensing, etc.). Finally, we propose the remaining challenges and future perspectives to accelerate the development of MIT, and to utilize it for further developing versatile MIPs with a wide range of applications (650 references).

  4. Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Patricia, Ed.

    Designed to encourage informed and critical thinking on contemporary political issues and processes, the articles, case studies, and activities in this student handbook can be incorporated into secondary school social studies units on government or current events. Eight chapters cover the presidency, the federal bureaucracy, the Congress, the…

  5. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Dance education provides a language that allows students and teachers to express themselves in new ways and to think through ideas differently. All students deserve the opportunity to learn things in new ways, to internalize information and rephrase it, to understand their world and contribute to it. All students deserve the opportunity to…

  6. Alcohol advertising and public health: systems perspectives versus narrow perspectives.

    PubMed

    Petticrew, M; Shemilt, I; Lorenc, T; Marteau, T M; Melendez-Torres, G J; O'Mara-Eves, A; Stautz, K; Thomas, J

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol consumption is influenced by a complex causal system of interconnected psychological, behavioural, social, economic, legal and environmental factors. These factors are shaped by governments (eg, licensing laws and taxation), by consumers (eg, patterns of alcohol consumption drive demand) and by alcohol industry practices, such as advertising. The marketing and advertising of alcoholic products contributes to an 'alcogenic environment' and is a modifiable influence on alcohol consumption and harm. The public health perspective is that there is sufficient evidence that alcohol advertising influences consumption. The alcohol industry disputes this, asserting that advertising only aims to help consumers choose between brands. We review the evidence from recent systematic reviews, including their theoretical and methodological assumptions, to help understand what conclusions can be drawn about the relationships between alcohol advertising, advertising restrictions and alcohol consumption. A wide evidence base needs to be drawn on to provide a system-level overview of the relationship between alcohol advertising, advertising restrictions and consumption. Advertising aims to influence not just consumption, but also to influence awareness, attitudes and social norms; this is because advertising is a system-level intervention with multiple objectives. Given this, assessments of the effects of advertising restrictions which focus only on sales or consumption are insufficient and may be misleading. For this reason, previous systematic reviews, such as the 2014 Cochrane review on advertising restrictions (Siegfried et al) contribute important, but incomplete representations of 'the evidence' needed to inform the public health case for policy decisions on alcohol advertising. We conclude that an unintended consequence of narrow, linear framings of complex system-level issues is that they can produce misleading answers. Systems problems require systems perspectives

  7. Primary Care Perspectives on Hepatitis C Virus Screening, Diagnosis and Linking Patients to Appropriate Care.

    PubMed

    Lebovics, Edward; Torres, Richard; Porter, Lucinda K

    2017-02-01

    -up HCV RNA test, and every effort must be made to overcome the challenge of losing patients between these two steps. Good communication between the physician, the physician's office staff, and the patient is necessary. In addition, point-of-care tests and PCR reflex testing can alleviate the need for HCV antibody positive patients to arrange subsequent office visits to undergo confirmatory HCV RNA testing. Physician and patient perspectives are presented throughout this roundtable discussion to obtain a complete picture of the management barriers encountered prior to initiation of therapy. Physician perspectives are provided by Edward Lebovics, the Upham Professor of Gastroenterology and Director of the Sarah C. Upham Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatobiliary Diseases at New York Medical College and Westchester Medical Center in Valhalla, New York, and Richard Torres, Chief Medical Officer at Optimus Health Care and an Associate Professor of Medicine at Yale School of Medicine. Torres has been a primary care provider for 29 years, working at the largest federally qualified community health center in Southwestern CT, which provides over 240,000 patient visits annually primarily to populations that are underserved and suffering from healthcare disparities. Patient perspectives in this roundtable are provided by Lucinda K. Porter, RN, who is the author of two books for hepatitis C patients, and is a former hepatology nurse and hepatitis C patient. She has been advocating for others since 1997, and writes for the HCV Advocate. Lucinda is a contributing editor of HEP magazine, and she blogs at www.LucindaPorterRN.com. The overall goal of this video roundtable discussion is to demonstrate that when provided with appropriate clinical knowledge, and aided by supportive collaborations with appropriate specialists, primary care clinicians should be able to effectively screen, diagnose, and link patients with hepatitis C to appropriate care. While patients need to be educated

  8. What Global Perspective Does Our University Foster in Our Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Kerry; Bourk, Michael; Mirosa, Miranda; Dulgar, Pete

    2017-01-01

    We used a modified circuit of culture enquiry to explore processes of production, representation and consumption of global perspective at our university, in the context of fostering this perspective as a graduate attribute. We identified four frame packages by which this perspective is understood and communicated. Global perspective is framed…

  9. What Global Perspective Does Our University Foster in Our Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Kerry; Bourk, Michael; Mirosa, Miranda; Dulgar, Pete

    2017-01-01

    We used a modified circuit of culture enquiry to explore processes of production, representation and consumption of global perspective at our university, in the context of fostering this perspective as a graduate attribute. We identified four frame packages by which this perspective is understood and communicated. Global perspective is framed…

  10. Cooperative Reflection in Teacher Education: A Finnish Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leino, Jarkko

    1995-01-01

    Presents ideas for broadening the perspective of teacher reflection, discussing ways to encourage teachers and principals to make suggestions about developing their schools and their perspectives of teachers' work. Finland's efforts toward that goal are examined, focusing on perspectives in reflection and tools for broadening perspectives. (SM)

  11. Aspirin: from a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Ugurlucan, Murat; Caglar, Ilker M; Caglar, Fatma N Turhan; Ziyade, Sedat; Karatepe, Oguzhan; Yildiz, Yahya; Zencirci, Ertugrul; Ugurlucan, Funda Gungor; Arslan, Ahmet H; Korkmaz, Semra; Filizcan, Ugur; Cicek, Sertac

    2012-04-01

    Aspirin is one of the oldest medicines. Due to its wide range usage in different fields of medicine, we aimed to present the history, effects and different uses of aspirin in this review. Furthermore, recent patents of novel pharmaceutical interventions in the field of acetylsalicylic acid, expanding treatment options are presented. Literature search was performed in order to reach data and present information about aspirin from a historical perspective. Since its first use as a pain killer, aspirin has found a broad range of use in general medicine, cardiovascular medicine, neurology, obstetrics and gynecology, dentistry, gastroenterology, oncology with its different effects. Aspirin, a painkilling gift of history to mankind, with a history dating back to BC and various healing effects, promises to be of greater use in different fields of medicine with the light of recent studies, inspiring more research and gaining more popularity.

  12. Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.; Guerin, Scott A.; St. Jacques, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    Memory is prone to distortions that can have serious consequences in everyday life. Here we integrate emerging evidence that several types of memory distortions – imagination inflation, gist-based and associative memory errors, and post-event misinformation – reflect adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory, but produce distortions as a consequence of doing so. We consider recent cognitive and neuroimaging studies that link these distortions with adaptive processes, including simulation of future events, semantic and contextual encoding, creativity, and memory updating. We also discuss new evidence concerning factors that can influence the occurrence of memory distortions, such as sleep and retrieval conditions, as well as conceptual issues related to the development of an adaptive perspective. PMID:21908231

  13. Biofield Science: Current Physics Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kafatos, Menas C; Chevalier, Gaétan; Chopra, Deepak; Hubacher, John; Kak, Subhash; Theise, Neil D

    2015-11-01

    This article briefly reviews the biofield hypothesis and its scientific literature. Evidence for the existence of the biofield now exists, and current theoretical foundations are now being developed. A review of the biofield and related topics from the perspective of physical science is needed to identify a common body of knowledge and evaluate possible underlying principles of origin of the biofield. The properties of such a field could be based on electromagnetic fields, coherent states, biophotons, quantum and quantum-like processes, and ultimately the quantum vacuum. Given this evidence, we intend to inquire and discuss how the existence of the biofield challenges reductionist approaches and presents its own challenges regarding the origin and source of the biofield, the specific evidence for its existence, its relation to biology, and last but not least, how it may inform an integrated understanding of consciousness and the living universe.

  14. Orbital Debris: A Policy Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing orbital debris from a policy perspective is shown. The contents include: 1) Voyage through near-Earth Space-animation; 2) What is Orbital Debris?; 3) Orbital Debris Detectors and Damage Potential; 4) Hubble Space Telescope; 5) Mir Space Station Solar Array; 6) International Space Station; 7) Space Shuttle; 8) Satellite Explosions; 9) Satellite Collisions; 10) NASA Orbital Debris Mitigation Guidelines; 11) International Space Station Jettison Policy; 12) Controlled/Uncontrolled Satellite Reentries; 13) Return of Space Objects; 14) Orbital Debris and U.S. National Space Policy; 15) U.S Government Policy Strategy; 16) Bankruptcy of the Iridium Satellite System; 17) Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC); 18) Orbital Debris at the United Nations; 19) Chinese Anti-satellite System; 20) Future Evolution of Satellite Population; and 21) Challenge of Orbital Debris

  15. Perspective photometric stereo beyond Lambert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanian, Maryam; Sharifi Boroujerdi, Ali; Breuß, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Photometric stereo is a technique for estimating the 3-D depth of a surface using multiple images taken under different illuminations from the same viewing angle. Most existing models make use of Lambertian reflection and an orthographic camera as underlying assumptions. However, real-world materials often exhibit non-Lambertian effects such as specular highlights and for many applications it is of interest to consider objects close to the camera. In our work, we aim at addressing these issues. Together with a perspective camera we employ a non-Lambertian reflectance model, namely the Blinn-Phong model which is capable to deal with specular reflection. Focusing on the effects of specular highlights, we perform a detailed study of one-dimensional test cases showing important aspects of our method.

  16. Crohn's disease: a surgeon's perspective.

    PubMed

    Parray, Fazl Q; Wani, Mohd Lateef; Bijli, Akram H; Thakur, Natasha; Irshad, Ifat

    2011-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is known for wide anatomic distribution, different presentations, life-threatening complications, and multiple modalities of management. Its multiple implications are still unaddressed. Since all the patients do not show a good response to medical modalities of treatment, a significant percentage of these patients are referred to the surgeon for the palliation of complications or for the ultimate curative treatment. Since most surgeons come across such patients only rarely, it is sometimes difficult for them to choose the appropriate procedure at the time of need. Moreover, the various surgical modalities available for the different presentations and complications of the disease have not been adequately discussed. The aim of this review is to offer insight and a detailed account of the management of CD from a surgical perspective. This review offers an overview of the various surgical options available, their utility in context, and an approach to various scenarios of complicated CD.

  17. Nursing perspectives for intensive care.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, P

    1997-06-01

    Within health care, market forces increasingly determine what services have economic value. For nursing to survive this economic onslaught, nurses must clarify their values and roles. While nurses working in intensive care develop useful technical skills and normally work within a constructive multi-disciplinary team framework, they have a potentially unique contribution to care, focusing on the patient as a whole person rather than intervening to solve a problem. The need for both physiological and psychological care creates a need for holistic values, best achieved through humanistic perspectives. Humanistic nursing places patients as people at the centre of nursing care, as illustrated by the limitations of reality orientation compared with the potentials of validation therapy. Intensive care nurses asserting and developing such patient-centred roles offer a valuable way forward for nursing to develop into the 21st century.

  18. Cosmological Inflation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demos

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief review of Cosmological Inflation from the personal perspective of the speaker who almost 30 years ago proposed a way of resolving the problem of Cosmological Horizon by employing certain notions and developments from the field of High Energy Physics. Along with a brief introduction of the Horizon and Flatness problems of standard cosmology, this lecture concentrates on personal reminiscing of the notions and ideas that prevailed and influenced the author's thinking at the time. The lecture then touches upon some more recent developments related to the subject including exact solutions to conformal gravity that provide a first principles emergence of a characteristic acceleration in the universe and concludes with some personal views concerning the direction that the cosmology field has taken in the past couple of decades and certain speculations some notions that may indicate future directions of research.

  19. Perspectives on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    This collection of papers describes research that goes into detail on some of the more important issues in the physics of stimulated Brillouin scattering. This perspective describes the earliest years of the physics of stimulated Brillouin scattering, along with key developments that have led to this technically and physically rich field of today’s nonlinear optics. Stimulated Brillouin has a profound effect in optical fiber communications, initially discovered by its limit on the transmitted power. By controlling SBS in fibers and making use of its phase conjugation properties in both fibers and bulk media, a wide range of applications have been enabled. Today ring Brillouin lasers in fibers, whispering gallery modes and in photonic integrated circuits provide optical delay lines and switches, pulse shapers and components for increasingly complex and important optical systems.

  20. Symbolic enhancement of perspective displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Hacisalihzade, Selim S.

    1990-01-01

    Two exocentric azimuth judgment experiments with a perspective display were conducted with 16 subjects. Previous work has shown these judgments to exhibit a bias possibly due to misinterpretation of the viewing parameters used to generate the display. Though geometric compensations may be used to correct for the bias, an alternate technique selected in the following 2 experiments was the introduction of symbolic enhancements in the form of compass roses. It is suggested that a compass rose with 30 deg divisions results in overall optimal azimuth estimation accuracy when accuracy and decision time are both considered. The data also suggest that the added radial lines on the compass roses may interact with normalization processes that influence the judgment errors.

  1. Perspective on resonances of metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Min, Li; Huang, Lirong

    2015-07-27

    Electromagnetic resonance as the most important characteristic of metamaterials enables lots of exotic phenomena, such as invisible, negative refraction, man-made magnetism, etc. Conventional LC-resonance circuit model as the most authoritative and classic model is good at explaining and predicting the fundamental resonance wavelength of a metamaterial, while feels hard for high-order resonances, especially for resonance intensity (strength of resonance, determining on the performance and efficiency of metamaterial-based devices). In present work, via an easy-to-understand mass-spring model, we present a different and comprehensive insight for the resonance mechanism of metamaterials, through which both the resonance wavelengths (including the fundamental and high-order resonance wavelengths) and resonance intensities of metamaterials can be better understood. This developed theory has been well verified by different-material and different-structure resonators. This perspective will provide a broader space for exploring novel optical devices based on metamaterials (or metasurfaces).

  2. Biofield Science: Current Physics Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Gaétan; Chopra, Deepak; Hubacher, John; Kak, Subhash; Theise, Neil D.

    2015-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the biofield hypothesis and its scientific literature. Evidence for the existence of the biofield now exists, and current theoretical foundations are now being developed. A review of the biofield and related topics from the perspective of physical science is needed to identify a common body of knowledge and evaluate possible underlying principles of origin of the biofield. The properties of such a field could be based on electromagnetic fields, coherent states, biophotons, quantum and quantum-like processes, and ultimately the quantum vacuum. Given this evidence, we intend to inquire and discuss how the existence of the biofield challenges reductionist approaches and presents its own challenges regarding the origin and source of the biofield, the specific evidence for its existence, its relation to biology, and last but not least, how it may inform an integrated understanding of consciousness and the living universe. PMID:26665039

  3. [Blood donation: a marketing perspective].

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Silvia Terra; Rodrigues, Alziro César de Morais

    2005-01-01

    This paper emphasizes how marketing can make a difference in repeat donations by volunteer blood donors, since the greatest challenge for health institutions is to maintain and increase blood donation. In this context, understanding volunteer donors' motivations is highly important, and the studies reported here demonstrate that several variables are relevant to blood donation. The huge number of patients in need of blood transfusions and the lack of sufficient blood and blood products justify the interest in this study, considering both donors' and blood banks' perspectives. Moreover, recognition of the importance of actions and orientation for donors is fundamental for developing a marketing strategy. It is thus relevant for health institutions to identify donors' actual needs and wishes.

  4. Sparsity and the Bayesian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starck, J.-L.; Donoho, D. L.; Fadili, M. J.; Rassat, A.

    2013-04-01

    Sparsity has recently been introduced in cosmology for weak-lensing and cosmic microwave background (CMB) data analysis for different applications such as denoising, component separation, or inpainting (i.e., filling the missing data or the mask). Although it gives very nice numerical results, CMB sparse inpainting has been severely criticized by top researchers in cosmology using arguments derived from a Bayesian perspective. In an attempt to understand their point of view, we realize that interpreting a regularization penalty term as a prior in a Bayesian framework can lead to erroneous conclusions. This paper is by no means against the Bayesian approach, which has proven to be very useful for many applications, but warns against a Bayesian-only interpretation in data analysis, which can be misleading in some cases.

  5. A coastal perspective on security.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Steven D; Nadeau, John

    2003-11-14

    This paper examines security issues from the unique perspective of our nation's coastlines and associated infrastructure. It surveys ongoing efforts to secure offshore shipping lanes, as well as the transportation systems and huge capital investments on the narrow strip of land intersecting with coastal waters. The paper recounts the extraordinary demands recently placed on the Coast Guard, port authorities and other agencies charged with offshore security. New federal requirements such as port assessments continue to be mandated, while solutions to finding are still unfolding. An up-to-date summary of maritime security functions is provided. Those requirements are compared and contrasted with security guidelines and regulatory demands placed upon mobile and fixed assets of the Chemical Process Industry (CPI) in coastal environs. These span the gamut from recommendations by industry groups and professional organizations, to federal and state requirements, to insurance demands, to general duty obligations.

  6. Current perspectives of inhibin biology.

    PubMed

    Risbridger, G P; Robertson, D M; de Kretser, D M

    1990-06-01

    Inhibin is generally considered to be a feedback regulator of FSH secretion, but significant progress in the field of inhibin biology over the past four years has widened our perspective of inhibin and its production, regulation and action. Firstly, inhibin is a member of a larger family of hormones, secondly it is produced by organs other than the gonads, and thirdly its action is not confined to the pituitary gland. In this review we will outline the isolation and characterization of inhibin related peptides and their production by the Sertoli and granulosa cells of the testis and ovary. With this information in mind, more recent studies concerning the measurement, production, regulation and action of inhibin and inhibin-related proteins will be discussed, in an effort to alert the reader to the contemporary and controversial issues concerning inhibin biology.

  7. Solar fuels: Status and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Serpone, N.; Lawless, D.; Terzian, R. )

    1992-10-01

    Utilization of water as an inexhaustible supply of a fuel (hydrogen) was predicted over a century ago by Jules Verne in The Mysterious Island. Since the oil crisis of 1973, considerable progress has been made in the search for alternative energy supplies. Although the water splitting process to generate simultaneously hydrogen and oxygen has been demonstrated (albeit the process is inefficient) by utilization of light energy, the technology is not mature enough to seriously bring it to pilot-plant demonstration. Much fundamental research remains to be done. The present paper examines the present status and looks at the perspectives of the technological progress, particularly in the high temperature thermochemical and photochemical fields with emphasis in the utilization of solar quantum and thermal photons.

  8. Monetary economics from econophysics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovenko, Victor M.

    2016-12-01

    This is an invited article for the Discussion and Debate special issue of The European Physical Journal Special Topics on the subject "Can Economics be a Physical Science?" The first part of the paper traces the personal path of the author from theoretical physics to economics. It briefly summarizes applications of statistical physics to monetary transactions in an ensemble of economic agents. It shows how a highly unequal probability distribution of money emerges due to irreversible increase of entropy in the system. The second part examines deep conceptual and controversial issues and fallacies in monetary economics from econophysics perspective. These issues include the nature of money, conservation (or not) of money, distinctions between money vs. wealth and money vs. debt, creation of money by the state and debt by the banks, the origins of monetary crises and capitalist profit. Presentation uses plain language understandable to laypeople and may be of interest to both specialists and general public.

  9. Cultural Perspectives on Teacher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhoro, Peter; Cochran, Geraldine; Gonzalez, Victor; Rockward, Willie; Sunda-Meya, Anderson; Incera, Vivian

    2012-02-01

    Populations that are underrepresented in physics generally are even more severely underrepresented among US physics teachers. Based on national data from the American Institute of Physics (AIP), 95% of physics teachers are White/non-Hispanic, about 1.5% are Hispanic, and approximately another 1.5% African-American. While 25% of our nation's African-American and Hispanic students now take physics in high school, they are very unlikely to have a role model, of similar race and ethnicity, teaching their physics classes. PhysTEC is making an effort to find and disseminate successful models for attracting more underrepresented minority students to high school physics teaching. This panel discussion, focusing on cultural perspectives on teacher education, will feature faculty from Minority Serving Institutions, which educate almost 60% of underrepresented minorities who get college degrees in the US, and individuals who have taught high school physics in areas with a dense minority population.

  10. Health inequalities--gender perspective.

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Antonina

    2012-01-01

    Health inequalities have become recently one of the major concerns of European health policy. Observed differences in health status of men and women are also frequently discussed within this framework, and are becoming a subject of growing interest of researchers. Clinical and epidemiological researches document male-female health differences, trying to explain them within bio-medical model. However, apart of biological (sex) divergence, health inequalities reflect differences in social roles, social status and culturally established patterns and stereotypes of femininity and masculinity (gender differences). The article, using sociological perspective, attempts to show that observed differences in man's and women's health may be attributable to the differing sociocultural and structural arrangements, social support and lifestyle factors of both genders. As a result, many of these differences are of inequality character. Another dimension of inequality discussed in this article is the way man and women are treated by the institution of medicine.

  11. New perspectives on red supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorda, R.; Negueruela, I.; González-Fernández, C.; Tabernero H. M.

    2017-03-01

    There is a high interest in cool supergiants (CSGs), because they play a key role in the understanding of the evolution and death of massive stars: most high-mass stars pass through this phase at some point of their evolution, and the physical conditions during it will determine their subsequent evolution. In addition, these stars are a powerful high-mass stellar formation tracers and also the main progenitors of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). Despite this, they are poorly characterized in some aspects: their extreme sizes and peculiar conditions defy the predictions of present-day atmospheric and evolutionary models. To bring perspective to this topic, we investigate the behaviour of CSGs as a population. For this, we studied the largest homogeneous multiepoch spectroscopic sample of CSGs (from the SMC and LMC) to date (>500). Our results give a new global view about the physical conditions of CSGs and their evolution

  12. Precision engineering: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Evans, Chris J

    2012-08-28

    Precision engineering is a relatively new name for a technology with roots going back over a thousand years; those roots span astronomy, metrology, fundamental standards, manufacturing and money-making (literally). Throughout that history, precision engineers have created links across disparate disciplines to generate innovative responses to society's needs and wants. This review combines historical and technological perspectives to illuminate precision engineering's current character and directions. It first provides us a working definition of precision engineering and then reviews the subject's roots. Examples will be given showing the contributions of the technology to society, while simultaneously showing the creative tension between the technological convergence that spurs new directions and the vertical disintegration that optimizes manufacturing economics.

  13. Three-dimensional perspective visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin

    1991-01-01

    It was demonstrated that image processing computer graphic techniques can provide an effective means of physiographic analysis of remotely sensed regions through the use of three-dimensional perspective rendering. THe methods used to simulate and animate three-dimensional surfaces from two-dimensional imagery and digital elevation models are explained. A brief historic look at JPL's efforts in this field and several examples of animations, illustrating the evolution of these techniques from 1985, are shown. JPL's current research in this area is discussed along with examples of technology transfer and potential commercial application. The software is part of the VICAR (Video Image Communication and Retrieval) image processing system which was developed at the Multimission Image Processing Laboratory of JPL.

  14. Antiviral Perspectives for Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Cherian, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that has a major health impact in humans and causes acute febrile illness in humans accompanied by joint pains and, in many cases, persistent arthralgia lasting for weeks to years. CHIKV reemerged in 2005-2006 in several parts of the Indian Ocean islands and India after a gap of 32 years, causing millions of cases. The re-emergence of CHIKV has also resulted in numerous outbreaks in several countries in the eastern hemisphere, with a threat to further expand in the near future. However, there is no vaccine against CHIKV infection licensed for human use, and therapy for CHIKV infection is still mainly limited to supportive care as antiviral agents are yet in different stages of testing or development. In this review we explore the different perspectives for chikungunya treatment and the effectiveness of these treatment regimens and discuss the scope for future directions. PMID:24955364

  15. Peer support: a theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Mead, S; Hilton, D; Curtis, L

    2001-01-01

    This article offers one theoretical perspective of peer support and attempts to define the elements that, when reinforced through education and training, provide a new cultural context for healing and recovery. Persons labeled with psychiatric disability have become victims of social and cultural ostracism and consequently have developed a sense of self that reinforces the "patient" identity. Enabling members of peer support to understand the nature and impact of these cultural forces leads individuals and peer communities toward a capacity for personal, relational, and social change. It is our hope that consumers from all different types of programs (e.g. drop-in, social clubs, advocacy, support, outreach, respite), traditional providers, and policy makers will find this article helpful in stimulating dialogue about the role of peer programs in the development of a recovery based system.

  16. Critical perspectives on historical collapse

    PubMed Central

    Butzer, Karl W.; Endfield, Georgina H.

    2012-01-01

    Historical collapse of ancient states or civilizations has raised new awareness about its possible relevance to current issues of sustainability, in the context of global change. This Special Feature examines 12 case studies of societies under stress, of which seven suffered severe transformation. Outcomes were complex and unpredictable. Five others overcame breakdown through environmental, political, or socio-cultural resilience, which deserves as much attention as the identification of stressors. Response to environmental crises of the last millennium varied greatly according to place and time but drew from traditional knowledge to evaluate new information or experiment with increasing flexibility, even if modernization or intensification were decentralized and protracted. Longer-term diachronic experience offers insight into how societies have dealt with acute stress, a more instructive perspective for the future than is offered by apocalyptic scenarios. PMID:22371580

  17. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Hafize Emine; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Özen, Seza

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations. PMID:27051312

  18. Transistor challenges A DRAM perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faul, Juergen W.; Henke, Dietmar

    2005-08-01

    Key challenges of the transistor scaling from a DRAM perspective will be reviewed. Both, array transistors as well as DRAM support devices face challenges that differ essentially from high performance logic device scaling. As a major difference, retention time and standby current requirements characterize special boundary conditions in the DRAM device design. Array device scaling is determined by a chip size driven aggressive node scaling. To continue scaling, major innovations need to be introduced into state-of-the-art planar array transistors. Alternatively, non planar device concepts will have to be evaluated. Support device design for DRAMs is driven by today's market demand for increased chip performances at little to no extra cost. Major innovations are required to continue that path. Besides this strive for performance increase, special limitations for "on pitch" circuits at the array edge will come up due to the aggressive cell size scaling.

  19. Biophotography: concepts, applications and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Renicke, Christian; Taxis, Christof

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic biology aims at manipulating biological systems by rationally designed and genetically introduced components. Efforts in photoactuator engineering resulted in microorganisms reacting to extracellular light-cues with various cellular responses. Some of them lead to the formation of macroscopically observable outputs, which can be used to generate images made of living matter. Several methods have been developed to convert colorless compounds into visible pigments by an enzymatic conversion. This has been exploited as a showcase for successful creation of an optogenetic tool; examples for basic light-controlled biological processes that have been coupled to this biophotography comprise regulation of transcription, protein stability, and second messenger synthesis. Moreover, biological reproduction of images is used as means to facilitate quantitative characterization of optogenetic switches as well as a technique to investigate complex cellular signaling circuits. Here, we will compare the different techniques for biological image generation, introduce experimental approaches, and provide future-perspectives for biophotography.

  20. Perspectives on sustainable waste management.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Marco J

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable waste management is a goal that all societies must strive to maintain. Currently nearly 80% of global wastes are sent to landfill, with a significant amount lacking proper design or containment. The increased attention to environmental impacts of human activities and the increasing demand for energy and materials have resulted in a new perspective on waste streams. Use of waste streams for energy and materials recovery is becoming more prevalent, especially in developed regions of the world, such as Europe, the United States, and Japan. Although currently these efforts have a small impact on waste disposal, use of waste streams to extract value very likely will increase as society becomes more aware of the options available. This review presents an overview of waste management with a focus on following an expanded waste hierarchy to extract value specifically from municipal solid waste streams.

  1. Cosmological Inflation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demos

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief review of Cosmological Inflation from the personal perspective of the speaker who almost 30 years ago proposed a way of resolving the problem of Cosmological Horizon by employing certain notions and developments from the field of High Energy Physics. Along with a brief introduction of the Horizon and Flatness problems of standard cosmology, this lecture concentrates on personal reminiscing of the notions and ideas that prevailed and influenced the author's thinking at the time. The lecture then touches upon some more recent developments related to the subject including exact solutions to conformal gravity that provide a first principles emergence of a characteristic acceleration in the universe and concludes with some personal views concerning the direction that the cosmology field has taken in the past couple of decades and certain speculations some notions that may indicate future directions of research.

  2. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  3. Patient Perspectives on Biosimilar Insulin

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Alasdair R.; Venkat, Manu V.; Brown, Adam S.; Dong, Jessica P.; Ran, Nina A.; Hirsch, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Given that a new wave of biosimilar insulins will likely enter the market in coming years, it is important to understand patient perspectives on these biosimilars. A survey (N = 3214) conducted by the market research company dQ&A, which maintains a 10 000-patient panel of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in roughly equal measure, investigated these perspectives. The survey asked whether patients would switch to a hypothetical less expensive biosimilar insulin that was approved by their provider. Approximately 66% of respondents reported that they would “definitely” or “likely” use a biosimilar insulin, while 17% reported that they were “unlikely” to use or would “definitely not use” such a product. Type 2 diabetes patients demonstrated slightly more willingness to use biosimilars than type 1 diabetes patients. Common patient concerns included whether biosimilars would be as effective as reference products (~650 respondents), whether side effect profiles would deviate from those of reference products (~220 respondents), and the design of the delivery device (~50 respondents). While cost savings associated with biosimilar insulins could increase patient uptake, especially among patients without health insurance (some recent estimates suggest that biosimilars will come at a substantial discount), patients may still need assurance that a cheaper price tag is not necessarily associated with substandard quality. Overall, the dQ&A survey indicates that the majority of patients are willing to consider biosimilar insulins, but manufacturers will need to work proactively to address and assuage patient concerns regarding efficacy, safety, drug administration, and other factors. PMID:24876533

  4. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  5. Practitioner Perspectives on Foundational Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Leider, Jonathon P.; Juliano, Chrissie; Castrucci, Brian C.; Beitsch, Leslie M.; Dilley, Abby; Nelson, Rachel; Kaiman, Sherry; Sprague, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: National efforts are underway to classify a minimum set of public health services that all jurisdictions throughout the United States should provide regardless of location. Such a set of basic programs would be supported by crosscutting services, known as the “foundational capabilities” (FCs). These FCs are assessment services, preparedness and disaster response, policy development, communications, community partnership, and organizational support activities. Objective: To ascertain familiarity with the term and concept of FCs and gather related perspectives from state and local public health practitioners. Design: In fall 2013, we interviewed 50 leaders from state and local health departments. We asked about familiarity with the term “foundational capabilities,” as well as the broader concept of FCs. We attempted to triangulate the utility of the FC concept by asking respondents about priority programs and services, about perceived unique contributions made by public health, and about prevalence and funding for the FCs. Setting: Telephone-based interviews. Participants: Fifty leaders of state and local health departments. Main Outcome Measures: Practitioner familiarity with and perspectives on the FCs, information about current funding streams for public health, and the likelihood of creating nationwide FCs that would be recognized and accepted by all jurisdictions. Results: Slightly more than half of the leaders interviewed said that they were familiar with the concept of FCs. In most cases, health departments had all of the capabilities to some degree, although operationalization varied. Few indicated that current funding levels were sufficient to support implementing a minimum level of FCs nationally. Conclusions: Respondents were not able to articulate the current or optimal levels of services for the various capabilities, nor the costs associated with them. Further research is needed to understand the role of FCs as part of the foundational

  6. Practitioner perspectives on foundational capabilities.

    PubMed

    Leider, Jonathon P; Juliano, Chrissie; Castrucci, Brian C; Beitsch, Leslie M; Dilley, Abby; Nelson, Rachel; Kaiman, Sherry; Sprague, James B

    2015-01-01

    National efforts are underway to classify a minimum set of public health services that all jurisdictions throughout the United States should provide regardless of location. Such a set of basic programs would be supported by crosscutting services, known as the "foundational capabilities" (FCs). These FCs are assessment services, preparedness and disaster response, policy development, communications, community partnership, and organizational support activities. To ascertain familiarity with the term and concept of FCs and gather related perspectives from state and local public health practitioners. In fall 2013, we interviewed 50 leaders from state and local health departments. We asked about familiarity with the term "foundational capabilities," as well as the broader concept of FCs. We attempted to triangulate the utility of the FC concept by asking respondents about priority programs and services, about perceived unique contributions made by public health, and about prevalence and funding for the FCs. Telephone-based interviews. Fifty leaders of state and local health departments. Practitioner familiarity with and perspectives on the FCs, information about current funding streams for public health, and the likelihood of creating nationwide FCs that would be recognized and accepted by all jurisdictions. Slightly more than half of the leaders interviewed said that they were familiar with the concept of FCs. In most cases, health departments had all of the capabilities to some degree, although operationalization varied. Few indicated that current funding levels were sufficient to support implementing a minimum level of FCs nationally. Respondents were not able to articulate the current or optimal levels of services for the various capabilities, nor the costs associated with them. Further research is needed to understand the role of FCs as part of the foundational public health services.

  7. Corrections: Perspectives on Research, Policy and Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    m^^mm* ■fn.m*tr"<ii..<ji>.>T.u Ri^yiBj M pw.mi, y CORRECTIONS IMPACT AD-A013 172 PERSPECTIVES ON RESEARCH , POLICY AND James W. Newton...Unclassified lh cifOul’ N/A 1 HtRORT TlTlf Corrections: Perspectives on Research , Policy , and Impact 4 Dt »C »IP 1 I vt...stand today? This year’s theme—"Corrections: Perspectives on Research , Policy , and Impact"—suggests that we consider some determinants of research

  8. Inferring Perspective Versus Getting Perspective: Underestimating the Value of Being in Another Person's Shoes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haotian; Majka, Elizabeth A; Epley, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    People use at least two strategies to solve the challenge of understanding another person's mind: inferring that person's perspective by reading his or her behavior (theorization) and getting that person's perspective by experiencing his or her situation (simulation). The five experiments reported here demonstrate a strong tendency for people to underestimate the value of simulation. Predictors estimated a stranger's emotional reactions toward 50 pictures. They could either infer the stranger's perspective by reading his or her facial expressions or simulate the stranger's perspective by watching the pictures he or she viewed. Predictors were substantially more accurate when they got perspective through simulation, but overestimated the accuracy they had achieved by inferring perspective. Predictors' miscalibrated confidence stemmed from overestimating the information revealed through facial expressions and underestimating the similarity in people's reactions to a given situation. People seem to underappreciate a useful strategy for understanding the minds of others, even after they gain firsthand experience with both strategies.

  9. Anxiety impairs spontaneous perspective calculation: Evidence from a level-1 visual perspective-taking task.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew R; Simpson, Austin J

    2016-11-01

    Reasoning about other people's mental states is central to social life. Yet, even neuro-typical adults sometimes have perspective-taking difficulties, particularly when another's perspective conflicts with their own. In two experiments, we examined the cognitive mechanisms underlying an affective factor known to hinder perspective taking in adults: anxiety. Using a level-1 visual perspective-taking task, we found that incidentally experiencing anxiety, relative to neutral feelings and anger, impaired the spontaneous calculation of what another social agent can see. Feeling anxious did not, however, impede perspective calculation with a non-social entity, suggesting that anxiety's disruptive effects may be particularly pronounced for social aspects of cognition. These findings help elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of incidental emotions on perspective taking and inform debates about "implicit" forms of mentalizing.

  10. Convexity Bias and Perspective Cues in the Reverse-Perspective Illusion.

    PubMed

    Dobias, Joshua J; Papathomas, Thomas V; Vlajnic, Vanja M

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to examine the roles of painted linear perspective cues, and the convexity bias that are known to influence human observers' perception of three-dimensional (3D) objects and scenes. Reverse-perspective stimuli were used to elicit a depth-inversion illusion, in which far points on the stimulus appear to be closer than near points and vice versa, with a 2 (Type of stimulus) × 2 (Fixation mark position) design. To study perspective, two types of stimuli were used: a version with painted linear perspective cues and a version with blank (unpainted) surfaces. To examine the role of convexity, two locations were used for the fixation mark: either in a locally convex or a locally concave part of each stimulus (painted and unpainted versions). Results indicated that the reverse-perspective illusion was stronger when the stimulus contained strong perspective cues and when observers fixated a locally concave region within the scene.

  11. Textbook Questions in Context-Based and Traditional Chemistry Curricula Analysed from a Content Perspective and a Learning Activities Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overman, Michelle; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    In this study, questions in context-based and traditional chemistry textbooks were analysed from two perspectives that are at the heart of chemistry curricula reforms: a content perspective and a learning activities perspective. To analyse these textbook questions, we developed an instrument for each perspective. In total, 971 textbook questions…

  12. Mental imagery of positive and neutral memories: A fMRI study comparing field perspective imagery to observer perspective imagery.

    PubMed

    Grol, Maud; Vingerhoets, Guy; De Raedt, Rudi

    2017-02-01

    Imagery perspective can influence what information is recalled, processing style, and emotionality; however, the understanding of possible mechanisms mediating these observed differences is still limited. We aimed to examine differences between memory recall from a field perspective and observer perspective at the neurobiological level, in order to improve our understanding of what is underlying the observed differences at the behavioral level. We conducted a fMRI study in healthy individuals, comparing imagery perspectives during recall of neutral and positive autobiographical memories. Behavioral results revealed field perspective imagery of positive memories, as compared to observer perspective, to be associated with more positive feelings afterwards. At the neurobiological level, contrasting observer perspective to field perspective imagery was associated with greater activity, or less decrease relative to the control visual search task, in the right precuneus and in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ). Greater activity in the right TPJ during an observer perspective as compared to field perspective could reflect performing a greater shift of perspective and mental state during observer perspective imagery than field perspective imagery. Differential activity in the precuneus may reflect that during observer perspective imagery individuals are more likely to engage in (self-) evaluative processing and visuospatial processing. Our findings contribute to a growing understanding of how imagery perspective can influence the type of information that is recalled and the intensity of the emotional response. Observer perspective imagery may not automatically reduce emotional intensity but this could depend on how the imagined situation is evaluated in relation to the self-concept.

  13. Textbook Questions in Context-Based and Traditional Chemistry Curricula Analysed from a Content Perspective and a Learning Activities Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overman, Michelle; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    In this study, questions in context-based and traditional chemistry textbooks were analysed from two perspectives that are at the heart of chemistry curricula reforms: a content perspective and a learning activities perspective. To analyse these textbook questions, we developed an instrument for each perspective. In total, 971 textbook questions…

  14. Perceived perspective taking: when others walk in our shoes.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Noah J; Vezich, I Stephanie; Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2014-06-01

    A great deal of psychological research has investigated the influence of perspective taking on individuals, indicating that perspective taking increases the extent to which people like, feel a sense of self-other overlap with, and help those whose perspective they take. However, previous investigations of the topic have been limited to the study of the perspective taker, rather than the individual whose perspective has been taken. The purpose of the current work is to begin to fill this large gap in the literature by examining the consequences of believing that another individual is taking one's perspective, a phenomenon we refer to as perceived perspective taking. Over a series of 6 experiments, we demonstrate that perceiving that one's perspective has been taken confers many of the same interpersonal benefits as taking another's perspective. Specifically, our data suggest that believing that another person has successfully taken one's perspective results in an increased liking for, a greater sense of self-other overlap with, and more help provided to that person. Consistent with predictions, we find that one's self-other overlap with the perspective taker and the amount of empathy one perceives the perspective taker to feel operate in tandem to mediate the link between perceived perspective taking and liking for the perspective taker. Further, a mediational path from perceived perspective taking to helping behavior through liking is supported. Future directions are discussed, along with implications for theory and application in domains such as intergroup relations, conflict resolution, and political campaigning.

  15. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: A REGULATORY PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosensors show the potential to complement laboratory-based analytical methods for environmental applications. Although biosensors for potential environmental-monitoring applications have been reported for a wide range of environmental pollutants, from a regulatory perspective, ...

  16. A Perspective on Teaching Elementary Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainwright, Barbara A.; Austin, Homer W.

    1997-01-01

    Shares the perspectives of two instructors of elementary statistics at the college level. Describes a course developed to increase statistics learning and student motivation to learn statistics by introducing writing into the course content. (DDR)

  17. Technology Education in Perspective: Clearer Vision Necessary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicklein, Robert C.; McGee, Lillian P.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that incorporating the technological process and a historical perspective into the technology education curriculum is essential for a good program. Presents a design brief on the historical impact of the printing press. (JOW)

  18. 3-D Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-03-23

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM.

  19. A Perspective on Physical Organic Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A perspective on the development of mechanistic carbene chemistry is presented. The author will point out questions that have been answered, and a next generation of questions will be proposed. PMID:24571434

  20. Urban transportation: Perspectives on mobility and choice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor); Arnold, G. R.; Bird, J. W.; Brooks, C. M. (Editor); Cobb, W. E.; Cross, J. E.; Darby, L. F.; Erb, N. H.; Ficht, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A study of urban transportation systems are presented characterized by intensive scrutiny of many ideas, philosophies, and academic perspectives. This report is intended to communicate some dimensions of the urban transportation problem to the general public.

  1. An inside perspective on anabolic steroid abuse

    PubMed Central

    Schaive, Chad; Kohler, Tobias S.

    2016-01-01

    Steroid abuse is common across gyms across the world. This unique article features an inside perspective/opinion in a question and answer format from a former steroid user/high level body builder. PMID:27141450

  2. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: A REGULATORY PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosensors show the potential to complement laboratory-based analytical methods for environmental applications. Although biosensors for potential environmental-monitoring applications have been reported for a wide range of environmental pollutants, from a regulatory perspective, ...

  3. Dual Enrollment Participation from the Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanny, M. Allison

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the experiences of five high school students previously enrolled in dual enrollment courses, and discusses the perceived benefits and disadvantages of these experiences from the student perspective.

  4. Psychological Perspectives of Buddhism: Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassallo, Janice N.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews psychological perspectives of Buddhism and the universal human problem and its subsequent cures that can be applied to interactions in a counseling relationship. Suggests that meditation techniques can be integrated into current counseling theories. (JAC)

  5. Toward an Ethnographic Perspective on Creativity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.

    1992-01-01

    In considering an ethnographic perspective on creativity research, this article briefly discusses and reviews sample studies on (1) the cultural context of creativity, (2) creativity and cultural transmission and transformation, and (3) creativity in the context of cultural anthropology. (DB)

  6. Alternative Work Schedules: A Labor Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalusky, John L.

    1977-01-01

    The compressed work week, flexitime, and job sharing are discussed from the labor perspective. The author suggests that it is unlikely that unions will endorse flexible work arrangements that jeopardize the eight-hour-day concept. (LBH)

  7. Perspective: Emergent magnetic phenomena at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Yuri

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of emergent magnetic phenomena is of fundamental and technological interest. This perspective highlights recent promising examples of emergent ferromagnetism at complex oxide interfaces in the context of spin based electronics.

  8. Dual Enrollment Participation from the Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanny, M. Allison

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the experiences of five high school students previously enrolled in dual enrollment courses, and discusses the perceived benefits and disadvantages of these experiences from the student perspective.

  9. Technology Education in Perspective: Clearer Vision Necessary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicklein, Robert C.; McGee, Lillian P.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that incorporating the technological process and a historical perspective into the technology education curriculum is essential for a good program. Presents a design brief on the historical impact of the printing press. (JOW)

  10. Psychological Perspectives of Buddhism: Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassallo, Janice N.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews psychological perspectives of Buddhism and the universal human problem and its subsequent cures that can be applied to interactions in a counseling relationship. Suggests that meditation techniques can be integrated into current counseling theories. (JAC)

  11. Viewing perspective in energetic neutral atom intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Lui, Anthony T. Y.; Fok, Mei-Ching

    2008-09-01

    Through interspacecraft comparison of energetic neutral oxygen (ENO) intensity from two different vantage points provided by IMAGE and Geotail, Lui et al. (2005) showed that viewing perspective plays a very important role in the observed ENO intensity level during a magnetic storm period. Motivated by the findings of Lui et al. (2005), we investigate how viewing perspective influences energetic neutral atom emissions from a modeling perspective. The main results of this paper are that (1) our simulation results, based upon O+ ion fluxes from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model and the subsequent ENO calculation, reproduce the total differential ENO intensity obtained from two spacecraft to a reasonable degree and (2) further analysis of our results indicates that pitch angle anisotropy in ring current ion flux, a crucial physical quantity in ring current dynamics, is one major contributor to the difference in energetic neutral atom intensity from different viewing perspectives.

  12. Changing perspective: The role of vestibular signals.

    PubMed

    Deroualle, Diane; Borel, Liliane; Devèze, Arnaud; Lopez, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Social interactions depend on mechanisms such as the ability to take another person's viewpoint, i.e. visuo-spatial perspective taking. However, little is known about the sensorimotor mechanisms underpinning perspective taking. Because vestibular signals play roles in mental rotation and spatial cognition tasks and because damage to the vestibular cortex can disturb egocentric perspective, vestibular signals stand as important candidates for the sensorimotor foundations of perspective taking. Yet, no study merged natural full-body vestibular stimulations and explicit visuo-spatial perspective taking tasks in virtual environments. In Experiment 1, we combined natural vestibular stimulation on a rotatory chair with virtual reality to test how vestibular signals are processed to simulate the viewpoint of a distant avatar. While they were rotated, participants tossed a ball to a virtual character from the viewpoint of a distant avatar. Our results showed that vestibular signals influence perspective taking in a direction-specific way: participants were faster when their physical body rotated in the same direction as the mental rotation needed to take the avatar's viewpoint. In Experiment 2, participants realized 3D object mental rotations, which did not involve perspective taking, during the same whole-body vestibular stimulation. Our results demonstrated that vestibular stimulation did not affect 3D object mental rotations. Altogether, these data indicate that vestibular signals have a direction-specific influence on visuo-spatial perspective taking (self-centered mental imagery), but not a general effect on mental imagery. Findings from this study suggest that vestibular signals contribute to one of the most crucial mechanisms of social cognition: understanding others' actions.

  13. The Perspective Structure of Visual Space

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Luneburg’s model has been the reference for experimental studies of visual space for almost seventy years. His claim for a curved visual space has been a source of inspiration for visual scientists as well as philosophers. The conclusion of many experimental studies has been that Luneburg’s model does not describe visual space in various tasks and conditions. Remarkably, no alternative model has been suggested. The current study explores perspective transformations of Euclidean space as a model for visual space. Computations show that the geometry of perspective spaces is considerably different from that of Euclidean space. Collinearity but not parallelism is preserved in perspective space and angles are not invariant under translation and rotation. Similar relationships have shown to be properties of visual space. Alley experiments performed early in the nineteenth century have been instrumental in hypothesizing curved visual spaces. Alleys were computed in perspective space and compared with reconstructed alleys of Blumenfeld. Parallel alleys were accurately described by perspective geometry. Accurate distance alleys were derived from parallel alleys by adjusting the interstimulus distances according to the size-distance invariance hypothesis. Agreement between computed and experimental alleys and accommodation of experimental results that rejected Luneburg’s model show that perspective space is an appropriate model for how we perceive orientations and angles. The model is also appropriate for perceived distance ratios between stimuli but fails to predict perceived distances. PMID:27648222

  14. The Perspective Structure of Visual Space.

    PubMed

    Erkelens, Casper J

    2015-10-01

    Luneburg's model has been the reference for experimental studies of visual space for almost seventy years. His claim for a curved visual space has been a source of inspiration for visual scientists as well as philosophers. The conclusion of many experimental studies has been that Luneburg's model does not describe visual space in various tasks and conditions. Remarkably, no alternative model has been suggested. The current study explores perspective transformations of Euclidean space as a model for visual space. Computations show that the geometry of perspective spaces is considerably different from that of Euclidean space. Collinearity but not parallelism is preserved in perspective space and angles are not invariant under translation and rotation. Similar relationships have shown to be properties of visual space. Alley experiments performed early in the nineteenth century have been instrumental in hypothesizing curved visual spaces. Alleys were computed in perspective space and compared with reconstructed alleys of Blumenfeld. Parallel alleys were accurately described by perspective geometry. Accurate distance alleys were derived from parallel alleys by adjusting the interstimulus distances according to the size-distance invariance hypothesis. Agreement between computed and experimental alleys and accommodation of experimental results that rejected Luneburg's model show that perspective space is an appropriate model for how we perceive orientations and angles. The model is also appropriate for perceived distance ratios between stimuli but fails to predict perceived distances.

  15. Perspective View, San Andreas Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is California's famous San Andreas Fault. The image, created with data from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. This segment of the fault lies west of the city of Palmdale, Calif., about 100 kilometers (about 60 miles) northwest of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. Two large mountain ranges are visible, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains in the upper right. Another fault, the Garlock Fault lies at the base of the Tehachapis; the San Andreas and the Garlock Faults meet in the center distance near the town of Gorman. In the distance, over the Tehachapi Mountains is California's Central Valley. Along the foothills in the right hand part of the image is the Antelope Valley, including the Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve. The data used to create this image were acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    SRTM uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space

  16. Perspective View, San Andreas Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is the San Andreas Fault in an image created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. This segment of the fault lies west of the city of Palmdale, California, about 100 kilometers (about 60 miles) northwest of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. This area is at the junction of two large mountain ranges, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains on the right. Quail Lake Reservoir sits in the topographic depression created by past movement along the fault. Interstate 5 is the prominent linear feature starting at the left edge of the image and continuing into the fault zone, passing eventually over Tejon Pass into the Central Valley, visible at the upper left.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994

  17. Cryptobiosis: a new theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair

    2006-10-01

    article, I would like to present the idea that although cryptobiosis is obscure from a certain point of view, it makes sense within a scientific perspective suggesting that "organization becomes cause in the matter" [Strohman, R.C., 2000. Organization becomes cause in the matter. Nat. Biotechnol. 18, 575-576]. I present Bateson's idea that organisms have a "recursive hierarchical" form of organization [Neuman, Y., 2004. Meaning making in the immune system. Perspect. Biol. Med. 48, 320-327; Neuman, Y., in press. A theory of meaning. Inform. Sci.] and suggest that this form of organization allows bootstrapping through reversible process of computation as discussed by theoretical physicists [Bennett, C.H., 1982. The thermodynamics of computation-a review. Int. J. Theoret. Phys. 1, 905-940; Landauer and Bennett, 1985].

  18. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  19. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  20. SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN vSHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

  1. Effect of Computer-Aided Perspective Drawings on Spatial Orientation and Perspective Drawing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtulus, Aytac

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of computer-aided Perspective Drawings on eighth grade primary school students' achievement in Spatial Orientation and Perspective Drawing. The study made use of pre-test post-test control group experimental design. The study was conducted with thirty 8th grade students attending a primary school…

  2. The perspective awareness model - Eliciting multiple perspectives to formulate high quality decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, Laurel

    2013-07-01

    A great deal of attention is given to the importance of communication in environmental remediation and radioactive waste management. However, very little attention is given to eliciting multiple perspectives so as to formulate high quality decisions. Plans that are based on a limited number of perspectives tend to be narrowly focused whereas those that are based on a wide variety of perspectives tend to be comprehensive, higher quality, and more apt to be put into application. In addition, existing methods of dialogue have built-in limitations in that they typically draw from the predominant thinking patterns which focus in some areas but ignore others. This can result in clarity but a lack of comprehensiveness. This paper presents a Perspective Awareness Model which helps groups such as partnering teams, interagency teams, steering committees, and working groups elicit a wide net of perspectives and viewpoints. The paper begins by describing five factors that makes cooperation among such groups challenging. Next, a Perspective Awareness Model that makes it possible to manage these five factors is presented. The two primary components of this model --- the eight 'Thinking Directions' and the 'Shared Documentation' --- are described in detail. Several examples are given to illustrate how the Perspective Awareness Model can be used to elicit multiple perspectives to formulate high quality decisions in the area of environmental remediation and radioactive waste management. (authors)

  3. Approaching Adult Education Literature Using the Donlevy Template of Perspectives: A Focus on the Sociological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, James G.; Donlevy, Tia Rice

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the field of adult education, focusing on writings authored from a sociological perspective. Both descriptive and communitarian in focus, this perspective emphasizes the full social world of adults and works to develop morals, values, attitudes, and practices that will preserve and sustain a common social fabric. (Author/LRW)

  4. A Social Justice Perspective on Strengths-Based Approaches: Exploring Educators' Perspectives and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Morgan K. A.; Toope, Deborah Florence

    2011-01-01

    What does it mean to engage in strengths-based (SB) approaches from a social justice perspective? In this paper we explore the accounts of educators who work with youth experiencing social and educational barriers to describe what it might mean to engage in SB practices from a social justice perspective. Using data generated from interviews, we…

  5. Human adoption in evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Silk, J B

    1990-03-01

    Exploitation is a fundamental element of the parental strategies of many species of birds. Cuckoos, for example, lay their eggs in the nest of other birds, who often unwittingly rear the alien nestlings as their own. Nest parasitism is an efficient reproductive strategy for cuckoos, who do not have to worry about building a nest, incubating their eggs, or feeding their nestlings. But not all hosts respond passively to such intrusions. In response to parasitic cowbirds, for example, robins have evolved the ability to detect and selectively eject alien young from their nests. Human parenting strategies differ sharply from the strategies of cuckoos and robins. Unlike cuckoos, we are reluctant to allow our children to be raised by others. Unlike robins, we knowingly rear strange young. What makes human behavior toward children so different from that of cuckoos and robins? Humans seem to share a number of predispositions that facilitate successful adoptive relationships, and the desire to raise children seems to be pervasive among modern humans. Despite these commonalities, patterns of adoption transactions vary greatly among contemporary human societies. This paper considers the origins and causes of cross-cultural variation in human adoptive behavior from an evolutionary perspective.

  6. Male homosexuality: the adolescent's perspective.

    PubMed

    Remafedi, G

    1987-03-01

    Although homosexual activity is prevalent among US teenagers, adolescent homosexuality per se has been a poorly understood phenomenon. The purpose of this investigation is to describe the meaning and experience of homosexuality from the adolescent's perspective. Twenty-nine male teenagers, self-described as gay (79%) or bisexual (21%), volunteered to participate in a structured interview, the purpose of which was to examine the definition of homosexuality, the acquisition of a gay identity, and the impact of sexuality on family, peers, and community. The youths demonstrated well-established sexual identities by the consistency of their sexual fantasies, interests, and behaviors over time. Homosexuality was more frequently described as a general attraction to men (48%) and an indicator of positive personal attributes (33%) than as an isolated sexual behavior. The subjects reported strong negative attitudes from parents (43%) and friends (41%) toward their sexualities. Discrimination (37%), verbal abuse from peers (55%), and physical assaults (30%) were frequently cited problems. These stressors may place the boys at high risk for physical and psychosocial dysfunction.

  7. Infrastructure Commons in Economic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischmann, Brett M.

    This chapter briefly summarizes a theory (developed in substantial detail elsewhere)1 that explains why there are strong economic arguments for managing and sustaining infrastructure resources in an openly accessible manner. This theory facilitates a better understanding of two related issues: how society benefits from infrastructure resources and how decisions about how to manage or govern infrastructure resources affect a wide variety of public and private interests. The key insights from this analysis are that infrastructure resources generate value as inputs into a wide range of productive processes and that the outputs from these processes are often public goods and nonmarket goods that generate positive externalities that benefit society as a whole. Managing such resources in an openly accessible manner may be socially desirable from an economic perspective because doing so facilitates these downstream productive activities. For example, managing the Internet infrastructure in an openly accessible manner facilitates active citizen involvement in the production and sharing of many different public and nonmarket goods. Over the last decade, this has led to increased opportunities for a wide range of citizens to engage in entrepreneurship, political discourse, social network formation, and community building, among many other activities. The chapter applies these insights to the network neutrality debate and suggests how the debate might be reframed to better account for the wide range of private and public interests at stake.

  8. Patient Perspectives of Medical Confidentiality

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Pamela; Mora, Susan; Merz, Jon F; Jones, Nora L

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To lay the groundwork for a better understanding of patient views on medical confidentiality. DESIGN Studies were found by searching medline, bioethicsline, and selected bibliographies. Articles concerning physician perspectives or implications of legal and administrative regulations were excluded. Only peer-reviewed journal articles reporting original research on patients' confidentiality views and conduct were included. MAIN RESULTS Many patients are unaware of or misunderstand their legal or ethical right to medical confidentiality protections, which leads them to both over- and underestimate confidentiality protections. The possibility that medical information might be revealed, intentionally or not, to acquaintances in a clinic or other social community troubles patients as much as information release to insurers or employers. A significant minority of patients distrust confidentiality protections, leading some to report that they delay or forgo medical care. If doubtful that confidentiality will be upheld, patients will act independently to protect information. CONCLUSIONS Our review found a wider variety of understandings and beliefs about medical confidentiality among patients than are often indicated in the writings of practitioners or legal experts. As medical confidentiality regulations evolve, these differences need to be recognized and accounted for in interactions between practitioners and patients. PMID:12911650

  9. Interprofessional education: the student perspective.

    PubMed

    Lumague, Melodie; Morgan, Alisha; Mak, Diana; Hanna, Mary; Kwong, Joanne; Cameron, Colette; Zener, Dori; Sinclair, Lynne

    2006-06-01

    The Toronto Rehabilitation Institute (Toronto Rehab) is a current leader in the movement of interprofessional education (IPE) initiatives in Ontario, Canada. Nine students from seven different health care disciplines, including medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy, social work, and speech language pathology participated in the second IPE clinical placement in the winter of 2005 on Toronto Rehab's Stroke inpatient unit. In an effort to increase interprofessional collaboration, improve communication skills, foster respect and enhance knowledge of the different roles each discipline plays on the health care team, these students met together over a five week period and participated in interprofessional group sessions led by different health care professional leaders from the unit. This paper discusses the students' perspectives on this IPE experience and the corresponding benefits and challenges. All participants in the study recognized the importance of interprofessional teamwork in patient care and agreed that all health care education should include opportunities enabling them to develop the skills, behaviours and attitudes needed for interprofessional collaboration.

  10. Roaming: A Phase Space Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauguière, Frédéric A. L.; Collins, Peter; Kramer, Zeb C.; Carpenter, Barry K.; Ezra, Gregory S.; Farantos, Stavros C.; Wiggins, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    In this review we discuss the recently described roaming mechanism for chemical reactions from the point of view of nonlinear dynamical systems in phase space. The recognition of the roaming phenomenon shows the need for further developments in our fundamental understanding of basic reaction dynamics, as is made clear by considering some questions that cut across most studies of roaming: Is the dynamics statistical? Can transition state theory be applied to estimate roaming reaction rates? What role do saddle points on the potential energy surface play in explaining the behavior of roaming trajectories? How do we construct a dividing surface that is appropriate for describing the transformation from reactants to products for roaming trajectories? How should we define the roaming region? We show that the phase space perspective on reaction dynamics provides the setting in which these questions can be properly framed and answered. We illustrate these ideas by considering photodissociation of formaldehyde. The phase-space formulation allows an unambiguous description of all possible reactive events, which also allows us to uncover the phase space mechanism that explains which trajectories roam, as opposed to evolving toward a different reactive event.

  11. Schizophrenia—A Victim's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pushpa, K.

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on my own personal experience of having undergone “coma treatment” and being given approximately 37 coma injections between the period 1983–1993 despite the fact that I was not psychotic and was normal in every way. The experiences I had following the injections and the forcible administration of innumerable antipsychotics and drugs have shaped my perspective of what it is to be a victim of “iatrogenic” psychiatric treatment—iatrogenic because it induced symptoms of schizophrenia or at the least schizoidism in a normal person like me—an inability to think, feel, and reason, over time. I have also with my own eyes seen at least 7 or 8 women who look me (my clones) that has reinforced my belief that the injections split me. The British psychiatrist, Richard David Laing (Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 DVD [DVD]) also theorized that it is the division of the self that leads to the symptoms of schizophrenia such as splitting and fragmentation of the mind. PMID:18775845

  12. Schizotypy From a Developmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Debbané, Martin; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    The schizotypy construct focuses attention on the liability to develop schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, yet traditionally, the schizotypy models have put more emphasis on stress-vulnerability interactions rather than developmental dynamics of emerging risk for psychopathology. Indeed, developmental accounts of this emerging personality trait have rarely been explicitly formulated. In this position article, we wish to convey some of the basic developmental tenets of schizotypy, and how they can inform high-risk research. Firstly, we tackle the state vs trait issue to outline the possible relationship between high-risk states and trait schizotypy. Second, we review the evidence suggesting that the consolidation of schizotypy, encompassing its 3 main dimensions, could be considered as a developmental mediator between very early risk factors and transition into high-risk states. Importantly, developmental dynamics between endophenotypes, as well as transactional and epigenetics mechanisms should enter modern conceptualizations of schizotypy. Finally, we present a developmental psychopathology perspective of schizotypy sensitive to both the multifinality and equifinality of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. We conclude that schizotypy represents a crucial construct in a fully-developmental study of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. PMID:25548385

  13. Perspectives on the Sagebrush Rebellion

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdle, B.

    1984-03-01

    The Sagebrush Rebellion began in the late 1970s with the objective of transferring various categories of federally owned lands to the states. The movement was centered in western ''public lands'' states, where nearly half the total land area is in federal ownership. Within a relatively short period of time this objective was changed to one of ''privatizing'' federal lands, of selling these land into private ownership. While the Sagebrush Rebellion has been highly political in its activities, the movement can be viewed in the perspective of historical land disposition policies in the US. These policies were changed near the turn of the centruy from alienating public lands into private ownership to their retention and management by federal government. Confusion over the economics of building a free enterprise system based on private property rights, and the costs associated with building such as system, appear to have been major factors in changing land policies. Two important areas in which this occurred were the Homestead Act of 1862 and timber. The provisions of the Homestead Act imposed heavy costs on settlers, and these costs caused a reaction against the economic system that was being built. 15 references, 1 table.

  14. Perspective View, Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-01

    Italy's Mount Etna is the focus of this perspective view made from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Emission Radiometer (ASTER) image from NASA's Terra spacecraft overlaid on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topography. The image is looking south with dark lava flows from the 1600's (center) to 1981 (long flow at lower right) visible in the foreground and the summit of Etna above. The city of Catania is barely visible behind Etna on the bay at the upper left. In late October 2002, Etna erupted again, sending lava flows down the north and south sides of the volcano. The north flows are near the center of this view, but the ASTER image is from before the eruption. In addition to the terrestrial applications of these data for understanding active volcanoes and hazards associated with them such as lava flows and explosive eruptions, geologists studying Mars find these data useful as an analog to martian landforms and geologic processes. In late September 2002, a field conference with the theme of Terrestrial Analogs to Mars focused on Mount Etna, allowing Mars geologists to see in person the types of features they can only sample remotely. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03371

  15. Cosmological Inflation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, D.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately twenty five years ago a novel proposal was made to explain two of the outstanding cosmological conundrums, namely those of the Horizon Problem and the Flatness Problem of the Universe. These are the fact that widely separated parts of the sky that have never been in causal contact during the evolution of the Universe have apparently the same CMB temperature and the fact that the mean density of the Universe is very close to the critical one, i.e. very close to the density that separates the closed and open models. These coincidences implied that the corresponding initial condition of the Universe must have been set to exquisite accuracy. This novel proposal posted that at these very early times, the energy density of the Universe was dominated by a fluid which had the equation state attributed to the vacuum (i.e. dominated by tension rather than pressure) and that this led to an exponential expansion of the Universe which was "inflated" by many orders of magnitude of its original size. It was then shown that this "inflation" could provide a resolution of the above outstanding problems. The talk will cover the speaker's personal perspective and contributions to this idea and the subsequent developments over the following 25 years since its inception.

  16. Space Weather Research: Indian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Pant, Tarun Kumar; Choudhary, R. K.; Nandy, Dibyendu; Manoharan, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Space weather, just like its meteorological counterpart, is of extreme importance when it comes to its impact on terrestrial near- and far-space environments. In recent years, space weather research has acquired an important place as a thrust area of research having implications both in space science and technology. The presence of satellites and other technological systems from different nations in near-Earth space necessitates that one must have a comprehensive understanding not only of the origin and evolution of space weather processes but also of their impact on technology and terrestrial upper atmosphere. To address this aspect, nations across the globe including India have been investing in research concerning Sun, solar processes and their evolution from solar interior into the interplanetary space, and their impact on Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. In India, over the years, a substantial amount of work has been done in each of these areas by various agencies/institutions. In fact, India has been, and continues to be, at the forefront of space research and has ambitious future programs concerning these areas encompassing space weather. This review aims at providing a glimpse of this Indian perspective on space weather research to the reader and presenting an up-to-date status of the same.

  17. Evolutionary perspective in child growth.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2011-07-01

    Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child's growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment.

  18. Collective complexes--total perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alho, Päivi Marjaana

    2006-11-01

    A much greater part of our identity than we generally believe is collectively determined. Awareness of the causal link between identity, its connected values and the influence exerted by these values on perception is therefore crucial. In the implicit personality model of Peabody and Goldberg (1989), the apparent wide variety of human characteristics is broken down into three broad dimensions: general evaluation, impulse control and assertiveness. My hypothesis is that the regulation of impulses can be equated with the Jungian concept of the mother and father complexes, and assertiveness with the relation between individualism and collectivism. I have utilized Montgomery's perspective theory and Jung's concepts of the union of opposites, the complex and the shadow in order to provide an alternative interpretation of the implicit personality model. According to my interpretation, the traditional values of any culture can be read against these three dimensions. These values can be seen as the greatest treasure of a culture but, at the same time, they can also be devastating if they become complex-like.

  19. Novel Perspectives for Hadron Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-03-09

    I discuss several novel and unexpected aspects of quantum chromodynamics. These include: (a) the nonperturbative origin of intrinsic strange, charm and bottom quarks in the nucleon at large x; the breakdown of pQCD factorization theorems due to the lensing effects of initial- and final-state interactions; (b) important corrections to pQCD scaling for inclusive reactions due to processes in which hadrons are created at high transverse momentum directly in the hard processes and their relation to the baryon anomaly in high-centrality heavy-ion collisions; and (c) the nonuniversality of quark distributions in nuclei. I also discuss some novel theoretical perspectives in QCD: (a) light-front holography - a relativistic color-confining first approximation to QCD based on the AdS/CFT correspondence principle; (b) the principle of maximum conformality - a method which determines the renormalization scale at finite order in perturbation theory yielding scheme independent results; (c) the replacement of quark and gluon vacuum condensates by 'in-hadron condensates' and how this helps to resolve the conflict between QCD vacuum and the cosmological constant.

  20. Bipolar spectrum disorders. New perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, Andre; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Lam, Raymond W.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review new perspectives on diagnosis, clinical features, epidemiology, and treatment of bipolar II and related disorders. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified by searching MEDLINE and ClinPSYCH from January 1994 to August 2001 using the key words bipolar disorder, type II or 2; hypomania; spectrum; or variants. Reference lists from articles were reviewed. Overall, the quality of evidence was not high; we found no randomized controlled trials that specifically addressed bipolar II or bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). MAIN MESSAGE: Characterized by elevated mood cycling with depression, BSDs appear to be much more common than previously thought, affecting up to 30% of primary care patients presenting with anxiety or depressive symptoms. Hypomania, the defining feature of bipolar II disorder, is often not detected. Collateral information, semistructured interviews, and brief screening instruments could improve diagnosis. Antidepressants should be used with caution. The newer mood stabilizers or combinations of mood stabilizers might be the treatments of choice in the future. CONCLUSION: Family physicians, as primary providers of mental health care, should try to recognize and treat BSDs more frequently. These disorders are becoming increasingly common in primary care populations. PMID:12053634

  1. Molecular Evolution in Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Díaz, Edna

    2016-12-01

    In the 1960s, advances in protein chemistry and molecular genetics provided new means for the study of biological evolution. Amino acid sequencing, nucleic acid hybridization, zone gel electrophoresis, and immunochemistry were some of the experimental techniques that brought about new perspectives to the study of the patterns and mechanisms of evolution. New concepts, such as the molecular evolutionary clock, and the discovery of unexpected molecular phenomena, like the presence of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes, eventually led to the realization that evolution might occur at a different pace at the organismic and the molecular levels, and according to different mechanisms. These developments sparked important debates between defendants of the molecular and organismic approaches. The most vocal confrontations focused on the relation between primates and humans, and the neutral theory of molecular evolution. By the 1980s and 1990s, the construction of large protein and DNA sequences databases, and the development of computer-based statistical tools, facilitated the coming together of molecular and evolutionary biology. Although in its contemporary form the field of molecular evolution can be traced back to the last five decades, the field has deep roots in twentieth century experimental life sciences. For historians of science, the origins and consolidation of molecular evolution provide a privileged field for the study of scientific debates, the relation between technological advances and scientific knowledge, and the connection between science and broader social concerns.

  2. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-08-29

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications - minoxidil and finasteride - are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss.

  3. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  4. Perspective on Kraken Mare Shores

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-12

    This Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image is presented as a perspective view and shows a landscape near the eastern shoreline of Kraken Mare, a hydrocarbon sea in Titan's north polar region. This image was processed using a technique for handling noise that results in clearer views that can be easier for researchers to interpret. The technique, called despeckling, also is useful for producing altimetry data and 3-D views called digital elevation maps. Scientists have used a technique called radargrammetry to determine the altitude of surface features in this view at a resolution of approximately half a mile, or 1 kilometer. The altimetry reveals that the area is smooth overall, with a maximum amplitude of 0.75 mile (1.2 kilometers) in height. The topography also shows that all observed channels flow downhill. The presence of what scientists call "knickpoints" -- locations on a river where a sharp change in slope occurs -- might indicate stratification in the bedrock, erosion mechanisms at work or a particular way the surface responds to runoff events, such as floods following large storms. One such knickpoint is visible just above the lower left corner, where an area of bright slopes is seen. The image was obtained during a flyby of Titan on April 10, 2007. A more traditional radar image of this area on Titan is seen in PIA19046. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19051

  5. Scientific perspectives on music therapy.

    PubMed

    Hillecke, Thomas; Nickel, Anne; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2005-12-01

    What needs to be done on the long road to evidence-based music therapy? First of all, an adequate research strategy is required. For this purpose the general methodology for therapy research should be adopted. Additionally, music therapy needs a variety of methods of allied fields to contribute scientific findings, including mathematics, natural sciences, behavioral and social sciences, as well as the arts. Pluralism seems necessary as well as inevitable. At least two major research problems can be identified, however, that make the path stony: the problem of specificity and the problem of eclecticism. Neuroscientific research in music is giving rise to new ideas, perspectives, and methods; they seem to be promising prospects for a possible contribution to a theoretical and empirical scientific foundation for music therapy. Despite the huge heterogeneity of theoretical approaches in music therapy, an integrative model of working ingredients in music therapy is useful as a starting point for empirical studies in order to question what specifically works in music therapy. For this purpose, a heuristic model, consisting of five music therapy working factors (attention modulation, emotion modulation, cognition modulation, behavior modulation, and communication modulation) has been developed by the Center for Music Therapy Research (Viktor Dulger Institute) in Heidelberg. Evidence shows the effectiveness of music therapy for treating certain diseases, but the question of what it is in music therapy that works remains largely unanswered. The authors conclude with some questions to neuroscientists, which we hope may help elucidate relevant aspects of a possible link between the two disciplines.

  6. Entropy estimation in Turing's perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyi

    2012-05-01

    A new nonparametric estimator of Shannon's entropy on a countable alphabet is proposed and analyzed against the well-known plug-in estimator. The proposed estimator is developed based on Turing's formula, which recovers distributional characteristics on the subset of the alphabet not covered by a size-n sample. The fundamental switch in perspective brings about substantial gain in estimation accuracy for every distribution with finite entropy. In general, a uniform variance upper bound is established for the entire class of distributions with finite entropy that decays at a rate of O(ln(n)/n) compared to O([ln(n)]2/n) for the plug-in. In a wide range of subclasses, the variance of the proposed estimator converges at a rate of O(1/n), and this rate of convergence carries over to the convergence rates in mean squared errors in many subclasses. Specifically, for any finite alphabet, the proposed estimator has a bias decaying exponentially in n. Several new bias-adjusted estimators are also discussed.

  7. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1) screening; (2) physical training; (3) nutrition and rest; (4) specialized dance health care; and (5) becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. PMID:24379726

  8. Sustainability Transitions as new perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotmans, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sustainability transitions are radical transformations towards a sustainable society as a response to a number of persistent problems confronting contemporary modern societies. The most striking example of such a persistent problem is the current economic and financial crisis. This crisis is only a symptom of a deeper-lying systems crisis, which is rooted in the disbalance between overly consuming and producing during the last decennia on the one hand and exhausting our natural resources and materials on the other hand. The perverse effects of this disbalance are not accounted for in the economic order that we have created. This means that the economic order is not sustainable in the long run. Without a fundamental shift, a transition, to a new, sustainable economy, we will revert to old patterns and mechanisms that will automatically generate the next crises. In this transition process we are at a turning point. On the verge of a new era, characterized by a battle of the old paradigm against the new one, with a crucial role for sustainable innovation. Such a transition perspective might help to unravel the unprecedented complexity of the interrelated economic, financial, energy and climate crisis and to shed some light on structural, sustainable solutions.

  9. Assisted reproductive practice: religious perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Joscph G

    2005-03-01

    It is important to those who practise reproductive techniques to learn about different religious perspectives related to reproductive health problems. Religious groups are active in influencing the public regarding bioethical positions, and this is particularly evident with issues concerning procreation, abortion and infertility therapy. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. The attitude toward reproductive practice varies among Christian groups. While assisted reproduction is not accepted by the Vatican, it may be practised by Protestant, Anglican and other denominations. According to traditional Christian views, beginning at conception, the embryo has moral status as a human being, and thus most assisted reproductive technologies are forbidden. According to Islam, the procedures of IVF and embryo transfer are acceptable, although they can be performed only for husband and wife. Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. This paper presents the attitude of monotheistic religions to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning.

  10. Perspectives on exercise and wasting.

    PubMed

    Buskirk, E R

    1999-01-01

    Recommendations for endpoints in clinical trials of wasting that involve exercise should involve selection that clearly identifies the effects of exercise. Broad endpoints such as morbidity and mortality must be corrected for the effects of age, smoking, hypertension, etc. in order to gain adjusted information pertinent to exercise. Selection of variables related to physiological function although more specific i.e., maximal oxygen uptake, must still be viewed from the perspective that other variables may contribute to the values measured. Nevertheless, physiological information obtained from performance tests may well provide useful endpoints. In this regard, V02 max, heartrate and pulmonary ventilation at fixed work loads, muscular strength, reaction time, flexibility, blood gases, cardiac output, stroke volume, serum lactate, and properties of skeletal muscle such as mitochondria concentration and components related to muscle energetics, e.g., adenosine triphosphate. In addition exercise will definitely impact body mass and composition as well as configuration. The latter is assessable through utilization of somatogramography. Analysis of muscle depends on muscle biopsy and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Neither of these methods has been employed in clinical trials to the best of our knowledge. Thus, one needs evidence that exercise in the clinical trial provides a discrete effect on performance capabilities, body status and biologically important variables.

  11. [European perspectives of health telematics].

    PubMed

    Rienhoff, O; Verhey, J

    2005-06-01

    The European perspectives of the present German developments in the field of health telematics are discussed critically. It is pointed out that technical projects have been financed with considerable means in the EU, however with out having any lasting effect on the value of health telematics in the health systems of Europe. A decisive cause is that the "health" topic was not codified in the Roman contracts. The international, global market is a crucial factor for international development and thus also for the orientation of the German projects and their economical and political success. The USA plays a dominant role on the global market. Caused by different reasons a corresponding market potential in the EU cannot be expected in the foreseeable future. With regard to the new options provided by telematics, it is therefore recommended that the national health services be reorganized, thus increasing quality and efficiency. With regard to progressively individualized medical care, the subject of "health" should afterwards be included in the European contracts. In the long run, an adjustment of the systems and uniform use of telematics could be achieved. Till then the coordination between the national governments in the area of health politics is seen as the most effective means for European integration.

  12. Preschoolers’ Dietary Behaviours: Parents’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    TUCKER, PATRICIA; IRWIN, JENNIFER D.; HE, MEIZI; BOUCK, L. MICHELLE SANGSTER; POLLETT, GRAHAM

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Preschoolers’ dietary intake behaviours are described from the perspective of their parents. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents of preschoolers participated in this qualitative study. Ten semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted. Two experienced moderators facilitated all focus groups, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Strategies to ensure trustworthiness of the data were employed throughout the study. Two team members independently performed inductive content analysis. NVivo software was used to code the emerging themes. Results Parents identified food and food issues as key health-related behaviours among preschoolers. Parents discussed challenges to healthy eating, including time limitations and societal pressures, as well as methods for facilitating healthy food choices, including bribery, education, and being creative with food. Conclusions Dietary intake is on the minds of preschoolers’ parents. Unfortunately, some methods that parents currently use to promote healthy food choices may be more detrimental than beneficial for children in the long term. Parents’ keen interest in their preschoolers’ eating habits may make them particularly receptive to learning about and facilitating healthy choices in more behaviourally appropriate ways. Widespread educational messages about the benefits and detriments of various strategies to facilitate healthy eating among preschoolers therefore seem warranted. PMID:16759432

  13. Voluntary euthanasia: a utilitarian perspective.

    PubMed

    Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.

  14. A Chemical Perspective on Allostery.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Andre A S T; Ortiz, Vanessa

    2016-06-08

    Much work has been done in the past decade to quantify the phenomenon of allosteric communication in proteins. Every new study unveils an extra piece of the puzzle in our search for an understanding of allostery that allows us to make predictions on the response of a protein to medically relevant stimuli such as pathological mutations or drug binding. This review summarizes recent advances in the analysis of mechanisms of allosteric communication in proteins, and combines this new knowledge to offer a perspective of allostery which is consistent with chemical views of molecular processes. First, we review recent work, particularly computational, on the characterization of signal propagation and conformational changes in allosteric proteins. We then compare different models of allostery, and discuss the significance of the concept of an allosteric pathway. We argue that allostery can be rationalized in terms of pathways of residues that efficiently transmit energy between different binding sites. We then provide examples that show how this picture could account for most of the observed data, since energy flow may be manifested as changes in both structure and dynamics. We conclude by acknowledging that the proposed view is still a simplification and should not be taken as a rigorous model of allosteric communication in proteins. Nevertheless, simple pictures like this can go a long way in improving our understanding of many complex phenomena observed in nature.

  15. Psychedelics, Personality and Political Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nour, Matthew M; Evans, Lisa; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2017-01-01

    The psychedelic experience (including psychedelic-induced ego dissolution) can effect lasting change in a person's attitudes and beliefs. Here, we aimed to investigate the association between naturalistic psychedelic use and personality, political perspectives, and nature relatedness using an anonymous internet survey. Participants (N = 893) provided information about their naturalistic psychedelic, cocaine, and alcohol use, and answered questions relating to personality traits of openness and conscientiousness (Ten-Item Personality Inventory), nature relatedness (Nature-Relatedness Scale), and political attitudes (one-item liberalism-conservatism measure and five-item libertarian-authoritarian measure). Participants also rated the degree of ego dissolution experienced during their "most intense" recalled psychedelic experience (Ego-Dissolution Inventory). Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that lifetime psychedelic use (but not lifetime cocaine use or weekly alcohol consumption) positively predicted liberal political views, openness and nature relatedness, and negatively predicted authoritarian political views, after accounting for potential confounding variables. Ego dissolution experienced during a participant's "most intense" psychedelic experience positively predicted liberal political views, openness and nature relatedness, and negatively predicted authoritarian political views. Further work is needed to investigate the nature of the relationship between the peak psychedelic experience and openness to new experiences, egalitarian political views, and concern for the environment.

  16. [Nursing care perspectives and foresights

    PubMed

    Lecordier, Didier; Jovic, Ljiljana

    2016-12-01

    As a continuation of its work and of the seminar on nursing sciences education in 2014, the “Association de recherche en soins infirmiers” (Arsi) organized a seminar on the 3rd and-4th of June 2016 in Nantes entitled : “nursing : perspectives and foresights”. More than fifty participants from the francophone area representing various sectors of practice : clinical, teaching, management and students gathered to debate and produce benchmarks to support the development of nursing sciences in France and to draw future directions for clinical practice and training. The successive sessions made it possible to reflect, to confront opinions, to make proposals and to identify the terms of the problematic of care and nursing knowledge today and the methodological elements relating to foresight. At the end of this very creative seminar, new avenues of reflection emerged shifting our usual look at the nurse profession. Orientations for training and practice have been defined with different stakes depending on the level of training and professional commitment. The strong links between professional, scientific and academic discipline have also been clarified, highlighting the importance to hold a high theoretical and scientific requirement, rigorous clinical practice, strong professional commitment and effective leadership.

  17. Swedish health care in perspective.

    PubMed

    Anderson, O W

    1992-01-01

    The evolution and current problems of the Swedish health services are placed in an international comparative perspective with other industrially developed democratic states as to cost control, distribution of facilities and personnel, management of waiting lists for services, and differences in use of services. All of these countries are experiencing the same aforementioned problems differing mainly in degree. It is suggested that Sweden as well as other countries needs to reconceptualize the meaning of equality of access relative to the apparent emergence of private insurance as waiting lists grow for quality of life procedures such as lens and hip replacement. A concept of a basic service for everybody and so-called luxury service for those who wish to buy it needs to be faced in political debate. It is clear that government is unable to finance and supply the range of demand of a consumption good represented by a modern medicine. In so far as Sweden has been regarded as a model it appears that no country is a model anymore. The complexities of a modern health service has overwhelmed all countries and can be regarded as a sublime loss of innocence.

  18. Evolutionary Perspective in Child Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Ze’ev

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child’s growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment. PMID:23908815

  19. Biocultural perspectives on women's health.

    PubMed

    1997-04-01

    During the 1997 meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a session was devoted to biocultural perspectives on women's health in developing countries. The topics covered included female circumcision conducted as part of the traditional wedding ceremony of the Rendille people of Kenya and the deleterious effect of sociocultural factors such as acceptance of premarital sexual intercourse and early child-bearing on the health of adolescent girls in West Africa. A study in Bangladesh sought information on women's health during pregnancy and lactation. Using 19,000 paired questionnaires and urine samples from 493 women representing all reproductive states, pregnancy-related sickness (such as nausea and vomiting) was correlated to hormone levels, maternal age, and fetal loss. Preliminary results contradict a popular belief that incidence of pregnancy-related sickness is associated with a lowered risk of early fetal loss. Another study in Bangladesh revealed that previous research indicating that women in Bangladesh experience menopause eight years sooner than US women was inaccurate. The two-year earlier onset of menopause found in Bangladesh is likely caused by stress-related anovulation. A preliminary literature review has also shown that Bangladeshi women lack significant amounts of phytoestrogens in their diet. Improved knowledge of biocultural factors is sought as a prerequisite for improving medical treatment in developed and developing countries.

  20. Perspective View of Ishtar Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This perspective view of Ishtar Terra was derived from data obtained by the Pioneer Venus spacecraft's altimetry radar instrument. Ishtar viewed from the west (bottom of image) is centered at about 65 degrees north latitude and 0 degrees longitude. Ishtar (approximately equal in size to Australia) is a large plateau standing 3.3 km above the surrounding lowlands, bounded by relatively steep slopes. Rising above this plateau are three massifs: Akna Montes and Freyja Montes along the western and northwestern edge of Lakshmi Planum, and Maxwell Montes along its eastern edge. The eastern part of Ishtar, east of Maxwell, is a complex hilly terrain 1 km lower than Lakshmi Planum that lacks the steep well-defined boundary slopes that characterize the plateau. Maxwell Montes, highest point on the planet is elevated more than 10 km (32,000 ft) above the surrounding lowlands. Color-coded altimetry shows elevations in .5 and 1 km intervals. Cool colors mark low elevations and warm colors mark high elevations

  1. The care perspective and autonomy.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, M A

    2001-01-01

    In this article I wish to show how care ethics puts forward a fundamental critique on the ideal of independency in human life without thereby discounting autonomy as a moral value altogether. In care ethics, a relational account of autonomy is developed instead. Because care ethics is sometimes criticized in the literature as hopelessly vague and ambiguous, I shall begin by elaborating on how care ethics and its place in ethical theory can be understood. I shall stipulate a definition of care ethics as a moral perspective or orientation from which ethical theorizing can take place. This will mean that care ethics is more a stance from which we can theorize ethically, than ready-made theory in itself. In conceiving care ethics in this way, it becomes possible to make clear that, for instance, a moral concept of autonomy is not abandoned, but instead is given a particular place and interpretation. In the final part of this article I will show how 'relational autonomy' can be applied fruitfully in the practice of psychiatric care.

  2. Cultured Meat in Islamic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Mohammad Naqib; Post, Mark J; Ramli, Mohd Anuar; Mustafa, Amin Rukaini

    2017-04-29

    Cultured meat is a promising product that is derived through biotechnology that partially circumvents animal physiology, thereby being potentially more sustainable, environmentally friendly and animal friendly than traditional livestock meat. Such a novel technology that can impact many consumers evokes ethical, philosophical and religious discussions. For the Islamic community, the crucial question is whether cultured meat is halal, meaning compliant with Islamic laws. Since the culturing of meat is a new discovery, invention and innovation by scientists that has never been discussed by classical jurists (fuqaha'), an ijtihad by contemporary jurists must look for and provide answers for every technology introduced, whether it comply the requirements of Islamic law or not. So, this article will discuss an Islamic perspective on cultured meat based on the original scripture in the Qur'an and interpretations by authoritative Islamic jurists. The halal status of cultured meat can be resolve through identifying the source cell and culture medium used in culturing the meat. The halal cultured meat can be obtained if the stem cell is extracted from a (Halal) slaughtered animal, and no blood or serum is used in the process. The impact of this innovation will give positive results in the environmental and sustain the livestock industry.

  3. Cosmological Inflation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, D.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately twenty five years ago a novel proposal was made to explain two of the outstanding cosmological conundrums, namely those of the Horizon Problem and the Flatness Problem of the Universe. These are the fact that widely separated parts of the sky that have never been in causal contact during the evolution of the Universe have apparently the same CMB temperature and the fact that the mean density of the Universe is very close to the critical one, i.e. very close to the density that separates the closed and open models. These coincidences implied that the corresponding initial condition of the Universe must have been set to exquisite accuracy. This novel proposal posted that at these very early times, the energy density of the Universe was dominated by a fluid which had the equation state attributed to the vacuum (i.e. dominated by tension rather than pressure) and that this led to an exponential expansion of the Universe which was "inflated" by many orders of magnitude of its original size. It was then shown that this "inflation" could provide a resolution of the above outstanding problems. The talk will cover the speaker's personal perspective and contributions to this idea and the subsequent developments over the following 25 years since its inception.

  4. Autism and epilepsy: historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, Roberto; Cuccaro, Michael; Alessandri, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy co-occur in approximately 30% of individuals with either ASD or epilepsy. While there is no single unifying ASD-epilepsy phenotype, understanding potential commonalities in subgroups of children with an ASD-epilepsy phenotype will help us disentangle the pathophysiology of both ASD and epilepsy. Throughout this brief historical perspective we selectively review critical trends in ASD-epilepsy research and highlight challenges to clinical and research efforts including terminology, heterogeneity of both ASD and epilepsy, and lack of careful characterization of children affected with both ASD and epilepsy. These complex issues continue to burden research on the diagnosis, neurobiology and management of children with ASD and epilepsy. A key concept that has emerged during the past 40 years is the strong association between intellectual disability and a higher prevalence of epilepsy in individuals with ASD. In addition, the two peaks of seizure onset, one in early childhood and one in adolescence and continuing through adulthood may be unique to individuals with ASD. The overlap of language and autistic regression to epilepsy, EEG epileptiform activity, sleep, and to epileptic encephalopathies such as Landau-Kleffner syndrome continue to be controversial areas of research and of clinical interest. An emerging consensus is that shared developmental genetic, molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms exist and account for the common co-occurrence of ASD and epilepsy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Perspective on Tau Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Peter C

    1998-11-10

    It will soon be the twenty fifth anniversary of the discovery of the tau lepton. It has been an amazing twenty five years for tau physics and for the strong interaction physics that can be deduced from studies of tau decays. The discovery of the tau was based on the elucidation of the nature of about one hundred tau pairs. At this Fifth International Workshop on Tau Lepton Physics new results in tau physics are based on hundreds of thousands or even millions of tau pairs. In the next two decades we will see the data on tau pairs increase by at least a factor of ten. The theoretical work and theoretical understanding of tau physics and tau neutrino physics has also expanded enormously, and this theory will continue to grow in its reach and its depth. Given the vastness of this field and the recognition that there is always great uncertainty in predicting future directions and accomplishments in a scientific field; any perspective of the future of a scientific field is substantially dependent on the author's opinions and guesses. I have limited this talk to seven topics: tau research facilities in the next decades, searching for unexpected tau decay modes, searching for additional tau decay mechanisms, radiative tau decays, tau decay modes of the W, B, and D, searching for CP violation in tau decay, and rethinking the Tau-Charm factory.

  6. Prophylactic oophorectomy: a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Moscucci, Ornella; Clarke, Aileen

    2007-01-01

    Removal of a woman's ovaries (known as bilateral oophorectomy, ovariectomy or, historically, ovariotomy) is undertaken in a number of countries. An estimated 19 000 women aged <60 years had a bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy in the UK in 2003, either as a planned response to an increased specific genetic risk of ovarian or breast cancer or, more frequently, as a prophylactic measure to prevent ovarian cancer. Despite its popularity, however, a full evaluation of the risks, costs and benefits of prophylactic oophorectomy in the absence of genetic markers and at the time of hysterectomy has not yet been undertaken. This paper seeks to provide a historical perspective on current practice by outlining approaches to the ovary in Britain from the 19th century onwards. Historically, ovarian removal has raised many questions about the costs and benefits of surgery. The aim of this article is to highlight the issues, and in so doing, to contribute to a more informed assessment of current practice. PMID:17325391

  7. Adapting perspectives to facilitate knowledge assimilation

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R.L.; Webster, R.B.

    1998-12-31

    The notion of perspective when supported in knowledge representation can allow the representation of multiple and varying points of view, some of which may even be inconsistent with one another. In an object-based knowledge representation methodology created and used by the authors, a perspective is defined by consolidating a number of objects and a number of those objects` associated attributes and methods into a view. This view can help partition a knowledge domain into separate portions. A separate portion represents an individual`s view of the knowledge domain. Representation of multiple and varying perspectives may add to the existing knowledge as well as reveal paths to additional knowledge. A simple example is presented where perspectives are used to represent game playing strategies and levels of expertise in those strategies. Players` perspectives are adapted and changed to provide additional knowledge and insight into further game playing strategies. Results show improvement in the playing of the games. Additionally, a more complex problem for applying these techniques is introduced.

  8. Functional foods: Latin American perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lajolo, Franco M

    2002-11-01

    The perspectives of Latin America as a potential producer and consumer of functional foods will depend largely on the level of information and income of the population, credibility of the products, research investments and regulatory practices. The characteristics of Latin America are diverse at the regional and sub-regional levels. However, as part of the demographic and epidemiological transition currently underway, common trends can be identified such as increasing urbanization and life expectancy, the occurrence of obesity and malnutrition, increasing incidences of chronic diseases and causes of mortality rates, all of which suggests the importance of diet and functional foods in public health policies. The Latin American population in general has no knowledge of functional foods, but in the more urbanized areas there is an increasingly health-conscious consumer, aware of the importance of food for health, due to the media and local traditions. More investment in research is important to explore the existing plant biodiversity that is a rich source of new foods and bioactive compounds, some of which are already used for health improvement and well-being. Clinical validation of functional foods should consider functional food science concepts and also the diverse cultural and genetic background of the local population. In Latin American scientific and regulatory communities, the functional foods concept has been associated with foods having health benefits beyond those of basic nutrition but is not defined officially in the emerging regulatory codes. Regulation existing in some countries is focused on safety and efficacy; both functional and health claims are allowed (risk reduction) provided they have scientific validation. This allowed introduction on the market of several products with health claims, some of them submitted to post-marketing surveillance.

  9. Dignity therapy: family member perspectives.

    PubMed

    McClement, Susan; Chochinov, Harvey Max; Hack, Thomas; Hassard, Thomas; Kristjanson, Linda Joan; Harlos, Mike

    2007-10-01

    Dignity Therapy is a novel therapeutic intervention designed to address psychosocial and existential distress among the terminally ill. This brief, individualized approach to end-of-life care invites patients to discuss issues that are most important to them and to articulate things they would most want remembered as death draws near. These discussions and recollections are recorded, transcribed, and edited into a generativity document, which are usually given to family or loved ones. While the marked benefits of Dignity Therapy on patients' psychosocial and existential distress have been reported elsewhere, this paper presents data on bereft family members' perspectives regarding the impact of dignity therapy on patients and themselves. Sixty family members of deceased terminally ill patients who previously took part in Dignity Therapy completed a questionnaire to elicit feedback about the impact of Dignity Therapy on both the dying patient and themselves. Ninety-five percent of participants reported that Dignity Therapy helped the patient; 78% reported that it heightened the patient's sense of dignity; 72% reported that it heightened the patient's sense of purpose; 65% reported that it helped the patient prepare for death; 65% reported that it was as important as any other aspect of the patient's care; and 43% reported that Dignity Therapy reduced the patient's suffering. Regarding family members, 78% reported that the generativity document helped them during their time of grief; 77% reported that the document would continue to be a source of comfort for their families and themselves; and 95% reported they would recommend Dignity Therapy to other patients of family members confronting a terminal illness. Family members endorse Dignity Therapy as a therapeutic intervention that moderates their bereavement experiences and lessens suffering and distress in terminally ill relatives.

  10. [Current perspectives in cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Valdespino Gómez, Víctor M; Valdespino Castillo, Víctor E

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a Public Health problem among women worldwide, especially in the developing world. The understanding of the HPV association with the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer and the knowledge of the pre-invasive lesions natural history have strengthened the justification of different means of cancer prevention and screening programs, the application of different pre-invasive lesion treatments and particularly advances in conventional treatments of cervical cancer. In the last thirty years, cervical cancer's incidence and mortality rates have decreased in more than 75% in developed nations due to efficient application of secondary prevention based on cytology and colposcopy screening programs plus to in-office implementation of precursor lesions treatment methods. In the developing nations, these achievements can be obtained using specific steps of primary prevention, massive participation of risk patients in screening programs and improving ambulatory application of pre-invasive cervical lesion treatments. In Mexico several indicators suggest that this condition has began. New knowledge paradigms of the local immune response to HPV-cervical cancer pre-invasive and invasive lesions are being added to the construction of new preventive and therapeutic anti-cancer strategies. The preventive vaccines anti-high risk oncogenic-HPVs offer a good perspective in short term, also the use of different cellular immunotherapy strategies anti-cervical cancer as adyuvant of conventional treatments offer an encouraging panorama in not long term. In the next years, the improving of specific genes determination and their correlation with biologic features of the specific tumor which are involved on pre-invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer will raise the understanding and the treatment of these patients.

  11. Bright perspectives for nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Habs, D.

    2014-05-01

    With the advent of new high-power, short-pulse laser facilities in combination with novel technologies for the production of highly brilliant, intense γ beams (like, e.g., Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in Bucharest, MEGaRay in Livermore or a planned upgrade of the HIγS facility at Duke University), unprecedented perspectives will open up in the coming years for photonuclear physics both in basic sciences as in various fields of applications. Ultra-high sensitivity will be enabled by an envisaged increase of the γ-beam spectral density from the presently typical 102γ/eVs to about 104γ/eVs, thus enabling a new quality of nuclear photonics [1], assisted by new γ-optical elements [2]. Photonuclear reactions with highly brilliant γ beams will allow to produce radioisotopes for nuclear medicine with much higher specific activity and/or more economically than with conventional methods. This will open the door for completely new clinical applications of radioisotopes [3]. The isotopic, state-selective sensitivity of the well-established technique of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) will be boosted by the drastically reduced energy bandwidth (<0.1%) of the novel γ beams. Together with a much higher intensity of these beams, this will pave the road towards a γ-beam based non-invasive tomography and microscopy, assisting the management of nuclear materials, such as radioactive waste management, the detection of nuclear fissile material in the recycling process or the detection of clandestine fissile materials. Moreover, also secondary sources like low-energy, pulsed, polarized neutron beams of high intensity and high brilliance [4] or a new type of positron source with significantly increased brilliance, for the first time fully polarized [5], can be realized and lead to new applications in solid state physics or material sciences.

  12. New perspectives on brachiation mechanics.

    PubMed

    Bertram, John E A

    2004-01-01

    This review is designed to evaluate and interpret studies relevant to the locomotory mode known as brachiation, particularly as performed by the Hylobatid apes: the gibbon and siamang species. The older literature and its conclusions are evaluated against recent work performed by the author and other research groups working on brachiation models, either computer simulations or physical robots. The gibbon displays two types of brachiation: continuous contact, analogous to walking, and ricochetal, analogous to running. Both brachiation gaits display substantial pendular exchange between kinetic and potential energy. However, the fundamental feature of either of these gaits is the minimization of collisional energy loss. Collisional energy loss due to discontinuities in the trajectory of the center of mass is emerging as key in understanding locomotion using limbs in any terrestrial environment. The insight gained from this perspective applied to gibbon locomotion demonstrates that this is a critical factor in understanding many of the maneuvers employed by these animals, and can provide novel new interpretations of the morphological specializations that characterize the group. It is observed that these animals could brachiate using either totally active (muscle powered) or totally passive (nonmuscular) mechanisms. The active option would be metabolically costly, but provides substantial motion plasticity, while the passive option has the potential for profound economy, but does not allow a means to effectively contend with the inconsistencies present in the animal's natural environment. The conclusion is that the body form of brachiators and the locomotion behaviors they exhibit are a compromise between these two extremes, and these features of the gibbon's biology can only be understood by recognizing the role of collisional energy loss and evaluating both passive and active motion options together. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Future perspectives on nonmedical prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Derek; Jebara, Tesnime; Cunningham, Scott; Awaisu, Ahmed; Pallivalapila, Abdulrouf; MacLure, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Many countries have implemented nonmedical prescribing (NMP) and many others are scoping prescribing practices with a view to developing NMP. This paper provides a future perspective on NMP in light of findings of an umbrella review of aspects of NMP. This is followed by coverage of the Scottish Government strategy of pharmacist prescribing and finally, consideration of two key challenges. The review identified seven systematic reviews of influences on prescribing decision-making, processes of prescribing, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Decision making was reported as complex with many, and often conflicting, influences. Facilitators of NMP included perceived improved patient care and professional autonomy, while barriers included lack of defined roles and resource pressures. Three systematic reviews explored patient outcomes that were noted to be equivalent or better to physician prescribing. In particular, a Cochrane review of 46 studies of clinical, patient-reported, and resource-use outcomes of NMP compared with medical prescribing showed positive intervention-group effects. Despite positive findings, authors highlighted high bias, poor definition and description of ‘prescribing’ and the ‘prescribing process’ and difficulty in separating NMP effects from the contributions of other healthcare team members. While evidence of benefit and safety is essential to inform practice, for NMP to be implemented and sustained on a large scale, there needs to be clear commitment at the highest level. The approach being taken by the Scottish Government to pharmacist prescribing implementation may inform developments in other professions and countries. The vision is that by 2023, all pharmacists providing pharmaceutical care will be pharmacist-independent prescribers. There are, however, challenges to implementing NMP into working practice; two key challenges are the need for sustainable models of care and evaluation research. These challenges could

  14. Future perspectives on nonmedical prescribing.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Derek; Jebara, Tesnime; Cunningham, Scott; Awaisu, Ahmed; Pallivalapila, Abdulrouf; MacLure, Katie

    2017-06-01

    Many countries have implemented nonmedical prescribing (NMP) and many others are scoping prescribing practices with a view to developing NMP. This paper provides a future perspective on NMP in light of findings of an umbrella review of aspects of NMP. This is followed by coverage of the Scottish Government strategy of pharmacist prescribing and finally, consideration of two key challenges. The review identified seven systematic reviews of influences on prescribing decision-making, processes of prescribing, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Decision making was reported as complex with many, and often conflicting, influences. Facilitators of NMP included perceived improved patient care and professional autonomy, while barriers included lack of defined roles and resource pressures. Three systematic reviews explored patient outcomes that were noted to be equivalent or better to physician prescribing. In particular, a Cochrane review of 46 studies of clinical, patient-reported, and resource-use outcomes of NMP compared with medical prescribing showed positive intervention-group effects. Despite positive findings, authors highlighted high bias, poor definition and description of 'prescribing' and the 'prescribing process' and difficulty in separating NMP effects from the contributions of other healthcare team members. While evidence of benefit and safety is essential to inform practice, for NMP to be implemented and sustained on a large scale, there needs to be clear commitment at the highest level. The approach being taken by the Scottish Government to pharmacist prescribing implementation may inform developments in other professions and countries. The vision is that by 2023, all pharmacists providing pharmaceutical care will be pharmacist-independent prescribers. There are, however, challenges to implementing NMP into working practice; two key challenges are the need for sustainable models of care and evaluation research. These challenges could be met by

  15. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yao, Katharine; Sisco, Mark; Bedrosian, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) in the United States among women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer, particularly young women. Approximately one-third of women <40 years old are undergoing CPM in the US. Most studies have shown that the CPM trend is mainly patient-driven, which reflects a changing environment for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. The most common reason that women choose CPM is based on misperceptions about CPM's effect on survival and overestimation of their contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. No prospective studies have shown survival benefit to CPM, and the CBC rate for most women is low at 10 years. Fear of recurrence is also a big driver of CPM decisions. Nonetheless, studies have shown that women are mostly satisfied with undergoing CPM, but complications and subsequent surgeries with reconstruction have been associated with dissatisfaction with CPM. Studies on surgeon's perspectives on CPM are sparse but show that the most common reasons surgeons discuss CPM with patients is because of a suspicious family history or for a patient who is a confirmed BRCA mutation carrier. Studies on the cost-effectiveness of CPM have been conflicting and are highly dependent on patient's quality of life after CPM. Most recent guidelines for CPM are contradictory. Future areas of research include the development of interventions to better inform patients about CPM, modification of the guidelines to form a more consistent statement, longer term studies on CBC risk and CPM's effect on survival, and prospective studies that track the psychosocial effects of CPM on body image and sexuality.

  16. Fuel cells: A utilities perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessenius, Chris A.; Ang, Amos; Hamilton, Stephanie

    Southern California Edison (SCE) is actively assessing how to maximize the benefits from fuel cell power systems and other distributed generation (DG) technologies deployed along existing distribution level circuits. From a utility perspective, the viability of DG fuel cell systems increase as the technology matures and more "value-added" features are incorporated. As the number of DG projects grows in SCE's service territory and optimism increases about the potential uses, so does the need to better understand the impact wide-scale deployment may have on the performance of California's energy system. Understanding how DG technologies affect distribution level circuits and devising effective deployment strategies is essential for the technology to gain widespread acceptance and become an integral part of SCE's Transmission and Distribution (T&D) system planning. Simulation results are presented in this paper that indicate fuel cell systems combined with electronically switched power inverters capable or providing reactive power (a.k.a. VAR) support are more advantageous than fuel cell systems without such inverter features. In fact, for the SCE circuit analyzed, a strategically placed 2.5 MW fuel cell system with VAR support capabilities has a greater affect on circuit performance than a 3 MW fuel cell system without VAR support. Even though the 2.5 MW fuel cell system with VAR support inverter possesses 16.7% less power rating than the 3 MW system without VAR support, it was more effective in reducing circuit current flows, reducing distribution line losses, and maintaining circuit voltage within ±5% of 12.47 kilovolts (kV).

  17. Community dental clinics: providers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Bruce B; MacEntee, Michael I; Harrison, Rosamund; Hole, Rachelle; Mitton, Craig

    2013-06-01

    Not-for-profit community dental clinics attempt to address the inequities of oral health care for disadvantaged communities, but there is little information about how they operate. The objective of this article is to explain from the perspective of senior staff how five community dental clinics in British Columbia, Canada, provide services. The mixed-methods case study included the five not-for-profit dental clinics with full-time staff who provided a wide range of dental services. We conducted open-ended interviews to saturation with eight senior administrative staff selected purposefully because of their comprehensive knowledge of the development and operation of the clinics and supplemented their information with a year's aggregated data on patients, treatments, and operating costs. The interview participants described the benefits of integrating dentistry with other health and social services usually within community health centres, although they doubted the sustainability of the clinics without reliable financial support from public funds. Aggregated data showed that 75% of the patients had either publically funded or no coverage for dental services, while the others had employer-sponsored dental insurance. Financial subsidies from regional health authorities allowed two of the clinics to treat only patients who are economically vulnerable and provide all services at reduced costs. Clinics without government subsidies used the fees paid by some patients to subsidize treatment for others who could not afford treatment. Not-for-profit dental clinics provide dental services beyond pain relief for underserved communities. Dental services are integrated with other health and community services and located in accessible locations. However, all of the participants expressed concerns about the sustainability of the clinics without reliable public revenues. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Protist taxonomy: an ecological perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, Bland J

    2004-01-01

    This is an exploration of contemporary protist taxonomy within an ecological perspective. As it currently stands, the 'morphospecies' does not accommodate the information that might support a truly ecological species concept for the protists. But the 'morphospecies' is merely a first step in erecting a taxonomy of the protists, and it is expected to become more meaningful in the light of genetic, physiological and ecological research in the near future. One possible way forward lies in the recognition that sexual and asexual protists may all be subject to forces of cohesion that result in (DNA) sequence-similarity clusters. A starting point would then be the detection of 'ecotypes'--where genotypic and phenotypic clusters correspond; but for that we need better information regarding the extent of clonality in protists, and better characterization of ecological niches and their boundaries. There is some progress with respect to the latter. Using the example of a community of ciliated protozoa living in the stratified water column of a freshwater pond, it is shown to be possible to gauge the potential of protists to partition their local environment into ecological niches. Around 40 morphospecies can coexist in the superimposed water layers, which presumably represent different ecological niches, but we have yet to discover if these are discrete or continuously variable. It is a myth that taxonomic problems are more severe for protists than for animals and plants. Most of the fundamental problems associated with species concepts (e.g. asexuals, sibling species, phenotypic variation) are distributed across biota in general. The recent history of the status of Pfiesteria provides a model example of an integrated approach to solving what are essentially taxonomic problems. PMID:15253347

  19. A computational perspective on autism

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Ari; Patterson, Jaclyn Sky; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests as a heterogeneous set of social, cognitive, motor, and perceptual symptoms. This system-wide pervasiveness suggests that, rather than narrowly impacting individual systems such as affection or vision, autism may broadly alter neural computation. Here, we propose that alterations in nonlinear, canonical computations occurring throughout the brain may underlie the behavioral characteristics of autism. One such computation, called divisive normalization, balances a neuron’s net excitation with inhibition reflecting the overall activity of the neuronal population. Through neural network simulations, we investigate how alterations in divisive normalization may give rise to autism symptomatology. Our findings show that a reduction in the amount of inhibition that occurs through divisive normalization can account for perceptual consequences of autism, consistent with the hypothesis of an increased ratio of neural excitation to inhibition (E/I) in the disorder. These results thus establish a bridge between an E/I imbalance and behavioral data on autism that is currently absent. Interestingly, our findings implicate the context-dependent, neuronal milieu as a key factor in autism symptomatology, with autism reflecting a less “social” neuronal population. Through a broader discussion of perceptual data, we further examine how altered divisive normalization may contribute to a wide array of the disorder’s behavioral consequences. These analyses show how a computational framework can provide insights into the neural basis of autism and facilitate the generation of falsifiable hypotheses. A computational perspective on autism may help resolve debates within the field and aid in identifying physiological pathways to target in the treatment of the disorder. PMID:26170299

  20. [Future perspectives in parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Wretlind, A

    1989-10-01

    Some of the future perspectives of parenteral nutrition will most likely be related to the possibilities of improving the infusion solutions used. There are studies indicating that intravenous amino acid mixtures may produce better biochemical and clinical effects either by increasing the content of histidin, arginine, tyrosine, cysteine/cystine and branched chain amino acids or by adding glutamine, ornithin, ornithin-ketoglutaric acid, taurine and glutathion. Several possibilities of improving the intravenous fat emulsions have been studied and discussed. The use of medium chain fatty acid glycerides (MCT) instead of long chain fatty acid glycerides (LCT) may be of some value. Physical mixtures of LCT and MCT have been studied. Glycerides of both medium chain and long chain fatty acids of the same glycerol molecule ('structured lipids') have also been investigated. The omega-3-fatty acids (alfalinolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) have unique biochemical properties which may be beneficial in various clinical situations when parenteral nutrition is indicated. Intravenous fat emulsions containing triglycerides of these fatty acids are now being extensively investigated. The omega-3-fatty acids will change the pattern of eicosanoids formed, reduce the tendency to platelet aggregation, increase the resistance to endotoxins, and reduce the viscosity of the blood. Triglycerides of gamma linolenic acid have been considered to be of value in situations when there may be a reduced activity of delta-6-desaturase to transform linoleic acid to arachidonic acid. Many other known (carnitine, non-protein sources, vitamins and trace elements) or unknown nutrients may be found to be useful in order to improve the infusion solutions used in parenteral nutrition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Katharine; Sisco, Mark; Bedrosian, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) in the United States among women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer, particularly young women. Approximately one-third of women <40 years old are undergoing CPM in the US. Most studies have shown that the CPM trend is mainly patient-driven, which reflects a changing environment for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. The most common reason that women choose CPM is based on misperceptions about CPM’s effect on survival and overestimation of their contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. No prospective studies have shown survival benefit to CPM, and the CBC rate for most women is low at 10 years. Fear of recurrence is also a big driver of CPM decisions. Nonetheless, studies have shown that women are mostly satisfied with undergoing CPM, but complications and subsequent surgeries with reconstruction have been associated with dissatisfaction with CPM. Studies on surgeon’s perspectives on CPM are sparse but show that the most common reasons surgeons discuss CPM with patients is because of a suspicious family history or for a patient who is a confirmed BRCA mutation carrier. Studies on the cost–effectiveness of CPM have been conflicting and are highly dependent on patient’s quality of life after CPM. Most recent guidelines for CPM are contradictory. Future areas of research include the development of interventions to better inform patients about CPM, modification of the guidelines to form a more consistent statement, longer term studies on CBC risk and CPM’s effect on survival, and prospective studies that track the psychosocial effects of CPM on body image and sexuality. PMID:27382334

  2. Listening to Their Stories: Students' Perspectives about Campus Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Jim

    2006-01-01

    This chapter explores students' perspectives regarding campus gambling by listening to their gambling-related experiences and stories. Similarly, the chapter presents the perspective of a senior student affairs officer regarding campus gambling.

  3. Listening to Their Stories: Students' Perspectives about Campus Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Jim

    2006-01-01

    This chapter explores students' perspectives regarding campus gambling by listening to their gambling-related experiences and stories. Similarly, the chapter presents the perspective of a senior student affairs officer regarding campus gambling.

  4. The Social Role of Engineers: A Philosophical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1991-01-01

    The perspectives that distinguish engineers and the public they serve and the educational implications of those perspectives are discussed. The philosophies of utilitarianism, ethical egoism, positivism, and idealism are presented in terms of engineers and the public. (KR)

  5. Time perspective and physical activity among central Appalachian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gulley, Tauna

    2013-04-01

    Time perspective is a cultural behavioral concept that reflects individuals' orientations or attitudes toward the past, present, or future. Individuals' time perspectives influence their choices regarding daily activities. Time perspective is an important consideration when teaching adolescents about the importance of being physically active. However, little is known about the relationship between time perspective and physical activity among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the time perspective of central Appalachian adolescents and explore the relationship between time perspective and physical activity. This study was guided by The theory of planned behavior (TPB). One hundred and ninety-three students completed surveys to examine time perspective and physical activity behaviors. Data were collected in one school. Results of this study can inform school nurses and high school guidance counselors about the importance of promoting a future-oriented time perspective to improve physical activity and educational outcomes.

  6. The Social Role of Engineers: A Philosophical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1991-01-01

    The perspectives that distinguish engineers and the public they serve and the educational implications of those perspectives are discussed. The philosophies of utilitarianism, ethical egoism, positivism, and idealism are presented in terms of engineers and the public. (KR)

  7. Time Perspective in Vocational Maturity and Career Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the hypothesis that time perspective is a component in vocational maturity and career decision making with college freshmen (N=97). Results supported the hypothesis and specifically linked time perspective to planfulness and degree of indecision. (LLL)

  8. Broader Perspective on Ecosystem Sustainability: Consequences for Decision Making

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the concept of ecosystem sustainability has a long-term focus, it is often viewed from a static system perspective. Because most ecosystems are dynamic, we explore sustainability assessments from three additional perspectives: resilient systems; systems where tipping poi...

  9. Do humans spontaneously take the perspective of others?

    PubMed

    Cole, Geoff G; Atkinson, Mark; Le, An T D; Smith, Daniel T

    2016-02-01

    A growing number of authors have argued that humans automatically compute the visual perspective of other individuals. Evidence for this has come from the dot perspective task in which observers are faster to judge the number of dots in a display when a human avatar has the same perspective as the observer compared to when their perspectives are different. The present experiment examined the 'spontaneous perspective taking' claim using a variant of the dot perspective paradigm in which we manipulated what the avatar could see via physical barriers that either allowed the targets to be seen by the avatar or occluded this view. We found a robust 'perspective taking' effect despite the avatar being unable to see the same stimuli as the participant. These findings do not support the notion that humans spontaneously take the perspective of others.

  10. Broader Perspective on Ecosystem Sustainability: Consequences for Decision Making

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the concept of ecosystem sustainability has a long-term focus, it is often viewed from a static system perspective. Because most ecosystems are dynamic, we explore sustainability assessments from three additional perspectives: resilient systems; systems where tipping poi...

  11. Patient safety trilogy: perspectives from clinical engineering.

    PubMed

    Gieras, Izabella; Sherman, Paul; Minsent, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the role a clinical engineering or healthcare technology management (HTM) department can play in promoting patient safety from three different perspectives: a community hospital, a national government health system, and an academic medical center. After a general overview, Izabella Gieras from Huntington Hospital in Pasadena, CA, leads off by examining the growing role of human factors in healthcare technology, and describing how her facility uses clinical simulations in medical equipment evaluations. A section by Paul Sherman follows, examining patient safety initiatives from the perspective of the Veterans Health Administration with a focus on hazard alerts and recalls. Dennis Minsent from Oregon Health & Science University writes about patient safety from an academic healthcare perspective, and details how clinical engineers can engage in multidisciplinary safety opportunities.

  12. ICT4D: A Computer Science Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutinen, Erkki; Tedre, Matti

    The term ICT4D refers to the opportunities of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as an agent of development. Research in that field is often focused on evaluating the feasibility of existing technologies, mostly of Western or Far East Asian origin, in the context of developing regions. A computer science perspective is complementary to that agenda. The computer science perspective focuses on exploring the resources, or inputs, of a particular context and on basing the design of a technical intervention on the available resources, so that the output makes a difference in the development context. The modus operandi of computer science, construction, interacts with evaluation and exploration practices. An analysis of a contextualized information technology curriculum of Tumaini University in southern Tanzania shows the potential of the computer science perspective for designing meaningful information and communication technology for a developing region.

  13. Challenges and perspectives in quantitative NMR.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This perspective article summarizes, from the author's point of view at the beginning of 2016, the major challenges and perspectives in the field of quantitative NMR. The key concepts in quantitative NMR are first summarized; then, the most recent evolutions in terms of resolution and sensitivity are discussed, as well as some potential future research directions in this field. A particular focus is made on methodologies capable of boosting the resolution and sensitivity of quantitative NMR, which could open application perspectives in fields where the sample complexity and the analyte concentrations are particularly challenging. These include multi-dimensional quantitative NMR and hyperpolarization techniques such as para-hydrogen-induced polarization or dynamic nuclear polarization. Because quantitative NMR cannot be dissociated from the key concepts of analytical chemistry, i.e. trueness and precision, the methodological developments are systematically described together with their level of analytical performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Nature of Motor Control: Perspectives and Issues

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Fonseca, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Four perspectives on motor control provide the framework for developing a comprehensive theory of motor control in biological systems. The four perspectives, of decreasing orthodoxy, are distinguished by their sources of inspiration: neuroanatomy, robotics, self-organization, and ecological realities. Twelve major issues that commonly constrain (either explicitly or implicitly) the understanding of the control and coordination of movement are identified and evaluated within the framework of the four perspectives. The issues are as follows: (1) Is control strictly neural? (2) Is there a divide between planning and execution? (3) Does control entail a frequently involved knowledgeable executive? (4) Do analytical internal models mediate control? (5) Is anticipation necessarily model dependent? (6) Are movements preassembled? (7) Are the participating components context independent? (8) Is force transmission strictly myotendinous? (9) Is afference a matter of local linear signaling? (10) Is neural noise an impediment? (11) Do standard variables (of mechanics and physiology) suffice? (12) Is the organization of control hierarchical? PMID:19227497

  15. Health Disparities and Discrimination: Three Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; Krieger, Janice R.; Warren, Jennifer R.; Hecht, Michael L.; Okuyemi, Kola

    2010-01-01

    This article presents three perspectives on health discrimination and disparities, organized around different conceptualizations of the way “space” perpetuates health disparities. The first two perspectives are grounded in conceptualizing space in a physical sense by exploring the manifestation of discrimination as a problem both among and within nations. The third perspective juxtaposes geographical space with cyberspace. The internet, with its ability to blur sense of place, social demarcations, and behavior is often considered a panacea that can eliminate the health disparities. The internet, however, may not be fulfilling its promise as an equal source of health information for all and disparities related to international and rural geography remain problematic. Solutions are proposed for reducing health disparities based on The Principle of Cultural Grounding (Hecht & Krieger, 2006; Hecht & Miller-Day, in press). PMID:20694161

  16. Social constructivist perspectives on teaching and learning.

    PubMed

    Palincsar, A S

    1998-01-01

    Social constructivist perspectives focus on the interdependence of social and individual processes in the co-construction of knowledge. After the impetus for understanding the influence of social and cultural factors on cognition is reviewed, mechanisms hypothesized to account for learning from this perspective are identified, drawing from Piagetian and Vygotskian accounts. The empirical research reviewed illustrates (a) the application of institutional analyses to investigate schooling as a cultural process, (b) the application of interpersonal analyses to examine how interactions promote cognition and learning, and (c) discursive analyses examining and manipulating the patterns and opportunities in instructional conversation. The review concludes with a discussion of the application of this perspective to selected contemporary issues, including: acquiring expertise across domains, assessment, educational equity, and educational reform.

  17. Nanobiotech in big pharma: a business perspective.

    PubMed

    Würmseher, Martin; Firmin, Lea

    2017-03-01

    Since the early 2000s, numerous publications have presented major scientific opportunities that can be achieved through integrating insights from the area of nanotech into biotech (nanobiotech). This paper aims to explore the economic significance that nanobiotech has gained in the established pharmaceutical industry (big pharma). The empirical investigation draws on patent data as well as product revenue data; and to put the results into perspective, the amounts are compared with the established/traditional biotech sector. The results indicate that the new technology still plays only a minor role - at least from a commercial perspective.

  18. A Proper Perspective on the Twin Deficits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    the deficits may be imprudent. It would not be a disaster. Moreover, focusing on the deficits diverts attention from the economy’s more significant...toIC TILE Q tN I A PRlOPE l PERSPECTIVE ON THE TWIN DEFICITS Charles Wolf, Jr. May 1989 DTIC LECT I P-7565 • " ’ " ’ , v pcbc MwI I The RAND...Monies, CA 90406-2138 A PROPER PERSPECTIVE ON THE TWIN DEFICITS [1] by Charles Wolf, Jr. While it’s true that the deficit twins -- the budget deficit and

  19. Combined Operations a Commonwealth Caribbean Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-03

    America and the Caribbeanr 0 exC~ S , slnl estnOC NORTH*,a* I SUEldraasI Cal slnd A. TO.-, T HE 󈧐 C., Sillsan BAHAMAS Olti BCAAS ," Great’ f, Ca...COMBINED OPERATIONS A COMMONWEALTH CARIBBEAN PERSPECTIVE A Thesis presented to the Faculty of the U. S . Army Command and General Staff College in... S A COMMONWEALTH CARIBBEAN PERSPECTIVE A Thesis presented to the Faculty of the U. S . Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment

  20. Defining Cyberbullying: A Multiple Perspectives Approach.

    PubMed

    Alipan, Alexandra; Skues, Jason; Theiler, Stephen; Wise, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    To date, there has been a lack of consensus among researchers, practitioners, and laypersons about the definition of cyberbullying. Researchers have typically applied the key characteristics of intent to harm, power imbalance, and repetition from the definition of traditional bullying to cyberbullying, but how these characteristics transfer from the real world to a technology-mediated environment remains ambiguous. Moreover, very few studies have specifically investigated how cyberbullying is defined from the perspective of bullies, victims and bystanders. To this end, this article will propose a three-part definition of cyberbullying, which incorporates the perspective of bullies, victims and bystanders.

  1. Algorithmic Perspectives on Problem Formulations in MDO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Lewis, Robert Michael

    2000-01-01

    This work is concerned with an approach to formulating the multidisciplinary optimization (MDO) problem that reflects an algorithmic perspective on MDO problem solution. The algorithmic perspective focuses on formulating the problem in light of the abilities and inabilities of optimization algorithms, so that the resulting nonlinear programming problem can be solved reliably and efficiently by conventional optimization techniques. We propose a modular approach to formulating MDO problems that takes advantage of the problem structure, maximizes the autonomy of implementation, and allows for multiple easily interchangeable problem statements to be used depending on the available resources and the characteristics of the application problem.

  2. Least cost planning from a customer's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1992-03-02

    In this paper, I offer some thoughts about least cost planning, not from the perspective of the regulator or utility, but from the perspective of a residential customer. The problem that I address is, as a homeowner in northern Virginia, I am about to make a long term fuel choice for my household, where the options include, natural gas, electricity and fuel oil. An additional choice is the energy efficiency capital investment in my home that could decrease my monthly fuel costs. My decision process, hopefully as a rational consumer, offers implications about the efficiency of various services provided by all three fuel suppliers, including the local natural gas distribution companies (LDC).

  3. Mt. Pinatubo, Phillippines - Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the June 15, 1991, eruption of Mt. Pinatubo continue to affect the lives of people living near the volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The eruption produced a large amount of volcanic debris that was deposited on the flanks of the volcano as part of pyroclastic flows. This perspective view looking toward the east shows the western flank of the volcano where most of these pyroclastic flows were deposited.

    This debris consists of ash and boulders that mix with water after heavy rains to form volcanic mudflows called lahars. Lahars are moving rivers of concrete slurry that are highly erosive. They can sweep down existing river valleys, carving deep canyons where the slopes are steep, or depositing a mixture of fine ash and larger rocks on the gentler slopes. The deposits left from a lahar soon solidify into a material similar to concrete, but while they are moving, lahars are dynamic features, and in a single river valley the active channel may change locations within a few minutes or hours. These changes represent a significant natural hazard to local communities.

    The topographic data were collected by NASA's airborne imaging radar AIRSAR instrument on November 29, 1996. Colors are from the French SPOT satellite imaging data in both visible and infrared wavelengths collected in February 1996. Areas of vegetation appear red and areas without vegetation appear light blue. River valleys radiate out from the summit of the volcano (upper center). Since the eruption, lahars have stripped these valleys of any vegetation. The Pasig-Potrero River flows to the northeast off the summit in the upper right of the image.

    Scientists have been using airborne radar data collected by the AIRSAR instrument in their studies of the aftereffects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. AIRSAR collected imaging radar data over the volcano during a mission to the Pacific Rim region in late 1996 and on a follow-up mission to the area in late 2000. These data sets

  4. Perspective View, Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Italy's Mount Etna is the focus of this perspective view made from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Emission Radiometer (ASTER) image from NASA's Terra spacecraft overlaid on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topography. The image is looking south with dark lava flows from the 1600's (center) to 1981 (long flow at lower right) visible in the foreground and the summit of Etna above. The city of Catania is barely visible behind Etna on the bay at the upper left. In late October 2002, Etna erupted again, sending lava flows down the north and south sides of the volcano. The north flows are near the center of this view, but the ASTER image is from before the eruption.

    In addition to the terrestrial applications of these data for understanding active volcanoes and hazards associated with them such as lava flows and explosive eruptions, geologists studying Mars find these data useful as an analog to martian landforms and geologic processes. In late September 2002, a field conference with the theme of Terrestrial Analogs to Mars focused on Mount Etna, allowing Mars geologists to see in person the types of features they can only sample remotely.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

  5. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  6. The World Society Perspective: Concepts, Assumptions, and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.

    2012-01-01

    For decades the world society perspective has influenced comparative research on a broad range of issues across the social sciences. The perspective emerged to make sense of an empirical puzzle: why did nation-state after nation-state expand mass schooling after World War II? The perspective evolved to address broader issues such as the authority…

  7. A Framework for Understanding International Perspectives on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.

    2012-01-01

    International perspectives on education have existed since the first world travelers brought stories back from their travels abroad, but the ways these perspectives are presented and understood varies as much as the cultures and communities themselves. This introduction to international perspectives on education provides a framework, which relies…

  8. Taking versus Confronting Visual Perspectives in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Merzsch, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that 3-year-olds can take other people's visual perspectives not only when they perceive different things (Level 1) but even when they see the same thing differently (Level 2). One hypothesis is that 3-year-olds are good perspective takers but cannot confront different perspectives on the same object (Perner, Stummer,…

  9. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's Rhetorical and Ethical Perspective: A Novel Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Robert Allen

    In order to discover whether Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's rhetorical perspective has provided a unique ethical perspective of communication, a review of the literature on existing ethical perspectives of communication would be in order. Ronald C. Arnett and Richard L. Johannesen, two contemporary researchers, have provided thorough reviews of…

  10. Time Perspective and Physical Activity among Central Appalachian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulley, Tauna

    2013-01-01

    Time perspective is a cultural behavioral concept that reflects individuals' orientations or attitudes toward the past, present, or future. Individuals' time perspectives influence their choices regarding daily activities. Time perspective is an important consideration when teaching adolescents about the importance of being physically active.…

  11. Learning and Development: A Global Perspective. Symposium Series 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Alan, Ed.; Ploman, Edward W., Ed.

    Fourteen papers presented at the Global Learning Symposium examine the learning perspective and its relationship to problems of world development. The learning perspective is compared and contrasted with the education perspective to reflect the degree to which the distinction reveals new knowledge on existing problems. Papers and presenters are:…

  12. Perspective-Shifts in Event Descriptions in Tamil Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narasimhan, Bhuvana; Gullberg, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Children are able to take multiple perspectives in talking about entities and events. But the nature of children's sensitivities to the complex patterns of perspective-taking in adult language is unknown. We examine perspective-taking in four- and six-year-old Tamil-speaking children describing placement events, as reflected in the use of a…

  13. Watershed management perspectives in the Southwest: Past, present, and future

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Malchus B. Baker; Vicente L. Lopes

    2000-01-01

    Watershed management perspectives in the Southwest have been, are, and will be reflected by the nature of watershed management practices. Past perspectives evolved from considerations of increasing water yields and water quality concerns. Present perspectives are centered on minimizing adverse impacts to soil and water resources, sustaining high-quality water flows,...

  14. Perspective-Shifts in Event Descriptions in Tamil Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narasimhan, Bhuvana; Gullberg, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Children are able to take multiple perspectives in talking about entities and events. But the nature of children's sensitivities to the complex patterns of perspective-taking in adult language is unknown. We examine perspective-taking in four- and six-year-old Tamil-speaking children describing placement events, as reflected in the use of a…

  15. The World Society Perspective: Concepts, Assumptions, and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.

    2012-01-01

    For decades the world society perspective has influenced comparative research on a broad range of issues across the social sciences. The perspective emerged to make sense of an empirical puzzle: why did nation-state after nation-state expand mass schooling after World War II? The perspective evolved to address broader issues such as the authority…

  16. Time Perspective and Physical Activity among Central Appalachian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulley, Tauna

    2013-01-01

    Time perspective is a cultural behavioral concept that reflects individuals' orientations or attitudes toward the past, present, or future. Individuals' time perspectives influence their choices regarding daily activities. Time perspective is an important consideration when teaching adolescents about the importance of being physically active.…

  17. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's Rhetorical and Ethical Perspective: A Novel Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Robert Allen

    In order to discover whether Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's rhetorical perspective has provided a unique ethical perspective of communication, a review of the literature on existing ethical perspectives of communication would be in order. Ronald C. Arnett and Richard L. Johannesen, two contemporary researchers, have provided thorough reviews of…

  18. Dilemmas of Difference, Curriculum and Disability: International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwich, Brahm

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a comparative analysis of international perspectives about curriculum design relevant to disability in education. It was part of a larger study of the perspectives of 132 education practitioners and administrators in the UK, USA and the Netherlands on several dilemmas of difference. It also compares current perspectives to…

  19. Learning and Development: A Global Perspective. Symposium Series 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Alan, Ed.; Ploman, Edward W., Ed.

    Fourteen papers presented at the Global Learning Symposium examine the learning perspective and its relationship to problems of world development. The learning perspective is compared and contrasted with the education perspective to reflect the degree to which the distinction reveals new knowledge on existing problems. Papers and presenters are:…

  20. Taking someone else's spatial perspective: Natural stance or effortful decentring?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Gabriel; Spence, Charles; Auvray, Malika

    2016-03-01

    When perceiving stimuli, self-centred and decentred perspectives can be adopted. In the present study, we investigate whether perceivers have a natural perspective that constrains their spatial perception, with some people perceiving better with self-centred than decentred perspectives and vice versa for other people. We used a recognition task of tactile ambiguous letters (b, d, p, and q) presented on the stomach, for which three perspectives can be adopted (trunk-centred, head-centred, and decentred). At first, the participants were free to adopt any perspective they wanted. Then, either the same or a different perspective was imposed on them. Without constraints, 80% of the participants adopted a self-centred perspective (50% trunk-centred, 30% head-centred) and 20% a decentred one. The perspective adopted freely appears to be natural as recognition performance decreases with a different perspective and returns to its previous high level with the same perspective. Thus, to perceive space, some perceivers adopt naturally a perspective centred on themselves whereas others take naturally others' perspective.

  1. Taking versus Confronting Visual Perspectives in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Merzsch, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that 3-year-olds can take other people's visual perspectives not only when they perceive different things (Level 1) but even when they see the same thing differently (Level 2). One hypothesis is that 3-year-olds are good perspective takers but cannot confront different perspectives on the same object (Perner, Stummer,…

  2. Hernie inguinale en Afrique subsaharienne: quelle place pour la technique de Shouldice?

    PubMed Central

    Traoré, Drissa; Diarra, Lasseny; Coulibaly, Bréhima; Bengaly, Brehima; Togola, Birama; Traoré, Alhassane; Traoré, Hamady; Ongoïba, Nouhoum; Sissoko, Filifing; Koumaré, Abdel Karim

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif était d’étudier l'aspect épidémio-clinique et thérapeutique de la hernie inguinale selon la technique de Shouldice. Nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective, portant sur les patients opérés pour hernie inguinale selon la technique de Shouldice dans le service de chirurgie B du CHU du Point G, Bamako, Mali. Il a été enregistré 225patients opérés selon la technique de Shouldice. L’âge moyen était de 49 ans +/- 17,7. Il y avait 90,7% (204) hommes soit un sex-ratio de 9,7. Les cultivateurs, les ménagères et les ouvriers ont représenté 51,1% (115). Dans 75,2% (169) les patients ont consulté pour tuméfaction inguinale. En pré opératoire, la hernie était compliquée chez 82 (36,4%) patients dont 24 cas de récidive. L’étranglement herniaire a été la principale complication pré opératoire 58,5% (48/82). Les suites opératoires à un an ont été simples chez 94,2%(210) des patients; elles étaient marquées par 8 cas de récidive, 4 cas de névralgie, 2 cas d'atrophie testiculaire, 1 cas de chéloïde. La technique de Shouldice est la technique de choix pour la cure de la hernie inguinale dans les pays en voie de développement à cause du bon résultat et son coût peu onéreux par rapport aux autres techniques utilisant des dispositifs médicaux. PMID:26664551

  3. Quelling the Mythical Revolution in Higher Education: Retreat from the Affirmative Action Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestage, Jewel L.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the general status of Blacks in American graduate education and in political science and the South in particular. Available from The Journal of Politics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611; $5.00 per issue. (Author/IRT)

  4. Computers in Education: The Shape of Things to Come = L'informatique en education: Quelles Evolutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Georges-Louis

    1989-01-01

    Presents an overview of the evolution of ideas and achievements in the sphere of general secondary education. Emphasis is on the social aspects of the implementation of the various stages which were involved in the introduction and development of computer technology in educational systems in different countries. Both French and English versions…

  5. Epuisement du capital vasculaire en hémodialyse: quelle issue?

    PubMed Central

    Hajji, Meriam; Harzallah, Amel; Kaaroud, Hayet; Jerbi, Mona; Chargui, Soumaya; Younsi, Fethi El; Hamida, Fethi Ben; abdallah, Taieb Ben

    2016-01-01

    Malgré les progrès réalisés dans le traitement de l’insuffisance rénale chronique, l’accès vasculaire reste le maillon faible dans la thérapie de suppléance extrarénale et la principale source de morbidité chez les patients hémodialysés. Nous rapportons l’observation d’une jeune patiente ayant une insuffisance rénale chronique secondaire à une néphropathie vasculaire en hémodialyse périodique, confrontée précocement à un épuisement de son capital vasculaire, en raison de thromboses itératives des fistules artério-veineuses et l’échec de la dialyse péritonéale. Un déficit en protéine C a été objectivé. Elle a bénéficié de la mise en place d’un cathéter tunnelisé au niveau de l’oreillette droite par thoracotomie antéro-latérale droite à travers la veine cave inférieure non fonctionnel au bout de trois mois de son utilisation. Elle est depuis dialysée par ponction des veines jugulaires externes. PMID:28293353

  6. Computers in Education: The Shape of Things to Come = L'informatique en education: Quelles Evolutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Georges-Louis

    1989-01-01

    Presents an overview of the evolution of ideas and achievements in the sphere of general secondary education. Emphasis is on the social aspects of the implementation of the various stages which were involved in the introduction and development of computer technology in educational systems in different countries. Both French and English versions…

  7. When Health Diplomacy Serves Foreign Policy: Use of Soft Power to Quell Conflict and Crises.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Divkolaye, Nasim Sadat; Radfar, Mohammad Hadi; Seighali, Fariba; Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-10-01

    Health diplomacy has increasingly become a crucial element in forging political neutrality and conflict resolution and the World Health Organization has strongly encouraged its use. Global turmoil has heightened, especially in the Middle East, and with it, political, religious, and cultural differences have become major reasons to incite crises. The authors cite the example of the human stampede and the deaths of over 2000 pilgrims during the 2015 annual Haj pilgrimage in Mecca. The resulting political conflict between Iran and Saudi Arabia had the potential to escalate into a more severe political and military crisis had it not been for the ministers of health from both countries successfully exercising "soft power" options. Global health security demands critical health diplomacy skills and training for all health providers. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 4).

  8. Eye tracking reveals the cost of switching between self and other perspectives in a visual perspective-taking task.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Heather J; Apperly, Ian; Cane, James E

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that while people can rapidly and accurately compute their own and other people's visual perspectives, they experience difficulty ignoring the irrelevant perspective when the two perspectives differ. We used the "avatar" perspective-taking task to examine the mechanisms that underlie these egocentric (i.e., interference from their own perspective) and altercentric (i.e., interference from the other person's perspective) tendencies. Participants were eye-tracked as they verified the number of discs in a visual scene according to either their own or an on-screen avatar's perspective. Crucially in some trials the two perspectives were inconsistent (i.e., each saw a different number of discs), while in others they were consistent. To examine the effect of perspective switching, performance was compared for trials that were preceded with the same versus a different perspective cue. We found that altercentric interference can be reduced or eliminated when participants stick with their own perspective across consecutive trials. Our eye-tracking analyses revealed distinct fixation patterns for self and other perspective taking, suggesting that consistency effects in this paradigm are driven by implicit mentalizing of what others can see, and not automatic directional cues from the avatar.

  9. In pursuit of perspective: does vertical perspective disambiguate depth from motion parallax?

    PubMed

    George, Jonathon M; Johnson, Joshua I; Nawrot, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Motion parallax provides a dynamic, unambiguous, monocular visual depth cue. However, the lateral image motion in computer-generated motion parallax displays is depth-sign ambiguous. While mounting evidence indicates that the visual system uses an extra-retinal signal from the pursuit system to disambiguate depth, vertical perspective is a potential confound because it co-varies with the stimulus translation that produces the pursuit signal. Here the role of an extra-retinal pursuit signal and the role of vertical perspective in disambiguating depth from motion parallax were investigated. Through the careful isolation of each cue, the results indicate that observers have excellent depth discrimination with an extra-retinal pursuit cue alone, but have poor discrimination with vertical perspective alone. The conclusion is that vertical perspective does not play a role in the disambiguation of depth in small computer-generated motion parallax displays.

  10. Teachers, Technology, and Training. Perspectives on Education and School Reform: A Focus on the Psychological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, James G.; Donlevy, Tia Rice

    1996-01-01

    Reviews technological, psychological, ideological, and sociological (descriptive and prescriptive) perspectives of education and school reform, and elaborates the psychological, highlighting the theories and influences of Howard Gardner (assessment, curriculum, teacher education, community support), William Glasser (human needs, staff development…

  11. In Pursuit of Perspective: Does Linear Perspective Disambiguate Depth from Motion Parallax?

    PubMed Central

    George, Jonathon M.; Johnson, Joshua I.; Nawrot, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Motion parallax provides a dynamic, unambiguous, monocular visual depth cue. However, the lateral image motion in computer-generated motion parallax displays is depth-sign ambiguous. While mounting evidence indicates that the visual system uses an extra-retinal signal from the pursuit system to disambiguate depth, vertical perspective is a potential confound because it co-varies with the stimulus translation that produces the pursuit signal. Here the role of an extra-retinal pursuit signal and the role of vertical perspective in disambiguating depth from motion parallax were investigated. Through the careful isolation of each cue, the results indicate that observers have excellent depth discrimination with an extra-retinal pursuit cue alone, but have poor discrimination with vertical perspective alone. The conclusion is that vertical perspective does not play a role in the disambiguation of depth in small computer-generated motion parallax displays. PMID:24422245

  12. Current Perspectives on Chief Residents in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Christopher H.; Rachal, James; Breitbach, Jill; Higgins, Michael; Warner, Carolynn; Bobo, William

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine qualitative data from outgoing chief residents in psychiatry from the 2004-2005 academic year to 1) determine common characteristics between programs, 2) examine the residents' perspectives on their experiences, and 3) determine their common leadership qualities. Method: The authors sent out self-report surveys via…

  13. Family-Centred Care: A Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjorngaard, Tina

    2011-01-01

    This commentary is informed by the author's multiple perspectives as a parent of a 12-year-old girl with cerebral palsy, as a social worker, and as a critical disability advocate and activist. While the author occupies these subject positions simultaneously, they are not necessarily always confluent with one another. She struggles with, and is, at…

  14. Scientist-Practitioner Perspectives on Test Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, James W., Ed.; Goodyear, Rodney K., Ed.

    The focus of this book is on the way professionals use and make sense of test assessment data in their counseling. The book is oriented specifically toward those training to be psychologists or counselors, especially those interested in a scientist-practitioner orientation to clinical practice. Each of the chapters presents a perspective on test…

  15. CONFINTEA V from the World Polity Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schemmann, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper takes the fact that lifelong learning has become a global formula as its starting point and analyses the political documents and activities resulting from the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (CONFINTEA V) from a world polity perspective. It examines the extent to which lifelong learning can be seen as a norm within…

  16. Cyberbullying: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Jieun; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted in different countries have focused on empirical research and literature reviews on prevalence, consequences, and strategies relative to cyberbullying; however, there is a lack of research regarding cyberbullying from a cross-cultural perspective. This article reviews recent research on cyberbullying and presents…

  17. East-West Perspectives on Elder Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and conceptualizes the meaning of lifelong learning from two cultural perspectives--East and West. It examines the different principles underpinning lifelong learning that explain why and how elders in the two cultures engage differently in continued learning. Finally, it discusses the cultural impact on elder learning by…

  18. International Education From a New Quantitative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, David

    Educational testing and measurement on an international basis is viewed from the new quantitative perspective provided by the Comprehensive Achievement Monitoring (CAM) method. The technique of longitudinal testing through item sampling employed in CAM is seen as being of significant value in formulating a systematic measure of achievement across…

  19. Reconstructing Mathematics Pedagogy from a Constructivist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Martin A.

    1995-01-01

    Begins with an overview of the constructivist perspective and the pedagogical theory development upon which a constructivist teaching experiment with 20 prospective elementary teachers was based. Derives a theoretical framework for mathematics pedagogy with a focus on decisions about content and mathematical tasks. (49 references) (Author/DDD)

  20. Planning and Implementing Career Education Programs: Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crim, Alonzo A.; And Others

    The collection of six papers offers perspectives on planning and implementing career education programs. The first paper, the Introduction (David Goodwin), deals with program implementation. The second paper, Priorities in Career Education (Alonzo A. Crim), describes the historical origins of career education in the Atlanta school system with a…