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Sample records for clinical empirical studies

  1. Current Clinical Interventions for Smoking Cessation: A Review of Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcellino, Robert Leonard, Jr.

    This document reviews all empirical studies on clinically-based smoking cessation interventions that were reported in "Psychological Abstracts" between January 1982 and March 1990. Interventions are categorized as either physiological or psychological in orientation and are further grouped according to specific treatment type:…

  2. Current Clinical Interventions for Smoking Cessation: A Review of Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcellino, Robert Leonard, Jr.

    This document reviews all empirical studies on clinically-based smoking cessation interventions that were reported in "Psychological Abstracts" between January 1982 and March 1990. Interventions are categorized as either physiological or psychological in orientation and are further grouped according to specific treatment type:…

  3. Empirical studies of clinical supervision in psychiatric nursing: A systematic literature review and methodological critique.

    PubMed

    Buus, Niels; Gonge, Henrik

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to systematically review and critically evaluate all English language research papers reporting empirical studies of clinical supervision in psychiatric nursing. The first part of the search strategy was a combination of brief and building block strategies in the PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases. The second part was a citation pearl growing strategy with reviews of 179 reference lists. In total, the search strategy demonstrated a low level of precision and a high level of recall. Thirty four articles met the criteria of the review and were systematically evaluated using three checklists. The findings were summarized by using a new checklist with nine overall questions regarding the studies' design, methods, findings, and limitations. The studies were categorized as: (i) effect studies; (ii) survey studies; (iii) interview studies; and (iv) case studies. In general, the studies were relatively small scale; they used relatively new and basic methods for data collection and analysis, and rarely included sufficient strategies for identifying confounding factors or how the researchers' preconceptions influenced the analyses. Empirical research of clinical supervision in psychiatric nursing was characterized by a basic lack of agreement about which models and instruments to use. Challenges and recommendations for future research are discussed. Clinical supervision in psychiatric nursing was commonly perceived as a good thing, but there was limited empirical evidence supporting this claim.

  4. Frequency and circumstances of placebo use in clinical practice - a systematic review of empirical studies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of placebo interventions outside clinical trials is ethically, professionally and legally controversial. Little is known about the frequency and circumstances of placebo use in clinical practice. Our aim was to summarize the available empirical studies addressing these issues. Methods We searched PubMed and EMBASE from inception to July 2009 in order to identify cross-sectional surveys, qualitative or longitudinal studies among health care professionals, students or patients which investigated at least one of the following issues - frequency of placebo use or attitudes to, or motivations for, the use of placebo interventions. At least two reviewers extracted information on the study methods, participants and findings. Descriptive summaries were prepared in an iterative process by at least two reviewers per study. Results Twenty-two studies from 12 different countries met the inclusion criteria. Most studies had relevant shortcomings. The proportion of respondents reporting that they had applied 'pure' placebos (for example, saline injection) during their professional life varied between 17% and 80% among physicians and between 51% and 100% among nurses, but it seems that the actual frequency of such use seems to be rare. The use of 'impure' or 'active' placebos (for example, antibiotics for viral infections) is likely to be much more frequent. However, it is impossible to make a reliable estimation because there is no agreement of what an impure placebo might be. Studies using qualitative methods or asking participants to judge case examples suggest that motivations and attitudes towards placebo use are complex and health care providers are often faced with a dilemma. Conclusions Although the available evidence is incomplete and confusing at times there can be little doubt that the prevalence of placebo use outside of clinical trials is not negligible and that views and attitudes on placebos use differ considerably among individuals, both health

  5. An empirical definition of clinical supervision.

    PubMed

    Milne, Derek

    2007-11-01

    The growing recognition of clinical supervision as the basis for high-quality mental health services is apparent in policy, research and clinical practice, but an empirical definition is required to progress research and practice. A logical analysis was used to draft a working definition, and then a systematic review of 24 empirical studies of clinical supervision produced a best evidence synthesis, which was used to test and improve this definition. The logical analysis indicated that the most popular definition (Bernard & Goodyear, 1992) failed all four necessary tests of a good definition: precision, specification, operationalization and corroboration. The systematic review synthesis was then used to test the working definition, which passed these tests (with two amendments). These two complementary review approaches created a firmer basis for advancing research and practice.

  6. Psychopathy as a clinical and empirical construct.

    PubMed

    Hare, Robert D; Neumann, Craig S

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we focus on two major influences on current conceptualizations of psychopathy: one clinical, with its origins largely in the early case studies of Cleckley, and the other empirical, the result of widespread use of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for assessment purposes. Some investigators assert that the PCL-R, ostensibly based on Cleckley's work, has "drifted" from the construct described in his Clinical Profile. We evaluate this profile, note its basis in an unrepresentative sample of patients, and suggest that its literal and uncritical acceptance by the research community has become problematical. We also argue that the idea of construct "drift" is irrelevant to current conceptualizations of psychopathy, which are better informed by the extensive empirical research on the integration of structural, genetic, developmental, personality, and neurobiological research findings than by rigid adherence to early clinical formulations. We offer some suggestions for future research on psychopathy.

  7. The methodological quality of economic evaluations of guideline implementation into clinical practice: a systematic review of empiric studies.

    PubMed

    Hoomans, Ties; Evers, Silvia M A A; Ament, André J H A; Hübben, Mariette W A; van der Weijden, Trudy; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Severens, Johan L

    2007-01-01

    Despite the emphasis on efficiency of health-care services delivery, there is an imperfect evidence base to inform decisions about whether and how to develop and implement guidelines into clinical practice. In general, studies evaluating the economics of guideline implementation lack methodological rigor. We conducted a systematic review of empiric studies to assess advances in the economic evaluations of guideline implementation. The Cochrane Effective Professional and Organisational Change Group specialized register and the MEDLINE database were searched for English publications between January 1998 and July 2004 that reported objective effect measures and implementation costs. We extracted data on study characteristics, quality of study design, and economic methodology. It was assessed whether the economic evaluations followed methodological guidance. We included 24 economic evaluations, involving 21 controlled trials and three interrupted time series designs. The studies involved varying settings, targeted professionals, targeted behaviors, clinical guidelines, and implementation strategies. Overall, it was difficult to determine the quality of study designs owing to poor reporting. In addition, most economic evaluations were methodologically flawed: studies did not follow guidelines for evaluation design, data collection, and data analysis. The increasing importance of the value for money of providing health care seems to be reflected by an increase in empiric economic evaluations of guideline implementation. Because of the heterogeneity and poor methodological quality of these studies, however, the resulting evidence is still of limited use in decision-making. There seems to be a need for more methodological guidance, especially in terms of data collection and data synthesis, to appropriately evaluate the economics of developing and implementing guidelines into clinical practice.

  8. Clinical prediction from structural brain MRI scans: a large-scale empirical study.

    PubMed

    Sabuncu, Mert R; Konukoglu, Ender

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) methods have become an important tool in neuroimaging, revealing complex associations and yielding powerful prediction models. Despite methodological developments and novel application domains, there has been little effort to compile benchmark results that researchers can reference and compare against. This study takes a significant step in this direction. We employed three classes of state-of-the-art MVPA algorithms and common types of structural measurements from brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans to predict an array of clinically relevant variables (diagnosis of Alzheimer's, schizophrenia, autism, and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder; age, cerebrospinal fluid derived amyloid-β levels and mini-mental state exam score). We analyzed data from over 2,800 subjects, compiled from six publicly available datasets. The employed data and computational tools are freely distributed ( https://www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/lab/mripredict), making this the largest, most comprehensive, reproducible benchmark image-based prediction experiment to date in structural neuroimaging. Finally, we make several observations regarding the factors that influence prediction performance and point to future research directions. Unsurprisingly, our results suggest that the biological footprint (effect size) has a dramatic influence on prediction performance. Though the choice of image measurement and MVPA algorithm can impact the result, there was no universally optimal selection. Intriguingly, the choice of algorithm seemed to be less critical than the choice of measurement type. Finally, our results showed that cross-validation estimates of performance, while generally optimistic, correlate well with generalization accuracy on a new dataset.

  9. Attitudes toward Substance Abuse Clients: An Empirical Study of Clinical Psychology Trainees.

    PubMed

    Mundon, Chandra R; Anderson, Melissa L; Najavits, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of substance use disorder (SUD) and its frequent comorbidity with mental illness, individuals with SUD are less likely to receive effective SUD treatment from mental health practitioners than SUD counselors. Limited competence and interest in treating this clinical population are likely influenced by a lack of formal training in SUD treatment. Using a factorial survey-vignette design that included three clinical vignettes and a supplementary survey instrument, we investigated whether clinical psychology doctoral students differ in their level of negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD versus major depressive disorder (MDD); whether they differ in their attributions for SUD versus MDD; and how their negative emotional reactions and attributions impact their interest in pursuing SUD clinical work. Participants were 155 clinical psychology graduate-level doctoral students (72% female). Participants endorsed more negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD than toward clients with MDD. They were also more likely to identify poor willpower as the cause for SUD than for MDD. More than a third reported interest in working with SUD populations. Highest levels of interest were associated with prior professional and personal experience with SUD, four to six years of clinical experience, and postmodern theoretical orientation.

  10. Attitudes toward Substance Abuse Clients: An Empirical Study of Clinical Psychology Trainees

    PubMed Central

    Mundon, Chandra R.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Najavits, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of substance use disorder (SUD) and its frequent comorbidity with mental illness, individuals with SUD are less likely to receive effective SUD treatment from mental health practitioners than SUD counselors. Limited competence and interest in treating this clinical population is likely influenced by a lack of formal training in SUD treatment. Using a factorial survey-vignette design that included three clinical vignettes and a supplementary survey instrument, we investigated whether clinical psychology doctoral students differ in their level of negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD versus major depressive disorder (MDD); whether they differ in their attributions for SUD versus MDD; and how their negative emotional reactions and attributions impact their interest in pursuing SUD clinical work. Participants were 155 clinical psychology graduate-level doctoral students (72% female). Participants endorsed more negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD than toward clients with MDD. They were also more likely to identify poor willpower as the cause for SUD than for MDD. More than a third reported interest in working with SUD populations. Highest levels of interest were associated with prior professional and personal experience with SUD, four to six years of clinical experience, and postmodern theoretical orientation. PMID:26375324

  11. Analysis of health professional security behaviors in a real clinical setting: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Sánchez-Henarejos, Ana; Toval, Ambrosio; Sánchez-García, Ana Belén; Hernández-Hernández, Isabel; Fernandez-Luque, Luis

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the security behavior of healthcare professionals in a real clinical setting. Standards, guidelines and recommendations on security and privacy best practices for staff personnel were identified using a systematic literature review. After a revision process, a questionnaire consisting of 27 questions was created and responded to by 180 health professionals from a public hospital. Weak passwords were reported by 62.2% of the respondents, 31.7% were unaware of the organization's procedures for discarding confidential information, and 19.4% did not carry out these procedures. Half of the respondents (51.7%) did not take measures to ensure that the personal health information on the computer monitor could not be seen by unauthorized individuals, and 57.8% were unaware of the procedure established to report a security violation. The correlation between the number of years in the position and good security practices was not significant (Pearson's r=0.085, P=0.254). Age was weakly correlated with good security practices (Pearson's r=-0.169, P=0.028). A Mann-Whitney test showed no significant difference between the respondents' security behavior as regards gender (U=2536, P=0.792, n=178). The results of the study suggest that more efforts are required to improve security education for health personnel. It was found that both preventive and corrective actions are needed to prevent health staff from causing security incidents. Healthcare organizations should: identify the types of information that require protection, clearly communicate the penalties that will be imposed, promote security training courses, and define what the organization considers improper behavior to be and communicate this to all personnel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Defense mechanisms in congenital and acquired facial disfigurement: a clinical-empirical study.

    PubMed

    van den Elzen, Marijke E P; Versnel, Sarah L; Perry, J Christopher; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J

    2012-04-01

    It is of clinical interest to investigate the degree to which patients with facial disfigurement use defense styles. Therefore, 59 adults born with rare facial clefts, 59 patients with facial deformities acquired at an adult age, and a reference group of 141 adults without facial disfigurements completed standardized questionnaires. There was a significant difference between the group with and the group without disfigurements on immature defense styles, with the disfigured group using the immature style more frequently. There was a trend for the nondisfigured group to use more mature defense styles. No difference between congenital and acquired groups was seen on individual types of defense style. Self-esteem had the strength to differentiate mature and immature defense styles within our disfigured groups. The association of low self-esteem and the utilization of immature defense styles suggests that professional help may tailor treatment on discussing immature defense style and problems triggering or maintaining this style.

  13. Observational studies often make clinical practice recommendations: an empirical evaluation of authors' attitudes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vinay; Jorgenson, Joel; Ioannidis, John P A; Cifu, Adam

    2013-04-01

    Although observational studies provide useful descriptive and correlative information, their role in the evaluation of medical interventions remains contentious. There has been no systematic evaluation of authors' attitudes toward their own nonrandomized studies and how often they recommend specific medical practices. We reviewed all original articles of nonrandomized studies published in 2010 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, and Annals of Internal Medicine. We classified articles based on whether authors recommend a medical practice and whether they state that a randomized trial is needed to support their recommendation. We also examined the types of logical extrapolations used by authors who did advance recommendations. Of the 631 original articles published in 2010, 298 (47%) articles were eligible observational studies. In 167 (56%) of 298 studies, authors recommended a medical practice based on their results. Only 24 (14%) of 167 studies stated that a randomized controlled trial (RCT) should be done to validate the recommendation, whereas the other 143 articles made a total of 149 logical extrapolations to recommend specific medical practices. Recommendations without a call for a randomized trial were most common in studies of modifiable factors (59%), but they were also common in studies reporting incidence or prevalence (51%), studies examining novel tests (41%), and association studies of nonmodifiable factors (32%). The authors of observational studies often extrapolate their results to make recommendations concerning a medical practice, typically without first calling for a RCT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The role of the nurse teacher in clinical practice: an empirical study of Finnish student nurse experiences.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Mikko; Warne, Tony; Kaila, Päivi; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2009-08-01

    This paper focuses on the role of the nurse teacher (NT) in supporting student nurse education in clinical practice. The paper draws on the outcomes of a study aimed at exploring student nurse experiences of the pedagogical relationship with NTs during their clinical placements. The participants (N=549) were student nurses studying on pre-registration nursing programmes in Finland. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and ANOVA. The study showed that the core aspect of NTs work in clinical practice revolved around the relationship between student, mentor and NT. Higher levels of satisfaction were experienced in direct proportion to the number of meetings held between the student and NT. However, whilst the importance of this relationship has been reported elsewhere, an additional aspect of this relationship emerged in the data analysis. Those NT who facilitated good face to face contact also used other methods to enhance the relationship, particularly e-mail, virtual learning environment and texting. This outcome suggests that NT's interpersonal and communicative skills are as important as their clinical knowledge and skills in promoting effective learning in the clinical practice area. The paper argues for such approaches to be utilised within the emergent opportunities afforded by new communication and educational technologies.

  15. Supervised methods for symptom name recognition in free-text clinical records of traditional Chinese medicine: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaqiang; Yu, Zhonghua; Chen, Li; Chen, Yunhui; Liu, Yiguang; Hu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Yongguang

    2014-02-01

    Clinical records of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are documented by TCM doctors during their routine diagnostic work. These records contain abundant knowledge and reflect the clinical experience of TCM doctors. In recent years, with the modernization of TCM clinical practice, these clinical records have begun to be digitized. Data mining (DM) and machine learning (ML) methods provide an opportunity for researchers to discover TCM regularities buried in the large volume of clinical records. There has been some work on this problem. Existing methods have been validated on a limited amount of manually well-structured data. However, the contents of most fields in the clinical records are unstructured. As a result, the previous methods verified on the well-structured data will not work effectively on the free-text clinical records (FCRs), and the FCRs are, consequently, required to be structured in advance. Manually structuring the large volume of TCM FCRs is time-consuming and labor-intensive, but the development of automatic methods for the structuring task is at an early stage. Therefore, in this paper, symptom name recognition (SNR) in the chief complaints, which is one of the important tasks to structure the FCRs of TCM, is carefully studied. The SNR task is reasonably treated as a sequence labeling problem, and several fundamental and practical problems in the SNR task are studied, such as how to adapt a general sequence labeling strategy for the SNR task according to the domain-specific characteristics of the chief complaints and which sequence classifier is more appropriate to solve the SNR task. To answer these questions, a series of elaborate experiments were performed, and the results are explained in detail. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Addressing prior-data conflict with empirical meta-analytic-predictive priors in clinical studies with historical information.

    PubMed

    Li, Judy X; Chen, Wei-Chen; Scott, John A

    2016-01-01

    A common question in clinical studies is how to use historical data from earlier studies, leveraging relevant information into the design and analysis of a new study. Bayesian approaches are particularly well-suited to this task, with their natural ability to borrow strength across data sources. In this paper, we propose an eMAP approach for incorporating historical data into the analysis of clinical studies, and we discuss an application of this method to the analysis of observational safety studies for a class of products for patients with hemophilia A. The eMAP prior approach is flexible and robust to prior-data conflict. We conducted simulations to compare the frequentist operating characteristics of three approaches under different prior-data conflict assumptions and sample size scenarios.

  17. Clinical and economic outcomes of empiric parenteral antibiotic therapy for pneumonia: a retrospective study of 1,032 hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Bassi, O; Zuccarelli, S; Amalfitano, M E

    1998-10-01

    The spiraling increase in pharmaceutical costs in hospitals means that the economic aspects of pharmacological therapy can no longer be ignored. The aim of the present study was to evaluate care and cost outcomes following initial therapy with parenteral antibiotics in a hospital setting for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infection (pneumonia and pleurisy with or without complications). From January to December 1996, a total of 1,032 patients were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 71.9 years (range, 16-100 years). Piperacillin was most frequently prescribed (n=369), followed by ceftriaxone (n=324) and ceftazidime (n=161), among other antibiotics. The clinical success ranged from a maximum of 85.0% and 85.4% for piperacillin and ceftriaxone, respectively, to a minimum of 72.7% and 75.2% for cefodizime and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Differences between the antibiotic regimens emerged for mean prescribed daily doses, therefore the daily cost per administered dose was much lower for antibiotics such as piperacillin or ceftriaxone than for cefotaxime or ceftazidime. Ceftriaxone, at just over 177,840 Italian liras per success, was more cost-effective than other third-generation cephalosporins such as ceftazidime and cefotaxime, whose cost-effectiveness ratios were 420,590 and 272,030 Italian liras, respectively. A comparison of cost ratios for the seven antibiotic regimens evaluated indicates that using ceftriaxone led to a 57.72% cost savings per clinical success compared to using other third generation cephalosporins such as ceftazidime, and a 69.45% savings compared to therapy with ciprofloxacin.

  18. Evaluating the quality of informed consent and contemporary clinical practices by medical doctors in South Africa: An empirical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Informed consent is a legal and ethical doctrine derived from the principle of respect for autonomy. Generally two rights derived from autonomy are accorded legal protection. The constitutional right to bodily integrity followed by the right to bodily well-being, protected by professional negligence rules. Therefore healthcare professionals treating patients' without valid consent may be guilty of infringing patients' rights. Many challenges are experienced by doctors obtaining informed consent in complex multicultural societies like South Africa. These include different cultural ethos, multilingualism, poverty, education, unfamiliarity with libertarian rights based autonomy, and power asymmetry between doctors and patients. All of which could impact on the ability of doctors to obtain legally valid informed consent. Methods The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the quality of informed consent obtained by doctors practicing in South Africa is consistent with international ethical standards and local regulations. Responses from 946 participants including doctors, nurses and patients was analyzed, using a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire and person triangulation in selected public hospitals in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Results The median age of 168 doctors participating was 30 years with 51% females, 28% interns, 16% medical officers, 26% registrars, 30% consultant/specialists. A broad range of clinical specialties were represented. Challenges to informed consent practice include language difficulties, lack of interpreters, workload, and time constraints. Doctors spent 5-10 minutes on consent, disclosed most information required to patients, however knowledge of essential local laws was inadequate. Informed consent aggregate scores (ICAS) showed that interns/registrars scored lower than consultants/specialists. ICAS scores were statistically significant by specialty (p = 0.005), with radiologists and anaesthetists

  19. The Clinical Assessment in the Legal Field: An Empirical Study of Bias and Limitations in Forensic Expertise.

    PubMed

    Iudici, Antonio; Salvini, Alessandro; Faccio, Elena; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    According to the literature, psychological assessment in forensic contexts is one of the most controversial application areas for clinical psychology. This paper presents a review of systematic judgment errors in the forensic field. Forty-six psychological reports written by psychologists, court consultants, have been analyzed with content analysis to identify typical judgment errors related to the following areas: (a) distortions in the attribution of causality, (b) inferential errors, and (c) epistemological inconsistencies. Results indicated that systematic errors of judgment, usually referred also as "the man in the street," are widely present in the forensic evaluations of specialist consultants. Clinical and practical implications are taken into account. This article could lead to significant benefits for clinical psychologists who want to deal with this sensitive issue and are interested in improving the quality of their contribution to the justice system.

  20. The Clinical Assessment in the Legal Field: An Empirical Study of Bias and Limitations in Forensic Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Iudici, Antonio; Salvini, Alessandro; Faccio, Elena; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    According to the literature, psychological assessment in forensic contexts is one of the most controversial application areas for clinical psychology. This paper presents a review of systematic judgment errors in the forensic field. Forty-six psychological reports written by psychologists, court consultants, have been analyzed with content analysis to identify typical judgment errors related to the following areas: (a) distortions in the attribution of causality, (b) inferential errors, and (c) epistemological inconsistencies. Results indicated that systematic errors of judgment, usually referred also as “the man in the street,” are widely present in the forensic evaluations of specialist consultants. Clinical and practical implications are taken into account. This article could lead to significant benefits for clinical psychologists who want to deal with this sensitive issue and are interested in improving the quality of their contribution to the justice system. PMID:26648892

  1. Empirically supported psychological treatments: the challenge of evaluating clinical innovations.

    PubMed

    Church, Dawson; Feinstein, David; Palmer-Hoffman, Julie; Stein, Phyllis K; Tranguch, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    Clear and transparent standards are required to establish whether a therapeutic method is "evidence based." Even when research demonstrates a method to be efficacious, it may not become available to patients who could benefit from it, a phenomenon known as the "translational gap." Only 30% of therapies cross the gap, and the lag between empirical validation and clinical implementation averages 17 years. To address these problems, Division 12 of the American Psychological Association published a set of standards for "empirically supported treatments" in the mid-1990s that allows the assessment of clinical modalities. This article reviews these criteria, identifies their strengths, and discusses their impact on the translational gap, using the development of a clinical innovation called Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) as a case study. Twelve specific recommendations for updates of the Division 12 criteria are made based on lessons garnered from the adoption of EFT within the clinical community. These recommendations would shorten the cycle from the research setting to clinical practice, increase transparency, incorporate recent scientific advances, and enhance the capacity for succinct comparisons among treatments.

  2. An Empirical Study of Outcomes and Quality Indicators between Accredited and Non-Accredited Clinical Mental Health Counseling Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, William P.

    2016-01-01

    Quality assurance of academic programs that lead to licensure or certification in a profession traditionally has been through the industry-recognized accreditation body. There have been a limited number of studies on whether accreditation is associated with better program quality and outcomes; the purpose of this study was to add to that body of…

  3. Direct Contra Naïve-Indirect Comparison of Clinical Failure Rates between High-Viscosity GIC and Conventional Amalgam Restorations: An Empirical Study

    PubMed Central

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

    2013-01-01

    Background Naïve-indirect comparisons are comparisons between competing clinical interventions’ evidence from separate (uncontrolled) trials. Direct comparisons are comparisons within randomised control trials (RCTs). The objective of this empirical study is to test the null-hypothesis that trends and performance differences inferred from naïve-indirect comparisons and from direct comparisons/RCTs regarding the failure rates of amalgam and direct high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (HVGIC) restorations in permanent posterior teeth have similar direction and magnitude. Methods A total of 896 citations were identified through systematic literature search. From these, ten and two uncontrolled clinical longitudinal studies for HVGIC and amalgam, respectively, were included for naïve-indirect comparison and could be matched with three out twenty RCTs. Summary effects sizes were computed as Odds ratios (OR; 95% Confidence intervals) and compared with those from RCTs. Trend directions were inferred from 95% Confidence interval overlaps and direction of point estimates; magnitudes of performance differences were inferred from the median point estimates (OR) with 25% and 75% percentile range, for both types of comparison. Mann-Whitney U test was applied to test for statistically significant differences between point estimates of both comparison types. Results Trends and performance differences inferred from naïve-indirect comparison based on evidence from uncontrolled clinical longitudinal studies and from direct comparisons based on RCT evidence are not the same. The distributions of the point estimates differed significantly for both comparison types (Mann–Whitney U  =  25, nindirect  =  26; ndirect  =  8; p  =  0.0013, two-tailed). Conclusion The null-hypothesis was rejected. Trends and performance differences inferred from either comparison between HVGIC and amalgam restorations failure rates in permanent posterior teeth are not the same. It is

  4. Direct contra naïve-indirect comparison of clinical failure rates between high-viscosity GIC and conventional amalgam restorations: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

    2013-01-01

    Naïve-indirect comparisons are comparisons between competing clinical interventions' evidence from separate (uncontrolled) trials. Direct comparisons are comparisons within randomised control trials (RCTs). The objective of this empirical study is to test the null-hypothesis that trends and performance differences inferred from naïve-indirect comparisons and from direct comparisons/RCTs regarding the failure rates of amalgam and direct high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (HVGIC) restorations in permanent posterior teeth have similar direction and magnitude. A total of 896 citations were identified through systematic literature search. From these, ten and two uncontrolled clinical longitudinal studies for HVGIC and amalgam, respectively, were included for naïve-indirect comparison and could be matched with three out twenty RCTs. Summary effects sizes were computed as Odds ratios (OR; 95% Confidence intervals) and compared with those from RCTs. Trend directions were inferred from 95% Confidence interval overlaps and direction of point estimates; magnitudes of performance differences were inferred from the median point estimates (OR) with 25% and 75% percentile range, for both types of comparison. Mann-Whitney U test was applied to test for statistically significant differences between point estimates of both comparison types. Trends and performance differences inferred from naïve-indirect comparison based on evidence from uncontrolled clinical longitudinal studies and from direct comparisons based on RCT evidence are not the same. The distributions of the point estimates differed significantly for both comparison types (Mann-Whitney U  =  25, n(indirect)  =  26; n(direct)  =  8; p  =  0.0013, two-tailed). The null-hypothesis was rejected. Trends and performance differences inferred from either comparison between HVGIC and amalgam restorations failure rates in permanent posterior teeth are not the same. It is recommended that clinical practice

  5. The relationship between the success rate of empirical antifungal therapy with intravenous itraconazole and clinical parameters, including plasma levels of itraconazole, in immunocompromised patients receiving itraconazole oral solution as prophylaxis: a multicenter, prospective, open-label, observational study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cheong, June-Won; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Park, Jinny; Mun, Yeung-Chul; Kang, Hye Jin; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Je-Hwan; Kim, Yang Soo; Ryoo, Hun-Mo; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Ho Young; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Dong-Gun; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kim, Hawk; Joo, Young-Don; Min, Yoo Hong

    2014-01-01

    To identify the role of therapeutic drug monitoring of itraconazole (ITZ) in the setting of empirical antifungal therapy with intravenous (IV) ITZ, we performed a multicenter, prospective study in patients with hematological malignancies who had received antifungal prophylaxis with ITZ oral solution (OS). We evaluated the plasma levels of ITZ and hydroxy (OH) ITZ both before initiation of IV ITZ and on days 5-7 of IV ITZ. A total of 181 patients showed an overall success rate of 68.0 %. Prolonged baseline neutropenia and accompanying cardiovascular comorbidity were significantly associated with poor outcomes of the empirical antifungal therapy (P = 0.005 and P = 0.001, respectively). A significantly higher trough plasma level of OH ITZ per body weight was found in the patients who achieved success with empirical antifungal therapy (P = 0.036). There were no significant correlations between plasma concentrations of ITZ/OH ITZ (baseline or trough levels) and toxicities. Seven patients had a discontinuation of ITZ therapy due to toxicity. This study demonstrated that IV ITZ as empirical antifungal therapy was effective and therapeutic drug monitoring was helpful to estimate the outcome of empirical antifungal therapy in patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis with ITZ OS. To predict the outcome of empirical antifungal therapy with IV ITZ, we should evaluate baseline clinical characteristics and also perform the therapeutic drug monitoring of both ITZ and OH ITZ.

  6. Satanism among Adolescents: Empirical and Clinical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steck, Gary M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on adolescent involvement in satanism. Presents results from a pilot study along with a case study to illustrate factors that may alert practitioners to adolescents who are susceptible to satanic influences. Discusses interventions for dealing with this adolescent subpopulation. (Author/NB)

  7. Satanism among adolescents: empirical and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Steck, G M; Anderson, S A; Boylin, W M

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on adolescent involvement in satanism. Results from a pilot study are presented along with a case study to illustrate factors that may alert practitioners to adolescents who are susceptible to satanic influences. Interventions for dealing with this adolescent subpopulation are discussed.

  8. Overexcitabilities: Empirical Studies and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hsin-Jen; Kuo, Ching-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Ever since Dr. Dabrowski raised his theory of positive disintegration, several studies focusing on overexcitabilities (OEs) have been performed. This study reviewed previous findings on overexcitabilities and their application, focusing in particular on studies in Taiwan. Since 2001, a series of studies related to overexcitabilities has been…

  9. Characterizing Student Expectations: A Small Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a small empirical study (n = 130), in which undergraduate students in the Business Faculty of a UK university were asked to express views and expectations relating to the study of a mathematics. Factor analysis is used to identify latent variables emerging from clusters of the measured variables and these are…

  10. Comparative Case Study of Diffusion of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Two Clinical Settings: Empirically Supported Treatment Status Is Not Enough.

    PubMed

    Cook, Joan M; Biyanova, Tatyana; Coyne, James C

    2009-01-01

    An in-depth comparative case study was conducted of two attempts at diffusion of an empirically supported, but controversial, psychotherapy: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). One Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) treatment setting in which there was substantial uptake was compared with a second VA setting in which it was not adopted. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 mental health clinicians at the first site, and 19 at the second. Critical selling points for EMDR were a highly regarded champion, the observability of effects with patients, and personally experiencing its effects during a role training session. Compatibility with existing psychotherapist practices and values further allowed the therapy to become embedded in the organizational culture. At the second site, a sense that EMDR was not theoretically coherent or compelling overwhelmed other considerations, including its empirical status. Comparative studies contrasting settings in which innovative therapies are implemented versus those in which they were rejected may aid in refining theories of and strategies for dissemination.

  11. Clinical Findings and Pain Symptoms as Potential Risk Factors for Chronic TMD: Descriptive Data and Empirically Identified Domains from the OPPERA Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ohrbach, Richard; Fillingim, Roger B.; Mulkey, Flora; Gonzalez, Yoly; Gordon, Sharon; Gremillion, Henry; Lim, Pei-Feng; Ribeiro-Dasilva, Margarete; Greenspan, Joel D.; Knott, Charles; Maixner, William; Slade, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Clinical characteristics might be associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) because they are antecedent risk factors that increase the likelihood of a healthy person developing the condition or because they represent signs or symptoms of either subclinical or overt TMD. In this baseline case-control study of the multisite Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) project, 1,633 controls and 185 cases with chronic, painful TMD completed questionnaires and received clinical examinations. Odds ratios measuring association between each clinical factor and TMD were computed, with adjustment for study-site as well as age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Compared to controls, TMD cases reported more trauma, greater parafunction, more headaches and other pain disorders, more functional limitation in using the jaw, more nonpain symptoms in the facial area, more temporomandibular joint noises and jaw locking, more neural or sensory medical conditions, and worse overall medical status. They also exhibited on examination reduced jaw mobility, more joint noises, and a greater number of painful masticatory, cervical, and body muscles upon palpation. The results indicated that TMD cases differ substantially from controls across almost all variables assessed. Future analyses of follow-up data will determine whether these clinical characteristics predict increased risk for developing first-onset pain-related TMD Perspective Clinical findings from OPPERA’s baseline case-control study indicate significant differences between chronic TMD cases and controls with respect to trauma history, parafunction, other pain disorders, health status, and clinical examination data. Future analyses will examine their contribution to TMD onset. PMID:22074750

  12. Clinical findings and pain symptoms as potential risk factors for chronic TMD: descriptive data and empirically identified domains from the OPPERA case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ohrbach, Richard; Fillingim, Roger B; Mulkey, Flora; Gonzalez, Yoly; Gordon, Sharon; Gremillion, Henry; Lim, Pei-Feng; Ribeiro-Dasilva, Margarete; Greenspan, Joel D; Knott, Charles; Maixner, William; Slade, Gary

    2011-11-01

    Clinical characteristics might be associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) because they are antecedent risk factors that increase the likelihood of a healthy person developing the condition or because they represent signs or symptoms of either subclinical or overt TMD. In this baseline case-control study of the multisite Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) project, 1,633 controls and 185 cases with chronic, painful TMD completed questionnaires and received clinical examinations. Odds ratios measuring association between each clinical factor and TMD were computed, with adjustment for study-site as well as age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Compared to controls, TMD cases reported more trauma, greater parafunction, more headaches and other pain disorders, more functional limitation in using the jaw, more nonpain symptoms in the facial area, more temporomandibular joint noises and jaw locking, more neural or sensory medical conditions, and worse overall medical status. They also exhibited on examination reduced jaw mobility, more joint noises, and a greater number of painful masticatory, cervical, and body muscles upon palpation. The results indicated that TMD cases differ substantially from controls across almost all variables assessed. Future analyses of follow-up data will determine whether these clinical characteristics predict increased risk for developing first-onset pain-related TMD PERSPECTIVE: Clinical findings from OPPERA's baseline case-control study indicate significant differences between chronic TMD cases and controls with respect to trauma history, parafunction, other pain disorders, health status, and clinical examination data. Future analyses will examine their contribution to TMD onset. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. All rights reserved.

  13. A Comparison of Clinical and Empirical Literature on Children in Stepfamilies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    1986-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on stepchildren and compared clinical to empirical research. Comparisons were made on theoretical approaches, methodology, types of stepfamilies, issues and dependent variables examined, other variables considered, and conclusions drawn. There was little congruence in the foci of studies by researchers and clinicians.…

  14. A Comparison of Clinical and Empirical Literature on Children in Stepfamilies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    1986-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on stepchildren and compared clinical to empirical research. Comparisons were made on theoretical approaches, methodology, types of stepfamilies, issues and dependent variables examined, other variables considered, and conclusions drawn. There was little congruence in the foci of studies by researchers and clinicians.…

  15. [Hospital costs: results of empirical studies].

    PubMed

    Delande, G; Negre, M

    1992-01-01

    The DRG hospital payment system will be introduced in France in 1993-94 under the name of GHM ("groupes homogènes de malades"). However the method for evaluating costs is mainly based on past trends and, as a matter of fact, they exclude innovative care behavior from the doctors. Three new methods are therefore experimented: (i) standardized operation protocols; (ii) observation of consumed products and time of health personnel; (iii) observation of the costs resulting from the tariffs of the Social Security administration. The empirical studies were carried out in Montpellier and Nantes, two middle size cities of France.

  16. An Empirical Study of Enterprise Conceptual Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anaby-Tavor, Ateret; Amid, David; Fisher, Amit; Ossher, Harold; Bellamy, Rachel; Callery, Matthew; Desmond, Michael; Krasikov, Sophia; Roth, Tova; Simmonds, Ian; de Vries, Jacqueline

    Business analysts, business architects, and solution consultants use a variety of practices and methods in their quest to understand business. The resulting work products could end up being transitioned into the formal world of software requirement definitions or as recommendations for all kinds of business activities. We describe an empirical study about the nature of these methods, diagrams, and home-grown conceptual models as reflected in real practice at IBM. We identify the models as artifacts of "enterprise conceptual modeling". We study important features of these models, suggest practical classifications, and discuss their usage. Our survey shows that the "enterprise conceptual modeling" arena presents a variety of descriptive models, each used by a relatively small group of colleagues. Together they form a "long tail" that extends from "drawings" on one end to "standards" on the other.

  17. An empirical study of software design practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, David N.; Church, Victor E.; Agresti, William W.

    1986-01-01

    Software engineers have developed a large body of software design theory and folklore, much of which was never validated. The results of an empirical study of software design practices in one specific environment are presented. The practices examined affect module size, module strength, data coupling, descendant span, unreferenced variables, and software reuse. Measures characteristic of these practices were extracted from 887 FORTRAN modules developed for five flight dynamics software projects monitored by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The relationship of these measures to cost and fault rate was analyzed using a contingency table procedure. The results show that some recommended design practices, despite their intuitive appeal, are ineffective in this environment, whereas others are very effective.

  18. Empirical study of recent Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J.; Li, W.; Cai, X.; Wang, Qiuping A.

    2009-05-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of the empirical data taken from the Chinese stock market during the time period from January, 2006 to July, 2007. By using the methods of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and calculating correlation coefficients, we acquire the evidence of strong correlations among different stock types, stock index, stock volume turnover, A share (B share) seat number, and GDP per capita. In addition, we study the behavior of “volatility”, which is now defined as the difference between the new account numbers for two consecutive days. It is shown that the empirical power-law of the number of aftershock events exceeding the selected threshold is analogous to the Omori law originally observed in geophysics. Furthermore, we find that the cumulative distributions of stock return, trade volume and trade number are all exponential-like, which does not belong to the universality class of such distributions found by Xavier Gabaix et al. [Xavier Gabaix, Parameswaran Gopikrishnan, Vasiliki Plerou, H. Eugene Stanley, Nature, 423 (2003)] for major western markets. Through the comparison, we draw a conclusion that regardless of developed stock markets or emerging ones, “cubic law of returns” is valid only in the long-term absolute return, and in the short-term one, the distributions are exponential-like. Specifically, the distributions of both trade volume and trade number display distinct decaying behaviors in two separate regimes. Lastly, the scaling behavior of the relation is analyzed between dispersion and the mean monthly trade value for each administrative area in China.

  19. Identifying Conditions That Support Causal Inference in Observational Studies in Education: Empirical Evidence from within Study Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallberg, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of three papers that employ empirical within study comparisons (WSCs) to identify conditions that support causal inference in observational studies. WSC studies empirically estimate the extent to which a given observational study reproduces the result of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) when both share the same…

  20. Transition mixing study empirical model report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; White, C.

    1988-01-01

    The empirical model developed in the NASA Dilution Jet Mixing Program has been extended to include the curvature effects of transition liners. This extension is based on the results of a 3-D numerical model generated under this contract. The empirical model results agree well with the numerical model results for all tests cases evaluated. The empirical model shows faster mixing rates compared to the numerical model. Both models show drift of jets toward the inner wall of a turning duct. The structure of the jets from the inner wall does not exhibit the familiar kidney-shaped structures observed for the outer wall jets or for jets injected in rectangular ducts.

  1. Evolution of viral virulence: empirical studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Wargo, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of virulence as a pathogen trait that can evolve in response to selection has led to a large body of virulence evolution theory developed in the 1980-1990s. Various aspects of this theory predict increased or decreased virulence in response to a complex array of selection pressures including mode of transmission, changes in host, mixed infection, vector-borne transmission, environmental changes, host vaccination, host resistance, and co-evolution of virus and host. A fundamental concept is prediction of trade-offs between the costs and benefits associated with higher virulence, leading to selection of optimal virulence levels. Through a combination of observational and experimental studies, including experimental evolution of viruses during serial passage, many of these predictions have now been explored in systems ranging from bacteriophage to viruses of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrate hosts. This chapter summarizes empirical studies of viral virulence evolution in numerous diverse systems, including the classic models myxomavirus in rabbits, Marek's disease virus in chickens, and HIV in humans. Collectively these studies support some aspects of virulence evolution theory, suggest modifications for other aspects, and show that predictions may apply in some virus:host interactions but not in others. Finally, we consider how virulence evolution theory applies to disease management in the field.

  2. What should we mean by empirical validation in hypnotherapy: evidence-based practice in clinical hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen; Sabatini, Linda; Amundson, Jon K

    2007-04-01

    This paper briefly surveys the trend of and controversy surrounding empirical validation in psychotherapy. Empirical validation of hypnotherapy has paralleled the practice of validation in psychotherapy and the professionalization of clinical psychology, in general. This evolution in determining what counts as evidence for bona fide clinical practice has gone from theory-driven clinical approaches in the 1960s and 1970s through critical attempts at categorization of empirically supported therapies in the 1990s on to the concept of evidence-based practice in 2006. Implications of this progression in professional psychology are discussed in the light of hypnosis's current quest for validation and empirical accreditation.

  3. An empirical study of scanner system parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D.; Biehl, L.; Simmons, W.

    1976-01-01

    The selection of the current combination of parametric values (instantaneous field of view, number and location of spectral bands, signal-to-noise ratio, etc.) of a multispectral scanner is a complex problem due to the strong interrelationship these parameters have with one another. The study was done with the proposed scanner known as Thematic Mapper in mind. Since an adequate theoretical procedure for this problem has apparently not yet been devised, an empirical simulation approach was used with candidate parameter values selected by the heuristic means. The results obtained using a conventional maximum likelihood pixel classifier suggest that although the classification accuracy declines slightly as the IFOV is decreased this is more than made up by an improved mensuration accuracy. Further, the use of a classifier involving both spatial and spectral features shows a very substantial tendency to resist degradation as the signal-to-noise ratio is decreased. And finally, further evidence is provided of the importance of having at least one spectral band in each of the major available portions of the optical spectrum.

  4. Empiric Antibiotic Treatment of Erythema Migrans-Like Skin Lesions As a Function of Geography: A Clinical and Cost Effectiveness Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Brinkerhoff, R. Jory; Wormser, Gary P.; Clemen, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The skin lesion of early Lyme disease, erythema migrans (EM), is so characteristic that routine practice is to treat all such patients with antibiotics. Because other skin lesions may resemble EM, it is not known whether presumptive treatment of EM is appropriate in regions where Lyme disease is rare. We constructed a decision model to compare the cost and clinical effectiveness of three strategies for the management of EM: Treat All, Observe, and Serology as a function of the probability that an EM-like lesion is Lyme disease. Treat All was found to be the preferred strategy in regions that are endemic for Lyme disease. Where Lyme disease is rare, Observe is the preferred strategy, as presumptive treatment would be expected to produce excessive harm and increased costs. Where Lyme disease is rare, clinicians and public health officials should consider observing patients with EM-like lesions who lack travel to Lyme disease-endemic areas. PMID:24107201

  5. Empiric antibiotic treatment of erythema migrans-like skin lesions as a function of geography: a clinical and cost effectiveness modeling study.

    PubMed

    Lantos, Paul M; Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Wormser, Gary P; Clemen, Robert

    2013-12-01

    The skin lesion of early Lyme disease, erythema migrans (EM), is so characteristic that routine practice is to treat all such patients with antibiotics. Because other skin lesions may resemble EM, it is not known whether presumptive treatment of EM is appropriate in regions where Lyme disease is rare. We constructed a decision model to compare the cost and clinical effectiveness of three strategies for the management of EM: Treat All, Observe, and Serology as a function of the probability that an EM-like lesion is Lyme disease. Treat All was found to be the preferred strategy in regions that are endemic for Lyme disease. Where Lyme disease is rare, Observe is the preferred strategy, as presumptive treatment would be expected to produce excessive harm and increased costs. Where Lyme disease is rare, clinicians and public health officials should consider observing patients with EM-like lesions who lack travel to Lyme disease-endemic areas.

  6. Women's Studies at Empire State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Virginia L.

    Because of the unique program of Empire State College, the problem of providing compensatory courses about women and developing a strategy for eventually having them incorporated into the curriculum of a discipline has been avoided. The focus at this college has been taken from the teacher and placed on the student, giving the student the primary…

  7. Forum report: issues in clinical trials of empirical antifungal therapy in treating febrile neutropenic patients.

    PubMed

    Bennett, John E; Powers, John; Walsh, Thomas; Viscoli, Claudio; de Pauw, Ben; Dismukes, William; Galgiani, John; Glauser, Michel; Herbrecht, Raoul; Kauffman, Carol; Lee, Jeannette; Pappas, Peter; Rex, John; Verweij, Paul

    2003-04-15

    There is inferential evidence that some patients with prolonged neutropenia and fever not responding to antibacterial agents are at sufficient risk of deep mycoses to warrant empirical therapy, although superiority of an antifungal agent over placebo has not been conclusively demonstrated. Amphotericin B deoxycholate, liposomal amphotericin B, and intravenous itraconazole followed by oral itraconazole solution are licensed in the United States for this indication. Fluconazole and voriconazole have given favorable results in clinical trials of patients with low and high risk of deep mold infections, respectively. Design features that can profoundly influence outcome of empirical trials are (1) inclusion of low-risk patients, (2) failure to blind the study, (3) obscuration of antifungal effects by changing antibacterial antibiotics, (4) failure to balance both arms of the study in terms of patients with prior antifungal prophylaxis or with severe comorbidities, (5) the merging of end points evaluating safety with those of efficacy, and (6) choice of different criteria for resolution of fever.

  8. Empirical studies on changes in oil governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemal, Mohammad

    Regulation of the oil and gas sector is consequential to the economies of oil-producing countries. In the literature, there are two types of regulation: indirect regulation through taxes and tariffs or direct regulation through the creation of a National Oil Company (NOC). In the 1970s, many oil-producing countries nationalized their oil and gas sectors by creating and giving ownership rights of oil and gas resources to NOCs. In light of the success of Norway in regulating its oil and gas resources, over the past two decades several countries have changed their oil governance by changing the rights given to NOC from ownership right to mere access rights like other oil companies. However, empirical literature on these changes in oil governance is quite thin. Thus, this dissertation will explore three research questions to investigate empirically these changes in oil governance. First, I investigate empirically the impact of the changes in oil governance on aggregate domestic income. By employing a difference-in-difference method, I will show that a country which changed its oil governance increases its GDP per-capita by 10%. However, the impact is different for different types of political institution. Second, by observing the changes in oil governance in Indonesia , I explore the impact of the changes on learning-by-doing and learning spillover effect in offshore exploration drilling. By employing an econometric model which includes interaction terms between various experience variables and changes in an oil governance dummy, I will show that the change in oil governance in Indonesia enhances learning-by-doing by the rigs and learning spillover in a basin. Lastly, the impact of the changes in oil governance on expropriation risk and extraction path will be explored. By employing a difference-in-difference method, this essay will show that the changes in oil governance reduce expropriation and the impact of it is different for different sizes of resource stock.

  9. An Empirical Study of Infrasonic Propagation

    SciTech Connect

    J. Paul Mutschlecner; Rodney W. Whitaker; Lawrence H. Auer

    1999-10-01

    Observations of atmospheric nuclear tests carried out at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 to 1958 provided data for an empirical investigation of how infrasonic signals are propagated to distances of about 250 km. Those observations and the analysis documented in this report involved signal amplitudes and average velocities and included three classes of signals: stratospheric, thermospheric, and tropospheric/surface. The authors' analysis showed that stratospheric winds have a dominant effect upon stratospheric signal amplitudes. The report outlines a method for normalizing stratospheric signal amplitudes for the effects of upper atmospheric winds and presents equations for predicting or normalizing amplitude and average velocity for the three types of signals.

  10. [Assumption of projective reduplication in psychosomatic patients. I. Results of an empirical study].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, G

    1988-01-01

    The starting position of this study was the striking discrepancy between clinical hypothesis on "projective reduplication" and their empirical validation. Empirical data for the statistical analysis derived from a heterogeneous group of psychosomatically ill persons (N = 33) and a group of normal controls (N = 30). Using the similarity of the image of one's self and the one of others as an experimental analogy of the "projective reduplication", we could not ascertain any verifying hint for this syndrome. The results of the present study do not support the assumption of a clinical phenomenon according to the hypotheses tested. But it still remains uncertain whether these hypotheses are appropriate transformations of clinical experience.

  11. Empathy in Narcissistic Personality Disorder: From Clinical and Empirical Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Ronningstam, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is associated with an assortment of characteristics that undermine interpersonal functioning. A lack of empathy is often cited as the primary distinguishing feature of NPD. However, clinical presentations of NPD suggest that empathy is not simply deficient in these individuals, but dysfunctional and subject to a diverse set of motivational and situational factors. Consistent with this presentation, research illustrates that empathy is multidimensional, involving 2 distinct emotional and cognitive processes associated with a capacity to respectively understand and respond to others’ mental and affective states. The goal of this practice review is to bridge the gap between our psychobiological understanding of empathy and its clinical manifestations in NPD. We present 3 case studies highlighting the variability in empathic functioning in people with NPD. Additionally, we summarize the literature on empathy and NPD, which largely associates this disorder with deficient emotional empathy, and dysfunctional rather than deficient cognitive empathy. Because this research is limited, we also present empathy-based findings for related syndromes (borderline and psychopathy). Given the complexity of narcissism and empathy, we propose that multiple relationships can exist between these constructs. Ultimately, by recognizing the multifaceted relationship between empathy and narcissism, and moving away from an all or nothing belief that those with NPD simply lack empathy, therapists may better understand narcissistic patients’ behavior and motivational structure. PMID:24512457

  12. Empathy in narcissistic personality disorder: from clinical and empirical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Ronningstam, Elsa

    2014-07-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is associated with an assortment of characteristics that undermine interpersonal functioning. A lack of empathy is often cited as the primary distinguishing feature of NPD. However, clinical presentations of NPD suggest that empathy is not simply deficient in these individuals, but dysfunctional and subject to a diverse set of motivational and situational factors. Consistent with this presentation, research illustrates that empathy is multidimensional, involving 2 distinct emotional and cognitive processes associated with a capacity to respectively understand and respond to others' mental and affective states. The goal of this practice review is to bridge the gap between our psychobiological understanding of empathy and its clinical manifestations in NPD. We present 3 case studies highlighting the variability in empathic functioning in people with NPD. Additionally, we summarize the literature on empathy and NPD, which largely associates this disorder with deficient emotional empathy, and dysfunctional rather than deficient cognitive empathy. Because this research is limited, we also present empathy-based findings for related syndromes (borderline and psychopathy). Given the complexity of narcissism and empathy, we propose that multiple relationships can exist between these constructs. Ultimately, by recognizing the multifaceted relationship between empathy and narcissism, and moving away from an all or nothing belief that those with NPD simply lack empathy, therapists may better understand narcissistic patients' behavior and motivational structure.

  13. Components of Clinical Competence Ratings of Physicians: An Empirical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The underlying structure of ratings of clinical competence was investigated. The instrument consisted of 33 statements on clinical behavior filled out by directors of medical education programs at postgraduate training institutions. It was concluded that ratings of clinical competence represent a multidimensional construct involving at least three…

  14. Placing clinical variables on a common linear scale of empirically based risk as a step towards construction of a general patient acuity score from the electronic health record: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Steven I; Rothman, Michael J; Solinger, Alan B

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the hypothesis that placing clinical variables of differing metrics on a common linear scale of all-cause postdischarge mortality provides risk functions that are directly correlated with in-hospital mortality risk. Design Modelling study. Setting An 805-bed community hospital in the southeastern USA. Participants 42302 inpatients admitted for any reason, excluding obstetrics, paediatric and psychiatric patients. Outcome measures All-cause in-hospital and postdischarge mortalities, and associated correlations. Results Pearson correlation coefficients comparing in-hospital risks with postdischarge risks for creatinine, heart rate and a set of 12 nursing assessments are 0.920, 0.922 and 0.892, respectively. Correlation between postdischarge risk heart rate and the Modified Early Warning System (MEWS) component for heart rate is 0.855. The minimal excess risk values for creatinine and heart rate roughly correspond to the normal reference ranges. We also provide the risks for values outside that range, independent of expert opinion or a regression model. By summing risk functions, a first-approximation patient risk score is created, which correctly ranks 6 discharge categories by average mortality with p<0.001 for differences in category means, and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference Test confirmed that the means were all different at the 95% confidence level. Conclusions Quantitative or categorical clinical variables can be transformed into risk functions that correlate well with in-hospital risk. This methodology provides an empirical way to assess inpatient risk from data available in the Electronic Health Record. With just the variables in this paper, we achieve a risk score that correlates with discharge disposition. This is the first step towards creation of a universal measure of patient condition that reflects a generally applicable set of health-related risks. More importantly, we believe that our approach opens the door to a way of

  15. The German specimen case, Amalia X: empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Kächele, Horst; Albani, Cornelia; Buchheim, Anna; Hölzer, Michael; Hohage, Roderich; Mergenthaler, Erhard; Jiménez, Juan Pablo; Leuzinger-Bohleber, Marianne; Neudert-Dreyer, Lisbeth; Pokorny, Dan; Thomä, Helmut

    2006-06-01

    The authors provide a perspective on how psychoanalytic process research can be implemented. This is based on a process research model described elsewhere and summarizes the kinds of studies that can be situated on the four levels of the model. The authors summarize multiple empirical studies that were performed in a completely tape-recorded psychoanalytic therapy and have been published. These studies demonstrate the many modalities empirical process research has available to objectively study psychoanalytic process phenomena and their implication for outcome.

  16. Empirical studies of regulatory restructuring and incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, Christopher Roland

    This dissertation examines the actions of firms when faced with regulatory restructuring. Chapter I examines the equilibrium pricing behavior of local exchange telephone companies under a variety of market structures. In particular, the pricing behavior of three services are analyzed: residential local service, business local service, and intraLATA toll service. Beginning in 1984, a variety of market structure changes have taken place in the local telecommunications industry. I analyze differences in the method of price-setting regulation and the restrictions on entry. Specifically, the relative pricing behavior under rate of return and price cap regulation is analyzed, as well as the impact of entry in the local exchange and intraLATA toll service markets. In doing so, I estimate an empirical model that accounts for the stickiness of rates in regulated industries that is based on firm and regulator decision processes in the presence of adjustment costs. I find that, faced with competitive pressures that reduce rates in one service, incumbent firm rates increase in other services, thereby reducing the benefits from competition. In addition, the findings suggest that price cap regulation leads to higher rates relative to rate-of-return regulation. Chapter 2 analyzes the pricing and investment behavior of electricity firms. Electricity and natural gas markets have traditionally been serviced by one of two market structures. In some markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by a dual-product regulated monopolist, while in other markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by separate single-product regulated monopolies. This paper analyzes the relative pricing and investment decisions of electricity firms operating in the two market structures. The unique relationship between these two products imply that the relative incentives of single and dual-product firms are likely to differ. Namely electricity and natural gas are substitutes in consumption while natural

  17. Classifier calibration using splined empirical probabilities in clinical risk prediction.

    PubMed

    Gaudoin, René; Montana, Giovanni; Jones, Simon; Aylin, Paul; Bottle, Alex

    2015-06-01

    The aims of supervised machine learning (ML) applications fall into three broad categories: classification, ranking, and calibration/probability estimation. Many ML methods and evaluation techniques relate to the first two. Nevertheless, there are many applications where having an accurate probability estimate is of great importance. Deriving accurate probabilities from the output of a ML method is therefore an active area of research, resulting in several methods to turn a ranking into class probability estimates. In this manuscript we present a method, splined empirical probabilities, based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) to complement existing algorithms such as isotonic regression. Unlike most other methods it works with a cumulative quantity, the ROC curve, and as such can be tagged onto an ROC analysis with minor effort. On a diverse set of measures of the quality of probability estimates (Hosmer-Lemeshow, Kullback-Leibler divergence, differences in the cumulative distribution function) using simulated and real health care data, our approach compares favourably with the standard calibration method, the pool adjacent violators algorithm used to perform isotonic regression.

  18. Christianity and Schizophrenia Redux: An Empirical Study.

    PubMed

    Kéri, Szabolcs; Kelemen, Oguz

    2016-04-09

    This paper explores the relationship among schizophrenia, spirituality, and Christian religiosity. We interviewed 120 patients with schizophrenia and 120 control individuals (74.2 % of individuals with self-reported Christian religions). Patients with schizophrenia showed increases in positive spirituality and decreases in positive congregational support, as measured by the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality. There was no significant difference in Christian religiosity. Higher positive spirituality was predicted by more severe self-disorder, perceptual disorder, and positive clinical symptoms. Schizophrenia patients with religious delusions did not exhibit enhanced Christian beliefs and rituals. These results do not confirm the hypothesis of general hyper-religiosity in schizophrenia.

  19. An empirical study of decline in empathy in medical school.

    PubMed

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Mangione, Salvatore; Nasca, Thomas J; Rattner, Susan; Erdmann, James B; Gonnella, Joseph S; Magee, Mike

    2004-09-01

    It has been reported that medical students become more cynical as they progress through medical school. This can lead to a decline in empathy. Empirical research to address this issue is scarce because the definition of empathy lacks clarity, and a tool to measure empathy specifically in medical students and doctors has been unavailable. To examine changes in empathy among medical students as they progress through medical school. A newly developed scale (Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy [JSPE], with 20 Likert-type items) was administered to 125 medical students at the beginning (pretest) and end (post-test) of Year 3 of medical school. This scale was specifically developed for measuring empathy in patient care situations and has acceptable psychometric properties. In this prospective longitudinal study, the changes in pretest/post-test empathy scores were examined by using t-test for repeated measure design; the effect size estimates were also calculated. Statistically significant declines were observed in 5 items (P < 0.01) and the total sores of the JSPE (P < 0.05) between the 2 test administrations. Although the decline in empathy was not clinically important for all of the statistically significant findings, the downward trend suggests that empathy could be amenable to change during medical school. Further research is needed to identify factors that contribute to changes in empathy and to examine whether targeted educational programmes can help to retain, reinforce and cultivate empathy among medical students for improving clinical outcomes.

  20. A regulatory model for clinical laboratories: an empirical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Peddecord, K M

    1989-04-01

    Clinical laboratories in the United States are subject to various regulatory and accreditation programs, which mandate a broad range of requirements regarding personnel, quality-control systems, and analytical proficiency standards. Reported here, for a cross-section of U.S. laboratories, is the degree of compliance with these regulatory requirements, some other laboratory characteristics, and their relation to analytical proficiency. The results suggest that those laboratory characteristics that predict highest proficiency-test performance differ for each laboratory specialty. Regression models are presented that explain from 12% to 35% of the variation in analytical performance and suggest that factors outside of those specified in the regulatory model and other characteristics measured in this research are important. Indeed, the current regulatory approach may not ensure highest performance. Also discussed are the current status, limitations, and prospects for change of the clinical laboratory regulatory system.

  1. Clinical Feedback About Empirically Supported Treatments for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Nicholas C; Newman, Michelle G; Goldfried, Marvin R

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been derived principally from randomized controlled trials. As such, evidence about the treatment of OCD has unilaterally flowed from researchers to clinicians. Despite often having decades of experience treating OCD, clinicians' feedback on their clinical observations in using these treatments has not been solicited. The current study contacted clinicians for their clinical observations on empirically supported treatments for OCD to identify commonly used cognitive-behavioral techniques and their limitations in their practices. One hundred eighty-one psychotherapists completed an online survey. The average participant practiced psychotherapy for 15 years, worked in private practice, held a doctorate, and treated an average of 25 clients with OCD in their lifetime. In regard to the most common techniques, behavioral strategies involving exposure to a feared outcome and prevention of a compulsive ritual were the most frequent group of interventions, followed by techniques that attempted to identify and challenge irrational thoughts. However, the majority of participants also reported incorporating mindfulness or acceptance-based methods. Based on therapists' reports, the most common barriers to the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions included limited premorbid functioning, chaotic lifestyles, controlling and critical families, OCD symptom severity, OCD symptom chronicity, and comorbidities. This study provides insight into common practices and limitations in clinical practice to inform future clinically relevant treatment research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. An Empirical Study for Impacts of Measurement Errors on EHR based Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Rui; Cao, Ming; Wu, Yonghui; Huang, Jing; Denny, Joshua C; Xu, Hua; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, Electronic Health Records (EHR) systems have been increasingly implemented at US hospitals. Despite their great potential, the complex and uneven nature of clinical documentation and data quality brings additional challenges for analyzing EHR data. A critical challenge is the information bias due to the measurement errors in outcome and covariates. We conducted empirical studies to quantify the impacts of the information bias on association study. Specifically, we designed our simulation studies based on the characteristics of the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. Through simulation studies, we quantified the loss of power due to misclassifications in case ascertainment and measurement errors in covariate status extraction, with respect to different levels of misclassification rates, disease prevalence, and covariate frequencies. These empirical findings can inform investigators for better understanding of the potential power loss due to misclassification and measurement errors under a variety of conditions in EHR based association studies. PMID:28269935

  3. Empirical study on human acupuncture point network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Shen, Dan; Chang, Hui; He, Da-Ren

    2007-03-01

    Chinese medical theory is ancient and profound, however is confined by qualitative and faint understanding. The effect of Chinese acupuncture in clinical practice is unique and effective, and the human acupuncture points play a mysterious and special role, however there is no modern scientific understanding on human acupuncture points until today. For this reason, we attend to use complex network theory, one of the frontiers in the statistical physics, for describing the human acupuncture points and their connections. In the network nodes are defined as the acupuncture points, two nodes are connected by an edge when they are used for a medical treatment of a common disease. A disease is defined as an act. Some statistical properties have been obtained. The results certify that the degree distribution, act degree distribution, and the dependence of the clustering coefficient on both of them obey SPL distribution function, which show a function interpolating between a power law and an exponential decay. The results may be helpful for understanding Chinese medical theory.

  4. Dissociative absorption: An empirically unique, clinically relevant, dissociative factor.

    PubMed

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Lassri, Dana; Soffer-Dudek, Nir; Shahar, Golan

    2015-11-01

    Research of dissociative absorption has raised two questions: (a) Is absorption a unique dissociative factor within a three-factor structure, or a part of one general dissociative factor? Even when three factors are found, the specificity of the absorption factor is questionable. (b) Is absorption implicated in psychopathology? Although commonly viewed as "non-clinical" dissociation, absorption was recently hypothesized to be specifically associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To address these questions, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on 679 undergraduates. Analyses supported the three-factor model, and a "purified" absorption scale was extracted from the original inclusive absorption factor. The purified scale predicted several psychopathology scales. As hypothesized, absorption was a stronger predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than of general psychopathology. In addition, absorption was the only dissociative scale that longitudinally predicted obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We conclude that absorption is a unique and clinically relevant dissociative tendency that is particularly meaningful to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Writing via Reading Software: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillman, Carolyn V.; And Others

    A study evaluated the effects of one reading software program on the written language production of kindergarten and first grade students. Subjects were approximately 600 students from six different schools--three using the computerized reading program, Writing to Read, and three comparable in demographics, but not using the program. Stories…

  6. Instruction for Web Searching: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colaric, Susan M.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of problems that users have with Web searching focuses on a study of undergraduates that investigated three instructional methods (instruction by example, conceptual models without illustrations, and conceptual models with illustrations) to determine differences in knowledge acquisition related to three types of knowledge (declarative,…

  7. Antecedents of Emotional Intelligence: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbuto, John E., Jr.; Story, Joana S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between emotional intelligence, locus of control, and mental boundaries. Three hundred and eighty-two county employees were sampled using a cross-sectional survey design. The results indicated internal locus of control and thin mental boundaries are positively related to emotional intelligence. A hierarchical…

  8. Instruction for Web Searching: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colaric, Susan M.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of problems that users have with Web searching focuses on a study of undergraduates that investigated three instructional methods (instruction by example, conceptual models without illustrations, and conceptual models with illustrations) to determine differences in knowledge acquisition related to three types of knowledge (declarative,…

  9. An Empirical Study about China: Gender Equity in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun; Staver, John R.

    A data base representing a random sample of more than 10,000 grade 9 students in an SISS (Second IEA Science Study) Extended Study (SES), a key project supported by the China State Commission of Education in the late 1980s, was employed in this study to investigate gender equity in student science achievement in China. This empirical data analysis…

  10. Dynamics of crowd disasters: An empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, Dirk; Johansson, Anders; Al-Abideen, Habib Zein

    2007-04-01

    Many observations of the dynamics of pedestrian crowds, including various self-organization phenomena, have been successfully described by simple many-particle models. For ethical reasons, however, there is a serious lack of experimental data regarding crowd panic. Therefore, we have analyzed video recordings of the crowd disaster in Mina/Makkah during the Hajj in 1426H on 12 January 2006. They reveal two subsequent, sudden transitions from laminar to stop-and-go and “turbulent” flows, which question many previous simulation models. While the transition from laminar to stop-and-go flows supports a recent model of bottleneck flows [D. Helbing , Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 168001 (2006)], the subsequent transition to turbulent flow is not yet well understood. It is responsible for sudden eruptions of pressure release comparable to earthquakes, which cause sudden displacements and the falling and trampling of people. The insights of this study into the reasons for critical crowd conditions are important for the organization of safer mass events. In particular, they allow one to understand where and when crowd accidents tend to occur. They have also led to organizational changes, which have ensured a safe Hajj in 1427H.

  11. Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2013-01-01

    Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

  12. Environmental ethics and wilderness management: an empirical study

    Treesearch

    William A. Valliere; Robert E. Manning

    1995-01-01

    The underlying hypothesis of this study is that environmental ethics influence public attitudes toward wilderness management. To study this hypothesis, environmental ethics were defined, categorized, and measured empirically. Additionally, attitudes toward selected wilderness management issues were measured. Associations were found between beliefs in selected...

  13. Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2013-01-01

    Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

  14. An empirical and model study on automobile market in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ji-Ying; Qiu, Rong; Zhou, Yueping; He, Da-Ren

    2006-03-01

    We have done an empirical investigation on automobile market in Taiwan including the development of the possession rate of the companies in the market from 1979 to 2003, the development of the largest possession rate, and so on. A dynamic model for describing the competition between the companies is suggested based on the empirical study. In the model each company is given a long-term competition factor (such as technology, capital and scale) and a short-term competition factor (such as management, service and advertisement). Then the companies play games in order to obtain more possession rate in the market under certain rules. Numerical simulation based on the model display a competition developing process, which qualitatively and quantitatively agree with our empirical investigation results.

  15. An Empirical Investigation of Group Treatment for a Clinical Population of Adult Female Incest Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Brenda J.; Johnson, Susan M.

    1999-01-01

    Empirically assesses the effectiveness of a group treatment program on intrapersonal symptomatology and interpersonal difficulties in a clinical population of women with a history of incest. Results indicate that a time-limited group, which focuses on the original trauma, is effective in reducing intrapersonal symptomatology for women with a…

  16. Threat, Intimidation, and Student Financial Market Knowledge: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Matthew W.; Devoto, Steve; Kent, Daniel W.; Harrison, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Threat emanating from financial markets may intimidate college students to some degree. In this article, the authors considered the influence of such intimidation on student financial market knowledge. They hypothesized a negative relationship between intimidation and market knowledge. An empirical study of over 150 undergraduate business school…

  17. Continued Use of a Chinese Online Portal: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Hung-Pin

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of the internet has made online portals a popular means of surfing the internet. In internet commerce, understanding the post-adoption behaviour of users of online portals can help enterprises to attract new users and retain existing customers. For predicting continued use intentions, this empirical study focused on applying and…

  18. Threat, Intimidation, and Student Financial Market Knowledge: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Matthew W.; Devoto, Steve; Kent, Daniel W.; Harrison, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Threat emanating from financial markets may intimidate college students to some degree. In this article, the authors considered the influence of such intimidation on student financial market knowledge. They hypothesized a negative relationship between intimidation and market knowledge. An empirical study of over 150 undergraduate business school…

  19. Organisational Learning and Performance--An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jyothibabu, C.; Pradhan, Bibhuti Bhusan; Farooq, Ayesha

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the important question "how the learning entities--individual, group or organisation--are affecting organisational performance". The answer is important for promoting learning and improving performance. This empirical study in the leading power utility in India found that there is a positive relation between…

  20. Educational Inequality and Income Inequality: An Empirical Study on China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…

  1. The Causes of Non-Attendance: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ken

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence obtained from an empirical study which used three distinct groups of professionals engaged in the attempt to "brainstorm" reasons for pupils' non-attendance. The evidence suggests that the "causes" of pupils' non-attendance can be sub-divided into three main fields: pupils who dislike coming to…

  2. An Empirical Study of Students on Academic Probation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Cindy L.; Graham, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A substantial number of university students are placed on academic probation each year, many of whom never succeed in academia. Hence, it is critical to identify who these students are, why they end up on academic probation, and most importantly how best to intervene. To determine this, an empirical study of students on academic probation for the…

  3. Continued Use of a Chinese Online Portal: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Hung-Pin

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of the internet has made online portals a popular means of surfing the internet. In internet commerce, understanding the post-adoption behaviour of users of online portals can help enterprises to attract new users and retain existing customers. For predicting continued use intentions, this empirical study focused on applying and…

  4. Educational Inequality and Income Inequality: An Empirical Study on China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…

  5. Susceptibility of clinical Moraxella catarrhalis isolates in British Columbia to six empirically prescribed antibiotic agents

    PubMed Central

    Bandet, Tamara; Whitehead, Sue; Blondel-Hill, Edith; Wagner, Ken; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Moraxella catarrhalis is a commensal organism of the respiratory tract that has emerged as an important pathogen for a variety of upper and lower respiratory tract infections including otitis media and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Susceptibility testing of M catarrhalis is not routinely performed in most diagnostic laboratories; rather, a comment predicting susceptibility based on the literature is attached to the report. The most recent Canadian report on M catarrhalis antimicrobial susceptibility was published in 2003; therefore, a new study at this time was of interest and importance. OBJECTIVE: To determine the susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates from British Columbia to amoxicillin-clavulanate, doxycycline, clarithromycin, cefuroxime, levofloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. METHODS: A total of 117 clinical M catarrhalis isolates were isolated and tested from five Interior hospitals and two private laboratory centres in British Columbia between January and December 2012. Antibiotic susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates was characterized using the Etest (E-strip; bioMérieux, USA) according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. RESULTS: All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate, doxycycline, clarithromycin, levofloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. One isolate was intermediately resistant to cefuroxime, representing a 99.15% sensitivity rate to the cephem agent. Cefuroxime minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) inhibiting 50% and 90% of organisms (MIC50 and MIC90) were highest among the antibiotics tested, and the MIC90 (3 μg/mL) of cefuroxime reached the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint of susceptibility. DISCUSSION: The antibiotic susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates evaluated in the present study largely confirms the findings of previous surveillance studies performed in Canada. Cefuroxime MICs are in the high end of the sensitive range and the MIC50 and MIC90

  6. The unpredictability paradox: review of empirical comparisons of randomised and non-randomised clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Regina; Oxman, Andrew D

    1998-01-01

    Objective To summarise comparisons of randomised clinical trials and non-randomised clinical trials, trials with adequately concealed random allocation versus inadequately concealed random allocation, and high quality trials versus low quality trials where the effect of randomisation could not be separated from the effects of other methodological manoeuvres. Design Systematic review. Selection criteria Cohorts or meta-analyses of clinical trials that included an empirical assessment of the relation between randomisation and estimates of effect. Data sources Cochrane Review Methodology Database, Medline, SciSearch, bibliographies, hand searching of journals, personal communication with methodologists, and the reference lists of relevant articles. Main outcome measures Relation between randomisation and estimates of effect. Results Eleven studies that compared randomised controlled trials with non-randomised controlled trials (eight for evaluations of the same intervention and three across different interventions), two studies that compared trials with adequately concealed random allocation and inadequately concealed random allocation, and five studies that assessed the relation between quality scores and estimates of treatment effects, were identified. Failure to use random allocation and concealment of allocation were associated with relative increases in estimates of effects of 150% or more, relative decreases of up to 90%, inversion of the estimated effect and, in some cases, no difference. On average, failure to use randomisation or adequate concealment of allocation resulted in larger estimates of effect due to a poorer prognosis in non-randomly selected control groups compared with randomly selected control groups. Conclusions Failure to use adequately concealed random allocation can distort the apparent effects of care in either direction, causing the effects to seem either larger or smaller than they really are. The size of these distortions can be as large

  7. Reexamining competitive priorities: Empirical study in service sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Fazli; Mohammad, Jihad

    2015-02-01

    The general objective of this study is to validate the multi-level concept of competitive priorities using reflective-formative model at a higher order for service industries. An empirical study of 228 firms from 9 different service industries is conducted to answer the objective of this study. Partial least square analysis with SmartPLS 2.0 was used to perform the analysis. Finding revealed six priorities: cost, flexibility, delivery, quality talent management, quality tangibility, and innovativeness. It emerges that quality are expanded into two types; one is related to managing talent for process improvement and the second one is the physical appearance and tangibility of the service quality. This study has confirmed competitive priorities as formative second-order hierarchical latent construct by using rigorous empirical evidence. Implications, limitation and suggestion for future research are accordingly discussed in this paper.

  8. Localization in random bipartite graphs: Numerical and empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slanina, František

    2017-05-01

    We investigate adjacency matrices of bipartite graphs with a power-law degree distribution. Motivation for this study is twofold: first, vibrational states in granular matter and jammed sphere packings; second, graphs encoding social interaction, especially electronic commerce. We establish the position of the mobility edge and show that it strongly depends on the power in the degree distribution and on the ratio of the sizes of the two parts of the bipartite graph. At the jamming threshold, where the two parts have the same size, localization vanishes. We found that the multifractal spectrum is nontrivial in the delocalized phase, but still near the mobility edge. We also study an empirical bipartite graph, namely, the Amazon reviewer-item network. We found that in this specific graph the mobility edge disappears, and we draw a conclusion from this fact regarding earlier empirical studies of the Amazon network.

  9. Mission Operations Planning with Preferences: An Empirical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Khatib, Lina; McGann, Conor

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of some nonexhaustive approaches to optimizing preferences within the context of constraint-based, mixed-initiative planning for mission operations. This work is motivated by the experience of deploying and operating the MAPGEN (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) system for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Responsiveness to the user is one of the important requirements for MAPGEN, hence, the additional computation time needed to optimize preferences must be kept within reasonabble bounds. This was the primary motivation for studying non-exhaustive optimization approaches. The specific goals of rhe empirical study are to assess the impact on solution quality of two greedy heuristics used in MAPGEN and to assess the improvement gained by applying a linear programming optimization technique to the final solution.

  10. How should clinical psychologists approach complementary and alternative medicine? Empirical, epistemological, and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Brian M

    2008-04-01

    As complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practices are often recommended for mental health problems, many clients in clinical psychology will be in receipt of such treatments from other practitioners. Some psychologists have argued that CAM and psychology are natural bedfellows, given their sharing of philosophies (e.g., holism), professional orientations (e.g., person-centeredness), and theoretical positions (e.g., mind-body connectionism). It has specifically been argued that the practices of CAM could productively be appropriated, or at least promoted, by clinical psychologists. However, other commentators have criticized CAM for comprising therapies that, by definition, are both intrinsically unscientific and lacking in empirical evidence. This article examines the current standing of CAM from empirical, epistemological, and ethical perspectives. CAM treatments are found to be based on heterogeneous epistemologies and to suffer from poor records in empirical efficacy research. Attention is given to possible psychological explanations for CAM's popularity in the face of poor evidence for efficacy. It is argued that, given the likely incompatibility of CAM with clinical psychology's positivist scientific ethos, CAM practices should not be integrated into clinical psychology at this time.

  11. CLINICAL FEATURES AND OUTCOME OF INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS IN YEMENI PATIENTS TREATED WITH EMPIRICAL ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Khaled, Al-Aghbari; Al-Noami, Alezzy Yahya; Al-Ansi, Mohamed; Faiza, Ahmed Askar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Infective endocarditis is a common disease in Yemen. Although the incidence of rheumatic valvular disease and uncorrected congenital heart disease in adults is high in Yemen, there are few data regarding the pattern, characteristic features and outcome of infective endocarditis in Yemen. Objective: The aim was to study the characteristic, clinical features and diagnostic criteria of infective endocarditis in Yemeni patients and the outcome in patients treated with medical therapy. Patients and Method: Seventy-two consecutive patients admitted to Kuwait teaching hospital in Sana’a with suspected infective endocarditis between June 1, 2005 and June 1, 2007 were included in this study. A questionnaire including history, clinical findings, and result of requested investigations, treatment, complications and outcome was used. The diagnosis was based on Dukes criteria, which proposed two major or five minor criteria. In our study, we included raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) as a minor criteria. The patients were classified as definite, possible and rejected cases. All patients received empirical antibiotic therapy. Results: The mean age was 28.56 ± 14.5 years. Men were 30 (42.2%) while women were 42 (57.7%). 59 (81.9%) of the patients had been admitted due to fever. Past history of rheumatic heart disease was positive in 38 (53.3%) of the patients. Mitral regurgitation was the commonest form of valvular affection 54 (82.1%) of patients followed by aortic regurgitation in 45 (63%). Anemia was present in 53 (74%) while raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate was high in all patients. Vegetations were detected by transthorasic echocardiography in 51 (70.83%) of the patients while blood culture was positive in only 7 (9.6%). After adding high ESR to the criteria, definite infective endocarditis were found in 34 (47.2%); possible in 38 (52.7%) and no rejected patients. Sixty-two (87.5%) of the patients improved and were discharged in good general

  12. Model and empirical study on some collaboration networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pei-Pei; Kan Chen; He, Yue; Zhou, Tao; Su, Bei-Bei; Jin, Yingdi; Chang, Hui; Zhou, Yue-Ping; Sun, Li-Cheng; Wang, Bing-Hong; He, Da-Ren

    2006-02-01

    In this paper we present an empirical study of a few practical systems described by cooperation networks, and propose a model to understand the results obtained. We study four non-social systems, which are the Bus Route Networks of Beijing and Yangzhou, the Travel Route Network of China, Huai-Yang recipes of Chinese cooked food, and a social system, which is the Collaboration Network of Hollywood Actors. In order to explain the results related to the degree distribution, act-degree distribution and act-size distribution (especially about the degree distribution, which may be better fitted using a stretched exponential distribution (SED)), we suggest a simple model to show a possible evolutionary mechanism for the emergence of such networks. The analytic and numerical results obtained from the model are in good agreement with the empirical results.

  13. Attachment-based family therapy for depressed and suicidal adolescents: theory, clinical model and empirical support.

    PubMed

    Ewing, E Stephanie Krauthamer; Diamond, Guy; Levy, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) is a manualized family-based intervention designed for working with depressed adolescents, including those at risk for suicide, and their families. It is an empirically informed and supported treatment. ABFT has its theoretical underpinnings in attachment theory and clinical roots in structural family therapy and emotion focused therapies. ABFT relies on a transactional model that aims to transform the quality of adolescent-parent attachment, as a means of providing the adolescent with a more secure relationship that can support them during challenging times generally, and the crises related to suicidal thinking and behavior, specifically. This article reviews: (1) the theoretical foundations of ABFT (attachment theory, models of emotional development); (2) the ABFT clinical model, including training and supervision factors; and (3) empirical support.

  14. Empirical Study of Drive-by-Download Spyware

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Empirical Study of Drive-by-Download Spyware Mark Barwinski, Cynthia Irvine and Tim Levin Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, USA markbarwinski...hotmail.com; irvine@nps.edu; levin@nps.edu; Abstract: The ability of spyware to circumvent common security practices, surreptitiously exporting...computing environments. While it is the common perception that spyware infection is the result of high risk Internet surfing behavior, our research

  15. Empirical study on clique-degree distribution of networks.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei-Ke; Ren, Jie; Qi, Feng; Song, Zhi-Wei; Zhu, Meng-Xiao; Yang, Hong-Feng; Jin, Hui-Yu; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhou, Tao

    2007-09-01

    The community structure and motif-modular-network hierarchy are of great importance for understanding the relationship between structures and functions. We investigate the distribution of clique degrees, which are an extension of degree and can be used to measure the density of cliques in networks. Empirical studies indicate the extensive existence of power-law clique-degree distributions in various real networks, and the power-law exponent decreases with an increase of clique size.

  16. Moving Clinical Deliberations on Administrative Discharge in Drug Addiction Treatment Beyond Moral Rhetoric to Empirical Ethics.

    PubMed

    Williams, Izaak L

    2016-01-01

    Patients' admission to modern substance use disorder treatment comes with the attendant risk of being discharged from treatment-a widespread practice. This article describes the three mainstream theories of addiction that operate as a reference point for clinicians in reasoning about a decision to discharge a patient from treatment. The extant literature is reviewed to highlight the pathways that patients follow after administrative discharge. Little scientific research has been done to investigate claims and hypotheses about the therapeutic function of AD, which points to the need for empirical ethics to inform clinical addictions practice. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  17. Cancer support groups: a critical review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Benjamin H; Wachala, Elizabeth D

    2007-05-01

    Support groups for adults affected by cancer are widely offered by local community and national agencies in North America. This type of psychosocial intervention is defined in terms of its structure and functions, and its theoretical underpinnings and models of practice are described. Forty-four empirical studies of professionally led cancer support groups are summarized and critically reviewed. These studies include 32 outcome evaluations of randomized controlled trials, two process evaluations, and 10 consumer satisfaction studies. The findings reveal high levels of consumer satisfaction, and the outcome evaluations substantiate the morale and other quality of life benefits short of prolonging life. Discussion centers on priorities for future research and practice.

  18. An Empirical Bayes Method for Multivariate Meta-analysis with an Application in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Luo, Sheng; Chu, Haitao; Su, Xiao; Nie, Lei

    2013-01-01

    We propose an empirical Bayes method for evaluating overall and study-specific treatment effects in multivariate meta-analysis with binary outcome. Instead of modeling transformed proportions or risks via commonly used multivariate general or generalized linear models, we directly model the risks without any transformation. The exact posterior distribution of the study-specific relative risk is derived. The hyperparameters in the posterior distribution can be inferred through an empirical Bayes procedure. As our method does not rely on the choice of transformation, it provides a flexible alternative to the existing methods and in addition, the correlation parameter can be intuitively interpreted as the correlation coefficient between risks. PMID:25089070

  19. Empirical studies of design software: Implications for software engineering environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasner, Herb

    1988-01-01

    The empirical studies team of MCC's Design Process Group conducted three studies in 1986-87 in order to gather data on professionals designing software systems in a range of situations. The first study (the Lift Experiment) used thinking aloud protocols in a controlled laboratory setting to study the cognitive processes of individual designers. The second study (the Object Server Project) involved the observation, videotaping, and data collection of a design team of a medium-sized development project over several months in order to study team dynamics. The third study (the Field Study) involved interviews with the personnel from 19 large development projects in the MCC shareholders in order to study how the process of design is affected by organizationl and project behavior. The focus of this report will be on key observations of design process (at several levels) and their implications for the design of environments.

  20. Empirical studies of design software: Implications for software engineering environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasner, Herb

    1988-01-01

    The empirical studies team of MCC's Design Process Group conducted three studies in 1986-87 in order to gather data on professionals designing software systems in a range of situations. The first study (the Lift Experiment) used thinking aloud protocols in a controlled laboratory setting to study the cognitive processes of individual designers. The second study (the Object Server Project) involved the observation, videotaping, and data collection of a design team of a medium-sized development project over several months in order to study team dynamics. The third study (the Field Study) involved interviews with the personnel from 19 large development projects in the MCC shareholders in order to study how the process of design is affected by organizationl and project behavior. The focus of this report will be on key observations of design process (at several levels) and their implications for the design of environments.

  1. Assessment and treatment of PTSD after a motor vehicle collision: Empirical findings and clinical observations

    PubMed Central

    Beck, J. Gayle; Coffey, Scott F.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals who experience a serious motor vehicle accident (MVA) are at increased risk for psychological problems, particularly Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In this article, we review the literature on PTSD among MVA survivors, with particular attention to available instruments to screen for and assess symptomatology of the disorder. Approaches to the treatment of PTSD in this population are reviewed, separated into interventions designed to prevent PTSD in unselected samples, treatment targeting individuals with Acute Stress Disorder that are designed to prevent subsequent development of PTSD, and therapy for individuals with chronic PTSD. Treatment process issues are discussed, in an effort to integrate empirical findings with clinical observations. The empirical literature suggests several approaches to treatment that have good potential outcomes, although continued work is needed to identify factors that predict treatment response, as well as augment individual-based treatment formats. PMID:18509507

  2. Empowerment in the service industry: an empirical study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Carol Yeh-Yun

    2002-09-01

    Employee empowerment is an essential managerial means that can be used to obtain competitive advantages from human resources in the new millennium. A comprehensive understanding of the essence of empowerment is crucial to facilitate its effective implementation. In this article, the author proposes a 4-dimensional empowerment model in an organizational setting and a matrix that incorporates the 4 dimensions and the 7S (R. H. Waterman, T. J. Peters, & J. R. Phillips, 1980) organizational factors. In addition, this study represents an empirical examination of the effects of personal and company characteristics on empowerment. The implications of the research results are discussed.

  3. Empirical orthogonal functions and normal modes. [for atmospheric data studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt to provide physical insight into the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) representation of data fields by the study of fields generated by linear stochastic models is presented in this paper. In a large class of these models, the EOFs at individual Fourier frequencies coincide with the orthogonal mechanical modes of the system - provided they exist. The precise mathematical criteria for this coincidence are derived and a physical interpretation is provided. A scheme possibly useful in forecasting is formally constructed for representing any stochastic field by a linear Hermitian model forced by noise.

  4. Prototype selection for nearest neighbor classification: taxonomy and empirical study.

    PubMed

    García, Salvador; Derrac, Joaquín; Cano, José Ramón; Herrera, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    The nearest neighbor classifier is one of the most used and well-known techniques for performing recognition tasks. It has also demonstrated itself to be one of the most useful algorithms in data mining in spite of its simplicity. However, the nearest neighbor classifier suffers from several drawbacks such as high storage requirements, low efficiency in classification response, and low noise tolerance. These weaknesses have been the subject of study for many researchers and many solutions have been proposed. Among them, one of the most promising solutions consists of reducing the data used for establishing a classification rule (training data) by means of selecting relevant prototypes. Many prototype selection methods exist in the literature and the research in this area is still advancing. Different properties could be observed in the definition of them, but no formal categorization has been established yet. This paper provides a survey of the prototype selection methods proposed in the literature from a theoretical and empirical point of view. Considering a theoretical point of view, we propose a taxonomy based on the main characteristics presented in prototype selection and we analyze their advantages and drawbacks. Empirically, we conduct an experimental study involving different sizes of data sets for measuring their performance in terms of accuracy, reduction capabilities, and runtime. The results obtained by all the methods studied have been verified by nonparametric statistical tests. Several remarks, guidelines, and recommendations are made for the use of prototype selection for nearest neighbor classification.

  5. Artifact interactions retard technological improvement: An empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Christopher L.

    2017-01-01

    Empirical research has shown performance improvement of many different technological domains occurs exponentially but with widely varying improvement rates. What causes some technologies to improve faster than others do? Previous quantitative modeling research has identified artifact interactions, where a design change in one component influences others, as an important determinant of improvement rates. The models predict that improvement rate for a domain is proportional to the inverse of the domain’s interaction parameter. However, no empirical research has previously studied and tested the dependence of improvement rates on artifact interactions. A challenge to testing the dependence is that any method for measuring interactions has to be applicable to a wide variety of technologies. Here we propose a novel patent-based method that is both technology domain-agnostic and less costly than alternative methods. We use textual content from patent sets in 27 domains to find the influence of interactions on improvement rates. Qualitative analysis identified six specific keywords that signal artifact interactions. Patent sets from each domain were then examined to determine the total count of these 6 keywords in each domain, giving an estimate of artifact interactions in each domain. It is found that improvement rates are positively correlated with the inverse of the total count of keywords with Pearson correlation coefficient of +0.56 with a p-value of 0.002. The results agree with model predictions, and provide, for the first time, empirical evidence that artifact interactions have a retarding effect on improvement rates of technological domains. PMID:28777798

  6. Bayesian model reduction and empirical Bayes for group (DCM) studies.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Litvak, Vladimir; Oswal, Ashwini; Razi, Adeel; Stephan, Klaas E; van Wijk, Bernadette C M; Ziegler, Gabriel; Zeidman, Peter

    2016-03-01

    This technical note describes some Bayesian procedures for the analysis of group studies that use nonlinear models at the first (within-subject) level - e.g., dynamic causal models - and linear models at subsequent (between-subject) levels. Its focus is on using Bayesian model reduction to finesse the inversion of multiple models of a single dataset or a single (hierarchical or empirical Bayes) model of multiple datasets. These applications of Bayesian model reduction allow one to consider parametric random effects and make inferences about group effects very efficiently (in a few seconds). We provide the relatively straightforward theoretical background to these procedures and illustrate their application using a worked example. This example uses a simulated mismatch negativity study of schizophrenia. We illustrate the robustness of Bayesian model reduction to violations of the (commonly used) Laplace assumption in dynamic causal modelling and show how its recursive application can facilitate both classical and Bayesian inference about group differences. Finally, we consider the application of these empirical Bayesian procedures to classification and prediction. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bayesian model reduction and empirical Bayes for group (DCM) studies

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.; Litvak, Vladimir; Oswal, Ashwini; Razi, Adeel; Stephan, Klaas E.; van Wijk, Bernadette C.M.; Ziegler, Gabriel; Zeidman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This technical note describes some Bayesian procedures for the analysis of group studies that use nonlinear models at the first (within-subject) level – e.g., dynamic causal models – and linear models at subsequent (between-subject) levels. Its focus is on using Bayesian model reduction to finesse the inversion of multiple models of a single dataset or a single (hierarchical or empirical Bayes) model of multiple datasets. These applications of Bayesian model reduction allow one to consider parametric random effects and make inferences about group effects very efficiently (in a few seconds). We provide the relatively straightforward theoretical background to these procedures and illustrate their application using a worked example. This example uses a simulated mismatch negativity study of schizophrenia. We illustrate the robustness of Bayesian model reduction to violations of the (commonly used) Laplace assumption in dynamic causal modelling and show how its recursive application can facilitate both classical and Bayesian inference about group differences. Finally, we consider the application of these empirical Bayesian procedures to classification and prediction. PMID:26569570

  8. Evaluation of Empirical Data and Modeling Studies to Support ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This study is an evaluation of empirical data and select modeling studies of the behavior of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) vapors in subsurface soils and how they can affect subsurface-to-indoor air vapor intrusion (VI), henceforth referred to as petroleum vapor intrusion or “PVI” for short. The purpose of this study is to support the development of a soil vapor screening methodology for PHC compounds for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Underground Storage Tanks (U.S. EPA OUST); consequently, the focus is primarily on characterizing PVI at Subtitle I underground storage tank (UST) sites with petroleum fuel releases. However, PVI data from other types of sites (fuel terminals, petroleum refineries) are also presented and discussed

  9. Profiling dizziness in older primary care patients: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Dros, Jacquelien; Maarsingh, Otto R; van der Windt, Daniëlle A W M; Oort, Frans J; ter Riet, Gerben; de Rooij, Sophia E J A; Schellevis, François G; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; van Weert, Henk C P M

    2011-01-31

    The diagnostic approach to dizzy, older patients is not straightforward as many organ systems can be involved and evidence for diagnostic strategies is lacking. A first differentiation in diagnostic subtypes or profiles may guide the diagnostic process of dizziness and can serve as a classification system in future research. In the literature this has been done, but based on pathophysiological reasoning only. To establish a classification of diagnostic profiles of dizziness based on empirical data. Cross-sectional study. 417 consecutive patients of 65 years and older presenting with dizziness to 45 primary care physicians in the Netherlands from July 2006 to January 2008. We performed tests, including patient history, and physical and additional examination, previously selected by an international expert panel and based on an earlier systematic review. We used the results of these tests in a principal component analysis for exploration, data-reduction and finally differentiation into diagnostic dizziness profiles. Demographic data and the results of the tests yielded 221 variables, of which 49 contributed to the classification of dizziness into six diagnostic profiles, that may be named as follows: "frailty", "psychological", "cardiovascular", "presyncope", "non-specific dizziness" and "ENT". These explained 32% of the variance. Empirically identified components classify dizziness into six profiles. This classification takes into account the heterogeneity and multicausality of dizziness and may serve as starting point for research on diagnostic strategies and can be a first step in an evidence based diagnostic approach of dizzy older patients.

  10. Chaotic Visual Cryptosystem Using Empirical Mode Decomposition Algorithm for Clinical EEG Signals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Feng

    2016-03-01

    This paper, proposes a chaotic visual cryptosystem using an empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm for clinical electroencephalography (EEG) signals. The basic design concept is to integrate two-dimensional (2D) chaos-based encryption scramblers, the EMD algorithm, and a 2D block interleaver method to achieve a robust and unpredictable visual encryption mechanism. Energy-intrinsic mode function (IMF) distribution features of the clinical EEG signal are developed for chaotic encryption parameters. The maximum and second maximum energy ratios of the IMFs of a clinical EEG signal to its refereed total energy are used for the starting points of chaotic logistic map types of encrypted chaotic signals in the x and y vectors, respectively. The minimum and second minimum energy ratios of the IMFs of a clinical EEG signal to its refereed total energy are used for the security level parameters of chaotic logistic map types of encrypted chaotic signals in the x and y vectors, respectively. Three EEG database, and seventeen clinical EEG signals were tested, and the average r and mse values are 0.0201 and 4.2626 × 10(-29), respectively, for the original and chaotically-encrypted through EMD clinical EEG signals. The chaotically-encrypted signal cannot be recovered if there is an error in the input parameters, for example, an initial point error of 0.000001 %. The encryption effects of the proposed chaotic EMD visual encryption mechanism are excellent.

  11. Environmental performance indicators: an empirical study of Canadian manufacturing firms.

    PubMed

    Henri, Jean-François; Journeault, Marc

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the importance of measurement and use of environmental performance indicators (EPIs) within manufacturing firms. Two research questions are investigated: (i) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with the importance of measurement of various categories of EPIs? (ii) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with global and specific uses of EPIs? More specifically, this paper examines four uses of EPIs (i.e. to monitor compliance, to motivate continuous improvement, to support decision making, and to provide data for external reporting) as well as four characteristics of firms, namely environmental strategy, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 compliance, size, and ownership. This study contributes to the environmental management accounting literature by collecting and analyzing empirical evidence that provides a better understanding of the associations among firm characteristics and EPIs.

  12. Empirical study of ARFIMA model based on fractional differencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Jin; Jin, Yao

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we studied the long-term memory of Hong Kong Hang Sheng index using MRS analysis, established ARFIMA model for it, and detailed the procedure of fractional differencing. Furthermore, we compared the ARFIMA model built by this means with the one that took first-order differencing as an alternative. The result showed that, if doing so, much useful information of time series would be lost. The forecast formula of ARFIMA model was corrected according to the method of fractional differencing, and was employed in the empirical study. It was illustrated that the forecast performance of ARFIMA model was not as good as we expected since the ARFIMA model was ineffective in forecasting Hang Sheng index. The certainty of this conclusion was proposed from two different aspects.

  13. Trade liberalization, social policies and health: an empirical case study.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Courtney

    2015-10-12

    This study investigates the health impacts of a major liberalization episode in the textile and clothing (T&C) sector. This episode triggered substantial shifts in employment across a wide range of countries. It is the first study to empirically link trade liberalization to health via changes in employment and offers some of the first empirical insights on how trade liberalization interacts with social policies to influence health. Data from 32 T&C reliant countries were analysed in reference to the pre- and post-liberalization periods of 2000-2004 and 2005-2009. Fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) was used to examine the association between countries' a) level of development b) labour market and welfare state protections c) T&C employment changes and d) changes in adult female and infant mortality rates. Process tracing was used to further investigate these associations through twelve in-depth country studies. Results from the fsQCA relate changes in employment after the phase-out to both changing adult female and infant mortality rates. Findings from the in-depth country studies suggest that the worsening of adult female mortality rates is related to workers' lack of social protection, both in the context of T&C employment growth and loss. Overall, it is found that social protection is often inaccessible to the type of workers who may be the most vulnerable to processes of liberalization and that many workers are particularly vulnerable due to the structure of social protection policies. Social policies are therefore found to both moderate pathways to health and influence the type of health-related pathways resulting from trade liberalizing policies.

  14. An empirical evaluation of multidimensional clinical outcome in chronic low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Klapow, J C; Slater, M A; Patterson, T L; Doctor, J N; Atkinson, J H; Garfin, S R

    1993-10-01

    Individuals with persisting pain often present a constellation of symptoms that includes pain, health-related impairment and dysphoric mood. It is now widely accepted that comprehensive assessment must address each of these dimensions. Despite recognition of the value of multidimensional assessment, no empirical efforts have validated the construct of a multidimensional clinical outcome presentation based on the dimensions of pain, impairment and dysphoric mood. We employed cluster analytic procedures on standard measures of pain, impairment and depression in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients (n = 96) attending a general orthopedic clinic in order to empirically characterize multidimensional clinical outcomes. Results indicated that 3 groups could be identified reliably: (1) 'Chronic Pain Syndrome' (n = 25; high levels of pain, impairment and depression), (2) 'Positive Adaptation to Pain' (n = 24; high levels of pain with low levels of impairment and depression) and (3) 'Good Pain Control' (n = 47; low levels of pain, impairment and depression). The reliability of this cluster solution was supported by several tests of internal consistency. Discriminability of the clusters was examined across both the outcome measures themselves and several additional independent variables. The cluster solution was then cross-validated in an independent sample of pain clinic CLBP patients (n = 180) to test its generalizability. Finally the stability of the cluster dimensions over time was tested by re-assessing 36 CLBP patients 6 months after they initially were characterized into 1 of the 3 outcome groups on the same measures. MANOVA results indicated that the outcome groups were differentiated statistically across assessments. The multiple outcome measures did not change significantly across time, nor did the outcome groups change differentially across time on these measures. We conclude that the outcome dimensions of pain, impairment and depression are relatively stable

  15. Information Assurance in Saudi Organizations - An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Syed Irfan; Mirza, Abdulrahman A.; Alghathbar, Khaled

    This paper presents selective results of a survey conducted to find out the much needed insight into the status of information security in Saudi Arabian organizations. The purpose of this research is to give the state of information assurance in the Kingdom and to better understand the prevalent ground realities. The survey covered technical aspects of information security, risk management and information assurance management. The results provide deep insights in to the existing level of information assurance in various sectors that can be helpful in better understanding the intricate details of the prevalent information security in the Kingdom. Also, the results can be very useful for information assurance policy makers in the government as well as private sector organizations. There are few empirical studies on information assurance governance available in literature, especially about the Middle East and Saudi Arabia, therefore, the results are invaluable for information security researchers in improving the understanding of information assurance in this region and the Kingdom.

  16. Tomography by iterative convolution - Empirical study and application to interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, C. M.; Prikryl, I.

    1984-01-01

    An algorithm for computer tomography has been developed that is applicable to reconstruction from data having incomplete projections because an opaque object blocks some of the probing radiation as it passes through the object field. The algorithm is based on iteration between the object domain and the projection (Radon transform) domain. Reconstructions are computed during each iteration by the well-known convolution method. Although it is demonstrated that this algorithm does not converge, an empirically justified criterion for terminating the iteration when the most accurate estimate has been computed is presented. The algorithm has been studied by using it to reconstruct several different object fields with several different opaque regions. It also has been used to reconstruct aerodynamic density fields from interferometric data recorded in wind tunnel tests.

  17. Empirical study on social groups in pedestrian evacuation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Krüchten, Cornelia; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    Pedestrian crowds often include social groups, i.e. pedestrians that walk together because of social relationships. They show characteristic configurations and influence the dynamics of the entire crowd. In order to investigate the impact of social groups on evacuations we performed an empirical study with pupils. Several evacuation runs with groups of different sizes and different interactions were performed. New group parameters are introduced which allow to describe the dynamics of the groups and the configuration of the group members quantitatively. The analysis shows a possible decrease of evacuation times for large groups due to self-ordering effects. Social groups can be approximated as ellipses that orientate along their direction of motion. Furthermore, explicitly cooperative behaviour among group members leads to a stronger aggregation of group members and an intermittent way of evacuation.

  18. Empirical study of the tails of mutual fund size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzkopf, Yonathan; Farmer, J. Doyne

    2010-06-01

    The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter of the assets in the U.S. stock market and thus plays an important role in the U.S. economy. The question of how much control is concentrated in the hands of the largest players is best quantitatively discussed in terms of the tail behavior of the mutual fund size distribution. We study the distribution empirically and show that the tail is much better described by a log-normal than a power law, indicating less concentration than, for example, personal income. The results are highly statistically significant and are consistent across fifteen years. This contradicts a recent theory concerning the origin of the power law tails of the trading volume distribution. Based on the analysis in a companion paper, the log-normality is to be expected, and indicates that the distribution of mutual funds remains perpetually out of equilibrium.

  19. Tomography by iterative convolution - Empirical study and application to interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, C. M.; Prikryl, I.

    1984-01-01

    An algorithm for computer tomography has been developed that is applicable to reconstruction from data having incomplete projections because an opaque object blocks some of the probing radiation as it passes through the object field. The algorithm is based on iteration between the object domain and the projection (Radon transform) domain. Reconstructions are computed during each iteration by the well-known convolution method. Although it is demonstrated that this algorithm does not converge, an empirically justified criterion for terminating the iteration when the most accurate estimate has been computed is presented. The algorithm has been studied by using it to reconstruct several different object fields with several different opaque regions. It also has been used to reconstruct aerodynamic density fields from interferometric data recorded in wind tunnel tests.

  20. Differential Weighting: A Survey of Methods and Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.; Wang, Marilyn D.

    The literature on a priori and empirical weighting of test items and test-item options is reviewed. While multiple regression is the best known technique for deriving fixed empirical weights for component variables (such as tests and test items), other methods allow one to derive weights which equalize the effective weights of the component…

  1. An empirical study of the DSM-IV Defensive Functioning Scale in personality disordered patients.

    PubMed

    Blais, M A; Conboy, C A; Wilcox, N; Norman, D K

    1996-01-01

    The inclusion of the Defensive Functioning Scale (DFS) in the DSM-IV provides clinicians with the opportunity to incorporate psychodynamic information into their descriptive diagnoses. The DFS contains 27 specific defenses covering six levels of defensive functioning ranging from psychotic to normal. This study undertook an initial empirical evaluation of the DFS. A sample of 100 clinicians completed a questionnaire containing both the personality disorder (PD) symptoms and the DFS defenses of PD patients known to them, DFS ratings were not related to clinician orientation. Patient gender was related to only one defense level, with women being assigned significantly more action level defenses than men. Multiple regression analyses revealed unique and meaningful patterns of association between the defense levels and PD symptoms. Additionally, the DFS ratings provided unique information regarding level of impairment and treatment success. These results provide initial empirical support for the clinical application and relevance of the proposed DFS system.

  2. Interactions between Obsessional Symptoms and Interpersonal Ambivalences in Psychodynamic Therapy: An Empirical Case Study.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Shana; Desmet, Mattias; Van Nieuwenhove, Kimberly L H D; Meganck, Reitske; Willemsen, Jochem; Inslegers, Ruth; Feyaerts, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    The classical symptom specificity hypothesis (Blatt, 1974) particularly associates obsessional symptoms to interpersonal behavior directed at autonomy and separation from others. Cross-sectional group research, however, has yielded inconsistent findings on this predicted association, and a previous empirical case study (Cornelis et al., in press; see Chapter 2) documented obsessional pathology to be rooted in profound ambivalences between autonomous and dependent interpersonal dynamics. Therefore, in the present empirical case study, concrete operationalizations of the classical symptom specificity hypothesis are contrasted to alternative hypotheses based on the observed complexities in Chapter 2. Dynamic associations between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal functioning is further explored, aiming at further contribution to theory building (i.e., through suggestions for potential hypothesis-refinement; Stiles, 2009). Similar to the first empirical case study (Chapter 1), Consensual Qualitative Research for Case studies is used to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the longitudinal, clinical interplay between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal dynamics throughout the process of supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy. In line with findings from Chapter 1, findings reveal close associations between obsessions and interpersonal dynamics, and therapist interventions focusing on interpersonal conflicts are documented as related to interpersonal and symptomatic alterations. Observations predominantly accord to the ambivalence-hypothesis rather than to the classical symptom specificity hypothesis. Yet, meaningful differences are observed in concrete manifestations of interpersonal ambivalences within significant relationships. Findings are again discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations; and limitations and future research indications are addressed.

  3. Interactions between Obsessional Symptoms and Interpersonal Ambivalences in Psychodynamic Therapy: An Empirical Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Shana; Desmet, Mattias; Van Nieuwenhove, Kimberly L. H. D.; Meganck, Reitske; Willemsen, Jochem; Inslegers, Ruth; Feyaerts, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    The classical symptom specificity hypothesis (Blatt, 1974) particularly associates obsessional symptoms to interpersonal behavior directed at autonomy and separation from others. Cross-sectional group research, however, has yielded inconsistent findings on this predicted association, and a previous empirical case study (Cornelis et al., in press; see Chapter 2) documented obsessional pathology to be rooted in profound ambivalences between autonomous and dependent interpersonal dynamics. Therefore, in the present empirical case study, concrete operationalizations of the classical symptom specificity hypothesis are contrasted to alternative hypotheses based on the observed complexities in Chapter 2. Dynamic associations between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal functioning is further explored, aiming at further contribution to theory building (i.e., through suggestions for potential hypothesis-refinement; Stiles, 2009). Similar to the first empirical case study (Chapter 1), Consensual Qualitative Research for Case studies is used to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the longitudinal, clinical interplay between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal dynamics throughout the process of supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy. In line with findings from Chapter 1, findings reveal close associations between obsessions and interpersonal dynamics, and therapist interventions focusing on interpersonal conflicts are documented as related to interpersonal and symptomatic alterations. Observations predominantly accord to the ambivalence-hypothesis rather than to the classical symptom specificity hypothesis. Yet, meaningful differences are observed in concrete manifestations of interpersonal ambivalences within significant relationships. Findings are again discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations; and limitations and future research indications are addressed. PMID:28649214

  4. Evaluating the Clinical Burden and Mortality Attributable to Antibiotic Resistance: The Disparity of Empirical Data and Simple Model Estimations.

    PubMed

    Abat, Cédric; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Dubourg, Grégory; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Chaudet, Hervé; Raoult, Didier

    2017-08-15

    Given the proliferation of cataclysmic predictions about antibiotic resistance, cases of which are estimated to amount to 12500 per year in France, we herein decided to compare the empirical clinical microbiology data from our institution with estimates and predictions from 10 major international scientific articles and reports. The analysis of 7 years of antibiotic resistance data from 10 bacterial species and genera of clinical interest from our institution identified no deaths that were directly attributable to extremely drug-resistant bacteria. By comparing our observations to the 10 articles and reports studied herein, we concluded that their results lack empirical data. Interventions are urgently needed to significantly reduce both mortality and the healthcare costs associated with bacterial infections, including the implementation of local and national laboratory data-based surveillance systems for the routine surveillance of antibiotic resistance that would be helpful for a better understanding of how to manage antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the future. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. An Empirical Study of Student Willingness to Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Kaylee; Boggs, David; Borozan, Anci

    2012-01-01

    Companies wish for universities to provide business students with international education and awareness. Short- and long-term study-abroad programs are an effective method by which this is accomplished, but relatively few American students study abroad. In response to these facts, this study develops hypotheses that predict student willingness to…

  6. Data envelopment analysis in service quality evaluation: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, Seyedvahid; Saati, Saber; Tavana, Madjid

    2015-10-01

    Service quality is often conceptualized as the comparison between service expectations and the actual performance perceptions. It enhances customer satisfaction, decreases customer defection, and promotes customer loyalty. Substantial literature has examined the concept of service quality, its dimensions, and measurement methods. We introduce the perceived service quality index (PSQI) as a single measure for evaluating the multiple-item service quality construct based on the SERVQUAL model. A slack-based measure (SBM) of efficiency with constant inputs is used to calculate the PSQI. In addition, a non-linear programming model based on the SBM is proposed to delineate an improvement guideline and improve service quality. An empirical study is conducted to assess the applicability of the method proposed in this study. A large number of studies have used DEA as a benchmarking tool to measure service quality. These models do not propose a coherent performance evaluation construct and consequently fail to deliver improvement guidelines for improving service quality. The DEA models proposed in this study are designed to evaluate and improve service quality within a comprehensive framework and without any dependency on external data.

  7. Communication and Organization in Software Development: An Empirical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaman, Carolyn B.; Basili, Victor R.

    1996-01-01

    The empirical study described in this paper addresses the issue of communication among members of a software development organization. The independent variables are various attributes of organizational structure. The dependent variable is the effort spent on sharing information which is required by the software development process in use. The research questions upon which the study is based ask whether or not these attributes of organizational structure have an effect on the amount of communication effort expended. In addition, there are a number of blocking variables which have been identified. These are used to account for factors other than organizational structure which may have an effect on communication effort. The study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods for data collection and analysis. These methods include participant observation, structured interviews, and graphical data presentation. The results of this study indicate that several attributes of organizational structure do affect communication effort, but not in a simple, straightforward way. In particular, the distances between communicators in the reporting structure of the organization, as well as in the physical layout of offices, affects how quickly they can share needed information, especially during meetings. These results provide a better understanding of how organizational structure helps or hinders communication in software development.

  8. Communication and Organization in Software Development: An Empirical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaman, Carolyn B.; Basili, Victor R.

    1996-01-01

    The empirical study described in this paper addresses the issue of communication among members of a software development organization. The independent variables are various attributes of organizational structure. The dependent variable is the effort spent on sharing information which is required by the software development process in use. The research questions upon which the study is based ask whether or not these attributes of organizational structure have an effect on the amount of communication effort expended. In addition, there are a number of blocking variables which have been identified. These are used to account for factors other than organizational structure which may have an effect on communication effort. The study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods for data collection and analysis. These methods include participant observation, structured interviews, and graphical data presentation. The results of this study indicate that several attributes of organizational structure do affect communication effort, but not in a simple, straightforward way. In particular, the distances between communicators in the reporting structure of the organization, as well as in the physical layout of offices, affects how quickly they can share needed information, especially during meetings. These results provide a better understanding of how organizational structure helps or hinders communication in software development.

  9. Empirical study of crowd behavior during a real mass event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. L.; Weng, W. G.; Yuan, H. Y.

    2012-08-01

    The study of crowd behavior is essential for the safe organization of mass events. However, precise quantitative empirical data are insufficient due to the lack of mass event scenarios suitable for observation. In this paper, crowd behavior during a mass event in which many people go through a door and then pass a bridge is studied by a new method based on a flow field visualization algorithm widely used in fluid experiments. Two important movement phases, laminar flow on a bridge and stop-and-go waves in a bottleneck area, are investigated. The results show that the velocity profile on the bridge is similar to that of fully developed laminar flow in a pipe. Quantitative analysis of the stop-and-go wave in the bottleneck area shows that the dominant fluctuation frequencies are mainly below 0.1 Hz and the peak frequency is around 0.05 Hz the wave propagation speed is about - 0.69 m s-1. The absolute decrease in speed as the wave propagates is also indicated. By a combination of shock wave theory and a fundamental diagram, an analytical model of a shock wave in a crowd is established to theoretically investigate the stop-and-go wave, and the model can be used to explain the measurement results. This study provides a new method and fundamental data for understanding crowd behavior. The results are also expected to be useful for the design of crowd management strategies during mass events.

  10. Psychological Vulnerability to Completed Suicide: A Review of Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Kenneth R.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews empirical literature on psychological vulnerability to completed suicide. Five constructs have been consistently associated with completed suicide: impulsivity/aggression; depression; anxiety; hopelessness; and self-consciousness/social disengagement. Current knowledge of psychological vulnerability could inform social…

  11. Psychological Vulnerability to Completed Suicide: A Review of Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Kenneth R.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews empirical literature on psychological vulnerability to completed suicide. Five constructs have been consistently associated with completed suicide: impulsivity/aggression; depression; anxiety; hopelessness; and self-consciousness/social disengagement. Current knowledge of psychological vulnerability could inform social…

  12. Setting healthcare priorities in hospitals: a review of empirical studies

    PubMed Central

    Barasa, Edwine W; Molyneux, Sassy; English, Mike; Cleary, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Priority setting research has focused on the macro (national) and micro (bedside) level, leaving the meso (institutional, hospital) level relatively neglected. This is surprising given the key role that hospitals play in the delivery of healthcare services and the large proportion of health systems resources that they absorb. To explore the factors that impact upon priority setting at the hospital level, we conducted a thematic review of empirical studies. A systematic search of PubMed, EBSCOHOST, Econlit databases and Google scholar was supplemented by a search of key websites and a manual search of relevant papers’ reference lists. A total of 24 papers were identified from developed and developing countries. We applied a policy analysis framework to examine and synthesize the findings of the selected papers. Findings suggest that priority setting practice in hospitals was influenced by (1) contextual factors such as decision space, resource availability, financing arrangements, availability and use of information, organizational culture and leadership, (2) priority setting processes that depend on the type of priority setting activity, (3) content factors such as priority setting criteria and (4) actors, their interests and power relations. We observe that there is need for studies to examine these issues and the interplay between them in greater depth and propose a conceptual framework that might be useful in examining priority setting practices in hospitals. PMID:24604831

  13. Empirical approaches to the study of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2017-02-01

    The study of language evolution, and human cognitive evolution more generally, has often been ridiculed as unscientific, but in fact it differs little from many other disciplines that investigate past events, such as geology or cosmology. Well-crafted models of language evolution make numerous testable hypotheses, and if the principles of strong inference (simultaneous testing of multiple plausible hypotheses) are adopted, there is an increasing amount of relevant data allowing empirical evaluation of such models. The articles in this special issue provide a concise overview of current models of language evolution, emphasizing the testable predictions that they make, along with overviews of the many sources of data available to test them (emphasizing comparative, neural, and genetic data). The key challenge facing the study of language evolution is not a lack of data, but rather a weak commitment to hypothesis-testing approaches and strong inference, exacerbated by the broad and highly interdisciplinary nature of the relevant data. This introduction offers an overview of the field, and a summary of what needed to evolve to provide our species with language-ready brains. It then briefly discusses different contemporary models of language evolution, followed by an overview of different sources of data to test these models. I conclude with my own multistage model of how different components of language could have evolved.

  14. An efficient empirical Bayes method for genomewide association studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Wei, J; Pan, Y; Xu, S

    2016-08-01

    Linear mixed model (LMM) is one of the most popular methods for genomewide association studies (GWAS). Numerous forms of LMM have been developed; however, there are two major issues in GWAS that have not been fully addressed before. The two issues are (i) the genomic background noise and (ii) low statistical power after Bonferroni correction. We proposed an empirical Bayes (EB) method by assigning each marker effect a normal prior distribution, resulting in shrinkage estimates of marker effects. We found that such a shrinkage approach can selectively shrink marker effects and reduce the noise level to zero for majority of non-associated markers. In the meantime, the EB method allows us to use an 'effective number of tests' to perform Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. Simulation studies for both human and pig data showed that EB method can significantly increase statistical power compared with the widely used exact GWAS methods, such as GEMMA and FaST-LMM-Select. Real data analyses in human breast cancer identified improved detection signals for markers previously known to be associated with breast cancer. We therefore believe that EB method is a valuable tool for identifying the genetic basis of complex traits.

  15. The pragmatics of therapeutic interaction: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Lepper, Georgia

    2009-10-01

    The research reported in this article aims to demonstrate a method for the systematic study of the therapist/patient interaction in psychoanalytic psychotherapy, drawing upon the tradition and methods of 'pragmatics'--the study of language in interaction. A brief introduction to the discipline of pragmatics demonstrates its relevance to the contemporary focus of clinical theory on the here-and-now dynamics of the relationship between analyst and patient. This is followed by a detailed study of five segments from the transcript of a therapeutic dialogue, drawn from a brief psychoanalytic psychotherapy, in which therapist and patient negotiate the meaning of the patient's symptom: Is it psychosomatic? The research seeks to show how the therapeutic process can be observed and studied as an interactional achievement, grounded in general and well-studied procedures through which meaning is intersubjectively developed and shared. Implications of the analysis for clinical theory and practice, and further research, are discussed.

  16. Adult Attachment and Developmental Personality Styles: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Alissa; Lyddon, William J.; Henson, Robin K.

    2007-01-01

    The current study was designed to test specific hypotheses associated with W. J. Lyddon and A. Sherry's (2001) attachment theory model of developmental personality styles. More specifically, 4 adult attachment dimensions were correlated with 10 personality scales on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (T. Millon, R. Davis, & C.…

  17. Physician leadership styles and effectiveness: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Samuels, Michael E; Stoskopf, Carleen H

    2005-12-01

    The authors study the association between physician leadership styles and leadership effectiveness. Executive directors of community health centers were surveyed (269 respondents; response rate = 40.9 percent) for their perceptions of the medical director's leadership behaviors and effectiveness, using an adapted Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (43 items on a 0-4 point Likert-type scale), with additional questions on demographics and the center's clinical goals and achievements. The authors hypothesize that transformational leadership would be more positively associated with executive directors' ratings of effectiveness, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate extra effort, as well as the center's clinical goal achievement, than transactional or laissez-faire leadership. Separate ordinary least squares regressions were used to model each of the effectiveness measures, and general linear model regression was used to model clinical goal achievement. Results support the hypothesis and suggest that physician leadership development using the transformational leadership model may result in improved health care quality and cost control.

  18. An empirical study of FORTRAN programs for parallelizing compilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Zhiyu; Li, Zhiyuan; Yew, Pen-Chung

    1990-01-01

    Some results are reported from an empirical study of program characteristics that are important in parallelizing compiler writers, especially in the area of data dependence analysis and program transformations. The state of the art in data dependence analysis and some parallel execution techniques are examined. The major findings are included. Many subscripts contain symbolic terms with unknown values. A few methods of determining their values at compile time are evaluated. Array references with coupled subscripts appear quite frequently; these subscripts must be handled simultaneously in a dependence test, rather than being handled separately as in current test algorithms. Nonzero coefficients of loop indexes in most subscripts are found to be simple: they are either 1 or -1. This allows an exact real-valued test to be as accurate as an exact integer-valued test for one-dimensional or two-dimensional arrays. Dependencies with uncertain distance are found to be rather common, and one of the main reasons is the frequent appearance of symbolic terms with unknown values.

  19. An empirical study of FORTRAN programs for parallelizing compilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Zhiyu; Li, Zhiyuan; Yew, Pen-Chung

    1990-01-01

    Some results are reported from an empirical study of program characteristics that are important in parallelizing compiler writers, especially in the area of data dependence analysis and program transformations. The state of the art in data dependence analysis and some parallel execution techniques are examined. The major findings are included. Many subscripts contain symbolic terms with unknown values. A few methods of determining their values at compile time are evaluated. Array references with coupled subscripts appear quite frequently; these subscripts must be handled simultaneously in a dependence test, rather than being handled separately as in current test algorithms. Nonzero coefficients of loop indexes in most subscripts are found to be simple: they are either 1 or -1. This allows an exact real-valued test to be as accurate as an exact integer-valued test for one-dimensional or two-dimensional arrays. Dependencies with uncertain distance are found to be rather common, and one of the main reasons is the frequent appearance of symbolic terms with unknown values.

  20. Social Health Status in Iran: An Empirical Study

    PubMed Central

    AMINI RARANI, Mostafa; RAFIYE, Hassan; KHEDMATI MORASAE, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Background: As social health is a condition-driven, dynamic and fluid concept, it seems necessary to construct and obtain a national and relevant concept of it for every society. Providing an empirical back up for Iran’s concept of social health was the aim of the present study. Methods: This study is an ecologic study in which available data for 30 provinces of Iran in 2007 were analyzed. In order to prove construct validity and obtain a social health index, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on six indicators of population growth, willful murder, poverty, unemployment, insurance coverage and literacy. Results: Following the factor analysis, two factors of Diathesis (made up of high population growth, poverty, low insurance coverage and illiteracy) and Problem (made up of unemployment and willful murder) were extracted. The diathesis and problem explained 48.6 and 19.6% of social health variance respectively. From provinces, Sistan & Baluchistan had the highest rate of poverty and violence and the lowest rate of literacy and insurance coverage. In terms of social health index, Tehran, Semnan, Isfahan, Bushehr and Mazandaran had the highest ranks while Sistan and Baluchistan, Lurestan, Kohkiloyeh and Kermanshah occupied the lowest ones. Conclusion: There are some differences and similarities between Iranian concept of social health and that of other societies. However, a matter that makes our concept special and different is its attention to population. The increase in literacy rate and insurance coverage along with reduction of poverty, violence and unemployment rates can be the main intervention strategies to improve social health status in Iran. PMID:23515572

  1. Empirical assessment of whether moderate payments are undue or unjust inducements for participation in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Scott D; Karlawish, Jason H T; Casarett, David; Berlin, Jesse A; Asch, David A

    2004-04-12

    Paying patients to participate in clinical trials is ethically controversial. However, there has been no empirical documentation regarding whether payment represents an undue or unjust inducement. To evaluate these questions, we described hypothetical placebo-controlled trials of a new antihypertensive drug to 126 patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension recruited from hypertension and general medicine clinics at a university hospital. Using a 3 x 3, within-subjects design, we altered a risk to participation (either adverse effect rate or rate of randomization to placebo) and the payment participants would receive ($100, $1000, and $2000) and asked patients to indicate their willingness to participate (WTP) in each trial using a 6-point scale. Clustered ordinal logistic regression models revealed that patients' WTP decreased with higher risk of adverse effects (P<.001), higher risk of being assigned to placebo (P =.02), and lower payment level (P<.001). There were no significant interactions between payment level and either risk variable, suggesting that increasing payments do not alter peoples' perceptions of risk. There was a trend toward a positive interaction between income and the influence of payment on WTP (P =.09), suggesting that payment more strongly influences WTP among wealthier people. Wealthier patients were more likely to state that payment was important in their participation decision (37% vs 20%, P =.05). Although higher payment motivates research participation, we found no evidence that commonly used payment levels represent undue or unjust inducements.

  2. A comparative study between Empirical Wavelet Transforms and Empirical Mode Decomposition Methods: Application to bearing defect diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedadouche, M.; Thomas, M.; Tahan, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is a noise assisted method that may sometimes provide a significant improvement on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). However, the amplitude and number of added noise need to be selected when applying the EEMD method. Furthermore, the computation time which depends on the number of ensemble trails is very high compared to the EMD. In this paper, a new way for choosing the appropriate added noise is presented. Conversely, a recently-developed method called the Empirical Wavelet Transform (EWT) is investigated. A comparative study between the EMD and EWT methods is conducted. The results show that the EWT is better than the EEMD and EMD on mode estimates and computation time is significantly reduced. An experimental study on bearing diagnosis is conducted. The EWT is applied to experimental data coming from damaged bearings. In the paper, an index selection is introduced that allows for the automatic selection of the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that should be used to perform the envelope spectrum. It is shown that choosing all the IMF selected by the index is more efficient than only choosing the best one. The envelope of the sum of the selected IMF clearly reveals the bearing frequencies and its harmonics which are excited by the defect. This approach seems to be an effective and efficient method for processing bearing fault signals.

  3. Challenges in achieving patient participation: A review of how patient participation is addressed in empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Angel, Sanne; Frederiksen, Kirsten Norup

    2015-09-01

    For decades, it has been an ideal in western countries that individuals should participate in society as self-governing and autonomous subjects; however, this ideal does not always correspond to the actual experiences of individuals in their encounters with health professionals. This review identifies how empirical studies address challenges in achieving patient participation in clinical nursing. We conducted a literature search for studies of patient participation in PubMed, Cinahl, PsychInfo and Scopus. In a systematic review using Garrard's matrix method, we selected empirical studies that focused on patients' participation in health services. The empirical studies we investigated addressed the relationship between patient and nurse, knowledge, contact time with the patient, severity of illness and the effect of age on the degree of patient involvement. Every study thus investigated assessed patient participation as being achievable. None of the studies questioned the foundation for patient participation, which has been described in theoretical articles. The main explanation for difficulties in achieving patient participation was that expectations concerning the extent and quality of participation could be unrealistic and lead to dissatisfaction. Studies on patient participation identify challenges due to the nature of the relationship between laypersons and professionals, and the embedded difference in situation and knowledge. This difference may be reduced by time and a mutually positive attitude. But participation in its ideal form cannot be achieved because of this fundamental difference. Therefore, the optimal level of patient participation can only be achieved within a framework which provides both patients and health professionals with adequate time to build relationships and shared knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Flood risk changes over centuries in Rome: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Saccà, Smeralda; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Crisci, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    Over centuries, the development of the historical city of Rome -close to one of the largest Italian rivers, the Tiber- has been intertwined with the magnitude and frequency of flooding events. The ancient Rome mostly developed on the (seven) hills, while the Tiber's floodplain was mainly exploited for agricultural purposes. A few small communities did settle in the riparian areas of the Tiber, but they had a relatively peaceful relationships with the frequent occurrence of flooding events. Nowadays, numerous people live in modern districts in the Tiber's floodplain, unaware of their exposure to potentially catastrophic flooding. The main goal of this research is to explore the dynamics of changing flood risk over the centuries between these two extreme pictures of the ancient and contemporary Rome. To this end, we carried out a socio-hydrological study by exploiting long time series of physical (flooding, river morphology) and social (urbanization, population dynamics) processes together with information about human interactions with the environment (flood defense structures). This empirical analysis showed how human and physical systems have been co-evolving over time, while being abruptly altered by the occurrence of extreme events. For instance, a large flooding event occurred in 1870 and contributed to the constructions of levees, which in turn facilitated the development of new urban areas in the Tiber's floodplain, while changed the societal memory of floods as well as the communities' perception of risk. This research work was also used to test the hypotheses of recent-developed models conceptualizing the interplay between floods and societies and simulating the long-term behavior of coupled human-water systems. The outcomes of this test provided interesting insights about the dynamics of flood risk, which are expected to support a better anticipation of future changes.

  5. Empirical Study of Formative Evaluation in Adult ESL Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qin

    2012-01-01

    Formative Evaluation is a method of evaluating a program while the program activities are forming or happening. Formative evaluation focuses on the "process" during which problems are timely spotted, corrected and adjustments made so that an intended goal can be accomplished. Through a four-month empirical research work with students of…

  6. Developing integrated clinical reasoning competencies in dental students using scaffolded case-based learning - empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Postma, T C; White, J G

    2016-08-01

    This study provides empirical evidence of the development of integrated clinical reasoning in the discipline-based School of Dentistry, University of Pretoria, South Africa. Students were exposed to case-based learning in comprehensive patient care (CPC) in the preclinical year of study, scaffolded by means of the four-component instructional design model for complex learning. Progress test scores of third- to fifth-year dental students, who received case-based teaching and learning in the third year (2009-2011), were compared to the scores of preceding fourth- and fifth-year cohorts. These fourth- and fifth-year cohorts received content-based teaching concurrently with their clinical training in CPC. The progress test consisted of a complex case study and 32 MCQs on tracer conditions. Students had to gather the necessary information and had to make diagnostic and treatment-planning decisions. Preclinical students who participated in the case-based teaching and learning achieved similar scores compared to final-year students who received lecture-based teaching and learning. Final-year students who participated in the case-based learning made three more correct clinical decisions per student, compared to those who received content-based teaching. Students struggled more with treatment-planning than with diagnostic decisions. The scaffolded case-based learning appears to contribute to accurate clinical decisions when compared to lecture-based teaching. It is suggested that the development of integrated reasoning competencies starts as early as possible in a dental curriculum, perhaps even in the preclinical year of study. Treatment-planning should receive particular attention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Additive empirical parametrization and microscopic study of deuteron breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

    2017-02-01

    Comparative assessment of the total breakup proton-emission cross sections measured for 56 MeV deuteron interaction with target nuclei from 12C to 209Bi, with an empirical parametrization and recently calculated microscopic neutron-removal cross sections was done at the same time with similar data measured at 15, 25.5, 70, and 80 MeV. Comparable mass dependencies of the elastic-breakup (EB) cross sections provided by the empirical parametrization and the microscopic results have been also found at the deuteron energy of 56 MeV, while the assessment of absolute-values variance up to a factor of two was not possible because of the lack of EB measurements at energies higher than 25.5 MeV. While the similarities represent an additional validation of the microscopic calculations, the cross-section difference should be considered within the objectives of further measurements.

  8. Practical Interests, Relevant Alternatives, and Knowledge Attributions: an Empirical Study.

    PubMed

    May, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Hull, Jay G; Zimmerman, Aaron

    2010-06-01

    In defending his interest-relative account of knowledge, Jason Stanley relies heavily on intuitions about several bank cases. We experimentally test the empirical claims that Stanley seems to make concerning our common-sense intuitions about these cases. Additionally, we test the empirical claims that Jonathan Schaffer seems to make, regarding the salience of an alternative, in his critique of Stanley. Our data indicate that neither raising the possibility of error nor raising stakes moves most people from attributing knowledge to denying it. However, the raising of stakes (but not alternatives) does affect the level of confidence people have in their attributions of knowledge. We argue that our data impugn what both Stanley and Schaffer claim our common-sense judgments about such cases are.

  9. A Trade Study of Thermosphere Empirical Neutral Density Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    of acceleration caused by nongravitational forces. After modeling and removal of the acceleration signals caused by solar radiation, Earth’s albedo...satellites and other space objects. Employing solar flux F10.7 proxy and the geomagnetic activity ap index it models the neutral temperature and...significant improvements in empirical density modeling [Bowman et al., 2008]. The upgrade has incorporated new solar indices, a new semiannual

  10. An Empirical Study on Operator Interface Design for Handheld Devices to Control Micro Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    An Empirical Study on Operator Interface Design for Handheld Devices to Control Micro Aerial Vehicles Ming Hou...Report DRDC Toronto TR 2010-075 October 2010 An Empirical Study on Operator Interface Design for Handheld Devices to...drives the need for a small and light controller which will not hinder a soldier carrying it. This requirement brings an issue of designing an

  11. Empirical caspofungin therapy in clinical practice for suspected invasive fungal disease in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Kiehl, Michael G; Egerer, Gerlinde; Engelhardt, Monika; Gross, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) after cytotoxic chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at risk for life-threatening invasive fungal disease (IFD). The aim was to evaluate the characteristics, antifungal therapy and outcome of adult patients with ALL after chemotherapy or HSCT receiving caspofungin empirically in a clinical setting. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted at nine large tertiary care centres in Germany. Adult patients with ALL treated empirically with caspofungin according to the product label between 2006 and 2012 were eligible. Data were extracted as case reports. In total, 25 patients (12 males, 13 females; median age 37 years; 19 with B-ALL, 6 with T-ALL) with 28 treatment episodes because of suspected IFD (18 episodes after chemotherapy, 10 episodes after allogeneic HSCT) were included in the analysis. Empirical caspofungin therapy (median duration: 19 days, range 1-105 days) was given as first-line monotherapy in 20 (71.4%), second-line monotherapy in five (17.9%) and combination therapy in three (10.7%) episodes respectively. Therapy rated successful according to the physician's overall assessment (inflammatory parameters, clinical symptoms): 20 (95%) of 21 evaluable episodes with therapy duration of at least 8 days. Empirical caspofungin appears to be an effective therapeutic option in critically ill adult ALL patients with suspected IFD in clinical practice.

  12. The relationship between senior management team culture and clinical governance: Empirical investigation and managerial implications.

    PubMed

    Prenestini, Anna; Calciolari, Stefano; Lega, Federico; Grilli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Health care organizations are pressured to improve the cost-effectiveness of service delivery. Clinical governance is an important trigger to improve care quality and safety and rank high in the reform agenda of health systems. The senior management team culture plays a major role in establishing clinical governance practices, because it strongly influences the values, attitudes, and behaviors of the members of an organization. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between senior management team culture and clinical governance in the public health care organizations of three Italian regions. The assessment of senior management culture was conducted using the Competing Values Framework and a corresponding instrument adapted for the Italian context. Clinical governance was assessed using an ad hoc instrument focused on the senior management team's perception and attitude toward clinical governance. The survey achieved a 54% response rate. The results of four different models demonstrate that organizations characterized by different dominant cultures are associated with significant differences in attitudes toward clinical governance. In particular, on average, dominant cultures with a prevailing external focus are associated with a more positive attitude toward clinical governance. The selection and appointments of top managers should consider the style of leadership that is most apt to facilitate the growth of rational and developmental cultures. Furthermore, the training of top managers and leading doctors should reinforce leadership aptitude and approaches that are consistent with the desired organizational cultures.

  13. The DSM classification of personality disorder: clinical wisdom or empirical truth? A response to Alvin R. Mahrer's problem 11.

    PubMed

    Klonsky, E D

    2000-12-01

    In a recent issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychology Alvin R. Mahrer (1999, pp. 1147-1156) outlined 11 problems facing the field of psychotherapy. Problem 11 states that psychotherapy rests on a foundation of truths that have not been tested in ways that could find them to be false. This point is especially pertinent to the DSM classification of personality disorders. None of the DSM-IV categories of personality disorder were discovered through empirical research. Rather, they were hypothesized by psychiatrists and psychologists, and put into writing. A review of the relevant literature reveals that empirical research findings rarely agree with the DSM conceptions of personality disorder classification. It is concluded that only through continuing empirical research efforts can we discover how nature "intended" personality pathology to be classified.

  14. The Role of Light and Music in Gambling Behaviour: An Empirical Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spenwyn, Jenny; Barrett, Doug J. K.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research examining the situational characteristics of gambling and their effect on gambling behaviour is limited but growing. This experimental pilot investigation reports the first ever empirical study into the combined effects of both music and light on gambling behaviour. While playing an online version of roulette, 56 participants…

  15. The Role of Light and Music in Gambling Behaviour: An Empirical Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spenwyn, Jenny; Barrett, Doug J. K.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research examining the situational characteristics of gambling and their effect on gambling behaviour is limited but growing. This experimental pilot investigation reports the first ever empirical study into the combined effects of both music and light on gambling behaviour. While playing an online version of roulette, 56 participants…

  16. Children's living arrangements following separation and divorce: insights from empirical and clinical research.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Joan B

    2007-03-01

    When parents separate, children typically enter into new living arrangements with each parent in a pattern determined most often by one or both parents or, failing private agreement, as a result of recommendations and decisions by lawyers, therapists, custody evaluators, or family courts. Most of these decisions have been based on cultural traditions and beliefs regarding postseparation parenting plans, visitation guidelines adopted within jurisdictions, unsubstantiated theory, and strongly held personal values and professional opinions, and have resulted since the 1960s in children spending most of their time with one residential parent and limited time with nonresident, or "visiting", parents. A large body of social science and child development research generated over the past three decades has identified factors associated with risk and resiliency of children after divorce. Such research remains largely unknown and untapped by parents and professionals making these crucial decisions about children's living arrangements. This article highlights empirical and clinical research that is relevant to the shape of children's living arrangements after separation, focusing first on what is known about living arrangements following divorce, what factors influence living arrangements for separated and divorced children, children's views about their living arrangements, and living arrangements associated with children's adjustment following divorce. Based on this research, it is argued that traditional visiting patterns and guidelines are, for the majority of children, outdated, unnecessarily rigid, and restrictive, and fail in both the short and long term to address their best interests. Research-based parenting plan models offering multiple options for living arrangements following separation and divorce more appropriately serve children's diverse developmental and psychological needs.

  17. Collective behavior in animal groups: theoretical models and empirical studies

    PubMed Central

    Giardina, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Collective phenomena in animal groups have attracted much attention in the last years, becoming one of the hottest topics in ethology. There are various reasons for this. On the one hand, animal grouping provides a paradigmatic example of self-organization, where collective behavior emerges in absence of centralized control. The mechanism of group formation, where local rules for the individuals lead to a coherent global state, is very general and transcends the detailed nature of its components. In this respect, collective animal behavior is a subject of great interdisciplinary interest. On the other hand, there are several important issues related to the biological function of grouping and its evolutionary success. Research in this field boasts a number of theoretical models, but much less empirical results to compare with. For this reason, even if the general mechanisms through which self-organization is achieved are qualitatively well understood, a quantitative test of the models assumptions is still lacking. New analysis on large groups, which require sophisticated technological procedures, can provide the necessary empirical data. PMID:19404431

  18. The empirical antibiotic treatment of nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: Results of a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Piano, Salvatore; Fasolato, Silvano; Salinas, Freddy; Romano, Antonietta; Tonon, Marta; Morando, Filippo; Cavallin, Marta; Gola, Elisabetta; Sticca, Antonietta; Loregian, Arianna; Palù, Giorgio; Zanus, Giacomo; Senzolo, Marco; Burra, Patrizia; Cillo, Umberto; Angeli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common, life-threatening complication of liver cirrhosis. Third-generation cephalosporins have been considered the first-line treatment of SBP. In 2014, a panel of experts suggested a broader spectrum antibiotic regimen for nosocomial SBP, according to the high rate of bacteria resistant to third-generation cephalosporins found in these patients. However, a broader-spectrum antibiotic regimen has never been compared to third-generation cephalosporins in the treatment of nosocomial SBP. The aim of our study was to compare meropenem plus daptomycin versus ceftazidime in the treatment of nosocomial SBP. Patients with cirrhosis and nosocomial SBP were randomized to receive meropenem (1 g/8 hours) plus daptomycin (6 mg/kg/day) or ceftazidime (2 g/8 hours). A paracentesis was performed after 48 hours of treatment. A reduction in ascitic fluid neutrophil count <25% of pretreatment value was considered a treatment failure. The primary outcome was the efficacy of treatment defined by the resolution of SBP after 7 days of treatment. Thirty-two patients were randomized and 31 were analyzed. The combination of meropenem plus daptomycin was significantly more effective than ceftazidime in the treatment of nosocomial SBP (86.7 vs. 25%; P < 0.001). Ninety-day transplant-free survival (TFS) was not significantly different between the two groups. In the multivariate analysis, ineffective response to first-line treatment (hazard ratio [HR]: 20.6; P = 0.01), development of acute kidney injury during hospitalization (HR: 23.2; P = 0.01), and baseline mean arterial pressure (HR: 0.92; P = 0.01) were found to be independent predictors of 90-day TFS. The combination of meropenem plus daptomycin is more effective than ceftazidime as empirical antibiotic treatment of nosocomial SBP. Efficacy of the empirical antibiotic treatment is a strong predictor of 90-day survival in patients with nosocomial SBP. © 2015 by the American

  19. Racism and hypertension: a review of the empirical evidence and implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Love, Erica E; Pencille, Melissa; Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2011-05-01

    Despite improved hypertension (HTN) awareness and treatment, racial disparities in HTN prevalence persist. An understanding of the biopsychosocial determinants of HTN is necessary to address racial disparities in the prevalence of HTN. This review examines the evidence directly and indirectly linking multiple levels of racism to HTN. Published empirical research in EBSCO databases investigating the relationships of three levels of racism (individual/interpersonal, internalized, and institutional racism) to HTN was reviewed. Direct evidence linking individual/interpersonal racism to HTN diagnosis is weak. However, the relationship of individual/interpersonal racism to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is more consistent, with all published studies reporting a positive relationship of interpersonal racism to ABP. There is no direct evidence linking internalized racism to BP. Population-based studies provide some evidence linking institutional racism, in the forms of residential racial segregation (RRS) and incarceration, to HTN incidence. Racism shows associations to stress exposure and reactivity as well as associations to established HTN-related risk factors including obesity, low levels of physical activity and alcohol use. The effects vary by level of racism. Overall the findings suggest that racism may increase risk for HTN; these effects emerge more clearly for institutional racism than for individual level racism. All levels of racism may influence the prevalence of HTN via stress exposure and reactivity and by fostering conditions that undermine health behaviors, raising the barriers to lifestyle change.

  20. An empirical study of opinion leader effects on mobile information technology adoption in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haijing; Padman, Rema; Telang, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    Given the increasing number of applications but slow adoption of IT, including mobile IT, in healthcare, it is important to develop a better understanding of the contextual factors that motivate IT adoption by physicians. Although studies have shown that age or gender may affect physicians' IT adoption, those factors cannot be controlled when deploying a new IT. Therefore, the current research examines empirical evidence of a contextual factor, opinion leader effects, on IT adoption in healthcare that can be influenced by organizational policies. Using a unique panel dataset of physicians' usage of a mobile clinical IT from a community hospital, we observe a significant result that physicians under the influence of opinion leaders are three times more likely to adopt the IT than otherwise. This finding suggests that incentivizing a small proportion of opinion leaders to adopt a new IT has the potential to motivate wider adoption across the organization.

  1. Systematic mapping study of data mining-based empirical studies in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Kadi, Ilham; Idri, Ali; Fernandez-Aleman, José Luis

    2017-07-01

    Data mining provides the methodology and technology to transform huge amount of data into useful information for decision making. It is a powerful process to extract knowledge and discover new patterns embedded in large data sets. Data mining has been increasingly used in medicine, particularly in cardiology. In fact, data mining applications can greatly benefits all parts involved in cardiology such as patients, cardiologists and nurses. This article aims to perform a systematic mapping study so as to analyze and synthesize empirical studies on the application of data mining techniques in cardiology. A total of 142 articles published between 2000 and 2015 were therefore selected, studied and analyzed according to the four following criteria: year and channel of publication, research type, medical task and empirical type. The results of this mapping study are discussed and a list of recommendations for researchers and cardiologists is provided.

  2. Clinical Studies with Epothilones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    As indicated in previous chapters, epothilone research so far has delivered seven new chemical entities that have been advanced to clinical trials in humans (Fig. 1). However, the amount of clinical data publicly available at this time strongly varies between individual compounds, depending on their development stage, but also on the general publication policy of the developing company. The compound that has been most comprehensively characterized in the clinical literature is ixabepilone (BMS-247550), for which trial results have been described in a number of articles in peer-reviewed journals and which has been granted FDA approval for two clinical indications on Oct. 16, 2007. For all other compounds, most of the information on clinical trials is available only in abstract form. In all these cases it remains uncertain, whether the content of these abstracts fully reflects the content of the subsequent (poster or oral) presentations at the corresponding meeting; in fact, it seems likely that additional data will have been included in the actual meeting presentations that may not have been available at the time of abstract submission. As this is unknown to the author, such additional information cannot be considered in this chapter, which is solely based on information documented in accessible abstracts or journal publications. It should also be kept in mind that the interpretation of data from ongoing clinical trials or forward looking statements based on data from completed trials are always preliminary in character.

  3. Practical Implications of Empirically Studying Moral Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Heinzelmann, Nora; Ugazio, Giuseppe; Tobler, Philippe N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main problems usually keep us form acting and judging in a morally decent way: firstly, we make mistakes in moral reasoning. Secondly, even when we know how to act and judge, we still fail to meet the requirements due to personal weaknesses. This discussion naturally leads us to another question: can we narrow the gap between what people are morally required to do and what they actually do? We discuss findings from neuroscience, economics, and psychology, considering how we might bring our moral behavior better in line with moral theory. Potentially fruitful means include nudging, training, pharmacological enhancement, and brain stimulation. We conclude by raising the question of whether such methods could and should be implemented. PMID:22783157

  4. Understanding human queuing behaviour at exits: an empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Wagoum, A. U. Kemloh; Liao, W.

    2017-01-01

    The choice of the exit to egress from a facility plays a fundamental role in pedestrian modelling and simulation. Yet, empirical evidence for backing up simulation is scarce. In this contribution, we present three new groups of experiments that we conducted in different geometries. We varied parameters such as the width of the doors, the initial location and number of pedestrians which in turn affected their perception of the environment. We extracted and analysed relevant indicators such as distance to the exits and density levels. The results put in evidence the fact that pedestrians use time-dependent information to optimize their exit choice, and that, in congested states, a load balancing over the exits occurs. We propose a minimal modelling approach that covers those situations, especially the cases where the geometry does not show a symmetrical configuration. Most of the models try to achieve the load balancing by simulating the system and solving optimization problems. We show statistically and by simulation that a linear model based on the distance to the exits and the density levels around the exit can be an efficient dynamical alternative. PMID:28280588

  5. Creativity and affective temperaments in non-clinical professional artists: an empirical psychometric investigation.

    PubMed

    Vellante, Marcello; Zucca, Giulia; Preti, Antonio; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco Bruno Luigi; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2011-12-01

    Manic-depression/bipolar disorder was linked to creativity, with affective temperaments allegedly favoring creative expression and achievement, but a few studies only empirically tested the link. 152 undergraduate students attending preparatory courses for creative artistic professions and 152 students in areas expected to lead to a profession mostly requiring the application of the learned rules were invited to fill in the TEMPS-A (Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego - Autoquestionnaire), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Creative Achievement Questionnaire (CAQ). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to investigate the links between creativity scores and measures of psychopathology. Creative participants and controls did not differ in terms of sex (males=47%), age (24.5 years, SD=3.8), or socioeconomic status. Creative people scored higher than controls on the CAQ and on the cyclothymic, hyperthymic and irritable subscales of the TEMPS-A, but not on the GHQ. Greater involvement in creative activities rather than being a creative achiever best differentiated those into the "risk for bipolar spectrum" class from the other two classes extracted by the LCA from the TEMPS-A. The use of self-report measures to evaluate both creative involvement and the risk of psychopathology, and the exclusive focus on artistic creativity limit the generalizability of the findings. This study confirms that the cyclothymic dimension of the bipolar spectrum is linked to creativity, and this link is likely to result from increased involvement into pleasurable activities, including creative ones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A multicenter phase 2 study of empirical low-dose liposomal amphotericin B in patients with refractory febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Miyao, Kotaro; Sawa, Masashi; Kurata, Mio; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Sakemura, Reona; Sakai, Toshiyasu; Kato, Tomonori; Sahashi, Satomi; Tsushita, Natsuko; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Tsuzuki, Motohiro; Kohno, Akio; Adachi, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Keisuke; Ohbayashi, Kaneyuki; Inagaki, Yuichiro; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Emi, Nobuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a major life-threatening problem encountered by patients with hematological malignancies receiving intensive chemotherapy. Empirical antifungal agents are therefore important. Despite the availability of antifungal agents for such situations, the optimal agents and administration methods remain unclear. We conducted a prospective phase 2 study of empirical 1 mg/kg/day liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) in 80 patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for hematological malignancies. All enrolled patients were high-risk and had recurrent prolonged febrile neutropenia despite having received broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy for at least 72 hours. Fifty-three patients (66.3 %) achieved the primary endpoint of successful treatment, thus exceeding the predefined threshold success rate. No patients developed IFI. The treatment completion rate was 73.8 %, and only two cases ceased treatment because of adverse events. The most frequent events were reversible electrolyte abnormalities. We consider low-dose L-AMB to provide comparable efficacy and improved safety and cost-effectiveness when compared with other empirical antifungal therapies. Additional large-scale randomized studies are needed to determine the clinical usefulness of L-AMB relative to other empirical antifungal therapies.

  7. Empirically supported treatments for panic disorder with agoraphobia in a Spanish psychology clinic.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Francisco; Labrador, Francisco J

    2014-10-27

    The aim of this work is to study the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia (PD/Ag), as well as the characteristics of the treatment and its results and cost in a University Psychology Clinic. Fifty patients demanded psychological assistance for PD/Ag; 80% were women, with an average age of 29.22 years (SD = 9.03). Mean number of evaluation sessions was 3.26 (SD = 1.03), and of treatment sessions, 13.39 (SD = 9.237). Of the patients, 83.33% were discharged (that is, questionnaire scores were below the cut-off point indicated by the authors, and no PD/Ag was observed at readministration of the semistructured interview), 5.5% refused treatment, and 11% were dropouts. The average number of treatment sessions of patients who achieved therapeutic success was 15.13 (SD = 8.98). Effect sizes (d) greater than 1 were obtained in all the scales. Changes in all scales were significant (p < .05). The estimated cost of treatment for patients who achieved therapeutic success was 945.12€. The treatment results are at least similar to those of studies of efficacy and effectiveness for PD/Ag. The utility of generalizing treatments developed in research settings to a welfare clinic is discussed.

  8. Success rate and risk factors for failure of empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole in patients with hematological malignancies: a multicenter, prospective, open-label, observational study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jeong; Cheong, June-Won; Min, Yoo Hong; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Dong-Gun; Lee, Je-Hwan; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Yang Soo; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Park, Jinny; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kim, Byung Soo; Ryoo, Hun-Mo; Jang, Jun Ho; Kim, Min Kyoung; Kang, Hye Jin; Cho, In Sung; Mun, Yeung Chul; Jo, Deog-Yeon; Kim, Ho Young; Park, Byeong-Bae; Kim, Jin Seok

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the success rate of empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole and evaluated risk factors for predicting the failure of empirical antifungal therapy. A multicenter, prospective, observational study was performed in patients with hematological malignancies who had neutropenic fever and received empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole at 22 centers. A total of 391 patients who had abnormal findings on chest imaging tests (31.0%) or a positive result of enzyme immunoassay for serum galactomannan (17.6%) showed a 56.5% overall success rate. Positive galactomannan tests before the initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.026, hazard ratio [HR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-4.69) and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests before initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.022, HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.11-3.71) were significantly associated with poor outcomes for the empirical antifungal therapy. Eight patients (2.0%) had premature discontinuation of itraconazole therapy due to toxicity. It is suggested that positive galactomannan tests and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests at the time of initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy are risk factors for predicting the failure of the empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole. (Clinical Trial Registration on National Cancer Institute website, NCT01060462).

  9. Implementing community-based provider participation in research: an empirical study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2003, the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) has sought to restructure the clinical research enterprise in the United States by promoting collaborative research partnerships between academically-based investigators and community-based physicians. By increasing community-based provider participation in research (CBPPR), the NIH seeks to advance the science of discovery by conducting research in clinical settings where most people get their care, and accelerate the translation of research results into everyday clinical practice. Although CBPPR is seen as a promising strategy for promoting the use of evidence-based clinical services in community practice settings, few empirical studies have examined the organizational factors that facilitate or hinder the implementation of CBPPR. The purpose of this study is to explore the organizational start-up and early implementation of CBPPR in community-based practice. Methods We used longitudinal, case study research methods and an organizational model of innovation implementation to theoretically guide our study. Our sample consisted of three community practice settings that recently joined the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) in the United States. Data were gathered through site visits, telephone interviews, and archival documents from January 2008 to May 2011. Results The organizational model for innovation implementation was useful in identifying and investigating the organizational factors influencing start-up and early implementation of CBPPR in CCOP organizations. In general, the three CCOP organizations varied in the extent to which they achieved consistency in CBPPR over time and across physicians. All three CCOP organizations demonstrated mixed levels of organizational readiness for change. Hospital management support and resource availability were limited across CCOP organizations early on, although they improved in one CCOP organization

  10. Do Special Occasions Trigger Psychological Distress Among Older Bereaved Spouses? An Empirical Assessment of Clinical Wisdom

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Mental health professionals have suggested that widowed persons experience heightened psychological distress on dates that had special meaning for them and their late spouse, such as a wedding anniversary or the late spouse’s birthday. This study examined the effects of such occasions on grief, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of older widowed persons. Methods. OLS regression models were estimated using data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC) study, a large prospective probability study of late-life widowhood. Participants were interviewed prior to and both 6 and 18 months after spousal loss; married matched controls were interviewed at comparable times. Results. Widowed persons reported heightened psychological distress when interviewed during the month of their late spouse’s birthday, a post-holiday period (January), and in June, a month associated with wedding anniversaries and graduations in the United States. The distressing effects of special occasions on psychological symptoms were evidenced only within the first 6 months postloss, and were not apparent at the 18-month follow-up. Discussion. Our results support the clinical observation that persons in the early stages of spousal bereavement are at increased risk of psychological distress at times with special significance to the couple. We highlight methodological and clinical implications. PMID:23811691

  11. Do special occasions trigger psychological distress among older bereaved spouses? An empirical assessment of clinical wisdom.

    PubMed

    Carr, Deborah; Sonnega, John; Nesse, Randolph M; House, James S

    2014-01-01

    Mental health professionals have suggested that widowed persons experience heightened psychological distress on dates that had special meaning for them and their late spouse, such as a wedding anniversary or the late spouse's birthday. This study examined the effects of such occasions on grief, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of older widowed persons. OLS regression models were estimated using data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC) study, a large prospective probability study of late-life widowhood. Participants were interviewed prior to and both 6 and 18 months after spousal loss; married matched controls were interviewed at comparable times. Widowed persons reported heightened psychological distress when interviewed during the month of their late spouse's birthday, a post-holiday period (January), and in June, a month associated with wedding anniversaries and graduations in the United States. The distressing effects of special occasions on psychological symptoms were evidenced only within the first 6 months postloss, and were not apparent at the 18-month follow-up. Our results support the clinical observation that persons in the early stages of spousal bereavement are at increased risk of psychological distress at times with special significance to the couple. We highlight methodological and clinical implications.

  12. An empirical study of defensive avoidance in paranoia.

    PubMed

    Moutoussis, Michael; El-Deredy, Wael; Bentall, Richard P

    2015-03-01

    There is controversy as to whether psychological defensive avoidance is associated with paranoia. To elucidate whether "Poor-me" paranoid patients, who believe that the persecution they perceive is undeserved, show more prominent avoidance of negative thoughts about themselves than healthy and clinical controls. The act of avoidance of aversive mental contents was assessed in 27 healthy controls and 48 patients with poor-me, bad-me (perceived to be deserved) or no paranoia. Defensive avoidance was assessed via established questionnaires, a novel task based on self-discrepancy theory and research-clinician ratings. Participants in all groups showed substantial levels of verbal defensive avoidance. Paranoia was associated with reduced self-reported tolerance of negative mental contents (high Experiential Avoidance, EA). Contrary to our hypotheses, poor-me and bad-me patients showed similar EA. All participant groups showed similar levels of verbal defensive avoidance. The findings do not support an association of psychological avoidance with paranoia.

  13. Empirical studies of software design: Implications for SSEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasner, Herb

    1988-01-01

    Implications for Software Engineering Environments (SEEs) are presented in viewgraph format for characteristics of projects studied; significant problems and crucial problem areas in software design for large systems; layered behavioral model of software processes; implications of field study results; software project as an ecological system; results of the LIFT study; information model of design exploration; software design strategies; results of the team design study; and a list of publications.

  14. An Empirical Review of Internet Addiction Outcome Studies in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chennan; Liao, Minli; Smith, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The authors systematically reviewed the outcomes and methodological quality of 24 Internet addiction (IA) treatment outcome studies in China. Method: The authors used 15 attributes from the quality of evidence scores to evaluate 24 outcome studies. These studies came from both English and Chinese academic databases from 2000 to 2010.…

  15. How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

  16. How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

  17. An Empirical Review of Internet Addiction Outcome Studies in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chennan; Liao, Minli; Smith, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The authors systematically reviewed the outcomes and methodological quality of 24 Internet addiction (IA) treatment outcome studies in China. Method: The authors used 15 attributes from the quality of evidence scores to evaluate 24 outcome studies. These studies came from both English and Chinese academic databases from 2000 to 2010.…

  18. Empirical Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Case Definition for Neuropsychological Impairment in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Miriam H; Brooks, Brian L; Barrowman, Nick; Aglipay, Mary; Keightley, Michelle; Anderson, Peter; Yeates, Keith O; Osmond, Martin H; Zemek, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Neuropsychological assessment aims to identify individual performance profiles in multiple domains of cognitive functioning; however, substantial variation exists in how deficits are defined and what cutoffs are used, and there is no universally accepted definition of neuropsychological impairment. The aim of this study was to derive and validate a clinical case definition rule to identify neuropsychological impairment in children and adolescents. An existing normative pediatric sample was used to calculate base rates of abnormal functioning on eight measures covering six domains of neuropsychological functioning. The dataset was analyzed by varying the range of cutoff levels [1, 1.5, and 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the mean] and number of indicators of impairment. The derived rule was evaluated by bootstrap, internal and external clinical validation (orthopedic and traumatic brain injury). Our neuropsychological impairment (NPI) rule was defined as "two or more test scores that fall 1.5 SDs below the mean." The rule identifies 5.1% of the total sample as impaired in the assessment battery and consistently targets between 3 and 7% of the population as impaired even when age, domains, and number of tests are varied. The NPI rate increases in groups known to exhibit cognitive deficits. The NPI rule provides a psychometrically derived method for interpreting performance across multiple tests and may be used in children 6-18 years. The rule may be useful to clinicians and scientists who wish to establish whether specific individuals or clinical populations present within expected norms versus impaired function across a battery of neuropsychological tests.

  19. Empirical redefinition of delusional disorder and its phenomenology: the DELIREMP study.

    PubMed

    de Portugal, Enrique; González, Nieves; del Amo, Victoria; Haro, Josep M; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Luna del Castillo, Juan de Dios; Cervilla, Jorge A

    2013-04-01

    Since Kraepelin, the controversy has persisted surrounding the nature of delusional disorder (DD) as a separate nosological entity or its clinical subtypes. Nevertheless, there has been no systematic study of its psychopathological structure based on patient interviews. Our goal was to empirically explore syndromic subentities in DD. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 86 outpatients with DSM-IV-confirmed DD using SCID-I. Psychopathological factors were identified by factor analysis of PANSS scores. The association between these factors and clinical variables (as per standardized instruments) was analyzed using uni- and multivariate techniques. PANSS symptoms were consistent with four factors (Paranoid, Cognitive, Schizoid, and Affective dimensions), accounting for 59.4% of the total variance. The Paranoid Dimension was associated with premorbid paranoid personality disorder, more adverse childhood experiences, chronic course, legal problems, worse global functioning, and poorer treatment adherence and response. The Cognitive Dimension was associated with poorer cognitive functioning, premorbid substance abuse, comorbid somatic diseases, mainly non-prominent visual hallucinations, fewer comorbid depressive disorders, and poorer global functioning. The Schizoid Dimension was associated with being single, a family history of schizophrenia, premorbid personality disorders (largely schizoid and schizotypal), non-prominent auditory hallucinations, and dysthymia. Finally, the Affective Dimension was associated with a family history of depression, premorbid obsessive personality, somatic delusions, absence of reference delusions, tactile and olfactory hallucinations, depressive and anxiety disorders, risk of suicide, and higher perceived stress. The identification and clinical validation of four separate psychopathological dimensions in DD provide evidence toward a more accurate conceptualization of DD and its types. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Empirical analysis shows reduced cost data collection may be an efficient method in economic clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Hildegard; Meisinger, Christa; Wende, Rupert; Holle, Rolf

    2012-09-15

    Data collection for economic evaluation alongside clinical trials is burdensome and cost-intensive. Limiting both the frequency of data collection and recall periods can solve the problem. As a consequence, gaps in survey periods arise and must be filled appropriately. The aims of our study are to assess the validity of incomplete cost data collection and define suitable resource categories. In the randomised KORINNA study, cost data from 234 elderly patients were collected quarterly over a 1-year period. Different strategies for incomplete data collection were compared with complete data collection. The sample size calculation was modified in response to elasticity of variance. Resource categories suitable for incomplete data collection were physiotherapy, ambulatory clinic in hospital, medication, consultations, outpatient nursing service and paid household help. Cost estimation from complete and incomplete data collection showed no difference when omitting information from one quarter. When omitting information from two quarters, costs were underestimated by 3.9% to 4.6%.With respect to the observed increased standard deviation, a larger sample size would be required, increased by 3%. Nevertheless, more time was saved than extra time would be required for additional patients. Cost data can be collected efficiently by reducing the frequency of data collection. This can be achieved by incomplete data collection for shortened periods or complete data collection by extending recall windows. In our analysis, cost estimates per year for ambulatory healthcare and non-healthcare services in terms of three data collections was as valid and accurate as a four complete data collections. In contrast, data on hospitalisation, rehabilitation stays and care insurance benefits should be collected for the entire target period, using extended recall windows. When applying the method of incomplete data collection, sample size calculation has to be modified because of the increased

  1. Empirical analysis shows reduced cost data collection may be an efficient method in economic clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Data collection for economic evaluation alongside clinical trials is burdensome and cost-intensive. Limiting both the frequency of data collection and recall periods can solve the problem. As a consequence, gaps in survey periods arise and must be filled appropriately. The aims of our study are to assess the validity of incomplete cost data collection and define suitable resource categories. Methods In the randomised KORINNA study, cost data from 234 elderly patients were collected quarterly over a 1-year period. Different strategies for incomplete data collection were compared with complete data collection. The sample size calculation was modified in response to elasticity of variance. Results Resource categories suitable for incomplete data collection were physiotherapy, ambulatory clinic in hospital, medication, consultations, outpatient nursing service and paid household help. Cost estimation from complete and incomplete data collection showed no difference when omitting information from one quarter. When omitting information from two quarters, costs were underestimated by 3.9% to 4.6%. With respect to the observed increased standard deviation, a larger sample size would be required, increased by 3%. Nevertheless, more time was saved than extra time would be required for additional patients. Conclusion Cost data can be collected efficiently by reducing the frequency of data collection. This can be achieved by incomplete data collection for shortened periods or complete data collection by extending recall windows. In our analysis, cost estimates per year for ambulatory healthcare and non-healthcare services in terms of three data collections was as valid and accurate as a four complete data collections. In contrast, data on hospitalisation, rehabilitation stays and care insurance benefits should be collected for the entire target period, using extended recall windows. When applying the method of incomplete data collection, sample size calculation has

  2. An Empirical Study of Pupils' Attitudes to Computers and Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study which utilized a Likert type questionnaire to assess seven scales of secondary pupils' attitudes toward computers and robotics (school, leisure, career, employment, social, threat, future) and investigated pupils' scores on functions of their sex, general academic ability, course of study, and microcomputer experience. (MBR)

  3. Academic Probation: An Empirical Study of Private University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Jashim Uddin; Chowdhury, Md. Humayun Kabir; Rahman, Sheehan; Talukder, A. K. M. Mominul Haque

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the factors contributing to academic probation in university settings and highlights the problems that students encounter in higher education institutions in Bangladesh. The study focused on students facing academic probation on two private universities in Bangladesh and analyzed students' response with respect to nine…

  4. An Empirical Study of a Solo Performance Assessment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of solo music performance assessment. Specifically, this study investigates the influence of technique and musical expression on perceptions of overall performance quality. The Aural Musical Performance Quality (AMPQ) measure was created to measure overall performance quality, technique,…

  5. The design of empirical studies: towards a unified view.

    PubMed

    Cox, David R

    2016-03-01

    A broad review is given of the general principles underlying study design with emphasis on applications in medical and epidemiological contexts. The main theme of the paper is that, while the distinction between interventionist studies, that is experiments, and purely observational ones is important, there are many common threads. A wide range of specific applications are used in outline to illustrate the discussion.

  6. Statistical Measures of Integrity in Online Testing: Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wielicki, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on longitudinal study regarding integrity of testing in an online format as used by e-learning platforms. Specifically, this study explains whether online testing, which implies an open book format is compromising integrity of assessment by encouraging cheating among students. Statistical experiment designed for this study…

  7. Psychological Determinants of University Students' Academic Performance: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebka, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    This study utilises an integrated conceptual model of academic performance which captures a series of psychological factors: cognitive style; self-theories such as self-esteem and self-efficacy; achievement goals such as mastery, performance, performance avoidance and work avoidance; study-processing strategies such as deep and surface learning;…

  8. Psychological Determinants of University Students' Academic Performance: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebka, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    This study utilises an integrated conceptual model of academic performance which captures a series of psychological factors: cognitive style; self-theories such as self-esteem and self-efficacy; achievement goals such as mastery, performance, performance avoidance and work avoidance; study-processing strategies such as deep and surface learning;…

  9. Academic Probation: An Empirical Study of Private University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Jashim Uddin; Chowdhury, Md. Humayun Kabir; Rahman, Sheehan; Talukder, A. K. M. Mominul Haque

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the factors contributing to academic probation in university settings and highlights the problems that students encounter in higher education institutions in Bangladesh. The study focused on students facing academic probation on two private universities in Bangladesh and analyzed students' response with respect to nine…

  10. Method matters: an empirical study of impact in cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Fellows, Lesley K; Heberlein, Andrea S; Morales, Dawn A; Shivde, Geeta; Waller, Sara; Wu, Denise H

    2005-06-01

    A major thrust of cognitive neuroscience is the elucidation of structure-function relationships in the human brain. Over the last several years, functional neuroimaging has risen in prominence relative to the lesion studies that formed the historical core of work in this field. These two methods have different strengths and weaknesses. Among these is a crucial difference in the nature of evidence each can provide. Lesion studies can provide evidence for necessity claims, whereas functional neuroimaging studies do not. We hypothesized that lesion studies will continue to have greater scientific impact even as the relative proportion of such studies in the cognitive neuroscience literature declines. Using methods drawn from systematic literature review, we identified a set of original cognitive neuroscience articles that employed either functional imaging or lesion techniques, published at one of two time points in the 1990s, and assessed the effect of the method used on each article's impact across the decade. Functional neuroimaging studies were cited three times more often than lesion studies throughout the time span we examined. This effect was in large part due to differences in the influence of the journals publishing the two methods; functional neuroimaging studies appeared disproportionately more often in higher impact journals. There were also differences in the degree to which articles using one method cited articles using the other method. Functional neuroimaging articles were less likely to include such cross-method citations.

  11. Online Behavior in Virtual Space: An Empirical Study on Helping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Jung-Lung; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Yueh-Min; Liu, Jui-Jung

    2011-01-01

    Although previous studies have acknowledged that helping behavior has many potential benefits, little research has aimed at understanding which factors would possibly enhance helping behaviors among team members in CSCL environment. Accordingly, this study was intended to identify underlying factors leading learners to collaborate in virtual CSCL…

  12. An Empirical Study of a Solo Performance Assessment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of solo music performance assessment. Specifically, this study investigates the influence of technique and musical expression on perceptions of overall performance quality. The Aural Musical Performance Quality (AMPQ) measure was created to measure overall performance quality, technique,…

  13. Trend extraction using empirical mode decomposition and statistical empirical mode decomposition: Case study: Kuala Lumpur stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, Abobaker M.

    2014-12-01

    Two nonparametric methods for prediction and modeling of financial time series signals are proposed. The proposed techniques are designed to handle non-stationary and non-linearity behave and to extract meaningful signals for reliable prediction. Due to Fourier Transform (FT), the methods select significant decomposed signals that will be employed for signal prediction. The proposed techniques developed by coupling Holt-winter method with Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and it is Extending the scope of empirical mode decomposition by smoothing (SEMD). To show performance of proposed techniques, we analyze daily closed price of Kuala Lumpur stock market index.

  14. 'Best interests' in paediatric intensive care: an empirical ethics study.

    PubMed

    Birchley, Giles; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Deans, Zuzana; Fraser, James; Huxtable, Richard

    2017-10-01

    In English paediatric practice, English law requires that parents and clinicians agree the 'best interests' of children and, if this is not possible, that the courts decide. Court intervention is rare and the concept of best interests is ambiguous. We report qualitative research exploring how the best interests standard operates in practice, particularly with decisions related to planned non-treatment. We discuss results in the light of accounts of best interests in the medical ethics literature. We conducted 39 qualitative interviews, exploring decision making in the paediatric intensive care unit, with doctors, nurses, clinical ethics committee members and parents whose children had a range of health outcomes. Interviews were audio-recorded and analysed thematically. Parents and clinicians indicated differences in their approaches to deciding the child's best interests. These were reconciled when parents responded positively to clinicians' efforts to help parents agree with the clinicians' view of the child's best interests. Notably, protracted disagreements about a child's best interests in non-treatment decisions were resolved when parents' views were affected by witnessing their child's physical deterioration. Negotiation was the norm and clinicians believed avoiding the courts was desirable. Sensitivity to the long-term interests of parents of children with life-limiting conditions is defensible but must be exercised proportionately. Current approaches emphasise negotiation but offer few alternatives when decisions are at an impasse. In such situations, the instrumental role played by a child's deterioration and avoidance of the courts risks giving insufficient weight to the child's interests. New approaches to decision making are needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Impact of source data verification on data quality in clinical trials: an empirical post hoc analysis of three phase 3 randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jeppe Ragnar; Byrjalsen, Inger; Bihlet, Asger; Kalakou, Faidra; Hoeck, Hans Christian; Hansen, Gitte; Hansen, Henrik Bo; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Riis, Bente Juel

    2015-01-01

    AIM The aim of this project was to perform an empirical evaluation of the impact of on site source data verification (SDV) on the data quality in a clinical trial database to guide an informed decision on selection of the monitoring approach. METHODS We used data from three randomized phase III trials monitored with a combination of complete SDV or partial SDV. After database lock, individual subject data were extracted from the clinical database and subjected to post hoc complete SDV. Error rates were calculated with focus on the degree of on study monitoring and relevance and analyzed for potential impact on end points. RESULTS Data from a total of 2566 subjects including more than 3 million data fields were 100% source data verified post hoc. An overall error rate of 0.45% was found. No sites had 0% errors. 100% SDV yielded an error rate of 0.27% as compared with partial SDV having an error rate of 0.53% (P < 0.0001). Comparing partly and fully monitored subjects, minor differences were identified between variables of major importance to efficacy or safety. CONCLUSIONS The findings challenge the notion that a 0% error rate is obtainable with on site monitoring. Data indicate consistently low error rates across the three trials analyzed. The use of complete vs. partial SDV offers a marginal absolute error rate reduction of 0.26%, i.e. a need to perform complete SDV of about 370 data points to avoid one unspecified error and does not support complete SDV as a means of providing meaningful improvements in data accuracy. PMID:25327707

  16. User acceptance of mobile commerce: an empirical study in Macau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Ivan K. W.; Lai, Donny C. F.

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to examine the positive and negative factors that can significantly explain user acceptance of mobile commerce (m-commerce) in Macau. A technology acceptance model for m-commerce with five factors is constructed. The proposed model is tested using data collected from 219 respondents. Confirmatory factor analysis is performed to examine the reliability and validity of the model, and structural equation modelling is performed to access the relationship between behaviour intention and each factor. The acceptance of m-commerce is influenced by factors including performance expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and privacy concern; while effort expectancy is insignificant in this case. The results of the study are useful for m-commerce service providers to adjust their strategies for promoting m-commerce services. This study contributes to the practice by providing a user technology acceptance model for m-commerce that can be used as a foundation for future research.

  17. Website Service Quality in Ireland: An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Regina

    Despite the fact that service quality is a critical determinant of website success, studies show that consumers frequently view the service quality delivered through websites as unsatisfactory. This paper outlines a study that investigated the dimensions of website service excellence valued by Irish customers of a small-to-medium enterprise specialising in gifts. The E-S-QUAL measurement instrument was applied to the customers who purchase products online from this retailer, in order to determine their purchasing patterns and the dimensions of e-service quality that they value. The results of this study indicate the effectiveness of the instrument in determining gaps in e-service quality. The findings will be of benefit both to practitioners and researchers seeking to improve their understanding of the factors that contribute towards the creation and maintenance of consumer satisfaction in Irish online transactions.

  18. Sustaining the environment through recycling: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Ramayah, T; Lee, Jason Wai Chow; Lim, Shuwen

    2012-07-15

    This paper examines the determinants of recycling behaviour among 200 university students from the perspective of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling technique. Findings indicate that environmental awareness was significantly related to attitude towards recycling, whilst attitude and social norms had significant impact on recycling behaviour. However, convenience and cost of recycling were not significant reasons for recycling. The study has enhanced the understanding of the determinants of recycling behaviour and has implications for schools and governmental agencies in educating and encouraging positive recycling behaviour. It also confirms the appropriateness of the TPB in examining studies of this nature. Further suggestions for future research are offered.

  19. Empirical Recommendations for Improving the Stability of the Dot-Probe Task in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Price, Rebecca B.; Kuckertz, Jennie M.; Siegle, Greg J.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Ryan, Neal D.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Amir, Nader

    2014-01-01

    The dot-probe task has been widely used in research to produce an index of biased attention based on reaction times (RTs). Despite its popularity, very few published studies have examined psychometric properties of the task, including test-retest reliability, and no previous study has examined reliability in clinically anxious samples or systematically explored the effects of task design and analysis decisions on reliability. In the current analysis, we utilized dot-probe data from three studies where attention bias towards threat-related faces was assessed at multiple (≥5) timepoints. Two of the studies were similar (adults with Social Anxiety Disorder, similar design features) while one was much more disparate (pediatric healthy volunteers, distinct task design). We explored the effects of analysis choices (e.g., bias score calculation formula, methods for outlier handling) on reliability and searched for convergence of findings across the three studies. We found that, when considering the three studies concurrently, the most reliable RT bias index utilized data from dot-bottom trials, comparing congruent to incongruent trials, with rescaled outliers, particularly after averaging across more than one assessment point. Although reliability of RT bias indices was moderate to low under most circumstances, within-session variability in bias (attention bias variability; ABV), a recently proposed RT index, was more reliable across sessions. Several eyetracking-based indices of attention bias (available in the pediatric healthy sample only) showed reliability that matched the optimal RT index (ABV). On the basis of these findings, we make specific recommendations to researchers using the dot probe, particularly those wishing to investigate individual differences and/or single-patient applications. PMID:25419646

  20. Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

    2005-01-01

    The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

  1. Effect of Geographic Distance on Distance Education: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Heng; Robinson, Anthony C.; Detwiler, Jim

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of geographic distance on students' distance learning experience with the aim to provide tentative answers to a fundamental question--does geographic distance matter in distance education? Using educational outcome data collected from an online master's program in Geographic Information Systems, this study…

  2. An Empirical Study on Students' Ability to Comprehend Design Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzigeorgiou, Alexander; Tsantalis, Nikolaos; Deligiannis, Ignatios

    2008-01-01

    Design patterns have become a widely acknowledged software engineering practice and therefore have been incorporated in the curricula of most computer science departments. This paper presents an observational study on students' ability to understand and apply design patterns. Within the context of a postgraduate software engineering course,…

  3. An Empirical Study of State University Students' Perceived Service Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumaedi, Sik; Bakti, Gede Mahatma Yuda; Metasari, Nur

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify: university students' perceived service quality dimensions; the dimensions contributing most towards overall students' perceived service quality; and whether there is a difference in perceived quality level of each dimension based on students' year of study and gender in the context of undergraduate students of…

  4. Creativity, Schizotypicality, and Mystical Experience: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalica, Kerri; Hunt, Harry

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the commonalities and the differences between creativity and the schizophrenia spectrum. The variables measured were creativity, schizotypy, absorption, mystical experiences, spatial ability, balance, positive and negative presence, and neuroticism. Three community groups were recruited: 31 artists, 10 people with…

  5. HRD Interventions, Employee Competencies and Organizational Effectiveness: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potnuru, Rama Krishna Gupta; Sahoo, Chandan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of human resource development (HRD) interventions on organizational effectiveness by means of employee competencies which are built by some of the selected HRD interventions. Design/methodology/approach: An integrated research model has been developed by combining the principal factors…

  6. The Depth and Breadth of Google Scholar: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhaus, Chris; Neuhaus, Ellen; Asher, Alan; Wrede, Clint

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of Google Scholar in November 2004 was accompanied by fanfare, skepticism, and numerous questions about the scope and coverage of this database. Nearly one year after its inception, many of these questions remain unanswered. This study compares the contents of 47 different databases with that of Google Scholar. Included in this…

  7. Learning by Doing: An Empirical Study of Active Teaching Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackathorn, Jana; Solomon, Erin D.; Blankmeyer, Kate L.; Tennial, Rachel E.; Garczynski, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the effectiveness of four teaching techniques (lecture, demonstrations, discussions, and in-class activities) in the classroom. As each technique offers different benefits to the instructor and students, each technique was expected to aid in a different depth of learning. The current findings indicated that each…

  8. Management Education Program Evaluation: An Empirical Study in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sou, Gryphon; Zhou, Pinqiu

    2007-01-01

    Background: With the accession of the PRC to the WTO, Chinese education market is open to the educational service providers of the foreign countries. They are keen to offer MBA Degree programs to the Career Managers in the Mainland. Aims: This research studies program evaluation and so forth the quality assessment of a MBA degree program in the…

  9. Research Compensation and Lottery: An Online Empirical Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zangeneh, Masood; Barmaki, Reza; Gibson-Wood, Hilary; Levitan, Michael-Jane; Romeo, Rosemary; Bottoms, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Recruiting participants for a research project can be challenging. Incentives, particularly monetary incentives, have been shown to increase response rates. Offering a monetary incentive for participation in a research study can become very costly for the investigators. For this reason some researchers, including graduate students involved in…

  10. Similarity Attraction in Learning Contexts: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Otmar E.; Cater, John James, III; Michel, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    This study tests a process model of learning in which trainer and trainee traits are simultaneously considered as endogenous variables of learning outcomes. The article builds on a social view of training and similarity-attraction paradigms. In this context, the authors hypothesize that trainer-trainee similarity in personality (agreeableness)…

  11. An Empirical Study of Graduate Student Mobility Underpinning Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furukawa, Takao; Shirakawa, Nobuyuki; Okuwada, Kumi

    2013-01-01

    The issue of international student mobility has had a profound effect on policy decision-making in the higher education system of essentially every country; however, the statistical data on this subject are insufficient, especially for graduate students. The purposes of this study are to substantiate the state of international mobility among…

  12. College of Business Majors' Perceptions toward Globalization: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janavaras, Basil; Kuzma, John; Thiewes, Harold

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the extent to which business majors' attitudes towards globalization are influenced by the area of selected study. Research has documented that more favorable attitudes towards globalization are found among college students, and specifically, these more favorable attitudes are found in business majors.…

  13. Research Compensation and Lottery: An Online Empirical Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zangeneh, Masood; Barmaki, Reza; Gibson-Wood, Hilary; Levitan, Michael-Jane; Romeo, Rosemary; Bottoms, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Recruiting participants for a research project can be challenging. Incentives, particularly monetary incentives, have been shown to increase response rates. Offering a monetary incentive for participation in a research study can become very costly for the investigators. For this reason some researchers, including graduate students involved in…

  14. Creativity, Schizotypicality, and Mystical Experience: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalica, Kerri; Hunt, Harry

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the commonalities and the differences between creativity and the schizophrenia spectrum. The variables measured were creativity, schizotypy, absorption, mystical experiences, spatial ability, balance, positive and negative presence, and neuroticism. Three community groups were recruited: 31 artists, 10 people with…

  15. IT Entrepreneurial Intention among College Students: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Liqiang

    2013-01-01

    IT (Information Technology) entrepreneurs have been contributing greatly to economic growth and job creation. Despite its importance, IT entrepreneurship remains understudied in business research. Particularly, the study of IT entrepreneurial behavior has been ignored in both Information Systems (IS) and entrepreneurship disciplines. Utilizing the…

  16. College of Business Majors' Perceptions toward Globalization: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janavaras, Basil; Kuzma, John; Thiewes, Harold

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the extent to which business majors' attitudes towards globalization are influenced by the area of selected study. Research has documented that more favorable attitudes towards globalization are found among college students, and specifically, these more favorable attitudes are found in business majors.…

  17. An Empirical Study of Graduate Student Mobility Underpinning Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furukawa, Takao; Shirakawa, Nobuyuki; Okuwada, Kumi

    2013-01-01

    The issue of international student mobility has had a profound effect on policy decision-making in the higher education system of essentially every country; however, the statistical data on this subject are insufficient, especially for graduate students. The purposes of this study are to substantiate the state of international mobility among…

  18. Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff: An Empirical Study on Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toker, Boran

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the levels of job satisfaction among academicians in the universities of Turkey and to examine the effects of demographics on levels of satisfaction among them. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire-based study was conducted in 648 academicians working in the Universities of Turkey. Data…

  19. An Empirical Study on Students' Ability to Comprehend Design Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzigeorgiou, Alexander; Tsantalis, Nikolaos; Deligiannis, Ignatios

    2008-01-01

    Design patterns have become a widely acknowledged software engineering practice and therefore have been incorporated in the curricula of most computer science departments. This paper presents an observational study on students' ability to understand and apply design patterns. Within the context of a postgraduate software engineering course,…

  20. Study Abroad Programs and American Student Worldmindedness: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Ceasar; Jones-Rikkers, Catherine G.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed the worldmindedness (extent to which individuals value global perspectives on various issues) of students participating in study abroad programs designed to increase their exposure to different cultural contexts. Found that such programs do have a positive impact on development of worldmindedness, and that the level of difference between…

  1. An Algorithmic Approach to Error Correction: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a research study that investigated the effectiveness of using an algorithmic approach to error correction to help Hong Kong English-as-a-second-language (ESL) learners overcome persistent lexico-grammatical problems. Ten error types were selected for the experiment, and one set of remedial instructional…

  2. An Empirical Study of State University Students' Perceived Service Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumaedi, Sik; Bakti, Gede Mahatma Yuda; Metasari, Nur

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify: university students' perceived service quality dimensions; the dimensions contributing most towards overall students' perceived service quality; and whether there is a difference in perceived quality level of each dimension based on students' year of study and gender in the context of undergraduate students of…

  3. Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

    2005-01-01

    The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

  4. Creativity and Tolerance of Ambiguity: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenasni, Franck; Besancon, Maud; Lubart, Todd

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between creativity and tolerance of ambiguity. Participants were parents and their adolescent children. Three measures of creativity were used: a divergent thinking task, a story-writing task and self-evaluation of creative attitudes and behavior. Participants completed two self-report measures of tolerance of…

  5. Self-Efficacy and IPS: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Linda P.

    2015-01-01

    The fact that some learners learn language more successfully than others who are at the same level of aptitude and capabilities is inevitable. To understand why, the researcher has focused her attention on individual differences among learners. The ones that have been taken into account in this study are namely called self-efficacy and identity…

  6. School Facilities Equity in California: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Davison Duane

    This is an equity study, focusing on the crowdedness and adequacy of California's public school facilities. Facilities data are from a 1988 state survey and include information about building space, age of facilities, air conditioning, and construction type. The research focuses on two equity principles: horizontal equity and facilities…

  7. Student Stress in an FE College: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Abbe; Stott, Clare

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted of student stress in a further education (FE) college in northwest England. In collaboration with the college, two questionnaires were developed, one for the teaching staff and the other for the students. Questionnaires were distributed to 69 staff and 1,100 students, with a response rate of 94 percent from staff and 84…

  8. HRD Interventions, Employee Competencies and Organizational Effectiveness: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potnuru, Rama Krishna Gupta; Sahoo, Chandan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of human resource development (HRD) interventions on organizational effectiveness by means of employee competencies which are built by some of the selected HRD interventions. Design/methodology/approach: An integrated research model has been developed by combining the principal factors…

  9. An Empirical Study of Reporting Practices Concerning Measurement Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Thomas P.; Agnello, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the current research practice concerning reporting measurement validity evidence based on a sample of 696 research reports listed in the American Psychological Association's Directory of Unpublished Experimental Mental Measures. Only 55% of the reports included any type of validity evidence. This was a substantially lower…

  10. Factors Affecting Softlifting Intention of Computing Students: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahim, Md. Mahbubur; Seyal, Afzaal H.; Rahman, Mohd. Noah Abd.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses softlifting as a form of software piracy and describes a study that analyzed the softlifting intentions of computing students in Brunei Darussalam. Considers student attitudes; gender; family income; personal computer ownership; experience; faculty remarks; institutional monitoring; and implications for attempts to curb software piracy.…

  11. IT Entrepreneurial Intention among College Students: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Liqiang

    2013-01-01

    IT (Information Technology) entrepreneurs have been contributing greatly to economic growth and job creation. Despite its importance, IT entrepreneurship remains understudied in business research. Particularly, the study of IT entrepreneurial behavior has been ignored in both Information Systems (IS) and entrepreneurship disciplines. Utilizing the…

  12. Using MultiMedia Content to Present Business Ethics: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanwick, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether presenting a multimedia case study enhances the learning experience of students in an undergraduate management class. A questionnaire was administered before and after the presentation of the case study and the results showed that the multimedia case did indeed enhance the learning…

  13. Demand for and Satisfaction with Places at University--An Empirical Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischoff, Florian; Gassmann, Freya; Emrich, E.

    2017-01-01

    What features lead a student to choose sport science, chemistry, physics, computer science or musicology as their subject of study and the Saarland University Saarbrücken as their place of study? Empirical analysis shows that study conditions for students of chemistry, physics and music do not play an important role in selecting the place of…

  14. Using MultiMedia Content to Present Business Ethics: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanwick, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether presenting a multimedia case study enhances the learning experience of students in an undergraduate management class. A questionnaire was administered before and after the presentation of the case study and the results showed that the multimedia case did indeed enhance the learning…

  15. Using ERP and WfM Systems for Implementing Business Processes: An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aversano, Lerina; Tortorella, Maria

    Software systems mainly considered from enterprises for dealing with a business process automation belong to the following two categories: Workflow Management Systems (WfMS) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. The wider diffusion of ERP systems tends to favourite this solution, but there are several limitations of most ERP systems for automating business processes. This paper reports an empirical study aiming at comparing the ability of implementing business processes of ERP systems and WfMSs. Two different case studies have been considered in the empirical study. It evaluates and analyses the correctness and completeness of the process models implemented by using ERP and WfM systems.

  16. Learn about Clinical Studies

    MedlinePlus

    ... already available to each other. When a new product or approach is being studied, it is not usually known ... the development and marketing of new drugs, biological products, and medical devices. Sometimes, the safety and the effectiveness of the experimental approach or use may not be fully known at ...

  17. Aspect-Oriented Approach to Operating System Development Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusela, Jaakko; Tuominen, Harri

    This paper presents a case-study where a new programming technique is applied to an established branch of software development. The purpose of the study was to test whether or not aspect-oriented programming (AOP) could be used in operating systems development. Instead of any real world operating system an educational OS with the name Nachos was used. This was because Nachos is written in Java which makes it easy to introduce aspect-oriented techniques. In this paper a new file system for the Nachos OS is developed and then it is analyzed by profiling and metrics. The results show that it is possible to use AOP in OS development and that it is also beneficial to do so.

  18. A Formulative and Empirical Study of Black Families. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobles, Wade; And Others

    This research study on the black family was based on the position that black culture in the U.S. is the result of a special admixture of the continuation of an African world-view or cultural perspective which operates within the perspective of an Anglo-American world-view. Because this research is guided by this position, it is viewed as a…

  19. Portuguese validation of the Internet Addiction Test: An empirical study

    PubMed Central

    PONTES, HALLEY M.; PATRÃO, IVONE M.; GRIFFITHS, MARK D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Research into Internet addiction (IA) has increased greatly over the last decade. Despite its various definitions and general lack of consensus regarding its conceptualisation amongst researchers, instruments for measuring this phenomenon have proliferated in a number of countries. There has been little research on IA in Portugal and this may be partly due to the absence of standardised measurement tools for assessing IA. Methods: This study attempted to address this issue by adapting a Portuguese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) via a translation-back translation process and Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a sample of 593 Portuguese students that completed a Portuguese version of the IAT along with questions related to socio-demographic variables. Results: The findings suggested that the IAT appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring IA among Portuguese young adults as demonstrated by its satisfactory psychometric properties. However, the present findings also suggest the need to reword and update some of the IAT’s items. Prevalence of IA found in the sample was 1.2% and is discussed alongside findings relating to socio-demographic correlates. Limitations and implications of the present study are also discussed. Conclusions: The present study calls for a reflection of the IAT while also contributing to a better understanding of the basic aspects of IA in the Portuguese community since many health practitioners are starting to realise that Internet use may pose a risk for some individuals. PMID:25215221

  20. Portuguese validation of the Internet Addiction Test: An empirical study.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Halley M; Patrão, Ivone M; Griffiths, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Research into Internet addiction (IA) has increased greatly over the last decade. Despite its various definitions and general lack of consensus regarding its conceptualisation amongst researchers, instruments for measuring this phenomenon have proliferated in a number of countries. There has been little research on IA in Portugal and this may be partly due to the absence of standardised measurement tools for assessing IA. This study attempted to address this issue by adapting a Portuguese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) via a translation-back translation process and Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a sample of 593 Portuguese students that completed a Portuguese version of the IAT along with questions related to socio-demographic variables. The findings suggested that the IAT appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring IA among Portuguese young adults as demonstrated by its satisfactory psychometric properties. However, the present findings also suggest the need to reword and update some of the IAT's items. Prevalence of IA found in the sample was 1.2% and is discussed alongside findings relating to socio-demographic correlates. Limitations and implications of the present study are also discussed. The present study calls for a reflection of the IAT while also contributing to a better understanding of the basic aspects of IA in the Portuguese community since many health practitioners are starting to realise that Internet use may pose a risk for some individuals.

  1. An empirical study of economies of scope in home healthcare.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, T I

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To apply the economic theory of economies of scope to the home healthcare industry. DATA SOURCES: Data on 488 observations obtained from the Cost Report (HCFA Form 1728-86) of all Connecticut state-licensed, Medicare-certified home health agencies. STUDY DESIGN: The Cost Report was the primary source of data for this study. Information on total cost, scope, and other related factors was collected. Logarithmic and nonlinear regression analyses were used to identify factors related to scope and also to test for economies of scope. DATA COLLECTION METHOD: Data collected were both cross-sectional and time series (from 1988-1992). Data accuracy was verified using description of frequencies, measures of central tendency and variation, and a calculation package so that a computer calculation on the data could be compared with the agency's calculation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: It was determined that initially as scope increases, costs go down, thus proving economies of scope. For larger values of scope, it was determined that costs go up, proving diseconomies of scope. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the home health agencies included in this study provide more services than is cost effective given the economic theory of economies of scope. PMID:9240283

  2. An empirical study of early childhood support through partnership building.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianjun; Ortiz, Theresa; Navarro, Diana; Maier, Roland; Wang, Summer; Wang, Lisa; Wang, Libing

    2016-12-01

    The first five years were recognized as a critical period of child growth. Accordingly, California voters approved tobacco tax through Proposition 10 to fund early childhood services since 1998. Due to the state revenue decline, Service Integration has been advocated to enhance program supports in Child Health, Family Functioning, and Child Development. In this study, interview data are analyzed to examine the partnership building among 40 programs. The results indicate a significant impact of the service outreach across remote communities in Kern County, California. In addition, contextual information is provided to facilitate interpretation of the partnership strength from a social network analysis. Enhancement of this investigation is discussed in light of future development.

  3. Virtuous acts as practical medical ethics: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Little, Miles; Gordon, Jill; Markham, Pippa; Rychetnik, Lucie; Kerridge, Ian

    2011-10-01

    To examine the nature, scope and significance of virtues in the biographies of medical practitioners and to determine what kind of virtues are at play in their ethical behaviour and reflection. A case study involving 19 medical practitioners associated with the Sydney Medical School, using semi-structured narrative interviews. Narrative data were analysed using dialectical empiricism, constant comparison and iterative reformulation of research questions. Participants represented virtuous acts as centrally important in their moral assessments of both themselves and others. Acts appeared to be contextually virtuous, rather than expressions of stable character traits, and virtue was linked to acts that served to protect or enhance fundamental values attached to ontological security and human flourishing. Virtue ethics, in this sense, was the single most important ethical system for each of the participants. Virtue ethics, construed as the appraisal of acts in contexts of risk, danger or threat to foundational values, emerged as the 'natural' ethical approach for medical practitioners in this case study. Teaching medical ethics to students and graduates alike needs to accommodate the priority attached to virtuous acts. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Ontogeny of dreaming: a review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-10-01

    The examination of children's sleep-related mental experiences presents many significant challenges for researchers investigating the developmental trajectories of human dreaming. In contrast to the well-explored developmental patterns of human sleep, data from dream research are strikingly divergent with highly ambiguous results and conclusions, even though there is plenty of indirect evidence suggesting parallel patterns of development between neural maturation and dreaming. Thus results from studies of children's dreaming are of essential importance not only to enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming but to also add to our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive and emotional development. This review summarizes research results related to the ontogeny of dreaming: we critically reconsider the field, systematically compare the findings based on different methodologies, and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of methods, arguing in favor of methodological pluralism. Since most contradictory results emerge in connection with descriptive as well as content related characteristics of young children's dreams, we emphasize the importance of carefully selected dream collection methods. In contrast nightmare-related studies yield surprisingly convergent results, thus providing strong basis for inferences about the connections between dreaming and cognitive emotional functioning. Potential directions for dream research are discussed, aiming to explore the as yet unraveled correlations between the maturation of neural organization, sleep architecture and dreaming patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Empirical study on voting power in participatory forest planning.

    PubMed

    Vainikainen, N; Kangas, A; Kangas, J

    2008-07-01

    Multicriteria decision support systems are applied in natural resource management in order to clarify the planning process for the stakeholders, to make all available information usable and all objectives manageable. Especially when the public is involved in planning, the decision support system should be easy to comprehend, transparent and fair. Social choice theory has recently been applied to group decision-making in natural resources management to accomplish these objectives. Although voting forms the basis of democracy, and is usually taken as a fair method, the influence of voters over the outcome may vary. It is also possible to vote strategically to improve the results from each stakeholder's point of view. This study examines the use of social choice theory in revealing stakeholders' preferences in participatory forest planning, and the influence of different voters on the outcome. The positional voting rules examined were approval voting and Borda count, but both rules were slightly modified for the purposes of this study. The third rule examined, cumulative rule, resembles utilitarian voting rules. The voting rules were tested in a real participatory forest planning situation in eastern Lapland, Finland. All voting rules resulted in a different joint order of importance of the criteria. Yet, the preference orders produced had also a lot in common and the criteria could be divided into three quite distinct groups according to their importance. The influence of individual voters varied between the voting rules, and in each case different voter was the most influential.

  6. Dissociation, PTSD, and Substance Abuse: An Empirical Study

    PubMed Central

    Najavits, Lisa; Walsh, Marybeth

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD) and dissociation. We studied 77 women with current PTSD and substance dependence, classified into high- versus low-dissociation on the Dissociative Experiences Scale. They were compared on trauma- and substance-related symptoms, cognitions, coping skills, social adjustment, trauma history, psychiatric symptoms, and self-harm/suicidal behaviors. We found the high-dissociation group consistently more impaired than the low-dissociation group. Also, the sample overall evidenced relatively high levels of dissociation, indicating that even in the presence of recent substance use, dissociation remains a major psychological phenomenon. Indeed, the high-dissociation group reported stronger expectation that substances could manage their psychiatric symptoms. The high-dissociation group also had more trauma-related symptoms and childhood histories of emotional abuse and physical neglect. Discussion addresses methodology, the “chemical dissociation” hypothesis, and the need for more nuanced understanding of how substances are experienced in relation to dissociative phenomena. PMID:22211445

  7. Empirical study of Thompson sampling: Tuning the posterior parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devanand, R.; Kumar, P.

    2017-06-01

    Thompson sampling (TS) is a natural Bayesian algorithm for the Multi-armed-bandit problems (MABs), a popular model for studying exploration and exploitation trade-off in sequential decision problems. We first study TS for the standard finite armed Bernoulli bandit, where the reward of each arm follows a Bernoulli distribution with an unknown mean. The mean reward of each arm can be modeled as Beta distribution as it is a posterior of the binomial distribution. Without changing the posterior mean we tune the associated posterior parameters using a policy called greedy in the limit with infinite exploration (GLIE) and attempt to balance between exploration and exploitation in the decision making in MAB. The experimental performance comparison based on minimizing the average regret is carried out between our posterior-tuned TS with standard TS algorithm. Upper Confidence Bound (UCB), a popular bandit algorithm is also discussed in brief and the experimental results are performed with our method. The resulting experiment suggests that for a non-asymptotic regime, our posterior-tuned TS works better than TS and UCB methods and, competitive on average.

  8. An empirical study of economies of scope in home healthcare.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, T I

    1997-08-01

    To apply the economic theory of economies of scope to the home healthcare industry. Data on 488 observations obtained from the Cost Report (HCFA Form 1728-86) of all Connecticut state-licensed, Medicare-certified home health agencies. The Cost Report was the primary source of data for this study. Information on total cost, scope, and other related factors was collected. Logarithmic and nonlinear regression analyses were used to identify factors related to scope and also to test for economies of scope. Data collected were both cross-sectional and time series (from 1988-1992). Data accuracy was verified using description of frequencies, measures of central tendency and variation, and a calculation package so that a computer calculation on the data could be compared with the agency's calculation. It was determined that initially as scope increases, costs go down, thus proving economies of scope. For larger values of scope, it was determined that costs go up, proving diseconomies of scope. Many of the home health agencies included in this study provide more services than is cost effective given the economic theory of economies of scope.

  9. What makes a phenomenological study phenomenological? An analysis of peer-reviewed empirical nursing studies.

    PubMed

    Norlyk, Annelise; Harder, Ingegerd

    2010-03-01

    This article contributes to the debate about phenomenology as a research approach in nursing by providing a systematic review of what nurse researchers hold as phenomenology in published empirical studies. Based on the assumption that presentations of phenomenological approaches in peer-reviewed journals have consequences for the quality of future research, the aim was to analyze articles presenting phenomenological studies and, in light of the findings, raise a discussion about addressing scientific criteria. The analysis revealed considerable variations, ranging from brief to detailed descriptions of the stated phenomenological approach, and from inconsistencies to methodological clarity and rigor. Variations, apparent inconsistencies, and omissions made it unclear what makes a phenomenological study phenomenological. There is a need for clarifying how the principles of the phenomenological philosophy are implemented in a particular study before publishing. This should include an articulation of methodological keywords of the investigated phenomenon, and how an open attitude was adopted.

  10. The predictive power of Horney's psychoanalytic approach: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Coolidge, Frederick L; Segal, Daniel L; Benight, Charles C; Danielian, Jack

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated the construct validity of a measure of Karen Horney's (1945) psychoanalytic theory that postulated three neurotic trends: compliant, aggressive, and detached. Her theory was operationalized by the Horney-Coolidge Type Indicator (HCTI). One hundred seventy-two adults completed the HCTI and the short form of the Coolidge Axis II Inventory, a measure of the three DSM-IV personality disorder clusters. Multiple regression and canonical correlation analyses revealed significant and differential patterns of the three HCTI dimensions with the three clusters. Because Paris (1994) has noted that Horney's neurotic trends may today be conceived of as personality disorders, one implication of the present findings is that Horney's dynamic theory can be valid and useful in the general understanding of personality disorders from a cluster perspective.

  11. Consolidated View on Space Software Engineering Problems - An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, N.; Vieira, M.; Ricci, D.; Cotroneo, D.

    2015-09-01

    Independent software verification and validation (ISVV) has been a key process for engineering quality assessment for decades, and is considered in several international standards. The “European Space Agency (ESA) ISVV Guide” is used for the European Space market to drive the ISVV tasks and plans, and to select applicable tasks and techniques. Software artefacts have room for improvement due to the amount if issues found during ISVV tasks. This article presents the analysis of the results of a large set of ISVV issues originated from three different ESA missions-amounting to more than 1000 issues. The study presents the main types, triggers and impacts related to the ISVV issues found and sets the path for a global software engineering improvement based on the most common deficiencies identified for space projects.

  12. An empirical study of flight control software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, J. R.; Pierce, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a laboratory experiment in flight control software reliability are reported. The experiment tests a small sample of implementations of a pitch axis control law for a PA28 aircraft with over 14 million pitch commands with varying levels of additive input and feedback noise. The testing which uses the method of n-version programming for error detection surfaced four software faults in one implementation of the control law. The small number of detected faults precluded the conduct of the error burst analyses. The pitch axis problem provides data for use in constructing a model in the prediction of the reliability of software in systems with feedback. The study is undertaken to find means to perform reliability evaluations of flight control software.

  13. Hospital emergency surge capacity: an empiric New York statewide study.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Robert K; Moran, John R

    2007-09-01

    National policy for emergency preparedness calls for hospitals to accommodate surges of 500 new patients per million population in a disaster, but published studies have not evaluated the ability of existing resources to meet these goals. We describe typical statewide and regional hospital occupancy and patterns of variation in occupancy and estimate the ability of hospitals to accommodate new inpatients. Daily hospital occupancy for each hospital was calculated according to admission date and length of stay for each patient during the study period. Occupancy was expressed as the count of occupied beds. Peak hospital capacity was defined as the 95th percentile highest occupancy at each facility. Data obtained from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System were analyzed for 1996 to 2002. Patients were classified as children (0 to 14 years, excluding newborns) or adults. Vacant hospital beds per million age-specific population were determined as the difference between peak capacity and average occupancy. In New York State, 242 hospitals cared for a peak capacity of 2,707 children and 46,613 adults. Occupancy averaged 60% of the peak for children and 82% for adults, allowing an average statewide capacity for a surge of 268 new pediatric and 555 adult patients for each million age-specific population. After the September 11, 2001, attacks, in the New York City region, a discretionary modification of admissions and discharges resulted in an 11% reduction from the expected occupancy for children and adults. Typically, there are not enough vacant hospital beds available to serve 500 children per million population. Modified standards of hospital care to expand capacity may be necessary to serve children in a mass-casualty event.

  14. A clinical-empirical model of personality: life after the Mischelian ice age and the NEO-lithic era.

    PubMed

    Westen, D

    1995-09-01

    A theory of personality should lead to both accurate prediction and interpretive understanding. Aside from its empirical uses, a personality theory should provide a grammar that allows personality psychologists to infer meaning from overt behavior with more sophistication than a layperson, and the best laboratory for testing the interpretive utility of a personality theory remains the clinic. With respect to the appropriate data for constructing and evaluating theories of personality, an overreliance on questionnaire data is problematic for several reasons: It assumes that understanding people requires no training, it mistakes research on the conscious self-concept for research on personality, it conflates implicit and explicit knowledge, it fails to address defensive biases, and it lacks interrater reliability. Consideration of both empirical and clinical data points to three questions that define the elements of personality necessary for a comprehensive assessment of an individual: (a) What psychological resources--cognitive, affective, and behavioral dispositions--does the individual have at his or her disposal? (b) What does the person wish for, fear, and value, and how do these motives combine and conflict? (c) How does the person experience the self and others, and to what extent can the individual enter into intimate relationships?

  15. Empirically and Clinically Useful Decision Making in Psychotherapy: Differential Predictions with Treatment Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Wolfgang; Saunders, Stephen M.; Leon, Scott C.; Martinovich, Zoran; Kosfelder, Joachim; Schulte, Dietmar; Grawe, Klaus; Tholen, Sven

    2006-01-01

    In the delivery of clinical services, outcomes monitoring (i.e., repeated assessments of a patient's response to treatment) can be used to support clinical decision making (i.e., recurrent revisions of outcome expectations on the basis of that response). Outcomes monitoring can be particularly useful in the context of established practice research…

  16. Empirical Correlates and Expanded Interpretation of the MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scale 3 (Cynicism)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Paul B.; Kelso, Kristy M.; McCord, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The recent release of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) has received much attention from the clinical psychology community. Particular concerns have focused on Restructured Clinical Scale 3 (RC3; Cynicism). This article briefly reviews the major criticisms and responses regarding the restructuring of…

  17. Empirically and Clinically Useful Decision Making in Psychotherapy: Differential Predictions with Treatment Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Wolfgang; Saunders, Stephen M.; Leon, Scott C.; Martinovich, Zoran; Kosfelder, Joachim; Schulte, Dietmar; Grawe, Klaus; Tholen, Sven

    2006-01-01

    In the delivery of clinical services, outcomes monitoring (i.e., repeated assessments of a patient's response to treatment) can be used to support clinical decision making (i.e., recurrent revisions of outcome expectations on the basis of that response). Outcomes monitoring can be particularly useful in the context of established practice research…

  18. Empirical Correlates and Expanded Interpretation of the MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scale 3 (Cynicism)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Paul B.; Kelso, Kristy M.; McCord, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The recent release of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) has received much attention from the clinical psychology community. Particular concerns have focused on Restructured Clinical Scale 3 (RC3; Cynicism). This article briefly reviews the major criticisms and responses regarding the restructuring of…

  19. Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study

    SciTech Connect

    Linyan Sun; Wang, M.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. An empirical study of Freud's penis-baby equation.

    PubMed

    Jones, R L

    1994-03-01

    One hypothesis of traditional psychoanalytic theory holds that a cardinal aspect of the "natural" development of femininity involves the woman's substitution of the wish for a baby in place of her original wish for a penis. The current study modified and extended earlier research examining the validity of Freud's this "penis-baby" theory. College-aged women and men were presented with either subliminal or supraliminal auditory messages concerned with either pregnancy or penetration themes. Subjects' written responses to Holtzman ink-blots, obtained both before and after exposure to an auditory message, were content-coded for phallic imagery and sexual imagery. Consistent with Freud's speculations about the phallic significance of pregnancy for women, female subjects who were exposed to the subliminal pregnancy message produced significantly more phallic imagery responses to ink-blots than did women in any of the other experimental conditions (p < .01). The phallic imagery production of males did not vary significantly as a function of message condition. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of modern revisions to Freud's psychology of women and the current psychoanalytic conceptualization of penis envy as a highly condensed mental product with many layers of meaning.

  1. Empirical study of alginate impression materials by customized proportioning system.

    PubMed

    Kurtulus, Karani; Tüfekci, Kenan

    2016-10-01

    Alginate mixers available in the market do not have the automatic proportioning unit. In this study, an automatic proportioning unit for the alginate mixer and controller software were designed and produced for a new automatic proportioning unit. With this device, it was ensured that proportioning operation could arrange weight-based alginate impression materials. The variation of coefficient in the tested groups was compared with the manual proportioning. Compression tension and tear tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of alginate impression materials. The experimental data were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey test at the 0.05 level of significance. No statistically significant differences in modulus of elastisity (P>0.3), tensional/compresional strength (P>0.3), resilience (P>0.2), strain in failure (P>0.4), and tear energy (P>0.7) of alginate impression materials were seen. However, a decrease in the standard deviation of tested groups was observed when the customized machine was used. To verify the efficiency of the system, powder and powder/water mixing were weighed and significant decrease was observed. It was possible to obtain more mechanically stable alginate impression materials by using the custom-made proportioning unit.

  2. Personality Traits, Sexual Problems, and Sexual Orientation: An Empirical Study.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Personality traits, namely neuroticism, have been suggested as vulnerability factors for the development and maintenance of sexual dysfunction in heterosexual samples. However, no evidence was found regarding homosexual samples. This study aimed to analyze the differences on personality traits between heterosexual and homosexual men and women with and without sexual problems. Participants were 285 individuals (142 men, 143 women) who completed a web-based survey. Participants answered the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptomatology Inventory, and questions regarding sexual problems. The groups of men and women with and without sexual problems were matched for sociodemographic variables. A 2 (Group) × 2 (Sexual Orientation) multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted separately for each gender. Results indicated a significant main effect for group and for sexual orientation in male and female samples. Men with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism, whereas women with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism and lower on extraversion when compared with healthy controls, regardless of sexual orientation. In addition, gay men scored higher on neuroticism and lesbian women scored higher on conscientiousness compared with the heterosexual groups. The present findings emphasize the central role of neuroticism on sexual problems in both men and women regardless of sexual orientation.

  3. Empirical study of alginate impression materials by customized proportioning system

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Alginate mixers available in the market do not have the automatic proportioning unit. In this study, an automatic proportioning unit for the alginate mixer and controller software were designed and produced for a new automatic proportioning unit. With this device, it was ensured that proportioning operation could arrange weight-based alginate impression materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS The variation of coefficient in the tested groups was compared with the manual proportioning. Compression tension and tear tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of alginate impression materials. The experimental data were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey test at the 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS No statistically significant differences in modulus of elastisity (P>0.3), tensional/compresional strength (P>0.3), resilience (P>0.2), strain in failure (P>0.4), and tear energy (P>0.7) of alginate impression materials were seen. However, a decrease in the standard deviation of tested groups was observed when the customized machine was used. To verify the efficiency of the system, powder and powder/water mixing were weighed and significant decrease was observed. CONCLUSION It was possible to obtain more mechanically stable alginate impression materials by using the custom-made proportioning unit. PMID:27826387

  4. The adoption of mobile health management services: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Chien; Jen, Wen-Yuan

    2012-06-01

    As their populations age, many countries are facing the increasing economic pressure of providing healthcare to their people. In Taiwan, this problem is exacerbated by an increasing rate of obesity and obesity-related conditions. Encouraging the adoption of personal health management services is one way to maintain current levels of personal health and to efficiently manage the distribution of healthcare resources. This study introduces Mobile Health Management Services (MHMS) and employs the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explore the intention of students in Executive Master of Business Management programs to adopt mobile health management technology. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to analyze the collected data, and the results revealed that "perceived usefulness" and "attitude" significantly affected the behavioral intention of adopting MHMS. Both "perceived ease of use" and "perceived usefulness," significantly affected "attitude," and "perceived ease of use" significantly affected "perceived usefulness" as well. The results also show that the determinants of intention toward MHMS differed with age; young adults had higher intention to adopt MHMS to manage their personal health. Therefore, relevant governmental agencies may profitably promote the management of personal health among this population. Successful promotion of personal health management will contribute to increases in both the level of general health and the efficient management of healthcare resources.

  5. [Patient satisfaction and geriatric care - an empirical study].

    PubMed

    Clausen, G; Borchelt, M; Janssen, C; Loos, S; Mull, L; Pfaff, H

    2006-02-01

    Patients' satisfaction has become a central concept in quality assurance. Despite progress in research in this area is still a lack of data for geriatric patients. Referring to the consumer model, satisfaction can be described as a difference between expectations and assessed performance. The aim of this study is to analyze satisfaction among geriatric patients in an in-patient setting. A personal interview was performed 1-2 days before discharge. Patients suffering for dementia or with problems to communicate were excluded. 124 of 268 geriatric patients who were discharged in 2003 were included (inclusion rate 46.3%). 119 were willing to participate (response rate 96.0%). Respondents were between 61 and 96 years old, 39% were male and 42% had serious functional limitations at time of admission. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of a combined index of satisfaction and expectations: a) quality of hotel services; b) experience of neglect; c) provision of medical information and skills. In summary, standardized personal questionnaires can provide valid and reliable data of geriatric patients. Satisfaction of elderly patients is negatively affected by neglect and positively influenced by provision of medical information and a good hotel services.

  6. Empirical study of simulated two-planet microlensing events

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Wei; Gould, Andrew; Penny, Matthew; Mao, Shude; Gendron, Rieul

    2014-10-10

    We undertake the first study of two-planet microlensing models recovered from simulations of microlensing events generated by realistic multiplanet systems in which 292 planetary events, including 16 two-planet events, were detected from 6690 simulated light curves. We find that when two planets are recovered, their parameters are usually close to those of the two planets in the system most responsible for the perturbations. However, in 1 of the 16 examples, the apparent mass of both detected planets was more than doubled by the unmodeled influence of a third, massive planet. This fraction is larger than but statistically consistent with the roughly 1.5% rate of serious mass errors due to unmodeled planetary companions for the 274 cases from the same simulation in which a single planet is recovered. We conjecture that an analogous effect due to unmodeled stellar companions may occur more frequently. For 7 out of 23 cases in which two planets in the system would have been detected separately, only one planet was recovered because the perturbations due to the two planets had similar forms. This is a small fraction (7/274) of all recovered single-planet models, but almost a third of all events that might plausibly have led to two-planet models. Still, in these cases, the recovered planet tends to have parameters similar to one of the two real planets most responsible for the anomaly.

  7. Positive psychological outcomes of spaceflight: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Ihle, Eva C; Ritsher, Jennifer B; Kanas, Nick

    2006-02-01

    Anecdotes from astronauts and cosmonauts suggest that spaceflight can be an enriching experience with enduring positive effects. These positive mental health effects may help protect flight crews from the psychological stress inherent in such high-risk missions. The goal of this study was to identify areas of personal growth likely to result from traveling in space and explore how they were patterned. We developed a Positive Effects of Being in Space (PEBS) Questionnaire, which included a section adapted from the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) as well as original items addressing experiences unique to spaceflight. We sent the anonymous questionnaire to 175 astronauts and cosmonauts who had flown on at least 1 mission; completed surveys were returned by 39 individuals. Every respondent had a positive reaction to being in space, the strongest of which related to the Earth's beauty and fragility. Respondents reported changes in both attitudes and behaviors. Respondents appeared to cluster into two groups based on the intensity of their reported changes. Response patterns did not vary by demographic group, number of missions flown, or total elapsed time in space. Overall, our findings support the idea that being in space is a meaningful experience that makes an enduring positive impression on astronauts and cosmonauts. An enhanced understanding of the salutogenic effects of space travel will contribute to the education, training, and support of future space crewmembers.

  8. Reasons for not reporting adverse incidents: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Vincent, C; Stanhope, N; Crowley-Murphy, M

    1999-02-01

    A previous study (Stanhope et al. 1998) established that staff in two obstetric units reported less than a quarter of designated incidents to the units' risk managers. A questionnaire was administered to 42 obstetricians and 156 midwives at the same two obstetric units, exploring the reasons for low rates of reporting. Questions concerned their knowledge of their unit's incident reporting system; whether they would report a series of 10 designated adverse obstetric incidents to the risk manager; and their views on 12 potential reasons for not reporting incidents. Most staff knew about the incident-reporting system in their unit, but almost 30% did not know how to find a list of reportable incidents. Views on the necessity of reporting the 10 designated obstetric incidents varied considerably. For example, 96% of staff stated they would always report a maternal death, whereas less than 40% would report a baby's unexpected admission to the Special Care Baby Unit. Midwives said they were more likely to report incidents than doctors, and junior staff were more likely to report than senior staff. The main reasons for not reporting were fears that junior staff would be blamed, high workload and the belief (even though the incident was designated as reportable) that the circumstances or outcome of a particular case did not warrant a report. Junior doctors felt less supported by their colleagues than senior doctors. Current systems of incident reporting, while providing some valuable information, do not provide a reliable index of the rate of adverse incidents. Recommended measures to increase reliability include clearer definitions of incidents, simplified methods of reporting, designated staff to record incidents and education, feedback and reassurance to staff about the nature and purpose of such systems.

  9. An empirical study of gender differences in online gambling.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Abby; Shorter, Gillian W; Griffiths, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    Gambling has typically been considered a predominately male activity. However, recent prevalence surveys have shown greater numbers of females are now gambling. Much of the gambling literature suggests online gamblers are more likely to be male, and that problem gamblers are more likely to be male. Males and females are also likely to be gambling for different reasons and have a preference for different gambling activities. Little is known about the pattern of play among female online gamblers. The aim of this survey was to develop a better profile of female online gamblers and to examine any gender differences between males and females in terms of how and why they gamble online, their frequency of online gambling, patterns of play, as well as attitudes to online gambling. The survey was posted on 32 international online gambling websites and was completed by 975 online gamblers (including 175 female online gamblers). Chi-square tests of association were conducted to examine the association between gender and a range of variables. The results showed that females had been gambling online for a shorter duration of time than males, had much shorter online gambling sessions, different motivations for gambling online (i.e., to practice for free, to spend less money and out of boredom), and experienced online gambling differently to males, with increased feelings of guilt and shame for gambling online. This suggests there is still a stigma around gambling particularly evident among females in this study. The findings indicate that clinicians and treatment providers need to be aware of these potential gender differences in online gambling to develop appropriately tailored interventions.

  10. The utility of empirically assigning ancestry groups in cross-population genetic studies of addiction.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Roseann E; Edwards, Alexis C; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Dick, Danielle M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Webb, Bradley T

    2017-08-01

    Given moderate heritability and significant heterogeneity among addiction phenotypes, successful genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are expected to need very large samples. As sample sizes grow, so can genetic diversity leading to challenges in analyzing these data. Methods for empirically assigning individuals to genetically informed ancestry groups are needed. We describe a strategy for empirically assigning ancestry groups in ethnically diverse GWAS data including extensions of principal component analysis (PCA) and population matching through minimum Mahalanobis distance. We apply these methods to data from Spit for Science (S4S): the University Student Survey, a study following college students longitudinally that includes genetic and environmental data on substance use and mental health (n = 7,603). The genetic-based population assignments for S4S were 48.7% European, 22.5% African, 10.4% Americas, 9.2% East Asian, and 9.2% South Asian descent. Self-reported census categories "More than one race" and "Unknown"as well as "Hawaiian/Pacific Islander" and "American-Indian/Native Alaskan" were empirically assigned representing a +9% sample retention over conventional methods. Although there was high concordance between self-reported race and empirical population-match (+.924), there was reduction in variance for most ancestry PCs for genetic-based population assignments. We were able to create more genetically homogenous groups and reduce sample and marker loss through cross-ancestry meta-analysis, potentially increasing power to detect etiologically relevant variation. Our approach provides a framework for empirically assigning genetic ancestry groups which can be applied to other ethnically diverse genetic studies. Given the important public health impact and demonstrable gains in statistical power from studying diverse populations, empirically sound practices for genetic studies are needed. (Am J Addict 2017;26:494-501). © 2017 American Academy of

  11. A Study on Empirical Site Response at Bodrum Peninsula, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Bodrum Peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of the southwest coast of Turkey. The region is located at the eastern part of the Volcanic Arc and Hellenic Arc-Trench System at the Aegean Sea. It is also surrounded by several offshore Aegean Graben systems. All of those systems have capability of producing large magnitude (M7+) earthquakes. Such tectonic entities pose a great threat to settlements around the region. Enrichment in ground motion arrays is an indispensable tool to investigate ground motion characteristics as well as behavior of shallow site profiles at such seismically active urban regions. Hence, Boğaziçi University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) Earthquake Engineering Department deployed a strong motion network at the Peninsula in June 2015. Three out of five stations (B1, B2, B3) are on an Alluvium sediment. The rests are on Limestone (B4) and Volcanic rock (B5). Soil profiles of the sites are not currently available. The network recorded more than 100 earthquakes in the last year. In the present study 15 events with magnitudes (Ml) from 3.4-5.4 occurred within 170 km epicentral distances were selected for calculation. PGA variations among stations were compared. B2 and B3 stations show consistently greater PGA values than others. Fundamental resonant frequencies of the sites were estimated by the H/V technique and relative amplifications were calculated by the Standard Spectral Ratio (SSR) technique. Based on fundamental resonant frequencies, B5 station was selected as the reference station for calculation of SSR spectra.Examining the earthquake data it was found out that (1) Predominant frequencies change between 2.0 - 3.7 Hz for soft soils, where it is 6 Hz for the reference site. The lowest frequency was observed at site B2; (2) Relative amplifications are in the range of 3 to 8. Even though B1, B2 and B3 stations rest on similar geological

  12. Teachers' Pedagogical Beliefs at Commercial Schools--An Empirical Study in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifried, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Within the study of teacher training, it is generally accepted that a teacher's behaviour and success in the classroom is influenced by their personal beliefs. This paper discusses teachers' pedagogical beliefs, domain-specific beliefs and conceptions of teaching and learning. We outline empirical results from various studies which explore…

  13. An Empirical Study of Communication between Teachers and Students in Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingyong, Zhou; Zuoyu, Zhou

    2006-01-01

    As an empirical study based on multiple linear regression analysis of the investigation data, this paper studies the communication between teachers and students in universities. It reveals that the interaction between university teachers and students promotes the personal development of college students. For some reason, however, a rather low…

  14. Language Interdependence between American Sign Language and English: A Review of Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusher, Melissa Ausbrooks

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a contemporary definition of American Sign Language/English bilingual education (AEBE) and outlines an essential theoretical framework. Included is a history and evolution of the methodology. The author also summarizes the general findings of twenty-six (26) empirical studies conducted in the United States that directly or…

  15. Short Stories via Computers in EFL Classrooms: An Empirical Study for Reading and Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    The present empirical study scrutinizes the use of short stories via computer technologies in teaching and learning English language. The objective of the study is two-fold: to examine how short stories could be used through computer programs in teaching and learning English and to collect data about students' perceptions of this technique via…

  16. An Empirical Study Investigating Interdisciplinary Teaching of Biology and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spintzyk, Katharina; Strehlke, Friederike; Ohlberger, Stephanie; Gröben, Bernd; Wegner, Claas

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with an empirical study examining the effectiveness of interdisciplinary teaching in biology and physical education (PE) regarding the students' growth in knowledge. The study was conducted with 141 German sixth form students. In groups, they were taught three hours a week for a period of six weeks. In order to compare the…

  17. Teachers' Pedagogical Beliefs at Commercial Schools--An Empirical Study in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifried, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Within the study of teacher training, it is generally accepted that a teacher's behaviour and success in the classroom is influenced by their personal beliefs. This paper discusses teachers' pedagogical beliefs, domain-specific beliefs and conceptions of teaching and learning. We outline empirical results from various studies which explore…

  18. Short Stories via Computers in EFL Classrooms: An Empirical Study for Reading and Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    The present empirical study scrutinizes the use of short stories via computer technologies in teaching and learning English language. The objective of the study is two-fold: to examine how short stories could be used through computer programs in teaching and learning English and to collect data about students' perceptions of this technique via…

  19. Corpus-Aided Business English Collocation Pedagogy: An Empirical Study in Chinese EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lidan

    This study reports an empirical study of an explicit instruction of corpus-aided Business English collocations and verifies its effectiveness in improving learners' collocation awareness and learner autonomy, as a result of which is significant improvement of learners' collocation competence. An eight-week instruction in keywords' collocations,…

  20. Are Elementary Principals Ready For Group Pre-Kindergarten Education? An Empirical Study in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anselmo, Sandra

    This article reports the findings from an empirical study of the readiness of elementary principals in the State of Iowa for group pre-kindergarten education. The study was based on responses of principals to items in a mail questionnaire and was directed at discovering their attitudes and knowledge about selected issues in group pre-kindergarten…

  1. Using an Empirical Binomial Hierarchical Bayesian Model as an Alternative to Analyzing Data from Multisite Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, J. Michael; Anderson, Billie S.; Woodby, Lesa L.; Crawford, Myra A.; Russell, Toya V.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the statistical methodologies used in demonstration and effectiveness studies when the treatments are applied across multiple settings. The importance of evaluating and how to evaluate these types of studies are discussed. As an alternative to standard methodology, the authors of this article offer an empirical binomial…

  2. Measuring the Business Impact of E-Learning: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Greg; Von Der Linn, Robert; Foucar-Szocki, Diane; Griffin, Oris; Sceiford, Erin

    2003-01-01

    This study fills a gap in the current HRD [human resource development] literature of return on investment (ROI) analysis of technology-based learning interventions. Using a Type IV control group method as defined by Wang (2002), the study empirically analyzed and measured the learning effectiveness and the business impact of an e-learning system…

  3. From empirical to mechanism-based discovery of clinically useful Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs)

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Suzanne E.; Nelson, Erik R.; McDonnell, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pharmacological actions of estrogen receptor (ER) ligands has evolved considerably in recent years. Much of this knowledge has come from a detailed dissection of the mechanism(s) of action of the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and raloxifene, drugs whose estrogen receptor (ER) agonist/antagonist properties are influenced by the cell context in which they operate. These studies have revealed that notwithstanding differences in drug pharmokinetics, the activity of an ER ligand is determined primarily by (a) the impact that a given ligand has on the receptor conformation and (b) the ability of structurally distinct ER-ligand complexes to interact with functionally distinct coregulators. Exploitation of the established relationships between ER structure and activity has led to the development of improved SERMs with more favorable therapeutic properties and of tissue-selective estrogen complexes, drugs in which a SERM and an ER agonist are combined to yield a blended activity that results in distinct clinical profiles. Remarkably, endogenous ligands that exhibit SERM activity have also been identified. One of these ligands, 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), has been shown to manifest ER-dependent pathological activities in the cardiovascular system, bone and mammary gland. Whereas the physiological activity of 27HC remains to be determined, its discovery highlights how cells have adopted mechanisms to allow the same receptor ligand complex to manifest different activities in different cells, and also how these processes can be exploited for new drug development. PMID:25084324

  4. Clinicians' emotional responses and Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual adult personality disorders: A clinically relevant empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Gazzillo, Francesco; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Del Corno, Franco; Genova, Federica; Bornstein, Robert F; Gordon, Robert M; McWilliams, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between level of personality organization and type of personality disorder as assessed with the categories in the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM; PDM Task Force, 2006) and the emotional responses of treating clinicians. We asked 148 Italian clinicians to assess 1 of their adult patients in treatment for personality disorders with the Psychodiagnostic Chart (PDC; Gordon & Bornstein, 2012) and the Personality Diagnostic Prototype (PDP; Gazzillo, Lingiardi, & Del Corno, 2012) and to complete the Therapist Response Questionnaire (TRQ; Betan, Heim, Zittel-Conklin, & Westen, 2005). The patients' level of overall personality pathology was positively associated with helpless and overwhelmed responses in clinicians and negatively associated with positive emotional responses. A parental and disengaged response was associated with the depressive, anxious, and dependent personality disorders; an exclusively parental response with the phobic personality disorder; and a parental and criticized response with narcissistic disorder. Dissociative disorder evoked a helpless and parental response in the treating clinicians whereas somatizing disorder elicited a disengaged reaction. An overwhelmed and disengaged response was associated with sadistic and masochistic personality disorders, with the latter also associated with a parental and hostile/criticized reaction; an exclusively overwhelmed response with psychopathic patients; and a helpless response with paranoid patients. Finally, patients with histrionic personality disorder evoked an overwhelmed and sexualized response in their clinicians whereas there was no specific emotional reaction associated with the schizoid and the obsessive-compulsive disorders. Clinical implications of these findings were discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Application Study of Empirical Model and Xiaohuajian Flood Forecasting Model in the Middle Yellow River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Caihong

    2013-04-01

    Xiaolandi-Huayuankou region is an important rainstorm centre in the middle Yellow river, which drainage area of 35883km2. A set of forecasting methods applied in this region was formed throughout years of practice. The Xiaohuajian flood forecasting model and empirical model were introduced in this paper. The simulated processes of the Xiaohuajian flood forecasting model include evapotranspiration, infiltration, runoff, river flow. Infiltration and surface runoff are calculated utilizing the Horton model for infiltration into multilayered soil profiles. Overland flow is routed by Nash instantaneous unit hydrograph and Section Muskingum method. The empirical model are simulated using P~Pa~R and empirical relation approach for runoff generation and concentration. The structures of these two models were analyzed and compared in detail. Yihe river basin located in Xiaolandi-Huayuankou region was selected for the purpose of the study. The results show that the accuracy of the two methods are similar, however, the accuracy of Xiaohuajian flood forecasting model for flood forecasting is relatively higher, especially the process of the flood; the accuracy of the empirical methods is much worse, but it can also be accept. The two models are both practicable, so the two models can be combined to apply. The result of the Xiaohuajian flood forecasting model can be used to guide the reservoir for flood control, and the result of empirical methods can be as a reference.

  6. Cue-induced craving in pathological buying: empirical evidence and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Trotzke, Patrick; Starcke, Katrin; Pedersen, Anya; Brand, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Pathological buying is associated with marked distress and impaired functioning in important life domains. It is currently under debate whether pathological buying can be considered a behavioral addiction. In analogy to results reported in addicted individuals, craving reactions elicited by addiction-related cues might be an underlying mechanism for the etiology and pathogenesis of pathological buying. In the present study, 30 pathological buyers and 30 matched control participants were examined with a cue-reactivity paradigm consisting of shopping and control cues. Skin conductance responses, as well as subjective ratings for arousal, valence, and urge to buy, were assessed. Subjective craving reactions were measured before and after the cue-reactivity paradigm. On a physiological level, skin conductance responses toward shopping cues were higher in pathological buyers (mean [M; standard deviation {SD}] = 0.26 [0.13]) compared with control participants (M [SD] = 0.19 [0.09]; t(58) = 2.29, p = .025, d = 0.60). On a behavioral level, the individuals with pathological buying rated the shopping cues as more arousing and more positive, and reported a greater urge to buy compared with control participants and with control cues. An increase in subjective craving after completing the cue-reactivity paradigm was observed only in the pathological buyers (Mpre [SD] = 1.95 [1.47], Mpost [SD] = 2.87 [1.79]; t(29) = 5.07, p < .001, d = 0.97). Cue-reactivity and craving might be potential correlates for the development and maintenance of pathological buying. The results demonstrate similarities between pathological buying and substance or behavioral addictions and provide implications for clinical treatment.

  7. An Empirical Study on the Job Satisfaction of College Graduates in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Changjun, Yue

    2014-01-01

    This study used nationwide, randomly sampled data from the Peking University Institute of Economics of Education 2011 survey of college graduates to conduct an empirical analysis of their job satisfaction. The results indicate that work-related factors have a significant effect on the job satisfaction of college graduates, while nonwork factors…

  8. Image Retrieval: Theoretical Analysis and Empirical User Studies on Accessing Information in Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornager, Susanne

    1997-01-01

    Discusses indexing and retrieval for effective searches of digitized images. Reports on an empirical study about criteria for analysis and indexing digitized images, and the different types of user queries done in newspaper image archives in Denmark. Concludes that it is necessary that the indexing represent both a factual and an expressional…

  9. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  10. Results from an Empirical Study of School Principals' Decisions about Disclosure of HIV Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenneville, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Elementary school principals' decisions about disclosure of school age children's confidential medical information was empirically studied. Participants included a stratified sample of 339 elementary school principals from the seven largest school districts in Florida. Each participant received one of six vignettes describing a student with HIV,…

  11. Understanding Transactional Distance in Web-Based Learning Environments: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Chandra, Aruna; DePaolo, Concetta A.; Simmons, Lakisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Transactional distance is an important pedagogical theory in distance education that calls for more empirical support. The purpose of this study was to verify the theory by operationalizing and examining the relationship of (1) dialogue, structure and learner autonomy to transactional distance, and (2) environmental factors and learner demographic…

  12. Has Portfolio Assessment Become Common Practice in EFL Classrooms? Empirical Studies from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Shumei

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation into the use of portfolio assessment (PA) in Chinese context, beginning with a survey of the rationale for the use of portfolios with students. Then the empirical study is presented and the teachers' and the students' as well as the English teaching advisors' voices are revealed through excerpts…

  13. Performance-Based Service Quality Model: An Empirical Study on Japanese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to develop and empirically test the performance-based higher education service quality model. Design/methodology/approach: The study develops 67-item instrument for measuring performance-based service quality with a particular focus on the higher education sector. Scale reliability is confirmed using the Cronbach's alpha.…

  14. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  15. Beyond "Perezhivanie," Sense, and Language: An Empirical Study of Early Childhood Teachers' Subjective Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeira Coelho, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Theory of Subjectivity in a cultural-historical perspective, this paper presents an empirical study of two infant teachers and their subjective dynamics of being "enchanted" with singular aspects of their professional lives. Through the constructive-interpretative principle driven from the Qualitative Epistemology, the study…

  16. An Empirical Study of the Influence of the Concept of "Job-Hunting" on Graduates' Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chengwen; Hu, Guiying

    2008-01-01

    The concept of job-hunting is an important factor affecting university students' employment. This empirical study shows that while hunting for a job, graduates witness negative correlation between their expectation of the nature of work and the demand for occupational types and the accessibility to a post and monthly income; positive correlation…

  17. Design Models as Emergent Features: An Empirical Study in Communication and Shared Mental Models in Instructional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botturi, Luca

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an empirical study that investigated the instructional design process of three teams involved in the development of an e-­learning unit. The teams declared they were using the same fast-­prototyping design and development model, and were composed of the same roles (although with a different number of SMEs).…

  18. Chinese Students' Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustments to Britain: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer-Oatey, Helen; Xiong, Zhaoning

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports an empirical study of the psychological and sociocultural adjustments of two cohorts of Chinese students taking a foundation course in English language at a British university. Using Zung's (1965) Self-Rating Depression Scale and a modification of Ward and Kennedy's (1999) Sociocultural Adaptation Scale, quantitative data were…

  19. University-Industry Collaboration, Knowledge Management and Enterprise Innovation Performance: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jin; Wei, Shiyang

    2008-01-01

    This empirical study is concerned with university-industry collaboration from a knowledge management perspective. The authors introduce the concepts of "enterprise-level core elements" to define the principle status of an enterprise during university-industry collaboration, and "network embeddedness" as an indication of the…

  20. Characteristics of Children of Alcoholics--A Review of Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poston, Vin

    Although it has been estimated that 28,000,000 Americans may be children of alcoholics, these individuals have only recently been given serious attention by researchers and clinicians. Empirical studies pertaining to the effects of having alcoholic parents were reviewed and several clusters of characteristics were derived from the findings: (1)…

  1. An Empirical Study on the Acquisition of English Rising Tone by Chinese EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wenkai

    2013-01-01

    Intonation is the melody and soul of speech, and plays an important role in oral communication. Nevertheless, the acquisition of English intonation by Chinese EFL learners is far from being satisfactory. It is found by empirical study that the main problems existing in acquiring English rising tone are improper placement of nucleus stress, failure…

  2. Analogical Scaffolding and the Learning of Abstract Ideas in Physics: Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podolefsky, Noah S.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we proposed a model of student reasoning which combines the roles of representation, analogy, and layering of meaning--analogical scaffolding [Podolefsky and Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 010109 (2007)]. The present empirical studies build on this model to examine its utility and demonstrate the vital intertwining of…

  3. An Empirical Review of Research Methodologies and Methods in Creativity Studies (2003-2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Haiying

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data collected from 5 prestigious creativity journals, research methodologies and methods of 612 empirical studies on creativity, published between 2003 and 2012, were reviewed and compared to those in gifted education. Major findings included: (a) Creativity research was predominantly quantitative and psychometrics and experiment…

  4. Analogical Scaffolding and the Learning of Abstract Ideas in Physics: Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podolefsky, Noah S.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we proposed a model of student reasoning which combines the roles of representation, analogy, and layering of meaning--analogical scaffolding [Podolefsky and Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 010109 (2007)]. The present empirical studies build on this model to examine its utility and demonstrate the vital intertwining of…

  5. Model Selection for Equating Testlet-Based Tests in the NEAT Design: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wei; Li, Feifei; Wolfe, Edward W.; Mao, Xia

    2012-01-01

    For those tests solely composed of testlets, local item independency assumption tends to be violated. This study, by using empirical data from a large-scale state assessment program, was interested in investigates the effects of using different models on equating results under the non-equivalent group anchor-test (NEAT) design. Specifically, the…

  6. An Empirical Review of Research Methodologies and Methods in Creativity Studies (2003-2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Haiying

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data collected from 5 prestigious creativity journals, research methodologies and methods of 612 empirical studies on creativity, published between 2003 and 2012, were reviewed and compared to those in gifted education. Major findings included: (a) Creativity research was predominantly quantitative and psychometrics and experiment…

  7. College Education and Attitudes toward Democracy in China: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Gang; Wu, Liyun; Han, Rongbin

    2015-01-01

    The modernization theory contends that there is a link between education and democracy. Yet few empirical studies have been done to investigate the role of higher education on promoting democratic values in the Chinese context. Using China General Social Survey 2006, this paper generates several findings which are not completely consistent with…

  8. Chinese Students' Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustments to Britain: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer-Oatey, Helen; Xiong, Zhaoning

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports an empirical study of the psychological and sociocultural adjustments of two cohorts of Chinese students taking a foundation course in English language at a British university. Using Zung's (1965) Self-Rating Depression Scale and a modification of Ward and Kennedy's (1999) Sociocultural Adaptation Scale, quantitative data were…

  9. An Empirical Study of the Application of Psychological Principles to the Teaching of Orienteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martland, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    An empirical study was carried out to explore effects of three sets of schedules developed by Edgar Stones as guidelines conducive to student learning. Guidelines for concept teaching, psychomotor skill development, and teaching problem solving formed the instructional framework for teaching 11-year-old children the principles of navigational…

  10. Results from an Empirical Study of School Principals' Decisions about Disclosure of HIV Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenneville, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Elementary school principals' decisions about disclosure of school age children's confidential medical information was empirically studied. Participants included a stratified sample of 339 elementary school principals from the seven largest school districts in Florida. Each participant received one of six vignettes describing a student with HIV,…

  11. What Children Need: Cooperative Religious Education in German Schools--Results from an Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweitzer, Friedrich; Boschki, Reinhold

    2004-01-01

    This article gives a report on a recent empirical study on cooperative religious education in German primary schools. Special emphasis is given to the views, needs, and rights of children. Results from interviews with the children and with the teachers as well as from classroom observation form the basis for the authors' suggestions concerning the…

  12. College Education and Attitudes toward Democracy in China: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Gang; Wu, Liyun; Han, Rongbin

    2015-01-01

    The modernization theory contends that there is a link between education and democracy. Yet few empirical studies have been done to investigate the role of higher education on promoting democratic values in the Chinese context. Using China General Social Survey 2006, this paper generates several findings which are not completely consistent with…

  13. Is Sustainability Possible? A Review and Commentary on Empirical Studies of Program Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheirer, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    An important final step in the life cycles of programs and their evaluation involves assessing new programs' or innovations' sustainability. This review and synthesis of 19 empirical studies of the sustainability of American and Canadian health-related programs examines the extent of sustainability achieved and summarizes factors contributing to…

  14. Chinese Fantasy Novel: Empirical Study on New Word Teaching for Non-Native Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Bok Check; Soon, Goh Ying

    2014-01-01

    Giving additional learning materials such as Chinese fantasy novel to non-native learners can be strenuous. This study seeks to render empirical support on the usefulness of the use of new words in Chinese fantasy novel to enhance vocabulary learning among the non-native learners of Chinese. In general, the students agreed that they like to learn…

  15. Image Retrieval: Theoretical Analysis and Empirical User Studies on Accessing Information in Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornager, Susanne

    1997-01-01

    Discusses indexing and retrieval for effective searches of digitized images. Reports on an empirical study about criteria for analysis and indexing digitized images, and the different types of user queries done in newspaper image archives in Denmark. Concludes that it is necessary that the indexing represent both a factual and an expressional…

  16. Requisite Skills of Entry-Level Programmers: An Empirical Study in Brunei Darussalam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mohd Noah A.; Rahim, M. Mahbubur; Seyal, Afzaal H.

    1999-01-01

    Reports the results of an empirical study in Brunei Darussalam that identified the types of skills required for entry-level computer programmers. Investigated whether skills were related to organizational size; determined that communications skills were the top requirement, followed by database management systems skills; and discovered a decline…

  17. Performance-Based Service Quality Model: An Empirical Study on Japanese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to develop and empirically test the performance-based higher education service quality model. Design/methodology/approach: The study develops 67-item instrument for measuring performance-based service quality with a particular focus on the higher education sector. Scale reliability is confirmed using the Cronbach's alpha.…

  18. A Study of Service-Learning at Virginia Highlands Community College and Mountain Empire Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Alice

    This qualitative study was conducted to explore student perceptions of service learning as well as the importance of service learning to community college students. Data were collected through interviews with 24 community college participants from Virginia Highlands Community College and Mountain Empire Community College, both in southwest…

  19. Understanding Transactional Distance in Web-Based Learning Environments: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Chandra, Aruna; DePaolo, Concetta A.; Simmons, Lakisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Transactional distance is an important pedagogical theory in distance education that calls for more empirical support. The purpose of this study was to verify the theory by operationalizing and examining the relationship of (1) dialogue, structure and learner autonomy to transactional distance, and (2) environmental factors and learner demographic…

  20. In Search of the Unifying Principles of Psychotherapy: Conceptual, Empirical, and Clinical Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnavita, Jeffrey J.

    2006-01-01

    The search for the principles of unified psychotherapy is an important stage in the advancement of the field. Converging evidence from various streams of clinical science allows the identification of some of the major domains of human functioning, adaptation, and dysfunction. These principles, supported by animal modeling, neuroscience, and…

  1. In Search of the Unifying Principles of Psychotherapy: Conceptual, Empirical, and Clinical Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnavita, Jeffrey J.

    2006-01-01

    The search for the principles of unified psychotherapy is an important stage in the advancement of the field. Converging evidence from various streams of clinical science allows the identification of some of the major domains of human functioning, adaptation, and dysfunction. These principles, supported by animal modeling, neuroscience, and…

  2. Volunteer bias in medical education research: an empirical study of over three decades of longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Clara A; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2007-08-01

    The issue of whether medical education research outcomes can be biased by students' refusal to allow their data to be used in outcomes research should be empirically addressed to assure the validity of research findings. Given that institutions are expected to document the outcomes of their educational programmes, evaluations of clinical performance subsequent to medical school are crucial, but are often incomplete when graduates decline to permit data collection. This study aimed to examine the demographic and performance differences between research volunteers and others. A total of 7415 doctors graduated from Jefferson Medical College between 1970 and 2004; 75% (n = 5575) agreed to participate in medical education research by granting written permission for the collection of data from their postgraduate training directors on their behalf (research volunteers); 20% (n = 1489) refused to grant such permission (non-volunteers), and 5% (n = 351) did not return the permission form (non-respondents). This prospective longitudinal study compared research volunteers, non-volunteers and non-respondents on gender, ethnicity, performance measures prior to, during and after medical school, scores on medical licensing examinations, and board certification status. Doctors who granted permission (volunteers) generally performed better during and after medical school. In addition, they scored higher on medical licensing examinations and had a higher certification rate. Women and members of ethnic minority groups were less likely to grant permission. The study raises questions about the validity of research findings as a result of volunteerism in medical education research. The implications for guidelines regarding the protection of human subjects in medical education research, and for educational outcomes, are discussed.

  3. Experimental studies: randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gjorgov, A N

    1998-01-01

    There are two major approaches to medical investigations: observational studies and experimental trials. The classical application of the experimental design to studies of human populations is the randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a new drug or treatment. A further application of the experimental studies is to the testing of hypotheses about the etiology of a disease, already tested and corroborated from various forms of observational studies. Ethical considerations and requirements for consent of the experimental subjects are of primary concern in the clinical trials, and those concerns set the first and final limits for implementing a trial. General moral principles in research with human and animal beings, defined by the "Nuremberg Code," deal with strict criteria for approval, endorsement and evaluation of a clinical trial.

  4. Moral Reasoning among HEC Members: An Empirical Evaluation of the Relationship of Theory and Practice in Clinical Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Jason Adam; Stevenson, Shannon Lindsey; Claxton, Cassandra; Krug, Ernest F

    2015-01-01

    In light of the ongoing development and implementation of core competencies in bioethics, it is important to proceed with a clear sense of how bioethics knowledge is utilized in the functioning of hospital ethics committees (HECs). Without such an understanding, we risk building a costly edifice on a foundation that is ambiguous at best. This article examines the empirical relationship between traditional paradigms of bioethics theory and actual decision making by HEC members using survey data from HEC members. The assumption underlying the standardization of qualifications and corresponding call for increased education of HEC members is that they will base imminent case decisions on inculcated knowledge. Our data suggest, however, that HEC members first decide intuitively and then look for justification, thereby highlighting the need to re-examine the pedagogical processes of ethics education in the process of standardizing and improving competencies. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  5. An Empirical Study of Atmospheric Correction Procedures for Regional Infrasound Amplitudes with Ground Truth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    This study focusses on improving methods of accounting for atmospheric effects on infrasound amplitudes observed on arrays at regional distances in the southwestern United States. Recordings at ranges of 150 to nearly 300 km from a repeating ground truth source of small HE explosions are used. The explosions range in actual weight from approximately 2000-4000 lbs. and are detonated year-round which provides signals for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Three methods of correcting the observed amplitudes for atmospheric effects are investigated with the data set. The first corrects amplitudes for upper stratospheric wind as developed by Mutschlecner and Whitaker (1999) and uses the average wind speed between 45-55 km altitudes in the direction of propagation to derive an empirical correction formula. This approach was developed using large chemical and nuclear explosions and is tested with the smaller explosions for which shorter wavelengths cause the energy to be scattered by the smaller scale structure of the atmosphere. The second approach isa semi-empirical method using ray tracing to determine wind speed at ray turning heights where the wind estimates replace the wind values in the existing formula. Finally, parabolic equation (PE) modeling is used to predict the amplitudes at the arrays at 1 Hz. The PE amplitudes are compared to the observed amplitudes with a narrow band filter centered at 1 Hz. An analysis is performed of the conditions under which the empirical and semi-empirical methods fail and full wave methods must be used.

  6. Spouses in mixed-orientation marriage: a 20-year review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Barbara Couden; Schwenke, Naomi J; Wilson, Colwick M

    2011-07-01

    Empirical studies on mixed-orientation marriage in social science journals from 1988 to 2008 were reviewed. Fifteen articles published in eight peer-reviewed journals were identified and discussed in terms of sampling, design, measures, rigor, theoretical framework, and literature review. An overview of each study is provided along with a summary of critical findings. Implications and recommendations for future research and education are offered. © 2011 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  7. Some Foundations for Empirical Study in the Euclidean Spatial Model of Social Choice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    NPSOR-91-025 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California AD-A241 928 SOME FOUNDATIONS FOR EMPIRICAL STUDY IN THE EUCLIDEAN SPATIAL MODEL OF SOCIAL...EMPIRI AL STUDY IN THE EUCLIDEAN SPATIAL MODEL OF SOCIAL CHOICE 12 Personal Author(s) Craig A. Tovev 13a Type of Report | 3b Time Covered 14 Date of... Euclidean ; statistics, social choice; consistent estimators; spatial 19 Abstract (continue on re,’erse if aecessary and identify by block nwt er Recent

  8. Cost comparison of microscopy vs. empiric treatment for malaria in Southwestern Nigeria: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Ravi; Amole, Isaac; Tarpley, Margaret; Gbadero, Daniel; Davidson, Mario; Vermund, Sten H

    2010-12-22

    Presumptive treatment for malaria is common in resource-limited settings, yet controversial given the imprecision of clinical diagnosis. The researchers compared costs of diagnosis and drugs for two strategies: (1) empirical treatment of malaria via clinical diagnosis; and (2) empirical diagnosis followed by treatment only with Giemsa smear confirmation. Patients with a diagnosis of clinical malaria were recruited from a mission/university teaching hospital in southwestern Nigeria. The patients underwent free Giemsa thick (diagnosis) and thin (differentiation) smears, but paid for all anti-malarial drugs. Clinical diagnosis was made on clinicians' judgments based on symptoms, including fever, diarrhoea, headache, and body aches. The paediatric regimen was artesunate (6-9 tablets of 3 mg/kg on day one and 1.5 mg/kg for the next four days) plus amodiaquine (10 mg/kg day 1-2 and 5 mg/kg on day three in suspension). Adults were given two treatment options: option one (four and one-half 50 mg artesunate tablets on day one and nine tablets for the next four days, plus three 500 mg sulphadoxine/25 mg pyrimethamine tablets) and option two (same artesunate regimen plus nine 200 mg tablets of amodiaquine at 10 mg/kg day 1-2 and 5 mg/kg on day three). The researchers calculated the costs of smears/drugs from standard hospital charges. Doctors diagnosed 304 patients (170 adults ages >16 years and 134 pediatric) with clinical malaria, prescribing antimalarial drugs to all. Giemsa thick smears were positive in 115/304 (38%). The typical patient cost for a Giemsa smear was 550 Naira (US$3.74 in 2009). For children, the cost of testing all, but treating only Giemsa positives was N888 ($6.04)/child; the cost of empiric treatment of all who were clinically diagnosed was lower, N660 ($4.49)/child. For adults, the cost of testing all, but treating only Giemsa positives was N711 ($4.84)/adult for treatment option one (artesunate and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine) and N730 ($4.97)/adult

  9. Cost comparison of microscopy vs. empiric treatment for malaria in southwestern nigeria: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Presumptive treatment for malaria is common in resource-limited settings, yet controversial given the imprecision of clinical diagnosis. The researchers compared costs of diagnosis and drugs for two strategies: (1) empirical treatment of malaria via clinical diagnosis; and (2) empirical diagnosis followed by treatment only with Giemsa smear confirmation. Methods Patients with a diagnosis of clinical malaria were recruited from a mission/university teaching hospital in southwestern Nigeria. The patients underwent free Giemsa thick (diagnosis) and thin (differentiation) smears, but paid for all anti-malarial drugs. Clinical diagnosis was made on clinicians' judgments based on symptoms, including fever, diarrhoea, headache, and body aches. The paediatric regimen was artesunate (6-9 tablets of 3 mg/kg on day one and 1.5 mg/kg for the next four days) plus amodiaquine (10 mg/kg day 1-2 and 5 mg/kg on day three in suspension). Adults were given two treatment options: option one (four and one-half 50 mg artesunate tablets on day one and nine tablets for the next four days, plus three 500 mg sulphadoxine/25 mg pyrimethamine tablets) and option two (same artesunate regimen plus nine 200 mg tablets of amodiaquine at 10 mg/kg day 1-2 and 5 mg/kg on day three). The researchers calculated the costs of smears/drugs from standard hospital charges. Results Doctors diagnosed 304 patients (170 adults ages >16 years and 134 pediatric) with clinical malaria, prescribing antimalarial drugs to all. Giemsa thick smears were positive in 115/304 (38%). The typical patient cost for a Giemsa smear was 550 Naira (US$3.74 in 2009). For children, the cost of testing all, but treating only Giemsa positives was N888 ($6.04)/child; the cost of empiric treatment of all who were clinically diagnosed was lower, N660 ($4.49)/child. For adults, the cost of testing all, but treating only Giemsa positives was N711 ($4.84)/adult for treatment option one (artesunate and sulphadoxine

  10. Three empirical studies on the aggregate dynamics of humanly driven complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Cesar A.

    Complex systems are characterized by having emergent properties that cannot be explained from their large number of interacting and heterogeneous components. Different aspects of human society can be described as a complex system, as large numbers of people aggregate into a host of complex structures. Here we empirically study three different aspects of humanly driven complex systems. First, we study the dynamics of a mobile phone network reconstructed from millions of individual phone calls. By looking at time resolved data we show that the structure of the mobile phone network is coupled to the dynamics of mobile phone links. Second, we study the statistical properties of human mobility patterns and show that the characteristic distance travelled by individuals follows a heterogeneous distribution which explains the previously observed Levy-flight properties of human mobility. Third, we construct a network summarizing world trade to study the dynamics of countries productive structures and show that the structure of the product space conditions the industrial development of nations. These three studies illustrate how large data sets can be used to empirically study humanly driven complex systems. Individually, they present relevant information that can be used to benchmark future models for each one of these complex systems or can be used as empirical rules characterizing them.

  11. An empirical evaluation of devolving administrative control to Costa Rican hospital and clinic directors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Theodore; McKee, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    In the early 2000s, Costa Rica implemented comprehensive reforms of its health care system, including devolving administrative power from the central government to some providers that remain part of the national system. In this article, we evaluate how this aspect of the reform affected clinic efficiency and population health by analyzing administrative data on regional providers and mortality rates in local areas. We compare changes in outcomes across time between areas that signed performance contracts with the central government and received limited budgetary control to those that continued to be managed directly by the central government. We believe the reform created opportunities for providers to become more efficient and effective. Our results suggest that the reform significantly decreased costs without adversely affecting quality of care or population health.

  12. The Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model: theoretical, empirical, and clinical advances

    PubMed Central

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas; Zekveld, Adriana; Sörqvist, Patrik; Danielsson, Henrik; Lyxell, Björn; Dahlström, Örjan; Signoret, Carine; Stenfelt, Stefan; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Rudner, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Working memory is important for online language processing during conversation. We use it to maintain relevant information, to inhibit or ignore irrelevant information, and to attend to conversation selectively. Working memory helps us to keep track of and actively participate in conversation, including taking turns and following the gist. This paper examines the Ease of Language Understanding model (i.e., the ELU model, Rönnberg, 2003; Rönnberg et al., 2008) in light of new behavioral and neural findings concerning the role of working memory capacity (WMC) in uni-modal and bimodal language processing. The new ELU model is a meaning prediction system that depends on phonological and semantic interactions in rapid implicit and slower explicit processing mechanisms that both depend on WMC albeit in different ways. It is based on findings that address the relationship between WMC and (a) early attention processes in listening to speech, (b) signal processing in hearing aids and its effects on short-term memory, (c) inhibition of speech maskers and its effect on episodic long-term memory, (d) the effects of hearing impairment on episodic and semantic long-term memory, and finally, (e) listening effort. New predictions and clinical implications are outlined. Comparisons with other WMC and speech perception models are made. PMID:23874273

  13. ['Walkability' and physical activity - results of empirical studies based on the 'Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS)'].

    PubMed

    Rottmann, M; Mielck, A

    2014-02-01

    'Walkability' is mainly assessed by the NEWS questionnaire (Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale); in Germany this questionnaire is widely unknown. We now try to fill this gap by providing a systematic overview of empirical studies based on the NEWS. A systematic review was conducted concerning original papers including empirical analyses based on the NEWS. The results are summarised and presented in tables. Altogether 31 publications could be identified. Most of them focus on associations with the variable 'physical activity', and they often report significant associations with at least some of the scales included in the NEWS. Due to methodological differences between the studies it is difficult to compare the results. The concept of 'walkability' should also be established in the German public health discussion. A number of methodological challenges remain to be solved, such as the identification of those scales and items in the NEWS that show the strongest associations with individual health behaviours. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Semi-Empirical Study of the Indirect Exchange Interaction in the Rem - Al System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakarov, Kh. O.

    2016-05-01

    The Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange interaction (RKKY) is semi-empirically studied for the first time in compounds of binary REM - Al systems (REM - rare-earth metals: Gd, Dy, Ho, Er) using experimental values of paramagnetic Curie point (θp) of these compounds. Prediction of the RKKY theory was confirmed, i.e. there is a direct proportional dependence of θp value on de Gennes factor for equiatomic compounds of heavy REM with aluminum, just as in the case of pure REM. Values of the indirect exchange interaction parameter were semi-empirically estimated for the studied compounds. In general, it was established that RKKY-type exchange interaction is typical for REM compounds with aluminum, just as for pure REM.

  15. Mathematical modeling of randomness and fuzziness phenomena in scientific studies: I. Mathematical and empirical foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyt'ev, Yu. P.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility theory as a mathematical model of randomness and fuzziness phenomena is considered in a variant that enables the modeling of both probabilistic randomness, including that inherent in unpredictably evolving stochastic objects whose probabilistic models cannot be empirically reconstructed and nonprobabilistic randomness (fuzziness) inherent in real physical, technical, and economical objects, human-machine and expert systems, etc. Some principal distinctions between the considered variant and the known possibility theory variants, in particular, in mathematical formalism and its relationship with probability theory, substantive interpretation, and applications exemplified by solving the problems of identification and estimation optimization, empirical reconstruction of a fuzzy model for a studied object, measurement data analysis and interpretation, etc. (in the paper "Mathematical Modeling of Randomness and Fuzziness Phenomena in Scientific Studies. II. Applications") are shown.

  16. Development of phonological awareness in Down syndrome: A meta-analysis and empirical study.

    PubMed

    Næss, Kari-Anne B

    2016-02-01

    Phonological awareness (PA) is the knowledge and understanding of the sound structure of language and is believed to be an important skill for the development of reading. This study explored PA skills in children with Down syndrome and matched typically developing (TD) controls using a dual approach: a meta-analysis of the existing international literature and a longitudinal empirical study. The results from both the meta-analysis and the empirical study showed that the children with Down syndrome initially had weaker PA skills compared to the controls; in particular, the awareness of rhyme was delayed. The longitudinal empirical data indicated that, as a result of formal education, the children with Down syndrome exhibited greater improvement on all PA measures compared with the controls who had not yet entered school. The results reach significance for rhyme awareness. With respect to dimensionality, the performance of the children with Down syndrome loaded on 1 factor, whereas the performance of the younger TD controls was multidimensional. In sum, these findings underline the need for studies that compare interventions designed especially to stimulate development of PA in this group of children and to provide insight into the underlying causes of the developmental profile of children with Down syndrome.

  17. Study of bi-dimensional materials using a semi-empirical potential including a torsional term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halac, E. B.; Reinoso, M.; Burgos, E.

    2017-10-01

    The static and dynamical properties of graphene, silicene and their fully hydrogenated compounds were studied using a semi-empirical potential of the form proposed by Tersoff with the addition of a torsion-like term. The importance of the torsion term for bi-dimensional silicon compounds is analyzed. Calculated structures are in reasonable agreement with experiments or first principle calculations predicting a flat structure for graphene and a buckled one for silicene, silicane and graphane.

  18. Inter-firm Networks, Organizational Learning and Knowledge Updating: An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Su-rong; Wang, Wen-ping

    In the era of knowledge-based economy which information technology develops rapidly, the rate of knowledge updating has become a critical factor for enterprises to gaining competitive advantage .We build an interactional theoretical model among inter-firm networks, organizational learning and knowledge updating thereby and demonstrate it with empirical study at last. The result shows that inter-firm networks and organizational learning is the source of knowledge updating.

  19. Effects of the performance management information system in improving performance: an empirical study in Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yinghui; Wu, Zhengyi; Lu, Yao; Jin, Wenzhong; Dai, Xing; Bai, Jinxi

    2016-01-01

    Improving the performance of clinical departments is not only the significant content of the healthcare system reform in China, but also the essential approach to better satisfying the Chinese growing demand for medical services. Performance management is vital and meaningful to public hospitals in China. Several studies are conducted in hospital internal performance management, but almost none of them consider the effects of informational tools. Therefore, we carried out an empirical study on effects of using performance management information system in Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital. The main feature of the system is that it provides a real-time query platform for users to analyze and dynamically monitor the key performance indexes, timely detect problems and make adjustments. We collected pivotal medical data on 35 clinical departments of this hospital from January 2013 until December 2014, 1 year before and after applying the performance management information system. Comparative analysis was conducted by statistical methods. The results show that the system is beneficial to improve performance scores of clinical departments and lower the proportion of drug expenses, meanwhile, shorten the average hospitalized days and increase the bed turnover rate. That is to say, with the increasing medical services, the quality and efficiency is greatly improved. In a word, application of the performance management information system has a positive effect on improving performance of clinical departments.

  20. Empirically Derived Subtypes of Lifetime Anxiety Disorders: Developmental and Clinical Correlates in U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Georgiades, Katholiki; Lamers, Femke; Swanson, Sonja A.; Cui, Lihong; He, Jian-Ping; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the sex- and age-specific structure and comorbidity of lifetime anxiety disorders among U.S. adolescents. Method: The sample consisted of 2,539 adolescents (1,505 females and 1,034 males) from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement who met criteria for "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  1. Empirically Derived Subtypes of Lifetime Anxiety Disorders: Developmental and Clinical Correlates in U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Georgiades, Katholiki; Lamers, Femke; Swanson, Sonja A.; Cui, Lihong; He, Jian-Ping; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the sex- and age-specific structure and comorbidity of lifetime anxiety disorders among U.S. adolescents. Method: The sample consisted of 2,539 adolescents (1,505 females and 1,034 males) from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement who met criteria for "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  2. Prevalence of Clinically and Empirically Defined Talents and Strengths in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilleur, Andrée-Anne S.; Jelenic, Patricia; Mottron, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Outstanding skills, including special isolated skills (SIS) and perceptual peaks (PP) are frequent features of autism. However, their reported prevalence varies between studies and their co-occurrence is unknown. We determined the prevalence of SIS in a large group of 254 autistic individuals and searched for PP in 46 of these autistic individuals…

  3. Prevalence of Clinically and Empirically Defined Talents and Strengths in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilleur, Andrée-Anne S.; Jelenic, Patricia; Mottron, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Outstanding skills, including special isolated skills (SIS) and perceptual peaks (PP) are frequent features of autism. However, their reported prevalence varies between studies and their co-occurrence is unknown. We determined the prevalence of SIS in a large group of 254 autistic individuals and searched for PP in 46 of these autistic individuals…

  4. Empirical studies on environmental education in Germany: Contributions by the institute for science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, Rachael; Gresele, Christiane; Bögeholz, Susanne; Martens, Thomas; Mayer, Jürgen; Rode, Horst; Rost, Jürgen

    1998-06-01

    The Institute for Science Education (IPN) in Kiel, Germany, has a long tradition in environmental education research, material and instruction development, and teacher education. This paper presents its research program on “Factors of Environmental Activity” consisting, at present, of three empirical research studies. These projects share a common theoretical model, the Integrated Action Model, describing the environmental action generating process. Study 1 evaluates the validity of this model; Study 2 applies it to evaluate the effects of school environmental instruction; Study 3 applies it to evaluate the effects of nature experience. As this research pertains to Germany, a description of the school system and institutionalisation of environmental instruction is included.

  5. Clinical Predictors and Accuracy of Empiric Tuberculosis Treatment among Sputum Smear-Negative HIV-Infected Adult TB Suspects in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nakiyingi, Lydia; Bwanika, John Mark; Kirenga, Bruce; Nakanjako, Damalie; Katabira, Catherine; Lubega, Gloria; Sempa, Joseph; Nyesiga, Barnabas; Albert, Heidi; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The existing diagnostic algorithms for sputum smear-negative tuberculosis (TB) are complicated, time-consuming, and often difficult to implement. The decision to initiate TB treatment in resource-limited countries is often largely based on clinical predictors. We sought to determine the clinical predictors and accuracy of empiric TB treatment initiation in HIV-infected sputum smear-negative TB suspects using sputum culture as a reference standard. Setting Out-patient HIV-TB integrated urban clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Methods HIV-infected TB suspects were screened using sputum smear microscopy, and mycobacterial sputum liquid and solid cultures were performed. Smear results were made available to the clinician who made a clinical decision on empiric TB treatment initiation for sputum smear-negative patients. Clinic records were reviewed for patients whose sputum smears were negative to collect data on socio-demographics, TB symptomatology, chest X-ray findings, CD4 cell counts and TB treatment initiation. Results Of 253 smear-negative TB suspects, 56% (142/253) were females, median age 38 IQR (31–44) years, with a median CD4 cell count of 291 IQR (150–482) cells/mm3. Of the 85 (33.6%) smear-negative patients empirically initiated on TB treatment, 35.3% (n = 30) were sputum culture positive compared to only 18 (10.7%) of the 168 untreated patients (p<0.001). Abnormal chest X-ray [aOR 10.18, 95% CI (3.14–33.00), p<0.001] and advanced HIV clinical stage [aOR 3.92, 95% CI (1.20–12.85), p = 0.024] were significantly associated with empiric TB treatment initiation. The sensitivity and specificity of empiric TB treatment initiation in the diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected patients after negative smear microscopy was 62.5% and 73.7% respectively. Conclusion In resource-limited settings, clinically advanced HIV and abnormal chest X-ray significantly predict a clinical decision to empirically initiate TB treatment in smear-negative HIV

  6. Mental Health Nursing of Adults With Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Illness: A Review of Empirical Studies 1994-2013.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Trine Lise; Sageng, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Mental health nursing for adults with intellectual disabilities and mental illness is underresearched. The aim of this review is to summarize empirical mental health nursing studies including adults with intellectual disabilities and additional mental illness. Out of 137 hits, 16 articles were reviewed in full text. Thirteen of the articles presented modified nursing interventions. Three articles discussed training and education. The main finding is that mental health nursing interventions in patients with intellectual disabilities and additional mental illness are in line with mental health nursing for the general population. There are still not many publications on empirical studies concerning mental health nursing for adults with intellectual disabilities. Clinical implications are primarily related to the need for facilitated nurse-patient communication adjusted to the patients' cognitive levels. Insights drawn from this review illuminate the importance of mental health nursing interventions adjusting to the particular patients' symptoms, instead of targeting behavior change. The findings underpin factors found to have a positive impact on patients with mental illness in the general population as relevant topics for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Transporting an empirically supported treatment for panic disorder to a service clinic setting: a benchmarking strategy.

    PubMed

    Wade, W A; Treat, T A; Stuart, G L

    1998-04-01

    This work examines the transportability of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder to a community mental health center (CMHC) setting by comparing CMHC treatment outcome data with the results obtained in two controlled efficacy trials. Participants were 110 clients with a primary diagnosis of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia; clients were not excluded on the basis of medication use or changes, severity or frequency of panic attacks, age, or the presence of agoraphobia. Clients completed a 15-session CBT protocol. Despite differences in settings, clients, and treatment providers, the treatment outcomes for clients completing treatment in the CMHC and the efficacy studies were comparable: Of the CMHC clients who completed treatment, 87% were panic-free at the end of treatment, and clients showed significant reductions in anticipatory anxiety, agoraphobic avoidance, generalized anxiety, and symptoms of depression. The present study suggests that panic control treatment can be transported to a CMHC. Challenges facing the transportability of research-based treatment to CMHC clients, settings, and treatment providers are discussed.

  8. Hyperventilation in Panic Disorder and Asthma: Empirical Evidence and Clinical Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Meuret, Alicia E.; Ritz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Sustained or spontaneous hyperventilation has been associated with a variety of physical symptoms and has been linked to a number of organic illnesses and mental disorders. Theories of panic disorder hold that hyperventilation either produces feared symptoms of hypocapnia or protects against feared suffocation symptoms of hypercapnia. Although the evidence for both theories is inconclusive, findings from observational, experimental, and therapeutic studies suggest an important role of low carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in this disorder. Similarly, hypocapnia and associated hyperpnia are linked to bronchoconstriction, symptom exacerbation, and lower quality of life in patients with asthma. Raising CO2 levels by means of therapeutic capnometry has proven beneficial effects in both disorders, and the reversing of hyperventilation has emerged as a potent mediator for reductions in panic symptom severity and treatment success. PMID:20685222

  9. Evaluating Process Quality Based on Change Request Data - An Empirical Study of the Eclipse Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schackmann, Holger; Schaefer, Henning; Lichter, Horst

    The information routinely collected in change request management systems contains valuable information for monitoring of the process quality. However this data is currently utilized in a very limited way. This paper presents an empirical study of the process quality in the product portfolio of the Eclipse project. It is based on a systematic approach for the evaluation of process quality characteristics using change request data. Results of the study offer insights into the development process of Eclipse. Moreover the study allows assessing applicability and limitations of the proposed approach for the evaluation of process quality.

  10. Scaling up explanation generation: Large-scale knowledge bases and empirical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.C.; Porter, B.W.

    1996-12-31

    To explain complex phenomena, an explanation system must be able to select information from a formal representation of domain knowledge, organize the selected information into multisentential discourse plans, and realize the discourse plans in text. Although recent years have witnessed significant progress in the development of sophisticated computational mechanisms for explanation, empirical results have been limited. This paper reports on a seven year effort to empirically study explanation generation from semantically rich, large-scale knowledge bases. We first describe Knight, a robust explanation system that constructs multi-sentential and multi-paragraph explanations from the Biology Knowledge Base, a large-scale knowledge base in the domain of botanical anatomy, physiology, and development. We then introduce the Two Panel evaluation methodology and describe how Knight`s performance was assessed with this methodology in the most extensive empirical evaluation conducted on an explanation system. In this evaluation, Knight scored within {open_quotes}half a grade{close_quote} of domain experts, and its performance exceeded that of one of the domain experts.

  11. Empirical Bayes scan statistics for detecting clusters of disease risk variants in genetic studies.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Kenneth J; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments of high-throughput genomic technologies offer an unprecedented detailed view of the genetic variation in various human populations, and promise to lead to significant progress in understanding the genetic basis of complex diseases. Despite this tremendous advance in data generation, it remains very challenging to analyze and interpret these data due to their sparse and high-dimensional nature. Here, we propose novel applications and new developments of empirical Bayes scan statistics to identify genomic regions significantly enriched with disease risk variants. We show that the proposed empirical Bayes methodology can be substantially more powerful than existing scan statistics methods especially so in the presence of many non-disease risk variants, and in situations when there is a mixture of risk and protective variants. Furthermore, the empirical Bayes approach has greater flexibility to accommodate covariates such as functional prediction scores and additional biomarkers. As proof-of-concept we apply the proposed methods to a whole-exome sequencing study for autism spectrum disorders and identify several promising candidate genes.

  12. Solvent empirical scales and their importance for the study of intermolecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babusca, Daniela; Benchea, Andreea Celia; Morosanu, Ana Cezarina; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2017-01-01

    The solvent empirical scales were developed in order to classify the solvents regarding their influence on the absorption or fluorescence spectra of different spectrally active molecules. The intermolecular interactions in binary solutions of three molecule having an intramolecular charge transfer visible absorption band are studied in this paper: 5-[2-(1,2,2,4-tetramethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-6-yl)-vinyl]-thiophene-2-carbaldehyde (QTC), 1-cyano-2-{5-[2-(1,2,2,4-tetramethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-6-yl)-vinyl]-thiophen-2-yl}-vinyl)-phosphonic acid diethyl ester (QTCP) and p-phenyl pyridazinium-p-nitro-phenacylid (PPNP). The solvent empirical scales with a single parameter (Z scale of Kosower, ET (30) or ETN scale of Reichardt and Dimroth) can be used to describe the strength of intermolecular interactions. The contributions of each type of interactions to the total spectral shift are evaluated using the solvent multiple parameters empirical scales defined by Kamlet and Taft and by Catalan et al.

  13. Fosfomycin tromethamine in uncomplicated urinary tract infections: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, Giovanni; Mattina, Roberto; Lanzafame, Antonina; Cammarata, Esmeralda; Tempera, Gianna

    2005-05-01

    The aim of our study was to verify if the empiric therapy with a single dose of 3 g fosfomycin tromethamine in patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) was able to clinically resolveand to microbiologically eradicate the infection. A total of 387 out of the 400 patients (274 cases with acute and 113 cases with recurrent uncomplicated UTIs) were enrolled in the clinical study. Clinical and microbiological assessments were performed before and at 8-10 days after the administration. At follow-up high clinical recovery (88.9%) and bacteriological (94.9%) eradication rates were achieved. Gastrointestinal side effects were found in only 4.3% of patients. In conclusion, a single-dose administration regimen of fosfomycin tromethamine should be encouraged as a first choice of drug therapy for uncomplicated UTIs.

  14. Effects of Mindfulness on Psychological Health: A Review of Empirical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Smoski, Moria J.; Robins, Clive J.

    2013-01-01

    Within the past few decades, there has been a surge of interest in the investigation of mindfulness as a psychological construct and as a form of clinical intervention. This article reviews the empirical literature on the effects of mindfulness on psychological health. We begin with a discussion of the construct of mindfulness, differences between Buddhist and Western psychological conceptualizations of mindfulness, and how mindfulness has been integrated into Western medicine and psychology, before reviewing three areas of empirical research: cross-sectional, correlational research on the associations between mindfulness and various indicators of psychological health; intervention research on the effects of mindfulness-oriented interventions on psychological health; and laboratory-based, experimental research on the immediate effects of mindfulness inductions on emotional and behavioral functioning. We conclude that mindfulness brings about various positive psychological effects, including increased subjective well-being, reduced psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and improved behavioral regulation. The review ends with a discussion on mechanisms of change of mindfulness interventions and suggested directions for future research. PMID:21802619

  15. Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: a review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Smoski, Moria J; Robins, Clive J

    2011-08-01

    Within the past few decades, there has been a surge of interest in the investigation of mindfulness as a psychological construct and as a form of clinical intervention. This article reviews the empirical literature on the effects of mindfulness on psychological health. We begin with a discussion of the construct of mindfulness, differences between Buddhist and Western psychological conceptualizations of mindfulness, and how mindfulness has been integrated into Western medicine and psychology, before reviewing three areas of empirical research: cross-sectional, correlational research on the associations between mindfulness and various indicators of psychological health; intervention research on the effects of mindfulness-oriented interventions on psychological health; and laboratory-based, experimental research on the immediate effects of mindfulness inductions on emotional and behavioral functioning. We conclude that mindfulness brings about various positive psychological effects, including increased subjective well-being, reduced psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and improved behavioral regulation. The review ends with a discussion on mechanisms of change of mindfulness interventions and suggested directions for future research.

  16. Evidence for the Effectiveness of Jungian Psychotherapy: A Review of Empirical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Roesler, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s several research projects and empirical studies (process and outcome) on Jungian Psychotherapy have been conducted mainly in Germany and Switzerland. Prospective, naturalistic outcome studies and retrospective studies using standardized instruments and health insurance data as well as several qualitative studies of aspects of the psychotherapeutic process will be summarized. The studies are diligently designed and the results are well applicable to the conditions of outpatient practice. All the studies show significant improvements not only on the level of symptoms and interpersonal problems, but also on the level of personality structure and in every day life conduct. These improvements remain stable after completion of therapy over a period of up to six years. Several studies show further improvements after the end of therapy, an effect which psychoanalysis has always claimed. Health insurance data show that, after Jungian therapy, patients reduce health care utilization to a level even below the average of the total population. Results of several studies show that Jungian treatment moves patients from a level of severe symptoms to a level where one can speak of psychological health. These significant changes are reached by Jungian therapy with an average of 90 sessions, which makes Jungian psychotherapy an effective and cost-effective method. Process studies support Jungian theories on psychodynamics and elements of change in the therapeutic process. So finally, Jungian psychotherapy has reached the point where it can be called an empirically proven, effective method. PMID:25379256

  17. Empirical Research and Geography Teaching. Nederlandse Geografische Studies 142 (Netherlands Geographical Studies 142).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrettenbrunner, H., Ed.; Westrhenen, J. van, Ed.

    This volume contains 10 articles that concern research efforts undertaken in the field of geography education and training. Written by researchers from around the world, the articles include: (1) "Empirical Didactics of Geography: History of a Working Group" (H. Schrettenbrunner); (2) "The Development and Evaluation of a Geography Computer…

  18. Two-sample density-based empirical likelihood tests for incomplete data in application to a pneumonia study.

    PubMed

    Vexler, Albert; Yu, Jihnhee

    2011-07-01

    In clinical trials examining the incidence of pneumonia it is a common practice to measure infection via both invasive and non-invasive procedures. In the context of a recently completed randomized trial comparing two treatments the invasive procedure was only utilized in certain scenarios due to the added risk involved, and given that the level of the non-invasive procedure surpassed a given threshold. Hence, what was observed was bivariate data with a pattern of missingness in the invasive variable dependent upon the value of the observed non-invasive observation within a given pair. In order to compare two treatments with bivariate observed data exhibiting this pattern of missingness we developed a semi-parametric methodology utilizing the density-based empirical likelihood approach in order to provide a non-parametric approximation to Neyman-Pearson-type test statistics. This novel empirical likelihood approach has both a parametric and non-parametric components. The non-parametric component utilizes the observations for the non-missing cases, while the parametric component is utilized to tackle the case where observations are missing with respect to the invasive variable. The method is illustrated through its application to the actual data obtained in the pneumonia study and is shown to be an efficient and practical method. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. How fast is fisheries-induced evolution? Quantitative analysis of modelling and empirical studies

    PubMed Central

    Audzijonyte, Asta; Kuparinen, Anna; Fulton, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    A number of theoretical models, experimental studies and time-series studies of wild fish have explored the presence and magnitude of fisheries-induced evolution (FIE). While most studies agree that FIE is likely to be happening in many fished stocks, there are disagreements about its rates and implications for stock viability. To address these disagreements in a quantitative manner, we conducted a meta-analysis of FIE rates reported in theoretical and empirical studies. We discovered that rates of phenotypic change observed in wild fish are about four times higher than the evolutionary rates reported in modelling studies, but correlation between the rate of change and instantaneous fishing mortality (F) was very similar in the two types of studies. Mixed-model analyses showed that in the modelling studies traits associated with reproductive investment and growth evolved slower than rates related to maturation. In empirical observations age-at-maturation was changing faster than other life-history traits. We also found that, despite different assumption and modelling approaches, rates of evolution for a given F value reported in 10 of 13 modelling studies were not significantly different. PMID:23789026

  20. Integrating technology readiness into the expectation-confirmation model: an empirical study of mobile services.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Chih; Liu, Ming-Ling; Lin, Chieh-Peng

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to integrate technology readiness into the expectation-confirmation model (ECM) for explaining individuals' continuance of mobile data service usage. After reviewing the ECM and technology readiness, an integrated model was demonstrated via empirical data. Compared with the original ECM, the findings of this study show that the integrated model may offer an ameliorated way to clarify what factors and how they influence the continuous intention toward mobile services. Finally, the major findings are summarized, and future research directions are suggested.

  1. Intimate Partner Violence Among Help-Seeking Deaf Women: An Empirical Study.

    PubMed

    Ballan, Michelle S; Freyer, Molly Burke; Powledge, Lauren; Marti, C Nathan

    2016-08-30

    Deaf women face heightened rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) compared with hearing women, yet limited research has focused on IPV among this population. Empirical studies are warranted to examine the unique experiences and resource needs of Deaf women, along with barriers excluding Deaf participants from IPV research and service provision. Our study addresses these gaps by providing a profile of 80 Deaf women attending an IPV program serving individuals with disabilities. Demographic and psychosocial characteristics, referral channels that led women to the program, and services sought post-referral are discussed to help guide best practices with Deaf survivors of IPV.

  2. Is it lonely at the top? An empirical study of managers' and nonmanagers' loneliness in organizations.

    PubMed

    Wright, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Loneliness is often assumed to be an occupational hazard for senior-ranked members of an organization. However, most of what researchers hear about being "lonely at the top" is anecdote. This article provides empirical evidence from three separate studies assessing loneliness in managers and nonmanagers. Across all three studies, loneliness did not differ by managerial status. Managers were no more or less lonely than their nonmanager counterparts. This suggests that factors beyond seniority may be contributing to loneliness in organizational settings. Ideas for future research are discussed.

  3. An Empirical Study of Plan-Based Representations of Pascal and Fortran Code.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    COMPUTING LABORATORY lReport No. CCL-0687-0 00 IAN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF PLAN-BASED REPRESENTATIONS OF PASCAL AND FORTRAN CODE Scott P. Robertson Chiung-Chen Yu...82173 ’, " Office of Naval Research Contract No. N00014-86-K-0876 Work Unit No. NR 4424203-01 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...researchers have argued recenitly that programmers utilize a plan-based representation when composing or comprehending program code. In a series of studies we

  4. Numerical modeling study into the climatic impact of deforestation associated with the fall of Mayan Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongoli, C.; Nair, U. S.; Welch, R. M.; Sever, T. L.; Irwin, D.; Pielke, R. A.

    2002-05-01

    The collapse the Mayan Empire, which flourished from 250 to 900 AD in the Southern Mexico and Central American regions, is one of the greatest demographic disasters in the human history. Early studies of Mayan civilization found cessation in dating and inscription of monuments in the ninth century. Later studies suggest a two-thirds decline in Mayan population numbering millions between 830 and 900 AD. The reason for this population decline and the subsequent collapse of Mayan Empire in ninth century is not known. The mass exodus of population has been ruled out since the population in the surrounding regions remained stable during this time period. Other suggested reasons for this population decline include conflict, disease, warfare, climate change. However, studies of historical pollen data indicate increased rates of deforestation starting in the fifth century with most of the trees in the region being cut down by the ninth century. Lake core sediments document a major drought around 800 AD that was one of the most intense drought in an 8000 year history. A recent study on climatic reconstruction from pollen records also indicate that climate became drier following the collapse of the Mayan Empire, and suggest that this may be due to the cutting down of trees. In the present study, the effect of forest clearing on the regional climate in the Mayan region is examined using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CSU RAMS). The RAMS is being used to simulate the rainfall over the Mayan region for conditions where the surface is assumed to be completely forested and deforested. Simulations are being done for two months, both in the wet and dry season. Comparison of RAMS simulated rainfall between the completely forested and deforested scenarios are expected to provide bounds on regional climate change brought about by deforestation. Further details will be presented at the conference.

  5. Linking customisation of ERP systems to support effort: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Stefan; Mitteregger, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The amount of customisation to an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system has always been a major concern in the context of the implementation. This article focuses on the phase of maintenance and presents an empirical study about the relationship between the amount of customising and the resulting support effort. We establish a structural equation modelling model that explains support effort using customisation effort, organisational characteristics and scope of implementation. The findings using data from an ERP provider show that there is a statistically significant effect: with an increasing amount of customisation, the quantity of telephone calls to support increases, as well as the duration of each call.

  6. Does Branding Need Web Usability? A Value-Oriented Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolchini, Davide; Garzotto, Franca; Sorce, Fabio

    Does usability of a web-based communication artifact affect brand, i.e., the set of beliefs, emotions, attitudes, or qualities that people mentally associate to the entity behind that artifact? Intuitively, the answer is “yes”: usability is a fundamental aspect of the quality of the experience with a website, and a “good” experience with a “product” or its reifications tends to translate into “good” brand perception. To date, however, the existence of a connection between web usability and brand perception is shown through anecdotic arguments, and is not supported by published systematic research. This paper discusses a study that empirically investigates this correlation in a more rigorous, analytical, and replicable way. Our main contribution is twofold: on the one hand, we provide empirical evidence to the heuristic principle that web usability influences branding, and we do that through four between subjects controlled experiments that involved 120 subjects. On the other hand, we inform the study with a systematic value-oriented approach to the user experience, and thus provide a conceptual framework that can be reused in other experimental settings, either for replicating our study, or for designing similar studies focusing on the correlation of web branding vs. design factors other than usability.

  7. Ethical implications of regenerative medicine in orthopedics: an empirical study with surgeons and scientists in the field.

    PubMed

    Niemansburg, Sophie L; van Delden, Johannes J M; Oner, F Cumhur; Dhert, Wouter J A; Bredenoord, Annelien L

    2014-06-01

    Regenerative medicine (RM) interventions, such as (stem) cell transplantation, scaffolds, gene transfer, and tissue engineering, are likely to change the field of orthopedics considerably. These strategies will significantly differ from treatments in current orthopedic practice, as they treat the underlying cause of disease and intervene at a biological level, preferably in an earlier stage. Whereas most of the RM interventions for orthopedics are still in the preclinical phase of research, the number of clinical studies is expected to increase rapidly in the future. The debate about the challenging scientific and ethical issues of translating these innovative interventions into (early) clinical studies is developing. However, no empirical studies that have systematically described the attitudes, opinions, and experiences of experts in the field of orthopedic RM concerning these challenges exist. The aim of this study was to identify ethical issues that experts in the area of RM for musculoskeletal disorders consider to be relevant to address so as to properly translate RM interventions into (early) clinical studies. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 36 experts in the field, mainly spine surgeons and musculoskeletal scientists from The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. A topic list of open questions, based on existing literature and pilot interviews, was used to guide the interviews. Data analysis was based on the constant comparative method, which means going back and forth from the data to develop codes, concepts, and themes. Four ethical themes emerged from the interview data. First, the risks to study participants. Second, the appropriate selection of study participants. Third, setting relevant goal(s) for measuring outcome, varying from regenerating tissue to improving well-being of patients. Finally, the need for evidence-based medicine and scientific integrity, which is considered challenging in orthopedics. The overall attitude toward

  8. Hebephilia as mental disorder? A historical, cross-cultural, sociological, cross-species, non-clinical empirical, and evolutionary review.

    PubMed

    Rind, Bruce; Yuill, Richard

    2012-08-01

    Blanchard et al. (2009) demonstrated that hebephilia is a genuine sexual preference, but then proposed, without argument or evidence, that it should be designated as a mental disorder in the DSM-5. A series of Letters-to-the-Editor criticized this proposal as a non sequitur. Blanchard (2009), in rebuttal, reaffirmed his position, but without adequately addressing some central criticisms. In this article, we examine hebephilia-as-disorder in full detail. Unlike Blanchard et al., we discuss definitions of mental disorder, examine extensive evidence from a broad range of sources, and consider alternative (i.e., non-pathological) explanations for hebephilia. We employed Wakefield's (1992b) harmful dysfunction approach to disorder, which holds that a condition only counts as a disorder when it is a failure of a naturally selected mechanism to function as designed, which is harmful to the individual in the current environment. We also considered a harmful-for-others approach to disorder (Brülde, 2007). Examination of historical, cross-cultural, sociological, cross-species, non-clinical empirical, and evolutionary evidence and perspectives indicated that hebephilic interest is an evolved capacity and hebephilic preference an expectable distributional variant, both of which were adaptively neutral or functional, not dysfunctional, in earlier human environments. Hebephilia's conflict with modern society makes it an evolutionary mismatch, not a genuine disorder. Though it should not be classified as a disorder, it could be entered in the DSM's V-code [corrected] section, used for non-disordered conditions that create significant problems in present-day society.

  9. Semi-empirical procedures for correcting detector size effect on clinical MV x-ray beam profiles.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Narayan; Kazi, Abdul M; Hoffman, Mark

    2008-11-01

    The measured radiation beam profiles need to be corrected for the detector size effect to derive the real profiles. This paper describes two new semi-empirical procedures to determine the real profiles of high-energy x-ray beams by removing the detector size effect from the measured profiles. Measured profiles are corrected by shifting the position of each measurement point by a specific amount determined from available theoretical and experimental knowledge in the literature. The authors developed two procedures to determine the amount of shift. In the first procedure, which employs the published analytical deconvolution procedure of other investigators, the shift is determined from the comparison of the analytical fit of the measured profile and the corresponding analytical real profile derived from the deconvolution of the fitted measured profile and the Gaussian detector response function. In the second procedure, the amount of shift at any measurement point is considered to be proportional to the value of an analytical function related to the second derivative of the real profile at that point. The constant of proportionality and a parameter in the function are obtained from the values of the shifts at the 90%, 80%, 20%, and 10% dose levels, which are experimentally known from the published results of other investigators to be approximately equal to half of the radius of the detector. These procedures were tested by correcting the profiles of 6 and 18 MV x-ray beams measured by three different ionization chambers and a stereotactic field diode detector with 2.75, 2, 1, and 0.3 mm radii of their respective active cylindrical volumes. The corrected profiles measured by different detectors are found to be in close agreement. The detector size corrected penumbra widths also agree with the expected values based on the results of an earlier investigation. Thus, the authors concluded that the proposed procedures are accurate and can be used to derive the real

  10. Impact of Company Size on Manufacturing Improvement Practices: An empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syan, C. S.; Ramoutar, K.

    2014-07-01

    There is a constant search for ways to achieve a competitive advantage through new manufacturing techniques. Best performing manufacturing companies tend to use world-class manufacturing (WCM) practices. Although the last few years have witnessed phenomenal growth in the use of WCM techniques, their effectiveness is not well understood specifically in the context of less developed countries. This paper presents an empirical study to investigate the impact of company size on improving manufacturing performance in manufacturing organizations based in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). Empirical data were collected via a questionnaire survey which was send to 218 manufacturing firms in T&T. Five different company sizes and seven different industry sectors were studied. The analysis of survey data was performed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The study signified facilitating and impeding factors towards improving manufacturing performance. Their relative impact/importance is dependent on varying company size and industry sectors. Findings indicate that T&T manufacturers are still practicing traditional approaches, when compared with world class manufacturers. In the majority of organizations, these practices were not 100% implemented even though they started the implementation process more than 5 years ago. The findings provided some insights in formulating more optimal operational strategies, and later develop action plans towards more effective implementation of WCM in T&T manufacturers.

  11. Nutritional clinical studies in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Liakou, Aikaterini I; Theodorakis, Michael J; Melnik, Bodo C; Pappas, Apostolos; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-10-01

    Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, beauty, integrity and aging through multiple pathways and cofactors implicated in skin biology. The onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, especially acne, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and hair loss, have been suggested to be critically affected by nutrition patterns and habits. The relationship between acne and diet, predominantly the role of high glycemic load diets and dairy consumption have recently gained increased interest. Abnormal nutritional conditions such as obesity or malnutrition often manifest themselves by specific cutaneous features and altered skin function. Skin photoprotection, rendered by various nutrients, is well documented and appropriate nutritional supplementation has been shown to exert beneficial effects upon impaired skin integrity, restore its appearance and promote skin health. It is our intention to provide a comprehensive review of the most recent information on the role of nutrition for common skin diseases and regulation of skin biology. Nutritional clinical studies in dermatology have been reviewed using the MedLine literature source and the terms "diet" or "nutrition" and "skin". The data on the relationship between nutrition and skin are until now controversial and much more work is needed to be done to clarify possible etiological correlations.

  12. Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Empirical Study of the Current Management Practices in the Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-21

    Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Empirical Study of the Current Management Practices in the Army 21 September...Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Empirical Study of the Current Management Practices in the Army 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Service Supply Chain , Services Acquisition, Service Lifecycle, Contract Management, Project Management, Program Management = = ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ

  13. Clinical placement and case study methodology: a complex affair.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Frank; Wiechula, Rick

    2012-11-01

    Clinical placement is a valuable component of nursing education, helping students to authenticate, integrate and develop a range of nursing skills and knowledge. The diversity of nursing curricula throughout the world and the many models of clinical placement make this a difficult subject to research using typical qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. The potential for case study methodology to address the complexity of learning in the clinical environment is significant. This paper argues that Complexity Theory provides an interpretive paradigm that articulates well with case study methodology. This paper also provides an example of the development of a theoretical proposition based on pattern matching. Pattern matching is an approach to data analysis that encourages a consideration of predicted patterns with those that are empirically based. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Power of the Instructor in the Solo Experience: An Empirical Study and Some Non-Empirical Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobilya, Andrew J.; McAvoy, Leo H.; Kalisch, Kenneth R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate participants' perceptions of an organized solo within a wilderness experience program and the influence that the instructors have on their perception of the solo. More specifically, this research project focused on the role of the instructor in the solo as perceived by the participants while still on…

  15. Driving clinical study efficiency by using a productivity breakdown model: comparative evaluation of a global clinical study and a similar Japanese study.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Sengoku, S; Kimura, H

    2011-02-01

    A fundamental management imperative of pharmaceutical companies is to contain surging costs of developing and launching drugs globally. Clinical studies are a research and development (R&D) cost driver. The objective of this study was to develop a productivity breakdown model, or a key performance indicator (KPI) tree, for an entire clinical study and to use it to compare a global clinical study with a similar Japanese study. We, thereby, hope to identify means of improving study productivity. We developed the new clinical study productivity breakdown model, covering operational aspects and cost factors. Elements for improving clinical study productivity were assessed from a management viewpoint by comparing empirical tracking data from a global clinical study with a Japanese study with similar protocols. The following unique and material differences, beyond simple international difference in cost of living, that could affect the efficiency of future clinical trials were identified: (i) more frequent site visits in the Japanese study, (ii) head counts at the Japanese study sites more than double those of the global study and (iii) a shorter enrollment time window of about a third that of the global study at the Japanese study sites. We identified major differences in the performance of the two studies. These findings demonstrate the potential of the KPI tree for improving clinical study productivity. Trade-offs, such as those between reduction in head count at study sites and expansion of the enrollment time window, must be considered carefully. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. [Clinical studies in developing countries].

    PubMed

    van den Munkhof, Hanna E

    2013-01-01

    In general, clinical trials in developing countries are met with resistance because the people are particularly vulnerable and medical assistance is often unaffordable. The prospect of free medication can then lead to exploitation since the local population can be persuaded to participate in trials that would never be allowed in Western countries due to ethical concerns. Placebo-controlled research that tests cheaper alternatives for treatments already registered could greatly improve the situation in developing countries, however. Expensive registered treatments are often unavailable in these countries. Therefore, I call for allowing such studies when the registered treatment is locally unavailable. This should be based on the four most important principles of medical ethics: the duty to help patients, avoid harm, justice and respect for autonomy. On the condition, however, that the population in developing countries benefits in the long term.

  17. Empirical studies on usability of mHealth apps: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Belén Cruz; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Idri, Ali; Toval, Ambrosio

    2015-02-01

    The release of smartphones and tablets, which offer more advanced communication and computing capabilities, has led to the strong emergence of mHealth on the market. mHealth systems are being used to improve patients' lives and their health, in addition to facilitating communication between doctors and patients. Researchers are now proposing mHealth applications for many health conditions such as dementia, autism, dysarthria, Parkinson's disease, and so on. Usability becomes a key factor in the adoption of these applications, which are often used by people who have problems when using mobile devices and who have a limited experience of technology. The aim of this paper is to investigate the empirical usability evaluation processes described in a total of 22 selected studies related to mHealth applications by means of a Systematic Literature Review. Our results show that the empirical evaluation methods employed as regards usability could be improved by the adoption of automated mechanisms. The evaluation processes should also be revised to combine more than one method. This paper will help researchers and developers to create more usable applications. Our study demonstrates the importance of adapting health applications to users' need.

  18. Evaluation research in occupational health services: general principles and a systematic review of empirical studies

    PubMed Central

    Hulshof, C. T.; Verbeek, J. H.; van Dijk, F. J.; van der Weide, W. E.; Braam, I. T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the nature and extent of evaluation research in occupational health services (OHSs). METHODS: Literature review of evaluation research in OHSs. On the basis of a conceptual model of OHS evaluation, empirical studies are categorised into aspects of input, process, output, outcome, and OHS core activities. RESULTS: Many methods to evaluate OHSs or OHS activities exist, depending on the objective and object of evaluation. The amount of empirical studies on evaluation of OHSs or OHS activities that met the non-restrictive inclusion criteria, was remarkably limited. Most of the 52 studies were more descriptive than evaluative. The methodological quality of most studies was not high. A differentiated picture of the evidence of effectiveness of OHSs arises. Occupational health consultations and occupational rehabilitation are hardly studied despite much time spent on the consultation by occupational physicians in most countries. The lack of effectiveness and efficiency of the pre-employment examination should lead to its abandonment as a means of selection of personnel by OHSs. Periodic health monitoring or surveillance, and education on occupational health hazards can be carried out with reasonable process quality. Identification and evaluation of occupational health hazards by a workplace survey can be done with a high output quality, which, however, does not guarantee a favourable outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Although rigorous study designs are not always applicable or feasible in daily practice, much more effort should be directed at the scientific evaluation of OHSs and OHS instruments. To develop evidence-based occupational health care the quality of evaluation studies should be improved. In particular, process and outcome of consultation and rehabilitation activities of occupational physicians need to be studied more.   PMID:10474531

  19. Antecedents of positive self-disclosure online: an empirical study of US college students’ Facebook usage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the factors predicting positive self-disclosure on social networking sites (SNSs). There is a formidable body of empirical research relating to online self-disclosure, but very few studies have assessed the antecedents of positive self-disclosure. To address this literature gap, the current study tests the effects of self-esteem, life satisfaction, social anxiety, privacy concerns, public self-consciousness (SC), and perceived collectivism on positive self-disclosure on SNSs. Data were collected online via Qualtrics in April 2013. Respondents were undergraduate students from the University of Connecticut. Using ordinary least squares regression, the current study found that self-esteem and perceived collectivism increased positive self-disclosure, life satisfaction, and privacy concerns decreased positive self-disclosure, and the effects of social anxiety and public SC were not significant. PMID:28579840

  20. Antecedents of positive self-disclosure online: an empirical study of US college students' Facebook usage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the factors predicting positive self-disclosure on social networking sites (SNSs). There is a formidable body of empirical research relating to online self-disclosure, but very few studies have assessed the antecedents of positive self-disclosure. To address this literature gap, the current study tests the effects of self-esteem, life satisfaction, social anxiety, privacy concerns, public self-consciousness (SC), and perceived collectivism on positive self-disclosure on SNSs. Data were collected online via Qualtrics in April 2013. Respondents were undergraduate students from the University of Connecticut. Using ordinary least squares regression, the current study found that self-esteem and perceived collectivism increased positive self-disclosure, life satisfaction, and privacy concerns decreased positive self-disclosure, and the effects of social anxiety and public SC were not significant.

  1. Empirical Correlates of Low Scores on MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scales in a Sample of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Tellegen, Auke; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors explored the meaning of low scores on the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical (RC) scales. Using responses of a sample of university students (N = 811), the authors examined whether low (T less than 39), within-normal-limits (T = 39-64), and high (T greater than 65) score levels on the RC scales are…

  2. Now or Later?: An Empirical Investigation of When and Why Students Apply to Clinical Psychology PhD Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimak, Eric H.; Edwards, Katie M.; Johnson, Shannon M.; Suhr, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study used a national sample of PhD students in clinical psychology (N = 1,034) to explore when students decided to pursue their graduate degree, reasons for their decisions, and associated satisfaction. Results indicated that immediately after completing their undergraduate degree, 57% of current graduate students reported postponing…

  3. Empirical Correlates of Low Scores on MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scales in a Sample of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Tellegen, Auke; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors explored the meaning of low scores on the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical (RC) scales. Using responses of a sample of university students (N = 811), the authors examined whether low (T less than 39), within-normal-limits (T = 39-64), and high (T greater than 65) score levels on the RC scales are…

  4. Now or Later?: An Empirical Investigation of When and Why Students Apply to Clinical Psychology PhD Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimak, Eric H.; Edwards, Katie M.; Johnson, Shannon M.; Suhr, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study used a national sample of PhD students in clinical psychology (N = 1,034) to explore when students decided to pursue their graduate degree, reasons for their decisions, and associated satisfaction. Results indicated that immediately after completing their undergraduate degree, 57% of current graduate students reported postponing…

  5. Decomposition approach of the nitrogen generation process: empirical study on the Shimabara Peninsula in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Nakagawa, Kei; Kagabu, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater nitrate pollution is one of the most prevalent water-related environmental problems worldwide. The objective of this study is to identify the determinants of nitrogen pollutant changes with a focus on the nitrogen generation process. The novelty of our research framework is to cost-effectively identify the factors involved in nitrogen pollutant generation using public data. This study focuses on three determinant factors: (1) nitrogen intensity changes, (2) structural changes, and (3) scale changes. This study empirically analyses three sectors, including crop production, farm animals, and the household, on the Shimabara Peninsula in Japan. Our results show that the nitrogen supply from crop production sectors has decreased because the production has been scaled down and shifted towards lower nitrogen intensive crops. In the farm animal sector, the nitrogen supply has also been successfully reduced due to scaling-down efforts. Households have decreased the nitrogen supply by diffusion of integrated septic tank and sewerage systems.

  6. Reliable Crack Detection in Turbine Blades Using Thermosonics: AN Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolu, G.; Gachagan, A.; Pierce, G.; Harvey, G.

    2010-02-01

    Excitation generated by ultrasonic horns typically used in thermosonics (or Sonic IR) is non-reproducible, raising concerns that cracks in some locations can be missed. This paper presents an empirical study on the thermosonic inspection of turbine blades. The objective is to assess the reliability of thermosonics as an NDT screening method for findings crack in turbine blades. First, a study was carried out to establish the operating parameters that generated the highest possible temperature rise from a crack. Next, a repeatability study was conducted to measure consistency of results in 300 tests, which showed 100% repeatability. Finally, 60 cracked blades were inspected, with the known cracks in 57 blades detected. These results show the potential of thermosonics as a reliable NDT screening method for finding cracks in turbine blades.

  7. Controlled clinical studies of homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Mathie, Robert T

    2015-10-01

    Observations about controlled clinical trials expressed by Max Haidvogl in the book Ultra High Dilution (1994) have been appraised from a perspective two decades later. The present commentary briefly examines changes in homeopathy research evidence since 1994 as regards: the published number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), the use of individualised homeopathic intervention, the 'proven efficacy of homeopathy', and the quality of the evidence. The commentary reflects the details of RCTs that are available in a recently published literature review and by scrutiny of systematic reviews of RCTs in homeopathy. The homeopathy RCT literature grew by 309 records in the 18 years that immediately followed Haidvogl's article, with more than a doubling of the proportion that investigated individualised homeopathy. Discounting one prior publication, the entire systematic review literature on homeopathy RCTs post-dates 1994. A total of 36 condition-specific systematic reviews have been identified in the peer-reviewed literature: 16 of them reported positive, or tentatively positive, conclusions about homeopathy's clinical effectiveness; the other 20 were negative or non-conclusive. Reviews typically have been restricted in the strength of their conclusions by the low quality of the original RCT evidence. Three comprehensive systematic reviews concluded, cautiously, that homeopathy may differ from placebo; a fourth such review reached negative conclusions. A recent high-quality meta-analysis concluded that medicines prescribed in individualised homeopathic treatment may have small, specific, effects. Despite important growth in research activity since 1994, concerns about study quality limit the interpretation of available RCT data. The question whether homeopathic intervention differs from placebo awaits decisive answer. Copyright © 2015 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Simulation during observation of human actions--theories, empirical studies, applications.

    PubMed

    Zentgraf, Karen; Munzert, Jörn; Bischoff, Matthias; Newman-Norlund, Roger D

    2011-04-22

    Historically, data from brain imaging and brain stimulation studies have supported the idea that the processing of observed actions recruits - among other areas - a distinct sub-set of brain sites in the sensory and motor cortices. These empirical findings have initially been linked with the thesis of direct matching as a mechanism of action understanding, i.e., the idea of motor resonance implemented by mirror neurons. In more recent approaches, it has been proposed that the mirror neuron system plays a role in minimizing prediction error when inferring the most likely cause of an observed action. According to these theories, motor resonance is thought to function as predictive coding. Other theoretical accounts suggest that action understanding might result from a hypothesis testing mechanism in which potential goals are continually fed into the system until the correct one is identified. In this review, we will explore the relationship of these theories to specific empirical findings. Finally, we will discuss the implications of these theoretical structures on action observation-based approaches to the optimization of skilled performance in athletes and patients.

  9. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Public Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information Center Health ... Systematic Evidence Reviews & Clinical Practice Guidelines Resources Continuing Education Researchers Funding Training & Career Development Division of Intramural ...

  10. Clinical study of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, S; Aher, K; Jaiswal, M

    1992-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy remains a leading cause of maternal mortality and accounts for a sizeable proportion of infertility and ectopic recurrence. The possibility that a woman is experiencing an ectopic pregnancy must be considered when evaluating a woman, especially a sterilized woman, who has a possible pregnancy, amenorrhea, abdominal pain, or abnormal bleeding; studies have found that one in six pregnancies occurring after tubal sterilization are ectopic. The authors present a clinical study of 82 cases of ectopic pregnancy admitted to the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram. Cases of ectopic pregnancy represent 0.99% of total obstetric admissions, of whom 69.51% were diagnosed as such on admission. 40.24% of the women were older than 30 years, while 34.14% were elderly beyond third parity. 70.73% of the women presented before missing their second period. Patients presented with multiple complaints, but the most common was abdominal pain reported by 61.70%. 78.04% were admitted with an acute abdomen, but shock was present in only 7.14% of cases. The main surgical treatment modality was salpingectomy among 59.75%. There was no maternal mortality through postoperative morbidity in the form of paralytic ileus, although fever did occur in some women.

  11. An Empirical Study of Synchrophasor Communication Delay in a Utility TCP/IP Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kun; Chenine, Moustafa; Nordström, Lars; Holmström, Sture; Ericsson, Göran

    2013-07-01

    Although there is a plethora of literature dealing with Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) communication delay, there has not been any effort made to generalize empirical delay results by identifying the distribution with the best fit. The existing studies typically assume a distribution or simply build on analogies to communication network routing delay. Specifically, this study provides insight into the characterization of the communication delay of both unprocessed PMU data and synchrophasors sorted by a Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC). The results suggest that a bi-modal distribution containing two normal distributions offers the best fit of the delay of the unprocessed data, whereas the delay profile of the sorted synchrophasors resembles a normal distribution based on these results, the possibility of evaluating the reliability of a synchrophasor application with respect to a particular choice of PDC timeout is discussed.

  12. A Comparative Study of the Empirical Relationship in Student Performance between Physics and Other STEM Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Maricela

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) advocated by the National Research Council emphasize the connections among Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. By design, NGSS is expected to replace the previous science education standards to enhance the quality of STEM education across the nation. To support this initiative, this investigation was conducted to fill a void in the research literature by developing an empirical indicator for the relationship of student performance across STEM subjects using a large-scale database from the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). In particular, an innovative approach has been taken in this study to support the canonical correlation analysis of student plausible scores between physics and other STEM subjects at different grade levels and in a cross-country context. Results from this doctoral research revealed the need to strengthen the alignment between the intended, implemented, and attained curricula to support the integration of STEM disciplines in the United States.

  13. The relationship between corporate environmental performance and environmental disclosure: an empirical study in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, X H; Zeng, S X; Shi, Jonathan J; Qi, G Y; Zhang, Z B

    2014-12-01

    Based on a content analysis of 533 Chinese listed companies, this study examines how corporate environmental performance affects not only the level of detail of a company's environmental disclosures, but also what information is disclosed. The results show that (1) both poor and good performers have more disclosure than the median (i.e., "mixed") performers, which provides empirical evidence to support a nonlinear relationship between corporate environmental performance and environmental disclosure; (2) poor performers disclose more soft information on environmental performance than good performers, and good performers disclose more solid information; and (3) although poor performers increase disclosure after being exposed as environmental violators, they avoid disclosing negative environmental information, such as the violation and the associated penalties. This study provides additional evidence for a nonlinear relationship between environmental performance and disclosure in emerging markets, and suggests environmental disclosure may not be a valid signal to differentiate good performers from poor performers in contemporary China.

  14. The development of an empirical model for regional public health reporting. A descriptive study in two Dutch pilot regions.

    PubMed

    Van Bon-Martens, M J H; Van De Goor, L A M; Achterberg, P W; Van Oers, J A M

    2011-08-01

    To develop and describe an empirical model for regional public health reporting, based on the model and experience of the Dutch national Public Health Status and Forecasts (PHSF) as well as on relevant theories and literature. Three basic requirements were chosen in a preparatory feasibility study: the products to be developed, the project organization of the pilot study, and a regional elaboration of the conceptual model of the national PHSF. Subsequently, from November 2005 to June 2007, a regional PHSF was developed in two Dutch pilot regions, to serve as a base for the empirical model for regional public health reporting. The developed empirical regional PHSF model consists of different products for different purposes and target groups. Regional and Municipal Reports aim to underpin strategic regional and local public health policy. Websites contain up-to-date information, aiming to underpin tactical regional and local public health policy by providing building blocks for translating strategic policy priorities into concrete plans of action. Numerous stakeholders are involved in the development of a regional PHSF. The developed empirical process model for a regional PHSF connects to the theoretical framework in which interaction between researchers and policymakers is an important condition for the use of research data in public health policy. The empirical model for a regional PHSF can be characterized by its 1) products, 2) content and design, and 3) underlying process and organization. This empirical model can be seen as a first step in the direction of a generic model for regional public health reporting.

  15. Anterior temporal face patches: a meta-analysis and empirical study.

    PubMed

    Von Der Heide, Rebecca J; Skipper, Laura M; Olson, Ingrid R

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) plays an important role in person identification and memory. In humans, neuroimaging studies of person memory report consistent activations in the ATL to famous and personally familiar faces and studies of patients report resection or damage of the ATL causes an associative prosopagnosia in which face perception is intact but face memory is compromised. In addition, high-resolution fMRI studies of non-human primates and electrophysiological studies of humans also suggest regions of the ventral ATL are sensitive to novel faces. The current study extends previous findings by investigating whether similar subregions in the dorsal, ventral, lateral, or polar aspects of the ATL are sensitive to personally familiar, famous, and novel faces. We present the results of two studies of person memory: a meta-analysis of existing fMRI studies and an empirical fMRI study using optimized imaging parameters. Both studies showed left-lateralized ATL activations to familiar individuals while novel faces activated the right ATL. Activations to famous faces were quite ventral, similar to what has been reported in previous high-resolution fMRI studies of non-human primates. These findings suggest that face memory-sensitive patches in the human ATL are in the ventral/polar ATL.

  16. Anterior temporal face patches: a meta-analysis and empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Von Der Heide, Rebecca J.; Skipper, Laura M.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) plays an important role in person identification and memory. In humans, neuroimaging studies of person memory report consistent activations in the ATL to famous and personally familiar faces and studies of patients report resection or damage of the ATL causes an associative prosopagnosia in which face perception is intact but face memory is compromised. In addition, high-resolution fMRI studies of non-human primates and electrophysiological studies of humans also suggest regions of the ventral ATL are sensitive to novel faces. The current study extends previous findings by investigating whether similar subregions in the dorsal, ventral, lateral, or polar aspects of the ATL are sensitive to personally familiar, famous, and novel faces. We present the results of two studies of person memory: a meta-analysis of existing fMRI studies and an empirical fMRI study using optimized imaging parameters. Both studies showed left-lateralized ATL activations to familiar individuals while novel faces activated the right ATL. Activations to famous faces were quite ventral, similar to what has been reported in previous high-resolution fMRI studies of non-human primates. These findings suggest that face memory-sensitive patches in the human ATL are in the ventral/polar ATL. PMID:23378834

  17. Incorporating Functional Genomic Information in Genetic Association Studies Using an Empirical Bayes Approach

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Amy V.; Cox, Angela; Lin, Wei‐Yu; Easton, Douglas F.; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is a large amount of functional genetic data available, which can be used to inform fine‐mapping association studies (in diseases with well‐characterised disease pathways). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) prioritization via Bayes factors is attractive because prior information can inform the effect size or the prior probability of causal association. This approach requires the specification of the effect size. If the information needed to estimate a priori the probability density for the effect sizes for causal SNPs in a genomic region isn't consistent or isn't available, then specifying a prior variance for the effect sizes is challenging. We propose both an empirical method to estimate this prior variance, and a coherent approach to using SNP‐level functional data, to inform the prior probability of causal association. Through simulation we show that when ranking SNPs by our empirical Bayes factor in a fine‐mapping study, the causal SNP rank is generally as high or higher than the rank using Bayes factors with other plausible values of the prior variance. Importantly, we also show that assigning SNP‐specific prior probabilities of association based on expert prior functional knowledge of the disease mechanism can lead to improved causal SNPs ranks compared to ranking with identical prior probabilities of association. We demonstrate the use of our methods by applying the methods to the fine mapping of the CASP8 region of chromosome 2 using genotype data from the Collaborative Oncological Gene‐Environment Study (COGS) Consortium. The data we analysed included approximately 46,000 breast cancer case and 43,000 healthy control samples. PMID:26833494

  18. Combining several ordinal measures in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Wittkowski, Knut M; Lee, Edmund; Nussbaum, Rachel; Chamian, Francesca N; Krueger, James G

    2004-05-30

    In medical research, it is rare that a single variable is sufficient to represent all relevant aspects of epidemiological risk, genomic activity, adverse events, or clinical response. Since biological systems tend to be neither linear, nor hierarchical in nature, the assumptions of traditional multivariate statistical methods based on the linear model can often not be justified on theoretical grounds. Establishing concept validity through empirical validation is not only problematic, but also time consuming. This paper proposes the use of u-statistics for scoring multivariate ordinal data and a family of simple non-parametric tests for analysis. The scoring method is demonstrated to be applicable to scoring clinical response profiles in the treatment of psoriasis and then to identifying genomic pathways that best correlate with these profiles.

  19. Ab initio based empirical potential used to study the mechanical properties of molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyoungki; Fellinger, Michael R.; Lenosky, Thomas J.; Tipton, William W.; Trinkle, Dallas R.; Rudin, Sven P.; Woodward, Christopher; Wilkins, John W.; Hennig, Richard G.

    2012-06-01

    Density-functional theory energies, forces, and elastic constants determine the parametrization of an empirical, modified embedded-atom method potential for molybdenum. The accuracy and transferability of the potential are verified by comparison to experimental and density-functional data for point defects, phonons, thermal expansion, surface and stacking fault energies, and ideal shear strength. Searching the energy landscape predicted by the potential using a genetic algorithm verifies that it reproduces not only the correct bcc ground state of molybdenum but also all low-energy metastable phases. The potential is also applicable to the study of plastic deformation and used to compute energies, core structures, and Peierls stresses of screw and edge dislocations.

  20. The Population Ecology of Technology: An Empirical Study of US Biotechnology Patents from 1976 to 2003

    PubMed Central

    van den Oord, Ad; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2017-01-01

    A detailed understanding of technological change as an evolutionary process is currently not well understood. To increase our understanding, we build upon theory from organizational ecology to develop a model of endogenous technological growth and determine to what extent the pattern of technological growth can be attributed to the structural or systemic characteristics of the technology itself. Through an empirical investigation of patent data in the biotechnology industry from 1976 to 2003, we find that a technology’s internal (i.e., density and diversity) ecological characteristics have a positive effect on its growth rate. The niche’s external characteristics of crowding and status have a negative effect on its growth rate. Hence, applying theory from organizational ecology increases our understanding of technological change as an evolutionary process. We discuss the implications of our findings for the study of technological growth and evolution, and suggest avenues for further research. PMID:28081570

  1. The Population Ecology of Technology: An Empirical Study of US Biotechnology Patents from 1976 to 2003.

    PubMed

    van den Oord, Ad; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2017-01-01

    A detailed understanding of technological change as an evolutionary process is currently not well understood. To increase our understanding, we build upon theory from organizational ecology to develop a model of endogenous technological growth and determine to what extent the pattern of technological growth can be attributed to the structural or systemic characteristics of the technology itself. Through an empirical investigation of patent data in the biotechnology industry from 1976 to 2003, we find that a technology's internal (i.e., density and diversity) ecological characteristics have a positive effect on its growth rate. The niche's external characteristics of crowding and status have a negative effect on its growth rate. Hence, applying theory from organizational ecology increases our understanding of technological change as an evolutionary process. We discuss the implications of our findings for the study of technological growth and evolution, and suggest avenues for further research.

  2. Personal influences on professional work: an empirical case study of B.F. Skinner.

    PubMed

    Demorest, A P; Siegel, P F

    1996-03-01

    This study addresses the hypothesis that individuals have characteristic ways of looking at the world that are revealed not only in their life story but also in their professional work. It seeks to provide the first empirical test of this hypothesis using systematic methods for data selection, interpretation, and matching, as applied to the case of B. F. Skinner. Using the salience identifier "primacy" (Alexander, 1990), Skinner's first research design and the first paragraph of his autobiography were selected for analysis. Adopting a personological approach to interpretation, "scripts" (Tomkins, 1987) were derived from these materials by blind and independent coders. A matching task (Allport, 1961) then indicated that the scripts derived from Skinner's work and life were substantially similar and significantly more similar than random pairs of scripts . A search through other autobiographical and professional writings by Skinner revealed that the elements of the discovered script appear recurrently in his imagery.

  3. [Determinants of equity in financing medicines in Argentina: an empirical study].

    PubMed

    Dondo, Mariana; Monsalvo, Mauricio; Garibaldi, Lucas A

    2016-01-01

    Medicines are an important part of household health spending. A progressive system for financing drugs is thus essential for an equitable health system. Some authors have proposed that the determinants of equity in drug financing are socioeconomic, demographic, and associated with public interventions, but little progress has been made in the empirical evaluation and quantification of their relative importance. The current study estimated quantile regressions at the provincial level in Argentina and found that old age (> 65 years), unemployment, the existence of a public pharmaceutical laboratory, treatment transfers, and a health system orientated to primary care were important predictors of progressive payment schemes. Low income, weak institutions, and insufficient infrastructure and services were associated with the most regressive social responses to health needs, thereby aggravating living conditions and limiting development opportunities.

  4. The Association between Peace and Life Expectancy: An Empirical Study of the World Countries

    PubMed Central

    YAZDI FEYZABADI, Vahid; HAGHDOOST, Aliakbar; MEHROLHASSANI, Mohammad Hossein; AMINIAN, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although theoretically peace affects health, few published evidence for such an association was empirically available. This study aimed to explore the association between peace and life expectancy (LE) among the world countries. Methods: In an ecological study and using random effects regression model, we examined the association between peace and LE among world countries between 2007 and 2012. The LE at birth and global peace index (GPI: a score between 1 and 5, higher score means lower peace) were selected as outcome and main predictor variables, respectively. We adjusted their association for the gross national income (GNI) per capita and education index (EI). Data were obtained from the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Numbers of included countries were 158 based on the available data. Results: GPI had a negative, considerable, and statistically significant effect on LE (standardized coefficient −0.039; 95% CI: −0.058, −0.019). This association was also significant even after the adjustment for EI (−0.019; 95% CI: −0.035, −0.003), GNI (−0.035; 95% CI: −0.055, −0.015), and both EI and GNI (−0.017; 95% CI: −0.033, −0.001). The full model showed that around 0.61 of the variation of LE among countries may be explained by the GPI, EI and GNI per capita. Conclusion: The contribution of peace as a global determinant of LE was empirically considerable even after the adjustment for the economic and education levels of countries. This implies that governments should make efforts to settle peace through implementing good governance based on interactions with both public and other countries. PMID:25905077

  5. Dopamine and gamma band synchrony in schizophrenia--insights from computational and empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Kömek, Kübra; Bard Ermentrout, G; Walker, Christopher P; Cho, Raymond Y

    2012-07-01

    Dopamine modulates cortical circuit activity in part through its actions on GABAergic interneurons, including increasing the excitability of fast-spiking interneurons. Though such effects have been demonstrated in single cells, there are no studies that examine how such mechanisms may lead to the effects of dopamine at a neural network level. With this motivation, we investigated the effects of dopamine on synchronization in a simulated neural network composed of excitatory and fast-spiking inhibitory Wang-Buzsaki neurons. The effects of dopamine were implemented through varying leak K+ conductance of the fast-spiking interneurons and the network synchronization within the gamma band (∼40 Hz) was analyzed. Parametrically varying the leak K+ conductance revealed an inverted-U shaped relationship, with low gamma band power at both low and high conductance levels and optimal synchronization at intermediate conductance levels. We also examined the effects of modulating excitability of the inhibitory neurons more generically using an idealized model with theta neurons, with similar findings. Moreover, such a relationship holds when the external input is both tonic and periodic. Our computational results mirror our empirical study of dopamine modulation in schizophrenia and healthy controls, which showed that amphetamine administration increased gamma power in patients but decreased it in controls. Together, our computational and empirical investigations indicate that dopamine can modulate cortical gamma band synchrony in an inverted-U fashion and that the physiologic effects of dopamine on single fast-spiking interneurons can give rise to such non-monotonic effects at the network level. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. The Association between Peace and Life Expectancy: An Empirical Study of the World Countries.

    PubMed

    Yazdi Feyzabadi, Vahid; Haghdoost, Aliakbar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossein; Aminian, Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Although theoretically peace affects health, few published evidence for such an association was empirically available. This study aimed to explore the association between peace and life expectancy (LE) among the world countries. In an ecological study and using random effects regression model, we examined the association between peace and LE among world countries between 2007 and 2012. The LE at birth and global peace index (GPI: a score between 1 and 5, higher score means lower peace) were selected as outcome and main predictor variables, respectively. We adjusted their association for the gross national income (GNI) per capita and education index (EI). Data were obtained from the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Numbers of included countries were 158 based on the available data. GPI had a negative, considerable, and statistically significant effect on LE (standardized coefficient -0.039; 95% CI: -0.058, -0.019). This association was also significant even after the adjustment for EI (-0.019; 95% CI: -0.035, -0.003), GNI (-0.035; 95% CI: -0.055, -0.015), and both EI and GNI (-0.017; 95% CI: -0.033, -0.001). The full model showed that around 0.61 of the variation of LE among countries may be explained by the GPI, EI and GNI per capita. The contribution of peace as a global determinant of LE was empirically considerable even after the adjustment for the economic and education levels of countries. This implies that governments should make efforts to settle peace through implementing good governance based on interactions with both public and other countries.

  7. Structural Patterns in Empirical Research Articles: A Cross-Disciplinary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ling; Evans, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the major generic structures of empirical research articles (RAs), with a particular focus on disciplinary variation and the relationship between the adjacent sections in the introductory and concluding parts. The findings were derived from a close "manual" analysis of 433 recent empirical RAs from high-impact…

  8. Structural Patterns in Empirical Research Articles: A Cross-Disciplinary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ling; Evans, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the major generic structures of empirical research articles (RAs), with a particular focus on disciplinary variation and the relationship between the adjacent sections in the introductory and concluding parts. The findings were derived from a close "manual" analysis of 433 recent empirical RAs from high-impact…

  9. Empirically Derived Combinations of Tools and Clinical Cutoffs: An Illustrative Case with a Sample of Culturally/Linguistically Diverse Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetting, Janna B.; Cleveland, Lesli H.; Cope, Robert F., III

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Using a sample of culturally/linguistically diverse children, we present data to illustrate the value of empirically derived combinations of tools and cutoffs for determining eligibility in child language impairment. Method: Data were from 95 4- and 6-year-olds (40 African American, 55 White; 18 with language impairment, 77 without) who…

  10. Pedagogical strategies used in clinical medical education: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Maria Skyvell; Pennbrant, Sandra; Pilhammar, Ewa; Wenestam, Claes-Göran

    2010-01-28

    Clinical teaching is a complex learning situation influenced by the learning content, the setting and the participants' actions and interactions. Few empirical studies have been conducted in order to explore how clinical supervision is carried out in authentic situations. In this study we explore how clinical teaching is carried out in a clinical environment with medical students. Following an ethnographic approach looking for meaning patterns, similarities and differences in how clinical teachers manage clinical teaching; non-participant observations and informal interviews were conducted during a four month period 2004-2005. The setting was at a teaching hospital in Sweden. The participants were clinical teachers and their 4th year medical students taking a course in surgery. The observations were guided by the aim of the study. Observational notes and notes from informal interviews were transcribed after each observation and all data material was analysed qualitatively. Seven pedagogical strategies were found to be applied, namely: 1) Questions and answers, 2) Lecturing, 3) Piloting, 4) Prompting, 5) Supplementing, 6) Demonstrating, and 7) Intervening. This study contributes to previous research in describing a repertoire of pedagogical strategies used in clinical education. The findings showed that three superordinate qualitatively different ways of teaching could be identified that fit Ramsden's model. Each of these pedagogical strategies encompass different focus in teaching; either a focus on the teacher's knowledge and behaviour or the student's behaviour and understanding. We suggest that an increased awareness of the strategies in use will increase clinical teachers' teaching skills and the consequences they will have on the students' ability to learn. The pedagogical strategies need to be considered and scrutinized in further research in order to verify their impact on students' learning.

  11. Pedagogical strategies used in clinical medical education: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical teaching is a complex learning situation influenced by the learning content, the setting and the participants' actions and interactions. Few empirical studies have been conducted in order to explore how clinical supervision is carried out in authentic situations. In this study we explore how clinical teaching is carried out in a clinical environment with medical students. Methods Following an ethnographic approach looking for meaning patterns, similarities and differences in how clinical teachers manage clinical teaching; non-participant observations and informal interviews were conducted during a four month period 2004-2005. The setting was at a teaching hospital in Sweden. The participants were clinical teachers and their 4th year medical students taking a course in surgery. The observations were guided by the aim of the study. Observational notes and notes from informal interviews were transcribed after each observation and all data material was analysed qualitatively. Results Seven pedagogical strategies were found to be applied, namely: 1) Questions and answers, 2) Lecturing, 3) Piloting, 4) Prompting, 5) Supplementing, 6) Demonstrating, and 7) Intervening. Conclusions This study contributes to previous research in describing a repertoire of pedagogical strategies used in clinical education. The findings showed that three superordinate qualitatively different ways of teaching could be identified that fit Ramsden's model. Each of these pedagogical strategies encompass different focus in teaching; either a focus on the teacher's knowledge and behaviour or the student's behaviour and understanding. We suggest that an increased awareness of the strategies in use will increase clinical teachers' teaching skills and the consequences they will have on the students' ability to learn. The pedagogical strategies need to be considered and scrutinized in further research in order to verify their impact on students' learning. PMID:20105340

  12. Lessons Learned on Benchmarking from the International Human Reliability Analysis Empirical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; John A. Forester; Andreas Bye; Vinh N. Dang; Erasmia Lois

    2010-06-01

    The International Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Empirical Study is a comparative benchmark of the prediction of HRA methods to the performance of nuclear power plant crews in a control room simulator. There are a number of unique aspects to the present study that distinguish it from previous HRA benchmarks, most notably the emphasis on a method-to-data comparison instead of a method-to-method comparison. This paper reviews seven lessons learned about HRA benchmarking from conducting the study: (1) the dual purposes of the study afforded by joining another HRA study; (2) the importance of comparing not only quantitative but also qualitative aspects of HRA; (3) consideration of both negative and positive drivers on crew performance; (4) a relatively large sample size of crews; (5) the use of multiple methods and scenarios to provide a well-rounded view of HRA performance; (6) the importance of clearly defined human failure events; and (7) the use of a common comparison language to “translate” the results of different HRA methods. These seven lessons learned highlight how the present study can serve as a useful template for future benchmarking studies.

  13. Lessons with Living Harvest Mice: An Empirical Study of Their Effects on Intrinsic Motivation and Knowledge Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Matthias; Hubmann, Jona Samuel; Lorenzen, Simone; Meyer, Annika; Randler, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of living animals on pupils' intrinsic motivation and knowledge. Various studies from the late 1970s and 1980s stress the high effectiveness of authentic learning experiences in pupils' knowledge acquisition. However, there are only few current empirical studies on this topic. The research question…

  14. A Family-Centered Positive Behavior Support Approach to the Amelioration of Food Refusal Behavior: An Empirical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binnendyk, Lauren; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a family-centered positive behavior support approach to the amelioration of food refusal behavior in a child with autism. The study was conducted with the child and his family in their home. It employed an empirical case study design with one meal routine: snack time. Following…

  15. Lessons with Living Harvest Mice: An Empirical Study of Their Effects on Intrinsic Motivation and Knowledge Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Matthias; Hubmann, Jona Samuel; Lorenzen, Simone; Meyer, Annika; Randler, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of living animals on pupils' intrinsic motivation and knowledge. Various studies from the late 1970s and 1980s stress the high effectiveness of authentic learning experiences in pupils' knowledge acquisition. However, there are only few current empirical studies on this topic. The research question…

  16. A Family-Centered Positive Behavior Support Approach to the Amelioration of Food Refusal Behavior: An Empirical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binnendyk, Lauren; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a family-centered positive behavior support approach to the amelioration of food refusal behavior in a child with autism. The study was conducted with the child and his family in their home. It employed an empirical case study design with one meal routine: snack time. Following…

  17. Do health technology assessments comply with QUOROM diagram guidance? An empirical study.

    PubMed

    Hind, Daniel; Booth, Andrew

    2007-11-20

    The Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses (QUOROM) statement provides guidance for improving the quality of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. To make the process of study selection transparent it recommends "a flow diagram providing information about the number of RCTs identified, included, and excluded and the reasons for excluding them". We undertook an empirical study to identify the extent of compliance in the UK Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme. We searched Medline to retrieve all systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions in the HTA monograph series published from 2001 to 2005. Two researchers recorded whether each study contained a meta-analysis of controlled trials, whether a QUOROM flow diagram was presented and, if so, whether it expressed the relationship between the number of citations and the number of studies. We used Cohen's kappa to test inter-rater reliability. 87 systematic reviews were retrieved. There was good and excellent inter-rater reliability for, respectively, whether a review contained a meta-analysis and whether each diagram contained a citation-to-study relationship. 49% of systematic reviews used a study selection flow diagram. When only systematic reviews containing a meta-analysis were analysed, compliance was only 32%. Only 20 studies (23% of all systematic reviews; 43% of those having a study selection diagram) had a diagram which expressed the relationship between citations and studies. Compliance with the recommendations of the QUOROM statement is not universal in systematic reviews or meta-analyses. Flow diagrams make the conduct of study selection transparent only if the relationship between citations and studies is clearly expressed. Reviewers should understand what they are counting: citations, papers, studies and trials are fundamentally different concepts which should not be confused in a diagram.

  18. Clarithromycin vs. Gemifloxacin in Quadruple Therapy Regimens for Empiric Primary Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Masoodi, Mohsen; Talebi-Taher, Mahshid; Tabatabaie, Khadijeh; Khaleghi, Siamak; Faghihi, Amir-Hossein; Agah, Shahram; Asadi, Reyhaneh

    2015-04-01

    BACKGROUND Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection plays a crucial role in the treatment of peptic ulcer. Clarithromycin resistance is a major cause of treatment failure. This randomized clinical trial aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a clarithromycin versus gemifloxacin containing quadruple therapy regimen in eradication of H.pylori infection. METHODS In this randomized double blind clinical trial (RCT 2012102011054N2), a total of 120 patients were randomized to two groups of 60 patients each. Patients with proven H.pylori infection were consecutively assigned into two groups to receive OBAG or OBAC in gastroenterology clinic in Rasoul-e- Akram General Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The patients in the OBAG group received omeprazole (20 mg) twice daily, bismuth subcitrate (240 mg) twice daily, amoxicillin (1 gr) twice daily, and gemifloxacin (320 mg) once daily, and those in the OBAC group received omeprazole (20 mg) twice daily, 240 mg of bismuth subcitrate twice daily, amoxicillin (1 gr) twice daily, and clarithromycin (500 mg) twice daily for 10 days. RESULTS Five patients from each group were excluded from the study because of poor compliance, so 110 patients completed the study. The intention-to-treat eradication rate was 61.6% and 66.6% for the OBAC and OBAG groups, respectively. According to the per protocol analysis, the success rates of eradication of H.pylori infection were 67.2% and 72.7% for OBAC and OBAG groups, respectively (p=0.568). CONCLUSION The results of this study suggest that gemifloxacin containing regimen is at least as effective as clarithromycin regimen; hence, this new treatment could be considered as an alternative for the patients who cannot tolerate clarithromycin.

  19. Gaps in studies of global health education: an empirical literature review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhaolan; Wang, JianLi

    2015-01-01

    Background Global health has stimulated a lot of students and has attracted the interest of many faculties, thereby initiating the establishment of many academic programs on global health research and education. global health education reflects the increasing attention toward social accountability in medical education. Objective This study aims to identify gaps in the studies on global health education. Design A critical literature review of empirical studies was conducted using Boolean search techniques. Results A total of 238 articles, including 16 reviews, were identified. There had been a boom in the numbers of studies on global health education since 2010. Four gaps were summarized. First, 94.6% of all studies on global health education were conducted in North American and European countries, of which 65.6% were carried out in the United States, followed by Canada (14.3%) and the United Kingdom (9.2%). Only seven studies (2.9%) were conducted in Asian countries, five (2.1%) in Oceania, and two (0.8%) in South American/Caribbean countries. A total of 154 studies (64.4%) were qualitative studies and 64 studies (26.8%) were quantitative studies. Second, elective courses and training or programs were the most frequently used approach for global health education. Third, there was a gap in the standardization of global health education. Finally, it was mainly targeted at medical students, residents, and doctors. It had not granted the demands for global health education of all students majoring in medicine-related studies. Conclusions Global health education would be a potentially influential tool for achieving health equity, reducing health disparities, and also for future professional careers. It is the time to build and expand education in global health, especially among developing countries. Global health education should be integrated into primary medical education. Interdisciplinary approaches and interprofessional collaboration were recommended. Collaboration

  20. Cumulative effect in information diffusion: empirical study on a microblogging network.

    PubMed

    Bao, Peng; Shen, Hua-Wei; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2013-01-01

    Cumulative effect in social contagion underlies many studies on the spread of innovation, behavior, and influence. However, few large-scale empirical studies are conducted to validate the existence of cumulative effect in information diffusion on social networks. In this paper, using the population-scale dataset from the largest Chinese microblogging website, we conduct a comprehensive study on the cumulative effect in information diffusion. We base our study on the diffusion network of message, where nodes are the involved users and links characterize forwarding relationship among them. We find that multiple exposures to the same message indeed increase the possibility of forwarding it. However, additional exposures cannot further improve the chance of forwarding when the number of exposures crosses its peak at two. This finding questions the cumulative effect hypothesis in information diffusion. Furthermore, to clarify the forwarding preference among users, we investigate both structural motif in the diffusion network and temporal pattern in information diffusion process. Findings provide some insights for understanding the variation of message popularity and explain the characteristics of diffusion network.

  1. Analogical scaffolding and the learning of abstract ideas in physics: Empirical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolefsky, Noah S.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2007-12-01

    Previously, we proposed a model of student reasoning which combines the roles of representation, analogy, and layering of meaning—analogical scaffolding [Podolefsky and Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 010109 (2007)]. The present empirical studies build on this model to examine its utility and demonstrate the vital intertwining of representation, analogy, and conceptual learning in physics. In two studies of student reasoning using analogy, we show that representations couple to students’ existing prior knowledge and also lead to the dynamic formation of new knowledge. Students presented with abstract, concrete, or blended (both abstract and concrete) representations produced markedly different response patterns. In the first study, using analogies to scaffold understanding of electromagnetic (EM) waves, students in the blend group were more likely to reason productively about EM waves than students in the abstract group by as much as a factor of 3 (73% vs 24% correct, p=0.002 ). In the second study, examining representation use within one domain (sound waves), the blend group was more likely to reason productively about sound waves than the abstract group by as much as a factor of 2 (48% vs 23% correct, p=0.002 ). Using the analogical scaffolding model we examine when and why students succeed and fail to use analogies and interpret representations appropriately.

  2. Near fault broadband ground motion simulation with empirical Green's functions: the Upper Rhine Graben case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Gaudio, Sergio; Hok, Sébastian; Causse, Mathieu; Festa, Gaetano; Lancieri, Maria

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental stage in seismic hazard assessment is the prediction of realistic ground motion for potential future earthquakes. To do so, one of the steps is to make an estimation of the expected ground motion level and this is commonly done by the use of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Nevertheless GMPEs do not represent the whole variety of source processes and this can lead to incorrect estimates for some specific case studies, such as in the near-fault range because of the lack of records of large earthquakes at short distances. In such cases, ground motion simulations can be a valid tool to complement prediction equations for scenario studies, provided that both source and propagation are accurately described and uncertainties properly addressed. Such simulations, usually referred to as "blind", require the generation of a population of ground motion records that represent the natural variability of the source process for the target earthquake scenario. In this study we performed simulations using the empirical Green's function technique, which consists in using records of small earthquakes as the medium transfer function provided the availability of small earthquakes located close to the target fault and recorded at the target site. The main advantage of this technique is that it does not require a detailed knowledge of the propagation medium, which is not always possible, but requires availability of high quality records of small earthquakes in the target area. We couple this empirical approach with a k-2 kinematic source model, which naturally let us to introduce high frequency in the source description. Here we present an application of our technique to the Upper Rhine Graben. This is an active seismic region with a moderate rate of seismicity and for which it is interesting to provide ground motion estimation in the vicinity of the faults to be compared with estimations traditionally provided by GMPEs in a seismic hazard evaluation study. We

  3. Clinical Mental Health Counselor Handbook & Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Bonnie; Lawless, Linda; Williams, Midge; Bergstrom, Deborah

    This handbook and study guide were developed as a textbook to be used as a review course for preparation for the clinical licensing examination. It presents a summary of a graduate level academic program in clinical mental health counseling. It contains 17 chapters on clinical information; 4 chapters on test taking; 2 types of sample tests; and 3…

  4. Empirical study using network of semantically related associations in bridging the knowledge gap.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Vida; Yeasin, Mohammed; Zand, Ramin

    2014-11-27

    The data overload has created a new set of challenges in finding meaningful and relevant information with minimal cognitive effort. However designing robust and scalable knowledge discovery systems remains a challenge. Recent innovations in the (biological) literature mining tools have opened new avenues to understand the confluence of various diseases, genes, risk factors as well as biological processes in bridging the gaps between the massive amounts of scientific data and harvesting useful knowledge. In this paper, we highlight some of the findings using a text analytics tool, called ARIANA--Adaptive Robust and Integrative Analysis for finding Novel Associations. Empirical study using ARIANA reveals knowledge discovery instances that illustrate the efficacy of such tool. For example, ARIANA can capture the connection between the drug hexamethonium and pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis that caused the tragic death of a healthy volunteer in a 2001 John Hopkins asthma study, even though the abstract of the study was not part of the semantic model. An integrated system, such as ARIANA, could assist the human expert in exploratory literature search by bringing forward hidden associations, promoting data reuse and knowledge discovery as well as stimulating interdisciplinary projects by connecting information across the disciplines.

  5. Application of the empirical orthogonal function to study the rainfall pattern in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adi-Kusumo, Fajar; Gunardi, Utami, Herni; Nurjani, Emilya; Sopaheluwakan, Ardhasena; Aluicius, Irwan Endrayanto; Christiawan, Titus

    2016-02-01

    We consider the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) to study the rainfall pattern in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY) Province, Indonesia. The EOF is one of the important methods to study the dominant pattern of the data using dimension reduction technique. EOF makes possible to reduce the huge dimension of observed data into a smaller one without losing its significant information in order to figures the whole data. The methods is also known as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) which is conducted to find the pattern of the data. DIY Province is one of the province in Indonesia which has special characteristics related to the rainfall pattern. This province has an active volcano, karst, highlands, and also some lower area including beach. This province is bounded by the Indonesian ocean which is one of the important factor to provide the rainfall. We use at least ten years rainfall monthly data of all stations in this area and study the rainfall characteristics based on the four regencies of the province. EOF analysis is conducted to analyze data in order to decide the station groups which have similar characters.

  6. Minimum sample sizes for population genomics: an empirical study from an Amazonian plant species.

    PubMed

    Nazareno, Alison G; Bemmels, Jordan B; Dick, Christopher W; Lohmann, Lúcia G

    2017-01-12

    High-throughput DNA sequencing facilitates the analysis of large portions of the genome in nonmodel organisms, ensuring high accuracy of population genetic parameters. However, empirical studies evaluating the appropriate sample size for these kinds of studies are still scarce. In this study, we use double-digest restriction-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) to recover thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for two physically isolated populations of Amphirrhox longifolia (Violaceae), a nonmodel plant species for which no reference genome is available. We used resampling techniques to construct simulated populations with a random subset of individuals and SNPs to determine how many individuals and biallelic markers should be sampled for accurate estimates of intra- and interpopulation genetic diversity. We identified 3646 and 4900 polymorphic SNPs for the two populations of A. longifolia, respectively. Our simulations show that, overall, a sample size greater than eight individuals has little impact on estimates of genetic diversity within A. longifolia populations, when 1000 SNPs or higher are used. Our results also show that even at a very small sample size (i.e. two individuals), accurate estimates of FST can be obtained with a large number of SNPs (≥1500). These results highlight the potential of high-throughput genomic sequencing approaches to address questions related to evolutionary biology in nonmodel organisms. Furthermore, our findings also provide insights into the optimization of sampling strategies in the era of population genomics.

  7. Examining individuals' adoption of healthcare wearable devices: An empirical study from privacy calculus perspective.

    PubMed

    Li, He; Wu, Jing; Gao, Yiwen; Shi, Yao

    2016-04-01

    Wearable technology has shown the potential of improving healthcare efficiency and reducing healthcare cost. Different from pioneering studies on healthcare wearable devices from technical perspective, this paper explores the predictors of individuals' adoption of healthcare wearable devices. Considering the importance of individuals' privacy perceptions in healthcare wearable devices adoption, this study proposes a model based on the privacy calculus theory to investigate how individuals adopt healthcare wearable devices. The proposed conceptual model was empirically tested by using data collected from a survey. The sample covers 333 actual users of healthcare wearable devices. Structural equation modeling (SEM) method was employed to estimate the significance of the path coefficients. This study reveals several main findings: (1) individuals' decisions to adopt healthcare wearable devices are determined by their risk-benefit analyses (refer to privacy calculus). In short, if an individual's perceived benefit is higher than perceived privacy risk, s/he is more likely to adopt the device. Otherwise, the device would not be adopted; (2) individuals' perceived privacy risk is formed by health information sensitivity, personal innovativeness, legislative protection, and perceived prestige; and (3) individuals' perceived benefit is determined by perceived informativeness and functional congruence. The theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and future research directions are then discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Studying Regional Wave Source Time Functions Using the Empirical Green's Function Method: Application to Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Schaff, D. P.; Chen, Y.; Schult, F.

    2013-12-01

    Reliably estimated source time functions (STFs) from high-frequency regional waveforms, such as Lg, Pn and Pg, provide important input for seismic source studies, explosion detection and discrimination, and minimization of parameter trade-off in attenuation studies. We have searched for candidate pairs of larger and small earthquakes in and around China that share the same focal mechanism but significantly differ in magnitudes, so that the empirical Green's function (EGF) method can be applied to study the STFs of the larger events. We conducted about a million deconvolutions using waveforms from 925 earthquakes, and screened the deconvolved traces to exclude those that are from event pairs that involved different mechanisms. Only 2,700 traces passed this screening and could be further analyzed using the EGF method. We have developed a series of codes for speeding up the final EGF analysis by implementing automations and user-graphic interface procedures. The codes have been fully tested with a subset of screened data and we are currently applying them to all the screened data. We will present a large number of deconvolved STFs retrieved using various phases (Lg, Pn, Sn and Pg and coda) with information on any directivities, any possible dependence of pulse durations on the wave types, on scaling relations for the pulse durations and event sizes, and on the estimated source static stress drops.

  9. Interdigitated silver-polymer-based antibacterial surface system activated by oligodynamic iontophoresis - an empirical characterization study.

    PubMed

    Shirwaiker, Rohan A; Wysk, Richard A; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Voigt, Robert C; Carrion, Hector; Nembhard, Harriet Black

    2014-02-01

    There is a pressing need to control the occurrences of nosocomial infections due to their detrimental effects on patient well-being and the rising treatment costs. To prevent the contact transmission of such infections via health-critical surfaces, a prophylactic surface system that consists of an interdigitated array of oppositely charged silver electrodes with polymer separations and utilizes oligodynamic iontophoresis has been recently developed. This paper presents a systematic study that empirically characterizes the effects of the surface system parameters on its antibacterial efficacy, and validates the system's effectiveness. In the first part of the study, a fractional factorial design of experiments (DOE) was conducted to identify the statistically significant system parameters. The data were used to develop a first-order response surface model to predict the system's antibacterial efficacy based on the input parameters. In the second part of the study, the effectiveness of the surface system was validated by evaluating it against four bacterial species responsible for several nosocomial infections - Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis - alongside non-antibacterial polymer (acrylic) control surfaces. The system demonstrated statistically significant efficacy against all four bacteria. The results indicate that given a constant total effective surface area, the system designed with micro-scale features (minimum feature width: 20 μm) and activated by 15 μA direct current will provide the most effective antibacterial prophylaxis.

  10. Reactions to receipt of a message from extraterrestrial intelligence: a cross-cultural empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, D. A.; Lee, Y.-S.

    2000-06-01

    If we ever receive a message from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI), the societal impact may be significant. To date, several authors have speculated on factors that may predict people's reactions, but there have been no systematic empirical studies on the range of responses. One obstacle to conducting such studies is that there has been no questionnaire to assess such reactions. In the current study we have designed a psychometrically sound set of scales to assess six beliefs: (1) that extraterrestrial life exists, (2) that ETI would be benevolent and that we should respond to a message, (3) that ETI would be malevolent, (4) that message receipt would be unsettling, (5) that message receipt would be religiously significant and (6) that experts should determine the content of a reply. We report on the construction and use of these new scales, drawing on data gathered from American and Chinese undergraduate students. Respondents also completed measures of alienation, optimism, anthropocentrism and religiosity. This allowed us to predict beliefs about ETI based on personal characteristics and beliefs of the respondents.

  11. Recent Empirical Studies of the Pedagogical Effects of Interactive Video Instruction in "Soft Skill" Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Michael W.; Cronin, Karen A.

    1992-01-01

    Recent empirical research has identified significant advantages for interactive video instruction over traditional teaching methods in "soft skill" (humanities and social sciences) areas, including cognitive achievement, transfer of learning to performance, learning motivation, student achievement across uncontrolled student characteristics, user…

  12. Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: An Empirical Study of Current Management Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-22

    ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= MANAGING THE SERVICES SUPPLY CHAIN IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CURRENT MANAGEMENT...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: An Empirical Study of Current Management Practices 5a. CONTRACT...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK = = ==================aÉÑÉåëÉ=^Åèìáëáíáçå=áå=qê~åëáíáçå======== - 279 - = = Managing the Services Supply Chain in the

  13. Integration of least angle regression with empirical Bayes for multi-locus genome-wide association studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multi-locus genome-wide association studies has become the state-of-the-art procedure to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with traits simultaneously. However, implementation of multi-locus model is still difficult. In this study, we integrated least angle regression with empirical B...

  14. Instructional Skills for On-the-Job Training and Experiential Learning: An Empirical Study of Japanese Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuo, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of on-the-job training (OJT), few systematic empirical studies have been conducted on how OJT trainers instruct trainees in firms. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the trainer's instructional skills for OJT using survey data collected from 715 employees covering 22 firms. Results…

  15. Learning Disabilities Empirical Research on Ethnic Minority Students: An Analysis of 22 Years of Studies Published in Selected Refereed Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study analyzed 2,378 empirical articles on ethnic minority students published in two learning disability and two special education journals over a 22-year period (1972-94). Studies focused on assessment and testing, sensory-perceptual processing, and placement issues. The majority also compared ethnic groups, used quantitative approaches, and…

  16. Learning Disabilities Empirical Research on Ethnic Minority Students: An Analysis of 22 Years of Studies Published in Selected Refereed Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study analyzed 2,378 empirical articles on ethnic minority students published in two learning disability and two special education journals over a 22-year period (1972-94). Studies focused on assessment and testing, sensory-perceptual processing, and placement issues. The majority also compared ethnic groups, used quantitative approaches, and…

  17. How Physics Teachers Approach Innovation: An Empirical Study for Reconstructing the Appropriation Path in the Case of Special Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Ambrosis, Anna; Levrini, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns an empirical study carried out with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in the Module on relativity of a Master course on the teaching of modern physics. The study is framed within the general research issue of how to promote innovation in school via teachers' education and how to foster fruitful interactions…

  18. How Physics Teachers Approach Innovation: An Empirical Study for Reconstructing the Appropriation Path in the Case of Special Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Ambrosis, Anna; Levrini, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns an empirical study carried out with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in the Module on relativity of a Master course on the teaching of modern physics. The study is framed within the general research issue of how to promote innovation in school via teachers' education and how to foster fruitful interactions…

  19. Racial Diversity, Student Religiosity, and School Choice: An Empirical Case Study of Multi-Racial Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichard, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    This article comprises an empirical case study of student religiosity in the context of urban school choice. The purpose of this study was to compare student religiosity in a racially diverse religious private school to determine whether religious faith is a unifying factor across racial categories. Insofar as school choice has been called…

  20. Instructional Skills for On-the-Job Training and Experiential Learning: An Empirical Study of Japanese Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuo, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of on-the-job training (OJT), few systematic empirical studies have been conducted on how OJT trainers instruct trainees in firms. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the trainer's instructional skills for OJT using survey data collected from 715 employees covering 22 firms. Results…

  1. Does Look-up Frequency Help Reading Comprehension of EFL Learners? Two Empirical Studies of Electronic Dictionaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Toshiko; Takeuchi, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    Two empirical studies were conducted in which the differences in Japanese EFL learners' look-up behavior between hand-held electronic dictionaries (EDs) and printed dictionaries (PDs) were investigated. We focus here on the relation between learners' look-up frequency and degree of reading comprehension of the text. In the first study, a total of…

  2. Evaluation of Empirical Data and Modeling Studies to Support Soil Vapor Intrusion Screening Criteria for Petroleum Hydrocarbon Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is an evaluation of empirical data and select modeling studies of the behavior of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) vapors in subsurface soils and how they can affect subsurface-to-indoor air vapor intrusion (VI), henceforth referred to as petroleum vapor intrusion or “PVI” ...

  3. Does Look-up Frequency Help Reading Comprehension of EFL Learners? Two Empirical Studies of Electronic Dictionaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Toshiko; Takeuchi, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    Two empirical studies were conducted in which the differences in Japanese EFL learners' look-up behavior between hand-held electronic dictionaries (EDs) and printed dictionaries (PDs) were investigated. We focus here on the relation between learners' look-up frequency and degree of reading comprehension of the text. In the first study, a total of…

  4. Racial Diversity, Student Religiosity, and School Choice: An Empirical Case Study of Multi-Racial Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichard, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    This article comprises an empirical case study of student religiosity in the context of urban school choice. The purpose of this study was to compare student religiosity in a racially diverse religious private school to determine whether religious faith is a unifying factor across racial categories. Insofar as school choice has been called…

  5. Empirical study of classification process for two-stage turbo air classifier in series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuan; Liu, Jiaxiang; Li, Gang

    2013-05-01

    The suitable process parameters for a two-stage turbo air classifier are important for obtaining the ultrafine powder that has a narrow particle-size distribution, however little has been published internationally on the classification process for the two-stage turbo air classifier in series. The influence of the process parameters of a two-stage turbo air classifier in series on classification performance is empirically studied by using aluminum oxide powders as the experimental material. The experimental results show the following: 1) When the rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier is increased from 2 300 r/min to 2 500 r/min with a constant rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier, classification precision is increased from 0.64 to 0.67. However, in this case, the final ultrafine powder yield is decreased from 79% to 74%, which means the classification precision and the final ultrafine powder yield can be regulated through adjusting the rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier. 2) When the rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier is increased from 2 500 r/min to 3 100 r/min with a constant rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier, the cut size is decreased from 13.16 μm to 8.76 μm, which means the cut size of the ultrafine powder can be regulated through adjusting the rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier. 3) When the feeding speed is increased from 35 kg/h to 50 kg/h, the "fish-hook" effect is strengthened, which makes the ultrafine powder yield decrease. 4) To weaken the "fish-hook" effect, the equalization of the two-stage wind speeds or the combination of a high first-stage wind speed with a low second-stage wind speed should be selected. This empirical study provides a criterion of process parameter configurations for a two-stage or multi-stage classifier in series, which offers a theoretical basis for practical production.

  6. Clinical decision making about child and adolescent anxiety disorders using the Achenbach system of empirically based assessment.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Anna; Youngstrom, Eric; Youngstrom, Jennifer Kogos; Ollendick, Thomas; Demeter, Christine; Findling, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common among children but can be difficult to diagnose. An actuarial approach to the diagnosis of anxiety may improve the efficiency and accuracy of the process. The objectives of this study were to determine the clinical utility of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self Report (YSR), two widely used assessment tools, for diagnosing anxiety disorders in youth and to aid clinicians in incorporating scale scores into an actuarial approach to diagnosis through a clinical vignette. Demographically diverse youth, 5 to 18 years of age, were drawn from two samples; one (N = 1,084) was recruited from a research center, and the second (N = 651) was recruited from an urban community mental health center. Consensus diagnoses integrated information from semistructured interview, family history, treatment history, and clinical judgment. The CBCL and YSR internalizing problems T scores discriminated cases with any anxiety disorder or with generalized anxiety disorder from all other diagnoses in both samples (ps < .0005); the two scales had equivalent discriminative validity (ps > .05 for tests of difference). No other scales, nor any combination of scales, significantly improved on the performance of the Internalizing scale. In the highest risk group, Internalizing scores greater than 69 (CBCL) or greater than 63 (YSR) resulted in a Diagnostic Likelihood Ratio of 1.5; low scores reduced the likelihood of anxiety disorders by a factor of 4. Combined with other risk factor information in an actuarial approach to assessment and diagnosis, the CBCL and YSR Internalizing scales provide valuable information about whether a youth is likely suffering from an anxiety disorder.

  7. Relationship between Divergent Thinking and Intelligence: An Empirical Study of the Threshold Hypothesis with Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Baoguo; Wang, Lijing; Yang, Jiahui; Zhang, Mengpin; Xu, Li

    2017-01-01

    The threshold hypothesis is a classical and notable explanation for the relationship between creativity and intelligence. However, few empirical examinations of this theory exist, and the results are inconsistent. To test this hypothesis, this study investigated the relationship between divergent thinking (DT) and intelligence with a sample of 568 Chinese children aged between 11 and 13 years old using testing and questionnaire methods. The study focused on the breakpoint of intelligence and the moderation effect of openness on the relationship between intelligence and DT. The findings were as follows: (1) a breakpoint at the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 109.20 when investigating the relationship between either DT fluency or DT flexibility and intelligence. Another breakpoint was detected at the IQ of 116.80 concerning the correlation between originality and intelligence. The breakpoint of the relation between the composite score of creativity and intelligence occurred at the IQ of 110.10. (2) Openness to experience had a moderating effect on the correlation between the indicators of creativity and intelligence under the breakpoint. Above this point, however, the effect was not significant. The results suggested a relationship between DT and intelligence among Chinese children, which conforms to the threshold hypothesis. Besides, it remains necessary to explore the personality factors accounting for individual differences in the relationship between DT and intelligence. PMID:28275361

  8. A study of the information seeking behaviour of hospital pharmacists: empirical evidence from Greece.

    PubMed

    Kostagiolas, Petros A; Aggelopoulou, Vasiliki A; Niakas, Dimitris

    2011-12-01

    Hospital pharmacists need access to high-quality information in order to constantly update their knowledge and improve their skills. In their modern role, they are expected to address three types of challenges: scientific, organizational and administrative, thus having an increased need for adequate information and library services. This study investigates the information-seeking behaviour of public hospital pharmacists providing evidence from Greece that could be used to encourage the development of effective information hospital services and study the links between the information seeking behaviour of hospital pharmacists and their modern scientific and professional role. An empirical research was conducted between January and February 2010 with the development and distribution of a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was filled in and returned by 88 public hospital pharmacists from a total of 286 working in all Greek public hospitals, providing a response rate of 31%. The hospital pharmacists in Greece are in search of scientific information and, more particularly, pharmaceutical information (e.g., drug indications, storage, dosage and prices). The Internet and the National Organization of Medicines are their main information sources, while the lack of time and organized information are the main obstacles they have to face when seeking information. The modern professional role of hospital pharmacists as invaluable contributors to efficient and safer healthcare services may be further supported through the development of specialized libraries and information services within Greek public hospitals. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  9. Significant factors of aviation insurance and risk management strategy: an empirical study of Taiwanese airline carriers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi Hsin; Chang, Yu Hern

    2008-04-01

    Aviation insurance premiums have become a heavy burden for the airline industry since September 11, 2001. Although the industry must constantly balance its operations between profitability and safety, the reality is that airlines are in the business of making money. Therefore, their ability to reduce cost and manage risk is a key factor for success. Unlike past research, which used subjective judgment methods, this study applied quantitative historical data (1999-2000) and gray relation analysis to identify the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance premiums. An empirical study of six airlines in Taiwan was conducted to determine these factors and to analyze the management strategies used to deal with them. Results showed that the loss experience and performance of individual airlines were the key elements associated with aviation insurance premiums paid by each airline. By identifying and understanding the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance, airlines will better understand their relative operational strengths and weaknesses, and further help top management identify areas for further improvement. Knowledge of these factors combined with effective risk management strategies, may result in lower premiums and operating costs for airline companies.

  10. Empirical evidence about inconsistency among studies in a pair-wise meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Kirsty M; Turner, Rebecca M; Higgins, Julian P T

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates how inconsistency (as measured by the I(2) statistic) among studies in a meta-analysis may differ, according to the type of outcome data and effect measure. We used hierarchical models to analyse data from 3873 binary, 5132 continuous and 880 mixed outcome meta-analyses within the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Predictive distributions for inconsistency expected in future meta-analyses were obtained, which can inform priors for between-study variance. Inconsistency estimates were highest on average for binary outcome meta-analyses of risk differences and continuous outcome meta-analyses. For a planned binary outcome meta-analysis in a general research setting, the predictive distribution for inconsistency among log odds ratios had median 22% and 95% CI: 12% to 39%. For a continuous outcome meta-analysis, the predictive distribution for inconsistency among standardized mean differences had median 40% and 95% CI: 15% to 73%. Levels of inconsistency were similar for binary data measured by log odds ratios and log relative risks. Fitted distributions for inconsistency expected in continuous outcome meta-analyses using mean differences were almost identical to those using standardized mean differences. The empirical evidence on inconsistency gives guidance on which outcome measures are most likely to be consistent in particular circumstances and facilitates Bayesian meta-analysis with an informative prior for heterogeneity. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Leveraging Label-Independent Features for Classification in Sparsely Labeled Networks: An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Brian; Eliassi-Rad, Tina

    We address the problem of within-network classification in sparsely labeled networks. Recent work has demonstrated success with statistical relational learning (SRL) and semi-supervised learning (SSL) on such problems. However, both approaches rely on the availability of labeled nodes to infer the values of missing labels. When few labels are available, the performance of these approaches can degrade. In addition, many such approaches are sensitive to the specific set of nodes labeled. So, although average performance may be acceptable, the performance on a specific task may not. We explore a complimentary approach to within-network classification, based on the use of label-independent (LI) features - i.e., features calculated without using the values of class labels. While previous work has made some use of LI features, the effects of these features on classification performance have not been extensively studied. Here, we present an empirical study in order to better understand these effects. Through experiments on several real-world data sets, we show that the use of LI features produces classifiers that are less sensitive to specific label assignments and can lead to performance improvements of over 40% for both SRL- and SSL-based classifiers. We also examine the relative utility of individual LI features; and show that, in many cases, it is a combination of a few diverse network-based structural characteristics that is most informative.

  12. Hardness Analysis and Empirical Studies of the Relations among Robustness, Topology and Flow in Dynamic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xing; Peng, Wei; Xu, Zhen; Yang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Network robustness is the ability of a network to maintain performance after disruption, thus it is an important index for network designers to refer to. Every actual network has its own topology structure, flow magnitude (scale) and flow distribution. How the robustness relates to these factors still remains unresolved. To analyze the relations, we first established a robustness problem model, studied the hardness of a special case of the model, and generated a lot of representative network instances. We conducted experiments on these instances, deleting 5% to 50% edges on each instance and found that the robustness of a network has an approximate linearity to its structural entropy and flow entropy, when the correlation coefficient between the structure and flow is fixed. We also found that robustness is unlikely to have a relation to the flow scale and edge scale in our model. The empirical studies thus can provide a way of quickly estimating the robustness of real-world networks by using the regression coefficients we obtained during the experiments. We conducted computation on a real-world dataset and got favorable results, which exhibited the effectiveness of the estimation. PMID:26695517

  13. Empirical Study of the Multiaxial, Thermomechanical Behavior of NiTiHf Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, Dhwanil; Noebe, Ronald D.; Stebner Aaron P.

    2013-01-01

    An empirical study was conducted to characterize the multiaxial, thermomechanical responses of new high temperature NiTiHf alloys. The experimentation included loading thin walled tube Ni(sub 50.3)Ti(sub 29.7)Hf(sub 20) alloy samples along both proportional and nonproportional axial-torsion paths at different temperatures while measuring surface strains using stereo digital image correlation. A Ni(sub 50.3)Ti(sub 33.7)Hf(sub 16) alloy was also studied in tension and compression to document the effect of slightly depleting the Hf content on the constitutive responses of NiTiHf alloys. Samples of both alloys were made from nearly texture free polycrystalline material processed by hot extrusion. Analysis of the data shows that very small changes in composition significantly alter NiTiHf alloy properties, as the austenite finish (Af) temperature of the 16-at Hf alloy was found to be approximately 60 C less than the 20-at Hf alloy (approximately 120 C vs. 180 C). In addition, the 16-at Hf alloy exhibited smaller compressive transformation strains (2 vs. 2.5 percent). Multi-axial characterization of the 20-at % Hf alloy showed that while the random polycrystal transformation strains in tension (4 percent) and compression (2.5 percent) are modest in comparison with binary NiTi (6 percent, 4 percent), the torsion performance is superior (7 vs. 4 shear strain width to the pseudoelastic plateau).

  14. Definitions of love in a sample of British women: an empirical study using Q methodology.

    PubMed

    Watts, Simon; Stenner, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Social psychological research has increasingly acknowledged that any pretensions to a singular theory of love should be replaced with a concern about its affirmation and what people actually say and do in love's name. Lee's (1977) love styles research and Sternberg's (1995) theory of love as a story are prime examples. Despite traditional definitions of love in western cultures being dominated by feminine images and tales of gender difference, however, the personal definitions and experiences of women have received comparatively little empirical attention, particularly in recent years and despite some well-documented changes in their cultural circumstances. This study remedies that situation through presentation of a Q methodological study in which a convenience sample of 59 British women were asked to Q sort 54 single-word descriptors of love to define love as they had experienced it. Factor analysis of the resulting Q sorts revealed six distinct definitions of love, interpreted as 'attraction, passion & romance', 'unconditional love', 'sex & fun', 'friendship & spirituality', 'a permanent commitment', and 'separate people, separate lives'. The six definitions are then discussed in terms of their allegiance to traditionally feminine and/or masculine values and as a means of highlighting the changing face of Britain's relational culture. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Indoor air quality study in Agency Building Two, Empire State Plaza, Albany, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The quality of the indoor environment and potential health conquences have become major concerns for occupants of office buildings. Increasing ventilation rates are often recommended as a potential solution for indoor air quality (IAQ) problems, whether real or perceived as real by occupants. To date, limited quantitative data have been collected to relate increased outdoor-air intake to commonly measured IAQ or comfort parameters. The purpose of this study, conducted by GEOMET Technologies, Inc. for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, was to quantitatively assess the effect of ventilation rate on indoor air quality and associated parameters in an occupied office building, and occupant perceptions of air quality and comfort in the building. The building studied, a 20-story office tower located at the Empire State Plaza in Albany, New York, has a total floor area of approximately 100,000 ft. The building is operated by the New York State Office of General Services (OGS). The air-distribution component of the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for the building consists of two air-handling units that serve the perimeter of the building through induction supply-air units and two other units that serve the core area of the building through ceiling diffusers. The perimeter system has separate zones that serve the north and south sides of the building, and the core system is zoned to individually serve the upper and lower halves of the building.

  16. Indoor air quality study in Agency Building Two, Empire State Plaza, Albany, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The quality of the indoor environment and potential health conquences have become major concerns for occupants of office buildings. Increasing ventilation rates are often recommended as a potential solution for indoor air quality (IAQ) problems, whether real or perceived as real by occupants. To date, limited quantitative data have been collected to relate increased outdoor-air intake to commonly measured IAQ or comfort parameters. The purpose of this study, conducted by GEOMET Technologies, Inc. for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, was to quantitatively assess the effect of ventilation rate on indoor air quality and associated parameters in an occupied office building, and occupant perceptions of air quality and comfort in the building. The building studied, a 20-story office tower located at the Empire State Plaza in Albany, New York, has a total floor area of approximately 100,000 ft. The building is operated by the New York State Office of General Services (OGS). The air-distribution component of the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for the building consists of two air-handling units that serve the perimeter of the building through induction supply-air units and two other units that serve the core area of the building through ceiling diffusers. The perimeter system has separate zones that serve the north and south sides of the building, and the core system is zoned to individually serve the upper and lower halves of the building.

  17. A Sediment Budget Case Study: Comparing Watershed Scale Erosion Estimates to Modeled and Empirical Sediment Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDavitt, B.; O'Connor, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Lumber Company Habitat Conservation Plan requires watershed analyses to be conducted on their property. This paper summarizes a portion of that analysis focusing on erosion and sedimentation processes and rates coupled with downstream sediment routing in the Freshwater Creek watershed in northwest California. Watershed scale erosion sources from hillslopes, roads, and channel banks were quantified using field surveys, aerial photo interpretation, and empirical modeling approaches for different elements of the study. Sediment transport rates for bedload were modeled, and sediment transport rates for suspended sediment were estimated based on size distribution of sediment inputs in relation to sizes transported in suspension. Recent short-term, high-quality estimates of suspended sediment yield that a community watershed group collected with technical assistance from the US Forest Service were used to validate the resulting sediment budget. Bedload yield data from an adjacent watershed, Jacoby Creek, provided another check on the sediment budget. The sediment budget techniques and bedload routing models used for this study generated sediment yield estimates that are in good agreement with available data. These results suggest that sediment budget techniques that require moderate levels of fieldwork can be used to provide relatively accurate technical assessments. Ongoing monitoring of sediment sources coupled with sediment routing models and reach scale field data allows for predictions to be made regarding in-channel sediment storage.

  18. Relationship between Divergent Thinking and Intelligence: An Empirical Study of the Threshold Hypothesis with Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baoguo; Wang, Lijing; Yang, Jiahui; Zhang, Mengpin; Xu, Li

    2017-01-01

    The threshold hypothesis is a classical and notable explanation for the relationship between creativity and intelligence. However, few empirical examinations of this theory exist, and the results are inconsistent. To test this hypothesis, this study investigated the relationship between divergent thinking (DT) and intelligence with a sample of 568 Chinese children aged between 11 and 13 years old using testing and questionnaire methods. The study focused on the breakpoint of intelligence and the moderation effect of openness on the relationship between intelligence and DT. The findings were as follows: (1) a breakpoint at the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 109.20 when investigating the relationship between either DT fluency or DT flexibility and intelligence. Another breakpoint was detected at the IQ of 116.80 concerning the correlation between originality and intelligence. The breakpoint of the relation between the composite score of creativity and intelligence occurred at the IQ of 110.10. (2) Openness to experience had a moderating effect on the correlation between the indicators of creativity and intelligence under the breakpoint. Above this point, however, the effect was not significant. The results suggested a relationship between DT and intelligence among Chinese children, which conforms to the threshold hypothesis. Besides, it remains necessary to explore the personality factors accounting for individual differences in the relationship between DT and intelligence.

  19. Empirical and Analytic Studies Human/Automation Dynamics in Airspace Management for Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Planich, G.; Bunzo, M.; Labacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA and the FAA have initiated programs of research and development to provide flight crew, airline operations and air traffic managers with automation aids to increase capacity in en route and terminal area to support the goals of free flight for safe, flexible, predictable, and efficient operations. To support the development of those aiding systems human performance in automated aiding has been examined in empirical and computationally analytic studies. This paper presents a set of those studies in full mission simulation and the development of a predictive computational model of human performance. We have found that the combination of methodologies provide a powerful design-aiding process. We will describe three research programs in support of Free Flight Operations from the perspective of human performance requirements. We have examined procedures and communications in the use of voice and data-link operation at the transition between unconstrained (enroute) and constrained (terminal) airspace operations. We have examined the timing and form of Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) advisories in descent. We have investigated the shape and dimensions of an 'alert zone' for air-based separation in unconstrained operations. Finally, we have examined the interaction of a ground-based conflict detection/resolution aiding system, as it interacts with a cockpit-based conflict alerting mechanism. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing and Personal Genomics Services: A Review of Recent Empirical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ostergren, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) has sparked much controversy and undergone dramatic changes in its brief history. Debates over appropriate health policies regarding DTC-GT would benefit from empirical research on its benefits, harms, and limitations. We review the recent literature (2011-present) and summarize findings across (1) content analyses of DTC-GT websites, (2) studies of consumer perspectives and experiences, and (3) surveys of relevant health care providers. Findings suggest that neither the health benefits envisioned by DTC-GT proponents (e.g., significant improvements in positive health behaviors) nor the worst fears expressed by its critics (e.g., catastrophic psychological distress and misunderstanding of test results, undue burden on the health care system) have materialized to date. However, research in this area is in its early stages and possesses numerous key limitations. We note needs for future studies to illuminate the impact of DTC-GT and thereby guide practice and policy regarding this rapidly evolving approach to personal genomics. PMID:24058877

  1. Situation analysis of R & d activities: an empirical study in Iranian pharmaceutical companies.

    PubMed

    Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Vatankhah-Mohammadabadi, Abbas Ali

    2012-01-01

    As global competition intensifies, research and development (R & D) organizations need to enhance their strategic management in order to become goal-directed communities for innovation and allocate their resources consistent with their overall R & D strategy. The world pharmaceutical market has undergone fast, unprecedented, tremendous and complex changes in the last several years. The pharmaceutical industry is today still one of the most inventive, innovative and lucrative of the so-called "high-tech" industries. This industry serves a dual role in modern society. On one hand, it is a growing industry, and its output makes a direct contribution to gross domestic product (GDP). On the other side, drugs, this industry's major output, are an input in the production of good health. The purpose of this study is to evaluate R & D activities of pharmaceutical companies, and also to highlight critical factors which have influential effect on results of these activities. To run this study a valid questionnaire based on literature review and experts' opinion was designed and delivered to 11 pharmaceutical companies. Empirical data show there is not acceptable situations considering of the factors that should be taken in to account by managers including; management commitment, human resource management, information technology and financial management. Furthermore, we concluded some interesting results related to different aspects of R & D management. In conclusion, managers must be aware about their performance in R & D activities, accordingly they will able to take a comprehensive policy in both national and within the company.

  2. Situation Analysis of R & D Activities: An Empirical Study in Iranian Pharmaceutical Companies

    PubMed Central

    Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Vatankhah-Mohammadabadi, Abbas Ali

    2012-01-01

    As global competition intensifies, research and development (R & D) organizations need to enhance their strategic management in order to become goal-directed communities for innovation and allocate their resources consistent with their overall R & D strategy. The world pharmaceutical market has undergone fast, unprecedented, tremendous and complex changes in the last several years. The pharmaceutical industry is today still one of the most inventive, innovative and lucrative of the so-called “high-tech” industries. This industry serves a dual role in modern society. On one hand, it is a growing industry, and its output makes a direct contribution to gross domestic product (GDP). On the other side, drugs, this industry’s major output, are an input in the production of good health. The purpose of this study is to evaluate R & D activities of pharmaceutical companies, and also to highlight critical factors which have influential effect on results of these activities. To run this study a valid questionnaire based on literature review and experts’ opinion was designed and delivered to 11 pharmaceutical companies. Empirical data show there is not acceptable situations considering of the factors that should be taken in to account by managers including; management commitment, human resource management, information technology and financial management. Furthermore, we concluded some interesting results related to different aspects of R & D management. In conclusion, managers must be aware about their performance in R & D activities, accordingly they will able to take a comprehensive policy in both national and within the company. PMID:24250532

  3. Empirical and Analytic Studies Human/Automation Dynamics in Airspace Management for Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Planich, G.; Bunzo, M.; Labacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA and the FAA have initiated programs of research and development to provide flight crew, airline operations and air traffic managers with automation aids to increase capacity in en route and terminal area to support the goals of free flight for safe, flexible, predictable, and efficient operations. To support the development of those aiding systems human performance in automated aiding has been examined in empirical and computationally analytic studies. This paper presents a set of those studies in full mission simulation and the development of a predictive computational model of human performance. We have found that the combination of methodologies provide a powerful design-aiding process. We will describe three research programs in support of Free Flight Operations from the perspective of human performance requirements. We have examined procedures and communications in the use of voice and data-link operation at the transition between unconstrained (enroute) and constrained (terminal) airspace operations. We have examined the timing and form of Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) advisories in descent. We have investigated the shape and dimensions of an 'alert zone' for air-based separation in unconstrained operations. Finally, we have examined the interaction of a ground-based conflict detection/resolution aiding system, as it interacts with a cockpit-based conflict alerting mechanism. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Hardness Analysis and Empirical Studies of the Relations among Robustness, Topology and Flow in Dynamic Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xing; Peng, Wei; Xu, Zhen; Yang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Network robustness is the ability of a network to maintain performance after disruption, thus it is an important index for network designers to refer to. Every actual network has its own topology structure, flow magnitude (scale) and flow distribution. How the robustness relates to these factors still remains unresolved. To analyze the relations, we first established a robustness problem model, studied the hardness of a special case of the model, and generated a lot of representative network instances. We conducted experiments on these instances, deleting 5% to 50% edges on each instance and found that the robustness of a network has an approximate linearity to its structural entropy and flow entropy, when the correlation coefficient between the structure and flow is fixed. We also found that robustness is unlikely to have a relation to the flow scale and edge scale in our model. The empirical studies thus can provide a way of quickly estimating the robustness of real-world networks by using the regression coefficients we obtained during the experiments. We conducted computation on a real-world dataset and got favorable results, which exhibited the effectiveness of the estimation.

  5. Empirical evidence about inconsistency among studies in a pair‐wise meta‐analysis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Rebecca M.; Higgins, Julian P. T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how inconsistency (as measured by the I2 statistic) among studies in a meta‐analysis may differ, according to the type of outcome data and effect measure. We used hierarchical models to analyse data from 3873 binary, 5132 continuous and 880 mixed outcome meta‐analyses within the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Predictive distributions for inconsistency expected in future meta‐analyses were obtained, which can inform priors for between‐study variance. Inconsistency estimates were highest on average for binary outcome meta‐analyses of risk differences and continuous outcome meta‐analyses. For a planned binary outcome meta‐analysis in a general research setting, the predictive distribution for inconsistency among log odds ratios had median 22% and 95% CI: 12% to 39%. For a continuous outcome meta‐analysis, the predictive distribution for inconsistency among standardized mean differences had median 40% and 95% CI: 15% to 73%. Levels of inconsistency were similar for binary data measured by log odds ratios and log relative risks. Fitted distributions for inconsistency expected in continuous outcome meta‐analyses using mean differences were almost identical to those using standardized mean differences. The empirical evidence on inconsistency gives guidance on which outcome measures are most likely to be consistent in particular circumstances and facilitates Bayesian meta‐analysis with an informative prior for heterogeneity. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26679486

  6. [Clinical studies on SM-4300].

    PubMed

    Sawae, Y; Nagafuchi, S

    1985-09-01

    Use of SM-4300, which is a newly developed human immunoglobulin preparation for intravenous administration, has clinically been evaluated in the patients with severe or intractable bacterial infections. Of total 13 cases of the admitted patients at the 1st department of internal medicine, faculty of medicine, Kyushu university, 10-pneumonia case were associated with blood diseases like acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and multiple myeloma (MM), and in addition, with other underlying diseases like lung cancer and bronchiectasis, 1 was prosthetic valve endocarditis, 1 cholecystitis associated with pericarditis and 1 fever of undetermined origin (FUO). SM-4300 of 5 g single bolus or 3 daily doses of 2.5 g per day were infused with chemotherapy drugs preceedingly administered for more than 3 days and the results were evaluated; good in 4, fair 4, poor 2 and unknown 3, and the efficacy rate was 40%. Bacteriologically, the results were decreased in 1, persisted 1 and the majority was unknown. Observed were no side reactions nor the changes in clinical examination variables incurred by this drug. It is therefore considered that SM-4300 is of use for the treatment of intractable bacterial infections when used with antibiotics.

  7. [Prospective study of 221 community acquired pneumonias followed up in an outpatient clinic. Etiology and clinical-radiological progression].

    PubMed

    Javier Alvarez Gutiérrez, F; del Castillo Otero, D; García Fernández, A; Romero Romero, B; José del Rey Pérez, J; Soto Campos, G; Castillo Gómez, J

    2001-02-10

    All the community acquired pneumonia followed up in an outpatient clinic were prospectively studied in order to determine: etiology, clinical-radiological characteristics and its progression with diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. We arranged clinical evaluation protocols, etiological diagnosis by means of serology (in the first visit and three weeks later); and when necessary, by means of fiberbronchoscopy (protected microbiological brush), as well as clinical and radiological progression (up to three visits) after empirical treatment. Initially, 240 patients were included, of which 221 were fully followed up. Etiological diagnosis was obtained in 86 patients (39%). The bacteria most frequently isolated was Coxiella burnetii (12.2%), followed up Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila. Two cases of Strepcococus pneumoniae were diagnosed. The most frequent radiological onset was alveolar infiltrate (86%). The initial empiric treatment were macrolids (71%) or second generation cephalosporines (22%). Most patients presented a favourable clinical and radiological progression. Only 2 patients needed admission to the hospital (< 1%). In community acquired pneumonias studied in our outpatient clinic we found a high number of "atypical" agents. Treatment with macrolids or second generation cephalosporines are appropriate for these patients.

  8. Interpreting observational studies: why empirical calibration is needed to correct p-values

    PubMed Central

    Schuemie, Martijn J; Ryan, Patrick B; DuMouchel, William; Suchard, Marc A; Madigan, David

    2014-01-01

    Often the literature makes assertions of medical product effects on the basis of ‘ p < 0.05’. The underlying premise is that at this threshold, there is only a 5% probability that the observed effect would be seen by chance when in reality there is no effect. In observational studies, much more than in randomized trials, bias and confounding may undermine this premise. To test this premise, we selected three exemplar drug safety studies from literature, representing a case–control, a cohort, and a self-controlled case series design. We attempted to replicate these studies as best we could for the drugs studied in the original articles. Next, we applied the same three designs to sets of negative controls: drugs that are not believed to cause the outcome of interest. We observed how often p < 0.05 when the null hypothesis is true, and we fitted distributions to the effect estimates. Using these distributions, we compute calibrated p-values that reflect the probability of observing the effect estimate under the null hypothesis, taking both random and systematic error into account. An automated analysis of scientific literature was performed to evaluate the potential impact of such a calibration. Our experiment provides evidence that the majority of observational studies would declare statistical significance when no effect is present. Empirical calibration was found to reduce spurious results to the desired 5% level. Applying these adjustments to literature suggests that at least 54% of findings with p < 0.05 are not actually statistically significant and should be reevaluated. © 2013 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:23900808

  9. Time-varying volatility in Malaysian stock exchange: An empirical study using multiple-volatility-shift fractionally integrated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Chin Wen

    2008-02-01

    This article investigated the influences of structural breaks on the fractionally integrated time-varying volatility model in the Malaysian stock markets which included the Kuala Lumpur composite index and four major sectoral indices. A fractionally integrated time-varying volatility model combined with sudden changes is developed to study the possibility of structural change in the empirical data sets. Our empirical results showed substantial reduction in fractional differencing parameters after the inclusion of structural change during the Asian financial and currency crises. Moreover, the fractionally integrated model with sudden change in volatility performed better in the estimation and specification evaluations.

  10. Empirical study of the relationships between financial leverage and capital costs for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gapenski, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    A major element in utility regulation is the setting of just and reasonable allowed rates of return. This rate is a weighted average of the costs of the types of capital employed by the firm, and the weights should reflect the firm's target capital structure. The information required to set the target, or optimal, capital structure includes the relationships between the component costs of capital and the amount of financial leverage used. The primary objective of this study is to empirically estimate the relationships between financial leverage and the costs of common equity and debt for electric utilities. Two different approaches were used to estimate the relationships. First, an econometric model was developed with the component cost as the dependent variable and leverage as the independent variable. Other factors were included as independent variables to account for nonconstant business risk. Second, a model was developed using the bond-rating guidelines and bond yields reported by Standard and Poor's Corporation. The data set consisted of about 73 electric utilities for 1983 and 1984. The results indicated a strong positive relationship between financial leverage and the costs of debt and equity.

  11. Time Domain Strain/Stress Reconstruction Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition: Numerical Study and Experimental Validation

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingjing; Zhou, Yibin; Guan, Xuefei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Weifang; Liu, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Structural health monitoring has been studied by a number of researchers as well as various industries to keep up with the increasing demand for preventive maintenance routines. This work presents a novel method for reconstruct prompt, informed strain/stress responses at the hot spots of the structures based on strain measurements at remote locations. The structural responses measured from usage monitoring system at available locations are decomposed into modal responses using empirical mode decomposition. Transformation equations based on finite element modeling are derived to extrapolate the modal responses from the measured locations to critical locations where direct sensor measurements are not available. Then, two numerical examples (a two-span beam and a 19956-degree of freedom simplified airfoil) are used to demonstrate the overall reconstruction method. Finally, the present work investigates the effectiveness and accuracy of the method through a set of experiments conducted on an aluminium alloy cantilever beam commonly used in air vehicle and spacecraft. The experiments collect the vibration strain signals of the beam via optical fiber sensors. Reconstruction results are compared with theoretical solutions and a detailed error analysis is also provided. PMID:27537889

  12. Digital ethnography and the social dimension of introspection: an empirical study in two Colombian schools.

    PubMed

    Rieken, Johannes; Garcia-Sanchez, Efraín; Trujillo, Mónica Pérez; Bear, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    We developed a teaching-led research project to empirically ground methodological reflection about digital ethnography. Drawing on Cordelois' collective ethnographic observation approach, fifteen emerging professionals (from a private general education university and a Police Academy in Bogota) collaborated in a method seminar on digital ethnography. They worked in cross-institutional research teams, each carrying SenseCams for 3 days. Students had a dual role as both participants and observers during self-confrontation interviews. The research design enabled emerging professionals to introspect about what it is to be a member of their institution. The SenseCam provided an additional opportunity for observation as it elicited different reactions in the two institutions. The fact that SenseCams produce sequential accounts of activity as well as its situated nature made apparent the autonomy to study and solve daily issues (e.g. transport, security, commitments) by students from the university, while students in the police academy are more focused on responding to unforeseen activities (e.g. police services, unexpected requests). Finally, our research highlights the relevance of the social dimension of introspection for digital ethnography. How digital data that captures an individual perspective is negotiated in a group becomes a key methodological question.

  13. Empirical study of the group delay dispersion achievable with multilayer mirrors.

    PubMed

    Pervak, V; Fedorov, V; Pervak, Yu A; Trubetskov, M

    2013-07-29

    With the help of the most advanced algorithms we obtained many dozens of multilayer dispersive mirror designs to empirically find limits for the maximum achievable negative value of the group delay dispersion (GDD). This value depends on the total thickness of coatings and layer material combination. Nb(2)O(5)/SiO(2) and Ta(2)O(50/SiO(2) combinations are studied in detail, for combinations HfO(2)/SiO(2) and TiO(2)/SiO(2) we obtained estimations for two bandwidths. We also show that reasonable values of third-order dispersion have no significant impact on the obtained results. Current state-of-the-art technology allows to produce designs with total physical thicknesses slightly higher than 10 µm and to achieve maximum negative GDD values corresponding to this total design thickness. Designs with total physical thickness of 15 µm and 20 µm are not realized yet due to high sensitivity to deposition errors.

  14. Aviation occupant survival factors: an empirical study of the SQ006 accident.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Hern; Yang, Hui-Hua

    2010-03-01

    We present an empirical study of Singapore Airline (SIA) flight SQ006 to illustrate the critical factors that influence airplane occupant survivability. The Fuzzy Delphi Method was used to identify and rank the survival factors that may reduce injury and fatality in potentially survivable accidents. This is the first attempt by a group from both the public and private sectors in Taiwan to focus on cabin-safety issues related to survival factors. We designed a comprehensive survey based on our discussions with aviation safety experts. We next designed an array of important cabin-safety dimensions and then investigated and selected the critical survival factors for each dimension. Our findings reveal important cabin safety and survivability information that should provide a valuable reference for developing and evaluating aviation safety programs. We also believe that the results will be practical for designing cabin-safety education material for air travelers. Finally, the major contribution of this research is that it has identified 47 critical factors that influence accident survivability; therefore, it may encourage improvements that will promote more successful cabin-safety management. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Haptic stylus and empirical studies on braille, button, and texture display.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Ki-Uk; Lee, Jun-Young; Park, Junseok

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a haptic stylus interface with a built-in compact tactile display module and an impact module as well as empirical studies on Braille, button, and texture display. We describe preliminary evaluations verifying the tactile display's performance indicating that it can satisfactorily represent Braille numbers for both the normal and the blind. In order to prove haptic feedback capability of the stylus, an experiment providing impact feedback mimicking the click of a button has been conducted. Since the developed device is small enough to be attached to a force feedback device, its applicability to combined force and tactile feedback display in a pen-held haptic device is also investigated. The handle of pen-held haptic interface was replaced by the pen-like interface to add tactile feedback capability to the device. Since the system provides combination of force, tactile and impact feedback, three haptic representation methods for texture display have been compared on surface with 3 texture groups which differ in direction, groove width, and shape. In addition, we evaluate its capacity to support touch screen operations by providing tactile sensations when a user rubs against an image displayed on a monitor.

  16. An empirical study on the driving mechanism of proactive corporate environmental management in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianbing; Liu, Beibei; Shishime, Tomohiro; Yu, Qinqin; Bi, Jun; Fujitsuka, Tetsuro

    2010-08-01

    Environmentalism in China is under transformation from the traditional command and control model to emphasize the advantages of economic tools and encourage the participation of the public. Firms are much more aware of the importance of environmental issues, and some of them have practiced environmental activities beyond compliance. In order to help understand the driving mechanism of proactive corporate environmental behaviors from the firm's perspective, this paper identifies the drivers affecting the proactive environmental management level (EML(p)) based on the institutional theory, and gives an empirical study on the firms based in Changshu city of Jiangsu Province, China. The usable data, collected from the 117 valid respondents in a questionnaire survey, indicates that EML(p) is still moderately low currently. Less than 10% of the samples are practicing all the six categorized types of voluntary environmental activities. The econometric exercise confirms a significantly positive effect of the externally mimetic pressure on EML(p), which may attribute to a higher sensitivity of Chinese companies to the market factors. However, the roles of the general public and industrial associations are not significant, showing the marginal power of selected normative pressures. Regarding internal factors, firms, which view environmental issues as opportunities and often arrange internal environmental training, are more likely to adopt proactive environmental activities. More concerns from the general public like neighborhood communities and mass media shall be addressed to enhance the normative power to improve EML(p) in China from the future perspective. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An empirical study of tissue banking in Australia: navigating regulatory and ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Clark, Georgina; Lipworth, Wendy; Les, Bokey; Little, J M; Kerridge, Ian H

    2006-08-01

    Collections of tumour samples can be an invaluable resource for medical research. There are, however, numerous ethical and legal challenges associated with tumour banking. While there has been extensive discussion of these issues in the legal and ethical literature, there are few available empirical data in relation to the activities of tumour banks in Australia, their practices around ethically charged issues, and their success in implementing complex regulatory guidelines. The aim of this study was to gain more information about the activities of tumour banks in New South Wales, Australia, with a particular focus on their management of, and attitudes towards, ethical and regulatory issues. A survey of 27 tumour collection and research facilities was conducted using a 55-item questionnaire. There is significant heterogeneity of research methodologies as well as of methods for gaining consent and ensuring donor privacy, and there is general concern among the research community about ethical and regulatory issues related to tumour banking. Heterogeneity of practice and uncertainty about ethical and regulatory requirements is problematic in its potential to hinder research and its potential to generate the space for unethical practice, whether intentional or unintentional. There is a pressing need to address these issues so that tumour banks can be used in the most ethical and efficient way possible.

  18. An empirical study on information spillover effects between the Chinese copper futures market and spot market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangli; Cheng, Siwei; Wang, Shouyang; Hong, Yongmiao; Li, Yi

    2008-02-01

    This study employs a parametric approach based on TGARCH and GARCH models to estimate the VaR of the copper futures market and spot market in China. Considering the short selling mechanism in the futures market, the paper introduces two new notions: upside VaR and extreme upside risk spillover. And downside VaR and upside VaR are examined by using the above approach. Also, we use Kupiec’s [P.H. Kupiec, Techniques for verifying the accuracy of risk measurement models, Journal of Derivatives 3 (1995) 73-84] backtest to test the power of our approaches. In addition, we investigate information spillover effects between the futures market and the spot market by employing a linear Granger causality test, and Granger causality tests in mean, volatility and risk respectively. Moreover, we also investigate the relationship between the futures market and the spot market by using a test based on a kernel function. Empirical results indicate that there exist significant two-way spillovers between the futures market and the spot market, and the spillovers from the futures market to the spot market are much more striking.

  19. Reviewing the effort-reward imbalance model: drawing up the balance of 45 empirical studies.

    PubMed

    van Vegchel, Natasja; de Jonge, Jan; Bosma, Hans; Schaufeli, Wilmar

    2005-03-01

    The present paper provides a review of 45 studies on the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model published from 1986 to 2003 (inclusive). In 1986, the ERI Model was introduced by Siegrist et al. (Biological and Psychological Factors in Cardiovascular Disease, Springer, Berlin, 1986, pp. 104-126; Social Science & Medicine 22 (1986) 247). The central tenet of the ERI Model is that an imbalance between (high) efforts and (low) rewards leads to (sustained) strain reactions. Besides efforts and rewards, overcommitment (i.e., a personality characteristic) is a crucial aspect of the model. Essentially, the ERI Model contains three main assumptions, which could be labeled as (1) the extrinsic ERI hypothesis: high efforts in combination with low rewards increase the risk of poor health, (2) the intrinsic overcommitment hypothesis: a high level of overcommitment may increase the risk of poor health, and (3) the interaction hypothesis: employees reporting an extrinsic ERI and a high level of overcommitment have an even higher risk of poor health. The review showed that the extrinsic ERI hypothesis has gained considerable empirical support. Results for overcommitment remain inconsistent and the moderating effect of overcommitment on the relation between ERI and employee health has been scarcely examined. Based on these review results suggestions for future research are proposed.

  20. Empirical Study of User Preferences Based on Rating Data of Movies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, YingSi; Shen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    User preference plays a prominent role in many fields, including electronic commerce, social opinion, and Internet search engines. Particularly in recommender systems, it directly influences the accuracy of the recommendation. Though many methods have been presented, most of these have only focused on how to improve the recommendation results. In this paper, we introduce an empirical study of user preferences based on a set of rating data about movies. We develop a simple statistical method to investigate the characteristics of user preferences. We find that the movies have potential characteristics of closure, which results in the formation of numerous cliques with a power-law size distribution. We also find that a user related to a small clique always has similar opinions on the movies in this clique. Then, we suggest a user preference model, which can eliminate the predictions that are considered to be impracticable. Numerical results show that the model can reflect user preference with remarkable accuracy when data elimination is allowed, and random factors in the rating data make prediction error inevitable. In further research, we will investigate many other rating data sets to examine the universality of our findings.

  1. Empirical Study of User Preferences Based on Rating Data of Movies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, YingSi; Shen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    User preference plays a prominent role in many fields, including electronic commerce, social opinion, and Internet search engines. Particularly in recommender systems, it directly influences the accuracy of the recommendation. Though many methods have been presented, most of these have only focused on how to improve the recommendation results. In this paper, we introduce an empirical study of user preferences based on a set of rating data about movies. We develop a simple statistical method to investigate the characteristics of user preferences. We find that the movies have potential characteristics of closure, which results in the formation of numerous cliques with a power-law size distribution. We also find that a user related to a small clique always has similar opinions on the movies in this clique. Then, we suggest a user preference model, which can eliminate the predictions that are considered to be impracticable. Numerical results show that the model can reflect user preference with remarkable accuracy when data elimination is allowed, and random factors in the rating data make prediction error inevitable. In further research, we will investigate many other rating data sets to examine the universality of our findings. PMID:26735847

  2. Time Domain Strain/Stress Reconstruction Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition: Numerical Study and Experimental Validation.

    PubMed

    He, Jingjing; Zhou, Yibin; Guan, Xuefei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Weifang; Liu, Yongming

    2016-08-16

    Structural health monitoring has been studied by a number of researchers as well as various industries to keep up with the increasing demand for preventive maintenance routines. This work presents a novel method for reconstruct prompt, informed strain/stress responses at the hot spots of the structures based on strain measurements at remote locations. The structural responses measured from usage monitoring system at available locations are decomposed into modal responses using empirical mode decomposition. Transformation equations based on finite element modeling are derived to extrapolate the modal responses from the measured locations to critical locations where direct sensor measurements are not available. Then, two numerical examples (a two-span beam and a 19956-degree of freedom simplified airfoil) are used to demonstrate the overall reconstruction method. Finally, the present work investigates the effectiveness and accuracy of the method through a set of experiments conducted on an aluminium alloy cantilever beam commonly used in air vehicle and spacecraft. The experiments collect the vibration strain signals of the beam via optical fiber sensors. Reconstruction results are compared with theoretical solutions and a detailed error analysis is also provided.

  3. PDE-based nonlinear diffusion techniques for denoising scientific and industrial images: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeratunga, Sisira K.; Kamath, Chandrika

    2002-05-01

    Removing noise from data is often the first step in data analysis. Denoising techniques should not only reduce the noise, but do so without blurring or changing the location of the edges. Many approaches have been proposed to accomplish this; in this paper, we focus on one such approach, namely the use of non-linear diffusion operators. This approach has been studied extensively from a theoretical viewpoint ever since the 1987 work of Perona and Malik showed that non-linear filters outperformed the more traditional linear Canny edge detector. We complement this theoretical work by investigating the performance of several isotropic diffusion operators on test images from scientific domains. We explore the effects of various parameters such as the choice of diffusivity function, explicit and implicit methods for the discretization of the PDE, and approaches for the spatial discretization of the non-linear operator etc. We also compare these schemes with simple spatial filters and the more complex wavelet-based shrinkage techniques. Our empirical results show that, with an appropriate choice of parameters, diffusion-based schemes can be as effective as competitive techniques.

  4. Mapping ICT access and disability in the workplace: An empirical study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gastaldi, Luca; Ghezzi, Antonio; Mangiaracina, Riccardo; Rangone, Andrea; Cortimiglia, Marcelo N; Zanatta, Mateus; Amaral, Fernando G

    2015-06-05

    It is well known that the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are important to assist people with disability in the workplace. In this context, this paper sheds light on the state of ICT accessibility for Italian employees with disabilities in private sector companies by mapping and critically analyzing the assistive role of ICT. To do this, empirical evidence was drawn from a multi-methods research with middle and top managers from 97 medium and large Italian companies. Quantitative data was collected using a survey was directed at personnel identified as Human Resource (HR) and Information System (IS) managers, followed by a qualitative study with selected firms whose aim was to understand the inner workings of assistive technology and the decision making process related to assistive technology acquisition and use. The main results show the role and the integration level of people with disabilities, and the presence and effectiveness of specific assistive technologies. Ways to improve the inclusion of people with disability in the workplace, as well as the use of assistive technologies are discussed. ICT could be more disseminated within companies and best used with modifications to improve usability.

  5. Empirical Study on Designing of Gaze Tracking Camera Based on the Information of User's Head Movement.

    PubMed

    Pan, Weiyuan; Jung, Dongwook; Yoon, Hyo Sik; Lee, Dong Eun; Naqvi, Rizwan Ali; Lee, Kwan Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-08-31

    Gaze tracking is the technology that identifies a region in space that a user is looking at. Most previous non-wearable gaze tracking systems use a near-infrared (NIR) light camera with an NIR illuminator. Based on the kind of camera lens used, the viewing angle and depth-of-field (DOF) of a gaze tracking camera can be different, which affects the performance of the gaze tracking system. Nevertheless, to our best knowledge, most previous researches implemented gaze tracking cameras without ground truth information for determining the optimal viewing angle and DOF of the camera lens. Eye-tracker manufacturers might also use ground truth information, but they do not provide this in public. Therefore, researchers and developers of gaze tracking systems cannot refer to such information for implementing gaze tracking system. We address this problem providing an empirical study in which we design an optimal gaze tracking camera based on experimental measurements of the amount and velocity of user's head movements. Based on our results and analyses, researchers and developers might be able to more easily implement an optimal gaze tracking system. Experimental results show that our gaze tracking system shows high performance in terms of accuracy, user convenience and interest.

  6. Immediate versus deferred empirical antifungal (IDEA) therapy in high-risk patients with febrile neutropenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Maschmeyer, G; Heinz, W J; Hertenstein, B; Horst, H-A; Requadt, C; Wagner, T; Cornely, O A; Löffler, J; Ruhnke, M

    2013-05-01

    Empirical antifungal therapy is widely used in high-risk neutropenic hematology patients with fever persisting for more than 4 days. This clinical trial assessed whether immediate empirical therapy with voriconazole could lower the rates of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) compared with this approach. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study, patients with acute leukemia undergoing chemotherapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients were randomized to broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy plus voriconazole (immediate) or placebo (deferred) after the onset of neutropenic fever. If fever persisted for 96 h, patients were switched to open-label intravenous voriconazole; oral treatment was permitted after 96 h. The primary endpoint was the rate of proven/probable IFIs between Days 2 and 28 after fever onset in the modified intent-to-treat (mITT) complete-case population. One hundred and forty-seven patients were randomized to immediate (n = 81) or deferred (n = 66) voriconazole. In the mITT population, six patients in the immediate group and nine in the deferred group developed proven/probable IFI between Days 2 and 28 (p = 0.258). The safety profiles were similar in both groups. While immediate empirical therapy with voriconazole appears to be safe in febrile neutropenic high-risk patients, it was not associated with a significant reduction in IFIs compared with therapy deferred for 96 h after fever onset.

  7. Gaps in studies of global health education: an empirical literature review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhaolan; Wang, JianLi

    2015-01-01

    Background Global health has stimulated a lot of students and has attracted the interest of many faculties, thereby initiating the establishment of many academic programs on global health research and education. global health education reflects the increasing attention toward social accountability in medical education. Objective This study aims to identify gaps in the studies on global health education. Design A critical literature review of empirical studies was conducted using Boolean search techniques. Results A total of 238 articles, including 16 reviews, were identified. There had been a boom in the numbers of studies on global health education since 2010. Four gaps were summarized. First, 94.6% of all studies on global health education were conducted in North American and European countries, of which 65.6% were carried out in the United States, followed by Canada (14.3%) and the United Kingdom (9.2%). Only seven studies (2.9%) were conducted in Asian countries, five (2.1%) in Oceania, and two (0.8%) in South American/Caribbean countries. A total of 154 studies (64.4%) were qualitative studies and 64 studies (26.8%) were quantitative studies. Second, elective courses and training or programs were the most frequently used approach for global health education. Third, there was a gap in the standardization of global health education. Finally, it was mainly targeted at medical students, residents, and doctors. It had not granted the demands for global health education of all students majoring in medicine-related studies. Conclusions Global health education would be a potentially influential tool for achieving health equity, reducing health disparities, and also for future professional careers. It is the time to build and expand education in global health, especially among developing countries. Global health education should be integrated into primary medical education. Interdisciplinary approaches and interprofessional collaboration were recommended. Collaboration

  8. Empirical Study of the Role of Government Support and Success Factors in Industry-University-Institute Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhimin, Guan; Zhongpeng, Cao; Jin, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Empirical research methods were used to study the state of industry-university-institute collaboration in China and the factors influencing the results of cooperation between members of technological innovation alliances, from the dual perspectives of enterprises and universities/research institutes On the basis of questionnaire surveys of 100…

  9. The Impact of Student Composition on Schools' Value-Added Performance: A Comparison of Seven Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermans, Anneke C.; Thomas, Sally M.

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, policy makers struggle with the development of value-added indicators of school performance for educational accountability purposes and in particular with the choice whether school context measured in the form of student composition variables should be included. This study investigates differences between 7 empirical studies…

  10. An Empirical Study on the Application of Cooperative Learning to Comprehensive English Classes in a Chinese Independent College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Ji

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated a comparison between the effect of cooperative learning and lecture teaching on Comprehensive English classes in a Chinese Independent College. An empirical study for two semesters was carried out in the forms of pretest, posttest, questionnaire and interviews. While control class was taught in the conventional way,…

  11. The Impact of Student Composition on Schools' Value-Added Performance: A Comparison of Seven Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermans, Anneke C.; Thomas, Sally M.

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, policy makers struggle with the development of value-added indicators of school performance for educational accountability purposes and in particular with the choice whether school context measured in the form of student composition variables should be included. This study investigates differences between 7 empirical studies…

  12. Empirical Testing of a Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: An Exploratory Study of Educational Wikis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xun

    2010-01-01

    This study extended the technology acceptance model and empirically tested the new model with wikis, a new type of educational technology. Based on social cognitive theory and the theory of planned behavior, three new variables, wiki self-efficacy, online posting anxiety, and perceived behavioral control, were added to the original technology…

  13. Behavioral Criteria of Mentoring Effectiveness: An Empirical Study of Formal Mentoring Relationships within a Major UK Public Sector Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Sage, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical study of mentor and mentee behaviors deemed critical for developing healthy mentoring relationships and effective mentoring during the "start up" and "on going" stages of a formal mentoring scheme within a major UK public sector organization. Several identified behavioral categories (criteria)…

  14. Impact of Intellectual Capital on Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study of Companies in the Hang Seng Index (Part 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kin Hang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper, which is written in two parts, is to investigate empirically if intellectual capital (IC) has an impact on the financial aspects of organisational performance as well as attempting to identify the IC components that may be the drivers for the leading financial indicators of listed companies. The study sought…

  15. Influence of Using Challenging Tasks in Biology Classrooms on Students' Cognitive Knowledge Structure: An Empirical Video Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nawani, Jigna; Rixius, Julia; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical analysis of secondary biology classrooms revealed that, on average, 68% of teaching time in Germany revolved around processing tasks. Quality of instruction can thus be assessed by analyzing the quality of tasks used in classroom discourse. This quasi-experimental study analyzed how teachers used tasks in 38 videotaped biology lessons…

  16. Impact of Intellectual Capital on Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study of Companies in the Hang Seng Index (Part 2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kin Hang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper, which is written in two parts, is to investigate empirically if intellectual capital (IC) has an impact on the financial aspects of organisational performance as well as attempting to identify the IC components that may be the drivers for the leading financial indicators of listed companies. The study sought…

  17. Empirical Study of the Role of Government Support and Success Factors in Industry-University-Institute Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhimin, Guan; Zhongpeng, Cao; Jin, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Empirical research methods were used to study the state of industry-university-institute collaboration in China and the factors influencing the results of cooperation between members of technological innovation alliances, from the dual perspectives of enterprises and universities/research institutes On the basis of questionnaire surveys of 100…

  18. Two Studies of the Empirical Basis of Two Learning Resource-Oriented Motivational Strategies for Gifted Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladut, Anamaria; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Two learning resource-oriented motivational strategies for gifted educators are introduced: a homeostatic orientation that aims for balance and an allostatic orientation that aims at growth. In order to establish the empirical basis of these motivational strategies, two studies were conducted with samples of students from a specialized…

  19. Impact of Globalization on Higher Education: An Empirical Study of Education Policy & Planning of Design Education in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yan Yan

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of globalization in the domain of higher education, particularly, design education. It reviews how globalization may affect educational policy and planning in Hong Kong by drawing on an empirical study involving senior management, a course leader and a design trainer/facilitator. This paper not only illustrates the…

  20. An Empirical Study on Washback Effects of the Internet-Based College English Test Band 4 in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chao; Yan, Jiaolan; Liu, Bao

    2014-01-01

    Based on Bailey's washback model, in respect of participants, process and products, the present empirical study was conducted to find the actual washback effects of the internet-based College English Test Band 4 (IB CET-4). The methods adopted are questionnaires, class observation, interview and the analysis of both the CET-4 teaching and testing…