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  1. Clinical neurophysiology of fatigue.

    PubMed

    Zwarts, M J; Bleijenberg, G; van Engelen, B G M

    2008-01-01

    reliability of the psychological and clinical neurophysiological assessment techniques available today allows a multidisciplinary approach to fatigue in neurological patients, which may contribute to the elucidation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic fatigue, with the ultimate goal to develop tailored treatments for fatigue in neurological patients. The present report discusses the different manifestations of fatigue and the available tools to assess peripheral and central fatigue.

  2. Clinical neurophysiology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Leocani, Letizia; Comi, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The availability of new treatments able to modify the natural course of multiple sclerosis (MS) has generated interest in paraclinical measures to monitor disease evolution. Among these, neurophysiologic measures, mainly evoked potentials (EPs), are used in the functional assessment of central sensorimotor and cognitive networks affected by MS. EP abnormalities may reveal subclinical lesions, objectivate the involvement of sensory and motor pathways in the presence of vague disturbances, and provide indications of the demyelinating nature of the disease process. However, their diagnostic value is much lower than that of magnetic resonance imaging, and is more sensitive to brain and cervical spinal cord lesions. The application of EPs in assessing disease severity and monitoring the evolution of nervous damage is more promising, thanks to their good correlation with disability in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, and potential use as paraclinical endpoints in clinical trials. Recent evidence indicates that EPs performed early in the disease may help to predict a worse future progression in the long term. If confirmed, these data suggest the possible usefulness of EPs in the early identification of patients who are more likely to develop future disability, thus requiring more frequent monitoring or being potential candidates for more aggressive disease-modifying treatments.

  3. Learning clinical neurophysiology: gaming is better than lectures.

    PubMed

    Schuh, Lori; Burdette, David E; Schultz, Lonni; Silver, Brian

    2008-06-01

    We sought to find evidence for generalizability of a game and team oriented educational intervention in clinical neurophysiology in a neurology residency program. A prospective educational intervention was studied in a single neurology residency program and compared with a historical control. Seventeen PGY 2-4 residents studied neurophysiology in 2004-2005. The historical control was 20 PGY 2-4 residents from 1998 to 2002. The neurophysiology educational intervention consisted of weekly presentations, followed by a game show-type oral quiz which was team-based and required all residents to participate. The control group attended faculty-prepared didactic lectures. Outcome measures were percent correct subset neurophysiology Residency Inservice Training Examination scores. United States Medical Licensing Examination step 1 scores were also compared between the groups. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance methods accounting for multiple measurements. The mean+/-standard error neurophysiology subset percent correct Residency Inservice Training Examination score was 63.6+/-4.12 for the intervention group and 49.4+/-2.35 for the control (P=0.002). There was no difference in United States Medical Licensing Examination step 1 scores between the two groups (P=0.11). We found evidence for generalizability of the effectiveness of a team-oriented educational intervention in clinical neurophysiology with gaming and oral quizzing in improving subset Residency Inservice Training Examination performance compared with faculty prepared didactics.

  4. Neurophysiology versus clinical genetics in Rett syndrome: A multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Halbach, Nicky; Julu, Peter; Witt‐Engerström, Ingegerd; Pini, Giorgio; Bigoni, Stefania; Hansen, Stig; Apartopoulos, Flora; Delamont, Robert; van Roozendaal, Kees; Scusa, Maria F.; Borelli, Paolo; Candel, Math; Curfs, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have attempted to establish the genotype–phenotype correlation in Rett syndrome (RTT). Cardiorespiratory measurements provide robust objective data, to correlate with each of the different clinical phenotypes. It has important implications for the management and treatment of this syndrome. The aim of this study was to correlate the genotype with the quantitative cardiorespiratory data obtained by neurophysiological measurement combined with a clinical severity score. This international multicenter study was conducted in four European countries from 1999 to 2012. The study cohort consisted of a group of 132 well‐defined RTT females aged between 2 and 43 years with extended clinical, molecular, and neurophysiological assessments. Diagnosis of RTT was based on the consensus criteria for RTT and molecular confirmation. Genotype–phenotype analyses of clinical features and cardiorespiratory data were performed after grouping mutations by the same type and localization or having the same putative biological effect on the MeCP2 protein, and subsequently on eight single recurrent mutations. A less severe phenotype was seen in females with CTS, p.R133C, and p.R294X mutations. Autonomic disturbances were present in all females, and not restricted to nor influenced by one specific group or any single recurrent mutation. The objective information from non‐invasive neurophysiological evaluation of the disturbed central autonomic control is of great importance in helping to organize the lifelong care for females with RTT. Further research is needed to provide insights into the pathogenesis of autonomic dysfunction, and to develop evidence‐based management in RTT. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27354166

  5. Primary lateral sclerosis: clinical, neurophysiological, and magnetic resonance findings

    PubMed Central

    Kuipers-Upmeijer, J; de Jager, A E J; Hew, J; Snoek, J; van Weerden, T W

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the clinical, neurophysiological, and MRI findings in 10 patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS).
RESULTS—The course of the disease was very slowly progressive. Spasticity due to upper motor neuron dysfunction was the most prominent sign, but EMG showed slight lower motor neuron signs, such as a mixed pattern on maximal voluntary contraction and enlarged motor unit potentials. One patient had clinically mild lower motor neuron involvement. Central motor conduction times (CMCT) were more prolonged in PLS than is the case in ALS. Minor sensory signs were found on neurophysiological examination, comparable with those in ALS. In four patients serum creatine kinase activity was raised. On MRI cortical atrophy was seen, most pronounced in the precentral gyrus and expanding into the parietal-occipital region.
CONCLUSIONS—PLS is a distinct clinical syndrome, part of the range of motor neuron diseases. Besides pronounced upper motor neuron symptoms, mild lower motor neuron symptoms can also be found, as well as (subclinical) sensory symptoms. PLS can be distinguished from ALS by its slow clinical course, a severely prolonged MEP, and a more extensive focal cortical atrophy.

 PMID:11606672

  6. Clinical and neurophysiological changes in patients with pineal region expansions.

    PubMed

    Hajnsek, Sanja; Paladino, Josip; Gadze, Zeljka Petelin; Nanković, Sibila; Mrak, Goran; Lupret, Velimir

    2013-03-01

    In the last 20 years neurological and neurosurgical follow up of our patients with pineal region expansions (118 patients) pointed to certain clinical and neurophysiological regularities. We performed retrospective study which included 84 patients with pineal region expansions in the period from 1992 to 2009. The study included 55 women and 29 men, mean age 30.08 +/- 13.93 years, with positive brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)--70 patients (83.4%) had simple pineal gland cysts, and 14 patients (16.67%) had expansive process in pineal region with compressive effect. All patients had headache, while 32 patients (38%) had epileptic phenomena--primary generalized seizures. Patients had common electroencephalography (EEG) pattern with paroxysmal discharges of 3Hz (or more than 3 Hz) spike-and-wave complexes. Operation with supracerebellar infratentorial approach was performed in 70 patients. In most of our patients indication for the operation was established based on the size of the cyst (15 mm or more), with the signs of compression on the quadrigeminal plate and compression of the surrounding veins, which could result in seizures and EEG changes verified in our group of patients. Pathohistological analysis revealed pineocytomas in 11 cases (15.71%), pinealoblastomas in 2 cases (2.86%), one case of teratoma (1.43%), while 56 patients had pineal gland cysts (80%). Following surgery clinical condition improved in all patients--patients became seizure-free and headaches significantly decreased. Other symptoms including diplopiae, nausea, vomiting, vertigo as well as blurred vision also disappeared. There were no complications after surgical procedures. This study points to often appearance of seizures that clinically and neurophysiologically present as primary generalized epilepsy in patients with pineal region expansions. Our hypotheses are that mass effect on the surrounding veins that affects normal perfusion, compressive effect on the quadrigeminal plate and the

  7. Customer needs, expectations, and satisfaction with clinical neurophysiology services in Ireland: a case for tele-neurophysiology development.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, M; Ronan, L; Murphy, K; Browne, G; Connolly, S; McMenamin, J; Delanty, N

    2004-01-01

    Although equitable access to services should be based on need, geographical location of patients and their clinicians can give rise to inequalities in healthcare delivery. Development of tele-medicine services can improve equity of access. The specialty of Clinical Neurophysiology (CN), currently under-developed in Ireland provides an example of such potential. This study aimed to determine the needs, expectations, and satisfaction of CN customers, namely patients and referring clinicians. The goal was to examine geographical impediments to access that might be addressed by the introduction of tele-neurophysiology. Two customer surveys were conducted: CN referring clinicians and CN patients. Thirty-one North Western Health Board (NWHB) consultant clinicians responded to a postal survey. Distance and delays caused by long waiting lists were felt to deter or make CN referral irrelevant. Ninety-seven percent believed the lack of a local service negatively impacts on patient management and 93% would welcome the introduction of a tele-neurophysiology service. The geographical location of patient's residence and/or the location of the referring clinician's practice influenced waiting lists for CN. Fifty-eight (105/182) percent of patients living in a region with a CN service compared to 39% (50/128) of those living in a region with no service received an appointment within one month. In addition to the current insufficient CN service capacity in Ireland, these surveys highlighted geographical inequities. Tele-neurophysiology has the potential to speed-up diagnosis, result in more patients being appropriately investigated and be fairer to patients.

  8. Primary headache pathophysiology in children: the contribution of clinical neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Pro, S; Tarantino, S; Capuano, A; Vigevano, F; Valeriani, M

    2014-01-01

    Although primary headaches are very prevalent also in pediatric age, most neurophysiologic studies in these diseases concerned only the adulthood. The neurophysiologic investigation of the pathophysiological mechanisms subtending migraine and tension-type headache in children and adolescents could be particularly interesting, since during the developmental age the migrainous phenotype is scarcely influenced by many environmental factors that can typically act on adult headache patients. The neurophysiologic abnormality most frequently found in adult migraineurs, that is the reduced habituation of evoked potentials, was confirmed also in migraine children, although it was shown to involve also children with tension-type headache. Some studies showed abnormalities in the maturation of brain functions in migraine children and adolescents. While the visual system maturation seems slowed in young migraineurs, the psychophysiological mechanisms subtending somatosensory spatial attention in migraine children are more similar to those of healthy adults than to those of age-matched controls. There are some still unexplored fields that will have to be subjects of future studies. The nociceptive modality, which has been investigated in adult patients with primary headaches, should be studied also in pediatric migraine. Moreover, the technique of transcranial magnetic stimulation, not yet used in young migraineurs, will possibly provide further elements about brain excitability in migraine children.

  9. Clinical differentiation and outcome evaluation in vegetative and minimally conscious state patients: the neurophysiological approach

    PubMed Central

    De Salvo, Simona; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Summary The neurophysiological approach to patients with disorders of consciousness allows recording of both central and peripheral nervous system electrical activities and provides a functional assessment. Data obtained using this approach can supplement information from clinical neurological examination, but also from the use of morphological neuroimaging techniques: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Neurophysiological techniques, such as electroencephalography (EEG), evoked potentials, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and EEG in association with functional magnetic resonance imaging, allow monitoring of clinical conditions and can help in the formulation of a prognosis. The aim of this review is to describe the main neurophysiological techniques used in disorders of consciousness to evaluate residual cerebral function, to provide information on the neuronal dysfunction for outcome evaluation, and to differentiate clinically between the vegetative and minimally conscious states. PMID:23402676

  10. Clinical and Neurophysiological Aspects of Epilepsy in Subjects with Autism and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elia, M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Clinical and neurophysiological findings for 28 patients (mean age 15 years) with mental retardation, autism, and epilepsy were described, including classification of seizure type and epileptic syndrome, etiology, severity of autism and epilepsy, electroencephalography findings, and neuroimaging findings. No particular epileptic syndrome…

  11. Propriospinal myoclonus: The spectrum of clinical and neurophysiological phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Antelmi, Elena; Provini, Federica

    2015-08-01

    Propriospinal myoclonus (PSM) is a rare type of spinal myoclonus characterized by muscle jerks that usually start in the midthoracic segments and then slowly propagate up and down into the spinal cord, resulting in repetitive and irregular jerky flexion, or extension of the trunk, neck, knees and hips. PSM can be symptomatic, but up to 80% of reported cases appear idiopathic. PSM tends to occur especially while the subject is lying down. PSM at sleep onset was first described by experts in sleep medicine. The original electrophysiological features included fixed pattern of muscle activations, slow spinal cord conduction (5-15 m/s), electromyographic burst duration less than 1000 ms, synchronous activation of agonist and antagonist muscles and no involvement of facial muscles. PSM has been reported to be a functional (psychogenic) movement disorder in a number of cohorts. The differential diagnosis between idiopathic PSM and the functional forms is not always straightforward. A consistent polymyographically documented muscle activation pattern may be supportive but by no means sufficient and additional neurophysiological investigations are required. PSM should be differentiated from other movement disorders involving the abdomen and trunk, or occurring at sleep-wake transition. This article offers a comprehensive overview of the spectrum of PSM phenotypes.

  12. [Neurophysiological endophenotypes and schizophrenic disorder: emergence and evolution of a clinical concept].

    PubMed

    Micoulaud Franchi, J-A; Vion Dury, J; Cermolacce, M

    2012-12-01

    It is proposed an historical approach to concepts leading to the development of operational paradigms for measuring objectives neurophysiological endophenotypes. It is hypothesized that psychiatric interest for paradigms measuring Event-Related Potential (ERP) come from Bleuler (1911) and McGhie and Chapman (1961) phenomenological and clinical descriptions. They noted, first that patients with schizophrenia generally feel as if they are being flooded by an overwhelming mass of sensory input combined with a heightened sensory perception, second that they were distractible to irrelevant sensory stimuli. These subjective abnormalities may be related, first to inability to filter incongruent information measured in a double click paradigm by a deficit in P50 amplitude gating, and second to an inability to select a stimulus of interest measured in the oddball paradigm by a deficit in P300 amplitude. The analysis of these P50 and P300 ERP in cohorts of patients with schizophrenia found most of Gottesman endophenotype criteria. P50 and P300 ERP are therefore relevant neurophysiological endophenotypes. However, from a clinical point of view, these endophenotypes lack specificity. The hypothesis of this article leads us to formulate ways of research. It is shown the value of combining objective neurophysiological measures with subjective measures using self-administered questionnaires ("offline") or psychophysiological tests ("online") to develop rigorous neurophysiological experimental paradigms especially as clinical observations of their origins are not forgotten.

  13. Clinical neurophysiology and quantitative sensory testing in the investigation of orofacial pain and sensory function.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2004-01-01

    Chronic orofacial pain represents a diagnostic and treatment challenge for the clinician. Some conditions, such as atypical facial pain, still lack proper diagnostic criteria, and their etiology is not known. The recent development of neurophysiological methods and quantitative sensory testing for the examination of the trigeminal somatosensory system offers several tools for diagnostic and etiological investigation of orofacial pain. This review presents some of these techniques and the results of their application in studies on orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Clinical neurophysiological investigation has greater diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity than clinical examination in the detection of the neurogenic abnormalities of either peripheral or central origin that may underlie symptoms of orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Neurophysiological testing may also reveal trigeminal pathology when magnetic resonance imaging has failed to detect it, so these methods should be considered complementary to each other in the investigation of orofacial pain patients. The blink reflex, corneal reflex, jaw jerk, sensory neurography of the inferior alveolar nerve, and the recording of trigeminal somatosensory-evoked potentials with near-nerve stimulation have all proved to be sensitive and reliable in the detection of dysfunction of the myelinated sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve or its central connections within the brainstem. With appropriately small thermodes, thermal quantitative sensory testing is useful for the detection of trigeminal small-fiber dysfunction (Adelta and C). In neuropathic conditions, it is most sensitive to lesions causing axonal injury. By combining different techniques for investigation of the trigeminal system, an accurate topographical diagnosis and profile of sensory fiber pathology can be determined. Neurophysiological and quantitative sensory tests have already highlighted some similarities among various orofacial pain conditions

  14. [Congenital insensitivity to pain: clinical and neurophysiological study in three sisters of a Moroccan family].

    PubMed

    Kissani, N; Krrati, H; Alarcon, G; Belaaidi, H; Ouazzani, R

    2013-11-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain is a rare hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN). This disorder is an autosomal recessive condition: since 1996, mutations attributed to this entity have been found in the neurotrophin tyrosine-kinase gene receptor on chromosome 1. The authors report 3 cases of congenital insensitivity to pain. In these 3 sisters of consanguineous parents, the clinical investigation showed total absence of pain and temperature sensations with preservation of all other sensory modalities, mental retardation, but in contrast to HSAN type IV, there was no anhidrosis. The neurophysiological investigation revealed an isolated axonal sensory polyneuropathy in the 3 patients. The clinical and neurophysiological investigations were normal in both parents and the brother. The physiopathology of this entity is discussed. We suggest a particular form of HSAN type IV with preservation of transpiration or a new entity of congenital insensitivity to pain, which should be analyzed genetically.

  15. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 7: Guidelines for EEG Reporting.

    PubMed

    Tatum, William O; Olga, Selioutski; Ochoa, Juan G; Munger Clary, Heidi; Cheek, Janna; Drislane, Frank; Tsuchida, Tammy N

    2016-08-01

    This EEG Guideline incorporates the practice of structuring a report of results obtained during routine adult electroencephalography. It is intended to reflect one of the current practices in reporting an EEG and serves as a revision of the previous guideline entitled "Writing an EEG Report." The goal of this guideline is not only to convey clinically relevant information, but also to improve interrater reliability for clinical and research use by standardizing the format of EEG reports. With this in mind, there is expanded documentation of the patient history to include more relevant clinical information that can affect the EEG recording and interpretation. Recommendations for the technical conditions of the recording are also enhanced to include post hoc review parameters and type of EEG recording. Sleep feature documentation is also expanded upon. More descriptive terms are included for background features and interictal discharges that are concordant with efforts to standardize terminology. In the clinical correlation section, examples of common clinical scenarios are now provided that encourages uniformity in reporting. Including digital samples of abnormal waveforms is now readily available with current EEG recording systems and may be beneficial in augmenting reports when controversial waveforms or important features are encountered.

  16. Sativex(®) and clinical-neurophysiological measures of spasticity in progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Leocani, Letizia; Nuara, Arturo; Houdayer, Elise; Schiavetti, Irene; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Amadio, Stefano; Straffi, Laura; Rossi, Paolo; Martinelli, Vittorio; Vila, Carlos; Sormani, Maria Pia; Comi, Giancarlo

    2015-11-01

    Despite the proven efficacy of Sativex(®) (9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol plus cannabidiol) oromucosal spray in reducing spasticity symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS), little is known about the neurophysiological correlates of such effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Sativex on neurophysiological measures of spasticity (H/M ratio) and corticospinal excitability in patients with progressive MS. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Consecutive subjects with progressive MS and lower limb spasticity referred to our center were randomized to 4 weeks' treatment (including 2 weeks' titration) with Sativex or placebo, with crossover after a 2-week washout. Clinical and neurophysiological measures (H/M ratio and cortical excitability) of spasticity were assessed. The H/M ratio was the primary outcome, with sample size calculation of 40 patients. Of 44 recruited patients, 34 were analyzed due to 6 drop-outs and 4 exclusions, which lowered the power of the study to show differences between treatments. Neurophysiological measures did not differ significantly according to treatment and did not correlate significantly with clinical response. Response on the modified Ashworth scale (at least 20 % improvement) was significantly more frequent after Sativex than placebo (50 vs 23.5 %; p = 0.041; McNemar). Side effects did not differ significantly according to treatment. Our findings confirm the clinical benefit of Sativex on MS spasticity. The lack of corresponding changes in corticospinal excitability and on the monosynaptic component, of the stretch reflex, although in a limited sample size, points to the involvement of other spinal and supraspinal mechanisms in the physiopathology of spasticity in progressive MS.

  17. Gelsolin-related familial amyloidosis, Finnish type, in a Portuguese family: clinical and neurophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Isabel; Sales-Luis, Maria Lurdes; De Carvalho, Mamede; Evangelista, Teresinha; Fernandes, Rui; Paunio, Tiina; Kangas, Hannele; Coutinho, Paula; Neves, Carlos; Saraiva, Maria João

    2003-12-01

    We report a Portuguese family with familial amyloid polyneuropathy related to gelsolin. There were no known Finnish ancestors, but the same mutation as described in Finnish patients (G654A) was carried. Clinical and neurophysiological investigations were performed in four patients. Corneal lattice dystrophy affected all four patients; an axonal lesion of the facial nerve occurred in three patients; visual tract involvement was documented in one case; and corticospinal and posterior column dysfunction was present in one patient. Polarizing microscopy of skin and muscle samples demonstrated amyloid deposits in two patients; anti-gelsolin immunohistochemistry was positive for amyloidogenic gelsolin. The Finnish mutation of gelsolin protein (G654A) was detected in five family members. The utility of neurophysiological testing in the evaluation and follow-up of this type of amyloidosis is discussed.

  18. Response inhibition in Attention deficit disorder and neurofibromatosis type 1 – clinically similar, neurophysiologically different

    PubMed Central

    Bluschke, Annet; von der Hagen, Maja; Papenhagen, Katharina; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2017-01-01

    There are large overlaps in cognitive deficits occurring in attention deficit disorder (ADD) and neurodevelopmental disorders like neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). This overlap is mostly based on clinical measures and not on in-depth analyses of neuronal mechanisms. However, the consideration of such neuronal underpinnings is crucial when aiming to integrate measures that can lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Inhibitory control deficits, for example, are a hallmark in ADD, but it is unclear how far there are similar deficits in NF1. We thus compared adolescent ADD and NF1 patients to healthy controls in a Go/Nogo task using behavioural and neurophysiological measures. Clinical measures of ADD-symptoms were not different between ADD and NF1. Only patients with ADD showed increased Nogo errors and reductions in components reflecting response inhibition (i.e. Nogo-P3). Early perceptual processes (P1) were changed in ADD and NF1. Clinically, patients with ADD and NF1 thus show strong similarities. This is not the case in regard to underlying cognitive control processes. This shows that in-depth analyses of neurophysiological processes are needed to determine whether the overlap between ADD and NF1 is as strong as assumed and to develop appropriate treatment strategies. PMID:28262833

  19. Response inhibition in Attention deficit disorder and neurofibromatosis type 1 - clinically similar, neurophysiologically different.

    PubMed

    Bluschke, Annet; von der Hagen, Maja; Papenhagen, Katharina; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2017-03-06

    There are large overlaps in cognitive deficits occurring in attention deficit disorder (ADD) and neurodevelopmental disorders like neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). This overlap is mostly based on clinical measures and not on in-depth analyses of neuronal mechanisms. However, the consideration of such neuronal underpinnings is crucial when aiming to integrate measures that can lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Inhibitory control deficits, for example, are a hallmark in ADD, but it is unclear how far there are similar deficits in NF1. We thus compared adolescent ADD and NF1 patients to healthy controls in a Go/Nogo task using behavioural and neurophysiological measures. Clinical measures of ADD-symptoms were not different between ADD and NF1. Only patients with ADD showed increased Nogo errors and reductions in components reflecting response inhibition (i.e. Nogo-P3). Early perceptual processes (P1) were changed in ADD and NF1. Clinically, patients with ADD and NF1 thus show strong similarities. This is not the case in regard to underlying cognitive control processes. This shows that in-depth analyses of neurophysiological processes are needed to determine whether the overlap between ADD and NF1 is as strong as assumed and to develop appropriate treatment strategies.

  20. Anconeus Epitrochlearis Muscle Causing Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow: Clinical and Neurophysiological Differential Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Erdem Bagatur, A; Yalcin, Mehmet Burak; Ozer, Utku Erdem

    2016-09-01

    Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow is the second most frequent entrapment neuropathy and is considered idiopathic in most patients. However, several anatomic variations, including the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle, have been reported to cause ulnar nerve compression. The anconeus epitrochlearis muscle is a common anatomic variation, with a prevalence of up to 34%, but the clinical diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy of the elbow as a result of this variation is rare, with an unknown prevalence. It is a congenital accessory muscle between the medial humeral epicondyle and the olecranon that covers the posterior aspect of the cubital tunnel and is usually an operative finding, not a preoperative diagnosis. Ulnar neuropathy as a result of the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle usually has different characteristics than idiopathic disease, including younger age at onset, more rapid progression with a short duration of symptoms, distinct neurophysiology with velocity drop or conduction block of the ulnar nerve, and edema of the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle on magnetic resonance imaging. Neurophysiologic findings in anconeus epitrochlearis-associated ulnar neuropathy indicate subacute onset of symptoms rather than the chronic demyelinating process that is seen in idiopathic ulnar neuropathy. Medial elbow pain may be more exacerbated in these patients rather than the more common sensorial symptoms. This is probably the result of static compression of the nerve and increased cubital tunnel pressure, even when the elbow is in extension. This article describes a case of ulnar nerve entrapment of the elbow in a 28-year-old woman as a result of compression by the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle and includes magnetic resonance imaging findings, surgical correlations, and clinical and neurophysiologic findings. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(5):e988-e991.].

  1. [Current neurophysiological tests and revised JSCN technical standards for clinical EEG].

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, Yoji

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this lecture is to review the development of current neurophysiology and the revised standard of society for clinical EEG. 1. The improvement of neurophysiological tests. 1) EEG and evoked potential: EEG and evoked potential testing includes the routine EEG recording, EEG monitoring in surgical operation, all night sleep polygraph for the diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome and many kinds of brain evoked potentials. Especially, the P300 component in the ERP(event-related evoked potential) is useful for the testing of essential brain functions. 2) EMG and evoked EMG: These tests are applied for the diagnosis of neurogenic, myogenic and neuromuscular junction disorder, and also the single fiber EMG using micro needle electrode is useful for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity are calculated from the latency of evoked EMGs. Furthermore, the distribution of these conduction velocities in many nerve fibers is measured by the collision technique. 3) Other tests: Near-infrared spectroscopy for the testing of brain functions has made rapid progress, and the transcranial magnetic stimulation method has come to be used for evaluation of functional diseases in the pyramidal tract, cerebellum and the spinal cord. 2. The revised JSCN technical standards for clinical EEG. The revised recording conditions of ECI(electro cerebral inactivity: flat EEG) in brain death are the focus of this lecture.

  2. An international survey of physicians regarding clinical trials: a comparison between Kyoto University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background International clinical trials are now rapidly expanding into Asia. However, the proportion of global trials is higher in South Korea compared to Japan despite implementation of similar governmental support in both countries. The difference in clinical trial environment might influence the respective physicians’ attitudes and experience towards clinical trials. Therefore, we designed a questionnaire to explore how physicians conceive the issues surrounding clinical trials in both countries. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted at Kyoto University Hospital (KUHP) and Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) in 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions and 2 open-ended questions on broad key issues relating to clinical trials. Results The number of responders was 301 at KUHP and 398 at SNUH. Doctors with trial experience were 196 at KUHP and 150 at SNUH. Among them, 12% (24/196) at KUHP and 41% (61/150) at SUNH had global trial experience. Most respondents at both institutions viewed clinical trials favorably and thought that conducting clinical trials contributed to medical advances, which would ultimately lead to new and better treatments. The main reason raised as a hindrance to conducting clinical trials was the lack of personnel support and time. Doctors at both university hospitals thought that more clinical research coordinators were required to conduct clinical trials more efficiently. KUHP doctors were driven mainly by pure academic interest or for their desire to find new treatments, while obtaining credits for board certification and co-authorship on manuscripts also served as motivation factors for doctors at SNUH. Conclusions Our results revealed that there might be two different approaches to increase clinical trial activity. One is a social level approach to establish clinical trial infrastructure providing sufficient clinical research professionals. The other is an individual level approach that would provide incentives to

  3. [Clinical, neurophysiological and psychological characteristics of neurosis in patients with panic disorders].

    PubMed

    Tuter, N V

    2008-01-01

    Forty-eight patients with panic disorders (PD), aged 31,5 years, 17 men, 31 women, were studied. The results were analyzed in comparison to a control group which comprised 16 healthy people, 6 men, 10 women, mean age 29,5 years. A traditional clinical approach, including somatic, neurologic and psychiatric examination, was used in the study. Also, a neurophysiological study using compression and spectral analyses, EEG, cognitive evoked potentials, skin evoked potentials, was conducted. A psychological examination included assessment of personality traits (Cattell's test), MMPI personality profile, mechanisms of psychological defense, the "Life style index" and Sondy test. A decrease of - and -rhythms was found that implied the reduction of activation processes. The psychological data mirror as common signs characteristic of all PD, as well as psychological features characteristic of neurotic disorders. The results obtained confirm the heterogeneity of PD in nosological aspect that demands using differential approach to the problems of their diagnostics and treatment.

  4. Neurophysiological assessment of craniofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Galeotti, Francesca; Truini, Andrea; Cruccu, Giorgio

    2006-04-01

    This review deals with the diagnostic usefulness of neurophysiological testing in patients with craniofacial pain. Neurophysiological testing of trigeminal nerve function relies on trigeminal reflexes and laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). This review briefly describes the physiology of trigeminal reflexes and LEPs, reports normal values and highlights the neurophysiological abnormalities in the main clinical conditions.

  5. Long-term treatment of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy with tafamidis: a clinical and neurophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Planté-Bordeneuve, Violaine; Gorram, Farida; Salhi, Hayet; Nordine, Tarik; Ayache, Samar S; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Azoulay, Daniel; Feray, Cyrille; Damy, Thibaud; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2017-02-01

    Tafamidis is a transthyretin (TTR) stabilizer recently approved to slow the neurologic impairment in TTR familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP). The pivotal studies on Tafamidis reported encouraging results on the short term, in the early onset Val30Met-TTR-FAP patients at an early stage of the neuropathy. However, the effect of the drug in the non-Val30Met patients, at a more advanced stage of the disease and on the long term, is less known. In this study, we report the effect of Tafamidis in 43 TTR-FAP patients with a variety of pathogenic mutations, including 53% of non-Val30Met variants, at different stages of neuropathy followed on the long term. General and neurological assessment was performed in a standardized protocol every 6-12 months along with neurophysiological variables, including testing of small nerve fibres. The mean follow-up under treatment was 2 years with a subset of 26 patients treated for 3 years. Overall, Tafamidis was well tolerated. A significant clinical deterioration of the neuropathy and the patient's general condition was observed across the 3 years follow-up, although neurophysiological parameters remained stable for the first 2 years. In contrast, patients had a significant increase of BMI under treatment. Deterioration of the neuropathy correlated to an older age at disease onset or treatment initiation and to poor clinical status at baseline. A higher BMI at baseline was associated with a lower progression of the neuropathy. About one-third of the patients who received 3 years of tafamidis had still preserved walking capacity or good clinical condition, suggesting that tafamidis slowed the disease progression in some patients. Overall, our work shows that tafamidis is well tolerated in TTR-FAP but does not prevent the steady progression of the neuropathy on the long term. Age, neurologic status, and general condition at baseline appear to be best predictors of tafamidis efficacy on the neurological function.

  6. Neurophysiology Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2001-01-01

    flight. Building on these basic research studies are more applied studies focused on the development of countermeasures to the untoward neurophysiological responses to space flight. At the 2001 workshop, applied research studies were presented addressing issues related to the use of rotational artificial gravity (centripetal acceleration) as a multisystem (bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and, perhaps, neurovestibular) countermeasure. Also presented was a clinical study reporting on a new rating system for clinical evaluation of postflight functional neurological status.

  7. Formative evaluation of a telemedicine model for delivering clinical neurophysiology services part I: Utility, technical performance and service provider perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Formative evaluation is conducted in the early stages of system implementation to assess how it works in practice and to identify opportunities for improving technical and process performance. A formative evaluation of a teleneurophysiology service was conducted to examine its technical and sociological dimensions. Methods A teleneurophysiology service providing routine EEG investigation was established. Service use, technical performance and satisfaction of clinical neurophysiology personnel were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. These were contrasted with a previously reported analysis of the need for teleneurophysiology, and examination of expectation and satisfaction with clinical neurophysiology services in Ireland. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis was also conducted. Results Over the course of 40 clinical sessions during 20 weeks, 142 EEG investigations were recorded and stored on a file server at a satellite centre which was 130 miles away from the host clinical neurophysiology department. Using a virtual private network, the EEGs were accessed by a consultant neurophysiologist at the host centre for interpretation. The model resulted in a 5-fold increase in access to EEG services as well as reducing average waiting times for investigation by a half. Technically the model worked well, although a temporary loss of virtual private network connectivity highlighted the need for clarity in terms of responsibility for troubleshooting and repair of equipment problems. Referral quality, communication between host and satellite centres, quality of EEG recordings, and ease of EEG review and reporting indicated that appropriate organisational processes were adopted by the service. Compared to traditional CN service delivery, the teleneurophysiology model resulted in a comparable unit cost per EEG. Conclusion Observations suggest that when traditional organisational boundaries are crossed challenges associated with the social dimension of service

  8. Microneurography as a tool in clinical neurophysiology to investigate peripheral neural traffic in humans.

    PubMed

    Mano, Tadaaki; Iwase, Satoshi; Toma, Shinobu

    2006-11-01

    Microneurography is a method using metal microelectrodes to investigate directly identified neural traffic in myelinated as well as unmyelinated efferent and afferent nerves leading to and coming from muscle and skin in human peripheral nerves in situ. The present paper reviews how this technique has been used in clinical neurophysiology to elucidate the neural mechanisms of autonomic regulation, motor control and sensory functions in humans under physiological and pathological conditions. Microneurography is particularly important to investigate efferent and afferent neural traffic in unmyelinated C fibers. The recording of efferent discharges in postganglionic sympathetic C efferent fibers innervating muscle and skin (muscle sympathetic nerve activity; MSNA and skin sympathetic nerve activity; SSNA) provides direct information about neural control of autonomic effector organs including blood vessels and sweat glands. Sympathetic microneurography has become a potent tool to reveal neural functions and dysfunctions concerning blood pressure control and thermoregulation. This recording has been used not only in wake conditions but also in sleep to investigate changes in sympathetic neural traffic during sleep and sleep-related events such as sleep apnea. The same recording was also successfully carried out by astronauts during spaceflight. Recordings of afferent discharges from muscle mechanoreceptors have been used to understand the mechanisms of motor control. Muscle spindle afferent information is particularly important for the control of fine precise movements. It may also play important roles to predict behavior outcomes during learning of a motor task. Recordings of discharges in myelinated afferent fibers from skin mechanoreceptors have provided not only objective information about mechanoreceptive cutaneous sensation but also the roles of these signals in fine motor control. Unmyelinated mechanoreceptive afferent discharges from hairy skin seem to be

  9. Clinical neurophysiology of visual and auditory processing in dyslexia: a review.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Bruder, Jennifer

    2010-11-01

    Neurophysiological studies on children and adults with dyslexia provide a deeper understanding of how visual and auditory processing in dyslexia might relate to reading deficits. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of research findings in the last two decades on motion related and contrast sensitivity visual evoked potentials and on auditory event related potentials to basic tone and speech sound processing in dyslexia. These results are particularly relevant for three important theories about causality in dyslexia: the magnocellular deficit hypothesis, the temporal processing deficit hypothesis and the phonological deficit hypothesis. Support for magnocellular deficits in dyslexia are primarily provided from evidence for altered visual evoked potentials to rapidly moving stimuli presented at low contrasts. Consistently ERP findings revealed altered neurophysiological processes in individuals with dyslexia to speech stimuli, but evidence for deficits processing certain general acoustic information relevant for speech perception, such as frequency changes and temporal patterns, are also apparent.

  10. Neural network classification of clinical neurophysiological data for acute care monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sgro, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of neurophysiological monitoring of the 'acute care' patient is to allow the accurate recognition of changing or deteriorating neurological function as close to the moment of occurrence as possible, thus permitting immediate intervention. Results confirm that: (1) neural networks are able to accurately identify electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns and evoked potential (EP) wave components, and measuring EP waveform latencies and amplitudes; (2) neural networks are able to accurately detect EP and EEG recordings that have been contaminated by noise; (3) the best performance was obtained consistently with the back propagation network for EP and the HONN for EEG's; (4) neural network performed consistently better than other methods evaluated; and (5) neural network EEG and EP analyses are readily performed on multichannel data.

  11. Digitization of clinical and epidemiological data from the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos: maternal risk factors and embryonic malformations.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomomi; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the causes of congenital anomalies is of prime importance to develop management and/or prevention strategies. It is widely accepted that the occurrence of congenital malformations in fetuses and neonates is heavily correlated with maternal genetic makeup and lifestyle. However, very few epidemiologic analyses have been conducted on the embryonic developmental period because of the rarity of data available. Instigated in 1961, the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos comprises approximately 45,000 specimens of embryos and fetuses. The collection's most unique feature is that most specimens were added to the collection along with epidemiologic information on the respective mothers. This is the first report on the digitization of data from the collection. A total of 22,262 embryonic specimens were selected on the basis of data integrity. Data related to the embryos were then classified according to the following criteria: developmental stage, sampling period, geographical area, maternal determinant, and external malformation. Results indicate that 7.8% of the embryos exhibit external anomalies and 92.2% are without anomalies. The three most common anomalies were nuchal bleb, holoprosencephaly and spina bifida. A special emphasis was placed on the potential association between maternal determinants and embryonic external anomalies, allowing for statistical analyses. The present study provides further evidence that this collection represents a unique source of information to conduct epidemiological analyses, not only to further the understanding of congenital anomalies but also to help establish preventive health guidelines for pregnant women.

  12. No clinical or neurophysiological evidence of botulinum toxin diffusion to non-injected muscles in patients with hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Lorenzano, C; Bagnato, S; Gilio, F; Fabbrini, G; Berardelli, A

    2006-04-01

    Botulinum toxin injected into a muscle may diffuse to nearby muscles thus producing unwanted effects. In patients with hemifacial spasm, we evaluated clinically and neurophysiologically, whether botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) diffuses from the injection site (orbicularis oculi) to untreated muscles (orbicularis oris from the affected side and orbicularis oculi and oris from the unaffected side). We studied 38 patients with idiopathic hemifacial spasm. Botulinum toxin was injected into the affected orbicularis oculi muscle alone (at 3 standardized sites) at a clinically effective dose. Patients were studied before (T0) and 3-4 weeks after treatment (T1). We evaluated the clinical effects of botulinum toxin and muscle strength in the affected and unaffected muscles. We also assessed the peak-to-peak amplitude compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recorded from the orbicularis oculi and orbicularis oris muscles on both sides after supramaximal electrical stimulation of the facial nerve at the stylomastoid foramen. In all patients, botulinum toxin treatment reduced muscle spasms in the injected orbicularis oculi muscle and induced no muscle weakness in the other facial muscles. The CMAP amplitude significantly decreased in the injected orbicularis oculi muscle, but remained unchanged in the other facial muscles (orbicularis oris muscle on the affected side and contra-lateral unaffected muscles). In conclusion, in patients with hemifacial spasm, botulinum toxin, at a clinically effective dose, induces no clinical signs of diffusion and does not reduce the CMAP size in the nearby untreated orbicularis oris or contralateral facial muscles.

  13. Does Swedish amateur boxing lead to chronic brain damage? 3. A retrospective clinical neurophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Y; Persson, H E

    1990-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate possible chronic brain damage due to Swedish amateur boxing. Forty seven former amateur boxers, 22 with many (HM = high-matched) and 25 with few matches (LM = low-matched) during their career were examined and compared with two control groups of 25 soccer players and 25 track and field athletes in the same age-range. No severe EEG abnormality was found. There was a somewhat higher incidence of slight or moderate EEG deviations among HM-(32%, 7/22) and LM-(36%, 9/25) boxers than among soccer players (20%, 5/25) and track and field athletes (12%, 3/25). Brain electric activity mapping (BEAM), brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) and auditory evoked P 300 potential (P 300) did not differ significantly between the groups. No neurophysiological variable was correlated to the number of bouts, number of lost fights or length of boxing career. Thus, no signs of serious chronic brain damage was found among the amateur boxers or the soccer players and the track and field athletes. However, it cannot be excluded that the EEG differences between the groups may be a sign of slight brain dysfunction in some of the amateur boxers.

  14. Neurophysiology of robot-mediated training and therapy: a perspective for future use in clinical populations.

    PubMed

    Turner, Duncan L; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Birbaumer, Niels; Hoffmann, Ulrich; Luft, Andreas

    2013-11-13

    The recovery of functional movements following injury to the central nervous system (CNS) is multifaceted and is accompanied by processes occurring in the injured and non-injured hemispheres of the brain or above/below a spinal cord lesion. The changes in the CNS are the consequence of functional and structural processes collectively termed neuroplasticity and these may occur spontaneously and/or be induced by movement practice. The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying such brain plasticity may take different forms in different types of injury, for example stroke vs. spinal cord injury (SCI). Recovery of movement can be enhanced by intensive, repetitive, variable, and rewarding motor practice. To this end, robots that enable or facilitate repetitive movements have been developed to assist recovery and rehabilitation. Here, we suggest that some elements of robot-mediated training such as assistance and perturbation may have the potential to enhance neuroplasticity. Together the elemental components for developing integrated robot-mediated training protocols may form part of a neurorehabilitation framework alongside those methods already employed by therapists. Robots could thus open up a wider choice of options for delivering movement rehabilitation grounded on the principles underpinning neuroplasticity in the human CNS.

  15. [Clinical neurophysiology and functional neuroimaging at the Société Française de Neurologie (1948-1998)].

    PubMed

    Mauguière, F

    1999-10-01

    The historical role of the French Neurology in the development of anatomo-clinical method is likely to explain why the first communications on electrophysiology were presented in Paris with some delay, as compared with other european societies where the neurophysiological tradition had been more lively. Though clinical neurophysiology, by essence, addresses the pathophysiology of neurological disorders, it has sometimes missed this target at its very beginning, when it aimed at providing data supposed to have some aetiological specificity, causing distrust among neurologists used to accept aetiological diagnosis only when based on post-mortem anatomical evidence. Thanks to the discovery of computerized tomography this time has been over for 25 years, and no one would question anymore the role of clinical neurophysiology and neuroimaging in Neurology, the former giving access to the timing of sensori-motor and cognitive pocesses and the latter to the localization of brain functions. This article reviews the neurophysiological literature published in the Revue Neurologique from 1948 to 1998.

  16. Clinical, neurophysiological, and skin biopsy findings in peripheral neuropathy associated with hepatitis C virus-related cryoglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Biasiotta, A; Casato, M; La Cesa, S; Colantuono, S; Di Stefano, G; Leone, C; Carlesimo, M; Piroso, S; Cruccu, G; Truini, A

    2014-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cryoglobulinemia commonly causes disabling complications including peripheral neuropathy and neuropathic pain. In this prospective clinical, neurophysiological, and skin biopsy study we aimed at assessing clinical characteristics and risk factors of peripheral neuropathy and neuropathic pain in patients with HCV-related cryoglobulinemia. We enrolled 69 consecutive patients with HCV-related cryoglobulinemia. We diagnosed neuropathic pain with the DN4 (Neuropathic Pain Diagnostic) questionnaire, and rated the various neuropathic pains with the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI). All patients underwent a standard nerve conduction study to assess Aβ-fiber function, laser-evoked potentials to assess Aδ-fiber function, and skin biopsy to assess C-fiber terminals. Of the 69 patients studied, 47 had a peripheral neuropathy, and 29 had neuropathic pain. Patients with peripheral neuropathy were older than those without (P < 0.0001). While peripheral neuropathy was significantly associated with the duration of HCV infection (P < 0.01), it was unrelated to the duration of cryoglobulinemia and cryocrit (P > 0.5). The severity of peripheral neuropathy significantly correlated with the duration of HCV infection (P < 0.05). Laser-evoked potential amplitudes were significantly lower in patients with than in those without neuropathic pain (P < 0.05). Conversely, no difference was found in nerve conduction study and skin biopsy findings (P > 0.05). Our findings show that peripheral neuropathy is related to age and HCV infection, rather than to cryoglobulinemia, and neuropathic pain is associated with damage to nociceptive pathways as assessed with laser-evoked potentials; this might be useful for designing more effective clinical interventions for these common HCV related-cryoglobulinemia complications.

  17. Correlations between the clinical, histological and neurophysiological examinations in patients before and after parotid gland tumor surgery: verification of facial nerve transmission.

    PubMed

    Wiertel-Krawczuk, Agnieszka; Huber, Juliusz; Wojtysiak, Magdalena; Golusiński, Wojciech; Pieńkowski, Piotr; Golusiński, Paweł

    2015-05-01

    Parotid gland tumor surgery sometimes leads to facial nerve paralysis. Malignant more than benign tumors determine nerve function preoperatively, while postoperative observations based on clinical, histological and neurophysiological studies have not been reported in detail. The aims of this pilot study were evaluation and correlations of histological properties of tumor (its size and location) and clinical and neurophysiological assessment of facial nerve function pre- and post-operatively (1 and 6 months). Comparative studies included 17 patients with benign (n = 13) and malignant (n = 4) tumors. Clinical assessment was based on House-Brackmann scale (H-B), neurophysiological diagnostics included facial electroneurography [ENG, compound muscle action potential (CMAP)], mimetic muscle electromyography (EMG) and blink-reflex examinations (BR). Mainly grade I of H-B was recorded both pre- (n = 13) and post-operatively (n = 12) in patients with small (1.5-2.4 cm) benign tumors located in superficial lobes. Patients with medium size (2.5-3.4 cm) malignant tumors in both lobes were scored at grade I (n = 2) and III (n = 2) pre- and mainly VI (n = 4) post-operatively. CMAP amplitudes after stimulation of mandibular marginal branch were reduced at about 25 % in patients with benign tumors after surgery. In the cases of malignant tumors CMAPs were not recorded following stimulation of any branch. A similar trend was found for BR results. H-B and ENG results revealed positive correlations between the type of tumor and surgery with facial nerve function. Neurophysiological studies detected clinically silent facial nerve neuropathy of mandibular marginal branch in postoperative period. Needle EMG, ENG and BR examinations allow for the evaluation of face muscles reinnervation and facial nerve regeneration.

  18. Influence of emotional states on inhibitory gating: animals models to clinical neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Howard C; Atchley, Rachel M

    2015-01-01

    Integrating research efforts using a cross-domain approach could redefine traditional constructs used in behavioral and clinical neuroscience by demonstrating that behavior and mental processes arise not from functional isolation but from integration. Our research group has been examining the interface between cognitive and emotional processes by studying inhibitory gating. Inhibitory gating can be measured via changes in behavior or neural signal processing. Sensorimotor gating of the startle response is a well-used measure. To study how emotion and cognition interact during startle modulation in the animal model, we examined ultrasonic vocalization (USV) emissions during acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition. We found high rates of USV emission during the sensorimotor gating paradigm and revealed links between prepulse inhibition (PPI) and USV emission that could reflect emotional and cognitive influences. Measuring inhibitory gating as P50 event-related potential suppression has also revealed possible connections between emotional states and cognitive processes. We have examined the single unit responses during the traditional gating paradigm and found that acute and chronic stress can alter gating of neural signals in regions such as amygdala, striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. Our findings point to the need for more cross-domain research on how shifting states of emotion can impact basic mechanisms of information processing. Results could inform clinical work with the development of tools that depend upon cross-domain communication, and enable a better understanding and evaluation of psychological impairment.

  19. Efficacy of pregabalin in a case of stiff-person syndrome: clinical and neurophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Squintani, G; Bovi, T; Ferigo, L; Musso, A M; Ottaviani, S; Moretto, G; Morgante, F; Tinazzi, M

    2012-03-15

    Symptomatic treatment of stiff-person syndrome (SPS) might be challenging and a significant improvement of stiffness and rigidity is generally reached with high doses of benzodiazepines or baclofen causing side effects. A 71-year old woman diagnosed with SPS complained of marked stiffness of trunk and lower limb muscles with sudden painful spasms. She was unable to walk and she could not lean on her right leg. Cortical silent period (CSP) duration evaluated from right abductor pollicis brevis (APB) with transcranial magnetic stimulation was shortened. Polygraphic electromyographic (EMG) evaluation from paraspinal and leg muscles disclosed continuous motor unit activity at rest with interference muscular pattern. Symptomatic treatment with diazepam was withdrawn because of excessive sedation. In order to relieve the intense lumbar pain, she was prescribed pregabalin; since the day after, rigidity and painful spasms dramatically improved and she could walk without assistance. The clinical benefit persisted at 3 months follow-up and was paralleled by almost complete disappearance of EMG activity at rest and prolongation of CSP. The clinical and electrophysiological data in this SPS patient suggest the possible efficacy of pregabalin as symptomatic treatment without any significant side effects, which needs to be replicated in larger case series.

  20. Influence of emotional states on inhibitory gating: Animals models to clinical neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Cromwell, Howard C.; Atchley, Rachel M.

    2014-01-01

    Integrating research efforts using a cross-domain approach could redefine traditional constructs used in behavioral and clinical neuroscience by demonstrating that behavior and mental processes arise not from functional isolation but from integration. Our research group has been examining the interface between cognitive and emotional processes by studying inhibitory gating. Inhibitory gating can be measured via changes in behavior or neural signal processing. Sensorimotor gating of the startle response is a well-used measure. To study how emotion and cognition interact during startle modulation in the animal model, we examined ultrasonic vocalization (USV) emissions during acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition. We found high rates of USV emission during the sensorimotor gating paradigm and revealed links between prepulse inhibition (PPI) and USV emission that could reflect emotional and cognitive influences. Measuring inhibitory gating as P50 event-related potential suppression has also revealed possible connections between emotional states and cognitive processes. We have examined the single unit responses during the traditional gating paradigm and found that acute and chronic stress can alter gating of neural signals in regions such as amygdala, striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. Our findings point to the need for more cross-domain research on how shifting states of emotion can impact basic mechanisms of information processing. Results could inform clinical work with the development of tools that depend upon cross-domain communication, and enable a better understanding and evaluation of psychological impairment. PMID:24861710

  1. Ambient intelligence for monitoring and research in clinical neurophysiology and medicine: the MIMERICA* project and prototype.

    PubMed

    Pignolo, L; Riganello, F; Dolce, G; Sannita, W G

    2013-04-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) provides extended but unobtrusive sensing and computing devices and ubiquitous networking for human/environment interaction. It is a new paradigm in information technology compliant with the international Integrating Healthcare Enterprise board (IHE) and eHealth HL7 technological standards in the functional integration of biomedical domotics and informatics in hospital and home care. AmI allows real-time automatic recording of biological/medical information and environmental data. It is extensively applicable to patient monitoring, medicine and neuroscience research, which require large biomedical data sets; for example, in the study of spontaneous or condition-dependent variability or chronobiology. In this respect, AML is equivalent to a traditional laboratory for data collection and processing, with minimal dedicated equipment, staff, and costs; it benefits from the integration of artificial intelligence technology with traditional/innovative sensors to monitor clinical or functional parameters. A prototype AmI platform (MIMERICA*) has been implemented and is operated in a semi-intensive unit for the vegetative and minimally conscious states, to investigate the spontaneous or environment-related fluctuations of physiological parameters in these conditions.

  2. A Neurophysiological and Neuropsychological Consideration of Mindful Movement: Clinical and Research Implications

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Tamara Anne; Arcuri, Silvia Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present ideas related to three key aspects of mindfulness training: the regulation of attention via noradrenaline, the importance of working memory and its various components (particularly the central executive and episodic buffer), and the relationship of both of these to mind-wandering. These same aspects of mindfulness training are also involved in the preparation and execution of movement and implicated in the pathophysiology of psychosis. We argue that by moving in a mindful way, there may be an additive effect of training as the two elements of the practice (mindfulness and movement) independently, and perhaps synergistically, engage common underlying systems (the default mode network). We discuss how working with mindful movement may be one route to mindfulness training for individuals who would struggle to sit still to complete the more commonly taught mindfulness practices. Drawing on our clinical experience working with individuals with severe and enduring mental health conditions, we show the real world application of these ideas and how they can be used to help those who are suffering and for whom current treatments are still far from adequate. PMID:26074800

  3. Pharmacokinetics & Neurophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew S.; Salpekar, Jay A.

    2009-01-01

    Medications administered in clinical practice obtain their therapeutic effect only to the extent that the drug is present in the appropriate concentration at the desired site. To achieve this goal, the prescribing clinician must be aware of how a drug may interact with the physiology of the patient. Pharmacokinetics is the study of this process…

  4. Cerebellar TMS in Treatment of a Patient with Cerebellar Ataxia: Evidence from Clinical, Biomechanics and Neurophysiological Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Faranak; Wu, Yunfen; Manor, Brad; Anastasio, Elana M.; Lough, Matthew; Novak, Vera; Greenstein, Patricia E.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    We describe a patient with a probable diagnosis of idiopathic late-onset cerebellar atrophy who shows improvement of limb coordination, speech and gait following 21 days of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied to scalp regions presumably corresponding to the cerebellum. This case study provides, for the first time, a quantitative assessment of gait improvement in response to TMS therapy in ataxia, as well as neurophysiological evidence in support of modification of cerebello-cortical interaction that may underlie some of the improvements. PMID:23625327

  5. Neurophysiological Aspects and their relationship to clinical and functional impairment in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Miranda Rocco, Carolina Chiusoli; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Stirbulov, Roberto; Corrêa, João Carlos Ferrari

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to assess functional (balance L–L and A–P displacement, sit‐to‐stand test (SST) and Tinetti scale – balance and gait) and neurophysiological aspects (patellar and Achilles reflex and strength) relating these responses to the BODE Index. INTRODUCTION: The neurophysiological alterations found in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with the severity of the disease. There is also involvement of peripheral muscle which, in combination with neurophysiological impairment, may further compromise the functional activity of these patients. METHODS: A cross‐sectional study design was used. Twenty‐two patients with moderate to very severe COPD (>60 years) and 16 age‐matched healthy volunteers served as the control group (CG). The subjects performed spirometry and several measures of static and dynamic balance, monosynaptic reflexes, peripheral muscle strength, SST and the 6‐minute walk test. RESULTS: The individuals with COPD had a reduced reflex response, 36.77±3.23 (p<0.05) and 43.54±6.60 (p<0.05), achieved a lower number repetitions on the SST 19.27±3.88 (p<0.05), exhibited lesser peripheral muscle strength on the femoral quadriceps muscle, 24.98±6.88 (p<0.05) and exhibited deficits in functional balance and gait on the Tinetti scale, 26.86±1.69 (p<0.05), compared with the CG. The BODE Index demonstrated correlations with balance assessment (determined by the Tinetti scale), r = 0.59 (p<0.05) and the sit‐to‐stand test, r = 0.78 (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The individuals with COPD had functional and neurophysiological alterations in comparison with the control group. The BODE Index was correlated with the Tinetti scale and the SST. Both are functional tests, easy to administer, low cost and feasible, especially the SST. These results suggest a worse prognosis; however, more studies are needed to identify the causes of these changes and the repercussions that could result in their

  6. The neurophysiological effects of dry needling in patients with upper trapezius myofascial trigger points: study protocol of a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh-Amirdehi, Maryam; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dry needling (DN) is an effective method for the treatment of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). There is no report on the neurophysiological effects of DN in patients with MTrPs. The aim of the present study will be to assess the immediate neurophysiological efficacy of deep DN in patients with upper trapezius MTrPs. Methods and analysis A prospective, controlled clinical trial was designed to include patients with upper trapezius MTrPs and volunteered healthy participants to receive one session of DN. The primary outcome measures are neuromuscular junction response and sympathetic skin response. The secondary outcomes are pain intensity and pressure pain threshold. Data will be collected at baseline and immediately after intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study protocol has been approved by the Research Council, School of Rehabilitation and the Ethics Committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The results of the study will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. PMID:23793673

  7. Modulation of motor cortex excitability in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an exploratory study on the relations of neurophysiology measures with clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Antonio; Rossi, Simone; Bassi, Bruce D; Simpson, Helen B; Fallon, Brian A; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2013-12-30

    Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to supplementary motor area (SMA) showed clinical benefit in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we tested whether clinical improvement was associated with enhanced cortical inhibition as measured by single and paired-pulse TMS variables. In 18 OCD patients receiving 4 weeks of either active or sham rTMS in a double-blind randomized trial, we assessed bilateral resting and active motor thresholds (RMT and AMT), cortical silent period (CSP), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). We tested correlations between changes in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Self-report (Y-BOCS-SR), Clinical Global Impression-Severity subscale (CGI-S) and cortical excitability measures. Active rTMS increased right hemisphere RMT whose change correlated with Y-BOCS-SR improvement. Baseline RMT hemispheric asymmetry, defined as the difference between left and right hemispheres RMT, and its normalization after active rTMS correlated with Y-BOCS-SR and CGI-S improvements. Active rTMS also increased right hemisphere SICI whose change correlated with Y-BOCS-SR and CGI-S at week 4, and with normalization of baseline RMT hemispheric asymmetry. Treatment-induced changes in cortical excitability measures are consistent with an inhibitory action of SMA rTMS on dysfunctional motor circuits in OCD. Correlations of neurophysiology measures with therapeutic outcome are supportive of the role of SMA in the modulation of OCD symptoms.

  8. Correspondence between neurophysiological and clinical measurements of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: secondary analysis of data from the CI-PeriNoms study

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Kathleen A.; Dorsey, Susan G.; Renn, Cynthia L.; Zhu, Shijun; Johantgen, Mary E.; Cornblath, David R.; Argyriou, Andreas A.; Cavaletti, Guido; Merkies, Ingemar S. J.; Alberti, Paola; Postma, Tjeerd J.; Rossi, Emanuela; Frigeni, Barbara; Bruna, Jordi; Velasco, Roser; Kalofonos, Haralabos P.; Psimaras, Dimitri; Ricard, Damien; Pace, Andrea; Galie, Edvina; Briani, Chiara; Torre, Chiara Dalla; Faber, Catharina G.; Lalisang, Roy I.; Boogerd, Willem; Brandsma, Dieta; Koeppen, Susanne; Hense, Joerg; Storey, Dawn J.; Kerrigan, Simon; Schenone, Angelo; Fabbri, Sabrina; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) lacks standardized clinical measurement. The objective of the current secondary analysis was to examine data from the CIPN Outcomes Standardization (CI-PeriNomS) study for associations between clinical examinations and neurophysiological abnormalities. Logistic regression estimated the strength of associations of vibration, pin, and monofilament examinations with lower limb sensory and motor amplitudes. Examinations were classified as normal (0), moderately abnormal (1), or severely abnormal (2). Among 218 participants, those with class 1 upper extremity (UE) and class 1 or 2 lower extremity (LE) monofilament abnormality were 2.79 (95%CI: 1.28-6.07), 3.49 (95%CI: 1.61-7.55) and 4.42 (95%CI: 1.35-14.46) times more likely to have abnormal sural nerve amplitudes, respectively, compared to individuals with normal examinations. Likewise, those with class 2 UE and class 1 or 2 LE vibration abnormality were 8.65 (95%CI: 1.81-41.42), 2.54 (95%CI: 1.19-5.41) and 7.47 (95%CI: 2.49-22.40) times more likely to have abnormal sural nerve amplitudes, respectively, compared to participants with normal examinations. Abnormalities in vibration and monofilament examinations are associated with abnormal sural nerve amplitudes and are useful in identifying CIPN. PMID:24814100

  9. Reverse Correlation in Neurophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringach, Dario; Shapley, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a review of reverse correlation in neurophysiology. We discuss the basis of reverse correlation in linear transducers and in spiking neurons. The application of reverse correlation to measure the receptive fields of visual neurons using white noise and m-sequences, and classical findings about spatial and color processing in…

  10. Peripheral Nerve Ultrasonography in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy and Multifocal Motor Neuropathy: Correlations with Clinical and Neurophysiological Data

    PubMed Central

    Merola, Aristide; Rosso, Michela; Romagnolo, Alberto; Peci, Erdita; Cocito, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This cross-sectional study analyzes the pattern of ultrasound peripheral nerve alterations in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) at different stages of functional disability. Material and Methods. 22 CIDP and 10 MMN patients and a group of 70 healthy controls were evaluated with an ultrasound scan of the median, ulnar, peroneal, tibial, and sural nerves. Results were correlated with clinical disability scales and nerve conduction studies. Results. Patients with intermediate functional impairment showed relatively larger cross-sectional areas than subjects with either a milder (p < 0.05) or more severe impairment (p < 0.05), both in CIDP and in MMN. In addition, MMN was associated with greater side-to-side intranerve variability (p < 0.05), while higher cross-sectional areas were observed in CIDP (p < 0.05) and in nerve segments with predominantly demyelinating features (p < 0.05). Higher CSA values were observed in nerves with demyelinating features versus axonal damage (p < 0.05 for CIDP; p < 0.05 for MMN). Discussion and Conclusions. Greater extent of quantitative and qualitative US alterations was observed in patients at intermediate versus higher functional disability and in nerves with demyelinating versus axonal damage. CIDP and MMN showed differential US aspects, with greater side-to-side intranerve variability in MMN and higher cross-sectional areas in CIDP. PMID:27313890

  11. Tactile stimulation interventions: influence of stimulation parameters on sensorimotor behavior and neurophysiological correlates in healthy and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Parianen Lesemann, Franca H; Reuter, Eva-Maria; Godde, Ben

    2015-04-01

    The pure exposure to extensive tactile stimulation, without the requirement of attention or active training, has been revealed to enhance sensorimotor functioning presumably due to an induction of plasticity in the somatosensory cortex. The induced effects, including increased tactile acuity and manual dexterity have repeatedly been observed in basic as well as clinical research. However, results vary greatly in respect to the strength and direction of the effects on the behavioral and on the brain level. Multiple evidences show that differences in the stimulation protocols (e.g., two vs. multiple stimulation sites) and parameters (e.g., duration, frequency, and amplitude) might contribute to this variability of effects. Nevertheless, stimulation protocols have not been comprehensively compared yet. Identifying favorable parameters for tactile stimulation interventions is especially important because of its possible application as a treatment option for patients suffering from sensory loss, maladaptive plasticity, or certain forms of motor impairment. This review aims to compare the effects of different tactile stimulation protocols and to assess possible implications for tactile interventions. Our goal is to identify ways of optimizing stimulation protocols to improve sensorimotor performance. To this end, we reviewed research on tactile stimulation in the healthy population, with a focus on the effectiveness of the applied parameters regarding psychophysiological measures. We discuss the association of stimulation-induced changes on the behavioral level with alterations in neural representations and response characteristics.

  12. [Climate change and Kyoto protocol].

    PubMed

    Ergasti, G; Pippia, V; Murzilli, G; De Luca D'Alessandro, E

    2009-01-01

    Due to industrial revolution and the heavy use of fossil fuels, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dramatically during the last hundred years, and this has lead to an increase in mean global temperature. The environmental consequences of this are: the melting of the ice caps, an increase in mean sea-levels, catastrophic events such as floodings, hurricanes and earthquakes, changes to the animal and vegetable kingdoms, a growth in vectors and bacteria in water thus increasing the risk of infectious diseases and damage to agriculture. The toxic effects of the pollution on human health are both acute and chronic. The Kyoto Protocol is an important step in the campaign against climatic changes but it is not sufficient. A possible solution might be for the States which produce the most of pollution to adopt a better political stance for the environment and to use renewable resources for the production of energy.

  13. Neurophysiological Measures and Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): Hypothesizing Links between Clinical Severity Index and Molecular Neurobiological Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vitali, Mario; Napolitano, Carmen; Berman, Marlene Oscar; Minuto, Simona Flamminii; Battagliese, Gemma; Attilia, Maria Luisa; Braverman, Eric R; Romeo, Marina; Blum, Kenneth; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Background In 1987, Cloninger proposed a clinical description and classification of different personality traits genetically defined and independent from each other. Moreover, he elaborated a specific test the TCI to investigate these traits/states. The study of craving in Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) assumed a greater significance, since ever more data seems to suggest a direct correlation between high levels of craving and a higher risk of relapse in alcoholics. Thus, our study aim is to explore the possible correlations among TCI linked molecular neurobiological pattern (s), craving and alcohol addiction severity measures in a sample of Italian alcoholics. Materials and Methods 191 alcoholics were recruited in a Day Hospital (DH) setting at the Alcohol Addiction Program Latium Region Referral Center, Sapienza University of Rome. After 7 days detoxification treatment a psychodiagnostic protocol was administered, including TCI, VAS-C, ASI and SADQ. All patients signed an Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved informed consent. Results Principally, we detected a significant positive correlation between HA-scale scores and the VAS scale: increasing in HA-scale corresponds to an increase in craving perception for both intensity (r=0.310; p ≤ 0.001) and frequency (r=0.246; p ≤ 0.001). Moreover, perception of dependence severity, measured with SADQ was also found to be significantly associated positively to both HA-scale (r=0.246; p ≤ 0.001) and NS-scale (r=0.224; p ≤ 0.01). While, for character scales, Persistence (r=−0.195; p=.008) and Self-directedness (r=−0.294; p ≤ 0.001) was negatively associated with ASI linked to alcohol problems. Self-directedness was also negatively correlated with ASI linked to family and social problems (r=−0.349; p ≤ 0.001), employment and support problems (r=−0.220; p=0.003) and psychiatric problems (r=−0.358; p ≤ 0.001). Cooperativeness was a negative correlate with Legal Problems (r=−0.173; p=0.019). and Self

  14. [Neurophysiological bases of hypnosis].

    PubMed

    Hernándex Peón, R

    1977-01-01

    A neurophysiological hypothesis for hypnosis is suggested. Frequently, a hypnotic state is considered close to sleep. Experiments show that it closer to wakefulness, that attention is present and, at times, increased. Physiological changes under hypnosis, changes in suggestibility, conditionability, memory, visceral and endocrine changes, are outlined. Four large neuronal groups with diverse functions are described: wakefulness system, sleep system, that of conscious experience and the executive system; these last two, localized in the midbrain, pons and medulla, are considered the structural basis for the hypnotic state which arises from their increased or decreased functions. In the hypnotic state, through functional variations in these groups, modifications are seen in the spinal chord, in afferent fibers such as the optic ribbon and in complicated cortical functions such as memory.

  15. The Kyoto Protocol: A business perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, C.B.

    1998-01-19

    Governments have made a tentative start in responding to climate change. In marathon negotiating sessions that extended into an extra day Dec. 1--11 in Kyoto, Japan, representatives from more than 160 governments hammered out the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The protocol calls for developed countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on averaged by 5.2% below 1990 levels by the years 2008--2012. Developing countries have no new obligations. The paper discusses the agreement, ratification, future questions, business role, and the challenge.

  16. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  17. Neurophysiology of swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Ianessa A.; Fitzgerald, Michelle E.; McLaren, Donald G.; Johnson, Sterling; Porcaro, Eva; Kosmatka, Kris; Hind, Jacqueline; Robbins, JoAnne

    2009-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in swallowing from an integrated biomechanical and functional imaging perspective in order to more comprehensively characterize changes in swallowing associated with age. We examined swallowing-related fMRI brain activity and videoflouroscopic biomechanics of three bolus types (saliva, water and barium) in 12 young and 11 older adults. We found that age-related neurophysiological changes in swallowing are evident. The group of older adults recruited more cortical regions than young adults, including the pericentral gyri and inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis and pars triangularis (primarily right-sided). Saliva swallows elicited significantly higher BOLD responses in regions important for swallowing compared to water and barium. In separate videofluoroscopy sessions, we obtained durational measures of supine swallowing. The older cohort had significantly longer delays before the onset of the pharyngeal swallow response and increased residue of ingested material in the pharynx. These findings suggest that older adults without neurological insult elicit more cortical involvement to complete the same swallowing tasks as younger adults. PMID:19010424

  18. Increasing use of yellow colors in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Munehira; Nara, Iwao

    2002-06-01

    Colors used for commercial signboards, displayed outdoors as well as indoors through windows, such as a store sign, an advertising sign, a sky sign, a poster, a placard, and a billboard were extensively surveyed in Kyoto City, Japan, in 1998. The survey showed that various kinds of yellow painted signs have increased rapidly and invaded a center area and suburbs of the city. Vivid yellow, what we called it the Y98 virus, is specially considered a color unpleasantly matched to the city image of Kyoto which was the capital of Japan for nearly 1000 years (794 to 1868) and is endowed with cultural and historic heritage. Discussions trying to find out what we could do to prevent the rapid spread of a big commercial display painted with vivid yellows what we called 'the Y98 virus' over the city will be summarized in a main text.

  19. Development and characterization of a novel rat model of cervical spondylotic myelopathy: the impact of chronic cord compression on clinical, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, JangBo; Satkunendrarajah, Kajana; Fehlings, Michael G

    2012-03-20

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of spinal cord impairment worldwide and is a risk factor for traumatic central cord syndrome. Despite advances in surgery, there are no effective neuroprotective treatments for CSM, which reflects a limited understanding of its pathophysiology. In order to develop therapeutic strategies, we have developed a novel rat model of chronic progressive cervical spinal cord compression that mimics CSM. A titanium-screw-based chronic compression device (CCD) was designed to achieve progressive cord compression at the C6 level. The CCD was fixed to the C2 and T2 spinous processes and a threaded screw was turned to induce compression. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=75) were divided into three groups: (1) sham (no compression, n=6), (2) mild compression (1.4 mm stenosis, n=27), and (3) severe compression (2.6 mm stenosis, n=42). Compression was evaluated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The area of spared white matter, extent of cord flattening ratio, and loss of neurons were assessed. Functional deficits were characterized using sensory-evoked potential (SEP) recordings, and with neurobehavioral tests: the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale, inclined plane, paw grip strength, and assessment of mechanical and thermal allodynia. Micro-CT confirmed progressive canal stenosis. The loss of intact white matter and cord flattening were significantly greater in rats with severe cord compression, and the number of neurons was reduced at the epicenter of cord compression. With chronic cord compression there was a significant decline in locomotor function, forelimb function, trunk stability/coordination, an increase in mechanical allodynia, and impaired axonal conduction. The CCD model results in chronic and precise cervical cord compression. The compression is associated with mechanical allodynia and measurable neurobehavioral, neurophysiological, and neuropathological deficits. We anticipate

  20. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, Kentaro; Tack, Jan; Kuipers, Ernst J; Graham, David Y; El-Omar, Emad M; Miura, Soichiro; Haruma, Ken; Asaka, Masahiro; Uemura, Naomi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate diagnostic assessment of gastritis and (4) when, whom and how to treat H. pylori gastritis. Design Twenty-three clinical questions addressing the above-mentioned four domains were drafted for which expert panels were asked to formulate relevant statements. A Delphi method using an anonymous electronic system was adopted to develop the consensus, the level of which was predefined as ≥80%. Final modifications of clinical questions and consensus were achieved at the face-to-face meeting in Kyoto. Results All 24 statements for 22 clinical questions after extensive modifications and omission of one clinical question were achieved with a consensus level of >80%. To better organise classification of gastritis and duodenitis based on aetiology, a new classification of gastritis and duodenitis is recommended for the 11th international classification. A new category of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia together with a diagnostic algorithm was proposed. The adoption of grading systems for gastric cancer risk stratification, and modern image-enhancing endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastritis, were recommended. Treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection before preneoplastic changes develop, if feasible, was recommended to minimise the risk of more serious complications of the infection. Conclusions A global consensus for gastritis was developed for the first time, which will be the basis for an international classification system and for further research on the subject. PMID:26187502

  1. Neurophysiological Factors in Spatial Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Lauren Jay

    Some of the major lines of investigation that point to neurophysiological factors in spatial skill are presented. These lines include: the two hemispheres of the brain, recent studies, tachistoscopic studies, morphological differences between the cerebral hemispheres, Geschwind and Levitsky's discovery, cerebral dominance re-examined, sex…

  2. Fabrication of neurophysiological monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A system designed to collect electroencephalographic, electro-oculographic, electromyographic, and head motion data is described. The portable instrumentation provides a rapid and simple means by which neurophysiological data can be obtained by the patient in his home and the taped data returned to the laboratory for analysis. The system was designed primarily for the study of sleep.

  3. Neurological impairment among heterozygote women for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy: a case control study on a clinical, neurophysiological and biochemical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurologic impairments in female heterozygotes for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) are poorly understood. Our aims were to describe the neurological and neurophysiological manifestations of a cohort of X-ALD heterozygotes, and to correlate them with age, disease duration, mutations, X-inactivation and serum concentrations of a marker of neuronal damage, neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Methods All 45 heterozygotes identified in our region, with previous VLCFA and molecular diagnosis, were invited to be evaluated through myelopathy scales JOA and SSPROM, nerve conduction studies and somatosensory evoked responses. X inactivation pattern was tested by HUMARA methylation assay. Serum NSE was measured by eletrochemiluminescense. Results Thirty three heterozygote women were recruited: 29 (87%) were symptomatic. Symptomatic and asymptomatic women presented different m ± sd ages (43.9 ± 10.2 versus 24.3 ± 4.6), JOA (14.5 ± 1.7 versus 16.6 ± 0.2) and SSPROM (86.6 ± 7.9 versus 98.4 ± 1.1) scores (p < 0.05). Both JOA (r = −0.68) and SSPROM (r = −0.65) correlated with age, irrespectively of the disease status (p = 0.0001, Spearman). Delayed latencies in the central ascending conduction studies on the lower limbs were present in 72% of all heterozygotes, and correlated with SSPROM (r = −0.47, p = 0.018, Spearman). NSE values were higher in heterozygote than in control women (12.9 ± 7 and 7.2 ± 7 ng/ml, p = 0.012, Mann-Whitney U). Mutation severity and inactivation patterns were not associated with neurologic status. Conclusion Neurologic manifestations, clearly related to age, were quite common in the present cohort. JOA and SSPROM scales were able to discriminate the asymptomatic from the symptomatic heterozygotes. Both scales might be useful tools to follow disease progression, in future studies. PMID:24410807

  4. Neurophysiology of hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Laureys, S; Faymonville, M-E

    2014-10-01

    We here review behavioral, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies of hypnosis as a state, as well as hypnosis as a tool to modulate brain responses to painful stimulations. Studies have shown that hypnotic processes modify internal (self awareness) as well as external (environmental awareness) brain networks. Brain mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain perception under hypnotic conditions involve cortical as well as subcortical areas including anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices, basal ganglia and thalami. Combined with local anesthesia and conscious sedation in patients undergoing surgery, hypnosis is associated with improved peri- and postoperative comfort of patients and surgeons. Finally, hypnosis can be considered as a useful analogue for simulating conversion and dissociation symptoms in healthy subjects, permitting better characterization of these challenging disorders by producing clinically similar experiences.

  5. Post-hypoxic Myoclonus: Current Concepts, Neurophysiology, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Harsh V.; Caviness, John N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Myoclonus may occur after hypoxia. In 1963, Lance and Adams described persistent myoclonus with other features after hypoxia. However, myoclonus occurring immediately after hypoxia may demonstrate different syndromic features from classic Lance–Adams syndrome (LAS). The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date information about the spectrum of myoclonus occurring after hypoxia with emphasis on neurophysiological features. Methods A literature search was performed on PubMed database from 1960 to 2015. The following search terms were used: “myoclonus,” “post anoxic myoclonus,” “post hypoxic myoclonus,” and “Lance Adams syndrome.” The articles describing clinical features, neurophysiology, management, and prognosis of post-hypoxic myoclonus cases were included for review. Results Several reports in the literature were separated clinically into “acute post-hypoxic myoclonus,” which occurred within hours of severe hypoxia, and “chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus,” which occurred with some recovery of mental status as the LAS. Acute post-hypoxic myoclonus was generalized in the setting of coma. Chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus presented as multifocal cortical action myoclonus that was significantly disabling. There was overlap of neurophysiological findings for these two syndromes but also different features. Treatment options for these two distinct clinical–neurophysiologic post-hypoxic myoclonus syndromes were approached differently. Discussion The review of clinical and neurophysiological findings suggests that myoclonus after hypoxia manifests in one or a combination of distinct syndromes: acute and/or chronic myoclonus. The mechanism of post-hypoxic myoclonus may arise either from cortical and/or subcortical structures. More research is needed to clarify mechanisms and treatment of post-hypoxic myoclonus. PMID:27708982

  6. [Clinical, psychological and neurophysiological results of double-blind study on vincamine-cromesilate in patients with cerebro-vascular insufficiency (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mikus, P

    1978-01-01

    In a long-term double-blind cross-over design 26 patients with amnestic syndrome due to cerebro-vascular insufficiency were submitted to vincamine-cromesilate (Vincaryl) and placebo treatment. The efficiency of vincamine was proved by mildly ameliorated psychometric patterns, biochemically by decreased cholesterol level and ophthalmodynamographically by slight increase of pulsation capacity. By means of EMG, ECG and EEG clinic side effects were excluded.

  7. The role of the circadian system in fractal neurophysiological control

    PubMed Central

    Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin R.; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.; Butler, Matthew P.; Shea, Steven A.; Hu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Many neurophysiological variables such as heart rate, motor activity, and neural activity are known to exhibit intrinsic fractal fluctuations - similar temporal fluctuation patterns at different time scales. These fractal patterns contain information about health, as many pathological conditions are accompanied by their alteration or absence. In physical systems, such fluctuations are characteristic of critical states on the border between randomness and order, frequently arising from nonlinear feedback interactions between mechanisms operating on multiple scales. Thus, the existence of fractal fluctuations in physiology challenges traditional conceptions of health and disease, suggesting that high levels of integrity and adaptability are marked by complex variability, not constancy, and are properties of a neurophysiological network, not individual components. Despite the subject's theoretical and clinical interest, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying fractal regulation remain largely unknown. The recent discovery that the circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nucleus) plays a crucial role in generating fractal patterns in motor activity and heart rate sheds an entirely new light on both fractal control networks and the function of this master circadian clock, and builds a bridge between the fields of circadian biology and fractal physiology. In this review, we sketch the emerging picture of the developing interdisciplinary field of fractal neurophysiology by examining the circadian system’s role in fractal regulation. PMID:23573942

  8. The role of the circadian system in fractal neurophysiological control.

    PubMed

    Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin R; Scheer, Frank A J L; Butler, Matthew P; Shea, Steven A; Hu, Kun

    2013-11-01

    Many neurophysiological variables such as heart rate, motor activity, and neural activity are known to exhibit intrinsic fractal fluctuations - similar temporal fluctuation patterns at different time scales. These fractal patterns contain information about health, as many pathological conditions are accompanied by their alteration or absence. In physical systems, such fluctuations are characteristic of critical states on the border between randomness and order, frequently arising from nonlinear feedback interactions between mechanisms operating on multiple scales. Thus, the existence of fractal fluctuations in physiology challenges traditional conceptions of health and disease, suggesting that high levels of integrity and adaptability are marked by complex variability, not constancy, and are properties of a neurophysiological network, not individual components. Despite the subject's theoretical and clinical interest, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying fractal regulation remain largely unknown. The recent discovery that the circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nucleus) plays a crucial role in generating fractal patterns in motor activity and heart rate sheds an entirely new light on both fractal control networks and the function of this master circadian clock, and builds a bridge between the fields of circadian biology and fractal physiology. In this review, we sketch the emerging picture of the developing interdisciplinary field of fractal neurophysiology by examining the circadian system's role in fractal regulation.

  9. Continuity and Change: Kyoto Chefs Engage with Science.

    PubMed

    de St Maurice, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Kyoto's chefs have reacted proactively to changes brought about by the most recent phase of globalization, hoping to ensure the continued existence and resonance of Kyoto cuisine by using science to adapt it to contemporary circumstances. These chefs are breaking new ground in their pursuit of a scientific understanding of how Kyoto cuisine works. They meet once a month in a kitchen laboratory at Kyoto University to present and analyze culinary experiments in keeping with a predetermined theme. They use their acquired knowledge to more precisely hone their culinary skills and to explain Kyoto cuisine to a global audience. Chefs visit local elementary schools, appear on national television, and welcome chefs from abroad into their kitchens so that people across the world will better understand what authentic Kyoto cuisine consists of. Although these chefs' efforts are groundbreaking, there is also remarkable continuity to their approach. Not only has Kyoto cuisine always been in a steady state of transformation, but the chefs in the Laboratory are engaging with science and a global audience specifically so that they can ascertain Kyoto cuisine's continued existence and importance. Though their means of understanding and articulating what Kyoto cuisine is differs from that of their predecessors, concepts like shun (seasonality) and hin (refinement) still guide chefs today. Ultimately, then, based on interviews and participant observation conducted in and outside of the Japanese Cuisine Laboratory in 2012 and 2013, I argue that by engaging with contemporary food science, Kyoto's chefs achieve a strategic balance of protecting their culinary heritage while adapting it to contemporary circumstances.

  10. Low-frequency rTMS in patients with subacute ischemic stroke: clinical evaluation of short and long-term outcomes and neurophysiological assessment of cortical excitability

    PubMed Central

    Blesneag, AV; Slăvoacă, DF; Popa, L; Stan, AD; Jemna, N; Isai Moldovan, F; Mureșanu, DF

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is used alone or in combination with physiotherapy for rehabilitation of stroke patients. TMS mapping can also quantify the excitability of the motor area in both the ipsilesional (IL) and contralateral (CL) hemisphere. Objective: This study is the first to measure the dynamics of cortical excitability by TMS mapping before and after treatment with low-frequency (LF) rTMS in the contralesional hemisphere at three different timepoints. Furthermore, the patients were clinically evaluated during the same visit as the mapping to establish both short and long-term outcomes after rTMS treatment. Methods and Results: A total of 16 participants with acute ischemic stroke were assessed 10 days post-stroke by TMS mapping. The patients were randomized into two equal groups: a real rTMS group and a sham group. The rTMS group received LF-rTMS to the contralesional hemisphere for 10 days, starting on the first day after the first mapping. Each subject was also evaluated by mapping on days 45 and 90 after stroke onset. The primary clinical outcome measured was the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) on days 10, 45 and 90 post-stroke. At 10 days after stroke onset, both groups presented low excitability in the lesion side and high excitability in the non-affected side. In the real rTMS group, at 45 days after stroke, a downward trend in the excitability of the contralesional hemisphere and an upward trend in the excitability of the lesioned side were observed. At 90 days after stroke, a tendency toward balanced excitability between both hemispheres was observed. In the sham group, at both 45 and 90 days, we observed increased excitability in the non-affected side compared to the side with the lesioned motor area. At 45 days, the real rTMS group demonstrated a better recovery of the upper limb motor function than the sham group, but at 90 days, there was no significant difference between the two groups

  11. Interventional neurophysiology and an implantable system for neurostimulation of the sacral area.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Surgical or interventional neurophysiology is a term commonly used to refer to a large number of neurosurgical procedures involving the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system which, to be efficient and safe, demand specific neurophysiological know-how. As a result of the development of these procedures and their increasing use in the operating room, the role of clinical neurophysiology, traditionally diagnostic, has been extended. With the advent of 'neurostimulation' and 'neuromodulation', some neurophysiological techniques have, in themselves, progressively become more therapeutic, the therapeutic alteration of nervous system activity being achieved not only by surgical ablation or medication but also through electrophysiological means via implanted or non-implanted devices, whose development was made possible by extensive studies in the field of neurophysiology. The first application of electrical stimulation in urology opened up the way for progress in the therapeutic direction. Moreover, with regard to the mechanism of action underlying neuromodulation, the application of neurophysiology and neuroimaging procedures has contributed to understanding of the neural control mechanism of visceral (e.g. lower urinary tract) function. In our experience, the advent of sacral neuromodulation for lower urinary tract dysfunction and the use of neurophysiology has made it possible to shed light on the pathophysiological mechanisms of neuro-urological disorders, allowing us to assess and validate new therapeutic approaches and finally to develop a new method and device for chronic pudendal nerve stimulation.

  12. KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes.

    PubMed

    Ogata, H; Goto, S; Sato, K; Fujibuchi, W; Bono, H; Kanehisa, M

    1999-01-01

    Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions in terms of the networks of genes and molecules. The major component of KEGG is the PATHWAY database that consists of graphical diagrams of biochemical pathways including most of the known metabolic pathways and some of the known regulatory pathways. The pathway information is also represented by the ortholog group tables summarizing orthologous and paralogous gene groups among different organisms. KEGG maintains the GENES database for the gene catalogs of all organisms with complete genomes and selected organisms with partial genomes, which are continuously re-annotated, as well as the LIGAND database for chemical compounds and enzymes. Each gene catalog is associated with the graphical genome map for chromosomal locations that is represented by Java applet. In addition to the data collection efforts, KEGG develops and provides various computational tools, such as for reconstructing biochemical pathways from the complete genome sequence and for predicting gene regulatory networks from the gene expression profiles. The KEGG databases are daily updated and made freely available (http://www.genome.ad.jp/kegg/).

  13. KEGG: kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes.

    PubMed

    Kanehisa, M; Goto, S

    2000-01-01

    KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions, linking genomic information with higher order functional information. The genomic information is stored in the GENES database, which is a collection of gene catalogs for all the completely sequenced genomes and some partial genomes with up-to-date annotation of gene functions. The higher order functional information is stored in the PATHWAY database, which contains graphical representations of cellular processes, such as metabolism, membrane transport, signal transduction and cell cycle. The PATHWAY database is supplemented by a set of ortholog group tables for the information about conserved subpathways (pathway motifs), which are often encoded by positionally coupled genes on the chromosome and which are especially useful in predicting gene functions. A third database in KEGG is LIGAND for the information about chemical compounds, enzyme molecules and enzymatic reactions. KEGG provides Java graphics tools for browsing genome maps, comparing two genome maps and manipulating expression maps, as well as computational tools for sequence comparison, graph comparison and path computation. The KEGG databases are daily updated and made freely available (http://www. genome.ad.jp/kegg/).

  14. [Approach to Teaching Kampo Medicine at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    An approach to educating our pharmaceutical students about Kampo medicine in the six-year system of undergraduate pharmacy education at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University is introduced, including the author's opinions. Curriculum revisions have been made in our university for students entering after 2012. In teaching Kampo medicine at present, a medical doctor and an on-site pharmacist share information difficult to give in a lecture with the teaching staff in my laboratory. For example, before the curriculum revision, we conferred with a pharmacist and a doctor in the course "Kampo Medicine A, B" for 4th year students, in which students were presented a basic knowledge of Kampo medicine, the application of important Kampo medicines, combinations of crude drugs, etc. Further, in our "Introduction to Kampo Medicine" for 6th year students, presented after they have practiced in hospitals and community pharmacies, we again lecture on the pharmacological characteristics of Kampo medicines, on "pattern (Sho)", and on evidence-based medicine (EBM) and research studies of important Kampo medicines. After our curriculum revision, "Kampo Medicine A, B" was rearranged into the courses "Kampo and Pharmacognosy" and "Clinical Kampo Medicine". "Kampo and Pharmacognosy" is now provided in the second semester of the 3rd year, and in this course we lecture on the basic knowledge of Kampo medicine. An advanced lecture will be given on "Clinical Kampo Medicine" in the 6th year. We are searching for the best way to interest students in Kampo medicine, and to counteract any misunderstandings about Kampo medicine.

  15. Circadian Rhythm Control: Neurophysiological Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glotzbach, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) was implicated as a primary component in central nervous system mechanisms governing circadian rhythms. Disruption of the normal synchronization of temperature, activity, and other rhythms is detrimental to health. Sleep wake disorders, decreases in vigilance and performance, and certain affective disorders may result from or be exacerbated by such desynchronization. To study the basic neurophysiological mechanisms involved in entrainment of circadian systems by the environment, Parylene-coated, etched microwire electrode bundles were used to record extracellular action potentials from the small somata of the SCN and neighboring hypothalamic nuclei in unanesthetized, behaving animals. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and chronically prepared with EEG ane EMG electrodes in addition to a moveable microdrive assembly. The majority of cells had firing rates 10 Hz and distinct populations of cells which had either the highest firing rate or lowest firing rate during sleep were seen.

  16. A Possible Common Neurophysiologic Basis for MDD, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia: Lessons from Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahaf, Goded

    2016-01-01

    There is ample electrophysiological evidence of attention dysfunction in the EEG/ERP signal of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. The reduced attention-related ERP waves show much similarity between MDD, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, raising the question whether there are similarities in the neurophysiologic process that underlies attention dysfunction in these pathologies. The present work suggests that there is such a unified underlying neurophysiologic process, which results in reduced attention in the three pathologies. Naturally, as these pathologies involve different clinical manifestations, we expect differences in their underlying neurophysiology. These differences and their subtle manifestation in the ERP marker for attention are also discussed. MDD, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are just three of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, which involve changes in the EEG/ERP manifestations of attention. Further work should expand the basic model presented here to offer comprehensive modeling of these multiple disorders and to emphasize similarities and dissimilarities of the underlying neurophysiologic processes. PMID:27313546

  17. Hypno-analgesia and acupuncture analgesia: a neurophysiological reality?

    PubMed

    Saletu, B; Saletu, M; Brown, M; Stern, J; Sletten, I; Ulett, G

    1975-01-01

    The effects of hypnosis, acupuncture and analgesic drugs on the subjective experience of pain and on objective neurophysiological parameters were investigated. Pain was produced by brief electric stimuli on the wrist. Pain challengers were: hypnosis (induced by two different video tapes), acupuncture (at specific and unspecific loci, with and without electrical stimulation of the needles), morphine and ketamine. Evaluation of clinical parameters included the subjective experience of pain intensity, blood pressure, puls, temperature, psychosomatic symptoms and side effects. Neurophysiological parameters consisted of the quantitatively analyzed EEG and somatosensory evlked potential (SEP). Pain was significantly reduced by hypnosis, morphine and ketamine, but not during the control seesion. Of the four acupuncture techniques, only electro-acupuncture at specific loci significantly decreased pain. The EEG changes during hypnosis were dependent on the wording of the suggestion and were characterized by an increase of slow and a decrease of fast waves. Acupuncture induced just the opposite changes, which were most significant when needles were inserted at traditional specific sites and stimulated electrically. The evoked potential findings suggested that ketamine attenuates pain in the thalamo-cortical pathways, while hypnosis, acupuncture and morphine induce analgesia at the later CNS stage of stimulus processing. Finally some clinical-neurophysiological correlations were explored.

  18. PREFACE: Beyond Kyoto - the necessary road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen

    2009-03-01

    The Beyond Kyoto conference in Aarhus March 2009 was organised in collaboration with other knowledge institutions, businesses and authorities. It brought together leading scientists, policy-makers, authorities, intergovernmental organisations, NGO's, business stakeholders and business organisations. The conference was a joint interdisciplinary project involving many academic areas and disciplines. These conference proceedings are organised in central and recurring themes that cut across many debates on climate change, the climatic challenges as well as the solutions. In the front there is a short presentation of the conference concept. Part I of the proceedings focuses on issues related to the society - covering climate policy, law, market based instruments, financial structure, behaviour and consumption, public participation, media communication and response from indigenous peoples etc. Part II of the proceedings concerns the scientific knowledge base on climate related issues - covering climate change processes per se, the potential impacts of projected climate change on biodiversity and adaptation possibilities, the interplay between climate, agriculture and biodiversity, emissions, agricultural systems, increasing pressure on the functioning of agriculture and natural areas, vulnerability to extreme weather events and risks in respect to sea-level rise etc. The conference proceedings committee consists of four professors from Aarhus University: Jens-Christian Svenning, Jørgen E Olesen, Mads Forchhammer and Ellen Margrethe Basse. Aarhus University's Climate Secretariat has had the overall responsibility for coordinating the many presentations, as well as the practical side of arranging the conference and supporting the publication of papers. As Head of the Climate Secretariat and Chair of Aarhus University's Climate Panel, I would like to thank everyone for their contribution. This applies both to the scientific and the practical efforts. Special thanks to

  19. Incorporating neurophysiological concepts in mathematical thermoregulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingma, Boris R. M.; Vosselman, M. J.; Frijns, A. J. H.; van Steenhoven, A. A.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W. D.

    2014-01-01

    Skin blood flow (SBF) is a key player in human thermoregulation during mild thermal challenges. Various numerical models of SBF regulation exist. However, none explicitly incorporates the neurophysiology of thermal reception. This study tested a new SBF model that is in line with experimental data on thermal reception and the neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control. Additionally, a numerical thermoregulation model was used as a platform to test the function of the neurophysiological SBF model for skin temperature simulation. The prediction-error of the SBF-model was quantified by root-mean-squared-residual (RMSR) between simulations and experimental measurement data. Measurement data consisted of SBF (abdomen, forearm, hand), core and skin temperature recordings of young males during three transient thermal challenges (1 development and 2 validation). Additionally, ThermoSEM, a thermoregulation model, was used to simulate body temperatures using the new neurophysiological SBF-model. The RMSR between simulated and measured mean skin temperature was used to validate the model. The neurophysiological model predicted SBF with an accuracy of RMSR < 0.27. Tskin simulation results were within 0.37 °C of the measured mean skin temperature. This study shows that (1) thermal reception and neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control can be captured in a mathematical model, and (2) human thermoregulation models can be equipped with SBF control functions that are based on neurophysiology without loss of performance. The neurophysiological approach in modelling thermoregulation is favourable over engineering approaches because it is more in line with the underlying physiology.

  20. Study of the Neurophysiology of Central Fatigue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-05

    objective cognitive fatigue using event related potentials (ERPs). 2) To determine the neurophysiologic mechanisms underlying objective cognitive fatigue ...Study of the Neurophysiology of Central Fatigue The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not...AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 cognitive, fatigue , fatigability

  1. Carbon Sequestered, Carbon Displaced and the Kyoto Context

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1999-04-18

    The integrated system that embraces forest management, forest products, and land-use change impacts the global carbon cycle - and hence the net emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide - in four fundamental ways. Carbon is stored in living and dead biomass, carbon is stored in wood products and landfills, forest products substitute in the market place for products made from other materials, and forest harvests can be used wholly or partially to displace fossil fuels in the energy sector. Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change would result in the creation of international markets for carbon dioxide emissions credits, but the current Kyoto text does not treat all carbon identically. We have developed a carbon accounting model, GORCAM, to examine a variety of scenarios for land management and the production of forest products. In this paper we explore, for two simple scenarios of forest management, the carbon flows that occur and how these might be accounted for under the Kyoto text. The Kyoto protocol raises questions about what activities can result in emissions credits, which carbon reservoirs will be counted, who will receive the credits, and how much credit will be available? The Kyoto Protocol would sometimes give credits for carbon sequestered, but it would always give credits when fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are displaced.

  2. Myasthenia gravis with presynaptic neurophysiological signs: Two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Alboini, Paolo Emilio; Damato, Valentina; Iorio, Raffaele; Luigetti, Marco; Evoli, Amelia

    2015-08-01

    The distinction between myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is based on clinical, neurophysiological and immunological features. We hereby report two cases with a clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis and neurophysiological features consistent with a pre-synaptic neuromuscular transmission defect. Both patients had increased anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody titres and showed a good response to cholinesterase inhibitors, along with a >100% facilitation of the compound muscle action potential on electrophysiological studies. We provide a review of English literature studies on co-existing features of myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, and discuss diagnostic controversies.

  3. Neurophysiological biomarkers for Lewy body dementias

    PubMed Central

    Cromarty, Ruth A.; Elder, Greg J.; Graziadio, Sara; Baker, Mark; Bonanni, Laura; Onofrj, Marco; O’Brien, John T.; Taylor, John-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lewy body dementias (LBD) include both dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease with dementia (PDD), and the differentiation of LBD from other neurodegenerative dementias can be difficult. Currently, there are few biomarkers which might assist early diagnosis, map onto LBD symptom severity, and provide metrics of treatment response. Traditionally, biomarkers in LBD have focussed on neuroimaging modalities; however, as biomarkers need to be simple, inexpensive and non-invasive, neurophysiological approaches might also be useful as LBD biomarkers. Methods In this review, we searched PubMED and PsycINFO databases in a semi-systematic manner in order to identify potential neurophysiological biomarkers in the LBDs. Results We identified 1491 studies; of these, 37 studies specifically examined neurophysiological biomarkers in LBD patients. We found that there was substantial heterogeneity with respect to methodologies and patient cohorts. Conclusion Generally, many of the findings have yet to be replicated, although preliminary findings reinforce the potential utility of approaches such as quantitative electroencephalography and motor cortical stimulation paradigms. Significance Various neurophysiological techniques have the potential to be useful biomarkers in the LBDs. We recommend that future studies focus on maximising the diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the most promising neurophysiological biomarkers. PMID:26183755

  4. Neurophysiological Correlates of Sevoflurane-induced Unconsciousness

    PubMed Central

    Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Tarnal, Vijay; Vanini, Giancarlo; Alexander, Amir; Rosen, Derek; Shortal, Brenna; Janke, Ellen; Mashour, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness in humans have focused predominantly on the intravenous drug propofol and have identified anterior dominance of alpha rhythms and frontal phase-amplitude coupling patterns as neurophysiological markers. However, it is unclear whether the correlates of propofol-induced unconsciousness are generalizable to inhaled anesthetics, which have distinct molecular targets and which are used more commonly in clinical practice. Methods We recorded 64-channel electroencephalogram in healthy human participants during consciousness, sevoflurane-induced unconsciousness, and recovery (n=10; n=7 suitable for analysis). Spectrograms and scalp distributions of low-frequency (1 Hz) and alpha (10 Hz) power were analyzed, and phase-amplitude modulation between these two frequencies was calculated in frontal and parietal regions. Phase lag index was used to assess phase relationships across the cortex. Results At concentrations sufficient for unconsciousness, sevoflurane did not result in a consistent anteriorization of alpha power; the relationship between low-frequency phase and alpha amplitude in the frontal cortex did not undergo characteristic transitions. By contrast, there was significant cross-frequency coupling in the parietal region during consciousness that was not observed after loss of consciousness. Furthermore, a reversible disruption of anterior-posterior phase relationships in the alpha bandwidth was identified as a correlate of sevoflurane-induced unconsciousness. Conclusion In humans, sevoflurane-induced unconsciousness is not correlated with anteriorization of alpha and related cross-frequency patterns, but rather by a disruption of phase-amplitude coupling in the parietal region and phase-phase relationships across the cortex. PMID:25296108

  5. Neurophysiological biomarkers for drug development in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Javitt, Daniel C.; Spencer, Kevin M.; Thaker, Gunvant K.; Winterer, Georg; Hajós, Mihály

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia represents a pervasive deficit in brain function, leading to hallucinations and delusions, social withdrawal and a decline in cognitive performance. As the underlying genetic and neuronal abnormalities in schizophrenia are largely unknown, it is challenging to measure the severity of its symptoms objectively, or to design and evaluate psychotherapeutic interventions. Recent advances in neurophysiological techniques provide new opportunities to measure abnormal brain functions in patients with schizophrenia and to compare these with drug-induced alterations. Moreover, many of these neurophysiological processes are phylogenetically conserved and can be modelled in preclinical studies, offering unique opportunities for use as translational biomarkers in schizophrenia drug discovery. PMID:18064038

  6. Ocean fertilization, carbon credits and the Kyoto Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westley, M. B.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2008-12-01

    Commercial interest in ocean fertilization as a carbon sequestration tool was excited by the December 1997 agreement of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change. The Protocol commits industrialized countries to caps on net greenhouse gas emissions and allows for various flexible mechanisms to achieve these caps in the most economically efficient manner possible, including trade in carbon credits from projects that reduce emissions or enhance sinks. The carbon market was valued at 64 billion in 2007, with the bulk of the trading (50 billion) taking place in the highly regulated European Union Emission Trading Scheme, which deals primarily in emission allowances in the energy sector. A much smaller amount, worth $265 million, was traded in the largely unregulated "voluntary" market (Capoor and Ambrosi 2008). As the voluntary market grows, so do calls for its regulation, with several efforts underway to set rules and standards for the sale of voluntary carbon credits using the Kyoto Protocol as a starting point. Four US-based companies and an Australian company currently seek to develop ocean fertilization technologies for the generation of carbon credits. We review these plans through the lens of the Kyoto Protocol and its flexible mechanisms, and examine whether and how ocean fertilization could generate tradable carbon credits. We note that at present, ocean sinks are not included in the Kyoto Protocol, and that furthermore, the Kyoto Protocol only addresses sources and sinks of greenhouse gases within national boundaries, making open-ocean fertilization projects a jurisdictional challenge. We discuss the negotiating history behind the limited inclusion of land use, land use change and forestry in the Kyoto Protocol and the controversy and eventual compromise concerning methodologies for terrestrial carbon accounting. We conclude that current technologies for measuring and monitoring carbon sequestration following ocean fertilization

  7. Brain Oscillations Forever--Neurophysiology in Future Research of Child Psychiatric Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberger, Aribert

    2009-01-01

    For decades neurophysiology has successfully contributed to research and clinical care in child psychiatry. Recently, methodological progress has led to a revival of interest in brain oscillations (i.e., a band of periodic neuronal frequencies with a wave-duration from milliseconds to several seconds which may code and decode information). These…

  8. [Anaesthetic management of excision of a cervical intraspinal tumor with intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring in a pregnant woman at 29 weeks].

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Domínguez, R; González-González, G; Rubio-Romero, R; Federero-Martínez, F; Jiménez, I

    2016-05-01

    The intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring is a technique used to test and monitor nervous function. This technique has become essential in some neurosurgery interventions, since it avoids neurological injuries during surgery and reduces morbidity. The experience of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring is limited in some clinical cases due to the low incidence of pregnant women undergoing a surgical procedure. A case is presented of a 29-weeks pregnant woman suffering from a cervical intraspinal tumour with intense pain, which required surgery. The collaboration of a multidisciplinary team composed of anaesthesiologists, neurosurgeons, neurophysiologists and obstetricians, the continuous monitoring of the foetus, the intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, and maintaining the neurophysiological and utero-placental variables were crucial for the proper development of the surgery. According to our experience and the limited publications in the literature, no damaging effects of this technique were detected at maternal-foetal level. On the contrary, it brings important benefits during the surgery and for the final result.

  9. Neurophysiological assessment of the electrostimulation procedures used in stroke patients during rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Lisinski, P; Huber, J; Samborski, W; Witkowska, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the associated electrotherapeutical and kinesiotherapeutical treatment in patients after ischemic stroke (N=24), mainly by means of neurophysiological tests. All patients underwent the same 20 days of neurorehabilitation procedures. Particular attention was paid to three-stage modified electrotherapy procedures such as: oververtebral functional electrical stimulation (FES), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and the alternate neuromuscular functional electrical stimulation (NMFES) of antagonistic muscles of the wrist and the ankle (N=16). Electrotherapy was supplemented with kinesiotherapeutic (mainly PNF) procedures acting as an amplifier. Clinical assessment included muscle tension (Ashworth's scale), muscle force (Lovett's scale) and reflex scoring at wrist and ankle. However, the effectiveness of the procedures was measured by the assessment of results in complex and repetitive, bilaterally performed global electromyography (EMG) and electroneurography (ENG; M-wave studies). The statistical analysis obtained from results in clinical and neurophysiological examinations suggested that the dorsiflexion of wrist and ankle was improved in the majority of patients who took part in this study. EMG and ENG examinations showed that 20 days of therapy improved both activity in muscle motor units on the more paralyzed side (mainly within upper extremities) and to a lesser degree in the transmission of efferent impulses within motor fibers of nerves. The results obtained suggest that patients after ischemic strokes never show an isolated unilateral disability in motor functions. No definite similarities between the results of clinical and neurophysiological studies were found, which may suggest greater accuracy of the neurophysiological evaluation.

  10. Neurophysiological aspects of neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuyoshi

    2014-05-01

    Recently, amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) has been increasingly used and proved useful in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) for the management of neonatal seizures. It does not replace, but is supplementary to standard EEG. This article reviews some of findings obtained with standard EEGs, and tries to interpret them with recent findings in the field of basic science. Seizures mainly occur in active-REM sleep in neonates. This is in sharp contrast to those in older children and adults, in whom epileptic seizures occur mainly in NREM sleep. This may be explained by neurotransmitter effects on sleep mechanisms of the neonatal brain that are different from those of older individuals. When all clinical seizures have no electrical correlates, they are non-epileptic, but when the correlation between clinical seizures and frequent electrical discharges are inconsistent, they should rather be considered epileptic, reflecting progression of status epilepticus causing electro-clinical dissociation. Electro-clinical dissociation is not a characteristic of neonatal seizures per se, but a feature of prolonged status epilepticus in adults as well as children. It occurs when prolonged status epilepticus itself causes a progressively severe encephalopathy, or when status occurs in the presence of a severe underlying encephalopathy. In neonates without pre-existing brain damage, frequent seizures per se may cause mild depression characterized by the loss of high voltage slow patterns, an important constituent of slow wave sleep reflecting cortico-cortical connectivity. Mild depression only in the acute stage is not associated with neurological sequelae, but previously damaged brain may be more vulnerable than normal brain.

  11. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Workshop Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenqvist, Ake; Imhoff, Marc; Milne, Anthony; Dobson, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contains quantified, legally binding commitments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels and allows carbon emissions to be balanced by carbon sinks represented by vegetation. The issue of using vegetation cover as an emission offset raises a debate about the adequacy of current remote sensing systems and data archives to both assess carbon stocks/sinks at 1990 levels, and monitor the current and future global status of those stocks. These concerns and the potential ratification of the Protocol among participating countries is stimulating policy debates and underscoring a need for the exchange of information between the international legal community and the remote sensing community. On October 20-22 1999, two working groups of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) joined with the University of Michigan (Michigan, USA) to convene discussions on how remote sensing technology could contribute to the information requirements raised by implementation of, and compliance with, the Kyoto Protocol. The meeting originated as a joint effort between the Global Monitoring Working Group and the Radar Applications Working Group in Commission VII of the ISPRS, co-sponsored by the University of Michigan. Tile meeting was attended by representatives from national government agencies and international organizations and academic institutions. Some of the key themes addressed were: (1) legal aspects of transnational remote sensing in the context of the Kyoto Protocol; (2) a review of the current and future and remote sensing technologies that could be applied to the Kyoto Protocol; (3) identification of areas where additional research is needed in order to advance and align remote sensing technology with the requirements and expectations of the Protocol; and 94) the bureaucratic and research management approaches needed to align the remote sensing

  12. [Prof. Michiharu Matsuoka, founder of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University, and his achievements in orthopaedic surgery in the Meiji Era of Japan (part 1: establishment of the department)].

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Hayato

    2005-09-01

    The Department of Orthopaedic and Musculoskeletal Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (formerly the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University) was founded by Imperial Ordinance, Article No. 89 issued on April 23, 1906. On May 4, 1906, Dr. Shinichiro Asahara, Assistant Professor of the Department of Surgery, was appointed as the first director of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University. Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka, Assistant Doctor of the Department of Surgery, Tokyo Medical School, Imperial University of Tokyo, was appointed Assistant Professor of Surgery, Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University in March 1901. From August 1903 to May 1906, he studied orthopaedic surgery in Germany and returned on May 5, 1906. Dr. Matsuoka was appointed as the director and chief of the Department on May 13, 1906 and took over Dr. Asahara's position. On June 18, 1906, Dr. Matsuoka started his clinic and began giving lectures on orthopaedic surgery. This was the first department of orthopaedic surgery among the Japanese medical schools. Dr. Matsuoka was appointed as Professor in 1907. He had to overcome several obstacles to establish the medical department of a new discipline that had never existed in Japanese medical schools. This article discusses Dr. Matsuoka's contributions to establishing and developing orthopaedic surgery in Japan in the Meiji-era.

  13. Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-27

    Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

  14. Neurophysiological Analysis of Circadian Rhythm Entrainment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-24

    the newly discovered 5 - HT7 receptor have yet to be performed. These results demonstrate that serotonin acting through a 5 -HTIA-like receptor can...ANNUAL 1 Jan 93 TO 31 Dec 93 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF CIRCADIAN RHYTHM F49620-93-1-0089 ENTRAINMENT j...sensitivity of SCN cells to serotonin ( 5 -HT) and the effects of serotonin on rhythm entrainment. The evidence to date has suggested, however, that

  15. [Experience of Collaborative Research through Department of Medical Instrumental Research and Technology in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Both of Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine which offers high, technical and safe medical treatment and Horiba, Ltd. which has small CBC analyzers in a core product established a joint research institute for development of advanced laboratory test analyzer from January 1, 2012 in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine as the "advanced treatment hospital" where the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has got approved. Clinical needs about analyzer and reagent for a laboratory test are being investigated to the emergency medical care unit and the intensive care unit as well as the laboratory test part in the affiliated hospital and many medical departments of the pediatrics, the internal medicine and the surgery. Developing the new analyzer based on high technology, evaluating the performance of them and spreading them to a medical examination and treatment site is our main target.

  16. Anatomy and Neurophysiology of Cough

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Brendan J.; Chang, Anne B.; Bolser, Donald C.; Smith, Jaclyn A.; Mazzone, Stuart B.; Adams, Todd M.; Altman, Kenneth W.; Barker, Alan F.; Birring, Surinder S.; Blackhall, Fiona; Bolser, Donald, C.; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Braman, Sidney S.; Brightling, Christopher; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla; Canning, Brendan; Chang, Anne Bernadette; Coeytaux, Remy; Cowley, Terrie; Davenport, Paul; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ebihara, Satoru; El Solh, Ali A.; Escalante, Patricio; Feinstein, Anthony; Field, Stephen K.; Fisher, Dina; French, Cynthia T.; Gibson, Peter; Gold, Philip; Grant, Cameron; Harding, Susan M.; Harnden, Anthony; Hill, Adam T.; Irwin, Richard S.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Keogh, Karina A.; Lane, Andrew P.; Lewis, Sandra Zelman; Lim, Kaiser; Malesker, Mark A.; Mazzone, Peter; Mazzone, Stuart; Molasiotis, Alex; Murad, M. Hassan; Newcombe, Peter; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Oppenheimer, John; Prezant, David; Pringsheim, Tamara; Restrepo, Marcos I.; Rosen, Mark; Rubin, Bruce; Ryu, Jay H.; Smith, Jaclyn; Tarlo, Susan M.; Turner, Ronald B.; Vertigan, Anne; Wang, Gang; Weir, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary C-fibers and a subset of mechanically sensitive, acid-sensitive myelinated sensory nerves play essential roles in regulating cough. These vagal sensory nerves terminate primarily in the larynx, trachea, carina, and large intrapulmonary bronchi. Other bronchopulmonary sensory nerves, sensory nerves innervating other viscera, as well as somatosensory nerves innervating the chest wall, diaphragm, and abdominal musculature regulate cough patterning and cough sensitivity. The responsiveness and morphology of the airway vagal sensory nerve subtypes and the extrapulmonary sensory nerves that regulate coughing are described. The brainstem and higher brain control systems that process this sensory information are complex, but our current understanding of them is considerable and increasing. The relevance of these neural systems to clinical phenomena, such as urge to cough and psychologic methods for treatment of dystussia, is high, and modern imaging methods have revealed potential neural substrates for some features of cough in the human. PMID:25188530

  17. Neurophysiologic Markers of Abnormal Brain Activity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rissling, Anthony J.; Makeig, Scott; Braff, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Cortical electrophysiologic event-related potentials are multidimensional measures of information processing that are well-suited for efficiently parsing automatic and controlled components of cognition that span the range of deficits evidenced in schizophrenia patients. These information processes are key cognitive measures that are recognized as informative and valid targets for understanding the neurobiology of schizophrenia. These measures may be used in concert with the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) neurocognitive measures in the development of novel treatments for schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. The employment of novel event-related potential paradigms designed to carefully characterize the early spectrum of perceptual and cognitive information processing allows investigators to identify the neurophysiologic basis of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia and to examine the associated clinical and functional impairments. PMID:20857348

  18. Let`s focus on sustainability, not Kyoto

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, H.R.

    1999-03-01

    This article addresses how to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide produced in the combustion of fossil fuels -- oil, natural gas, and coal -- in a less painful way than that called for in the Kyoto Protocol. Adopting a 1,000-gigatonne global carbon budget for years 1991 to 2100 and a peak annual carbon emission level of 11 gigatonnes between years 2030 and 2040 will buy the time to develop and deploy low- and zero-carbon emission technologies while deferring the controversial issue of the compliance of developing countries.

  19. Carbon emissions. The economic benefits of the Kyoto Protocol.

    PubMed

    De Leo, G A; Rizzi, L; Caizzi, A; Gatto, M

    2001-10-04

    The third Conference of the Parties in Kyoto set the target of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions by an average of 5.3% with respect to 1990 values by 2008-2012. One of the main objections to the protocol's ratification is that compliance would pose an unbearable economic burden on the countries involved. But we show here that this is not the case if costs apart from the direct costs of energy production are also considered. Costs are also incurred in rectifying damage to human health, material goods, agriculture and the environment related to greenhouse-gas emissions.

  20. Proposal for a Standard Format for Neurophysiology Data Recording and Exchange.

    PubMed

    Stead, Matt; Halford, Jonathan J

    2016-10-01

    The lack of interoperability between information networks is a significant source of cost in health care. Standardized data formats decrease health care cost, improve quality of care, and facilitate biomedical research. There is no common standard digital format for storing clinical neurophysiologic data. This review proposes a new standard file format for neurophysiology data (the bulk of which is video-electroencephalographic data), entitled the Multiscale Electrophysiology Format, version 3 (MEF3), which is designed to address many of the shortcomings of existing formats. MEF3 provides functionality that addresses many of the limitations of current formats. The proposed improvements include (1) hierarchical file structure with improved organization; (2) greater extensibility for big data applications requiring a large number of channels, signal types, and parallel processing; (3) efficient and flexible lossy or lossless data compression; (4) industry standard multilayered data encryption and time obfuscation that permits sharing of human data without the need for deidentification procedures; (5) resistance to file corruption; (6) facilitation of online and offline review and analysis; and (7) provision of full open source documentation. At this time, there is no other neurophysiology format that supports all of these features. MEF3 is currently gaining industry and academic community support. The authors propose the use of the MEF3 as a standard format for neurophysiology recording and data exchange. Collaboration between industry, professional organizations, research communities, and independent standards organizations is needed to move the project forward.

  1. Biomechanical correlates of symptomatic and asymptomatic neurophysiological impairment in high school football.

    PubMed

    Breedlove, Evan L; Robinson, Meghan; Talavage, Thomas M; Morigaki, Katherine E; Yoruk, Umit; O'Keefe, Kyle; King, Jeff; Leverenz, Larry J; Gilger, Jeffrey W; Nauman, Eric A

    2012-04-30

    Concussion is a growing public health issue in the United States, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is the chief long-term concern linked to repeated concussions. Recently, attention has shifted toward subconcussive blows and the role they may play in the development of CTE. We recruited a cohort of high school football players for two seasons of observation. Acceleration sensors were placed in the helmets, and all contact activity was monitored. Pre-season computer-based neuropsychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tests were also obtained in order to assess cognitive and neurophysiological health. In-season follow-up scans were then obtained both from individuals who had sustained a clinically-diagnosed concussion and those who had not. These changes were then related through stepwise regression to history of blows recorded throughout the football season up to the date of the scan. In addition to those subjects who had sustained a concussion, a substantial portion of our cohort who did not sustain concussions showed significant neurophysiological changes. Stepwise regression indicated significant relationships between the number of blows sustained by a subject and the ensuing neurophysiological change. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that the effects of repetitive blows to the head are cumulative and that repeated exposure to subconcussive blows is connected to pathologically altered neurophysiology.

  2. [Neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies for restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movement disorder].

    PubMed

    Happe, S; Paulus, W

    2006-06-01

    The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a clinical diagnosis based on the four essential criteria defined by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). An idiopathic form can be separated from a symptomatic form. Neurophysiological studies have investigated the pathophysiology of the idiopathic RLS or have been used to exclude a symptomatic cause, in particular polyneuropathy. So far cortical excitability changes, corticomotor, somatosensory and auditory pathways, spinal cord excitability, B-wave rhythm and cycling alternating pattern, as well as reflex mechanisms have been investigated by electroencephalography, evoked potentials, Bereitschaftspotentials, nerve conduction and thermal threshold measurements, electromyography, transcranial Doppler sonography, measurements of the spinal flexor reflex as well as neuroimaging techniques. The etiology of the RLS cannot be revealed by these methods, neurophysiological studies in RLS are, however, useful for a better understanding of the pathophysiology and for exclusion of a polyneuropathy or other symptomatic causes. In addition to neurophysiological investigations, small fiber neuropathy, which seems to be a more common finding in RLS patients than expected to date, may need biopsy for confirmation. This review will focus on investigations of the different systems involved with diverse neurophysiological methods.

  3. Neurophysiological findings in patients 1 year after snake bite induced neurotoxicity in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bell, D J; Wijegunasinghe, D; Samarakoon, S; Palipana, H; Gunasekera, S; de Silva, H A; Lalloo, D G; Ranawaka, U K; de Silva, H J

    2010-05-01

    Snake bite causes significant morbidity and mortality in Sri Lanka. Snake venoms contain neurotoxins that block neuromuscular junction transmission. Presynaptic neurotoxicity most commonly causes destruction of nerve terminals with recovery by regrowth, whilst postsynaptic neurotoxicity usually involves competition at the acetylcholine receptor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were long-term clinical or neurophysiological changes in snake bite survivors 1 year after their envenoming. Detailed neurophysiological tests and clinical examinations were performed on 26 snake bite victims who had presented with neurotoxicity 12 months previously, and their results were compared with controls recruited from the same communities. Significant differences were observed in some nerve conduction parameters in some snake bite victims compared with controls, predominantly in those thought to have elapid bites, including prolongation of sensory, motor and F-wave latencies and reduction of conduction velocities. There was no evidence of any residual deficits in neuromuscular junction transmission. These results suggest a possible demyelinating type polyneuropathy. None of the cases or controls had abnormalities on clinical examination. This is one of the few studies to report possible long-term neurological damage following systemic neurotoxicity after snake bite. The clinical significance of these neurophysiological abnormalities is uncertain and further studies are required to investigate whether the abnormalities persist and to see whether clinical consequences develop.

  4. Conceptual Coordination Bridges Information Processing and Neurophysiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Norrig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Information processing theories of memory and skills can be reformulated in terms of how categories are physically and temporally related, a process called conceptual coordination. Dreaming can then be understood as a story understanding process in which two mechanisms found in everyday comprehension are missing: conceiving sequences (chunking categories in time as a categorization) and coordinating across modalities (e.g., relating the sound of a word and the image of its meaning). On this basis, we can readily identify isomorphisms between dream phenomenology and neurophysiology, and explain the function of dreaming as facilitating future coordination of sequential, cross-modal categorization (i.e., REM sleep lowers activation thresholds, "unlearning").

  5. SOME THOUGHTS ON NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF YOGA

    PubMed Central

    Ramamurthi, B.

    1981-01-01

    Yoga presents the culmination of efforts made by mankind till now control mind and behaviour. It is living science, practiced in an elementary fashion by many in India. While a few perhaps are there who have attained mastery of this science. The background of the derivation and concept of yoga in India is presented followed by a simple exposition of yogic practices and some possible neurophysiologic explanations. Research in yoga will be rewarding as it gives means of exploring and enlarging the functions of the human brain. PMID:22556457

  6. GHG emission reductions and costs to achieve Kyoto target.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-ying

    2003-07-01

    Emission projection and marginal abatement cost curves (MACs) are the central components of any assessment of future carbon market, such as CDM (clean development mechanism) potentials, carbon quota price etc. However, they are products of very complex, dynamic systems driven by forces like population growth, economic development, resource endowments, technology progress and so on. The modeling approaches for emission projection and MACs evaluation were summarized, and some major models and their results were compared. Accordingly, reduction and cost requirements to achieve the Kyoto target were estimated. It is concluded that Annex I Parties' total reduction requirements range from 503-1304 MtC with USA participation and decrease significantly to 140-612 MtC after USA's withdrawal. Total costs vary from 21-77 BUSD with USA and from 5-36 BUSD without USA if only domestic reduction actions are taken. The costs would sharply reduce while considering the three flexible mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol with domestic actions' share in the all mitigation strategies drops to only 0-16% .

  7. After Kyoto, science still probes global warming causes

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, G.

    1998-01-19

    The Kyoto meeting has come and gone. In the US, the treaty still has to be signed by President Bill Clinton and ratified by the Senate, an action that is most unlikely in view of last year`s 95-0 vote on the issue. In the short term 36 senators are up for reelection in November and therefore likely to come under intense pressure to change their positions, to support the Kyoto treaty, and to push for Senate action. Senators will need support, additional inputs, and overall reinforcement of their positions. One area that this writer believes still has much to offer in this context is the quality--more specifically, the lack of quality--of much of the scientific evidence behind this treaty. Part of that subject is the natural variability in the climate. Natural climate variability is based on cyclical forces, random events, and the Earth`s response to these two factors. These forces create the variability in the climate, the background noise above which any signal of anthropogenic warming must rise in order to be detected. A review of key climatic cycles is the subject of this article.

  8. Handling Metadata in a Neurophysiology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Zehl, Lyuba; Jaillet, Florent; Stoewer, Adrian; Grewe, Jan; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Brochier, Thomas G.; Riehle, Alexa; Denker, Michael; Grün, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    To date, non-reproducibility of neurophysiological research is a matter of intense discussion in the scientific community. A crucial component to enhance reproducibility is to comprehensively collect and store metadata, that is, all information about the experiment, the data, and the applied preprocessing steps on the data, such that they can be accessed and shared in a consistent and simple manner. However, the complexity of experiments, the highly specialized analysis workflows and a lack of knowledge on how to make use of supporting software tools often overburden researchers to perform such a detailed documentation. For this reason, the collected metadata are often incomplete, incomprehensible for outsiders or ambiguous. Based on our research experience in dealing with diverse datasets, we here provide conceptual and technical guidance to overcome the challenges associated with the collection, organization, and storage of metadata in a neurophysiology laboratory. Through the concrete example of managing the metadata of a complex experiment that yields multi-channel recordings from monkeys performing a behavioral motor task, we practically demonstrate the implementation of these approaches and solutions with the intention that they may be generalized to other projects. Moreover, we detail five use cases that demonstrate the resulting benefits of constructing a well-organized metadata collection when processing or analyzing the recorded data, in particular when these are shared between laboratories in a modern scientific collaboration. Finally, we suggest an adaptable workflow to accumulate, structure and store metadata from different sources using, by way of example, the odML metadata framework. PMID:27486397

  9. Handling Metadata in a Neurophysiology Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Zehl, Lyuba; Jaillet, Florent; Stoewer, Adrian; Grewe, Jan; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Brochier, Thomas G; Riehle, Alexa; Denker, Michael; Grün, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    To date, non-reproducibility of neurophysiological research is a matter of intense discussion in the scientific community. A crucial component to enhance reproducibility is to comprehensively collect and store metadata, that is, all information about the experiment, the data, and the applied preprocessing steps on the data, such that they can be accessed and shared in a consistent and simple manner. However, the complexity of experiments, the highly specialized analysis workflows and a lack of knowledge on how to make use of supporting software tools often overburden researchers to perform such a detailed documentation. For this reason, the collected metadata are often incomplete, incomprehensible for outsiders or ambiguous. Based on our research experience in dealing with diverse datasets, we here provide conceptual and technical guidance to overcome the challenges associated with the collection, organization, and storage of metadata in a neurophysiology laboratory. Through the concrete example of managing the metadata of a complex experiment that yields multi-channel recordings from monkeys performing a behavioral motor task, we practically demonstrate the implementation of these approaches and solutions with the intention that they may be generalized to other projects. Moreover, we detail five use cases that demonstrate the resulting benefits of constructing a well-organized metadata collection when processing or analyzing the recorded data, in particular when these are shared between laboratories in a modern scientific collaboration. Finally, we suggest an adaptable workflow to accumulate, structure and store metadata from different sources using, by way of example, the odML metadata framework.

  10. Dynamic publication model for neurophysiology databases.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D; Abato, M; Knuth, K H; DeBellis, R; Erde, S M

    2001-08-29

    We have implemented a pair of database projects, one serving cortical electrophysiology and the other invertebrate neurones and recordings. The design for each combines aspects of two proven schemes for information interchange. The journal article metaphor determined the type, scope, organization and quantity of data to comprise each submission. Sequence databases encouraged intuitive tools for data viewing, capture, and direct submission by authors. Neurophysiology required transcending these models with new datatypes. Time-series, histogram and bivariate datatypes, including illustration-like wrappers, were selected by their utility to the community of investigators. As interpretation of neurophysiological recordings depends on context supplied by metadata attributes, searches are via visual interfaces to sets of controlled-vocabulary metadata trees. Neurones, for example, can be specified by metadata describing functional and anatomical characteristics. Permanence is advanced by data model and data formats largely independent of contemporary technology or implementation, including Java and the XML standard. All user tools, including dynamic data viewers that serve as a virtual oscilloscope, are Java-based, free, multiplatform, and distributed by our application servers to any contemporary networked computer. Copyright is retained by submitters; viewer displays are dynamic and do not violate copyright of related journal figures. Panels of neurophysiologists view and test schemas and tools, enhancing community support.

  11. Operational neuroscience: neurophysiological measures in applied environments.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Amy A

    2007-05-01

    There is, without question, an interest within the military services to understand, account for, and adapt to the cognitive state of the individual warfighter. As the field of neuroscience has matured through investments from numerous government agencies, we are on the cusp of being able to move confidently from the lab into the field--and deepen our understanding of the cognitive issues embedded in the warfighting environment. However, as we edge closer to this integration--it is critical for researchers in this arena to understand the landscape they are entering-reflected not only in the challenges of each task or operational environment but also in the individual differences intrinsic to each warfighter. The research papers in this section cover this spectrum, including individual differences and their prediction of adaptability to high-stress environments, the influence of sleep-deprivation on neurophysiological measures of stimulus categorization, neurophysiological measures of stress in the training environment and, finally, real-time neural measures of task engagement, mental workload and vigilance. It is clear from this research, and other work detailed in this supplement, that the judicious use of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and physiology in the applied environment is desirable for both researchers and operators. In fact, we suggest that these investigations merit a field designation unto their own: Operational Neuroscience. It is our hope that the discussion of this new field of study will galvanize others to increase the confidence and utility of this research through their own investigations.

  12. [Neurophysiologic bases and neuropsychological approach to the study of infantile hyperactivity].

    PubMed

    Polaino-Lorente, A; Cabanyes, J

    1989-01-01

    Hyperactivity is a common important group of childhood behaviour problems with great influence on the personal, familiar and social sphere, a better knowledge of which is important. Up to now several explanatory hypotheses have been pointed out. From some time ago, the physiopathological roots of this clinical description has been studied in depth. The authors make a review of the neurophysiological and neuropsychological bases of hyperactivity in children.

  13. UNFINISHED BUSINESS: The Economics of The Kyoto Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    JA Edmonds; CN MacCracken; RD Sands; SH Kim

    2000-07-06

    The Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) was completed on the morning of December 11, 1997, following over two years of negotiations. The product of these deliberations is a complex and incomplete document knitting together the diversity of interests and perspectives represented by the more than 150 delegations. Because the document is complex, its implications are not immediately obvious. If it enters into force, the Kyoto Protocol will have far-reaching implications for all nations--both nations with obligations under the Protocol and those without obligations. National energy systems, and the world's energy system, could be forever changed. In this paper the authors develop an assessment of the energy and economic implications of achieving the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. They find that many of the details of the Protocol that remain to be worked out introduce critical uncertainties affecting the cost of compliance. There are also a variety of uncertainties that further complicate the analysis. These include future non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas emissions and the cost of their mitigation. Other uncertainties include the resolution of negotiations to establish rules for determining and allocating land-use emissions rights, mechanisms for Annex 1 trading, and participation by non-Annex 1 members in the Clean Development Mechanism. In addition, there are economic uncertainties, such as the behavior of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union in supplying emissions credits under Annex 1 trading. These uncertainties in turn could affect private sector investments in anticipation of the Protocol's entrance into force. The longer the nature of future obligations remains unclear, the less able decision makers will be to incorporate these rules into their investment decisions. They find that the cost of implementing the Protocol in the US can vary by more than an order of magnitude. The marginal cost could be as low as $26 per tonne of

  14. Diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy: A comparative study of five neurophysiological tests.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, J-P; Wahab, A; Planté-Bordeneuve, V; Sène, D; Ménard-Lefaucheur, I; Rouie, D; Tebbal, D; Salhi, H; Créange, A; Zouari, H; Ng Wing Tin, S

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is a challenge for clinical neurophysiology. Conventional nerve conduction studies are inappropriate for this purpose and therefore various neurophysiological tests have been proposed. In this study, we compared the diagnostic value of five of these tests in 87 patients with clinically definite (n=33) or possible (n=54) SFN related to amyloid neuropathy secondary to transthyretin gene mutation or monoclonal gammopathy (n=30), primary Sjögren's syndrome (n=20), Fabry's disease (n=2), or unknown cause (n=35). Neurophysiological tests included quantitative sensory testing with determination of warm and cold detection thresholds (WDT, CDT), recording of laser-evoked potentials (LEP) and sympathetic skin responses (SSRs), and measurement of electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) using Sudoscan(®) device. All tests were performed at the four extremities (hands and feet). All patients with clinically definite SFN and 70% of the patients with possible SFN had at least one abnormal test. The LEP was the most sensitive test (altered in 79% of the patients with at least one abnormal test), followed by ESC (61%), WDT (55%), SSR (41%), and CDT (32%). The combination of LEP, assessing A-delta sensory fibers, WDT, assessing sensory C fibers, and ESC, assessing autonomic C fibers, appears a relevant approach for the diagnosis of SFN. Compared to SSR and CDT, these three tests, LEP, WDT, and ESC, had a significantly better diagnostic sensitivity and their combination further improved diagnostic accuracy.

  15. Positron beam facility at Kyoto University Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Q.; Sato, K.; Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H.; Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A.; Shirai, Y.

    2014-04-01

    A positron beam facility is presently under construction at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), which is a light-water moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A cadmium (Cd) - tungsten (W) source similar to that used in NEPOMUC was chosen in the KUR because Cd is very efficient at producing γ-rays when exposed to thermal neutron flux, and W is a widely used in converter and moderator materials. High-energy positrons are moderated by a W moderator with a mesh structure. Electrical lenses and a solenoid magnetic field are used to extract the moderated positrons and guide them to a platform outside of the reactor, respectively. Since Japan is an earthquake-prone country, a special attention is paid for the design of the in-pile positron source so as not to damage the reactor in the severe earthquake.

  16. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological insights into hoarding disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grisham, Jessica R; Baldwin, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Hoarding disorder (HD) is associated with significant personal impairment in function and constitutes a severe public health burden. Individuals who hoard experience intense distress in discarding a large number of objects, which results in extreme clutter. Research and theory suggest that hoarding may be associated with specific deficits in information processing, particularly in the areas of attention, memory, and executive functioning. There is also growing interest in the neural underpinnings of hoarding behavior. Thus, the primary aim of this review is to summarize the current state of evidence regarding neuropsychological deficits associated with hoarding and review research on its neurophysiological underpinnings. We also outline the prominent theoretical model of hoarding and provide an up-to-date description of empirically based psychological and medical treatment approaches for HD. Finally, we discuss important future avenues for elaborating our model of HD and improving treatment access and outcomes for this disabling disorder. PMID:25897231

  17. Brainstem Monitoring in the Neurocritical Care Unit: A Rationale for Real-Time, Automated Neurophysiological Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Stone, James L; Bailes, Julian E; Hassan, Ahmed N; Sindelar, Brian; Patel, Vimal; Fino, John

    2017-02-01

    Patients with severe traumatic brain injury or large intracranial space-occupying lesions (spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, infarction, or tumor) commonly present to the neurocritical care unit with an altered mental status. Many experience progressive stupor and coma from mass effects and transtentorial brain herniation compromising the ascending arousal (reticular activating) system. Yet, little progress has been made in the practicality of bedside, noninvasive, real-time, automated, neurophysiological brainstem, or cerebral hemispheric monitoring. In this critical review, we discuss the ascending arousal system, brain herniation, and shortcomings of our current management including the neurological exam, intracranial pressure monitoring, and neuroimaging. We present a rationale for the development of nurse-friendly-continuous, automated, and alarmed-evoked potential monitoring, based upon the clinical and experimental literature, advances in the prognostication of cerebral anoxia, and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.

  18. Neurophysiologic correlates of sonication treatment in patients with essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jin Woo; Min, Byoung-Kyong; Kim, Bong-Soo; Chang, Won Seok; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) is gaining attention as a potent substitute for surgical intervention in the treatment of neurologic disorders. To discern the neurophysiologic correlates of its therapeutic effects, we applied MRgHIFU to an intractable neurologic disorder, essential tremor, while measuring magnetoencephalogram mu rhythms from the motor cortex. Focused ultrasound sonication destroyed tissues by focusing a high-energy beam on the ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus. The post-treatment effectiveness was also evaluated using the clinical rating scale for tremors. Thalamic MRgHIFU had substantial therapeutic effects on patients, based on MRgHIFU-mediated improvements in movement control and significant changes in brain mu rhythms. Ultrasonic thalamotomy may reduce hyper-excitable activity in the motor cortex, resulting in normalized behavioral activity after sonication treatment. Thus, non-invasive and spatially accurate MRgHIFU technology can serve as a potent therapeutic tool with broad clinical applications.

  19. Functional Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology of Functional Neurological Disorders (Conversion Disorder).

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Cavanna, Andrea E; Coburn, Kerry; Sampson, Shirlene; Reeve, Alya; LaFrance, W Curt

    2016-01-01

    Much is known regarding the physical characteristics, comorbid symptoms, psychological makeup, and neuropsychological performance of patients with functional neurological disorders (FNDs)/conversion disorders. Gross neurostructural deficits do not account for the patients' deficits or symptoms. This review describes the literature focusing on potential neurobiological (i.e. functional neuroanatomic/neurophysiological) findings among individuals with FND, examining neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies of patients with the various forms of motor and sensory FND. In summary, neural networks and neurophysiologic mechanisms may mediate "functional" symptoms, reflecting neurobiological and intrapsychic processes.

  20. Advances in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at kyoto university - From reactor-based BNCT to accelerator-based BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Fujimoto, Nozomi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-07-01

    At the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a neutron irradiation facility installed at the research nuclear reactor has been regularly performed since February 1990. As of November 2014, 510 clinical irradiations were carried out using the reactor-based system. The world's first accelerator-based neutron irradiation system for BNCT clinical irradiation was completed at this institute in early 2009, and the clinical trial using this system was started in 2012. A shift of BCNT from special particle therapy to a general one is now in progress. To promote and support this shift, improvements to the irradiation system, as well as its preparation, and improvements in the physical engineering and the medical physics processes, such as dosimetry systems and quality assurance programs, must be considered. The recent advances in BNCT at KURRI are reported here with a focus on physical engineering and medical physics topics.

  1. The characteristic of the building damage from historical large earthquakes in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Akihito

    2016-04-01

    The Kyoto city, which is located in the northern part of Kyoto basin in Japan, has a long history of >1,200 years since the city was initially constructed. The city has been a populated area with many buildings and the center of the politics, economy and culture in Japan for nearly 1,000 years. Some of these buildings are now subscribed as the world's cultural heritage. The Kyoto city has experienced six damaging large earthquakes during the historical period: i.e., in 976, 1185, 1449, 1596, 1662, and 1830. Among these, the last three earthquakes which caused severe damage in Kyoto occurred during the period in which the urban area had expanded. These earthquakes are considered to be inland earthquakes which occurred around the Kyoto basin. The damage distribution in Kyoto from historical large earthquakes is strongly controlled by ground condition and earthquakes resistance of buildings rather than distance from estimated source fault. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only the strength of ground shaking but also the condition of building such as elapsed years since the construction or last repair in order to more accurately and reliably estimate seismic intensity distribution from historical earthquakes in Kyoto. The obtained seismic intensity map would be helpful for reducing and mitigating disaster from future large earthquakes.

  2. [Kyoto global consensus report for treatment of Helicobacter pylori and its implications for China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuan; Lyu, Nonghua

    2016-01-01

    Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis (Gut, July 2015) is another important international consensus since the European Maastricht Ⅳ consensus was published. Kyoto consensus will improve the etiology-based classification, the diagnostic assessment of gastritis, and the treatment of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia and H. pylori gastritis. However, because of high rate of H. pylori infection and antibiotic resistance as well as limited health resources in China, we need to develop our own strategies of H. pylori infection control with the reference of the Kyoto global consensus.

  3. Individual neurophysiological profile in external effects investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtseva, Daria; Tatiana Kotrovskaya, D..

    Cortex biopotentials are the significant elements in human psychophysiological individuality. Considered that cortical biopotentials are diverse and individually stable, therefore there is the existence of certain dependence between the basic properties of higher nervous activity and cerebral bioelectric activity. The main purpose of the study was to reveal the individual neurophysiological profile and CNS initial functional state manifestation in human electroencephalogram (EEG) under effect of inert gases (argon, xenon, helium), hypoxia, pressure changes (0.02 and 0.2 MPa). We obtained 5-minute eyes closed background EEG on 19 scalp positions using Ag/AgCl electrodes mounted in an electrode cap. All EEG signals were re-referenced to average earlobes; Fast Furies Transformation analysis was used to calculate the relative power spectrum of delta-, theta-, alpha- and beta frequency band in artifact-free EEG. The study involved 26 healthy men who provided written informed consent, aged 20 to 35 years. Data obtained depend as individual EEG type and initial central nervous functional state as intensity, duration and mix of factors. Pronounced alpha rhythm in the raw EEG correlated with their adaptive capacity under studied factor exposure. Representation change and zonal distribution perversion of EEG alpha rhythm were accompanied by emotional instability, increased anxiety and difficulty adapting subjects. High power factor or combination factor with psychological and emotional or physical exertion minimizes individual EEG pattern.

  4. Neurophysiology of Drosophila Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    West, Ryan J. H.; Furmston, Rebecca; Williams, Charles A. C.; Elliott, Christopher J. H.

    2015-01-01

    We provide an insight into the role Drosophila has played in elucidating neurophysiological perturbations associated with Parkinson's disease- (PD-) related genes. Synaptic signalling deficits are observed in motor, central, and sensory systems. Given the neurological impact of disease causing mutations within these same genes in humans the phenotypes observed in fly are of significant interest. As such we observe four unique opportunities provided by fly nervous system models of Parkinson's disease. Firstly, Drosophila models are instrumental in exploring the mechanisms of neurodegeneration, with several PD-related mutations eliciting related phenotypes including sensitivity to energy supply and vesicular deformities. These are leading to the identification of plausible cellular mechanisms, which may be specific to (dopaminergic) neurons and synapses rather than general cellular phenotypes. Secondly, models show noncell autonomous signalling within the nervous system, offering the opportunity to develop our understanding of the way pathogenic signalling propagates, resembling Braak's scheme of spreading pathology in PD. Thirdly, the models link physiological deficits to changes in synaptic structure. While the structure-function relationship is complex, the genetic tractability of Drosophila offers the chance to separate fundamental changes from downstream consequences. Finally, the strong neuronal phenotypes permit relevant first in vivo drug testing. PMID:25960916

  5. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in spinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Hwa; Hyun, Seung-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many surgeons have been using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) in spinal surgery to reduce the incidence of postoperative neurological complications, including level of the spinal cord, cauda equina and nerve root. Several established technologies are available and combined motor and somatosensory evoked potentials are considered mandatory for practical and successful IOM. Spinal cord evoked potentials are elicited compound potentials recorded over the spinal cord. Electrical stimulation is provoked on the dorsal spinal cord from an epidural electrode. Somatosensory evoked potentials assess the functional integrity of sensory pathways from the peripheral nerve through the dorsal column and to the sensory cortex. For identification of the physiological midline, the dorsal column mapping technique can be used. It is helpful for reducing the postoperative morbidity associated with dorsal column dysfunction when distortion of the normal spinal cord anatomy caused by an intramedullary cord lesion results in confusion in localizing the midline for the myelotomy. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) consist of spinal, neurogenic and muscle MEPs. MEPs allow selective and specific assessment of the functional integrity of descending motor pathways, from the motor cortex to peripheral muscles. Spinal surgeons should understand the concept of the monitoring techniques and interpret monitoring records adequately to use IOM for the decision making during the surgery for safe surgery and a favorable surgical outcome. PMID:26380823

  6. Neurophysiological effects of exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Roelands, B; De Pauw, K; Meeusen, R

    2015-06-01

    Fatigue during prolonged exercise is a multifactorial phenomenon. The complex interplay between factors originating from both the periphery and the brain will determine the onset of fatigue. In recent years, electrophysiological and imaging tools have been fine-tuned, allowing for an improved understanding of what happens in the brain. In the first part of the review, we present literature that studied the changes in electrocortical activity during and after exercise in normal and high ambient temperature. In general, exercise in a thermo-neutral environment or at light to moderate intensity increases the activity in the β frequency range, while exercising at high intensity or in the heat reduces β activity. In the second part, we review literature that manipulated brain neurotransmission, through either pharmacological or nutritional means, during exercise in the heat. The dominant outcomes were that manipulations changing brain dopamine concentration have the potential to delay fatigue, while the manipulation of serotonin had no effect and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition was detrimental for performance in the heat. Research on the effects of neurotransmitter manipulations on brain activity during or after exercise is scarce. The combination of brain imaging techniques with electrophysiological measures presents one of the major future challenges in exercise physiology/neurophysiology.

  7. Psychological pain interventions and neurophysiology: implications for a mechanism-based approach.

    PubMed

    Flor, Herta

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an illustrative overview of neurophysiological changes related to acute and chronic pain involving structural and functional brain changes, which might be the targets of psychological interventions. A number of psychological pain treatments have been examined with respect to their effects on brain activity, ranging from cognitive- and operant behavioral interventions, meditation and hypnosis, to neuro- and biofeedback, discrimination training, imagery and mirror treatment, as well as virtual reality and placebo applications. These treatments affect both ascending and descending aspects of pain processing and act through brain mechanisms that involve sensorimotor areas as well as those involved in affective-motivational and cognitive-evaluative aspects. The analysis of neurophysiological changes related to effective psychological pain treatment can help to identify subgroups of patients with chronic pain who might profit from different interventions, can aid in predicting treatment outcome, and can assist in identifying responders and nonresponders, thus enhancing the efficacy and efficiency of psychological interventions. Moreover, new treatment targets can be developed and tested. Finally, the use of neurophysiological measures can also aid in motivating patients to participate in psychological interventions and can increase their acceptance in clinical practice.

  8. Neurophysiological models for new treatment development in schizophrenia: early sensory approaches

    PubMed Central

    Javitt, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a major mental disorder associated with core neurocognitive impairments. The ability to recreate these deficits in animal models is limited, hampering ongoing translational drug development efforts. This paper reviews the use of electroencephalography (EEG)-based neurophysiological measures, such as event-related potentials (ERP) or event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP), as novel translational biomarkers for both etiological and treatment development research in neuropsychiatry. In schizophrenia, cognitive impairments manifest as deficits not only in high-level processes, such as working memory or executive processing, but also as deficits in neurophysiological responses to simple auditory and visual stimuli. Moreover, neurophysiological responses can be assessed even in untrained animals and are therefore particularly amenable to translational, cross-species investigation. To date, several sensory-level ERP measures, including auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) and N1, and visual P1 and steady-state responses, have been validated in both human clinical investigations and animal models. Deficits have been tied to impaired neurotransmission at N-methyl-D-aspartate–type glutamate receptors (NMDARs). Time-frequency analysis of ERSP permits further extension of these findings from physiological to circuit/cellular levels of analysis. PMID:25721890

  9. The evolving natural history of neurophysiologic function in patients with well controlled diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Christopher H.; Freeman, Roy; Tecilazich, Francisco; Dinh, Thanh; Lyons, Thomas E.; Gnardellis, Charalambos; Veves, Aristidis

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective changes to neurophysiologic function over 3 years in patients with well-controlled diabetes. Sixty-two subjects had neurologic examinations, symptom scores, autonomic testing, nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing and laser-Doppler flowmetry at 18-month intervals for 3 years. During the study, there was a 1 μV decrease in sural amplitude (P<0.05), an increase in monofilament detection threshold of 0.36 grams (P<0.001) and a decrease in the axon-reflex vasodilation in the foot (P<0.005) and forearm (P<0.05). There was an increase in symptoms of distal hypersensitivity (P<0.005) but no change in neuropathy frequency or severity. Our findings suggest that laser-Doppler flowmetry, a test of small fiber function, can detect the largest neurophysiologic change over time in groups of patients with diabetes. Sural nerve amplitude and monofilament thresholds may be more effective at detecting change in individual patients. Other tests of neurophysiologic function may require longer periods of time and greater numbers of participants to detect a difference. We conclude that patients with well-controlled diabetes and optimal medical management of co-morbid risk factors have low rates of neuropathy development and progression although the clinical relevance of this finding to the general population of individuals with diabetes is unknown. PMID:23781962

  10. The evolving natural history of neurophysiologic function in patients with well-controlled diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Christopher H; Freeman, Roy; Tecilazich, Francisco; Dinh, Thanh; Lyons, Thomas E; Gnardellis, Charalambos; Veves, Aristidis

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective changes to neurophysiologic function over 3 years in patients with well-controlled diabetes. Sixty-two subjects had neurologic examinations, symptom scores, autonomic testing, nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing, and laser-Doppler flowmetry at 18-month intervals for 3 years. During the study, there was a 1 µV decrease in sural amplitude (p < 0.05), an increase in monofilament detection threshold of 0.36 g (p < 0.001), and a decrease in the axon-reflex vasodilation in the foot (p < 0.005) and forearm (p < 0.05). There was an increase in symptoms of distal hypersensitivity (p < 0.005) but no change in neuropathy frequency or severity. Our findings suggest that laser-Doppler flowmetry, a test of small fiber function, can detect the largest neurophysiologic change over time in groups of patients with diabetes. Sural nerve amplitude and monofilament thresholds may be more effective at detecting change in individual patients. Other tests of neurophysiologic function may require longer periods of time and greater numbers of participants to detect a difference. We conclude that patients with well-controlled diabetes and optimal medical management of comorbid risk factors have low rates of neuropathy development and progression although the clinical relevance of this finding to the general population of individuals with diabetes is unknown.

  11. Combined neuropsychological and neurophysiological assessment of drug effects on groups and individuals.

    PubMed

    Gevins, Alan; Ilan, Aaron B; Jiang, An; Sam-Vargas, Lita; Baum, Cliff; Chan, Cynthia S

    2011-08-01

    An initial standardized approach for combining neuropsychological and neurophysiological measures in order to assess the neurocognitive effects of drugs in groups and individuals is introduced. Its application is illustrated with sedatives, antiepileptic drugs, psychostimulants, antihistamines, and intoxicants. Task performance, electroencephalography, and evoked potential measures during computerized attention and memory testing that are most sensitive to drug effects are identified in a sample population and then applied to individuals. In six example exploratory studies, drug effects were detected with an average area under curve (AUC) of 0.97 (p < 0.0001; 95% sensitivity, 96% specificity). In 10 example validation studies with other drugs and/or different subjects and populations, detection was strong in the eight studies with drugs and doses known to have significant neurocognitive effects (AUC 0.83, p < 0.0001; 82% sensitivity, 89% specificity), whereas no effect was detected in the two studies with drugs known to have faint neurocognitive effects (AUC 0.56, p > 0.10). Individual differences in response to different drugs with similar clinical uses, to varying doses of the same drug, and in pharmacodynamic response were then demonstrated. The significant (p < 0.01) increase in sensitivity and specificity of combined neuropsychological and neurophysiological measures compared with the former alone suggests that fewer subjects may be needed to assess the neurocognitive effects of drugs in future studies. The findings suggest that the concept of combining neuropsychological testing with simultaneous measures of neurophysiological function is worth further exploration.

  12. Neurophysiological and neurochemical basis of modern pruritus treatment.

    PubMed

    Ständer, Sonja; Weisshaar, Elke; Luger, Thomas A

    2008-03-01

    Chronic pruritus of any origin is a frequent discomfort in daily medical practice, and its therapy is challenging. Frequently, the underlying origin may not be identified and symptomatic therapy is necessary. Conventional treatment modalities such as antihistamines often lack efficacy, and hence new therapeutic strategies are necessary. The neuronal mechanisms underlying chronic pruritus have been partly identified during the past years and offer new therapeutic strategies. For example, mast cell degranulation, activation of neuroreceptors on sensory nerve fibres and neurogenic inflammation have been identified to be involved in induction and chronification of the symptom. Accordingly, controlling neuroreceptors such as cannabinoid receptors by agonists or antagonists showed high antipruritic efficacy. Pruritus is transmitted to the central nervous system by specialized nerve fibres and sensory receptors. It has been demonstrated that pruritus and pain have their own neuronal pathways with broad interactions. Accordingly, classical analgesics for neuropathic pain (gabapentin, antidepressants) also exhibit antipruritic efficacy upon clinical use. In summary, these recent developments show that highlighting the basis of pruritus offers modern neurophysiological and neurochemical therapeutic models and the possibility to treat patients with refractory itching of different origin.

  13. Auditory-neurophysiological responses to speech during early childhood: Effects of background noise.

    PubMed

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Davies, Evan C; Thompson, Elaine C; Woodruff Carr, Kali; Nicol, Trent; Bradlow, Ann R; Kraus, Nina

    2015-10-01

    Early childhood is a critical period of auditory learning, during which children are constantly mapping sounds to meaning. But this auditory learning rarely occurs in ideal listening conditions-children are forced to listen against a relentless din. This background noise degrades the neural coding of these critical sounds, in turn interfering with auditory learning. Despite the importance of robust and reliable auditory processing during early childhood, little is known about the neurophysiology underlying speech processing in children so young. To better understand the physiological constraints these adverse listening scenarios impose on speech sound coding during early childhood, auditory-neurophysiological responses were elicited to a consonant-vowel syllable in quiet and background noise in a cohort of typically-developing preschoolers (ages 3-5 yr). Overall, responses were degraded in noise: they were smaller, less stable across trials, slower, and there was poorer coding of spectral content and the temporal envelope. These effects were exacerbated in response to the consonant transition relative to the vowel, suggesting that the neural coding of spectrotemporally-dynamic speech features is more tenuous in noise than the coding of static features-even in children this young. Neural coding of speech temporal fine structure, however, was more resilient to the addition of background noise than coding of temporal envelope information. Taken together, these results demonstrate that noise places a neurophysiological constraint on speech processing during early childhood by causing a breakdown in neural processing of speech acoustics. These results may explain why some listeners have inordinate difficulties understanding speech in noise. Speech-elicited auditory-neurophysiological responses offer objective insight into listening skills during early childhood by reflecting the integrity of neural coding in quiet and noise; this paper documents typical response

  14. Influence of outdoor advertisement colors on psychological evaluation of townscape in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Ayumi; Ishida, Taiichiro; Katsuya, Yoshiko

    2002-06-01

    Outdoor advertisements must be one of the major factors that affect our psychological impression for townscapes. They often conflict with propr color environments in cities particularly in historic cities like Kyoto. In this study we investigated how outdoor advertisements influenced our visual evaluation of townscapes in Kyoto. In recent years, a new regulation for outdoor advertisements came into operation in Kyoto and some of the advertisements have been replaced or removed gradually. We examined psychological evaluation for the townscapes before and after their changes. In the experiment, subjects evaluated 'visual harmony,' 'visual busyness,' 'visual comfort' and 'suitability to Kyoto' of townscapes projected on a screen. The results indicated that the evaluation of 'visual busyness' significantly decreased with the amount of the advertisements. The relations between the advertisements and the psychological evaluation of the townscape are discussed.

  15. Global warming and environmental production efficiency ranking of the Kyoto Protocol nations.

    PubMed

    Feroz, Ehsan H; Raab, Raymond L; Ulleberg, Gerald T; Alsharif, Kamal

    2009-02-01

    This paper analyzes the United Nations Organization's Kyoto Protocol nations to address two questions. First, what are the environmental production efficiency rankings of these nations? Second, is there a relationship between a nation's ratification status and its environmental production efficiency ranking? Our findings suggest that the nations that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol are more likely to be environmentally production efficient as compared to the nations that have not ratified the Protocol.

  16. Neurophysiological evaluation of healthy human anorectal sensation.

    PubMed

    Harris, M L; Hobson, A R; Hamdy, S; Thompson, D G; Akkermans, L M; Aziz, Q

    2006-11-01

    Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders often demonstrate abnormal visceral sensation. Currently, rectal sensation is assessed by manual balloon distension or barostat. However, neither test is adaptable for use in the neurophysiological characterization of visceral afferent pathways by sensory evoked potentials. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and quality of sensation evoked by electrical stimulation (ES) and rapid balloon distension (RBD) in the anorectum and to apply the optimum stimulus to examine the visceral afferent pathway with rectal evoked potentials. Healthy subjects (n = 8, median age 33 yr) were studied on three separate occasions. Variability, tolerance, and stimulus characteristics were assessed with each technique. Overall ES consistently invoked pain and was chosen for measuring rectal evoked potential whereas RBD in all cases induced the strong urge to defecate. Rectal intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for ES and RBD (0.82 and 0.72, respectively) demonstrated good reproducibility at pain/maximum tolerated volume but not at sensory threshold. Only sphincter ICC for ES at pain showed acceptable between-study reproducibility (ICC 0.79). Within studies ICC was good (>0.6) for anorectal ES and RBD at both levels of sensation. All subjects reported significantly more unpleasantness during RBD than ES (P < 0.01). This study demonstrates that ES and RBD are similarly reproducible. However, the sensations experienced with each technique differed markedly, probably reflecting differences in peripheral and/or central processing of the sensory input. This is of relevance in interpreting findings of neuroimaging studies of anorectal sensation and may provide insight into the physiological characteristics of visceral afferent pathways in health and disease.

  17. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  18. Kyoto islet isolation method: the optimized one for non-heart-beating donors with highly efficient islet retrieval.

    PubMed

    Okitsu, T; Matsumoto, S; Iwanaga, Y; Noguchi, H; Nagata, H; Yonekawa, Y; Maekawa, T; Tanaka, K

    2005-10-01

    The availability of pancreata for clinical cadaveric islet transplantation is restricted to non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) in Japan. This forced us to modify the current standard islet isolation protocol that was made up for brain-dead donors and make it suitable for NHBDs. The Kyoto islet isolation method is the one with induction of several steps based on the ideas both already reported literally and invented originally by ourselves. Using this islet isolation method, we isolated islets from 13 human pancreata of NHBDs and transplanted 11 preparations to six type-1 diabetic patients. The rate to meet release criteria of Edmonton protocol was 84.6%. Establishment of this method allowed us to begin a clinical islet transplantation program in Japan and to continue to perform the preparation of islets from NHBDs with high rate to meet the release criteria of the Edmonton protocol.

  19. Using Crickets to Introduce Neurophysiology to Early Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    Dagda, Ruben K.; Thalhauser, Rachael M.; Dagda, Raul; Marzullo, Timothy C.; Gage, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy and physiology instructors often face the daunting task of teaching the principles of neurophysiology as part of a laboratory course with very limited resources. Teaching neurophysiology can be a difficult undertaking as sophisticated electrophysiology and data acquisition equipment is often financially out-of-reach for two-year institutions, and for many preparations, instructors need to be highly skilled in electrophysiology techniques when teaching hands-on laboratories. In the absence of appropriate laboratory tools, many undergraduate students have difficulty understanding concepts related to neurophysiology. The cricket can serve as a reliable invertebrate model to teach the basic concepts of neurophysiology in the educational laboratory. In this manuscript, we describe a series of hands-on, demonstrative, technologically simple, and affordable laboratory activities that will help undergraduate students gain an understanding of the principles of neurophysiology. By using the cerci ganglion and leg preparation, students can quantify extracellular neural activity in response to sensory stimulation, understand the principles of rate coding and somatotopy, perform electrical microstimulation to understand the threshold of sensory stimulation, and do pharmacological manipulation of neuronal activity. We describe the utility of these laboratory activities, provide a convenient protocol for quantifying extracellular recordings, and discuss feedback provided by undergraduate students with regards to the quality of the educational experience after performing the lab activities. PMID:24319394

  20. Deep brain stimulation activation volumes and their association with neurophysiological mapping and therapeutic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maks, Christopher B.; Butson, Christopher R.; Walter, Benjamin L.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Despite the clinical success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD), little is known about the electrical spread of the stimulation. The primary goal of this study was to integrate neuroimaging, neurophysiology, and neurostimulation data sets from 10 PD patients, unilaterally implanted with subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS electrodes, to identify the theoretical volume of tissue activated (VTA) by clinically defined therapeutic stimulation parameters. Methods Each patient-specific model was created with a series of five steps: 1) definition of the neurosurgical stereotactic coordinate system within the context of pre-operative imaging data; 2) entry of intra-operative microelectrode recording locations from neurophysiologically defined thalamic, subthalamic, and substantia nigra neurons into the context of the imaging data; 3) fitting a 3D brain atlas to the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the patient; 4) positioning the DBS electrode in the documented stereotactic location, verified by post-operative imaging data; and 5) calculation of the VTA using a diffusion tensor based finite element neurostimulation model. Results The patient-specific models show that therapeutic benefit was achieved with direct stimulation of a wide range of anatomical structures in the subthalamic region. Interestingly, of the 5 patients exhibiting a greater than 40% improvement in their unified PD rating scale (UPDRS), all but one had the majority of their VTA outside the atlas defined borders of the STN. Further, of the 5 patients with less than 40% UPDRS improvement all but one had the majority of their VTA inside the STN. Conclusions Our results are consistent with previous studies suggesting that therapeutic benefit is associated with electrode contacts near the dorsal border of the STN, and provide quantitative estimates of the electrical spread of the stimulation in a clinically relevant context. PMID:18403440

  1. Ischaemic myelopathy associated with cocaine: clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroradiological features

    PubMed Central

    Di, L; Restuccia, D; Oliviero, A; Profice, P; Nardone, R; Valeriani, M; Colosimo, C; Tartaglione, T; Della, C; Pennisi, M; Tonali, P

    1997-01-01

    Two patients with spinal infarction and one patient with the previously unreported complication of spinal transient ischaemic attack associated with cocaine misuse are reported. Spinal MRI documented an infarction in the territory of the anterior spinal artery in the first two patients and was completely normal in the patient with a transient ischaemic attack. Motor evoked potentials were abnormal in all three patients.

 PMID:9343140

  2. Myasthenic syndrome of snake envenomation: a clinical and neurophysiological study.

    PubMed Central

    Sanmuganathan, P. S.

    1998-01-01

    In this prospective study, 65 consecutive patients with neurological manifestations after snake envenomation, were examined in order to describe the natural history of the reversible nature of muscle weakness. Snake envenoming led to a completely reversible muscle paralysis involving the external ocular muscles with sparing of the pupils, muscles of mastication, facial muscles, palatal muscles, neck and proximal limb muscles. The deep tendon reflexes were preserved with no sensory abnormalities. The muscular weakness usually set in within an hour of envenomation and lasted up to 10 days, with fatigability lasting for 12 days. Respiratory muscle paralysis led to ventilatory failure needing ventilation in severely envenomed patients. Motor and sensory nerve conduction were normal with normal resting compound motor action potentials on electromyography. Repetitive nerve stimulation gave rise to a decremental response during high frequency stimulation. The edrophonium test gave negative results. These manifestations are due to abnormalities of neuromuscular transmission and are not typical of myasthenia gravis. As the exact pathophysiology of venom-related neurotoxicity is not known, it is suggested that the neurological manifestations of snake envenoming be designated a myasthenic syndrome. Further studies to isolate the neurotoxin and its mechanism and exact site of blocking at the neuromuscular junction would pave the way for the development of a novel long-acting neuromuscular blocking agent. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10211352

  3. Neurophysiology of Sleep and Wakefulness: Basic Science and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jonathan R.L; Roth, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Increased attention to the prevalence of excessive sleepiness has led to a clear need to treat this symptom, thus reinforcing the need for a greater understanding of the neurobiology of sleep and wakefulness. Although the physiological mechanisms of sleep and wakefulness are highly interrelated, recent research reveals that there are distinct differences in the active brain processing and the specific neurochemical systems involved in the two states. In this review, we will examine the specific neuronal pathways, transmitters, and receptors composing the ascending arousal system that flow from the brainstem through the thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex. We will also discuss the mutually inhibitory interaction between the core neuronal components of this arousal system and the sleep-active neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, which serves as a brainstem-switch, regulating the stability of the sleep-wake states. In addition, we will review the role of homeostatic and circadian processes in the sleep-wake cycle, including the influence of the suprachiasmatic nucleus on coordination of sleep-wake systems. Finally, we will summarize how the above processes are reflected in disorders of sleep and wakefulness, including insomnia, narcolepsy, disorders associated with fragmented sleep, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, and primary neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. PMID:19587857

  4. Intradural Intramedullary Mixed Type Hemangioma: Optimizing the Surgical Management through Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Rahyussalim, Ahmad Jabir; Situmeang, Adrian; Safri, Ahmad Yanuar; Fadhly, Zulfa Indah K.

    2015-01-01

    Intradural intramedullary mixed type hemangioma is a rare histotype of primary spinal cord tumors, though it can carry a severe clinical burden leading to limb dysfunction or motor and sensory disturbances. Timely intervention with radical resection is the hallmark of treatment but achieving it is not an easy task even for experienced neurosurgeons. We herein present an exemplificative case presenting with sudden paraplegia in which total resection was achieved under intraoperative neurophysiology monitoring. A thorough discussion on the operative technique and the role of neuromonitoring in allowing a safe surgical management of primary spinal cord tumors is presented. PMID:26839729

  5. Antidepressants and REM sleep in Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Paterson, Louise M; Hutson, Peter H

    2005-10-17

    Compared to other rat strains, the Wistar-Kyoto rats show increased amount of REM sleep, one of the characteristic sleep changes observed in depressed patients. The aims of this study were firstly to validate a simple sleep stage discriminator and then compare the effect of antidepressants on suppression of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in Wistar-Kyoto rats and an outbred rat strain (Sprague-Dawley). Rats were implanted with telemetry transmitters with electroencephalogram/electromyogram electrodes. Following recovery, the animals were orally dosed at light onset with either desipramine (20 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), citalopram (10 or 40 mg/kg) or vehicle in a cross-over design. Every 12-s epoch was automatically scored as WAKE, NREM or REM sleep. Results confirm that Wistar-Kyoto rats show increased amount of REM sleep and decreased REM latency compared with Sprague-Dawley rats. All antidepressants significantly suppressed REM sleep in Sprague-Dawley rats, but only the high dose of citalopram suppressed REM sleep in Wistar-Kyoto rats. These findings suggest that the enhanced REM activity in Wistar-Kyoto rats is less sensitive to the effect of antidepressants and therefore does not provide any additional predictive validity for assessing antidepressant efficacy.

  6. Science Education: An Experiment in Facilitating the Learning of Neurophysiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Herbert

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes the experiences of a zoology professor attempting to construct a student-centered course in neurophysiology. Various aspects of the organization and conduct of the course are described, including the beginning experience, topics of interest, lecture, laboratory, computer simulation, examinations, student lectures. Evaluation of the…

  7. At the Root of Embodied Cognition: Cognitive Science Meets Neurophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarini, Francesca; Adenzato, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    Recent experimental research in the field of neurophysiology has led to the discovery of two classes of visuomotor neurons: canonical neurons and mirror neurons. In light of these studies, we propose here an overview of two classical themes in the cognitive science panorama: James Gibson's theory of affordances and Eleanor Rosch's principles of…

  8. Backwards and Forwards: Behavioral and Neurophysiological Investigations into Dependency Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witzel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the processing of sentences involving long-distance linguistic dependencies, or sentences containing elements that must be linked across intervening words and phrases. Specifically, both behavioral (self-paced reading and eye tracking) and neurophysiological (electroencephalography) methods were used (a) to evaluate the…

  9. A systems neurophysiology approach to voluntary event coding.

    PubMed

    Petruo, Vanessa A; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Münchau, Alexander; Beste, Christian

    2016-07-15

    Mechanisms responsible for the integration of perceptual events and appropriate actions (sensorimotor processes) have been subject to intense research. Different theoretical frameworks have been put forward with the "Theory of Event Coding (TEC)" being one of the most influential. In the current study, we focus on the concept of 'event files' within TEC and examine what sub-processes being dissociable by means of cognitive-neurophysiological methods are involved in voluntary event coding. This was combined with EEG source localization. We also introduce reward manipulations to delineate the neurophysiological sub-processes most relevant for performance variations during event coding. The results show that processes involved in voluntary event coding included predominantly stimulus categorization, feature unbinding and response selection, which were reflected by distinct neurophysiological processes (the P1, N2 and P3 ERPs). On a system's neurophysiological level, voluntary event-file coding is thus related to widely distributed parietal-medial frontal networks. Attentional selection processes (N1 ERP) turned out to be less important. Reward modulated stimulus categorization in parietal regions likely reflecting aspects of perceptual decision making but not in other processes. The perceptual categorization stage appears central for voluntary event-file coding.

  10. The relationship between knowledge of pain neurophysiology and fear avoidance in people with chronic pain: A point in time, observational study.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Claire; Bradnam, Lynley; Barr, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Chronic pain is prevalent in the western world; however fear of pain often has a greater impact than the degree of initial injury. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between knowledge of the neurophysiology of pain and fear avoidance in individuals diagnosed with chronic pain. Twenty-nine people with chronic musculoskeletal pain were recruited and completed questionnaires to determine their understanding of pain neurophysiology and the degree of their fear avoidance beliefs. There was an inverse relationship between knowledge of pain neurophysiology and the level of fear avoidance. Patients with higher pain knowledge reported less fear avoidance and lower perceived disability due to pain. There was no relationship with the educational level or compensable status for either variable. The findings suggest that fear avoidance is positively influenced by neurophysiology of pain education, so that a higher level of pain knowledge is associated with less activity-related fear. The clinical implication is that reducing fear avoidance/kinesiophobia using neurophysiology of pain education in people with chronic pain may provide an effective strategy to help manage fear avoidance and related disability in the chronic pain population in order to improve treatment outcomes.

  11. Neurophysiological assessment of brain dysfunction in critically ill patients: an update.

    PubMed

    Azabou, Eric; Fischer, Catherine; Guerit, Jean Michel; Annane, Djillali; Mauguiere, François; Lofaso, Fréderic; Sharshar, Tarek

    2017-01-21

    The aim of this review was to provide up-to-date information about the usefulness of clinical neurophysiology testing in the management of critically ill patients. Evoked potentials (EPs) and electroencephalogram (EEG) are non-invasive clinical neurophysiology tools that allow an objective assessment of the central nervous system's function at the bedside in intensive care unit (ICU). These tests are quite useful in diagnosing cerebral complications, and establishing the vital and functional prognosis in ICU. EEG keeps a particularly privileged importance in detecting seizures phenomena such as subclinical seizures and non-convulsive status epilepticus. Quantitative EEG (QEEG) analysis techniques commonly called EEG Brain mapping can provide obvious topographic displays of digital EEG signals characteristics, showing the potential distribution over the entire scalp including filtering, frequency, and amplitude analysis and color mapping. Evidences of usefulness of QEEG for seizures detection in ICU are provided by several recent studies. Furthermore, beyond detection of epileptic phenomena, changes of some QEEG panels are early warning indicators of sedation level as well as brain damage or dysfunction in ICU. EPs offer the opportunity for assessing brainstem's functional integrity, as well as subcortical and cortical brain areas. A multimodal use, combining EEG and various modalities of EPs is recommended since this allows a more accurate functional exploration of the brain and helps caregivers to tailor therapeutic measures according to neurological worsening trends and to anticipate the prognosis in ICU.

  12. Autonomic nervous system abnormalities in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a cardiovascular neurophysiologic study.

    PubMed

    De Joanna, G; De Rosa, A; Salvatore, E; Castaldo, I; De Luca, N; Izzo, R; Manzo, V; Filla, A; De Michele, G

    2008-12-15

    Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is part of the spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) clinical picture, but few data are available on this topic. The present study is aimed to report a detailed investigation of autonomic nervous system in patients with molecular diagnosis of SCA type 2, one of the most frequent forms and the commonest in Italy. Nine patients with a mild to moderate form of SCA2 underwent a questionnaire about dysautonomic symptoms and a complete cardiovascular neurophysiologic evaluation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic system, comprising head-up tilt, standing, isometric hand grip, cold pressure, mental arithmetic, Valsalva manoeuvre, deep breathing, and hyperventilation tests. An echocardiographic study and Holter-ECG recording were also performed. All patients complained dysautonomic problems regarding urinary tract, cardiovascular system, or gastrointestinal dysfunction. The neurophysiologic study showed both sympathetic and parasympathetic involvement, with highly variable degree and pattern of dysautonomia. The present study results show that the autonomic dysfunction is common in SCA2 representing a significant component of the complex picture of the disease. We found a wide spectrum of cardiovascular autonomic abnormalities, without a typical pattern of dysfunction and without correlation with clinical variables.

  13. Neurophysiological assessment for evaluating residual cognition in vegetative and minimally conscious state patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    De Salvo, Simona; Caminiti, Fabrizia; Bonanno, Lilla; De Cola, Maria Cristina; Corallo, Francesco; Caizzone, Antonio; Rifici, Carmela; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess residual cognitive function and perform outcome evaluation in vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) patients, using Neurowave, a system able to monitor event-related potentials (ERPs) induced by neurosensory stimulation. Eleven VS and five MCS patients underwent neurological examination and clinical evaluation performed using validated clinical and behavioral scales; they also underwent neurosensory stimulation, which consisted of administration of target images (rare stimuli), relevant to the patient's personal history and having emotional significance, alternated with nontarget images ("standard" stimuli), which had no emotional significance. All simultaneous ERP responses at baseline (T0) and at three months from T0 (T1) were recorded. At T0 we found significant differences between the VS and MCS patients for the N200 (p=0.02) and P300 (p=0.04) waves. The neurophysiological analysis at T1 showed a significant difference only for P300 (p=0.02), probably due to the improvements observed in the VS subjects for the N100 (p=0.009) and N200 (p=0.02) sensory components. Neurophysiological assessment for evaluating residual cognition in vegetative and minimally conscious state patients: a pilot study Our findings seem to show the value of ERP monitoring in VS and MCS patients as a means of investigating residual cognitive function. This approach could guide early therapeutic and rehabilitation interventions, and contribute to identifying better diagnostic and prognostic markers for use in unresponsive or low-responsive patients.

  14. Serial magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological studies in multiple sulphatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I; Vargiami, Euthymia; Papadopoulou, Kyriaki; Dimitriou, Evangelia; Mavridou, Irene; Santamaria, Raul; Canals, Isaak; Michelakakis, Helen

    2008-05-01

    We present serial clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurophysiological findings of a patient with multiple sulphatase deficiency (MSD), who was first admitted at the age of 9 months, because of psychomotor retardation. MRI demonstrated extensive diffuse symmetrical high signal in the deep white matter of both cerebral hemispheres, as well as of the subcortical white matter and the brainstem, while there was additional enlargement of sulci and subdural spaces and mild atrophy. Assay of arylsulphatase A activity in white blood cell homogenates at the age of 29 months disclosed a marked deficiency of the enzyme, compatible with the diagnosis of early-infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy. During the course of a later admission, the presence of ichthyosis pointed out to the possible diagnosis of MSD; further assays of sulphatases in plasma, leukocytes as well as in cultured fibroblasts, combined with an abnormal excretion of mucopolysaccharides and sulphatides in urine confirmed the diagnosis. Molecular analysis identified a homozygous disease-causing mutation (R349W) of the SUMF1 gene. Serial neurophysiological and MRI studies demonstrated the progressive nature of the disorder (regarding both central and peripheral nervous system), correlating with the clinical deterioration (spastic quadriplegia, optic atrophy and epilepsy) with subsequent death at the age of 4 years.

  15. Robot Cognitive Control with a Neurophysiologically Inspired Reinforcement Learning Model

    PubMed Central

    Khamassi, Mehdi; Lallée, Stéphane; Enel, Pierre; Procyk, Emmanuel; Dominey, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in modern robotics is to liberate robots from controlled industrial settings, and allow them to interact with humans and changing environments in the real-world. The current research attempts to determine if a neurophysiologically motivated model of cortical function in the primate can help to address this challenge. Primates are endowed with cognitive systems that allow them to maximize the feedback from their environment by learning the values of actions in diverse situations and by adjusting their behavioral parameters (i.e., cognitive control) to accommodate unexpected events. In such contexts uncertainty can arise from at least two distinct sources – expected uncertainty resulting from noise during sensory-motor interaction in a known context, and unexpected uncertainty resulting from the changing probabilistic structure of the environment. However, it is not clear how neurophysiological mechanisms of reinforcement learning and cognitive control integrate in the brain to produce efficient behavior. Based on primate neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, we propose a novel computational model for the interaction between lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex reconciling previous models dedicated to these two functions. We deployed the model in two robots and demonstrate that, based on adaptive regulation of a meta-parameter β that controls the exploration rate, the model can robustly deal with the two kinds of uncertainties in the real-world. In addition the model could reproduce monkey behavioral performance and neurophysiological data in two problem-solving tasks. A last experiment extends this to human–robot interaction with the iCub humanoid, and novel sources of uncertainty corresponding to “cheating” by the human. The combined results provide concrete evidence for the ability of neurophysiologically inspired cognitive systems to control advanced robots in the real-world. PMID:21808619

  16. Robot cognitive control with a neurophysiologically inspired reinforcement learning model.

    PubMed

    Khamassi, Mehdi; Lallée, Stéphane; Enel, Pierre; Procyk, Emmanuel; Dominey, Peter F

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in modern robotics is to liberate robots from controlled industrial settings, and allow them to interact with humans and changing environments in the real-world. The current research attempts to determine if a neurophysiologically motivated model of cortical function in the primate can help to address this challenge. Primates are endowed with cognitive systems that allow them to maximize the feedback from their environment by learning the values of actions in diverse situations and by adjusting their behavioral parameters (i.e., cognitive control) to accommodate unexpected events. In such contexts uncertainty can arise from at least two distinct sources - expected uncertainty resulting from noise during sensory-motor interaction in a known context, and unexpected uncertainty resulting from the changing probabilistic structure of the environment. However, it is not clear how neurophysiological mechanisms of reinforcement learning and cognitive control integrate in the brain to produce efficient behavior. Based on primate neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, we propose a novel computational model for the interaction between lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex reconciling previous models dedicated to these two functions. We deployed the model in two robots and demonstrate that, based on adaptive regulation of a meta-parameter β that controls the exploration rate, the model can robustly deal with the two kinds of uncertainties in the real-world. In addition the model could reproduce monkey behavioral performance and neurophysiological data in two problem-solving tasks. A last experiment extends this to human-robot interaction with the iCub humanoid, and novel sources of uncertainty corresponding to "cheating" by the human. The combined results provide concrete evidence for the ability of neurophysiologically inspired cognitive systems to control advanced robots in the real-world.

  17. New Paradigm for Understanding In-Flight Decision Making Errors: a Neurophysiological Model Leveraging Human Factors

    PubMed Central

    Souvestre, P A; Landrock, C K; Blaber, A P

    2008-01-01

    Human factors centered aviation accident analyses report that skill based errors are known to be cause of 80% of all accidents, decision making related errors 30% and perceptual errors 6%1. In-flight decision making error is a long time recognized major avenue leading to incidents and accidents. Through the past three decades, tremendous and costly efforts have been developed to attempt to clarify causation, roles and responsibility as well as to elaborate various preventative and curative countermeasures blending state of the art biomedical, technological advances and psychophysiological training strategies. In-flight related statistics have not been shown significantly changed and a significant number of issues remain not yet resolved. Fine Postural System and its corollary, Postural Deficiency Syndrome (PDS), both defined in the 1980's, are respectively neurophysiological and medical diagnostic models that reflect central neural sensory-motor and cognitive controls regulatory status. They are successfully used in complex neurotraumatology and related rehabilitation for over two decades. Analysis of clinical data taken over a ten-year period from acute and chronic post-traumatic PDS patients shows a strong correlation between symptoms commonly exhibited before, along side, or even after error, and sensory-motor or PDS related symptoms. Examples are given on how PDS related central sensory-motor control dysfunction can be correctly identified and monitored via a neurophysiological ocular-vestibular-postural monitoring system. The data presented provides strong evidence that a specific biomedical assessment methodology can lead to a better understanding of in-flight adaptive neurophysiological, cognitive and perceptual dysfunctional status that could induce in flight-errors. How relevant human factors can be identified and leveraged to maintain optimal performance will be addressed. PMID:19048097

  18. Neurophysiology and neurobiology of the musical experience.

    PubMed

    Boso, Marianna; Politi, Pierluigi; Barale, Francesco; Enzo, Emanuele

    2006-01-01

    Music, a universal art form that exists in every culture around the world, is integral to a number of social and courtship activities, and is closely associated with other creative behaviours such as dancing. Recently, neuroimaging studies have allowed researchers to investigate the neural correlates of music processing and perception in the brain. Notably, musical stimuli have been shown to activate specific pathways in several brain areas associated with emotional behaviours, such as the insular and cingulate cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex. In addition, neurochemical studies have suggested that several biochemical mediators, such as endorphins, endocannabinoids, dopamine and nitric oxide, may play a role in the musical experience. A growing body of evidence also indicates that music therapy could be useful in the clinical management of numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders. Indeed, music therapy could be effective in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson?s disease, as well as in psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety and autism spectrum disorders. Unfortunately, there is still a shortage of rigorous scientific data supporting the clinical application of music therapy, and there is thus a need to confirm and expand the preliminary findings regarding the potential and actual effectiveness of music therapy. This need should be addressed through prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blinded investigations of the short- and long-term effects of music therapy in diverse clinical conditions.

  19. BRAIN ACONITASE ACTIVITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHR) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of susceptibility are critical for human health risk assessment. Previous studies indicate that spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats are more sensitive than Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats to the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors such as carbaryl and chlorpyrifos. This diffe...

  20. Analysis of the Impacts of an Early Start for Compliance with the Kyoto Protocol

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Energy Information Administration's analysis of the impacts of an early start, using the same methodology as in Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on U.S. Energy Markets and Economic Activity, with only those changes in assumptions caused by the early start date.

  1. Museum as an integrated imaging device: visualization of ancient Kyoto cityscape from folding screen artifact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Oyabu, Umi; Kojima, Michihiro

    2012-03-01

    Museums hold cultural resources such as artworks, historical artifacts, and folklore materials. The National Museum of Japanese History holds over 200,000 of the cultural resources. A role of museum is to exhibit the cultural resources, therefore a museum could be referred to as a visualization device for the information society. In this research, visualization of a history image from cultural resources with interactive user interface will be mentioned. The material focused on is the oldest extant version of a genre of folding screen paintings that depict the thriving city of Kyoto in the four seasons, named Rekihaku's "Scenes In and Around Kyoto" designated as a nationally important cultural property in Japan. Over 1,400 people and a lot of residences, temples, and houses are drawn, and those are also information resource telling us about city scenes and people's life in Kyoto at that time. Historical researches were done by using a high resolution digital image obtained by a large scaled scanner, and scanned images are used for computer programs to visualize a history image of ancient Kyoto. Combinations between real materials and information provided by using the computer programs are also described in this research.

  2. Neurophysiological indices of atypical auditory processing and multisensory integration are associated with symptom severity in autism.

    PubMed

    Brandwein, Alice B; Foxe, John J; Butler, John S; Frey, Hans-Peter; Bates, Juliana C; Shulman, Lisa H; Molholm, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Atypical processing and integration of sensory inputs are hypothesized to play a role in unusual sensory reactions and social-cognitive deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reports on the relationship between objective metrics of sensory processing and clinical symptoms, however, are surprisingly sparse. Here we examined the relationship between neurophysiological assays of sensory processing and (1) autism severity and (2) sensory sensitivities, in individuals with ASD aged 6-17. Multiple linear regression indicated significant associations between neural markers of auditory processing and multisensory integration, and autism severity. No such relationships were apparent for clinical measures of visual/auditory sensitivities. These data support that aberrant early sensory processing contributes to autism symptoms, and reveal the potential of electrophysiology to objectively subtype autism.

  3. Neurophysiological indices of atypical auditory processing and multisensory integration are associated with symptom severity in autism

    PubMed Central

    Brandwein, A.B.; Foxe, J.J.; Butler, J.S.; Frey, H.P.; Bates, J.C.; Shulman, L.; Molholm, S.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical processing and integration of sensory inputs are hypothesized to play a role in unusual sensory reactions and social-cognitive deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reports on the relationship between objective metrics of sensory processing and clinical symptoms, however, are surprisingly sparse. Here we examined the relationship between neurophysiological assays of sensory processing and 1) autism severity and 2) sensory sensitivities, in individuals with ASD aged 6–17. Multiple linear regression indicated significant associations between neural markers of auditory processing and multisensory integration, and autism severity. No such relationships were apparent for clinical measures of visual/auditory sensitivities. These data support that aberrant early sensory processing contributes to autism symptoms, and reveal the potential of electrophysiology to objectively subtype autism. PMID:25245785

  4. Neurophysiological insights into the pathophysiology of REM sleep behavior disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Golaszewski, Stefan; Höller, Yvonne; Christova, Monica; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2013-07-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a clinical condition characterized by an intermittent or complete loss of muscle atonia and an increase of phasic muscular activity during REM sleep (or Stage R), leading to complex nocturnal motor behaviors. Correct and early diagnosis is important because RBD may lead to serious injuries and is a well-treatable disorder. Since the characteristic electrophysiologic finding in patients with RBD is the increased electromyographic tone during REM sleep/Stage R, simultaneous video/polysomnography recording is essential for diagnosing this parasomnia. Moreover, several neurophysiological techniques have been used to improve our knowledge and understanding of this troubling sleep disorder. We reviewed the most important studies employing quantitative electroencephalography, event-related potentials, transcranial magnetic stimulation, brainstem reflexes and cortico-muscular coherence analysis. All these neurophysiological techniques have proven to provide a valuable tool to gain insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying RBD. The review concludes with a brief discussion on the possible future implications for improving therapeutic approaches.

  5. Nighttime instabilities of neurophysiological, cardiovascular, and respiratory activity: integrative modeling and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Shusterman, Vladimir; Troy, William C.; Abdelmessih, Medhat; Hoffman, Stacy; Nemec, Jan; Strollo, Patrick J.; London, Barry; Lampert, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Unstable (cyclical alternating pattern, or CAP) sleep is associated with surges of sympathetic nervous system activity, increased blood pressure and vasoconstriction, heightened baroreflex sensitivity, and unstable heart rhythm and breathing. In susceptible persons, CAP sleep provokes clinically significant events, including hypertensive crises, sleep-disordered breathing, and cardiac arrhythmias. Here we explore the neurophysiology of CAP sleep and its impact on cardiovascular and respiratory functions. We show that: (i) an increase in neurophysiological recovery rate can explain the emergence of slow, self-sustained, hypersynchronized A1 CAP-sleep pattern and its transition to the faster A2-A3 CAP-sleep patterns; (ii) in a two-dimensional, continuous model of cardiac tissue with heterogeneous action potential duration (APD) distribution, heart rate accelerations during CAP sleep may encounter incompletely recovered electrical excitability in cell clusters with longer APD. If the interaction between short cycle length and incomplete, spatially heterogeneous repolarization persists over multiple cycles, irregularities and asymmetry of depolarization front may accumulate and ultimately lead to a conduction block, retrograde conduction, breakup of activation waves, reentrant activity, and arrhythmias; and (iii) these modeling results are consistent with the nighttime data obtained from patients with structural heart disease (N=13) that show clusters of atrial and ventricular premature beats occurring during the periods of unstable heart rhythm and respiration that accompany CAP sleep. In these patients, CAP sleep is also accompanied by delayed adaptation of QT intervals and T-wave alternans. PMID:26341647

  6. Surge of neurophysiological coherence and connectivity in the dying brain

    PubMed Central

    Borjigin, Jimo; Lee, UnCheol; Liu, Tiecheng; Pal, Dinesh; Huff, Sean; Klarr, Daniel; Sloboda, Jennifer; Hernandez, Jason; Wang, Michael M.; Mashour, George A.

    2013-01-01

    The brain is assumed to be hypoactive during cardiac arrest. However, the neurophysiological state of the brain immediately following cardiac arrest has not been systematically investigated. In this study, we performed continuous electroencephalography in rats undergoing experimental cardiac arrest and analyzed changes in power density, coherence, directed connectivity, and cross-frequency coupling. We identified a transient surge of synchronous gamma oscillations that occurred within the first 30 s after cardiac arrest and preceded isoelectric electroencephalogram. Gamma oscillations during cardiac arrest were global and highly coherent; moreover, this frequency band exhibited a striking increase in anterior–posterior-directed connectivity and tight phase-coupling to both theta and alpha waves. High-frequency neurophysiological activity in the near-death state exceeded levels found during the conscious waking state. These data demonstrate that the mammalian brain can, albeit paradoxically, generate neural correlates of heightened conscious processing at near-death. PMID:23940340

  7. Neurophysiological investigation of idiopathic acquired auditory-visual synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Afra, Pegah; Anderson, Jeffrey; Funke, Michael; Johnson, Michael; Matsuo, Fumisuke; Constantino, Tawnya; Warner, Judith

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of acquired auditory-visual synesthesia and its neurophysiological investigation in a healthy 42-year-old woman. She started experiencing persistent positive and intermittent negative visual phenomena at age 37 followed by auditory-visual synesthesia. Her neurophysiological investigation included video-EEG, fMRI, and MEG. Auditory stimuli (700 Hz, 50 ms duration, 0.5 s ISI) were presented binaurally at 60 db above the hearing threshold in a dark room. The patient had bilateral symmetrical auditory-evoked neuromagnetic responses followed by an occipital-evoked field 16.3 ms later. The activation of occipital cortex following auditory stimuli may represent recruitment of existing cross-modal sensory pathways.

  8. Neurophysiological findings relevant to echolocation in marine animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, T. H.; Ridgway, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    A review of echolocation mechanisms in marine mammals, chiefly porpoises, is given. Data cover peripheral auditory and central neurophysiological specializations favorable to the analysis of echolocating clicks and their echoes. Conclusions show (1) signals are received from 50 up to at least 135 kHz, (2) sound is received through the mandible skin, and (3) the midbrain sites are insensitive to low frequencies (below 6 kHz).

  9. Neurophysiologic Correlates of Post-stroke Mood and Emotional Control

    PubMed Central

    Doruk, Deniz; Simis, Marcel; Imamura, Marta; Brunoni, André R.; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Anghinah, Renato; Fregni, Felipe; Battistella, Linamara R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Emotional disturbance is a common complication of stroke significantly affecting functional recovery and quality of life. Identifying relevant neurophysiologic markers associated with post-stroke emotional disturbance may lead to a better understanding of this disabling condition, guiding the diagnosis, development of new interventions and the assessments of treatment response. Methods: Thirty-five subjects with chronic stroke were enrolled in this study. The emotion sub-domain of Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-Emotion) was used to assess post-stroke mood and emotional control. The relation between SIS-Emotion and neurophysiologic measures was assessed by using covariance mapping and univariate linear regression. Multivariate analyses were conducted to identify and adjust for potential confounders. Neurophysiologic measures included power asymmetry and coherence assessed by electroencephalography (EEG); and motor threshold, intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Results: Lower scores on SIS-Emotion was associated with (1) frontal EEG power asymmetry in alpha and beta bands, (2) central EEG power asymmetry in alpha and theta bands, and (3) lower inter-hemispheric coherence over frontal and central areas in alpha band. SIS-Emotion also correlated with higher ICF and MT in the unlesioned hemisphere as measured by TMS. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study using EEG and TMS to index neurophysiologic changes associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control. Our results suggest that inter-hemispheric imbalance measured by EEG power and coherence, as well as an increased ICF in the unlesioned hemisphere measured by TMS might be relevant markers associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control which can guide future studies investigating new diagnostic and treatment modalities in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:27625600

  10. Memory formation during anaesthesia: plausibility of a neurophysiological basis.

    PubMed

    Veselis, R A

    2015-07-01

    As opposed to conscious, personally relevant (explicit) memories that we can recall at will, implicit (unconscious) memories are prototypical of 'hidden' memory; memories that exist, but that we do not know we possess. Nevertheless, our behaviour can be affected by these memories; in fact, these memories allow us to function in an ever-changing world. It is still unclear from behavioural studies whether similar memories can be formed during anaesthesia. Thus, a relevant question is whether implicit memory formation is a realistic possibility during anaesthesia, considering the underlying neurophysiology. A different conceptualization of memory taxonomy is presented, the serial parallel independent model of Tulving, which focuses on dynamic information processing with interactions among different memory systems rather than static classification of different types of memories. The neurophysiological basis for subliminal information processing is considered in the context of brain function as embodied in network interactions. Function of sensory cortices and thalamic activity during anaesthesia are reviewed. The role of sensory and perisensory cortices, in particular the auditory cortex, in support of memory function is discussed. Although improbable, with the current knowledge of neurophysiology one cannot rule out the possibility of memory formation during anaesthesia.

  11. Pain in trigeminal neuralgia: neurophysiology and measurement: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Rastogi, S; Kumar, S; Mahendra, P; Bansal, M; Chandra, L

    2013-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is defined as sudden, usually unilateral, severe, brief, stabbing recurrent episodes of pain within the distribution of one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve. It is the most frequent cranial neuralgia, the incidence being 1 per 1,000,00 persons per year. Pain attacks start abruptly and last several seconds but may persist 1 to 2 minutes. The attacks are initiated by non painful physical stimulation of specific areas (trigger points or zones) that are located ipsilateral to the pain. After each episode, there is usually a refractive period during which stimulation of the trigger zone will not induce the pain. According to the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) guidelines on neuropathic pain assessment and the American Academy of Neurology (AAN)-EFNS guidelines on TN management the neurophysiological recording of trigeminal reflexes represents the most useful and reliable test for the neurophysiological diagnosis of trigeminal pains. The present article discusses different techniques for investigation of the trigeminal system by which an accurate topographical diagnosis and profile of sensory fiber pathology can be determined. With the aid of neurophysiological recordings and quantitative sensory testing, it is possible to approach a mechanism-based classification of orofacial pain.

  12. Pain in trigeminal neuralgia: neurophysiology and measurement: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S; Rastogi, S; Kumar, S; Mahendra, P; Bansal, M; Chandra, L

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is defined as sudden, usually unilateral, severe, brief, stabbing recurrent episodes of pain within the distribution of one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve. It is the most frequent cranial neuralgia, the incidence being 1 per 1,000,00 persons per year. Pain attacks start abruptly and last several seconds but may persist 1 to 2 minutes. The attacks are initiated by non painful physical stimulation of specific areas (trigger points or zones) that are located ipsilateral to the pain. After each episode, there is usually a refractive period during which stimulation of the trigger zone will not induce the pain. According to the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) guidelines on neuropathic pain assessment and the American Academy of Neurology (AAN)-EFNS guidelines on TN management the neurophysiological recording of trigeminal reflexes represents the most useful and reliable test for the neurophysiological diagnosis of trigeminal pains. The present article discusses different techniques for investigation of the trigeminal system by which an accurate topographical diagnosis and profile of sensory fiber pathology can be determined. With the aid of neurophysiological recordings and quantitative sensory testing, it is possible to approach a mechanism-based classification of orofacial pain. PMID:24701256

  13. Neurophysiological symptoms and aspartame: What is the connection?

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2017-02-15

    Aspartame (α-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine-o-methyl ester), an artificial sweetener, has been linked to behavioral and cognitive problems. Possible neurophysiological symptoms include learning problems, headache, seizure, migraines, irritable moods, anxiety, depression, and insomnia. The consumption of aspartame, unlike dietary protein, can elevate the levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid in the brain. These compounds can inhibit the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which are known regulators of neurophysiological activity. Aspartame acts as a chemical stressor by elevating plasma cortisol levels and causing the production of excess free radicals. High cortisol levels and excess free radicals may increase the brains vulnerability to oxidative stress which may have adverse effects on neurobehavioral health. We reviewed studies linking neurophysiological symptoms to aspartame usage and conclude that aspartame may be responsible for adverse neurobehavioral health outcomes. Aspartame consumption needs to be approached with caution due to the possible effects on neurobehavioral health. Whether aspartame and its metabolites are safe for general consumption is still debatable due to a lack of consistent data. More research evaluating the neurobehavioral effects of aspartame are required.

  14. Memory formation during anaesthesia: plausibility of a neurophysiological basis

    PubMed Central

    Veselis, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    As opposed to conscious, personally relevant (explicit) memories that we can recall at will, implicit (unconscious) memories are prototypical of ‘hidden’ memory; memories that exist, but that we do not know we possess. Nevertheless, our behaviour can be affected by these memories; in fact, these memories allow us to function in an ever-changing world. It is still unclear from behavioural studies whether similar memories can be formed during anaesthesia. Thus, a relevant question is whether implicit memory formation is a realistic possibility during anaesthesia, considering the underlying neurophysiology. A different conceptualization of memory taxonomy is presented, the serial parallel independent model of Tulving, which focuses on dynamic information processing with interactions among different memory systems rather than static classification of different types of memories. The neurophysiological basis for subliminal information processing is considered in the context of brain function as embodied in network interactions. Function of sensory cortices and thalamic activity during anaesthesia are reviewed. The role of sensory and perisensory cortices, in particular the auditory cortex, in support of memory function is discussed. Although improbable, with the current knowledge of neurophysiology one cannot rule out the possibility of memory formation during anaesthesia. PMID:25735711

  15. Preterm EEG: a multimodal neurophysiological protocol.

    PubMed

    Stjerna, Susanna; Voipio, Juha; Metsäranta, Marjo; Kaila, Kai; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2012-02-18

    Since its introduction in early 1950s, electroencephalography (EEG) has been widely used in the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) for assessment and monitoring of brain function in preterm and term babies. Most common indications are the diagnosis of epileptic seizures, assessment of brain maturity, and recovery from hypoxic-ischemic events. EEG recording techniques and the understanding of neonatal EEG signals have dramatically improved, but these advances have been slow to penetrate through the clinical traditions. The aim of this presentation is to bring theory and practice of advanced EEG recording available for neonatal units. In the theoretical part, we will present animations to illustrate how a preterm brain gives rise to spontaneous and evoked EEG activities, both of which are unique to this developmental phase, as well as crucial for a proper brain maturation. Recent animal work has shown that the structural brain development is clearly reflected in early EEG activity. Most important structures in this regard are the growing long range connections and the transient cortical structure, subplate. Sensory stimuli in a preterm baby will generate responses that are seen at a single trial level, and they have underpinnings in the subplate-cortex interaction. This brings neonatal EEG readily into a multimodal study, where EEG is not only recording cortical function, but it also tests subplate function via different sensory modalities. Finally, introduction of clinically suitable dense array EEG caps, as well as amplifiers capable of recording low frequencies, have disclosed multitude of brain activities that have as yet been overlooked. In the practical part of this video, we show how a multimodal, dense array EEG study is performed in neonatal intensive care unit from a preterm baby in the incubator. The video demonstrates preparation of the baby and incubator, application of the EEG cap, and performance of the sensory stimulations.

  16. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: neurophysiology, information processing, arousal and drug development.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Donald L; Hermens, Daniel F

    2006-11-01

    In this review, we draw on literature from both animal and human neurophysiological studies to consider the neurochemical mechanisms underlying attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychophysiological and neuropsychological research is used to propose possible etiological endophenotypes of ADHD. These are conceptualized as patients with distinct cortical-arousal, information-processing or maturational abnormalities, or a combination thereof, and how the endophenotypes can be used to help drug development and optimize treatment and management. To illustrate, the paper focuses on neuro- and psychophysiological evidence that suggests cholinergic mechanisms may underlie specific information-processing abnormalities that occur in ADHD. The clinical implications for a cholinergic hypothesis of ADHD are considered, along with its possible implications for treatment and pharmacological development.

  17. Considering WTO law in the design of climate change regimes beyond Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, Sanford E.

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the most important provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements that should be considered in designing laws and regulations under likely post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes. The Kyoto Protocol and the expected post-Kyoto international climate agreement depend on national measures to implement market-based mitigation measures. This market strategy promotes international exchanges of goods, investments, and services such as cross-border trading of credits for emissions reductions and transnational financing for projects that avoid emissions through the Clean Development Mechanism. Moreover, the United States and other countries, concerned over "leakage" of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through relocation of industry to other countries coupled with political worry over manufacturing competitiveness, have proposed national climate legislation containing border adjustments on imported goods or implicit subsidies for national producers, raising additional WTO considerations. The article assesses the likely effectiveness of such trade-related measures in achieving climate change mitigation goals and the potential trade policy infringements and trade distortions that they might bring about. Alternative strategies for achieving GHG mitigation goals in closer conformity with WTO law and policy will be suggested.

  18. [Developments in neurophysiology in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Hess, C W

    1994-04-19

    The rise of neurophysiology in the 19th century was kindled by Luigi Aloysius Galvani's revolutionary claim for animal electricity at the end of the preceding century. He was first challenged by Allessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta who showed that the muscle twitch in Galvani's experiment was the result of electric stimulation rather than of an enabled biological current. The controversy between Galvani and Volta became a predominant and stimulating issue among the scientists of the early century and found its ultimate elucidation only 40 years later by the pioneering work of Carlo Matteucci of Pisa and Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond of Berlin, who both deserve the reknown as founders of modern neurophysiology. As the first influential promoter and mastermind of the experimental physiology, François Magendie of Paris primarily investigated the nervous system and inaugurated the lesion experiments to clarify specific functions of neural structures. Johannes Müller founded the German school of physiology with its eminent neurophysiological offspring: Du Bois-Reymond, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, and Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Pflüger. It was Helmholtz's merit to have for the first time precisely assessed the motor conduction velocity by measuring the time interval between two different stimulation sites of the sciatic nerve of the frog. In their brilliant work published in 1870 Gustav Theodor Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig demonstrated that appropriately located focal electrical stimulation of the exposed cortex of dogs induces movement of the contralateral limbs and unequivocally disproved the then prevailing dogma of holistic capacity of the hemispheres, which denied localised functions within the cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Neurophysiologic effect of GWAS derived schizophrenia and bipolar risk variants.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mei-Hua; Levy, Deborah L; Salisbury, Dean F; Haddad, Steve; Gallagher, Patience; Lohan, Mary; Cohen, Bruce; Ongür, Dost; Smoller, Jordan W

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as disease associated variants for schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BPD), or both. Although these results are statistically robust, the functional effects of these variants and their role in the pathophysiology of SCZ or BPD remain unclear. Dissecting the effects of risk genes on distinct domains of brain function can provide important biological insights into the mechanisms by which these genes may confer illness risk. This study used quantitative event related potentials to characterize the neurophysiological effects of well-documented GWAS-derived SCZ/BPD susceptibility variants in order to map gene effects onto important domains of brain function. We genotyped 199 patients with DSM-IV diagnoses of SCZ or BPD and 74 healthy control subjects for 19 risk SNPs derived from previous GWAS findings and tested their association with five neurophysiologic traits (P3 amplitude, P3 latency, N1 amplitude, P2 amplitude, and P50 sensory gating responses) known to be abnormal in psychosis. The TCF4 SNP rs17512836 risk allele showed a significant association with reduced auditory P3 amplitude (P = 0.00016) after correction for multiple testing. The same allele was also associated with delayed P3 latency (P = 0.005). Our results suggest that a SCZ risk variant in TCF4 is associated with neurophysiologic traits thought to index attention and working memory abnormalities in psychotic disorders. These findings suggest a mechanism by which TCF4 may contribute to the neurobiological basis of psychotic illness.

  20. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Review of Available and Future Technology for Monitoring Treaty Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Rosenquist, A.; Milne, A. K.; Dobson, M. C.; Qi, J.

    2000-01-01

    An International workshop was held to address how remote sensing technology could be used to support the environmental monitoring requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. An overview of the issues addressed and the findings of the workshop are discussed.

  1. Intraoperative neurophysiology in deep brain surgery for psychogenic dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Vesper Fe Marie L; Pillai, Ajay S; Lungu, Codrin; Ostrem, Jill; Starr, Philip; Hallett, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic dystonia is a challenging entity to diagnose and treat because little is known about its pathophysiology. We describe two cases of psychogenic dystonia who underwent deep brain stimulation when thought to have organic dystonia. The intraoperative microelectrode recordings in globus pallidus internus were retrospectively compared with those of five patients with known DYT1 dystonia using spontaneous discharge parameters of rate and bursting, as well as movement-related discharges. Our data suggest that simple intraoperative neurophysiology measures in single subjects do not differentiate psychogenic dystonia from DYT1 dystonia. PMID:26125045

  2. Early neurophysiological indices of second language morphosyntax learning.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Jeff; Shtyrov, Yury; Williams, John; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-02-01

    Humans show variable degrees of success in acquiring a second language (L2). In many cases, morphological and syntactic knowledge remain deficient, although some learners succeed in reaching nativelike levels, even if they begin acquiring their L2 relatively late. In this study, we use psycholinguistic, online language proficiency tests and a neurophysiological index of syntactic processing, the syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) to local agreement violations, to compare behavioural and neurophysiological markers of grammar processing between native speakers (NS) of English and non-native speakers (NNS). Variable grammar proficiency was measured by psycholinguistic tests. When NS heard ungrammatical word sequences lacking agreement between subject and verb (e.g. *we kicks), the MMN was enhanced compared with syntactically legal sentences (e.g. he kicks). More proficient NNS also showed this difference, but less proficient NNS did not. The main cortical sources of the MMN responses were localised in bilateral superior temporal areas, where, crucially, source strength of grammar-related neuronal activity correlated significantly with grammatical proficiency of individual L2 speakers as revealed by the psycholinguistic tests. As our results show similar, early MMN indices to morpho-syntactic agreement violations among both native speakers and non-native speakers with high grammar proficiency, they appear consistent with the use of similar brain mechanisms for at least certain aspects of L1 and L2 grammars.

  3. Early neurophysiological indices of second language morphosyntax learning

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Jeff; Shtyrov, Yury; Williams, John; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Humans show variable degrees of success in acquiring a second language (L2). In many cases, morphological and syntactic knowledge remain deficient, although some learners succeed in reaching nativelike levels, even if they begin acquiring their L2 relatively late. In this study, we use psycholinguistic, online language proficiency tests and a neurophysiological index of syntactic processing, the syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) to local agreement violations, to compare behavioural and neurophysiological markers of grammar processing between native speakers (NS) of English and non-native speakers (NNS). Variable grammar proficiency was measured by psycholinguistic tests. When NS heard ungrammatical word sequences lacking agreement between subject and verb (e.g. *we kicks), the MMN was enhanced compared with syntactically legal sentences (e.g. he kicks). More proficient NNS also showed this difference, but less proficient NNS did not. The main cortical sources of the MMN responses were localised in bilateral superior temporal areas, where, crucially, source strength of grammar-related neuronal activity correlated significantly with grammatical proficiency of individual L2 speakers as revealed by the psycholinguistic tests. As our results show similar, early MMN indices to morpho-syntactic agreement violations among both native speakers and non-native speakers with high grammar proficiency, they appear consistent with the use of similar brain mechanisms for at least certain aspects of L1 and L2 grammars. PMID:26752451

  4. Action Priority: Early Neurophysiological Interaction of Conceptual and Motor Representations

    PubMed Central

    Koester, Dirk; Schack, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Handling our everyday life, we often react manually to verbal requests or instruction, but the functional interrelations of motor control and language are not fully understood yet, especially their neurophysiological basis. Here, we investigated whether specific motor representations for grip types interact neurophysiologically with conceptual information, that is, when reading nouns. Participants performed lexical decisions and, for words, executed a grasp-and-lift task on objects of different sizes involving precision or power grips while the electroencephalogram was recorded. Nouns could denote objects that require either a precision or a power grip and could, thus, be (in)congruent with the performed grasp. In a control block, participants pointed at the objects instead of grasping them. The main result revealed an event-related potential (ERP) interaction of grip type and conceptual information which was not present for pointing. Incongruent compared to congruent conditions elicited an increased positivity (100–200 ms after noun onset). Grip type effects were obtained in response-locked analyses of the grasping ERPs (100–300 ms at left anterior electrodes). These findings attest that grip type and conceptual information are functionally related when planning a grasping action but such an interaction could not be detected for pointing. Generally, the results suggest that control of behaviour can be modulated by task demands; conceptual noun information (i.e., associated action knowledge) may gain processing priority if the task requires a complex motor response. PMID:27973539

  5. The neurophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    di Michele, Flavia; Prichep, Leslie; John, E Roy; Chabot, Robert J

    2005-10-01

    Recent reviews of the neurobiology of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) have concluded that there is no single pathophysiological profile underlying this disorder. Certainly, dysfunctions in the frontal/subcortical pathways that control attention and motor behavior are implicated. However, no diagnostic criteria or behavioral/neuroimaging techniques allow a clear discrimination among subtypes within this disorder, especially when problems with learning are also considered. Two major Quantitative EEG (QEEG) subtypes have been found to characterize AD/HD. Here we review the major findings in the neurophysiology of AD/HD, focusing on QEEG, and briefly present our previous findings using a source localization technique called Variable Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (VARETA). These two techniques represent a possible objective method to identify specific patterns corresponding to EEG-defined subtypes of AD/HD. We then propose a model representing the distribution of the neural generators in these two major AD/HD subtypes, localized within basal ganglia and right anterior cortical regions, and hippocampal, para-hippocampal and temporal cortical regions, respectively. A comprehensive review of neurochemical, genetic, neuroimaging, pharmacological and neuropsychological evidence in support of this model is then presented. These results indicate the value of the neurophysiological model of AD/HD and support the involvement of different neuroanatomical systems, particularly the dopaminergic pathways.

  6. Linking Behavioral and Neurophysiological Indicators of Perceptual Tuning to Language

    PubMed Central

    Fava, Eswen; Hull, Rachel; Bortfeld, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the neural mechanisms that underlie tuning to the native language(s) in early infancy. Here we review language tuning through the lens of type and amount of language experience and introduce a new manner in which to conceptualize the phenomenon of language tuning: the relative speed of tuning hypothesis. This hypothesis has as its goal a characterization of the unique time course of the tuning process, given the different components (e.g., phonology, prosody, syntax, semantics) of one or more languages as they become available to infants, and biologically based maturational constraints. In this review, we first examine the established behavioral findings and integrate more recent neurophysiological data on neonatal development, which together demonstrate evidence of early language tuning given differential language exposure even in utero. Next, we examine traditional accounts of sensitive and critical periods to determine how these constructs complement current data on the neural mechanisms underlying language tuning. We then synthesize the extant infant behavioral and neurophysiological data on monolingual, bilingual, and sensory deprived tuning, thereby scrutinizing the effect of these three different language profiles on the specific timing, progression, and outcome of language tuning. Finally, we discuss future directions researchers might pursue to further understand this aspect of language development, advocating our relative speed of tuning hypothesis as a useful framework for conceptualizing the complex process by which language experience works together with biological constraints to shape language development. PMID:21866226

  7. Neurophysiological Endophenotypes of Schizophrenia: The Viability of Selected Candidate Measures

    PubMed Central

    Turetsky, Bruce I.; Calkins, Monica E.; Light, Gregory A.; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D.; Swerdlow, Neal R.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to reveal susceptibility genes, schizophrenia research has turned to the endophenotype strategy. Endophenotypes are characteristics that reflect the actions of genes predisposing an individual to a disorder, even in the absence of diagnosable pathology. Individual endophenotypes are presumably determined by fewer genes than the more complex phenotype of schizophrenia and would, therefore, reduce the complexity of genetic analyses. Unfortunately, despite there being rational criteria to define a viable endophenotype, the term is sometimes applied indiscriminately to characteristics that are deviant in affected individuals. Schizophrenia patients exhibit deficits in several neurophysiological measures of information processing that have been proposed as candidate endophenotypes. Successful processing of sensory inputs requires the ability to inhibit intrinsic responses to redundant stimuli and, reciprocally, to facilitate responses to less frequent salient stimuli. There is evidence to suggest that both these processes are “impaired” in schizophrenia. Measures of inhibitory failure include prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex, P50 auditory evoked potential suppression, and antisaccade eye movements. Measures of impaired deviance detection include mismatch negativity and the P300 event-related potential. The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate the endophenotype candidacy of these key neurophysiological abilities. For each candidate, we describe typical experimental procedures, the current understanding of the underlying neurobiology, the nature of the abnormality in schizophrenia, the reliability, stability and heritability of the measure, and any reported gene associations. We conclude with a discussion of the few studies thus far that have employed a multivariate approach with these candidates. PMID:17135482

  8. Body schema plasticity after stroke: Subjective and neurophysiological correlates of the rubber hand illusion.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Roberto; Borrego, Adrián; Palomo, Priscila; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Noé, Enrique; I Badia, Sergi Bermúdez; Baños, Rosa

    2017-02-01

    Stroke can lead to motor impairments that can affect the body structure and restraint mobility. We hypothesize that brain lesions and their motor sequelae can distort the body schema, a sensorimotor map of body parts and elements in the peripersonal space through which human beings embody the reachable space and ready the body for forthcoming movements. Two main constructs have been identified in the embodiment mechanism: body-ownership, the sense that the body that one inhabits is his/her own, and agency, the sense that one can move and control his/her body. To test this, the present study simultaneously investigated different embodiment subcomponents (body-ownership, localization, and agency) and different neurophysiological measures (galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and surface electromyographic activity), and the interaction between them, in clinically-controlled hemiparetic individuals with stroke and in healthy subjects after the rubber hand illusion. Individuals with stroke reported significantly stronger body-ownership and agency and reduced increase of galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and muscular activity in the stimulated hand. We suggest that differences in embodiment could have been motivated by increased plasticity of the body schema and pathological predominance of the visual input over proprioception. We also suggest that differences in neurophysiological responses could have been promoted by a suppression of the reflex activity of the sympathetic nervous system and by the involvement of the premotor cortex in the reconfiguration of the body schema. These results could evidence a body schema plasticity promoted by the brain lesion and a main role of the premotor cortex in this mechanism.

  9. Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state: six recommendations to avoid common pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Zander, Thorsten O; van Erp, Jan B F; Korteling, Johannes E; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W

    2015-01-01

    Estimating cognitive or affective state from neurophysiological signals and designing applications that make use of this information requires expertise in many disciplines such as neurophysiology, machine learning, experimental psychology, and human factors. This makes it difficult to perform research that is strong in all its aspects as well as to judge a study or application on its merits. On the occasion of the special topic "Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state" we here summarize often occurring pitfalls and recommendations on how to avoid them, both for authors (researchers) and readers. They relate to defining the state of interest, the neurophysiological processes that are expected to be involved in the state of interest, confounding factors, inadvertently "cheating" with classification analyses, insight on what underlies successful state estimation, and finally, the added value of neurophysiological measures in the context of an application. We hope that this paper will support the community in producing high quality studies and well-validated, useful applications.

  10. Behavioral and Neurophysiological Signatures of Benzodiazepine-Related Driving Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Bradly T.; Correa, Kelly A.; Brown, Timothy L.; Spurgin, Andrew L.; Stikic, Maja; Johnson, Robin R.; Berka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Impaired driving due to drug use is a growing problem worldwide; estimates show that 18–23.5% of fatal accidents, and up to 34% of injury accidents may be caused by drivers under the influence of drugs (Drummer et al., 2003; Walsh et al., 2004; NHTSA, 2010). Furthermore, at any given time, up to 16% of drivers may be using drugs that can impair one’s driving abilities (NHTSA, 2009). Currently, drug recognition experts (DREs; law enforcement officers with specialized training to identify drugged driving), have the most difficult time with identifying drivers potentially impaired on central nervous system (CNS) depressants (Smith et al., 2002). The fact that the use of benzodiazepines, a type of CNS depressant, is also associated with the greatest likelihood of causing accidents (Dassanayake et al., 2011), further emphasizes the need to improve research tools in this area which can facilitate the refinement of, or additions to, current assessments of impaired driving. Our laboratories collaborated to evaluate both the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of a benzodiazepine, alprazolam, in a driving simulation (miniSimTM). This drive was combined with a neurocognitive assessment utilizing time synched neurophysiology (electroencephalography, ECG). While the behavioral effects of benzodiazepines are well characterized (Rapoport et al., 2009), we hypothesized that, with the addition of real-time neurophysiology and the utilization of simulation and neurocognitive assessment, we could find objective assessments of drug impairment that could improve the detection capabilities of DREs. Our analyses revealed that (1) specific driving conditions were significantly more difficult for benzodiazepine impaired drivers and (2) the neurocognitive tasks’ metrics were able to classify “impaired” vs. “unimpaired” with up to 80% accuracy based on lane position deviation and lane departures. While this work requires replication in larger studies, our results not

  11. Use of virtual slide system for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuchihashi, Yasunari; Takamatsu, Terumasa; Hashimoto, Yukimasa; Takashima, Tooru; Nakano, Kooji; Fujita, Setsuya

    2008-07-15

    We started to use virtual slide (VS) and virtual microscopy (VM) systems for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan. In the system we used a digital slide scanner, VASSALO by CLARO Inc., and a broadband optic fibre provided by NTT West Japan Inc. with the best effort capacity of 100 Mbps. The client is the pathology laboratory of Yamashiro Public Hospital, one of the local centre hospitals located in the south of Kyoto Prefecture, where a full-time pathologist is not present. The client is connected by VPN to the telepathology centre of our institute located in central Kyoto. As a result of the recent 15 test cases of VS telepathology diagnosis, including cases judging negative or positive surgical margins, we could estimate the usefulness of VS in intra-operative remote diagnosis. The time required for the frozen section VS file making was found to be around 10 min when we use x10 objective and if the maximal dimension of the frozen sample is less than 20 mm. Good correct focus of VS images was attained in all cases and all the fields of each tissue specimen. Up to now the capacity of best effort B-band appears to be sufficient to attain diagnosis on time in intra-operation. Telepathology diagnosis was achieved within 5 minutes in most cases using VS viewer provided by CLARO Inc. The VS telepathology system was found to be superior to the conventional still image telepathology system using a robotic microscope since in the former we can observe much greater image information than in the latter in a certain limited time of intra-operation and in the much more efficient ways. In the near future VS telepathology will replace conventional still image telepathology with a robotic microscope even in quick frozen intra-operative diagnosis.

  12. Shortened Conditioned Eyeblink Response Latency in Male but not Female Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Schachinger, Kira M.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in the volume of the cerebellum and impairments in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recently, it was reported that subjects with ADHD as well as male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a strain that is frequently employed as an animal model in the study of ADHD, exhibit a parallel pattern of timing deficits in eyeblink conditioning. One criticism that has been posed regarding the validity of the SHR strain as an animal model for the study of ADHD is that SHRs are not only hyperactive but also hypertensive. It is conceivable that many of the behavioral characteristics seen in SHRs that seem to parallel the behavioral symptoms of ADHD are not solely due to hyperactivity but instead are the net outcome of the interaction between hyperactivity and hypertension. We used Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) and Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) rats (males and females), strains generated from recombinant inbreeding of SHRs and their progenitor strain, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, to compare eyeblink conditioning in strains that are exclusively hyperactive or hypertensive. We used a long-delay eyeblink conditioning task in which a tone conditioned stimulus was paired with a periorbital stimulation unconditioned stimulus (750-ms delay paradigm). Our results showed that WKHA and WKHT rats exhibited similar rates of conditioned response (CR) acquisition. However, WKHA males displayed shortened CR latencies (early onset and peak latency) in comparison to WKHT males. In contrast, female WKHAs and WKHTs did not differ. In subsequent extinction training, WKHA rats extinguished at similar rates in comparison to WKHT rats. The current results support the hypothesis of a relationship between cerebellar abnormalities and ADHD in an animal model of ADHD-like symptoms that does not also exhibit hypertension, and suggest that cerebellar-related timing deficits are specific to males. PMID:19485572

  13. [Climatic change and public health: scenarios after the coming into force of the Kyoto Protocol].

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ferran; Díaz, Julio; Moreno, José Manuel

    2006-03-01

    According to the reports of the intergovernmental panel for climatic change (IPCC) human beings of the present and near future are going to experiment, in fact we are already experimenting, important changes in the world climate. Conscious of the magnitude of the problem, international organizations have taken a series of initiatives headed to stop the climatic change and to reduce its impact. This willingness has been shaped into the agreements established in the Kyoto protocol, where countries commit to reduce greenhouse-effect gas emissions. Kyoto protocol has come into force on February 16th 2005 with the support of 141 signing countries. Among the major worries are the effects which climatic change may have upon health, such as: 1) changes in the morbidity- mortality related to temperature; 2) Effects on health related with extreme meteorological events (tornados, storms, hurricanes and extreme raining); 3) Air pollution and increase of associated health effects; d) Diseases transmitted by food and water and 4) Infectious diseases transmitted by vectors and by rodents. Even if all the countries in the world committed to the Kyoto Protocol, some consequences of the climatic change will be inevitable; among them some will have a negative impact on health. It would be necessary to adapt a key response strategy to minimize the impacts of climatic change and to reduce, at minimum cost, its adverse effects on health. From the Public Health position, a relevant role can and must be played concerning the understanding of the risks for health of such climatic changes, the design of surveillance systems to evaluate possible impacts, and the establishment of systems to prevent or reduce damages as well as the identification and development of investigation needs.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of organic waste in Japan: the first demonstration plant at Kyoto City.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, T; Kimura, T; Kuriyama, Y; Isshiki, Y; Kawano, T; Hirao, T; Masuda, M; Yokoyama, K; Matsumoto, T; Takeda, M

    2002-01-01

    Recycling of Municipal Solid Waste is vigorously promoted in Japan and the necessity of energy recovery from organic waste is increasing. An anaerobic digestion demonstration plant for organic waste in Kyoto City, Japan has been operated for about two years. Three kinds of wastes (garbage and leftovers from hotels, yard waste and used paper) mixed at various ratios are used. The plant has maintained stable operations with each mixture, generating biogas by the decomposition of VS at the rate of about 820 m3N/ton-VS.

  15. High contrast neutron radiography with optical devices in Kyoto University reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Y.; Nakano, T.; Hino, M.; Sunohara, H.; Matsushima, U.; Takenaka, N.

    2004-08-01

    The high-contrast neutron radiography has been performed at a VCN guide (VCN) and a supermirror cold neutron guide (CN-3) in Kyoto University Reactor. The large absorption cross-section of very low-energy neutrons can show a slight change of sample which thermal neutrons can not show. The effectiveness is shown in the fields of botany, agriculture and industrial researches. A new spectrum change option using high Qc supermirror ( m=4) is attached. It can change the upper limit of the energy of exposure neutrons by reflections, and gives a high flexibility of the experimental condition.

  16. Neurophysiological model of the normal and abnormal human pupil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenz, W.; Robin, M.; Barez, S.; Stark, L.

    1985-01-01

    Anatomical, experimental, and computer simulation studies were used to determine the structure of the neurophysiological model of the pupil size control system. The computer simulation of this model demonstrates the role played by each of the elements in the neurological pathways influencing the size of the pupil. Simulations of the effect of drugs and common abnormalities in the system help to illustrate the workings of the pathways and processes involved. The simulation program allows the user to select pupil condition (normal or an abnormality), specific site along the neurological pathway (retina, hypothalamus, etc.) drug class input (barbiturate, narcotic, etc.), stimulus/response mode, display mode, stimulus type and input waveform, stimulus or background intensity and frequency, the input and output conditions, and the response at the neuroanatomical site. The model can be used as a teaching aid or as a tool for testing hypotheses regarding the system.

  17. Dreaming and the brain: from phenomenology to neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Nir, Yuval; Tononi, Giulio

    2010-02-01

    Dreams are a remarkable experiment in psychology and neuroscience, conducted every night in every sleeping person. They show that the human brain, disconnected from the environment, can generate an entire world of conscious experiences by itself. Content analysis and developmental studies have promoted understanding of dream phenomenology. In parallel, brain lesion studies, functional imaging and neurophysiology have advanced current knowledge of the neural basis of dreaming. It is now possible to start integrating these two strands of research to address fundamental questions that dreams pose for cognitive neuroscience: how conscious experiences in sleep relate to underlying brain activity; why the dreamer is largely disconnected from the environment; and whether dreaming is more closely related to mental imagery or to perception.

  18. Dreaming and the brain: from phenomenology to neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Nir, Yuval; Tononi, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Dreams are a most remarkable experiment in psychology and neuroscience, conducted every night in every sleeping person. They show that our brain, disconnected from the environment, can generate by itself an entire world of conscious experiences. Content analysis and developmental studies have furthered our understanding of dream phenomenology. In parallel, brain lesion studies, functional imaging, and neurophysiology have advanced our knowledge of the neural basis of dreaming. It is now possible to start integrating these two strands of research in order to address some fundamental questions that dreams pose for cognitive neuroscience: how conscious experiences in sleep relate to underlying brain activity; why the dreamer is largely disconnected from the environment; and whether dreaming is more closely related to mental imagery or to perception. PMID:20079677

  19. Teaching Neurophysiology to Undergraduates using Neurons in Action

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Ann E.

    2009-01-01

    Neurons in Action, a set of 25 hyperlinked tutorials and interactive simulations on CD-ROM, provides the student with a completely different approach to neurophysiology from that of textbooks. Guided by the tutorials, by their professor, by the urge to test their understanding, or simply by curiosity, students specify the parameters of a patch of membrane, an axon, a postsynaptic membrane, or a cell and run virtual experiments. Parameters include geometry, the number and type of ion channels in the membrane, the number of myelin wraps of the axon, the ion concentrations inside and out, synaptic variables, and temperature. Hyperlinked explanations, historical information, and classic papers on the CD provide the “textbook” material. This article describes this learning tool and details several ways in which it is being used at the undergraduate level. PMID:23493486

  20. Energy Drinks and the Neurophysiological Impact of Caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Persad, Leeana Aarthi Bagwath

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine, and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted. This review focuses on the neurophysiological impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body. PMID:22025909

  1. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impact of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Persad, Leeana Aarthi Bagwath

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine, and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted. This review focuses on the neurophysiological impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body.

  2. Intra-operative neurophysiology during microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Conejero, I; Ulkatan, S; Sen, C; Deletis, V

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that primary hemifacial spasm (HFS) in the majority of patients is related to a vascular compression of the facial nerve at its root exit zone (REZ). As a consequence, the hyperexcitability of facial nerve generates spasms of the facial muscles. Microvascular decompression (MVD) of the facial nerve near its REZ has been established as an effective treatment of HFS. Intra-operative disappearance of abnormal muscle responses (lateral spread) elicited by stimulating one of the facial nerve branches has been used as a method to predict MVD effectiveness. Other neurophysiologic techniques, such as facial F-wave, blink reflex and facial corticobulbar motor evoked potentials (FCoMEP), are feasible to intra-operatively study changes in excitability of the facial nerve and its nucleus during MVDs. Intra-operative neuromonitoring with the mentioned techniques allows a better understanding of HFS pathophysiology and helps to optimise the MVD.

  3. An Insight Into Neurophysiology of Pulpal Pain: Facts and Hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Abhishek; N., Meena

    2013-01-01

    Pain and pain control are important to the dental profession because the general perception of the public is that dental treatment and pain go hand in hand. Successful dental treatment requires that the source of pain be detected. If the origin of pain is not found, inappropriate dental care and, ultimately, extraction may result. Pain experienced before, during, or after endodontic therapy is a serious concern to both patients and endodontists, and the variability of discomfort presents a challenge in terms of diagnostic methods, endodontic therapy, and endodontic knowledge. This review will help clinicians understand the basic neurophysiology of pulpal pain and other painful conditions of the dental pulp that are not well understood. PMID:24156000

  4. Surgeon-driven neurophysiologic monitoring in a spinal surgery population

    PubMed Central

    Pickell, Michael; Mann, Stephen M.; Chakravertty, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Background This is a prospective observational study examining the use of a surgeon-driven intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring system. Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring is becoming the standard of care for spinal surgeries with potential post-operative neurologic deficits. This standard applies to both adult and pediatric spinal surgery, but a shortage of appropriately trained and certified technologists and physiologists can compromise monitoring capabilities in some centers. A surgeon-driven, intra-operative monitoring system in the absence of a technologist or physiologist was examined for safety and efficacy. Methods One hundred thirty-five patients undergoing a variety of spinal procedures were monitored intra-operatively using a surgeon-driven neuro-monitoring system over a period of 80 months. Intraoperative monitoring included serial motor evoked potentials via an automated system that provided visual and audible feedback directly to the operative surgeon. Changes in monitoring and any corresponding surgical responses were evaluated and compared with postoperative neurological status. Results Of the 135 patients studied, intraoperative adjustments based on neuro-monitoring took place in four patients (3.0%): following reduction in spondylolisthesis, during instrumentation and fusion for a large kyphoscoliosis deformity, due to low hemoglobin, and because of traction. In all cases, surgical and/or anaesthetic modification restored MEPs toward baseline values. The accuracy of the neuro-monitoring results was sensitive to narcotics, benzodiazepines and changes in haemoglobin concentrations. No new postoperative deficits were observed in any patients in the cohort. Conclusions The authors concluded that surgeon-driven neuro-monitoring was a safe and effective means of intraoperative neuro-monitoring during spinal surgery. It reliably detected intraoperative insults, which could potentially have resulted in postoperative neurologic compromise

  5. Anxiety- and depressive-like profiles during early- and mid-adolescence in the female Wistar Kyoto rat.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Deepthi; Sadananda, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Approaches for the development of preclinical models of depression extensively use adult and male animals owing to the discrepancies arising out of the hormonal flux in adult females and adolescents during attainment of puberty. Thus the increased vulnerability of females towards clinical depression and anxiety-related disorders remains incompletely understood. Development of clinical models of depression in adolescent females is essential in order to evolve effective treatment strategies for adolescent depression. In the present study, we have examined the anxiety and depressive-like profiles in a putative animal model of childhood depression, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, during early adolescence (∼postnatal day 30) and mid-adolescence (∼postnatal day 40). Female adolescent WKY rats, tested on a series of behavioural tests modelling anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours with age-matched Wistars as controls, demonstrated marked differences during early adolescence in a strain- and age-specific manner. Anxiety indices were obtained from exposure to the elevated plus maze, where social communication vide 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations was also assessed, while immobility and other parameters in the forced swim test were screened for depressive-like profiles. Sucrose preference, used as a measure of anhedonia in animals, was lower in WKYs at both ages tested and decreased with age. Anxiety-related behaviours were prominent in WKY rats only during early adolescence. WKY female rats are anxious during early adolescence and exhibit anhedonia as a core symptom of depression during early- and mid-adolescence, thus indicating that inclusion of female animals in preclinical trials is essential and will contribute to gender-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment of adolescent depression in females.

  6. Large-scale, high-resolution neurophysiological maps underlying FMRI of macaque temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Issa, Elias B; Papanastassiou, Alex M; DiCarlo, James J

    2013-09-18

    Maps obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are thought to reflect the underlying spatial layout of neural activity. However, previous studies have not been able to directly compare fMRI maps to high-resolution neurophysiological maps, particularly in higher level visual areas. Here, we used a novel stereo microfocal x-ray system to localize thousands of neural recordings across monkey inferior temporal cortex (IT), construct large-scale maps of neuronal object selectivity at subvoxel resolution, and compare those neurophysiology maps with fMRI maps from the same subjects. While neurophysiology maps contained reliable structure at the sub-millimeter scale, fMRI maps of object selectivity contained information at larger scales (>2.5 mm) and were only partly correlated with raw neurophysiology maps collected in the same subjects. However, spatial smoothing of neurophysiology maps more than doubled that correlation, while a variety of alternative transforms led to no significant improvement. Furthermore, raw spiking signals, once spatially smoothed, were as predictive of fMRI maps as local field potential signals. Thus, fMRI of the inferior temporal lobe reflects a spatially low-passed version of neurophysiology signals. These findings strongly validate the widespread use of fMRI for detecting large (>2.5 mm) neuronal domains of object selectivity but show that a complete understanding of even the most pure domains (e.g., faces vs nonface objects) requires investigation at fine scales that can currently only be obtained with invasive neurophysiological methods.

  7. Cerebellar Structure and Function in Male Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, WKHA emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone CS or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC. PMID:23398437

  8. Detection of rickettsial DNA in ticks and wild boars in Kyoto City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Someya, Azusa; Ito, Ryuki; Maeda, Akihiko; Ikenaga, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The tick is a well-known vector for arthropod-borne pathogens, such as tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, Japanese spotted fever and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. It is therefore important to know the tick population and distribution in our environment and wild animals in order to prevent tick-borne diseases. Here, we report the results of tick surveillance from May to September 2011 at 14 geographical points and in 5 wild boars in Kyoto City, Kyoto prefecture, Japan. We collected 3,198 ticks comprising 5 tick species, Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis, H. flava, H. kitaokai, Amblyomma testudinarium and Dermacentor taiwanensis. Interestingly, the proportion of tick species varied according to geographical region within the city. The ticks collected in the city were reported as potential vectors of pathogens, such as rickettsiosis. We detected rickettsial DNA by PCR in 71.1% of 201 ticks investigated. The ticks that carried rickettsiae were distributed across the whole the city. The sequences of PCR-amplified DNA fragments were determined and showed similarities to spotted fever group rickettsiae. Although their pathogenicity for animals including humans is still unclear, it is important to stay alert and pay attention to tick-borne diseases in order to ensure the safety of the citizens of the city as well as that of visitors.

  9. Cerebellar structure and function in male Wistar-Kyoto hyperactive rats.

    PubMed

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T

    2013-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, male WKHAs emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in male WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone conditional stimulus (CS) or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs, and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC.

  10. Impacts of the Kyoto protocol on U.S. energy markets and economic activity

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program in 1988 to assess the available scientific, technical, and socioeconomic information in the field of climate change. The most recent report of the IPCC concluded that ``Our ability to quantify the human influence on global climate is currently limited because the expected signal is still emerging from the noise of natural variability, and because there are uncertainties in key factors. These include the magnitudes and patterns of long-term variability and the time-evolving pattern of forcing by, and response to, changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and land surface changes. Nevertheless the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernible human influence on global climate. The first and second Conference of the Parties in 1995 and 1996 agreed to address the issue of greenhouse gas emissions for the period beyond 2000, and to negotiate quantified emission limitations and reductions for the third Conference of the Parties. On December 1 through 11, 1997, representatives from more than 160 countries met in Kyoto, Japan, to negotiate binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for developed nations. The resulting Kyoto Protocol established emissions targets for each of the participating developed countries--the Annex 1 countries--relative to their 1990 emissions levels. 114 refs., 138 figs., 33 tabs.

  11. Neurocognitive rehabilitation for addiction medicine: From neurophysiological markers to cognitive rehabilitation and relapse prevention.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Currently, relapse prevention remains the main challenge in addiction medicine, indicating that the established treatment methods combining psychotherapy with neuropharmacological interventions are not entirely effective. Therefore, there is a push to develop alternatives to psychotherapy- and medication-based approaches to addiction treatment. Two major cognitive factors have been identified that trigger relapse in addicted patients: attentional biases directed toward drug-related cues, which increase the urge to consume, and impaired response inhibition toward these cues, which makes it more difficult for addicted people to resist temptation. Recent studies on newly detoxified alcoholic patients have shown that by using the appropriate tasks to index these cognitive functions with event-related potentials (ERPs), it is possible to discriminate between future relapsers and nonrelapsers. These preliminary data suggest that the ERP technique has great clinical potential for preventing relapse in alcohol-dependent patients, as well as for addictive states in general. Indeed, ERPs may help to identify patients highly vulnerable to relapse and allow the development of individually adapted cognitive rehabilitation programs. The implementation of this combined approach requires an intense collaboration between psychiatry departments, clinical neurophysiology laboratories, and neuropsychological rehabilitation centers. The potential pitfalls and limitations of this approach are also discussed.

  12. Neurophysiological assessment for evaluating residual cognition in vegetative and minimally conscious state patients: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    De Salvo, Simona; Caminiti, Fabrizia; Bonanno, Lilla; De Cola, Maria Cristina; Corallo, Francesco; Caizzone, Antonino; Rifici, Carmela; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to assess residual cognitive function and perform outcome evaluation in vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) patients, using Neurowave, a system able to monitor event-related potentials (ERPs) induced by neurosensory stimulation. Eleven VS and five MCS patients underwent neurological examination and clinical evaluation performed using validated clinical and behavioral scales; they also underwent neurosensory stimulation, which consisted of administration of target images (rare stimuli), relevant to the patient’s personal history and having emotional significance, alternated with non-target images (“standard” stimuli), which had no emotional significance. All simultaneous ERP responses at baseline (T0) and at three months from T0 (T1) were recorded. At T0 we found significant differences between the VS and MCS patients for the N200 (p=0.02) and P300 (p=0.04) waves. The neurophysiological analysis at T1 showed a significant difference only for P300 (p=0.02), probably due to the improvements observed in the VS subjects for the N100 (p=0.009) and N200 (p=0.02) sensory components. Our findings seem to show the value of ERP monitoring in VS and MCS patients as a means of investigating residual cognitive function. This approach could guide early therapeutic and rehabilitation interventions, and contribute to identifying better diagnostic and prognostic markers for use in unresponsive or low-responsive patients. PMID:26727702

  13. Analysis of 1014 consecutive operative cases to determine the utility of intraoperative neurophysiological data

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Namath Syed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) during neurosurgical procedures has become the standard of care at tertiary care medical centers. While prospective data regarding the clinical utility of IOM are conspicuously lacking, retrospective analyses continue to provide useful information regarding surgeon responses to reported waveform changes. Methods: Data regarding clinical presentation, operative course, IOM, and postoperative neurological examination were compiled from a database of 1014 cranial and spinal surgical cases at a tertiary care medical center from 2005 to 2011. IOM modalities utilized included somatosensory evoked potentials, transcranial motor evoked potentials, pedicle screw stimulation, and electromyography. Surgeon responses to changes in IOM waveforms were recorded. Results: Changes in IOM waveforms indicating potential injury were present in 87 of 1014 cases (8.6%). In 23 of the 87 cases (26.4%), the surgeon responded by repositioning the patient (n = 12), repositioning retractors (n = 1) or implanted instrumentation (n = 9), or by stopping surgery (n = 1). Loss of IOM waveforms predicted postoperative neurological deficit in 10 cases (11.5% of cases with IOM changes). Conclusions: In the largest IOM series to date, we report that the surgeon responded by appropriate interventions in over 25% of cases during which there were IOM indicators of potential harm to neural structures. Prospective studies remain to be undertaken to adequately evaluate the utility of IOM in changing surgeon behavior. Our data is in agreement with previous observations in indicating a trend that supports the continued use of IOM. PMID:26396602

  14. Systems-level neurophysiological state characteristics for drug evaluation in an animal model of levodopa-induced dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Tamtè, Martin; Brys, Ivani; Richter, Ulrike; Ivica, Nedjeljka; Halje, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Disorders affecting the central nervous system have proven particularly hard to treat, and disappointingly few novel therapies have reached the clinics in recent decades. A better understanding of the physiological processes in the brain underlying various symptoms could therefore greatly improve the rate of progress in this field. We here show how systems-level descriptions of different brain states reliably can be obtained through a newly developed method based on large-scale recordings in distributed neural networks encompassing several different brain structures. Using this technology, we characterize the neurophysiological states associated with parkinsonism and levodopa-induced dyskinesia in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease together with pharmacological interventions aimed at reducing dyskinetic symptoms. Our results show that the obtained electrophysiological data add significant information to conventional behavioral evaluations and hereby elucidate the underlying effects of treatments in greater detail. Taken together, these results potentially open up for studies of neurophysiological mechanisms underlying symptoms in a wide range of neurological and psychiatric conditions that until now have been very hard to investigate in animal models of disease. PMID:26740532

  15. Can neurophysiologic measures serve as biomarkers for the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment of major depressive disorder?

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Brian; Cook, Ian A; Hunter, Aimee M; Minzenberg, Michael J; Krantz, David E; Leuchter, Andrew F

    2017-03-31

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective treatment for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). There are clinical data that support the efficacy of many different approaches to rTMS treatment, and it remains unclear what combination of stimulation parameters is optimal to relieve depressive symptoms. Because of the costs and complexity of studies that would be necessary to explore and compare the large number of combinations of rTMS treatment parameters, it would be useful to establish reliable surrogate biomarkers of treatment efficacy that could be used to compare different approaches to treatment. This study reviews the evidence that neurophysiologic measures of cortical excitability could be used as biomarkers for screening different rTMS treatment paradigms. It examines evidence that: (1) changes in excitability are related to the mechanism of action of rTMS; (2) rTMS has consistent effects on measures of excitability that could constitute reliable biomarkers; and (3) changes in excitability are related to the outcomes of rTMS treatment of MDD. An increasing body of evidence indicates that these neurophysiologic measures have the potential to serve as reliable biomarkers for screening different approaches to rTMS treatment of MDD.

  16. Diesel Exhaust Worsens Cardiac Conduction Instability in Dobutamine-Challenged Wistar-Kyoto and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Hazari, Mehdi S; Lancaster, Jarrett L; Starobin, Joseph M; Farraj, Aimen K; Cascio, Wayne E

    2017-04-01

    Short-term exposure to air pollution, particularly from vehicular sources, increases the risk of acute clinical cardiovascular events. However, cardiotoxicity is not always clearly discernible under ambient conditions; therefore, more subtle measures of cardiac dysfunction are necessary to elucidate the latent effects of exposure. Determine the effect of whole diesel exhaust (DE) exposure on reserve of refractoriness (RoR), an intrinsic electrophysiological measure of the heart's minimum level of refractoriness relative to development of electrical conduction instability, in rats undergoing exercise-like stress. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats implanted with radiotelemeters to continuously collect electrocardiogram (ECG) and heart rate were exposed to 150 µg/m(3) of DE and challenged with dobutamine 24 h later to mimic exercise-induced increases of the heart rate. The Chernyak-Starobin-Cohen (CSC) model was then applied to the ECG-derived QT and RR intervals collected during progressive increases in heart rate to calculate RoR for each rat. Filtered air-exposed WKY and SH rats did not have any decrease in RoR, which indicates increased risk of cardiac conduction instability; however, DE caused a significant decrease in both strains. Yet, the decrease in RoR in SH rats was eight times steeper when compared to WKY rats indicating greater cardiac conduction instability in the hypertensive strain. These data indicate that after exposure to DE, risk of cardiac instability increases during increasing stress, particularly in the presence of underlying cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, the CSC model, which was previously shown to reveal cardiac risk in humans, can be applied to rodent toxicology studies.

  17. Neurophysiological indices of strategy development and skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Smith, M E; McEvoy, L K; Gevins, A

    1999-01-01

    In order to examine neurophysiological changes associated with the development of cognitive and visuomotor strategies and skills, spectral features of the EEG were measured as participants learned to perform new tasks. In one experiment eight individuals practiced working memory tasks that required development of either spatial or verbal rehearsal and updating strategies. In a second experiment six individuals practiced a video game with a difficult visuomotor tracking component. The alpha rhythm, which is attenuated by functional cortical activation, was affected by task practice. In both experiments, a lower-frequency, centrally distributed alpha component increased between practice sessions in a task-independent fashion, reflecting an overall decrease in the extent of cortical activation after practice. A second, higher-frequency, posterior component of the alpha rhythm displayed task-specific practice effects. Practice in the verbal working memory task resulted in an increase of this signal over right posterior regions, an effect not seen after practice with the spatial working memory task or with the video game. This between-task difference presumably reflects a continued involvement of the posterior region of the right hemisphere in tasks that invoke visuospatial processes. This finding thus provides neurophysiological evidence for the formation of a task-specific neurocognitive strategy. In the second experiment a third component of the alpha rhythm, localized over somatomotor cortex, was enhanced in conjunction with acquisition of tracking skill. These alpha band results suggest that cortical regions not necessary for task performance become less active as skills develop. In both experiments the frontal midline (Fm) theta rhythm also displayed increases over the course of test sessions. This signal is associated with states of focused concentration, and its enhancement might reflect the conscious control over attention associated with maintenance of a task

  18. Physiological and Perceptual Sensory Attenuation Have Different Underlying Neurophysiological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Davare, Marco; Kilner, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory attenuation, the top-down filtering or gating of afferent information, has been extensively studied in two fields: physiological and perceptual. Physiological sensory attenuation is represented as a decrease in the amplitude of the primary and secondary components of the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) before and during movement. Perceptual sensory attenuation, described using the analogy of a persons' inability to tickle oneself, is a reduction in the perception of the afferent input of a self-produced tactile sensation due to the central cancellation of the reafferent signal by the efference copy of the motor command to produce the action. The fields investigating these two areas have remained isolated, so the relationship between them is unclear. The current study delivered median nerve stimulation to produce SEPs during a force-matching paradigm (used to quantify perceptual sensory attenuation) in healthy human subjects to determine whether SEP gating correlated with the behavior. Our results revealed that these two forms of attenuation have dissociable neurophysiological correlates and are likely functionally distinct, which has important implications for understanding neurological disorders in which one form of sensory attenuation but not the other is impaired. Time–frequency analyses revealed a negative correlation over sensorimotor cortex between gamma-oscillatory activity and the magnitude of perceptual sensory attenuation. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that gamma-band power is related to prediction error and that this might underlie perceptual sensory attenuation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We demonstrate that there are two functionally and mechanistically distinct forms of sensory gating. The literature regarding somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) gating is commonly cited as a potential mechanism underlying perceptual sensory attenuation; however, the formal relationship between physiological and perceptual sensory

  19. Descartes' visit to the town library, or how Augustinian is Descartes' neurophysiology?

    PubMed

    Smith, C U

    1998-08-01

    Rene Descartes was early accused of taking his central philosophical proposition from St Augustine. Did he also take his central neurophysiological concept from the same source? This is the question which this paper sets out to answer. It is concluded that the foundational neurophysiology propounded in L'Homme does indeed show strong and interesting resemblences to Augustine's largely Erasistratean version. Descartes, however, working within the new paradigm of seventeenth-century physical science, introduced a new principle: whereas Augustine's neurophysiology is pervaded throughout by a vital factor, the pneuma, Descartes' theory involved only inanimate material forces. It is concluded, further, that in spite of the interesting similarities between Augustinian and Cartesian neurophysiology there is no evidence for any direct plagiarism. It seems more likely that Augustine's influence was filtered through the Galenical physiologists of Descartes' own time and of the preceding century.

  20. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 4: Recording Clinical EEG on Digital Media.

    PubMed

    Halford, Jonathan J; Sabau, Dragos; Drislane, Frank W; Tsuchida, Tammy N; Sinha, Saurabh R

    2016-08-01

    Digital EEG recording systems are now widely available and relatively inexpensive. They offer multiple advantages over previous analog/paper systems, such as higher fidelity recording, signal postprocessing, automated detection, and efficient data storage. This document provides guidance for the creation of digital EEG recordings including (1) documentation of patient information, (2) notation of information during the recording, (3) digital signal acquisition parameters during the recording, (4) storage of digital information, and (5) display of digital EEG signals.

  1. Economic Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session, March 25, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    This hearing focuses on the economic impact of the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. In the Kyoto Protocol, which was completed in December 1997, the administration agreed to legally binding obligations to reduce US greenhouse gas emissions to seven percent below 1990 levels during the years 2008--2011. This climate treaty does not subject developing countries to emission targets.

  2. Design study of multi-imaging plate system for BNCT irradiation field at Kyoto university reactor.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Endo, Satoru

    2016-09-01

    The converter configuration for a multi-imaging plate system was investigated for the application of quality assurance in the irradiation field profile for boron neutron capture therapy. This was performed by the simulation calculation using the PHITS code in the fields at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Reactor. The converter constituents investigated were carbon for gamma rays, and polyethylene with and without LiF at varied (6)Li concentration for thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons. Consequently, potential combinations of the converters were found for two components, gamma rays and thermal neutrons, for the standard thermal neutron mode and three components of gamma rays, epithermal neutrons, and thermal or fast neutrons, for the standard mixed or epithermal neutron modes, respectively.

  3. Links between Cairo and Kyoto: addressing global warming through voluntary family planning.

    PubMed

    Skeer, Jeffrey

    2002-02-01

    Over the past three decades, with a combination of new technology, rising female literacy rates, and strengthened family planning programs, the world has seen dramatic increases in the use of contraception, with corresponding declines in fertility and population growth rates. At the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo in 1994, parties pledged a tripling of funding for reproductive health programs in developing countries. Many demographers believe that making such programs more widely available to women would extend the decline in birth rates and shift the world towards the low scenario of United Nations population projections over the next century and a half. By examining the costs and impacts of such programs, in view of the links between population and carbon emissions, this paper shows that extension of voluntary family planning could make a large and cost-effective contribution to the greenhouse gas limitation goals of the Kyoto Protocol that was negotiated in 1997.

  4. [Climate change and Kyoto Protocol. Science and strategies. Obligations for Spain].

    PubMed

    de Castro González, Federico Velázquez

    2005-01-01

    This article presents climate change as the major environmental problem of our time. A result of the so-called "greenhouse effect", climate change is caused by certain gases, the concentrations in the atmosphere of which are growing exponentially. The consequences of these gases are going to be felt throughout the entire biosphere, from weather phenomenon to humans, creating a uncertain panorama which is going to be requiring some fast-paced adaptation on the part of all species. This is not, however, an irreversible process, taking action thus being possible and necessary, by combining education and lawmaking measures brought into being within the timeframes and to the extents set forth under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. Spain will be one of the most highly-affected countries, and its strategy may therefore mean a highly-valuable tool for correcting the deviations caused and contributing to the urgent control of global emissions.

  5. Development of a mono-energetic positron beam line at the Kyoto University Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Xu, Q.; Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H.; Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A.; Shirai, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Positron beam facilities are widely used for solid state physics and material science studies. A positron beam facility has been constructed at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) in order to expand its application range. The KUR is a light-water-moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A positron beam has been transported successfully from the reactor to the irradiation chamber. The total moderated positron rate was greater than 1.4 × 106/s while the reactor operated at a reduced power of 1 MW. Special attention was paid for the design of the in-pile position source to prevent possible damage of the reactor in case of severe earthquakes.

  6. Neurophysiological Correlates of Visual Dominance: A Lateralized Readiness Potential Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Liu, Mingxin; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Sai; Zhang, Bao; Liu, Xingzhou; Chen, Qi

    2017-01-01

    When multisensory information concurrently arrives at our receptors, visual information often receives preferential processing and eventually dominates awareness and behavior. Previous research suggested that the visual dominance effect implicated the prioritizing of visual information into the motor system. In order to further reveal the underpinning neurophysiological mechanism of how visual information is prioritized into the motor system when vision dominates audition, the present study examined the time course of a particular motor activation ERP component, the lateralized readiness potential (LRP), during multisensory competition. The onsets of both stimulus-locked LRP (S-LRP) and response-locked LRP (R-LRP) were measured. Results showed that, the R-LRP onset to the auditory target was delayed about 91 ms when it was paired with a simultaneous presented visual target, compared to that when it was presented by itself. For the visual target, however, the R-LRP onset was comparable irrespective of whether it was paired with an auditory target or not. No significant difference was obtained for the onset of S-LRP. Taken together, the time courses of LRPs indicated that visual information was preferentially processed within the motor system, which coincides with the previous finding that the dorsal visual stream prioritizes the flow of visual information into the motor system. PMID:28303113

  7. Postnatal neurophysiologic effects of prenatal X-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jensh, R P; Eisenman, L M; Brent, R L

    1995-02-01

    Histological and neurophysiological effects of in utero irradiation were examined following exposure of pregnant Wistar rat to 2.0 Gy X-irradiation or sham-irradiated on the 17th day of gestation. The 234 newborns were monitored for the age of appearance of four selected physiologic markers and the age of acquisition of five selected reflexes. Offspring were evaluated as young adults using selected behavioural tests. Postnatal growth was monitored weekly. Selected offspring were autopsied to determine the presence of morphologic central nervous system alterations. The results indicated that 2.0 Gy X-irradiation during the foetal period in rat gestation caused permanent alterations in the mature adult organism, which include non-recuperable growth retardation, morphologic changes in the brain such as microcephaly, abnormal cerebellar cortical cellular patterns, and alterations in the cell architecture of the hippocampus; diminished attainment of selected reflexes; alterations in the appearance of selected physiologic markers; and changes in adult test performance indicating significant hyperactivity among the irradiated offspring. Such exposure to X-irradiation during this period results in behavioural and morphologic alterations, which persist throughout life.

  8. Afference copy as a quantitative neurophysiological model for consciousness.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Hugo; Coop, Allan D

    2014-06-01

    Consciousness is a topic of considerable human curiosity with a long history of philosophical analysis and debate. We consider there is nothing particularly complicated about consciousness when viewed as a necessary process of the vertebrate nervous system. Here, we propose a physiological "explanatory gap" is created during each present moment by the temporal requirements of neuronal activity. The gap extends from the time exteroceptive and proprioceptive stimuli activate the nervous system until they emerge into consciousness. During this "moment", it is impossible for an organism to have any conscious knowledge of the ongoing evolution of its environment. In our schematic model, a mechanism of "afference copy" is employed to bridge the explanatory gap with consciously experienced percepts. These percepts are fabricated from the conjunction of the cumulative memory of previous relevant experience and the given stimuli. They are structured to provide the best possible prediction of the expected content of subjective conscious experience likely to occur during the period of the gap. The model is based on the proposition that the neural circuitry necessary to support consciousness is a product of sub/preconscious reflexive learning and recall processes. Based on a review of various psychological and neurophysiological findings, we develop a framework which contextualizes the model and briefly discuss further implications.

  9. Neurophysiological Correlates of Visual Dominance: A Lateralized Readiness Potential Investigation.

    PubMed

    Li, You; Liu, Mingxin; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Sai; Zhang, Bao; Liu, Xingzhou; Chen, Qi

    2017-01-01

    When multisensory information concurrently arrives at our receptors, visual information often receives preferential processing and eventually dominates awareness and behavior. Previous research suggested that the visual dominance effect implicated the prioritizing of visual information into the motor system. In order to further reveal the underpinning neurophysiological mechanism of how visual information is prioritized into the motor system when vision dominates audition, the present study examined the time course of a particular motor activation ERP component, the lateralized readiness potential (LRP), during multisensory competition. The onsets of both stimulus-locked LRP (S-LRP) and response-locked LRP (R-LRP) were measured. Results showed that, the R-LRP onset to the auditory target was delayed about 91 ms when it was paired with a simultaneous presented visual target, compared to that when it was presented by itself. For the visual target, however, the R-LRP onset was comparable irrespective of whether it was paired with an auditory target or not. No significant difference was obtained for the onset of S-LRP. Taken together, the time courses of LRPs indicated that visual information was preferentially processed within the motor system, which coincides with the previous finding that the dorsal visual stream prioritizes the flow of visual information into the motor system.

  10. Neurophysiology for Detection of High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex and often disabling disorder that is characterized by a wide range of social, emotional, and cognitive deficits. Increasing research suggests that the greatest social and cognitive therapeutic impact comes from early identification. The present study applied a well-established neurophysiological paradigm in the schizophrenia literature, mismatch negativity (MMN), to college students identified as high risk (HR) for psychosis to investigate MMN as a potential biomarker for the onset of psychosis. The hypothesis was that HR would exhibit attenuated MMN amplitudes compared to controls, as has been established in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Participants (N = 121) were separated into Group 1 (controls) (n1 = 72) and Group 2 (HR) (n2 = 49) based on the established cutoff score of the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire. Participants then completed a time based MMN paradigm during which brain activity was recorded with EEG. For all electrode locations, controls demonstrated significantly more negative amplitudes than HR (Cz: F(1,119) = 8.09, p = .005; Fz: F(1, 119) = 5.74, p = .018; Pz: F(1,119) = 5.88, p = .017). Results suggested that MMN may assist in identifying those who appear high-functioning but may be at risk for later development of psychosis or cognitive and psychological difficulties associated with psychosis. PMID:27579180

  11. Neurophysiology for Detection of High Risk for Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Pantlin, Lara N; Davalos, Deana

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex and often disabling disorder that is characterized by a wide range of social, emotional, and cognitive deficits. Increasing research suggests that the greatest social and cognitive therapeutic impact comes from early identification. The present study applied a well-established neurophysiological paradigm in the schizophrenia literature, mismatch negativity (MMN), to college students identified as high risk (HR) for psychosis to investigate MMN as a potential biomarker for the onset of psychosis. The hypothesis was that HR would exhibit attenuated MMN amplitudes compared to controls, as has been established in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Participants (N = 121) were separated into Group 1 (controls) (n 1 = 72) and Group 2 (HR) (n 2 = 49) based on the established cutoff score of the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire. Participants then completed a time based MMN paradigm during which brain activity was recorded with EEG. For all electrode locations, controls demonstrated significantly more negative amplitudes than HR (Cz: F(1,119) = 8.09, p = .005; Fz: F(1, 119) = 5.74, p = .018; Pz: F(1,119) = 5.88, p = .017). Results suggested that MMN may assist in identifying those who appear high-functioning but may be at risk for later development of psychosis or cognitive and psychological difficulties associated with psychosis.

  12. Cough: neurophysiology, methods of research, pharmacological therapy and phonoaudiology

    PubMed Central

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The cough is the more common respiratory symptom in children and adults. Objective: To present a revision on the neurophysiology and the methods for study of the consequence of the cough, as well as the pharmacotherapy and phonoaudiology therapy of the cough, based on the works published between 2005 and 2010 and indexed in the bases Medline, Lilacs and Library Cochrane under them to keywords “cough” or “anti-cough”. Synthesis of the data: The consequence of the cough involves activation of receiving multiples becomes vacant in the aerial ways and of neural projections of the nucleus of the solitary treatment for other structures of the central nervous system. Experimental techniques allow studying the consequence of the cough to the cellular and molecular level to develop new anti-cough agents. It does not have evidences of that anti-cough exempt of medical lapsing they have superior effectiveness to the one of placebo for the relief of the cough. The phonoaudiology therapy can benefit patients with refractory chronic cough to the pharmacological treatment, over all when paradoxical movement of the vocal folds coexists. Final Comments: The boarding to multidiscipline has basic paper in the etiological diagnosis and treatment of the cough. The otolaryngologist must inform the patients on the risks of the anti-cough of free sales in order to prevent adverse poisonings and effect, especially in children. PMID:25991944

  13. Neurophysiological mechanisms involved in language learning in adults

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Mestres-Missé, Anna; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in word learning during infancy and in second language acquisition and about the way these new words become stable representations that sustain language processing. In several studies we have adopted the human simulation perspective, studying the effects of brain-lesions and combining different neuroimaging techniques such as event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging in order to examine the language learning (LL) process. In the present article, we review this evidence focusing on how different brain signatures relate to (i) the extraction of words from speech, (ii) the discovery of their embedded grammatical structure, and (iii) how meaning derived from verbal contexts can inform us about the cognitive mechanisms underlying the learning process. We compile these findings and frame them into an integrative neurophysiological model that tries to delineate the major neural networks that might be involved in the initial stages of LL. Finally, we propose that LL simulations can help us to understand natural language processing and how the recovery from language disorders in infants and adults can be accomplished. PMID:19933142

  14. Neurophysiological Pathways to Obesity: Below Awareness and Beyond Individual Control

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    A global obesity epidemic is occurring simultaneously with ongoing increases in the availability and salience of food in the environment. Obesity is increasing across all socioeconomic groups and educational levels and occurs even among individuals with the highest levels of education and expertise in nutrition and related fields. Given these circumstances, it is plausible that excessive food consumption occurs in ways that defy personal insight or are below individual awareness. The current food environment stimulates automatic reflexive responses that enhance the desire to eat and increase caloric intake, making it exceedingly difficult for individuals to resist, especially because they may not be aware of these influences. This article identifies 10 neurophysiological pathways that can lead people to make food choices subconsciously or, in some cases, automatically. These pathways include reflexive and uncontrollable neurohormonal responses to food images, cues, and smells; mirror neurons that cause people to imitate the eating behavior of others without awareness; and limited cognitive capacity to make informed decisions about food. Given that people have limited ability to shape the food environment individually and no ability to control automatic responses to food-related cues that are unconsciously perceived, it is incumbent upon society as a whole to regulate the food environment, including the number and types of food-related cues, portion sizes, food availability, and food advertising. PMID:18586908

  15. Physiological and Perceptual Sensory Attenuation Have Different Underlying Neurophysiological Correlates.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Clare E; Davare, Marco; Kilner, James M

    2016-10-19

    Sensory attenuation, the top-down filtering or gating of afferent information, has been extensively studied in two fields: physiological and perceptual. Physiological sensory attenuation is represented as a decrease in the amplitude of the primary and secondary components of the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) before and during movement. Perceptual sensory attenuation, described using the analogy of a persons' inability to tickle oneself, is a reduction in the perception of the afferent input of a self-produced tactile sensation due to the central cancellation of the reafferent signal by the efference copy of the motor command to produce the action. The fields investigating these two areas have remained isolated, so the relationship between them is unclear. The current study delivered median nerve stimulation to produce SEPs during a force-matching paradigm (used to quantify perceptual sensory attenuation) in healthy human subjects to determine whether SEP gating correlated with the behavior. Our results revealed that these two forms of attenuation have dissociable neurophysiological correlates and are likely functionally distinct, which has important implications for understanding neurological disorders in which one form of sensory attenuation but not the other is impaired. Time-frequency analyses revealed a negative correlation over sensorimotor cortex between gamma-oscillatory activity and the magnitude of perceptual sensory attenuation. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that gamma-band power is related to prediction error and that this might underlie perceptual sensory attenuation.

  16. The neurophysiological effects of a single session of spinal joint mobilization: does the effect last?

    PubMed Central

    Hegedus, Eric J; Goode, Adam; Butler, Robert J; Slaven, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Studies detailing the neurophysiological effects of spinal manual therapy have fueled a paradigm shift away from a strict biomechanical model. However, a recent systematic review of the temporal nature of a single session of spinal thrust manipulation found that the neurophysiological effects were only temporary. The objective of this review was to examine the temporal nature of neurophysiological effects after one session of spinal mobilization. Studies eligible for this review had to report on the temporal component of the neurophysiological effects of a single session of joint mobilization of the spine in human subjects. In order to be sure that the temporal nature of these effects was captured, the studies had to monitor neurophysiological effects for a time beyond the immediate post-treatment period. This systematic review followed the methodology for preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. In order to assess the quality, strength, and importance of the included studies, the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation system was used. Results of this review showed that the neurophysiological effects of a single session of spinal mobilization are mostly 5 minutes or less. An exception to these findings is hypoalgesia which may last up to 24 hours, based on one study. Continued research on small samples of healthy subjects with irrelevant immediate outcomes like salivary rate, skin conductance, and skin temperature should give way to randomized controlled trials on subjects with pain and decreased function. PMID:22851877

  17. A post-Kyoto partner: Considering the Montreal Protocol as a tool to manage nitrous oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauzerall, D. L.; Kanter, D.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Grabiel, P.; Moomaw, W.; Galloway, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    While nitrous oxide (N2O) was recently identified as the largest remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer, it is currently regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol due to its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the 1987 Montreal Protocol if they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues for the Montreal Protocol and its parent treaty, the 1985 Vienna Convention, to regulate N2O, as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address its most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to mitigation efforts. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built upon by the Montreal Protocol's existing bodies to implement N2O controls. Given the tight coupling of the nitrogen cycle, such controls would likely simultaneously reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen and hence have co-benefits for ecosystems and public health. Nevertheless, there are at least three major regulatory challenges that are unique and central to N2O control: food security, equity, and the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the Montreal Protocol need not be viewed as a sign of the Kyoto Protocol's failure to adequately deal with climate change, given the complexity of the issue. Rather, it could represent an additional tool in the field of sustainable development diplomacy.lt;img border=0 src="images/B43K-06_B.jpg">

  18. Neurophysiological effects of chronic indoor environmental toxic mold exposure on children.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Ebere C; Campbell, Andrew W; Vojdani, Aristo

    2003-04-28

    The phenomenon of building-related diseases is attracting much research interest in recent years because of the extent to which it affects people with compromised immune systems, especially children. In this study, we reported the neurological findings in children who attended our Center because of chronic exposure to toxic molds. Clinical neurological and neurobehavioral questionnaires were administered with the cooperation of the children's parents. The children then underwent a series of neurophysiological tests including electroencephalogram (EEG), brainstem evoked potential (BAEP), visual evoked potential (VEP), and somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP). The results showed high levels of abnormalities in the analysis of the subjective responses derived from the questionnaires. The EEG examination was abnormal in seven out of ten of the patients compared to the controls with only one in ten with episodes of bihemispheric sharp activity. In all the patients, there was frontotemporal theta wave activity that seemed to indicate diffuse changes characteristic of metabolic encephalopathies. Also, there was highly marked 1 to 3 Hz delta activity that was asymmetrical in the right hemisphere of the brain in three out of ten patients. The waveforms of BAEP showed abnormalities in 90% of the patients with both 15' and 31' check sizes compared to none in the controls. There were significant delays in waveform V in a majority of the patients representing dysfunctional cognitive process and conductive hearing loss in both ears. VEP showed clear abnormalities in four in ten of the patients with P100 amplitudes and latencies decreased bilaterally. In all the patients, there was slowing of conduction in the right tibial at an average of 36.9 ms and there was significant decrease in amplitude of response at the proximal stimulation site. Sensory latencies obtained in the median, ulnar, and sural nerves bilaterally showed abnormalities in five out of ten compared to none in the

  19. Neurophysiology of circadian rhythm sleep disorders of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Jan, James E; Bax, Martin C O; Owens, Judith A; Ipsiroglu, Osman S; Wasdell, Michael B

    2012-09-01

    This article reviews circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs) of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities. These sleep disturbances frequently occur in this population but they are misunderstood and under diagnosed. The causes and features of CRSD in children with brain disorders differ in many ways from those seen in typically developing children. It is the brain, including the eyes, which regulates sleep and circadian rhythmicity by modulating pineal melatonin production/secretion and when there is significant brain damage, the sleep/wake patterns may be modified. In most instances CRSD are not disorders of the suprachiasmatic nuclei because these small hypothalamic structures only adjust their functions to the changing photic and non-photic modulatory influences. Each form of CRSD is accompanied by characteristic changes in serum melatonin levels and clinical features. When nocturnal melatonin production/secretion is inappropriately timed or impaired in relation to the environment, timed melatonin replacement therapy will often be beneficial. In this review an attempt is made to clarify the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the various forms of CRSD because without understanding the photic and non-photic influences on sleep, these sleep disorders can not be fully characterized, defined or even appropriately treated. In the future, the existing definitions for the different forms of CRSD should be modified by experts in pediatric sleep medicine in order to include children with neurodevelopmental disabilities.

  20. An effective intra-operative neurophysiological monitoring scheme for aneurysm clipping and spinal fusion surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryawala, Mohammed; Yaylali, Ilker; Cabrerizo, Mercedes; Vedala, Krishnatej; Adjouadi, Malek

    2012-04-01

    Somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEPs) have been widely used for intra-operative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). Currently at least 200-300 trials are required to generate a readable SSEP signal. This study introduces a novel approach that yields accurate detection results of the SSEP signal yet with a significantly reduced number of trials, resulting in an effectual monitoring process. The analysis was performed on data recorded in seven patients undergoing surgery, where the posterior tibial nerve was stimulated and the SSEP response was recorded from scalp electroencephalography using two bipolar electrodes, C3-C4 and CZ-FZ. The proposed approach employs an innovative, simple yet effective algorithm based on a patient-specific Gaussian template to detect the SSEP using only 30 trials. The time latencies of the P37 and N45 peaks are detected along with the peak-to-peak amplitudes. The time latencies are detected with a mean accuracy greater than 95%. Also, the P37 and N45 peak latencies and the peak-to-peak amplitude were found to be consistent throughout the surgical procedure within the 10% and 50% acceptable clinical limits, respectively. The results obtained support the assertion that the algorithm is capable of detecting SSEPs with high accuracy and consistency throughout the entire surgical procedure using only 30 trials.

  1. Neurophysiological substrates of stroke patients with motor imagery-based Brain-Computer Interface training.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingfen; Liu, Ye; Wu, Yi; Liu, Sirao; Jia, Jie; Zhang, Liqing

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the efficacy of motor imagery-based Brain Computer Interface (MI-based BCI) training for eight stroke patients with severe upper extremity paralysis using longitudinal clinical assessments. The results were compared with those of a control group (n = 7) that only received FES (Functional Electrical Stimulation) treatment besides conventional therapies. During rehabilitation training, changes in the motor function of the upper extremity and in the neurophysiologic electroencephalographic (EEG) were observed for two groups. After 8 weeks of training, a significant improvement in the motor function of the upper extremity for the BCI group was confirmed (p < 0.05 for ARAT), simultaneously with the activation of bilateral cerebral hemispheres. Additionally, event-related desynchronization (ERD) of the affected sensorimotor cortexes (SMCs) was significantly enhanced when compared to the pretraining course, which was only observed in the BCI group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the activation of affected SMC and parietal lobe were determined to contribute to motor function recovery (p < 0.05). In brief, our findings demonstrate that MI-based BCI training can enhance the motor function of the upper extremity for stroke patients by inducing the optimal cerebral motor functional reorganization.

  2. Behavioral and neurophysiological investigation of the influence of verbal suggestion on tactile perception.

    PubMed

    Fiorio, M; Recchia, S; Corrà, F; Tinazzi, M

    2014-01-31

    Recently we demonstrated that it is possible to influence tactile perception by applying a placebo manipulation consisting of verbal suggestion and conditioning and that this influence is associated to changes in the late components (N140 and P200) of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) (Fiorio et al., 2012). Due to the powerful effects of words in changing symptoms perception in the clinical domain, aim of this study was to investigate whether even in the tactile modality, perception can be changed by the mere use of persuasive words in a specific context. To this purpose, we adopted the same experimental setting of our previous study, apart from the conditioning procedure. A group of subjects (experimental group) has been verbally suggested about the effect of an inert cream in enhancing tactile perception, while a control group was informed about the inefficacy of the cream. In order to unveil the neurophysiological underpinnings of this effect, we compared the amplitude of late SEPs (P100, N140, P200), before and after treatment. Results showed that the experimental group did not perceive an increase of tactile sensation after the treatment and no modification occurred in the late SEPs. This study proves that verbal suggestion alone is not sufficient to induce enhanced tactile perception (at least with this experimental setting), suggesting that a conditioning procedure may be necessary in the tactile modality. The absence of changes in the late SEP components could reflect the lack of strong expectation following the placebo procedure.

  3. Targeting cellular prion protein reverses early cognitive deficits and neurophysiological dysfunction in prion-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Mallucci, Giovanna R; White, Melanie D; Farmer, Michael; Dickinson, Andrew; Khatun, Husna; Powell, Andrew D; Brandner, Sebastian; Jefferys, John G R; Collinge, John

    2007-02-01

    Currently, no treatment can prevent the cognitive and motor decline associated with widespread neurodegeneration in prion disease. However, we previously showed that targeting endogenous neuronal prion protein (PrP(C)) (the precursor of its disease-associated isoform, PrP(Sc)) in mice with early prion infection reversed spongiform change and prevented clinical symptoms and neuronal loss. We now show that cognitive and behavioral deficits and impaired neurophysiological function accompany early hippocampal spongiform pathology. Remarkably, these behavioral and synaptic impairments recover when neuronal PrP(C) is depleted, in parallel with reversal of spongiosis. Thus, early functional impairments precede neuronal loss in prion disease and can be rescued. Further, they occur before extensive PrP(Sc) deposits accumulate and recover rapidly after PrP(C) depletion, supporting the concept that they are caused by a transient neurotoxic species, distinct from aggregated PrP(Sc). These data suggest that early intervention in human prion disease may lead to recovery of cognitive and behavioral symptoms.

  4. CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPs) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS.
    UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, LC Walsh, PS Gilmour, MI Gilmour, WP Watkinson, JP Nolan, JH Richards, D Andrews, DL Costa. US EPA...

  5. CCD system upgrading of the Kyoto3DII and integral field spectroscopic observation with the new system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuda, Kazuma; Hashiba, Yasuhito; Minowa, Yosuke; Hayano, Yutaka; Sugai, Hajime; Shimono, Atsushi; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Hattori, Takashi; Kamata, Yukiko; Ozaki, Shinobu; Doi, Mamoru; Sako, Shigeyuki

    2016-08-01

    The Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II (Kyoto 3DII) is an optical integral field spectrograph mounted on the Subaru telescope as a PI-type instrument. Used with AO188, Kyoto 3DII provides us unique opportunities of optical Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) with adaptive optics (AO). While AO works better in redder wavelength regions, quantum efficiency of the previous CCD was low there with optimization for a wider wavelength coverage. To optimize Kyoto 3DII to AO observations, we have newly installed the red-sensitive Hamamatsu fully depleted CCD, which enhances the system efficiency by a factor of 2 in the red wavelength range. Fringes are dramatically reduced, and the readout noise drops to 3:2-3:4e- about two times smaller than previous, due to refrigerator and readout system. With these improvements, we carried out engineering and scientific observations in September 2015, February and March 2016. We measured the system efficiency using a standard star, and confirmed the successful improvement of the system efficiency. We observed galactic nuclei of nearby galaxies in the Natural Guide Star (NGS) and the Laser Guide Star (LGS) modes. We found the spatial resolution of 0.1'' FWHM using a 9.5-magnitude NGS, and 0.2 - 0:4'' in LGS mode. Together with the AO resolution, improved efficiency opens a new window for Kyoto 3DII to carry out high resolution optical IFS targeting faint objects such as high-redshift galaxies as well as faint lines such as [OI] λ6300° A and absorption lines of nearby objects.

  6. Neurophysiological responses to music and vibroacoustic stimuli in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bergström-Isacsson, Märith; Lagerkvist, Bengt; Holck, Ulla; Gold, Christian

    2014-06-01

    People with Rett syndrome (RTT) have severe communicative difficulties. They have as well an immature brainstem that implies dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Music plays an important role in their life, is often used as a motivating tool in a variety of situations and activities, and caregivers are often clear about people with RTTs favourites. The aim of this study was to investigate physiological and emotional responses related to six different musical stimuli in people with RTT. The study included 29 participants with RTT who were referred to the Swedish Rett Center for medical brainstem assessment during the period 2006-2007. 11 children with a typical developmental pattern were used as comparison. A repeated measures design was used, and physiological data were collected from a neurophysiological brainstem assessment. The continuous dependent variables measured were Cardiac Vagal Tone (CVT), Cardiac Sensitivity to Baroreflex (CSB), Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MAP) and the Coefficient of Variation of Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MAP-CV). These parameters were used to categorise brainstem responses as parasympathetic (calming) response, sympathetic (activating) response, arousal (alerting) response and unclear response. The results showed that all participants responded to the musical stimuli, but not always in the expected way. It was noticeable that both people with and without RTT responded with an arousal to all musical stimuli to begin with. Even though the initial expressions sometimes changed after some time due to poor control functions of their brainstem, the present results are consistent with the possibility that the RTT participants' normal responses to music are intact. These findings may explain why music is so important for individuals with RTT throughout life.

  7. Neurophysiological and biophysical evidence on the mechanism of electric taste

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The phenomenon of electric taste was investigated by recording from the chorda tympani nerve of the rat in response to both electrical and chemical stimulations of the tongue with electrolytes in order to gain some insight into its mechanism on both a neurophysiological and biophysical basis. The maximum neural response levels were identical for an individual salt (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2), whether it was presented as a chemical solution or as an anodal stimulus through a subthreshold solution. These observations support the idea that stimulation occurs by iontophoresis of ions to the receptors at these current densities (less than 100 microA/cm2). Electric responses through dilute HCl were smaller than the chemically applied stimulations, but the integrated anodal responses appeared similar to chemical acid responses, as evidenced by an OFF response to both forms of stimuli. Hydrogen may be more permeant to the lingual epithelium and would thus be shunted away from the taste receptors during anodal stimulation. When the anion of electric taste was varied via subthreshold salt solutions, the response magnitude increased as the mobility of the anion decreased. The transport numbers of the salts involved adequately explains these differences. The physical aspects of ion migration occurring within the adapting fluid on the tongue are also discussed. Direct neural stimulation by the current appears to occur only at higher current densities (greater than 300 microA/cm2). If the taste cells of the tongue were inactivated with either iodoacetic acid (IAA) or N-ethyl maleimide (NEM), or removed with collagenase, then responses from the chorda tympani could be obtained only at these higher current densities. Latency measurements before and after IAA or NEM treatment corroborated these findings. The results are discussed in terms of several proposed mechanisms of electric taste and it is concluded that an ion accumulation mechanism can adequately explain the data. PMID

  8. Artificial gravity exposure impairs exercise-related neurophysiological benefits.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Tobias; Abeln, Vera; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan

    2014-01-17

    Artificial gravity (AG) exposure is suggested to counteract health deconditioning, theoretically complementing exercise during space habitations. Exercise-benefits on mental health are well documented (i.e. well-being, enhanced executive functions). Although AG is coherent for the integrity of fundamental physiological systems, the effects of its exposure on neurophysiological processes related to cognitive performance are poorly understood and therefore characterize the primary aim of this study. 16 healthy males participated in two randomly assigned sessions, AG and exercise (30minute each). Participants were exposed to AG at continuous +2Gz in a short-arm human centrifuge and performed moderate exercise (cycling ergometer). Using 64 active electrodes, resting EEG was recorded before (pre), immediately after (post), and 15min after (post15) each session. Alpha (7.5-12.5Hz) and beta frequencies (12.5-35.0Hz) were exported for analysis. Cognitive performance and mood states were assessed before and after each session. Cognitive performance improved after exercise (p<0.05), but not after AG. This was reflected by typical EEG patterns after exercise, however not after AG. Frontal alpha (post p<0.01, post15 p<0.001) and beta activity (post15 p<0.001) increased after AG compared to a decrease in frontal alpha (post15 p<0.05) and beta activity (post p<0.01) after exercise. Relaxed cortical states were indicated after exercise, but were less apparent after AG. Changes in mood states failed significance after both sessions. Summarized, the benefits to mental health, recorded after exercise, were absent after AG, indicating that AG might cause neurocognitive deconditioning.

  9. Ecology and Neurophysiology of Sleep in Two Wild Sloth Species

    PubMed Central

    Voirin, Bryson; Scriba, Madeleine F.; Martinez-Gonzalez, Dolores; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Wikelski, Martin; Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Interspecific variation in sleep measured in captivity correlates with various physiological and environmental factors, including estimates of predation risk in the wild. However, it remains unclear whether prior comparative studies have been confounded by the captive recording environment. Herein we examine the effect of predation pressure on sleep in sloths living in the wild. Design: Comparison of two closely related sloth species, one exposed to predation and one free from predation. Setting: Panamanian mainland rainforest (predators present) and island mangrove (predators absent). Participants: Mainland (Bradypus variegatus, five males and four females) and island (Bradypus pygmaeus, six males) sloths. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded using a miniature data logger. Although both species spent between 9 and 10 h per day sleeping, the mainland sloths showed a preference for sleeping at night, whereas island sloths showed no preference for sleeping during the day or night. Standardized EEG activity during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed lower low-frequency power, and increased spindle and higher frequency power in island sloths when compared to mainland sloths. Conclusions: In sloths sleeping in the wild, predation pressure influenced the timing of sleep, but not the amount of time spent asleep. The preference for sleeping at night in mainland sloths may be a strategy to avoid detection by nocturnal cats. The pronounced differences in the NREM sleep EEG spectrum remain unexplained, but might be related to genetic or environmental factors. Citation: Voirin B; Scriba MF; Martinez-Gonzalez D; Vyssotski AL; Wikelski M; Rattenborg NC. Ecology and neurophysiology of sleep in two wild sloth species. SLEEP 2014;37(4):753-761. PMID:24899764

  10. Unravelling the neurophysiological basis of aggression in a fish model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aggression is a near-universal behaviour with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. The neurophysiological basis of aggression is, however, poorly understood in all species and approaches adopted to study this complex behaviour have often been oversimplified. We applied targeted expression profiling on 40 genes, spanning eight neurological pathways and in four distinct regions of the brain, in combination with behavioural observations and pharmacological manipulations, to screen for regulatory pathways of aggression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), an animal model in which social rank and aggressiveness tightly correlate. Results Substantial differences occurred in gene expression profiles between dominant and subordinate males associated with phenotypic differences in aggressiveness and, for the chosen gene set, they occurred mainly in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The patterns of differentially-expressed genes implied multifactorial control of aggression in zebrafish, including the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system, serotonin, somatostatin, dopamine, hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal, hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and histamine pathways, and the latter is a novel finding outside mammals. Pharmacological manipulations of various nodes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system and serotonin pathways supported their functional involvement. We also observed differences in expression profiles in the brains of dominant versus subordinate females that suggested sex-conserved control of aggression. For example, in the HNS pathway, the gene encoding arginine vasotocin (AVT), previously believed specific to male behaviours, was amongst those genes most associated with aggression, and AVT inhibited dominant female aggression, as in males. However, sex-specific differences in the expression profiles also occurred, including differences in aggression-associated tryptophan hydroxylases and estrogen receptors

  11. APFBC repowering could help meet Kyoto Protocol CO{sub 2} reduction goals[Advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, R.E.; Tonnemacher, G.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Clinton Administration signed the 1997 Kyoto Protocol agreement that would limit US greenhouse gas emissions, of which carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the most significant. While the Kyoto Protocol has not yet been submitted to the Senate for ratification, in the past, there have been few proposed environmental actions that had continued and wide-spread attention of the press and environmental activists that did not eventually lead to regulation. Since the Kyoto Protocol might lead to future regulation, its implications need investigation by the power industry. Limiting CO{sub 2} emissions affects the ability of the US to generate reliable, low cost electricity, and has tremendous potential impact on electric generating companies with a significant investment in coal-fired generation, and on their customers. This paper explores the implications of reducing coal plant CO{sub 2} by various amounts. The amount of reduction for the US that is proposed in the Kyoto Protocol is huge. The Kyoto Protocol would commit the US to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions to 7% below 1990 levels. Since 1990, there has been significant growth in US population and the US economy driving carbon emissions 34% higher by year 2010. That means CO{sub 2} would have to be reduced by 30.9%, which is extremely difficult to accomplish. The paper tells why. There are, however, coal-based technologies that should be available in time to make significant reductions in coal-plant CO{sub 2} emissions. Th paper focuses on one plant repowering method that can reduce CO{sub 2} per kWh by 25%, advanced circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle (APFBC) technology, based on results from a recent APFBC repowering concept evaluation of the Carolina Power and Light Company's (CP and L) L.V. Sutton steam station. The replacement of the existing 50-year base of power generating units needed to meet proposed Kyoto Protocol CO{sub 2} reduction commitments would be a massive undertaking. It is

  12. MatOFF: A Tool For Analyzing Behaviorally-Complex Neurophysiological Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Genovesio, Aldo; Mitz, Andrew R.

    2007-01-01

    The simple operant conditioning originally used in behavioral neurophysiology 30 years ago has given way to complex and sophisticated behavioral paradigms; so much so, that early general purpose programs for analyzing neurophysiological data are ill-suited for complex experiments. The trend has been to develop custom software for each class of experiment, but custom software can have serious drawbacks. We describe here a general purpose software tool for behavioral and electrophysiological studies, called MatOFF, that is especially suited for processing neurophysiological data gathered during the execution of complex behaviors. Written in the MATLAB programming language, MatOFF solves the problem of handling complex analysis requirements in a unique and powerful way. While other neurophysiological programs are either a loose collection of tools or append MATLAB as a post-processing step, MatOFF is an integrated environment that supports MATLAB scripting within the event search engine safely isolated in programming sandbox. The results from scripting are stored separately, but in parallel with the raw data, and thus available to all subsequent MatOFF analysis and display processing. An example from a recently published experiment shows how all the features of MatOFF work together to analyze complex experiments and mine neurophysiological data in efficient ways. PMID:17604115

  13. Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state: six recommendations to avoid common pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Zander, Thorsten O.; van Erp, Jan B. F.; Korteling, Johannes E.; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating cognitive or affective state from neurophysiological signals and designing applications that make use of this information requires expertise in many disciplines such as neurophysiology, machine learning, experimental psychology, and human factors. This makes it difficult to perform research that is strong in all its aspects as well as to judge a study or application on its merits. On the occasion of the special topic “Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state” we here summarize often occurring pitfalls and recommendations on how to avoid them, both for authors (researchers) and readers. They relate to defining the state of interest, the neurophysiological processes that are expected to be involved in the state of interest, confounding factors, inadvertently “cheating” with classification analyses, insight on what underlies successful state estimation, and finally, the added value of neurophysiological measures in the context of an application. We hope that this paper will support the community in producing high quality studies and well-validated, useful applications. PMID:25983676

  14. Classical and instrumental conditioning of eyeblink responses in Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ricart, Thomas M; Jiao, Xilu; Pang, Kevin C H; Beck, Kevin D; Servatius, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of anxiety vulnerability, acquire lever-press avoidance faster than outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Faster avoidance acquisition may reflect an inherent ability to acquire cue-outcome associations, response-outcome associations or both. To evaluate cue-outcome learning, acquisition of classically conditioned eyeblink response was compared in SD and WKY rats using a delay-type paradigm (500-ms conditioned stimulus (CS) coterminating with a 10-ms unconditional stimulus (US)). WKY rats demonstrated enhanced classical conditioning, with both faster acquisition and greater asymptotic performance in delay-type training than SD rats. To evaluate response-outcome learning, separate SD and WKY rats were given control over US delivery through imposition of an omission contingency into delay-type training (emitting a conditioned response (CR) prevented delivery of the US). The schedule of US delivery derived by these rats became the training regimen for a separate group of SD and WKY rats, yoked within strain. In SD rats, no differences in acquisition were detected between those given control over US delivery and those trained with the same partial reinforcement schedule. Acquisition rates of those WKY rats with control exceeded those trained with a yoked-schedule of US presentation. Collectively, WKY rats exhibit enhanced classical conditioning and sensitivity to schedules of reinforcement compared to outbred SD rats. Anxiety vulnerability, in particular inhibited temperament, may be traced to active processes in the prediction and control of aversive events.

  15. Dysfunctional Inhibitory Mechanisms in Locus Coeruleus Neurons of the Wistar Kyoto Rat

    PubMed Central

    Bruzos-Cidón, C; Llamosas, N; Ugedo, L

    2015-01-01

    Background: The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) has functional relevance in several psychopathologies such as stress, anxiety, and depression. In addition to glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs, the activation of somatodendritic α2-adrenoceptors is the main responsible for LC activity regulation. The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat exhibits depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and hyperresponse to stressors. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate in vitro the sensitivity of α2-adrenoceptors, as well as the glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic activity on LC neurons of the WKY strain. Methods: For that purpose patch-clamp whole-cell recordings were done in LC slices. Results: The α2-adrenoceptors of LC neurons from WKY rats were less sensitive to the effect induced by the agonist UK 14 304 as compared to that recorded in the Wistar (Wis) control strain. In addition, the GABAergic input to LC neurons of WKY rats was significantly modified compared to that in Wis rats, since the amplitude of spontaneous GABAergic postsynaptic currents was reduced and the half-width increased. On the contrary, no significant alterations were detected regarding glutamatergic input to LC neurons between rat strains. Conclusions: These results point out that in WKY rats the inhibitory control exerted by α2-adrenoceptors and GABAergic input onto LC neurons is dysregulated. Overall, this study supports in this animal model the hypothesis that claims an imbalance between the glutamatergic-GABAergic systems as a key factor in the pathophysiology of depression. PMID:25586927

  16. Cocaine self-administration in Wistar-Kyoto rats: a behavioral and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Joanna; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Szumiec, Łukasz; Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Haduch, Anna; Smaga, Irena; Bystrowska, Beata; Daniel, Wladyslawa A; Filip, Małgorzata

    2015-10-15

    Depression and cocaine abuse disorders are common concurrent diagnoses. In the present study, we employed Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats that showed a depressive-like phenotype to study intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement procedures. We also investigated the basal tissue level of neurotransmitters, their metabolites and plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations in WKY rats, bulbectomized (OBX) rats, and control rats. The WKY rats exhibited an attenuation of the cocaine-associated lever presses and cocaine intake during the acquisition/maintenance of cocaine self-administration only under specific conditions. Active lever presses exhibited by the WKY rats and control animals did not differ during the extinction training and cocaine-seeking behaviors. The WKY rats demonstrated alterations in the basal levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in selected brain structures involved in depression and drug addiction. The changes in the level of neurotransmitters in these animals refer not only to the control (Wistar) rats but also to bulbectomized animals, which represent another depression model. Furthermore, we identified unchanged levels of CORT in the WKY and OBX rats during the light phase and free-stress conditions. This finding suggests that WKY rats should not be used to investigate the co-occurrence of depression and cocaine addiction, as this rat strain does not show an enhanced risk of relapse.

  17. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Diaz, Ana Isabel; Moyon, Ben; Coan, Philip M.; Alfazema, Neza; Venda, Lara; Woollard, Kevin; Aitman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN) and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg) strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminary in vitro and in vivo imaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades. PMID:26769799

  18. WTC deafness Kyoto (dfk): a rat model for extensive investigations of Kcnq1 functions.

    PubMed

    Gohma, Hiroshi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Okajima, Ryoko; Tanimoto, Noriaki; Yamasaki, Ken-ichi; Nakanishi, Satoshi; Kitada, Kazuhiro; Makiyama, Takeru; Akao, Masaharu; Kita, Toru; Sasa, Masashi; Serikawa, Tadao

    2006-02-14

    KCNQ1 forms K+ channels by assembly with regulatory subunit KCNE proteins and plays a key role in the K+ homeostasis in a variety of tissues. In the heart, KCNQ1 is coassembled with KCNE1 to produce a cardiac delayed rectifier K+ current. In the inner ear, the KCNQ1/KCNE1 complex maintains the high concentration of K+ in the endolymph. In the stomach, KCNQ1 is coassembled with KCNE2 to form the K+ exflux channel that is essential for gastric acid secretion. In the colon and small intestine, KCNQ1 is coassembled with KCNE3 to play an important role in transepithelial cAMP-stimulated Cl- secretion. For further understanding of Kcnq1 function in vivo, an animal model has been required. Here we reported the identification of a coisogenic Kcnq1 mutant rat, named deafness Kyoto (dfk), and the characterization of its phenotypes. WTC-dfk rats carried intragenic deletion at the Kcnq1 gene and showed impaired gain of weight, deafness, and imbalance resulting from the marked reduction of endolymph, prolonged QT interval in the electrocardiogram (ECG), and gastric achlorhydria associated with hypertrophic gastric mucosa. Surprisingly, WTC-dfk rats showed hypertension, which suggested that Kcnq1 might be involved in the regulation of blood pressure. These findings suggest that WTC-dfk rats could represent a powerful tool for studying the physiological functions of KCNQ1 and for the establishment of new therapeutic procedures for Kcnq1-related diseases.

  19. Cofiring fossil fuels with renewable energy in addressing global climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.; Hoppe, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    In addressing the issue of Global Climate Change, the use of renewable energy resources and energy efficiency has been traditionally touted as the most effective way to mitigate the production of greenhouse gases and to sequester carbon-based emissions resulting from the use of fossil fuels for the worldwide production of power. The goal set by the Kyoto Protocol of ``stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the atmosphere`` will not be met unless the predictions for world energy production based on the use of oil, gas and coal are considered in using renewable energy resources. The use of renewable energy in the US amounted to 7.4 quads in 1997 which was only 7.8% of total domestic gross energy demand. In the US alone the biomass renewable energy economically accessible resource base is estimated at 14 quads per year which can be considered for use in addressing predicted increases in electric power demand. In 1990 the biomass generated power was 3.1 quads in the US alone, and renewable energy accounted for 14.7% of the total world power production allowing for significant increases in the future. The most significant use of renewable energy other than the power sector is the use of biofuels (principally from wood) in the industrial sector which accounts for 21% of the total renewable demand of 7.432 quads in 1997.

  20. Daytime mother-calf relationships in reticulated giraffes (Giraffa cameloparadalis reticulate) at the Kyoto City Zoo.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Masayuki; Murata, Chisa; Eto, Ryo; Takagi, Naoko; Yamada, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    The present study quantitatively assesses the relationships between a reticulated giraffe mother and her first- and second-born calves during the first 22 months of the older calf's and the first 12 months of the younger calf's life at the Kyoto City Zoo, Japan. The mother permitted her calves to suckle at over 70% of their suckling attempts in the first month after their births, and the calves ceased suckling spontaneously in 65 to 70% of the suckling bouts. From the second month on, she showed a clear tendency to reject the calves' suckling attempts and terminated almost all of their suckling bouts, which resulted in approximately 60 sec or less of suckling duration per bout. The frequency of proximity between the mother and her calves remained at 20 to 30% throughout the first year, with no apparent developmental changes being evident. The mother was mainly responsible for terminating proximity by walking away from her calves throughout their first year after birth, while both calves were mainly responsible for attempting proximity by approaching their mother after reaching 2 months of age. Our study also showed that the giraffe mother became pregnant again while nursing her calves and ceased lactation (i.e., weaned the calves) before the fetus's growth started accelerating.

  1. Genetic architecture of Wistar-Kyoto rat and spontaneously hypertensive rat substrains from different sources.

    PubMed

    Zhang-James, Yanli; Middleton, Frank A; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-07-02

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been widely used as a model for studies of hypertension and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat, derived from the same ancestral outbred Wistar rat as the SHR, are normotensive and have been used as the closest genetic control for the SHR, although the WKY has also been used as a model for depression. Notably, however, substantial behavioral and genetic differences among the WKY substrains, usually from the different vendors and breeders, have been observed. These differences have often been overlooked in prior studies, leading to inconsistent and even contradictory findings. The complicated breeding history of the SHR and WKY rats and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the genetic background of different commercial substrains make the selection of control rats a daunting task, even for researchers who are mindful of their genetic heterogeneity. In this study, we examined the genetic relationship of 16 commonly used WKY and SHR rat substrains using genome-wide SNP genotyping data. Our results confirmed a large genetic divergence and complex relationships among the SHR and WKY substrains. This understanding, although incomplete without the genome sequence, provides useful guidance in selecting substrains and helps to interpret previous reports when the source of the animals was known. Moreover, we found two closely related, yet distinct WKY substrains that may provide novel opportunities in modeling psychiatric disorders.

  2. Longitudinal neurophysiologic studies in a patient with metachromatic leukodystrophy following bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dhuna, A; Toro, C; Torres, F; Kennedy, W R; Krivit, W

    1992-10-01

    We describe a girl with late infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy. The patient has been followed up with serial neurologic and neurophysiologic examinations for 8 years following bone marrow transplantation, which she underwent when she was 4 3/4 years old. Her older sister died from metachromatic leukodystrophy at the age of 8 years, whereas our patient has retained significant cognitive and motor skills. Serial neurophysiologic studies initially demonstrated continued deterioration after the bone marrow transplantation, but since then, most results have remained stable or improved. Although, to our knowledge, there have been no previous serial studies of metachromatic leukodystrophy, individual case studies suggest that these findings in our patient are very unusual. With the advent of possible treatment for this condition, there is a need for further serial neurophysiologic studies to characterize the natural progression and the possible detection of progression or reversal with treatment.

  3. [Cortical mapping and neurophysiological monitoring during resection of an arteriovenous malformation in the rolandic region].

    PubMed

    Vega-Zelaya, Lorena; Pedrosa-Sánchez, Manuel; Pastor, Jesús

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCTION. Surgery of arteriovenous malformations of eloquent areas has a significant risk of causing severe neurological deficits. CASE REPORT. A 39 years old woman having a headache, showed an arteriovenous malformation in right rolandic region. During resection, performed under general anesthesia, a neurophysiological mapping and subsequently intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring of motor and somatosensory functions was performed. The temporary closure of an artery resulted in a severe motor impairment, reversible after remove the clipping, so that artery had to be respected during the intervention. After resection, the motor and sensory responses were normal. The patient was discharged without any neurological deficits. CONCLUSION. Functional mapping and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring were very helpful for the identification and protection of eloquent areas. The use of these techniques for resection of arteriovenous malformations located in functionally relevant areas, allows a safely surgery in patients under general anesthesia.

  4. Report from the 29th World Congress of Endourology and SWL (November 30-December 3, 2011 - Kyoto, Japan).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2012-02-01

    Kyoto is a city of surprises: from the most beautiful castles and temples known far and wide across the world, to the humblest temples, as beautiful as those appearing in all tourist guides, just hidden away in small lanes among busy traffic of bicycles and pedestrians shopping in markets or attending to their daily business. Add the innumerable tourists busily exploring the city's attractions, although this was not the reason for visiting Kyoto, which was the site of this year's World Congress of Endourology and SWL. Nevertheless, maybe as a compensation, the meeting was held in Kokusaikaikan, literally the International Conference Centre, which is a modern facility in the city outskirts, actually adjoining the Takaragaike park, with a beautiful lake and the mountains, brightly led by the trees' red leaves, just visible through the main hall windows.

  5. Promoting Health During the American Occupation of Japan The Public Health Section, Kyoto Military Government Team, 1945-1949

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Sey

    2008-01-01

    During the American occupation of Japan (1945–1952), young public health officers from the US Army Medical Corps were posted in local US Army military government teams. These young doctors (aged 25 to 27 years), who had not absorbed the strong anti-Japanese tradition of the US military during World War II, seem to have alleviated the initial resentment felt by the Japanese toward the new governors of their homeland. The case of the Kyoto Military Government Team illustrates the Kyoto citizenry’s positive view of some American-directed public health measures. The team’s services helped to counter widely held negative views on colonialism, occupation, and public health; lessened resentment toward the unilateral command structure of the occupation forces; and contributed to improved relations between the United States and Japan at the local level. PMID:18235076

  6. Environmental manipulation affects depressive-like behaviours in female Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Mileva, Guergana R; Bielajew, Catherine

    2015-10-15

    While the efficacy of pharmacological interventions to treat depression has been well-studied in animal models, much less work has been done to shed light on how changes in the immediate environment can impact behaviour. Furthermore, most studies have focused on male rodents despite the prevalence of mood disorders in women. In this study, 36 Wistar Kyoto (validated animal model of depression) and 36 Wistar (control) female rats were used to examine the effects of environmental manipulation on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours. Animals were assigned to one of three groups: standard (3 rats/cage), enriched (6 rats/cage plus physical enrichment), and isolation (1 rat/cage) housing. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST) were conducted prior to, and four weeks after environmental assignment to measure anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviours, respectively. Sucrose preference assessed anhedonia both before and after environmental assignment. Weight was measured every week to monitor weight-gain over time. Post-environment sucrose preference was significantly increased in animals in enriched housing as compared to those in isolated housing in both strains. While there were significant differences between strains in measures of open arm duration in the EPM and immobility in the FST, there appeared to be no differences between environmental groups. The results of this study highlight the importance of environmental factors in the expression of anhedonia. Enrichment appears to reduce anhedonia while isolation increases anhedonia. These effects should be studied further to assess whether longer periods of social and physical enrichment alleviate other symptoms of depression.

  7. The first back-side illuminated types of Kyoto's X-ray astronomy SOIPIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itou, Makoto; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Tanaka, Takaaki; Takeda, Ayaki; Matsumura, Hideaki; Ohmura, Shunichi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Shinya; Arai, Yasuo; Kurachi, Ikuo; Mori, Koji; Takenaka, Ryota; Nishioka, Yusuke; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Tamasawa, Koki; Tindall, Craig

    2016-09-01

    We have been developing Kyoto's X-ray astronomy SOI pixel sensors, called "XRPIX", aiming to extend the frontiers of X-ray astronomy with the wide-band imaging spectroscopy in the 0.5-40 keV band. A dead layer on the X-ray incident surface should ideally be as thin as possible to achieve a high sensitivity below 1 keV, and the depletion layer is required to be thick enough to detect 40 keV X-rays. Thus, we have started developing fully-depleted back-side illuminated (BI) types of XRPIXs. This paper reports on our first two BI devices and their X-ray evaluation (2.6-12 keV). The device named "XRPIX2b-FZ-LA" successfully reaches a full depletion with a thickness of 500 μm. On the other hand, it has a dead layer with a thickness of 1.1-1.5 μm and struggles to achieve the requirement of 1.0 μm. The other device named "XRPIX2b-CZ-PZ", which is applied with a thin Si sensor-layer and an improved back-side process, is found to satisfy the requirement with its thickness of 0.9-1.0 μm, including Al optical blocking filter of 0.2 μm, although the Si sensor-layer is rather thin with 62 μm. We also describe in this paper the X-ray calibration system that we have built for the X-ray evaluation of XRPIXs.

  8. Understanding in an Instant: Neurophysiological Evidence for Mechanistic Language Circuits in the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Hauk, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    How long does it take the human mind to grasp the idea when hearing or reading a sentence? Neurophysiological methods looking directly at the time course of brain activity indexes of comprehension are critical for finding the answer to this question. As the dominant cognitive approaches, models of serial/cascaded and parallel processing, make…

  9. Overcoming Misconceptions in Neurophysiology Learning: An Approach Using Color-Coded Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Anyone who has taught neurophysiology would be aware of recurring concepts that students find difficult to understand. However, a greater problem is the development of misconceptions that may be difficult to change. For example, one common misconception is that action potentials pass directly across chemical synapses. Difficulties may be…

  10. [Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring of brain stem in a case of cavernoma in the pons].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, R; Molet, J; de Teresa, S; Treserras, P; Clavel, P; Cano, P; Solivera, J; Muñoz, F; Bartumeus, F

    2005-04-01

    Neurophysiological monitoring during surgery to avoid damaging of eloquent brain areas is a useful tool. We are performing intraoperative neurophysiological test to locate motor, sensitive and speech areas with cortical stimulation and cranial nerves during cerebellopontine cranial base surgery. Neurophysiological monitoring during brain stem surgery has been less described. Brain stem surgery implies a careful selection of patients for surgery given the high risk of morbidity and mortality. For this reason, conservative treatment is usually indicated when an asymptomatic cavernoma is incidentally found. Instead, when bleeding or neurological deficit appear, operative treatment may be indicated and then the goal of surgery is to avoid the disability linked to the natural history. We present the case of a 29 year old woman with diagnosis of multiple cavernomas. She was admitted at our hospital because she presented weakness and sensitive disturbance of left limbs and dizziness. The CT scan and MRI showed a pontine haemorrhage caused by a cavernous hemangioma. We operated her on using neurophysiological monitoring of VII, VIII, X and XII cranial nerves with electromyographic recordings. Postoperative disability could be reduced with a better knowledge of entry zone into the brain stem and early physiotherapy.

  11. Neurophysiologic Evaluation of Early Cognitive Development in High-Risk Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deRegnier, Raye-Ann

    2005-01-01

    New knowledge of the perceptual, discriminative, and memory capabilities of very young infants has opened the door to further evaluation of these abilities in infants who have risk factors for cognitive impairments. A neurophysiologic technique that has been very useful in this regard is the recording of event-related potentials (ERPs). The…

  12. Monitoring Brain Activity of Geriatric Learners with Low-Cost Neurophysiological Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Hall, Enilda; Scott, JoAnne

    2017-01-01

    Cultural stereotypes rooted in both antiquated data and misinterpretation of data have long perpetuated the belief that older adults are unable to learn new concepts because they are doomed to lose brain cells at an alarming rate during their geriatric years. However, advances in neurophysiological technologies that allow researchers to observe…

  13. Behavioral and Neurophysiological Effects of Morphological Awareness Training on Spelling and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Silvana; Grabner, Roland H.; Kargl, Reinhard; Purgstaller, Christian; Fink, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and neurophysiological effects of a computer-aided morphological training protocol were examined in German-speaking children from Grades 3 to 9. Study 1 compared morphological awareness, reading, and spelling skills of 34 trained children with an untrained control group of 34 children matched for age, sex, and intelligence. All…

  14. Risk and Resilience: Early Manipulation of Macaque Social Experience and Persistent Behavioral and Neurophysiological Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Hanna E.; Leckman, James F.; Coplan, Jeremy D.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    A literature review on macaque monkeys finds that peer rearing of young macaques and rearing of young macaques by mothers that are undergoing variable foraging conditions result in emotional and neurophysiological disturbance. Certain genotypes contribute to resilience to this disturbance. The findings have implications to child mental health and…

  15. Maternal Behavior Predicts Infant Neurophysiological and Behavioral Attention Processes in the First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swingler, Margaret M.; Perry, Nicole B.; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2017-01-01

    We apply a biopsychosocial conceptualization to attention development in the 1st year and examine the role of neurophysiological and social processes on the development of early attention processes. We tested whether maternal behavior measured during 2 mother-child interaction tasks when infants (N = 388) were 5 months predicted infant medial…

  16. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Reflexive and Voluntary Saccades in Non-Human Primates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Kevin; Everling, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    A multitude of cognitive functions can easily be tested by a number of relatively simple saccadic eye movement tasks. This approach has been employed extensively with patient populations to investigate the functional deficits associated with psychiatric disorders. Neurophysiological studies in non-human primates performing the same tasks have…

  17. Neurophysiologic Analysis of the Effects of Interactive Tailored Health Videos on Attention to Health Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung A.

    2011-01-01

    Web-based tailored approaches hold much promise as effective means for delivering health education and improving public health. This study examines the effects of interactive tailored health videos on attention to health messages using neurophysiological changes measured by Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Electrocardiogram (EKG). Sixty-eight…

  18. A Study of the Effectiveness of Sensory Integration Therapy on Neuro-Physiological Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Christopher; Reynolds, Kathleen Sheena

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sensory integration theory proposes that because there is plasticity within the central nervous system (the brain is moldable) and because the brain consists of systems that are hierarchically organised, it is possible to stimulate and improve neuro-physiological processing and integration and thereby increase learning capacity.…

  19. Syntax as a Reflex: Neurophysiological Evidence for Early Automaticity of Grammatical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Hasting, Anna S.; Carlyon, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    It has been a matter of debate whether the specifically human capacity to process syntactic information draws on attentional resources or is automatic. To address this issue, we recorded neurophysiological indicators of syntactic processing to spoken sentences while subjects were distracted to different degrees from language processing. Subjects…

  20. The Neurophysiological Correlates of Face Processing in Adults and Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kate; Hamm, Jeff P.; Kirk, Ian J.

    2005-01-01

    Past research has found evidence for face and emotional expression processing differences between individuals with Asperger's syndrome (AS) and neurotypical (NT) controls at both the neurological and behavioural levels. The aim of the present study was to examine the neurophysiological basis of emotional expression processing in children and…

  1. Understanding in an instant: neurophysiological evidence for mechanistic language circuits in the brain.

    PubMed

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Hauk, Olaf

    2009-08-01

    How long does it take the human mind to grasp the idea when hearing or reading a sentence? Neurophysiological methods looking directly at the time course of brain activity indexes of comprehension are critical for finding the answer to this question. As the dominant cognitive approaches, models of serial/cascaded and parallel processing, make conflicting predictions on the time course of psycholinguistic information access, they can be tested using neurophysiological brain activation recorded in MEG and EEG experiments. Seriality and cascading of lexical, semantic and syntactic processes receives support from late (latency approximately 1/2s) sequential neurophysiological responses, especially N400 and P600. However, parallelism is substantiated by early near-simultaneous brain indexes of a range of psycholinguistic processes, up to the level of semantic access and context integration, emerging already 100-250ms after critical stimulus information is present. Crucially, however, there are reliable latency differences of 20-50ms between early cortical area activations reflecting lexical, semantic and syntactic processes, which are left unexplained by current serial and parallel brain models of language. We here offer a mechanistic model grounded in cortical nerve cell circuits that builds upon neuroanatomical and neurophysiological knowledge and explains both near-simultaneous activations and fine-grained delays. A key concept is that of discrete distributed cortical circuits with specific inter-area topographies. The full activation, or ignition, of specifically distributed binding circuits explains the near-simultaneity of early neurophysiological indexes of lexical, syntactic and semantic processing. Activity spreading within circuits determined by between-area conduction delays accounts for comprehension-related regional activation differences in the millisecond range.

  2. Inhaled environmental combustion particles cause myocardial injury in the Wistar Kyoto rat.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, Urmila P; Moyer, Carolyn F; Ledbetter, Allen D; Schladweiler, Mette C; Costa, Daniel L; Hauser, Russ; Christiani, David C; Nyska, Abraham

    2003-02-01

    Epidemiologists have associated particulate matter (PM) air pollution with cardiovascular morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. However, experimental evidence demonstrating causality and pathogenesis of particulate matter (PM)-induced cardiovascular damage has been insufficient. We hypothesized that protracted, repeated inhalation by rats of oil combustion-derived, fugitive emission PM (EPM), similar in metal composition to selected sources of urban air PM, causes exposure duration- and dose-dependent myocardial injury in susceptible rat strains. Zinc was the only primary water-leachable/bioavailable element of this EPM. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were exposed nose-only to EPM (2, 5, or 10 mg/m(3), 6 h/day for 4 consecutive days or 10 mg/m(3), 6 h/day, 1 day/week for 4 or 16 consecutive weeks). Two days following the last EPM exposure, cardiac and pulmonary tissues were examined histologically. The results showed that particle-laden alveolar macrophages were the only pulmonary lesions observed in all three rat strains. However, WKY rats exposed to EPM (10 mg/m(3) 6 h/day, 1 day/week for 16 weeks) demonstrated cardiac lesions with inflammation and degeneration. To further characterize the nature of EPM-associated lesions, more rigorous histopathological and histochemical techniques were employed for WKY and SD rats. We examined the hearts for myocardial degeneration, inflammation, fibrosis, calcium deposits, apoptosis, and the presence of mast cells. Decreased numbers of granulated mast cells, and multifocal myocardial degeneration, chronic-active inflammation, and fibrosis were present in 5 of 6 WKY rats exposed to EPM for 16 weeks. None of these lesions were present in WKY exposed to clean air. EPM-related cardiac lesions were indistinguishable from air-exposed controls in SD and SH rats. This study demonstrates that long-term inhalation exposures to environmentally relevant PM containing

  3. Carbon sinks and emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol: a legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Bettelheim, Eric C; D'Origny, Gilonne

    2002-08-15

    The controversy over the issues of carbon sinks and emissions trading nearly aborted the Kyoto Protocol. The lengthy and intense debate over the roles that each are to play under the Protocol and the consequent political compromises has resulted in a complex set of provisions and an arcane nomenclature. The distinction drawn between the use of carbon sinks in developed countries under Joint Implementation and their use in developing countries under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a particular source of intricacy. It is at least arguable that key elements of the compromises reached at COP-6 and COP-7 in this regard are inconsistent with the terms of the Protocol and are ultra vires the Convention on Climate Change. This is a source of both uncertainty and potential legal challenge. Not only do the recent decisions create needless complexity, they also clearly discriminate against developing nations. Among the recent political compromises is the creation of a third type of non-bankable but tradeable unit with respect to forest management, which is only available to Annex I countries. The result is an anomalous one in which a variety of otherwise equivalent carbon credits can be generated under three different regimes including one, the CDM, that is subject to an elaborate regulatory overlay that discriminates against carbon sequestration by developing countries. For example, complying developed countries can essentially self-certify sequestration projects. In contrast, projects in developing countries must obtain prior approval from a subsidiary body, the CDM Executive Board, mandated to require detailed information and impose substantive and procedural hurdles not required or imposed by its companion body, the Article 6 Supervisory Committee on Joint Implementation Projects. The parallel and related debate over the third 'flexibility' mechanism, emissions trading, compounded the complexity of an already asymmetric and bifurcated system. The new requirements

  4. FOREWORD: The 7th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop, 17-19 December 2002, Kyoto, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Nobuyuki; Sasaki, Misao; Tagoshi, Hideyuki

    2003-09-01

    The 7th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW2002) was held at the International Institute for Advanced Studies (IIAS) in Kyoto, Japan, on 17-19 December 2002. The GWDAW series is one of the important international conferences supported by the Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC). The workshops have been held annually, and the topics covered range from data analyses for all kinds of gravitational wave detectors to theoretical issues on gravitational wave sources. This year's workshop consisted of seven categories of sessions: the status of detectors, space-based detectors, event search, detector characterization, coincidence of detectors and detector network analysis, new methods of analysis, and sources for advanced ground-based detectors. The year 2002 was an epoch-making year for gravitational wave detection experiments. Some of the large-scale ground-based laser interferometric detectors (LIGO, GEO and TAMA) entered their initial or developed stage of observation, performing scientific runs with durations of several weeks. As a result, many of the talks presented at the workshop were based on actual data taken from these experiments, and we were able to have more realistic discussions on gravitational wave detection. Furthermore, the successful operations of these laser interferometric detectors gave the gravitational wave community a strong motive to form a worldwide detector network, as practised by existing resonant-type detectors. In fact, there were reports on the simultaneous operation of five laser interferometric detectors, and a report on a plan for coincidence operations over a month. There were also reports on future space-based detectors and their source studies from aspects of the data analysis. Thanks to well-prepared talks and vivid discussions by the participants, the workshop was extremely fruitful. These proceedings contain refined and updated papers based on the talks given at the workshop and will provide readers of

  5. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Smooth Pursuit: Lesion Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Smooth pursuit impairment is recognized clinically by the presence of saccadic tracking of a small object and quantified by reduction in pursuit gain, the ratio of smooth eye movement velocity to the velocity of a foveal target. Correlation of the site of brain lesions, identified by imaging or neuropathological examination, with defective smooth…

  6. Neurophysiologic studies in congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Shorer, Z; Moses, S W; Hershkovitz, E; Pinsk, V; Levy, J

    2001-11-01

    Thirteen patients with congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis, carrying a mutation at the TRK-A gene, were studied. Neurologic examination revealed vestigial pain sensitivity, suggesting an incomplete involvement of the affected nerves. All 13 patients manifested normal electrophysiologic studies but striking absence of sympathetic skin responses. We suggest the use of the sympathetic skin response test in the clinical evaluation of patients suspected of having congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis.

  7. Working memory training with tDCS improves behavioral and neurophysiological symptoms in pilot group with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and with poor working memory.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Nerida; Downham, Russell; Turman, Bulent; Kropotov, Juri; Clark, Richard; Yumash, Rustam; Szatmary, Arielle

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the feasibility of treating people suffering from both post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and poor working memory by employing a combination of computerized working memory training and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). After treatment, all four participants showed clinically significant improvements on a range of cognitive and emotional performance measures. Moreover, these improvements were accompanied by theoretically significant neurophysiological changes between pre- and post-treatment electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Specifically, the P3a component of participants' event related potentials (ERP) in response to novelty stimuli, characteristically abnormal in this clinical population, shifted significantly toward database norms. So, participants' initially slow alpha peak frequency (APF), theorized to underlie impaired cognitive processing abilities, also increased in both frequency and amplitude as a result of treatment. On the basis of these promising results, more extensive controlled studies are warranted.

  8. H2S2014 in Kyoto: the 3rd International Conference on H2S in Biology and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideo

    2015-04-30

    About 20 years ago, a pungent gas was found to be the physiological mediator of cognitive function and vascular tone. Since then, studies on hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have uncovered its numerous physiological roles such as protecting various tissues/organs from ischemia and regulating inflammation, cell growth, oxygen sensing, and senescence. These effects of H2S were extensively studied, and some of the corresponding mechanisms were also studied in detail. Previous studies on the synergistic interaction between H2S and nitric oxide (NO) have led to the discovery of several potential signaling molecules. Polysulfides are considerably potent and are one of the most active forms of H2S. H2S has a significant therapeutic potential, which is evident from the large number of novel H2S-donating compounds and substances developed for manipulating endogenous levels of H2S. The Third International Conference on H2S was held in Kyoto in June 2014. One hundred and sixty participants from 21 countries convened in Kyoto to report new advances, discuss conflicting findings, and make plans for future research. This article summarizes each oral presentation presented at the conference.

  9. The impact of economic activity in Asturias on greenhouse gas emissions: consequences for environmental policy within the Kyoto Protocol framework.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Margarita; Benavides, Carmen; Junquera, Beatriz

    2006-11-01

    Climate change is one of the major worldwide environmental concerns. It is especially the case in many developed countries, where the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for this change are mainly concentrated. For the first time, the Kyoto Protocol includes an international agreement for the reduction of the net emissions of these gases. To fulfil this agreement measures designed to reduce or limit current emissions have to be brought into force. Consequently, fears have arisen about possible consequences on competitiveness and future development of manufacturing activities and the need for support mechanisms for the affected sectors is obvious. In this paper, we carry out a study of the emissions of gases responsible for climate change in Asturias (Spain), a region with an important economic presence of sectors with intensive emissions of CO(2), the chief greenhouse gas. To be precise, in the first place, the volumes of direct emissions of the said gases in 1995 were calculated, showing that the sectors most affected by the Kyoto Protocol in Asturias are iron and steel and electricity production. Secondly, input-output analysis was applied to determine the direct and indirect emissions and the direct, indirect and induced emissions of the different production sectors, respectively. The results derived from the direct and indirect emissions analysis and their comparison with the results of the former allow us to reach some conclusions and environmental policy implications.

  10. Capping the cost of compliance with the Kyoto Protocol and recycling revenues into land-use projects.

    PubMed

    Schlamadinger, B; Obersteiner, M; Michaelowa, A; Grubb, M; Azar, C; Yamagata, Y; Goldberg, D; Read, P; Kirschbaum, M U; Fearnside, P M; Sugiyama, T; Rametsteiner, E; Böswald, K

    2001-07-14

    There is the concern among some countries that compliance costs with commitments under the Kyoto Protocol may be unacceptably high. There is also the concern that technical difficulties with the inclusion of land use, land-use change, and forestry activities in non-Annex I countries might lead to an effective exclusion of such activities from consideration under the Protocol. This paper is proposing a mechanism that addresses both these concerns. In essence, it is suggested that parties should be able to purchase fixed-price offset certificates if they feel they cannot achieve compliance through other means alone, such as by improved energy efficiency, increased use of renewable energy, or use of the flexible mechanisms in the Kyoto Protocol. These offset certificates would act as a price cap for the cost of compliance for any party to the Protocol. Revenues from purchase of the offset certificates would be directed to forest-based activities in non-Annex I countries such as forest protection that may carry multiple benefits including enhancing net carbon sequestration.

  11. Expectations affect psychological and neurophysiological benefits even after a single bout of exercise.

    PubMed

    Mothes, Hendrik; Leukel, Christian; Jo, Han-Gue; Seelig, Harald; Schmidt, Stefan; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2017-04-01

    The study investigated whether typical psychological, physiological, and neurophysiological changes from a single exercise are affected by one's beliefs and expectations. Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to four groups and saw different multimedia presentations suggesting that the subsequent exercise (moderate 30 min cycling) would result in more or less health benefits (induced expectations). Additionally, we assessed habitual expectations reflecting previous experience and beliefs regarding exercise benefits. Participants with more positive habitual expectations consistently demonstrated both greater psychological benefits (more enjoyment, mood increase, and anxiety reduction) and greater increase of alpha-2 power, assessed with electroencephalography. Manipulating participants' expectations also resulted in largely greater increases of alpha-2 power, but not in more psychological exercise benefits. On the physiological level, participants decreased their blood pressure after exercising, but this was independent of their expectations. These results indicate that habitual expectations in particular affect exercise-induced psychological and neurophysiological changes in a self-fulfilling manner.

  12. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological effects of strengthening exercise for early dementia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yerokhin, Vadim; Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Hogan, Michael J; Dunnam, Mina; Huber, Daniel; Osborne, Sandra; Shulan, Mollie

    2012-01-01

    Research demonstrates a positive effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in older adults. Unfortunately, aerobic exercise is often contraindicated for older adults due to cardiovascular and functional limitations. Low-intensity strengthening exercise may offer a practical alternative, but the neuropsychological benefits and potential neurophysiological mechanisms are less well understood. The current study evaluated the effects of a 10-week strengthening exercise intervention on cognitive functioning and EEG in a sample of 13 older adults with early dementia, and 9 normative controls. Results revealed beneficial effects of strengthening exercise on verbal memory coupled with frontal beta and delta power asymmetries and N200 amplitude asymmetry. Results point to increased cognitive efficiency following 10 weeks of strengthening exercise. The findings suggest it is feasible to conduct a strengthening intervention with early dementia patients, and to gather neuropsychological and neurophysiological data to evaluate outcomes. Strengthening exercise may serve as a useful alternative to aerobic exercise.

  13. Assessing fitness-for-duty and predicting performance with cognitive neurophysiological measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael E.; Gevins, Alan

    2005-05-01

    Progress is described in developing a novel test of neurocognitive status for fitness-for-duty testing. The Sustained Attention & Memory (SAM) test combines neurophysiologic (EEG) measures of brain activation with performance measures during a psychometric test of sustained attention and working memory, and then gauges changes in neurocognitive status relative to an individual"s normative baseline. In studies of the effects of common psychoactive substances that can affect job performance, including sedating antihistamines, caffeine, alcohol, marijuana, and prescription medications, test sensitivity was greater for the combined neurophysiological and performance measures than for task performance measures by themselves. The neurocognitive effects of overnight sleep deprivation were quite evident, and such effects predicted subsequent performance impairment on a flight simulator task. Sensitivity to diurnal circadian variations was also demonstrated. With further refinement and independent validation, the SAM Test may prove useful for assessing readiness-to-perform in high-asset personnel working in demanding, high risk situations.

  14. Neurophysiological Characterization of Subacute Stroke Patients: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lamola, Giuseppe; Fanciullacci, Chiara; Sgherri, Giada; Bertolucci, Federica; Panarese, Alessandro; Micera, Silvestro; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    Various degrees of neural reorganization may occur in affected and unaffected hemispheres in the early phase after stroke and several months later. Recent literature suggests to apply a stratification based on lesion location and to consider patients with cortico-subcortical and subcortical strokes separately: different lesion location may also influence therapeutic response. In this study we used a longitudinal approach to perform TMS assessment (Motor Evoked Potentials, MEP, and Silent Period, SP) and clinical evaluations (Barthel Index, Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper limb motor function and Wolf Motor Function Test) in 10 cortical-subcortical and 10 subcortical ischemic stroke patients. Evaluations were performed in a window between 10 and 45 days (t0) and at 3 months after the acute event (t1). Our main finding is that 3 months after the acute event patients affected by subcortical stroke presented a reduction in contralateral SP duration in the unaffected hemisphere; this trend is related to clinical improvement of upper limb motor function. In conclusion, SP proved to be a valid parameter to characterize cortical reorganization patterns in stroke survivors and provided useful information about motor recovery within 3 months in subcortical patients. PMID:27899888

  15. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 5: Minimum Technical Standards for Pediatric Electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Kuratani, John; Pearl, Phillip L; Sullivan, Lucy; Riel-Romero, Rosario Maria S; Cheek, Janna; Stecker, Mark; San-Juan, Daniel; Selioutski, Olga; Sinha, Saurabh R; Drislane, Frank W; Tsuchida, Tammy N

    2016-08-01

    This revision to the EEG Guidelines is an update incorporating the current electroencephalography technology and practice. It was previously published as Guideline 2. Similar to the prior guideline, it delineates the aspects of Guideline 1 that should be modified for neonates and young children. Recording conditions for photic stimulation and hyperventilation are revised to enhance the provocation of epileptiform discharges. Revisions recognize the difficulties involved in performing an EEG under sedation in young children. Recommended neonatal EEG montages are displayed for the reduced set of electrodes only since the montages in Guideline 3 should be used for a 21-electrode 10-20 system array. Neonatal documentation is updated to use current American Academy of Pediatrics term "postmenstrual age" rather than "conceptional age." Finally, because therapeutic hypothermia alters the prognostic value of neonatal EEG, the necessity of documenting the patient's temperature at the time of recording is emphasized.

  16. Punishment-induced behavioral and neurophysiological variability reveals dopamine-dependent selection of kinematic movement parameters.

    PubMed

    Galea, Joseph M; Ruge, Diane; Buijink, Arthur; Bestmann, Sven; Rothwell, John C

    2013-02-27

    Action selection describes the high-level process that selects between competing movements. In animals, behavioral variability is critical for the motor exploration required to select the action that optimizes reward and minimizes cost/punishment and is guided by dopamine (DA). The aim of this study was to test in humans whether low-level movement parameters are affected by punishment and reward in ways similar to high-level action selection. Moreover, we addressed the proposed dependence of behavioral and neurophysiological variability on DA and whether this may underpin the exploration of kinematic parameters. Participants performed an out-and-back index finger movement and were instructed that monetary reward and punishment were based on its maximal acceleration (MA). In fact, the feedback was not contingent on the participant's behavior but predetermined. Blocks highly biased toward punishment were associated with increased MA variability relative to blocks either with reward or without feedback. This increase in behavioral variability was positively correlated with neurophysiological variability, as measured by changes in corticospinal excitability with transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor cortex. Following the administration of a DA antagonist, the variability associated with punishment diminished and the correlation between behavioral and neurophysiological variability no longer existed. Similar changes in variability were not observed when participants executed a predetermined MA, nor did DA influence resting neurophysiological variability. Thus, under conditions of punishment, DA-dependent processes influence the selection of low-level movement parameters. We propose that the enhanced behavioral variability reflects the exploration of kinematic parameters for less punishing, or conversely more rewarding, outcomes.

  17. An intraoperative multimodal neurophysiologic approach to successful resection of precentral gyrus epileptogenic lesions.

    PubMed

    Simon, Mirela V; Cole, Andrew J; Chang, Eric C; Buchbinder, Bradley R; Stufflebeam, Steve M; Nozari, Ala; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Eskandar, Emad N

    2012-04-01

    Cortical dysplasias (CDs) are highly epileptogenic lesions with a good prognosis of seizure freedom, if totally resected. However, their accurate delineation and resection can be difficult, and depend on the extent of pathology and lesion location. Intraoperative neurophysiologic assessments are valuable in these situations. We present an illustrative case of intractable epilepsy where judicious use of intraoperative neurophysiologic-techniques guided resection of precentral CD, under general anesthesia and in the absence of preoperative electrophysiologic mapping data. Ictal onset was accurately delineated using electrocorticography (ECoG). Phase reversal of the median somatosensory-evoked potentials (MSSEPs) localized the central sulcus (CS). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) triggered by high-frequency monopolar anodal electrical cortical stimulation at the primary motor cortex (PMC) threshold delineated the PMC. Using this technique, PMC and the corticospinal tract (CST) were continuously monitored during resection. No changes in MEPs from the preresection baseline were seen; no residual abnormal activity was present in the postresection ECoG. The patient emerged from surgery without deficits and has been seizure free during a 10-month follow-up. Staged multimodal intraoperative neurophysiology can be used successfully under general anesthesia to guide resection of epileptogenic lesions within the precentral gyrus, as an add-on or, in certain situations, as a viable alternative to preoperative electrophysiologic mapping.

  18. Tracking the cognitive pharmacodynamics of psychoactive substances with combinations of behavioral and neurophysiological measures.

    PubMed

    Gevins, Alan; Smith, Michael E; McEvoy, Linda K

    2002-01-01

    Many common pharmacological treatments have effects on cognitive ability. Psychometric task batteries used to characterize such effects do not provide direct information about treatment-related changes in brain function. Since overt task performance reflects motivation and effort as well as ability, behavioral measures alone may overestimate or underestimate the impact of a pharmacological intervention on brain function. Here we present a method that combines behavioral and neurophysiological measures in an attempt to detect the psychoactive effects of pharmacological treatments with greater sensitivity than that provided by behavioral measures alone. Initial application of the method is made to the data from a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in which caffeine, diphenhydramine, and alcohol were used to alter the mental state of 16 healthy subjects at rest and while they performed low load and high load versions of a working memory task. For each intervention, more sensitive detection of drug or alcohol effects over a four hour period was obtained when EEG variables were included in multivariate analyses than when only behavioral variables were used. These initial results suggest that it can be useful to incorporate neurophysiological measures of brain activity into inferences concerning the acute impact of drugs on mental function, and demonstrate the feasibility of using multivariate combinations of behavioral and neurophysiological measures to sensitively characterize the pharmacodynamics of drug-induced changes in cognition.

  19. Neurophysiological correlates of attention behavior in early infancy: Implications for emotion regulation during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Perry, Nicole B; Swingler, Margaret M; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-02-01

    Current theoretical conceptualizations of regulatory development suggest that attention processes and emotion regulation processes share common neurophysiological underpinnings and behavioral antecedents such that emotion regulation abilities may build on early attentional skills. To further elucidate this proposed relationship, we tested whether early neurophysiological processes measured during an attention task in infancy predicted in-task attention behavior and whether infants' attention behavior was subsequently associated with their ability to regulate emotion during early childhood (N=388). Results indicated that greater electroencephalogram (EEG) power change (from baseline to task) at medial frontal locations (F3 and F4) during an attention task at 10months of age was associated with concurrent observed behavioral attention. Specifically, greater change in EEG power at the right frontal location (F4) was associated with more attention and greater EEG power at the left frontal location (F3) was associated with less attention, indicating a potential right hemisphere specialization for attention processes already present during the first year of life. In addition, after controlling for 5-month attention behavior, increased behavioral attention at 10months was negatively associated with children's observed frustration to emotional challenge at 3years of age. Finally, the indirect effects from 10-month EEG power change at F3 and F4 to 3-year emotion regulation via infants' 10-month behavioral attention were significant, suggesting that infants' attention behavior is one mechanism through which early neurophysiological activity is related to emotion regulation abilities during childhood.

  20. Cognitive and physical training for the elderly: evaluating outcome efficacy by means of neurophysiological synchronization.

    PubMed

    Frantzidis, Christos A; Ladas, Aristea-Kiriaki I; Vivas, Ana B; Tsolaki, Magda; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2014-07-01

    Recent neuroscientific research has demonstrated that both healthy and pathological aging induces alterations in the co-operative capacity of neuronal populations in the brain. Both compensatory and neurodegenerative mechanisms contribute to neurophysiological synchronization patterns, which provide a valuable marker for age-related cognitive decline. In this study, we propose that neuroplasticity-based training may facilitate coherent interaction of distant brain regions and consequently enhance cognitive performance in elderly people. If this is true, this would make neurophysiological synchronization a valid outcome measure to assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions to prevent or delay age-related cognitive decline. The present study aims at providing an objective, synchronization-based tool to assess cognitive and/or physical interventions, adopting the notion of Relative Wavelet Entropy. This mathematical model employs a robust and parameter-free synchronization metric. By using data mining techniques, a distance value was computed for all participants so as to quantify the proximity of their individual profile to the mean group synchronization increase. In support of our hypothesis, results showed a significant increase in synchronization, for four electrode pairs, in the intervention group as compared to the active control group. It is concluded that the novel introduction of neurophysiological synchronization features could be used as a valid and reliable outcome measure; while the distance-based analysis could provide a reliable means of evaluating individual benefits.

  1. Effects of deep brain stimulation on balance and gait in patients with Parkinson's disease: A systematic neurophysiological review.

    PubMed

    Collomb-Clerc, A; Welter, M-L

    2015-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) provides an efficient treatment for the alleviation of motor signs in patients with Parkinson's disease. The effects of DBS on gait and balance disorders are less successful and may even lead to an aggravation of freezing of gait and imbalance. The identification of a substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr)-mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) network in the control of locomotion and postural control and of its dysfunction/lesion in PD patients with gait and balance disorders led to suggestion that DBS should be targeting the SNr and the pedunculopontine nucleus (part of the MLR) for PD patients with these disabling axial motor signs. However, the clinical results to date have been disappointing. In this review, we discuss the effects of DBS of these basal ganglia and brainstem structures on the neurophysiological parameters of gait and balance control in PD patients. Overall, the data suggest that both STN and GPi-DBS improve gait parameters and quiet standing postural control in PD patients, but have no effect or may even aggravate dynamic postural control, in particular with STN-DBS. Conversely, DBS of the SNr and PPN has no effect on gait parameters but improves anticipatory postural adjustments and gait postural control.

  2. Neurophysiological mechanisms of emotion regulation for subtypes of externalizing children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieben, James

    Children referred for externalizing behavior problems may not represent a homogeneous population. The objective of this study was to assess the neural mechanisms of emotion regulation that might distinguish subtypes of externalizing children from each other and from their typically developing age-mates. Children with pure externalizing (EXT) problems were compared with children comorbid for externalizing and internalizing (MIXED) problems and with age-matched controls. Only boys were included in the analysis because so few girls were referred for treatment. A go/no-go task with a negative emotion induction was used to examine dense-array EEG data together with behavioral measures of performance. Four event-related potential (ERP) components tapping inhibitory control or self-monitoring were assessed including the inhibitory N2, the error-related negativity (ERN), the error positivity (Pe) and the frontal inhibitory P3 (iP3). Source models were constructed estimating the cortical generators of these components. The MIXED children's N2s increased in response to the emotion induction, resulting in greater amplitudes than EXT children in the following trial block. MIXED and EXT children showed increased N2 latencies compared to controls. ERN amplitudes were greatest for control children and smallest for EXT children with MIXED children in between, but only prior to the emotion induction. N2 component latencies were shorter for controls but only before and after the induction block with a significantly faster N2 for controls only in block C relative to MIXED children. Latencies for the ERN component were longer for the EXT children in blocks A and B relative to both MIXED and controls. Mixed results were found for both the Pe and frontal P3 amplitude. Pe amplitudes were smallest for control children in blocks A and B relative to both clinical groups. Pe latencies were consistent across groups with the exception of block B where EXT children showed an increase in

  3. Writing epilepsy: a neurophysiological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Pedro; Ribeiro, Mendes; Forni, Alessandra; Pires, Isabel; Sousa, Georgina

    2005-05-01

    Writing epilepsy is a rare reflex syndrome in which seizures are triggered by writing. We describe a 33-year-old, right-handed man, with a history of juvenile absence epilepsy in remission and a family history of epilepsy, in whom myoclonic jerks precipitated exclusively by writing started at the age of 30. Intensive video/EEG monitoring during neuropsychological tests revealed, at about 1 minute after starting to write, a dystonic posture, followed by myoclonic jerks involving the right hand that shortly after became generalized. Concomitantly, the ictal EEG documented generalized hypersynchronous polyspike-wave discharges, maximal over the right parietocentral area. SPECT revealed an ictal hyperperfusion and interictal hypoperfusion over right parietofrontal regions, and fMRI showed extensive and intense left frontal, supplementary motor area activation, induced by writing. This case study provides some evidence supporting the hypothesis that the mechanism underlying writing-triggered seizures may be a generalized seizure process, with a focal cortical trigger zone, presumed to be the left frontal lobe as suggested by clinical and fMRI data. A relevant role played by the right hemisphere (right parietofrontal region) is postulated in the full-blown expression of reflex epileptogenesis, as supported by EEG and SPECT findings.

  4. Procedures for prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal diseases: a multicenter questionnaire survey of hospitals in the Kyoto Neonatal Disease Study Group, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kousaku; Kawai, Masahiko; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Kato, Fumihide; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Yamakawa, Masaru; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Seiichi; Maeda, Shinji; Okumura, Mitsuyoshi; Kanaoka, Hiroo

    2007-02-01

    To explore clinical protocols for the prevention of early-onset group B Streptococcus (EOGBS) disease of the newborn in Japan, we conducted a multicenter questionnaire survey. Of 32 regional centers participating in the Kyoto Neonatal Study Group, 28 provided usable data concerning prevention practices undertaken between 2000 and 2004. Twenty-three (82%) of the 28 hospitals implemented bacteriological screening to identify maternal GBS carriage, and all 23 hospitals administered intrapartum antibiotics to all screening-positive pregnant women. There were no institutes that used risk-based strategies. In the 23 hospitals, bacteriological screening was conducted mostly by lower vaginal swab alone (n = 18). Eighteen hospitals performed screening once during pregnancy, either before 34 weeks' gestation (n = 6) or between 35 and 37 weeks' gestation (n = 12). Oral antepartum antibiotics, when carriage was identified, were administered at 12 (52%) hospitals. Twenty institutes used penicillins for intrapartum prophylaxis. However, the loading dose for chemoprophylaxis ranged from 0.5 to 2 g, and the interval between repeat administrations ranged from 4 to 12 h. Although the results indicated that more than 80% of the hospitals surveyed had introduced some screening-based prevention practices, the timing of the bacteriological screening during the pregnancy, the number of screenings, and the screening sites, as well as the antibiotics used, and their dosage, varied widely. Because of these highly variable methods, the efficacy of the implementation of preventive practices could not be determined. This study is the first to have described preventive practices for EOGBS disease in Japan in the era of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. In light of the above results, a larger study under a unifying protocol would be warranted.

  5. Emotion down-regulation diminishes cognitive control: a neurophysiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Nicholas M; Saunders, Blair; Al-Khindi, Timour; Inzlicht, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Traditional models of cognitive control have explained performance monitoring as a "cold" cognitive process, devoid of emotion. In contrast to this dominant view, a growing body of clinical and experimental research indicates that cognitive control and its neural substrates, in particular the error-related negativity (ERN), are moderated by affective and motivational factors, reflecting the aversive experience of response conflict and errors. To add to this growing line of research, here we use the classic emotion regulation paradigm-a manipulation that promotes the cognitive reappraisal of emotion during task performance-to test the extent to which affective variation in the ERN is subject to emotion reappraisal, and also to explore how emotional regulation of the ERN might influence behavioral performance. In a within-subjects design, 41 university students completed 3 identical rounds of a go/no-go task while electroencephalography was recorded. Reappraisal instructions were manipulated so that participants either down-regulated or up-regulated emotional involvement, or completed the task normally, without engaging any reappraisal strategy (control). Results showed attenuated ERN amplitudes when participants down-regulated their emotional experience. In addition, a mediation analysis revealed that the association between reappraisal style and attenuated ERN was mediated by changes in reported emotion ratings. An indirect effects model also revealed that down-regulation predicted sensitivity of error-monitoring processes (difference ERN), which, in turn, predicted poorer task performance. Taken together, these results suggest that the ERN appears to have a strong affective component that is associated with indices of cognitive control and behavioral monitoring.

  6. A simple method for monitoring mutagenicity of river water. Mutagens in Yodo River system, Kyoto-Osaka

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Hayatsu, Hikoya )

    1990-04-01

    Blue cotton is a cotton preparation, bearing copper phthalocyanine trisulfonate as a covalently linked ligand, and is an adsorbent specific for compounds with three or greater number of fused rings. Due to this special property, blue cotton has been used for extracting mutagenic polycyclic compounds from crude materials. In early work, the authors gave a brief account of the results of monitoring river-water mutagenicity with blue cotton. Recently they have improved the quality of the adsorbent; rayon in place of cotton was employed as the support for the ligand, and a more powerful adsorbent, blue rayon, which contains 2-3 times greater amount of the ligand than blue cotton, was prepared. In this paper the authors report the use of the blue-rayon method to detect mutagenic compounds in the Yodo river, which flows through the cities of Kyoto and Osaka and is a major source of drinking water for the 10 million people in the area.

  7. Ozone Induced Impairment of Systemic Metabolic Processes: Influence of Prior Ozone Exposure and Metformin Pre-treatment on Aged Wistar Kyoto (WKY) Rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    SOT2014 Abstract for presentation: March 23-27, 2014; Phoenix, AZ Ozone Induced Impairment of Systemic Metabolic Processes: Influence of Prior Ozone Exposure and Metformin Pre-treatment on Aged Wistar Kyoto (WKY) Rats. V. Bass, D. Andrews, J. Richards, M. Schladweiler, A. Ledb...

  8. The Promotion of Peace Education through Guides in Peace Museums. A Case Study of the Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Ritsumeikan University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanigawa, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how peace education at a peace museum is promoted by a volunteer guide service for visitors. Peace museums are places where many materials related to war and peace history are on display. To support the learning experience of museum visitors, many peace museums in Japan provide a volunteer guide service. The Kyoto Museum for…

  9. Neurophysiological Correlates of Attentional Fluctuation in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Celeste H M; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2017-03-14

    Cognitive performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised, in part, by frequent fluctuations in response speed, resulting in high reaction time variability (RTV). RTV captures a large proportion of the genetic risk in ADHD but, importantly, is malleable, improving significantly in a fast-paced, rewarded task condition. Using the temporal precision offered by event-related potentials (ERPs), we aimed to examine the neurophysiological measures of attention allocation (P3 amplitudes) and preparation (contingent negative variation, CNV), and their associations with the fluctuating RT performance and its improvement in ADHD. 93 participants with ADHD and 174 controls completed the baseline and fast-incentive conditions of a four-choice reaction time task, while EEG was simultaneously recorded. Compared to controls, individuals with ADHD showed both increased RTV and reduced P3 amplitudes during performance on the RT task. In the participants with ADHD, attenuated P3 amplitudes were significantly associated with high RTV, and the increase in P3 amplitudes from a slow baseline to a fast-paced, rewarded condition was significantly associated with the RTV decrease. Yet, the individuals with ADHD did not show the same increase in CNV from baseline to fast-incentive condition as observed in controls. ADHD is associated both with a neurophysiological impairment of attention allocation (P3 amplitudes) and an inability to adjust the preparatory state (CNV) in a changed context. Our findings suggest that both neurophysiological and cognitive performance measures of attention are malleable in ADHD, which are potential targets for non-pharmacological interventions.

  10. The Neurophysiology of Language Processing Shapes the Evolution of Grammar: Evidence from Case Marking

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Balthasar; Witzlack-Makarevich, Alena; Choudhary, Kamal K.; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Do principles of language processing in the brain affect the way grammar evolves over time or is language change just a matter of socio-historical contingency? While the balance of evidence has been ambiguous and controversial, we identify here a neurophysiological constraint on the processing of language that has a systematic effect on the evolution of how noun phrases are marked by case (i.e. by such contrasts as between the English base form she and the object form her). In neurophysiological experiments across diverse languages we found that during processing, participants initially interpret the first base-form noun phrase they hear (e.g. she…) as an agent (which would fit a continuation like … greeted him), even when the sentence later requires the interpretation of a patient role (as in … was greeted). We show that this processing principle is also operative in Hindi, a language where initial base-form noun phrases most commonly denote patients because many agents receive a special case marker ("ergative") and are often left out in discourse. This finding suggests that the principle is species-wide and independent of the structural affordances of specific languages. As such, the principle favors the development and maintenance of case-marking systems that equate base-form cases with agents rather than with patients. We confirm this evolutionary bias by statistical analyses of phylogenetic signals in over 600 languages worldwide, controlling for confounding effects from language contact. Our findings suggest that at least one core property of grammar systematically adapts in its evolution to the neurophysiological conditions of the brain, independently of socio-historical factors. This opens up new avenues for understanding how specific properties of grammar have developed in tight interaction with the biological evolution of our species. PMID:26267884

  11. Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring in spine surgery. Developments and state of the art in France in 2011.

    PubMed

    Gavaret, M; Jouve, J L; Péréon, Y; Accadbled, F; André-Obadia, N; Azabou, E; Blondel, B; Bollini, G; Delécrin, J; Farcy, J-P; Fournet-Fayard, J; Garin, C; Henry, P; Manel, V; Mutschler, V; Perrin, G; Sales de Gauzy, J

    2013-10-01

    Intraoperative spinal cord monitoring consists in a subcontinuous evaluation of spinal cord sensory-motor functions and allows the reduction the incidence of neurological complications resulting from spinal surgery. A combination of techniques is used: somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), neurogenic motor evoked potentials (NMEP), D waves, and pedicular screw testing. In absence of intraoperative neurophysiological testing, the intraoperative wake-up test is a true form of monitoring even if its latency long and its precision variable. A 2011 survey of 117 French spinal surgeons showed that only 36% had neurophysiological monitoring available (public healthcare facilities, 42%; private facilities, 27%). Monitoring can be performed by a neurophysiologist in the operating room, remotely using a network, or directly by the surgeon. Intraoperative alerts allow real-time diagnosis of impending neurological injury. Use of spinal electrodes, moved along the medullary canal, can determine the lesion level (NMEP, D waves). The response to a monitoring alert should take into account the phase of the surgical intervention and does not systematically lead to interruption of the intervention. Multimodal intraoperative monitoring, in presence of a neurophysiologist, in collaboration with the anesthesiologist, is the most reliable technique available. However, no monitoring technique can predict a delayed-onset paraplegia that appears after the end of surgery. In cases of preexisting neurological deficit, monitoring contributes little. Monitoring of the L1-L4 spinal roots also shows low reliability. Therefore, monitoring has no indication in discal and degenerative surgery of the spinal surgery. However, testing pedicular screws can be useful. All in all, thoracic and thoracolumbar vertebral deviations, with normal preoperative neurological examination are currently the essential indication for spinal cord monitoring. Its absence in this

  12. Neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and dysfunction of the female lower urinary tract: a review.

    PubMed

    Unger, Cécile A; Tunitsky-Bitton, Elena; Muffly, Tyler; Barber, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    The 2 major functions of the lower urinary tract are the storage and emptying of urine. These processes are controlled by complex neurophysiologic mechanisms and are subject to injury and disease. When there is disruption of the neurologic control centers, dysfunction of the lower urinary tract may occur. This is sometimes referred to as the "neurogenic bladder." The manifestation of dysfunction depends on the level of injury and severity of disruption. Patients with lesions above the spinal cord often have detrusor overactivity with no disruption in detrusor-sphincter coordination. Patients with well-defined suprasacral spinal cord injuries usually present with intact reflex detrusor activity but have detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, whereas injuries to or below the sacral spinal cord usually lead to persistent detrusor areflexia. A complete gynecologic, urologic, and neurologic examination should be performed when evaluating patients with neurologic lower urinary tract dysfunction. In addition, urodynamic studies and neurophysiologic testing can be used in certain circumstances to help establish diagnosis or to achieve better understanding of a patient's vesicourethral functioning. In the management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, the primary goal is improvement of a patient's quality of life. Second to this is the prevention of chronic damage to the bladder and kidneys, which can lead to worsening impairment and symptoms. Treatment is often multifactorial, including behavioral modifications, bladder training programs, and pharmacotherapy. Surgical procedures are often a last resort option for management. An understanding of the basic neurophysiologic mechanisms of the lower urinary tract can guide providers in their evaluation and treatment of patients who present with lower urinary tract disorders. As neurologic diseases progress, voiding function often changes or worsens, necessitating a good understanding of the underlying physiology in question.

  13. The neurophysiology of language processing shapes the evolution of grammar: evidence from case marking.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Balthasar; Witzlack-Makarevich, Alena; Choudhary, Kamal K; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Do principles of language processing in the brain affect the way grammar evolves over time or is language change just a matter of socio-historical contingency? While the balance of evidence has been ambiguous and controversial, we identify here a neurophysiological constraint on the processing of language that has a systematic effect on the evolution of how noun phrases are marked by case (i.e. by such contrasts as between the English base form she and the object form her). In neurophysiological experiments across diverse languages we found that during processing, participants initially interpret the first base-form noun phrase they hear (e.g. she…) as an agent (which would fit a continuation like … greeted him), even when the sentence later requires the interpretation of a patient role (as in … was greeted). We show that this processing principle is also operative in Hindi, a language where initial base-form noun phrases most commonly denote patients because many agents receive a special case marker ("ergative") and are often left out in discourse. This finding suggests that the principle is species-wide and independent of the structural affordances of specific languages. As such, the principle favors the development and maintenance of case-marking systems that equate base-form cases with agents rather than with patients. We confirm this evolutionary bias by statistical analyses of phylogenetic signals in over 600 languages worldwide, controlling for confounding effects from language contact. Our findings suggest that at least one core property of grammar systematically adapts in its evolution to the neurophysiological conditions of the brain, independently of socio-historical factors. This opens up new avenues for understanding how specific properties of grammar have developed in tight interaction with the biological evolution of our species.

  14. Behavioral and neurophysiological study of olfactory perception and learning in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Jean Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The honeybee Apis mellifera has been a central insect model in the study of olfactory perception and learning for more than a century, starting with pioneer work by Karl von Frisch. Research on olfaction in honeybees has greatly benefited from the advent of a range of behavioral and neurophysiological paradigms in the Lab. Here I review major findings about how the honeybee brain detects, processes, and learns odors, based on behavioral, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological approaches. I first address the behavioral study of olfactory learning, from experiments on free-flying workers visiting artificial flowers to laboratory-based conditioning protocols on restrained individuals. I explain how the study of olfactory learning has allowed understanding the discrimination and generalization ability of the honeybee olfactory system, its capacity to grant special properties to olfactory mixtures as well as to retain individual component information. Next, based on the impressive amount of anatomical and immunochemical studies of the bee brain, I detail our knowledge of olfactory pathways. I then show how functional recordings of odor-evoked activity in the brain allow following the transformation of the olfactory message from the periphery until higher-order central structures. Data from extra- and intracellular electrophysiological approaches as well as from the most recent optical imaging developments are described. Lastly, I discuss results addressing how odor representation changes as a result of experience. This impressive ensemble of behavioral, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological data available in the bee make it an attractive model for future research aiming to understand olfactory perception and learning in an integrative fashion.

  15. Response facilitation: implications for perceptual theory, psychotherapy, neurophysiology, and earthquake prediction.

    PubMed

    Medici, R G; Frey, A H; Frey, D

    1985-04-01

    There have been numerous naturalistic observations and anecdotal reports of abnormal animal behavior prior to earthquakes. Basic physiological and behavioral data have been brought together with geophysical data to develop a specific explanation to account for how animals could perceive and respond to precursors of impending earthquakes. The behavior predicted provides a reasonable approximation to the reported abnormal behaviors; that is, the behavior appears to be partly reflexive and partly operant. It can best be described as agitated stereotypic behavior. The explanation formulated has substantial implications for perceptual theory, psychotherapy, and neurophysiology, as well as for earthquake prediction. Testable predictions for biology, psychology, and geophysics can be derived from the explanation.

  16. An intraoperative multimodal neurophysiologic approach to successful resection of precentral gyrus epileptogenic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Mirela V.; Cole, Andrew J.; Chang, Eric C.; Buchbinder, Bradley R.; Stufflebeam, Steve M.; Nozari, Ala; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O.; Eskandar, Emad N.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical dysplasias (CDs) are highly epileptogenic lesions with a good prognosis of seizure freedom, if totally resected. However, their accurate delineation and resection can be difficult, and depend on the extent of pathology and lesion location. Intraoperative neurophysiologic assessments are valuable in these situations. We present an illustrative case of intractable epilepsy where judicious use of intraoperative neurophysiologic–techniques guided resection of precentral CD, under general anesthesia and in the absence of preoperative electrophysiologic mapping data. Ictal onset was accurately delineated using electrocorticography (ECoG). Phase reversal of the median somatosensory-evoked potentials (MSSEPs) localized the central sulcus (CS). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) triggered by high-frequency monopolar anodal electrical cortical stimulation at the primary motor cortex (PMC) threshold delineated the PMC. Using this technique, PMC and the corticospinal tract (CST) were continuously monitored during resection. No changes in MEPs from the pre-resection baseline were seen; no residual abnormal activity was present in the postresection ECoG. The patient emerged from surgery without deficits and has been seizure free during a 10-month follow-up. Staged multimodal intraoperative neurophysiology can be used successfully under general anesthesia to guide resection of epileptogenic lesions within the precentral gyrus, as an add-on or, in certain situations, as a viable alternative to preoperative electrophysiologic mapping. PMID:22309192

  17. ACQ4: an open-source software platform for data acquisition and analysis in neurophysiology research

    PubMed Central

    Campagnola, Luke; Kratz, Megan B.; Manis, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of modern neurophysiology experiments requires specialized software to coordinate multiple acquisition devices and analyze the collected data. We have developed ACQ4, an open-source software platform for performing data acquisition and analysis in experimental neurophysiology. This software integrates the tasks of acquiring, managing, and analyzing experimental data. ACQ4 has been used primarily for standard patch-clamp electrophysiology, laser scanning photostimulation, multiphoton microscopy, intrinsic imaging, and calcium imaging. The system is highly modular, which facilitates the addition of new devices and functionality. The modules included with ACQ4 provide for rapid construction of acquisition protocols, live video display, and customizable analysis tools. Position-aware data collection allows automated construction of image mosaics and registration of images with 3-dimensional anatomical atlases. ACQ4 uses free and open-source tools including Python, NumPy/SciPy for numerical computation, PyQt for the user interface, and PyQtGraph for scientific graphics. Supported hardware includes cameras, patch clamp amplifiers, scanning mirrors, lasers, shutters, Pockels cells, motorized stages, and more. ACQ4 is available for download at http://www.acq4.org. PMID:24523692

  18. Behavioral and neurophysiological evidence for increased cognitive flexibility in late childhood

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Nicole; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions, like the capacity to control and organize thoughts and behavior, develop from childhood to young adulthood. Although task switching and working memory processes are known to undergo strong developmental changes from childhood to adulthood, it is currently unknown how task switching processes are modulated between childhood and adulthood given that working memory processes are central to task switching. The aim of the current study is therefore to examine this question using a combined cue- and memory-based task switching paradigm in children (N = 25) and young adults (N = 25) in combination with neurophysiological (EEG) methods. We obtained an unexpected paradoxical effect suggesting that memory-based task switching is better in late childhood than in young adulthood. No group differences were observed in cue-based task switching. The neurophysiological data suggest that this effect is not due to altered attentional selection (P1, N1) or processes related to the updating, organization, and implementation of the new task-set (P3). Instead, alterations were found in the resolution of task-set conflict and the selection of an appropriate response (N2) when a task has to be switched. Our observation contrasts findings showing that cognitive control mechanisms reach their optimal functioning in early adulthood. PMID:27349808

  19. Effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields: critical evaluation of behavioral and neurophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2011-05-01

    For the last two decades, a large number of studies have investigated the effects of mobile phone radiation on the human brain and cognition using behavioral or neurophysiological measurements. This review evaluated previous findings with respect to study design and data analysis. Provocation studies found no evidence of subjective symptoms attributed to mobile phone radiation, suggesting psychological reasons for inducing such symptoms in hypersensitive people. Behavioral studies previously reported improved cognitive performance under exposure, but it was likely to have occurred by chance due to multiple comparisons. Recent behavioral studies and replication studies with more conservative statistics found no significant effects compared with original studies. Neurophysiological studies found no significant effects on cochlear and brainstem auditory processing, but only inconsistent results on spontaneous and evoked brain electrical activity. The inconsistent findings suggest possible false positives due to multiple comparisons and thus replication is needed. Other approaches such as brain hemodynamic response measurements are promising but the findings are few and not yet conclusive. Rigorous study design and data analysis considering multiple comparisons and effect size are required to reduce controversy in this important field of research.

  20. Neurophysiological criteria for intraoperative prediction of pure motor hemiplegia during aneurysm surgery. Case report.

    PubMed

    Szelényi, Andrea; Bueno de Camargo, Adauri; Flamm, Eugene; Deletis, Vedran

    2003-09-01

    The value of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) as an intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring tool for detecting selective subcortical ischemia of the motor pathways during intracerebral aneurysm repair is described and the use of such measures to predict postoperative motor status is discussed. The authors present the case of a 64-year-old woman in whom there was an incidental finding of two right middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms. During the aneurysm clipping procedure, an intraoperative MEP loss in the left abductor pollicis brevis and tibial anterior muscles occurred during an attempt at permanent clip placement. There were no concurrent changes in somatosensory evoked potentials. Postoperatively, the patient demonstrated a left hemiplegia with intact sensation. A computerized tomography scan revealed an infarct in the anterior division of the MCA territory, including the posterior limb of the internal capsule. In this patient, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring with MEPs has been shown to be a sensitive tool for indicating subcortical ischemia affecting selective motor pathways in the internal capsule. Therefore, intraoperative loss of MEPs can be used to predict postoperative motor deficits.

  1. The effect of task demand and incentive on neurophysiological and cardiovascular markers of effort.

    PubMed

    Fairclough, Stephen H; Ewing, Kate

    2017-01-19

    According to motivational intensity theory, effort is proportional to the level of task demand provided that success is possible and successful performance is deemed worthwhile. The current study represents a simultaneous manipulation of demand (working memory load) and success importance (financial incentive) to investigate neurophysiological (EEG) and cardiovascular measures of effort. A 2×2 repeated-measures study was conducted where 18 participants performed a n-back task under three conditions of demand: easy (1-back), hard (4-back) and very hard (7-back). In addition, participants performed these tasks in the presence of performance-contingent financial incentive or in a no-incentive (pilot trial) condition. Three bands of EEG activity were quantified: theta (4-7Hz), lower-alpha (7.5-10Hz) and upper-alpha (10.5-13Hz). Fronto-medial activity in the theta band and activity in the upper-alpha band at frontal, central and parietal sites were sensitive to demand and indicated greatest effort when the task was challenging and success was possible. Mean systolic blood pressure and activity in the lower-alpha band at parietal sites were also sensitive to demand but also increased in the incentive condition across all levels of task demand. The results of the study largely support the predictions of motivational intensity using neurophysiological markers of effort.

  2. Separating Fractal and Oscillatory Components in the Power Spectrum of Neurophysiological Signal

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Haiguang; Liu, Zhongming

    2015-01-01

    Neurophysiological field-potential signals consist of both arrhythmic and rhythmic patterns indicative of the fractal and oscillatory dynamics arising from likely distinct mechanisms. Here, we present a new method, namely the Irregular-Resampling Auto-Spectral Analysis (IRASA), to separate fractal and oscillatory components in the power spectrum of neurophysiological signal according to their distinct temporal and spectral characteristics. In this method, we irregularly resampled the neural signal by a set of non-integer factors, and statistically summarized the auto-power spectra of the resampled signals to separate the fractal component from the oscillatory component in the frequency domain. We tested this method on simulated data and demonstrated that IRASA could robustly separate the fractal component from the oscillatory component. In addition, applications of IRASA to macaque electrocorticography (ECoG) and human magnetoencephalography (MEG) data revealed a greater power-law exponent of fractal dynamics during sleep compared to wakefulness. The temporal fluctuation in the broadband power of the fractal component revealed characteristic dynamics within and across the eyes-closed, eyes-open and sleep states. These results demonstrate the efficacy and potential applications of this method in analyzing electrophysiological signatures of large-scale neural circuit activity. We expect that the proposed method or its future variations would potentially allow for more specific characterization of the differential contributions of oscillatory and fractal dynamics to distributed neural processes underlying various brain functions. PMID:26318848

  3. Transcranial direct current stimulation in Parkinson's disease: Neurophysiological mechanisms and behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    Broeder, Sanne; Nackaerts, Evelien; Heremans, Elke; Vervoort, Griet; Meesen, Raf; Verheyden, Geert; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has highlighted the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to complement rehabilitation effects in the elderly and in patients with neurological diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). TDCS can modulate cortical excitability and enhance neurophysiological mechanisms that compensate for impaired learning in PD. The objective of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the effects of tDCS on neurophysiological and behavioral outcome measures in PD patients, both as a stand-alone and as an adjunctive therapy. We systematically reviewed the literature published throughout the last 10 years. Ten studies were included, most of which were sham controlled. Results confirmed that tDCS applied to the motor cortex had significant results on motor function and to a lesser extent on cognitive tests. However, the physiological mechanism underlying the long-term effects of tDCS on cortical excitability in the PD brain are still unclear and need to be clarified in order to apply this technique optimally to a wider population in the different disease stages and with different medication profiles.

  4. A structured-inquiry approach to teaching neurophysiology using computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Computer simulation is a valuable tool for teaching the fundamentals of neurophysiology in undergraduate laboratories where time and equipment limitations restrict the amount of course content that can be delivered through hands-on interaction. However, students often find such exercises to be tedious and unstimulating. In an effort to engage students in the use of computational modeling while developing a deeper understanding of neurophysiology, an attempt was made to use an educational neurosimulation environment as the basis for a novel, inquiry-based research project. During the semester, students in the class wrote a research proposal, used the Neurodynamix II simulator to generate a large data set, analyzed their modeling results statistically, and presented their findings at the Midbrains Neuroscience Consortium undergraduate poster session. Learning was assessed in the form of a series of short term papers and two 10-min in-class writing responses to the open-ended question, "How do ion channels influence neuronal firing?", which they completed on weeks 6 and 15 of the semester. Students' answers to this question showed a deeper understanding of neuronal excitability after the project; their term papers revealed evidence of critical thinking about computational modeling and neuronal excitability. Suggestions for the adaptation of this structured-inquiry approach into shorter term lab experiences are discussed.

  5. ACQ4: an open-source software platform for data acquisition and analysis in neurophysiology research.

    PubMed

    Campagnola, Luke; Kratz, Megan B; Manis, Paul B

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of modern neurophysiology experiments requires specialized software to coordinate multiple acquisition devices and analyze the collected data. We have developed ACQ4, an open-source software platform for performing data acquisition and analysis in experimental neurophysiology. This software integrates the tasks of acquiring, managing, and analyzing experimental data. ACQ4 has been used primarily for standard patch-clamp electrophysiology, laser scanning photostimulation, multiphoton microscopy, intrinsic imaging, and calcium imaging. The system is highly modular, which facilitates the addition of new devices and functionality. The modules included with ACQ4 provide for rapid construction of acquisition protocols, live video display, and customizable analysis tools. Position-aware data collection allows automated construction of image mosaics and registration of images with 3-dimensional anatomical atlases. ACQ4 uses free and open-source tools including Python, NumPy/SciPy for numerical computation, PyQt for the user interface, and PyQtGraph for scientific graphics. Supported hardware includes cameras, patch clamp amplifiers, scanning mirrors, lasers, shutters, Pockels cells, motorized stages, and more. ACQ4 is available for download at http://www.acq4.org.

  6. Separating Fractal and Oscillatory Components in the Power Spectrum of Neurophysiological Signal.

    PubMed

    Wen, Haiguang; Liu, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    Neurophysiological field-potential signals consist of both arrhythmic and rhythmic patterns indicative of the fractal and oscillatory dynamics arising from likely distinct mechanisms. Here, we present a new method, namely the irregular-resampling auto-spectral analysis (IRASA), to separate fractal and oscillatory components in the power spectrum of neurophysiological signal according to their distinct temporal and spectral characteristics. In this method, we irregularly resampled the neural signal by a set of non-integer factors, and statistically summarized the auto-power spectra of the resampled signals to separate the fractal component from the oscillatory component in the frequency domain. We tested this method on simulated data and demonstrated that IRASA could robustly separate the fractal component from the oscillatory component. In addition, applications of IRASA to macaque electrocorticography and human magnetoencephalography data revealed a greater power-law exponent of fractal dynamics during sleep compared to wakefulness. The temporal fluctuation in the broadband power of the fractal component revealed characteristic dynamics within and across the eyes-closed, eyes-open and sleep states. These results demonstrate the efficacy and potential applications of this method in analyzing electrophysiological signatures of large-scale neural circuit activity. We expect that the proposed method or its future variations would potentially allow for more specific characterization of the differential contributions of oscillatory and fractal dynamics to distributed neural processes underlying various brain functions.

  7. Perceptual conflict during sensorimotor integration processes - a neurophysiological study in response inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewski, Witold X.; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of sensory inputs needs to be processed during sensorimotor integration. A crucial factor for detecting relevant information is its complexity, since information content can be conflicting at a perceptual level. This may be central to executive control processes, such as response inhibition. This EEG study aims to investigate the system neurophysiological mechanisms behind effects of perceptual conflict on response inhibition. We systematically modulated perceptual conflict by integrating a Global-local task with a Go/Nogo paradigm. The results show that conflicting perceptual information, in comparison to non-conflicting perceptual information, impairs response inhibition performance. This effect was evident regardless of whether the relevant information for response inhibition is displayed on the global, or local perceptual level. The neurophysiological data suggests that early perceptual/ attentional processing stages do not underlie these modulations. Rather, processes at the response selection level (P3), play a role in changed response inhibition performance. This conflict-related impairment of inhibitory processes is associated with activation differences in (inferior) parietal areas (BA7 and BA40) and not as commonly found in the medial prefrontal areas. This suggests that various functional neuroanatomical structures may mediate response inhibition and that the functional neuroanatomical structures involved depend on the complexity of sensory integration processes. PMID:27222225

  8. Effects of topiramate on neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests in migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Kececi, Hulusi; Atakay, Selcuk

    2009-12-01

    Topiramate (TPM) is a antiepileptic drug that has multiple mechanisms of action. It is effective as a monotherapy for migraine prophylaxis. Unfortunately, TPM can frequently cause adverse effects, such as cognitive dysfunction. The present study examines the neuropsychological and neurophysiological effects of TPM in 35 consecutive migraine patients above 18years of age. The TPM dose was started at 25mg/day and increased by 25mg/week, until reaching the maximum dose of 50mg twice daily in the fourth week. Patients were evaluated for development of side effects of the medication and for its effectiveness on migraine. The Wechsler memory scale was used for neuropsychological evaluation and cognitive evoked potentials were used for neurophysiologic evaluations. Analyses of repeated measures show that visual analog scale pain values, as well as migraine attack frequency and headache duration, were decreased significantly during the study. The amplitudes and latencies of P300 did not change. The results of this study show that 100mg TPM is effective in the prevention of migraine headache and in reducing severity of attacks. Patients' cognitive complaints are frequent in the first month and decrease in the following month. Despite these complaints, only the attention section of the visual memory section of the Wechsler memory scale was affected - other sections were not affected. Also, P300 study did not reflect changes appropriate to these cognitive complaints.

  9. Sensorimotor synchronization: neurophysiological markers of the asynchrony in a finger-tapping task.

    PubMed

    Bavassi, Luz; Kamienkowski, Juan E; Sigman, Mariano; Laje, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) is a form of referential behavior in which an action is coordinated with a predictable external stimulus. The neural bases of the synchronization ability remain unknown, even in the simpler, paradigmatic task of finger tapping to a metronome. In this task the subject is instructed to tap in synchrony with a periodic sequence of brief tones, and the time difference between each response and the corresponding stimulus tone (asynchrony) is recorded. We make a step towards the identification of the neurophysiological markers of SMS by recording high-density EEG event-related potentials and the concurrent behavioral response-stimulus asynchronies during an isochronous paced finger-tapping task. Using principal component analysis, we found an asymmetry between the traces for advanced and delayed responses to the stimulus, in accordance with previous behavioral observations from perturbation studies. We also found that the amplitude of the second component encodes the higher-level percept of asynchrony 100 ms after the current stimulus. Furthermore, its amplitude predicts the asynchrony of the next step, past 300 ms from the previous stimulus, independently of the period length. Moreover, the neurophysiological processing of synchronization errors is performed within a fixed-duration interval after the stimulus. Our results suggest that the correction of a large asynchrony in a periodic task and the recovery of synchrony after a perturbation could be driven by similar neural processes.

  10. KEGG-PATH: Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes-based pathway analysis using a path analysis model.

    PubMed

    Du, Junli; Yuan, Zhifa; Ma, Ziwei; Song, Jiuzhou; Xie, Xiaoli; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-29

    The dynamic impact approach (DIA) represents an alternative to overrepresentation analysis (ORA) for functional analysis of time-course experiments or those involving multiple treatments. The DIA can be used to estimate the biological impact of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with particular biological functions, for example, as represented by the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) annotations. However, the DIA does not take into account the correlated dependence structure of the KEGG pathway hierarchy. We have developed herein a path analysis model (KEGG-PATH) to subdivide the total effect of each KEGG pathway into the direct effect and indirect effect by taking into account not only each KEGG pathway itself, but also the correlation with its related pathways. In addition, this work also attempts to preliminarily estimate the impact direction of each KEGG pathway by a gradient analysis method from principal component analysis (PCA). As a result, the advantage of the KEGG-PATH model is demonstrated through the functional analysis of the bovine mammary transcriptome during lactation.

  11. Long-term effects of chronic oral Ritalin administration on cognitive and neural development in adolescent wistar kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Pardey, Margery C; Kumar, Natasha N; Goodchild, Ann K; Clemens, Kelly J; Homewood, Judi; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2012-09-12

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®). With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed "normal" (Wistar Kyoto, WKY) rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day) or distilled water (dH2O). The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT) and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in "normal" WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls.

  12. Opiate antagonist binding sites in discrete brain regions of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmani, N.H.; Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N. )

    1991-01-01

    The binding of {sup 3}H-naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, to membranes of discrete brain regions and spinal cord of 10 week old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was determined. The brain regions examined were hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midbrain and cortex. {sup 3}H-Naltrexone bound to membranes of brain regions and spinal cord at a single high affinity site with an apparent dissociation constant value of 3 nM. The highest density of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding sites were in hippocampus and lowest in the cerebral cortex. The receptor density (B{sub max}value) and apparent dissociation constant (K{sub d} value) values of {sup 3}H-naltrexone to bind to opiate receptors on the membranes of amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midgrain, cortex and spinal cord of WKY and SHR rates did not differ. The B{sub max} value of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding to membranes of hypothalamus of SHR rates was 518% higher than WKY rats but the K{sub d} values in the two strains did not differ. It is concluded that SHR rats have higher density of opiate receptors labeled with {sup 3}H-naltrexone in the hypothalamus only, in comparison with WKY rats, and that such a difference in the density of opiate receptors may be related to the elevated blood pressure in SHR rats.

  13. Pre-bomb marine reservoir ages in the western north Pacific: Preliminary result on Kyoto University collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; van der Plicht, Johannes; Uchida, Masao; Tanaka, Atsushi; Uehiro, Takashi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi; Ohno, Terufumi

    2000-10-01

    The calibration of radiocarbon dates on marine materials involves a global marine calibration with regional corrections. The marine reservoir ages in the Western North Pacific have not been discussed, while it is quite important to determine the timing of palaeo-environmental changes as well as archaeological interpretation around this region. The lack of adequate collection of the pre-bomb shell from western north Pacific was the biggest problem. Recently we had a chance to examine specimens from an old shell collection stored in Kyoto University, including shell specimens from Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Micronesia of 1920s and 1930s. We explored the possibility for usage of specimen without clear evidence of live collection by measuring 30 apparent radiocarbon ages of pre-bomb mollusk shells from 18 sites in Western North Pacific. The preliminary results showed several discrepancies with previously reported results and with each other. We have to carefully select the shell specimen that has biological signs such as articulating fulcrum. In order to exploit this big resource of pre-bomb shell collection, the new technique to distinguish fossils from live collected samples should be developed by using chemical and physical methods.

  14. Chronic imipramine treatment differentially alters the brain and plasma amino acid metabolism in Wistar and Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Mao; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-05

    In the present study, the amino acids which have the possibility for the therapeutic efficacy of imipramine were explored and compared between Wistar Kyoto rats, an animal model of depression, and Wistar rats as a normal model. The antidepressant-like effect caused by chronic imipramine treatment was confirmed by decreased immobility in the forced swimming test. Chronic imipramine administration altered the amino acid dynamics in the brain. In the striatum, the concentrations of asparagine, glutamine and methionine were significantly increased by chronic imipramine administration. In the thalamus and hypothalamus, chronic imipramine administration significantly decreased the valine concentration. On the other hand, no amino acid was altered by chronic imipramine administration in the hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum. In addition, lower concentration of asparagine in the prefrontal cortex of WKY rats was improved by chronic imipramine administration. This amelioration only in WKY rats may be a specific effect of chronic imipramine administration under the depressive state. In conclusion, chronic imipramine administration altered the several amino acid dynamics in the brain. Modification of the amino acid metabolism in the brain may provide a new strategy in the development of therapeutic treatment of major depression.

  15. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Oral Ritalin Administration on Cognitive and Neural Development in Adolescent Wistar Kyoto Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pardey, Margery C.; Kumar, Natasha N.; Goodchild, Ann K.; Clemens, Kelly J.; Homewood, Judi; Cornish, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®). With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed “normal” (Wistar Kyoto, WKY) rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day) or distilled water (dH2O). The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT) and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in “normal” WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls. PMID:24961199

  16. A post-Kyoto partner: Considering the stratospheric ozone regime as a tool to manage nitrous oxide

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, David; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Daniel, John S.; Portmann, Robert W.; Grabiel, Peter M.; Moomaw, William R.; Galloway, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the largest known remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer. However, it is currently only regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol because of its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the ozone regime (the 1985 Vienna Convention and its 1987 Montreal Protocol) should they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues to regulate N2O under the ozone regime as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address the most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to reducing emissions. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built on by the ozone regime to implement N2O controls. There are several challenges and potential cobenefits to N2O control which we discuss here: food security, equity, and implications of the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the ozone regime need not be viewed as a sign of failure of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to adequately deal with climate change. Rather, it could represent an additional valuable tool in sustainable development diplomacy. PMID:23440192

  17. Experimental study on the thorium-loaded accelerator-driven system at the Kyoto Univ. critical assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Pyeon, C. H.; Yagi, T.; Lim, J. Y.; Misawa, T.

    2012-07-01

    The experimental study on the thorium-loaded accelerator-driven system (ADS) is conducted in the Kyoto Univ. Critical Assembly (KUCA). The experiments are carried out in both the critical and subcritical states for attaining the reaction rates of the thorium capture and fission reactions. In the critical system, the thorium plate irradiation experiment is carried out for the thorium capture and fission reactions. From the results of the measurements, the thorium fission reactions are obtained apparently in the critical system, and the C/E values of reaction rates show the accuracy of relative difference of about 30%. In the ADS experiments with 14 MeV neutrons and 100 MeV protons, the subcritical experiments are carried out in the thorium-loaded cores to obtain the capture reaction rates through the measurements of {sup 115}In(n, {gamma}){sup 116m}In reactions. The results of the experiments reveal the difference between the reaction rate distributions for the change in not only the neutron spectrum but also the external neutron source. The comparison between the measured and calculated reaction rate distributions demonstrates a discrepancy of the accuracy of reaction rate analyses of thorium capture reactions through the thorium-loaded ADS experiments with 14 MeV neutrons. Hereafter, kinetic experiments are planned to be carried out to deduce the delayed neutron decay constants and subcriticality using the pulsed neutron method. (authors)

  18. Changes in the use and management of forests for abating carbon emissions: issues and challenges under the Kyoto Protocol.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sandra; Swingland, Ian R; Hanbury-Tenison, Robin; Prance, Ghillean T; Myers, Norman

    2002-08-15

    The global carbon cycle is significantly influenced by changes in the use and management of forests and agriculture. Humans have the potential through changes in land use and management to alter the magnitude of forest-carbon stocks and the direction of forest-carbon fluxes. However, controversy over the use of biological means to absorb or reduce emissions of CO(2) (often referred to as carbon 'sinks') has arisen in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. The controversy is based primarily on two arguments: sinks may allow developed nations to delay or avoid actions to reduce fossil fuel emissions, and the technical and operational difficulties are too threatening to the successful implementation of land use and forestry projects for providing carbon offsets. Here we discuss the importance of including carbon sinks in efforts to address global warming and the consequent additional social, environmental and economic benefits to host countries. Activities in tropical forest lands provide the lowest cost methods both of reducing emissions and reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. We conclude that the various objections raised as to the inclusion of carbon sinks to ameliorate climate change can be addressed by existing techniques and technology. Carbon sinks provide a practical available method of achieving meaningful reductions in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide while at the same time contribute to national sustainable development goals.

  19. Comparison of modified Celsior solution and M-kyoto solution for pancreas preservation in human islet isolation.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hirofumi; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Onaca, Nicholas; Jackson, Andrew; Shimoda, Masayuki; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Yasutaka; Kobayashi, Naoya; Levy, Marlon F; Matsumoto, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    Since the successful demonstration of the Edmonton protocol, islet transplantation has advanced significantly on several fronts, including improved pancreas preservation systems. In this study, we evaluated two different types of organ preservation solutions for human islet isolation. Modified Celsior (Celsior solution with hydroxyethyl starch and nafamostat mesilate; HNC) solution and modified Kyoto (MK) solution were compared for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation. Islet yield after purification was significantly higher in the MK group than in the HNC group (MK = 6186 ± 985 IE/g; HNC = 3091 ± 344 IE/g). The HNC group had a longer phase I period (digestion time), a higher volume of undigested tissue, and a higher percentage of embedded islets, suggesting that the solution may inhibit collagenase. However, there was no significant difference in ATP content in the pancreata or in the attainability of posttransplant normoglycemia in diabetic nude mice between the two groups, suggesting that the quality of islets was similar among the two groups. In conclusion, MK solution is better for pancreas preservation before islet isolation than HNC solution due to the higher percentage of islets that can be isolated from the donor pancreas. MK solution should be the solution of choice among the commercially available solutions for pancreatic islet isolation leading to transplantation.

  20. Brief Social Isolation in the Adolescent Wistar-Kyoto Rat Model of Endogenous Depression Alters Corticosterone and Regional Monoamine Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Reshma A; Sadananda, Monika

    2017-02-24

    The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) model has been suggested as a model of adult and adolescent depression though face, predictive and construct validities of the model to depression remain equivocal. The suitability of the WKY as a diathesis model that tests the double-hit hypothesis, particularly during critical periods of brain and behavioural development remains to be established. Here, effects of post-weaning social isolation were assessed during early adolescence (~30pnd) on behavioural despair and learned helplessness in the forced swim test (FST), plasma corticosterone levels and tissue monoamine concentrations in brain areas critically involved in depression, such as prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, striatum and hippocampus. Significantly increased immobility in the FST was observed in socially-isolated, adolescent WKY with a concomitant increase in corticosterone levels over and above the FST-induced stress. WKY also demonstrated a significantly increased release and utilization of dopamine, as manifested by levels of metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in nucleus accumbens, indicating that the large dopamine storage pool evident during adolescence induces greater dopamine release when stimulated. The serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid was also significantly increased in nucleus accumbens, indicating increased utilization of serotonin, along with norepinephrine levels which were also signficantly elevated in socially-isolated adolescent WKY. Differences in neurochemistry suggest that social or environmental stimuli during critical periods of brain and behavioural development can determine the developmental trajectories of implicated pathways.

  1. The effects of captopril on cardiac regression, blood pressure and bradykinin components in diabetic Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J N; Kesavarao, U

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT), total urinary kallikrein, total plasma kininogen and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. The MABP was significantly raised (P<0.01) in diabetic WKY rats compared to the respective controls. The LVWT was also significantly (P<0.01) increased in diabetic WKY rats than that of control WKY rats. The mean total urinary kallikrein level and the mean total plasma kininogen level were higher (P<0.01) in diabetic WKY rats, when these rats were treated with captopril (40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg) against the mean value obtained from control WKY rats. In conclusion, this investigation suggests that diabetes induced in these rats can cause hypertension, increased LVWT and changes in the BK-forming components. Captopril treatment caused reduction in MABP, regression of LVWT and alterations in bradykinin (BK)-forming components. The possible significance of these observations is discussed.

  2. A post-Kyoto partner: considering the stratospheric ozone regime as a tool to manage nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Kanter, David; Mauzerall, Denise L; Ravishankara, A R; Daniel, John S; Portmann, Robert W; Grabiel, Peter M; Moomaw, William R; Galloway, James N

    2013-03-19

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the largest known remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer. However, it is currently only regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol because of its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the ozone regime (the 1985 Vienna Convention and its 1987 Montreal Protocol) should they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues to regulate N2O under the ozone regime as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address the most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to reducing emissions. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built on by the ozone regime to implement N2O controls. There are several challenges and potential cobenefits to N2O control which we discuss here: food security, equity, and implications of the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the ozone regime need not be viewed as a sign of failure of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to adequately deal with climate change. Rather, it could represent an additional valuable tool in sustainable development diplomacy.

  3. Avoidance perseveration during extinction training in Wistar-Kyoto rats: an interaction of innate vulnerability and stressor intensity.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xilu; Pang, Kevin C H; Beck, Kevin D; Minor, Thomas R; Servatius, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    Given that avoidance is a core feature of anxiety disorders, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats may be a good model of anxiety vulnerability for their hypersensitivity to stress and trait behavioral inhibition. Here, we examined the influence of strain and shock intensity on avoidance acquisition and extinction. Accordingly, we trained WKY and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in lever-press avoidance using either 1.0-mA or 2.0-mA foot-shock. After extinction, neuronal activation was visualized by c-Fos for overall activity and parvalbumin immunoreactivity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neuron in brain areas linked to anxiety (medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala). Consistent with earlier work, WKY rats acquired lever-press avoidance faster and to a greater extent than SD rats. However, the intensity of foot shock did not differentially affect acquisition. Although there were no differences during extinction in SD rats, avoidance responses of WKY rats trained with the higher foot shock perseverated during extinction compared to those WKY rats trained with lower foot shock intensity or SD rats. WKY rats trained with 2.0-mA shock exhibited less GABAergic activation in the basolateral amygdala after extinction. These findings suggest that inhibitory modulation in amygdala is important to ensure successful extinction learning. Deficits in avoidance extinction secondary to lower GABAergic activation in baslolateral amygdala may contribute to anxiety vulnerability in this animal model of inhibited temperament.

  4. Strain Differences in the Expression of Dopamine D1 Receptors in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Andrew; Yaroslavsky, Irene; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz

    2008-01-01

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is a stress-sensitive strain that is prone to depressive-like behavior in various experimental paradigms. While recent work has highlighted a role for dopamine (DA) in the pathology of depression, research on the WKY rat has also suggested that dysfunction of DA pathways may be an important component of the behavior in this strain. Previous work has demonstrated differential patterns of dopamine transporter sites, dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in the WKY rats compared to control strains. To further this work, the present study utilized autoradiographic analysis of [3H]-SCH23390 binding to DA D1 receptors in various brain regions of naïve male WKY and Wistar (WIS) rats. The results revealed a significant strain difference, with WKY rats demonstrating lower D1 binding in the caudate putamen and regions of the nucleus accumbens (p<0.05). An opposite pattern was found in the substantia nigra pars reticulata where D1 binding was higher in WKY rats compared to WIS rats (p<0.05). Because the D1 receptor represents a critical site where DA acts to modify behavior related to depression, the altered expression of this receptor in the WKY rat found in the present study may be reflective of the depressive susceptibility noted in this strain. PMID:18558411

  5. Identifying gaps in the locoregional management of early breast cancer: highlights from the Kyoto Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Toi, Masakazu; Winer, Eric P; Inamoto, Takashi; Benson, John R; Forbes, John F; Mitsumori, Michihide; Robertson, John F R; Sasano, Hironobu; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Yamauchi, Akira; Klimberg, V Suzanne

    2011-10-01

    A consensus conference was held to investigate issues related to the local management of early breast cancer. Here, we highlight the major topics discussed at the conference and propose ideas for future studies. Regarding axillary management, we examined three major issues. First, we discussed whether the use of axillary reverse mapping could clarify the lymphatic system of breast and whether the ipsilateral arm might help avoid lymphedema. Second, the use of an indocyanine green fluorescent navigation system was discussed for intraoperative lymphatic mapping. These new issues should be examined further in practice. Finally, some agreement was reached on the importance of "four-node diagnosis" to aid in the diagnostic accuracy of sentinel nodes. Regarding breast treatment, there was general agreement that the clinical value of surgical margins in predicting local failure was dependent on the tumor's intrinsic biology and subtypes. For patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy, less extensive excision may be feasible in those who respond to systemic therapy in an acceptable manner. Most trials of preoperative chemotherapy lack outcome data on local recurrence. Therefore, there is a need for such data for overview analysis. We also agreed that radiation after mastectomy may be beneficial in node-positive cases where more than four nodes are involved. Throughout the discussions for both invasive and noninvasive disease, the investigation of nomograms was justified for major issues in the decision-making process, such as the presence or absence of microinvasion and the involvement of nonsentinel nodes in sentinel node-positive patients.

  6. The crossroads of anxiety: distinct neurophysiological maps for different symptomatic groups

    PubMed Central

    Gerez, Montserrat; Suárez, Enrique; Serrano, Carlos; Castanedo, Lauro; Tello, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the devastating impact of anxiety disorders (ADs) worldwide, long-lasting debates on causes and remedies have not solved the clinician’s puzzle: who should be treated and how? Psychiatric classifications conceptualize ADs as distinct entities, with strong support from neuroscience fields. Yet, comorbidity and pharmacological response suggest a single “serotonin dysfunction” dimension. Whether AD is one or several disorders goes beyond academic quarrels, and the distinction has therapeutic relevance. Addressing the underlying dysfunctions should improve treatment response. By its own nature, neurophysiology can be the best tool to address dysfunctional processes. Purpose To search for neurophysiological dysfunctions and differences among panic disorder (PD), agoraphobia-social-specific phobia, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized anxiety disorder. Methods A sample population of 192 unmedicated patients and 30 aged-matched controls partook in this study. Hypothesis-related neurophysiological variables were combined into ten independent factors: 1) dysrhythmic patterns, 2) delta, 3) theta, 4) alpha, 5) beta (whole-head absolute power z-scores), 6) event-related potential (ERP) combined latency, 7) ERP combined amplitude (z-scores), 8) magnitude, 9) site, and 10) site of hyperactive networks. Combining single variables into representative factors was necessary because, as in all real-life phenomena, the complexity of interactive processes cannot be addressed through single variables and the multiplicity of potentially implicated variables would demand an extremely large sample size for statistical analysis. Results The nonparametric analysis correctly classified 81% of the sample. Dysrhythmic patterns, decreased delta, and increased beta differentiated AD from controls. Shorter ERP latencies were found in several individual patients, mostly from the OCD group. Hyperactivities were found at the right frontorbital

  7. Relevance of a Neurophysiological Marker of Attention Allocation for Children's Learning-Related Behaviors and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, Cynthia J.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Bierman, Karen L.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2015-01-01

    Learning-related behaviors are important for school success. Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for less adaptive learning-related behaviors at school entry, yet substantial variability in school readiness exists within socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Investigation of neurophysiological systems associated with learning-related…

  8. Do foreign direct investment and renewable energy consumption affect the CO2 emissions? New evidence from a panel ARDL approach to Kyoto Annex countries.

    PubMed

    Mert, Mehmet; Bölük, Gülden

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) and the potential of renewable energy consumption on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in 21 Kyoto countries using an unbalanced panel data. For this purpose, Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis was tested using panel cointegration analysis. Panel causality tests show that there are significant long-run causalities from the variables to carbon emissions, renewable energy consumption, fossil fuel energy consumption and inflow foreign direct investments. The results of our model support the pollution haloes hypothesis which states that FDI brings in clean technology and improves the environmental standards. However, an inverted U-shaped relationship (EKC) was not supported by the estimated model for the 21 Kyoto countries. This means that economic growth cannot ensure environmental protection itself or environmental goals cannot await economic growth. Another important finding is that renewable energy consumption decreases carbon emissions. Based on the empirical results, some important policy implications emerge. Kyoto countries should stimulate the FDI inflows and usage of renewable energy consumption to mitigate the air pollution and meet the emission targets. This paper provides new insights into environment and energy policies through FDI inclusion.

  9. Structural bases for neurophysiological investigations of amygdaloid complex of the brain.

    PubMed

    Kalimullina, Liliya B; Kalkamanov, Kh A; Akhmadeev, Azat V; Zakharov, Vadim P; Sharafullin, Ildus F

    2015-11-26

    Amygdala (Am) as a part of limbic system of the brain defines such important functions as adaptive behavior of animals, formation of emotions and memory, regulation of endocrine and visceral functions. We worked out, with the help of mathematic modelling of the pattern recognition theory, principles for organization of neurophysiological and neuromorphological studies of Am nuclei, which take into account the existing heterogeneity of its formations and optimize, to a great extent, the protocol for carrying out of such investigations. The given scheme of studies of Am's structural-functional organization at its highly-informative sections can be used as a guide for precise placement of electrodes', cannulae's and microsensors into particular Am nucleus in the brain with the registration not only the nucleus itself, but also its extensions. This information is also important for defining the number of slices covering specific Am nuclei which must be investigated to reveal the physiological role of a particular part of amygdaloid complex.

  10. Keep your eyes on development: the behavioral and neurophysiological development of visual mechanisms underlying form processing.

    PubMed

    van den Boomen, C; van der Smagt, M J; Kemner, C

    2012-01-01

    Visual form perception is essential for correct interpretation of, and interaction with, our environment. Form perception depends on visual acuity and processing of specific form characteristics, such as luminance contrast, spatial frequency, color, orientation, depth, and even motion information. As other cognitive processes, form perception matures with age. This paper aims at providing a concise overview of our current understanding of the typical development, from birth to adulthood, of form-characteristic processing, as measured both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Two main conclusions can be drawn. First, the current literature conveys that for most reviewed characteristics a developmental pattern is apparent. These trajectories are discussed in relation to the organization of the visual system. The second conclusion is that significant gaps in the literature exist for several age-ranges. To complete our understanding of the typical and, by consequence, atypical development of visual mechanisms underlying form processing, future research should uncover these missing segments.

  11. Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring for Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches to the Skull Base: A Technical Guide

    PubMed Central

    Lober, Robert M.; Doan, Adam T.; Matsumoto, Craig I.; Kenning, Tyler J.; Evans, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during endoscopic, endonasal approaches to the skull base is both feasible and safe. Numerous reports have recently emerged from the literature evaluating the efficacy of different neuromonitoring tests during endonasal procedures, making them relatively well-studied. The authors report on a comprehensive, multimodality approach to monitoring the functional integrity of at risk nervous system structures, including the cerebral cortex, brainstem, cranial nerves, corticospinal tract, corticobulbar tract, and the thalamocortical somatosensory system during endonasal surgery of the skull base. The modalities employed include electroencephalography, somatosensory evoked potentials, free-running and electrically triggered electromyography, transcranial electric motor evoked potentials, and auditory evoked potentials. Methodological considerations as well as benefits and limitations are discussed. The authors argue that, while individual modalities have their limitations, multimodality neuromonitoring provides a real-time, comprehensive assessment of nervous system function and allows for safer, more aggressive management of skull base tumors via the endonasal route. PMID:27293965

  12. Hippocampal Neurophysiologic Changes after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Potential Neuromodulation Treatment Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Girgis, Fady; Pace, Jonathan; Sweet, Jennifer; Miller, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in individuals below age 45, and five million Americans live with chronic disability as a result. Mild TBI (mTBI), defined as TBI in the absence of major imaging or histopathological defects, is responsible for a majority of cases. Despite the lack of overt morphological defects, victims of mTBI frequently suffer lasting cognitive deficits, memory difficulties, and behavioral disturbances. There is increasing evidence that cognitive and memory dysfunction is related to subtle physiological changes that occur in the hippocampus, and these impact both the phenotype of deficits observed and subsequent recovery. Therapeutic modulation of physiological activity by means of medications commonly used for other indications or brain stimulation may represent novel treatment approaches. This review summarizes the present body of knowledge regarding neurophysiologic changes that occur in the hippocampus after mTBI, as well as potential targets for therapeutic modulation of neurologic activity. PMID:26903824

  13. How to assess the corollary discharge in humans using non-invasive neurophysiological methods

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Judith M; Roach, Brian J.; Mathalon, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY We present a vocal production protocol for studying the neurophysiological action of the corollary discharge, a mechanism that allows animals to ignore sensations resulting from their own actions, and tag them as “self”. EEG is recorded while subjects say “ah”, about 100 times, with minimal throat, jaw, and tongue movements (Talk condition). This sequence of sounds is recorded and played back during the Listen condition. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are synchronized to the onset of speech sounds during the Talk and Listen conditions. Neural responses from auditory cortex to the spoken sound as it is being spoken during the Talk are compared to the neural responses to the same sounds when played back during the Listen condition. The successful action of the corollary discharge is seen when the response of auditory cortex is suppressed during the Talk compared to the Listen condition. The protocol takes about 5 minutes to complete. PMID:20539291

  14. A Multimodal, SU-8 - Platinum - Polyimide Microelectrode Array for Chronic In Vivo Neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Márton, Gergely; Orbán, Gábor; Kiss, Marcell; Fiáth, Richárd; Pongrácz, Anita; Ulbert, István

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of polymers as insulator and bulk materials of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) makes the realization of flexible, biocompatible sensors possible, which are suitable for various neurophysiological experiments such as in vivo detection of local field potential changes on the surface of the neocortex or unit activities within the brain tissue. In this paper the microfabrication of a novel, all-flexible, polymer-based MEA is presented. The device consists of a three dimensional sensor configuration with an implantable depth electrode array and brain surface electrodes, allowing the recording of electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals with laminar ones, simultaneously. In vivo recordings were performed in anesthetized rat brain to test the functionality of the device under both acute and chronic conditions. The ECoG electrodes recorded slow-wave thalamocortical oscillations, while the implanted component provided high quality depth recordings. The implants remained viable for detecting action potentials of individual neurons for at least 15 weeks. PMID:26683306

  15. [Anesthetic and physiologic implications of neurophysiologic monitoring with evoked potentials during spinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Valverde Junguito, J L; Aldana Díaz, E M; Pérez Lorensu, P J; González Miranda, F

    2007-04-01

    Neurophysiologic monitoring with somatosensory and motor evoked potentials in spinal surgery is now widely applied in order to reduce the risk of neural injury and facilitate intraoperative decision making. Most anesthetics affect such monitoring by altering both somatosensory and motor evoked responses and these effects may place constraints on the choice of anesthetic. Intraoperative management includes maintaining stable physiologic conditions, which involves adjusting hemodynamic parameters, maintaining normal blood flow to promote proper oxygen exchange, ensuring proper ventilation, and avoiding variations in temperature. Close collaboration between the anesthetist, the surgeon, and the neurophysiologist will ensure the success of intraoperative monitoring and make it possible to avoid neural injury by making timely changes in the surgical approach.

  16. The origin, and application of somatosensory evoked potentials as a neurophysiological technique to investigate neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Passmore, Steven R; Murphy, Bernadette; Lee, Timothy D

    2014-06-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentionals (SEPs) can be used to elucidate differences in cortical activity associated with a spinal manipulation (SM) intervention. The purpose of this narrative review is to overview the origin and application of SEPs, a neurophysiological technique to investigate neuroplasticity. Summaries of: 1) parameters for SEP generation and waveform recording; 2) SEP peak nomenclature, interpretation and generators; 3) peaks pertaining to tactile information processing (relevant to both chiropractic and other manual therapies); 4) utilization and application of SEPs; 5) SEPs concurrent with an experimental task and at baseline/control/pretest; 6) SEPs pain studies; and 7) SEPs design (pre/post) and neural reorganization/neuroplasticity; and 8) SEPs and future chiropractic research are all reviewed. Understanding what SEPs are, and their application allows chiropractors, educators, and other manual therapists interested in SM to understand the context, and importance of research findings from SM studies that involve SEPs.

  17. NEUROLAB, a comprehensive program for the analysis of neurophysiological and behavioural data.

    PubMed

    Hedwig, B; Knepper, M

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive and versatile computer software for IBM-compatible microcomputers has been developed. It is designed for quantitative off-line analysis of A/D-sampled intracellular or extracellular recordings and behavioural or stimulus data. The program works with single files or file sets. It supports data to be viewed on the monitor and allows sectioning of interesting data for common analysis. It offers 19 filters/operators for data processing and comprehensive possibilities to set and calculate trigger points. Data of trigger points can be exported as ASCII files. Standard neurophysiological histograms like interval-, PST-, phase histograms or auto- and cross-correlograms can be obtained. Time-dependent and phase-dependent averaging is possible for all original and filtered data. All graphical output on the display can directly be copied to a plotter/laser printer or HP-GL file by keyboard commands.

  18. Repeated sugammadex reversal of muscle relaxation during lumbar spine surgery with intraoperative neurophysiological multimodal monitoring.

    PubMed

    Errando, C L; Blanco, T; Díaz-Cambronero, Ó

    2016-11-01

    Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during spine surgery is usually acomplished avoiding muscle relaxants. A case of intraoperative sugammadex partial reversal of the neuromuscular blockade allowing adequate monitoring during spine surgery is presented. A 38 year-old man was scheduled for discectomy and vertebral arthrodesis throughout anterior and posterior approaches. Anesthesia consisted of total intravenous anesthesia plus rocuronium. Intraoperatively monitoring was needed, and the muscle relaxant reverted twice with low dose sugammadex in order to obtain adequate responses. The doses of sugammadex used were conservatively selected (0.1mg/kg boluses increases, total dose needed 0.4mg/kg). Both motor evoqued potentials, and electromyographic responses were deemed adequate by the neurophysiologist. If muscle relaxation was needed in the context described, this approach could be useful to prevent neurological sequelae. This is the first study using very low dose sugammadex to reverse rocuronium intraoperatively and to re-establish the neuromuscular blockade.

  19. Fabrication of nanoelectrodes for neurophysiology: cathodic electrophoretic paint insulation and focused ion beam milling

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yi; Chen, Jie; Guo, Xiaoli; Cantrell, Donald; Ruoff, Rodney; Troy, John

    2005-01-01

    The fabrication and characterization of tungsten nanoelectrodes insulated with cathodic electrophoretic paint is described together with their application within the field of neurophysiology. The tip of a 127 μm diameter tungsten wire was etched down to less than 100 nm and then insulated with cathodic electrophoretic paint. Focused ion beam (FIB) polishing was employed to remove the insulation at the electrode’s apex, leaving a nanoscale sized conductive tip of 100–1000 nm. The nanoelectrodes were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their electrochemical properties characterized by steady state linear sweep voltammetry. Electrode impedance at 1 kHz was measured too. The ability of a 700 nm tipped electrode to record well-isolated action potentials extracellularly from single visual neurons in vivo was demonstrated. Such electrodes have the potential to open new populations of neurons to study. PMID:16467926

  20. Targeting the neurophysiology of cognitive systems with transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS)

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Flavio; Sellers, Kristin K.; Cordle, Asa L.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment represents one of the most debilitating and most difficult symptom to treat of many psychiatric illnesses. Human neurophysiology studies have suggested specific pathologies of cortical network activity correlate with cognitive impairment. However, we lack (1) demonstration of causal relationships between specific network activity patterns and cognitive capabilities and (2) treatment modalities that directly target impaired network dynamics of cognition. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), a novel non-invasive brain stimulation approach, may provide a crucial tool to tackle these challenges. We here propose that tACS can be used to elucidate the causal role of cortical synchronization in cognition and, eventually, to enhance pathologically weakened synchrony that may underlie cognitive deficits. To accelerate such development of tACS as a treatment for cognitive deficits, we discuss studies on tACS and cognition (all performed in healthy participants) according to the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) of the National Institute of Mental Health. PMID:25547149

  1. The neurophysiological bases of EEG and EEG measurement: a review for the rest of us.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Alice F; Bolger, Donald J

    2014-11-01

    A thorough understanding of the EEG signal and its measurement is necessary to produce high quality data and to draw accurate conclusions from those data. However, publications that discuss relevant topics are written for divergent audiences with specific levels of expertise: explanations are either at an abstract level that leaves readers with a fuzzy understanding of the electrophysiology involved, or are at a technical level that requires mastery of the relevant physics to understand. A clear, comprehensive review of the origin and measurement of EEG that bridges these high and low levels of explanation fills a critical gap in the literature and is necessary for promoting better research practices and peer review. The present paper addresses the neurophysiological source of EEG, propagation of the EEG signal, technical aspects of EEG measurement, and implications for interpretation of EEG data.

  2. Effect of peppermint and eucalyptus oil preparations on neurophysiological and experimental algesimetric headache parameters.

    PubMed

    Göbel, H; Schmidt, G; Soyka, D

    1994-06-01

    The effects of peppermint oil and eucalyptus oil preparations on neurophysiological, psychological and experimental algesimetric parameters were investigated in 32 healthy subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over design. Four different test preparations were applied to large areas of the forehead and temples using a small sponge and their effect was evaluated by comparing baseline and treatment measure. The combination of peppermint oil, eucalyptus oil and ethanol increased cognitive performance and had a muscle-relaxing and mentally relaxing effect, but had little influence on pain sensitivity. A significant analgesic effect with a reduction in sensitivity to headache was produced by a combination of peppermint oil and ethanol. The essential plant oil preparations often used in empiric medicine can thus be shown by laboratory tests to exert significant effects on mechanisms associated with the pathophysiology of headache.

  3. Targeting the neurophysiology of cognitive systems with transcranial alternating current stimulation.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Flavio; Sellers, Kristin K; Cordle, Asa L

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive impairment represents one of the most debilitating and most difficult symptom to treat of many psychiatric illnesses. Human neurophysiology studies have suggested that specific pathologies of cortical network activity correlate with cognitive impairment. However, we lack demonstration of causal relationships between specific network activity patterns and cognitive capabilities and treatment modalities that directly target impaired network dynamics of cognition. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), a novel non-invasive brain stimulation approach, may provide a crucial tool to tackle these challenges. Here, we propose that tACS can be used to elucidate the causal role of cortical synchronization in cognition and, eventually, to enhance pathologically weakened synchrony that may underlie cognitive deficits. To accelerate such development of tACS as a treatment for cognitive deficits, we discuss studies on tACS and cognition performed in healthy participants, according to the Research Domain Criteria of the National Institute of Mental Health.

  4. High-speed imaging reveals neurophysiological links to behavior in an animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Airan, Raag D; Meltzer, Leslie A; Roy, Madhuri; Gong, Yuqing; Chen, Han; Deisseroth, Karl

    2007-08-10

    The hippocampus is one of several brain areas thought to play a central role in affective behaviors, but the underlying local network dynamics are not understood. We used quantitative voltage-sensitive dye imaging to probe hippocampal dynamics with millisecond resolution in brain slices after bidirectional modulation of affective state in rat models of depression. We found that a simple measure of real-time activity-stimulus-evoked percolation of activity through the dentate gyrus relative to the hippocampal output subfield-accounted for induced changes in animal behavior independent of the underlying mechanism of action of the treatments. Our results define a circuit-level neurophysiological endophenotype for affective behavior and suggest an approach to understanding circuit-level substrates underlying psychiatric disease symptoms.

  5. The origin, and application of somatosensory evoked potentials as a neurophysiological technique to investigate neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Passmore, Steven R.; Murphy, Bernadette; Lee, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentionals (SEPs) can be used to elucidate differences in cortical activity associated with a spinal manipulation (SM) intervention. The purpose of this narrative review is to overview the origin and application of SEPs, a neurophysiological technique to investigate neuroplasticity. Summaries of: 1) parameters for SEP generation and waveform recording; 2) SEP peak nomenclature, interpretation and generators; 3) peaks pertaining to tactile information processing (relevant to both chiropractic and other manual therapies); 4) utilization and application of SEPs; 5) SEPs concurrent with an experimental task and at baseline/control/pretest; 6) SEPs pain studies; and 7) SEPs design (pre/post) and neural reorganization/neuroplasticity; and 8) SEPs and future chiropractic research are all reviewed. Understanding what SEPs are, and their application allows chiropractors, educators, and other manual therapists interested in SM to understand the context, and importance of research findings from SM studies that involve SEPs. PMID:24932021

  6. Predicting Mental Imagery-Based BCI Performance from Personality, Cognitive Profile and Neurophysiological Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jeunet, Camille; N’Kaoua, Bernard; Subramanian, Sriram; Hachet, Martin; Lotte, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Mental-Imagery based Brain-Computer Interfaces (MI-BCIs) allow their users to send commands to a computer using their brain-activity alone (typically measured by ElectroEncephaloGraphy—EEG), which is processed while they perform specific mental tasks. While very promising, MI-BCIs remain barely used outside laboratories because of the difficulty encountered by users to control them. Indeed, although some users obtain good control performances after training, a substantial proportion remains unable to reliably control an MI-BCI. This huge variability in user-performance led the community to look for predictors of MI-BCI control ability. However, these predictors were only explored for motor-imagery based BCIs, and mostly for a single training session per subject. In this study, 18 participants were instructed to learn to control an EEG-based MI-BCI by performing 3 MI-tasks, 2 of which were non-motor tasks, across 6 training sessions, on 6 different days. Relationships between the participants’ BCI control performances and their personality, cognitive profile and neurophysiological markers were explored. While no relevant relationships with neurophysiological markers were found, strong correlations between MI-BCI performances and mental-rotation scores (reflecting spatial abilities) were revealed. Also, a predictive model of MI-BCI performance based on psychometric questionnaire scores was proposed. A leave-one-subject-out cross validation process revealed the stability and reliability of this model: it enabled to predict participants’ performance with a mean error of less than 3 points. This study determined how users’ profiles impact their MI-BCI control ability and thus clears the way for designing novel MI-BCI training protocols, adapted to the profile of each user. PMID:26625261

  7. Gravity and Neuronal Adaptation. Neurophysiology of Reflexes from Hypo- to Hypergravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Krause, Anne; Freyler, Kathrin; Gollhofer, Albert

    2017-02-01

    Introduction: For interplanetary and orbital missions in human space flight, knowledge about the gravity-sensitivity of the central nervous system (CNS) is required. The objective of this study was to assess neurophysiological correlates in variable hetero gravity conditions in regard to their timing and shaping. Methods: In ten subjects, peripheral nerve stimulation was used to elicit H-reflexes and M-waves in the M. soleus in Lunar, Martian, Earth and hypergravity. Gravity-dependencies were described by means of reflex latency, inter-peak-interval, duration, stimulation threshold and maximal amplitudes. Experiments were executed during the CNES/ESA/DLR JEPPFs. Results: H-reflex latency, inter-peak-interval and duration decreased with increasing gravitation (P<0.05); likewise, M-wave inter-peak-interval was diminished and latency prolonged with increasing gravity (P<0.05). Stimulation threshold of H-reflexes and M-waves decreased (P<0.05) while maximal amplitudes increased with an increase in gravitation (P<0.05). Conclusion: Adaptations in neurophysiological correlates in hetero gravity are associated with a shift in timing and shaping. For the first time, our results indicate that synaptic and axonal nerve conduction velocity as well as axonal and spinal excitability are diminished with reduced gravitational forces on the Moon and Mars and gradually increased when gravitation is progressively augmented up to hypergravity. Interrelated with the adaptation in threshold we conclude that neuronal circuitries are significantly affected by gravitation. As a consequence, movement control and countermeasures may be biased in extended space missions involving transitions between different force environments.

  8. The Impact of Moderate Sleep Loss on Neurophysiologic Signals during Working-Memory Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael E.; McEvoy, Linda K.; Gevins, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Study Objectives This study examined how sleep loss affects neurophysiologic signals related to attention and working memory. Design Subjective sleepiness, resting-state electroencephalogram, and behavior and electroencephalogram during performance of working-memory tasks were recorded in a within-subject, repeated-measures design. Setting Data collection occurred in a computerized laboratory setting. Participants Sixteen healthy adults (mean age, 26 years; 8 female) Interventions Data from alert daytime baseline tests were compared with data from tests during a late-night, extended-wakefulness session that spanned up to 21 hours of sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results Alertness measured both subjectively and electrophysiologically decreased monotonically with increasing sleep deprivation. A lack of alertness-related changes in electroencephalographic measures of the overall mental effort exerted during task execution indicated that participants attempted to maintain high levels of performance throughout the late-night tests. Despite such continued effort, responses became slower, more variable, and more error prone within 1 hour after participants' normal time of sleep onset. This behavior failure was accompanied by significant degradation of event-related brain potentials related to the transient focusing of attention. Conclusions Moderate sleep loss compromises the function of neural circuits critical to subsecond attention allocation during working-memory tasks, even when an effort is made to maintain wakefulness and performance. Multivariate analyses indicate that combinations of working-memory-related behavior and neurophysiologic measures can be sensitive enough to permit reliable detection of such effects of sleep loss in individuals. Similar methods might prove useful for assessment of functional alertness in patients with sleep disorders. PMID:12405615

  9. Gravity and Neuronal Adaptation - Neurophysiology of Reflexes from Hypo- to Hypergravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Krause, Anne; Freyler, Kathrin; Gollhofer, Albert

    2016-10-01

    Introduction: For interplanetary and orbital missions in human space flight, knowledge about the gravity-sensitivity of the central nervous system (CNS) is required. The objective of this study was to assess neurophysiological correlates in variable hetero gravity conditions in regard to their timing and shaping. Methods: In ten subjects, peripheral nerve stimulation was used to elicit H-reflexes and M-waves in the M. soleus in Lunar, Martian, Earth and hypergravity. Gravity-dependencies were described by means of reflex latency, inter-peak-interval, duration, stimulation threshold and maximal amplitudes. Experiments were executed during the CNES/ESA/DLR JEPPFs. Results: H-reflex latency, inter-peak-interval and duration decreased with increasing gravitation (P<0.05); likewise, M-wave inter-peak-interval was diminished and latency prolonged with increasing gravity (P<0.05). Stimulation threshold of H-reflexes and M-waves decreased (P<0.05) while maximal amplitudes increased with an increase in gravitation (P<0.05). Conclusion: Adaptations in neurophysiological correlates in hetero gravity are associated with a shift in timing and shaping. For the first time, our results indicate that synaptic and axonal nerve conduction velocity as well as axonal and spinal excitability are diminished with reduced gravitational forces on the Moon and Mars and gradually increased when gravitation is progressively augmented up to hypergravity. Interrelated with the adaptation in threshold we conclude that neuronal circuitries are significantly affected by gravitation. As a consequence, movement control and countermeasures may be biased in extended space missions involving transitions between different force environments.

  10. Predicting Mental Imagery-Based BCI Performance from Personality, Cognitive Profile and Neurophysiological Patterns.

    PubMed

    Jeunet, Camille; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Subramanian, Sriram; Hachet, Martin; Lotte, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Mental-Imagery based Brain-Computer Interfaces (MI-BCIs) allow their users to send commands to a computer using their brain-activity alone (typically measured by ElectroEncephaloGraphy-EEG), which is processed while they perform specific mental tasks. While very promising, MI-BCIs remain barely used outside laboratories because of the difficulty encountered by users to control them. Indeed, although some users obtain good control performances after training, a substantial proportion remains unable to reliably control an MI-BCI. This huge variability in user-performance led the community to look for predictors of MI-BCI control ability. However, these predictors were only explored for motor-imagery based BCIs, and mostly for a single training session per subject. In this study, 18 participants were instructed to learn to control an EEG-based MI-BCI by performing 3 MI-tasks, 2 of which were non-motor tasks, across 6 training sessions, on 6 different days. Relationships between the participants' BCI control performances and their personality, cognitive profile and neurophysiological markers were explored. While no relevant relationships with neurophysiological markers were found, strong correlations between MI-BCI performances and mental-rotation scores (reflecting spatial abilities) were revealed. Also, a predictive model of MI-BCI performance based on psychometric questionnaire scores was proposed. A leave-one-subject-out cross validation process revealed the stability and reliability of this model: it enabled to predict participants' performance with a mean error of less than 3 points. This study determined how users' profiles impact their MI-BCI control ability and thus clears the way for designing novel MI-BCI training protocols, adapted to the profile of each user.

  11. Behavioural and neurophysiological evidence for face identity and face emotion processing in animals

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Andrew J; Fischer, Hanno; Leigh, Andrea E; Kendrick, Keith M

    2006-01-01

    Visual cues from faces provide important social information relating to individual identity, sexual attraction and emotional state. Behavioural and neurophysiological studies on both monkeys and sheep have shown that specialized skills and neural systems for processing these complex cues to guide behaviour have evolved in a number of mammals and are not present exclusively in humans. Indeed, there are remarkable similarities in the ways that faces are processed by the brain in humans and other mammalian species. While human studies with brain imaging and gross neurophysiological recording approaches have revealed global aspects of the face-processing network, they cannot investigate how information is encoded by specific neural networks. Single neuron electrophysiological recording approaches in both monkeys and sheep have, however, provided some insights into the neural encoding principles involved and, particularly, the presence of a remarkable degree of high-level encoding even at the level of a specific face. Recent developments that allow simultaneous recordings to be made from many hundreds of individual neurons are also beginning to reveal evidence for global aspects of a population-based code. This review will summarize what we have learned so far from these animal-based studies about the way the mammalian brain processes the faces and the emotions they can communicate, as well as associated capacities such as how identity and emotion cues are dissociated and how face imagery might be generated. It will also try to highlight what questions and advances in knowledge still challenge us in order to provide a complete understanding of just how brain networks perform this complex and important social recognition task. PMID:17118930

  12. Multiple Frequency Audio Signal Communication as a Mechanism for Neurophysiology and Video Data Synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Topper, Nicholas C.; Burke, S.N.; Maurer, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Current methods for aligning neurophysiology and video data are either prepackaged, requiring the additional purchase of a software suite, or use a blinking LED with a stationary pulse-width and frequency. These methods lack significant user interface for adaptation, are expensive, or risk a misalignment of the two data streams. NEW METHOD A cost-effective means to obtain high-precision alignment of behavioral and neurophysiological data is obtained by generating an audio-pulse embedded with two domains of information, a low-frequency binary-counting signal and a high, randomly changing frequency. This enabled the derivation of temporal information while maintaining enough entropy in the system for algorithmic alignment. RESULTS The sample to frame index constructed using the audio input correlation method described in this paper enables video and data acquisition to be aligned at a sub-frame level of precision. COMPARISONS WITH EXISTING METHOD Traditionally, a synchrony pulse is recorded on-screen via a flashing diode. The higher sampling rate of the audio input of the camcorder enables the timing of an event to be detected with greater precision. CONCLUSIONS While On-line analysis and synchronization using specialized equipment may be the ideal situation in some cases, the method presented in the current paper presents a viable, low cost alternative, and gives the flexibility to interface with custom off-line analysis tools. Moreover, the ease of constructing and implements this set-up presented in the current paper makes it applicable to a wide variety of applications that require video recording. PMID:25256648

  13. Neurophysiological activity underlying altered brain metabolism in epileptic encephalopathies with CSWS.

    PubMed

    De Tiège, Xavier; Trotta, Nicola; Op de Beeck, Marc; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Marty, Brice; Wens, Vincent; Nonclercq, Antoine; Goldman, Serge; Van Bogaert, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the neurophysiological correlate of altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism observed in children with epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-waves during sleep (CSWS) by using a multimodal approach combining time-sensitive magnetic source imaging (MSI) and positron emission tomography with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET). Six patients (4 boys and 2 girls, age range: 4-8 years, 3 patients with Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), 3 patients with atypical rolandic epilepsy (ARE)) were investigated by FDG-PET and MSI at the acute phase of CSWS. In all patients, the onset(s) of spike-waves discharges were associated with significant focal hypermetabolism. The propagation of epileptic discharges to other brain areas was associated with focal hypermetabolism (five patients), hypometabolism (one patient) or the absence of any significant metabolic change (one patient). Interestingly, most of the hypometabolic areas were not involved in the epileptic network per se. This study shows that focal hypermetabolism observed at the acute phase of CSWS are related to the onset or propagation sites of spike-wave discharges. Spike-wave discharges propagation can be associated to other types of metabolic changes, suggesting the occurrence of various neurophysiological mechanisms at the cellular level. Most of the hypometabolic areas are not involved in the epileptic network as such and are probably related to a mechanism of remote inhibition. These findings highlight the critical value of combining FDG-PET with time-sensitive functional neuroimaging approaches such as MSI to assess CSWS epileptic network when surgery is considered as a therapeutic approach.

  14. Cognitive impairments in patients with first episode psychosis: The relationship between neurophysiological and neuropsychological assessments.

    PubMed

    Morales-Muñoz, Isabel; Jurado-Barba, Rosa; Fernández-Guinea, Sara; Álvarez-Alonso, María José; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Roberto; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Angel; Rubio, Gabriel

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have been widely reported. Neurophysiological and neuropsychological assessments have been conducted to study these impairments. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are relevant markers of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, and reductions in specific ERP components have been found. The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was developed to obtain a consensus battery for the assessment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Here, we aimed to study modulations of several ERP components in first episode psychosis (FEP). We also examined neuropsychological deficits using the MCCB, and correlations between ERP and MCCB impairments. Thirty-eight FEP patients were compared to thirty-eight healthy controls. The following ERP components were examined: P1, N1, MMN, P2, early-P3 and late-P3. We used an auditory three-stimulus oddball paradigm, with standard (60%), target (20%) and distractor (20%) stimuli. FEP patients showed significantly lower amplitudes of P2, early-P3 and late-P3 components. FEP patients also showed significant deficits in all the MCCB cognitive domains. Finally, correlational analyses found strong associations between amplitudes of P2, early-P3 and late-P3 components and MCCB tests for attention and speed of processing. These findings indicate that deficits in late auditory ERP components are present in FEP, whereas early components are preserved. These reductions in late ERP components were related to attentional deficits in FEP as assessed by MCCB. These findings indicate that MCCB is a valid battery for studying cognitive impairments in the initial stages of schizophrenia, and highlight the utility of converging neurophysiological and neuropsychological measures to examine attentional impairments in schizophrenia.

  15. Leg Regrowth in Blaberus discoidalis (Discoid Cockroach) following Limb Autotomy versus Limb Severance and Relevance to Neurophysiology Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Marzullo, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many insects can regenerate limbs, but less is known about the regrowth process with regard to limb injury type. As part of our neurophysiology education experiments involving the removal of a cockroach leg, 1) the ability of Blaberus discoidalis cockroaches to regenerate a metathoracic leg was examined following autotomy at the femur/trochanter joint versus severance via a transverse coxa-cut, and 2) the neurophysiology of the detached legs with regard to leg removal type was studied by measuring spike firing rate and microstimulation movement thresholds. Leg Regrowth Results First appearance of leg regrowth was after 5 weeks in the autotomy group and 12 weeks in the coxa-cut group. Moreover, regenerated legs in the autotomy group were 72% of full size on first appearance, significantly larger (p<0.05) than coxa-cut legs (29% of full size at first appearance). Regenerated legs in both groups grew in size with each subsequent molt; the autotomy-removed legs grew to full size within 18 weeks, whereas coxa-cut legs took longer than 28 weeks to regrow. Removal of the metathoracic leg in both conditions did not have an effect on mortality compared to matched controls with unmolested legs. Neurophysiology Results Autotomy-removed legs had lower spontaneous firing rates, similar marked increased firing rates upon tactile manipulation of tibial barbs, and a 10% higher electrical microstimulation threshold for movement. Summary It is recommended that neurophysiology experiments on cockroach legs remove the limb at autotomy joints instead of coxa cuts, as the leg regenerates significantly faster when autotomized and does not detract from the neurophysiology educational content. PMID:26824931

  16. Effects of Bay K 8644 in aorta from spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto rats of different ages.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M C; Salaices, M; Ponte, A; Alonso, M J; Sánchez-Ferrer, C F; Marín, J

    1995-08-01

    1. The Ca(2+)-channel agonist, Bay K 8644, induced small contractions in aortae from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats of 5-week-, 3-month-, 1-year- and 1.5-year-old, which were unaltered with age. These contractions were increased by partial depolarization with 15 mM K+. 2. In segments from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the contractions obtained in both situations were similar and equivalent to those observed in segments from normotensive animals partially depolarized. Responses to Bay K 8644 were modified by age only in tissues from the SHR, the responses to this agent in basal conditions being increased in tissues from 3-month- and 1-year-old animals and depressed in those from 1.5-year SHR. 3. A reduction of the response to Bay K 8644 was observed in partial depolarized endothelium denuded segments from WKY of all ages, and no modification in basal situation. However, the direct contractions induced by Bay K 8644 in aortae from 3-month- and 1.5-year-old SHR were reduced by endothelium removal. 4. These results suggest that: (a) in the hypertensive strain the voltage-gated Ca2+ channels seem to be partially activated; (b) the direct contractions induced by Bay K 8644 were unaltered by age in aortae from WKY but increased in tissues from SHR of 3-month-and-1-year old and depressed in those from 1.5 years, and (c) the contractions evoked by Bay K 8644 seem to involve an endothelium-derived contracting factor in aortae from both strains, or the endothelium produces a partial depolarization of vascular smooth muscle that increases the responsiveness to Bay K 8644.

  17. Influence of age on the relaxation induced by nifedipine in aorta from spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M C; Salaices, M; Arribas, S; Sánchez-Ferrer, C F; Marín, J

    1995-10-01

    1. Nifedipine induces relaxation in aortic segments from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of 5-week-, 3-month-, 6-month- and 1.5-year-old precontracted with 50 mM K+ or 0.1 microM noradrenaline (NA). 2. In WKY rat segments precontracted with K+, nifedipine relaxation was reduced at 1.5 years. However, in SHR segments, the greatest relaxation was observed at 1.5 years. The relaxation elicited by nifedipine in segments from WKY of 6-month and 1.5-year-old precontracted with NA was higher than that reached at 5-week- and 3-month-old. However, the relaxation induced in SHR of 6-month and 1.5-year-old was only higher than that obtained at 5-week-old. 3. Relaxations elicited by nifedipine in segments from WKY precontracted with K+ were smaller than those observed in age-matched SHR segments. 4. The endothelium positively and negatively modulates the relaxation to nifedipine in segments from SHR and WKY rats of different ages precontracted with K+, respectively. However, in segments of both strain precontracted with NA, endothelium removal did not alter the relaxations obtained at different ages. 5. These results suggest that the relaxation elicited by nifedipine: (1) depends on the strain, with a tendency to be greater in the hypertensive strain; (2) is negatively and positively modulated by endothelium in WKY and SHR, respectively, and (3) is influenced by age, and this influence depends on both the contractile agent and the strain.

  18. /sup 22/Na+ and /sup 86/Rb+ transport in vascular smooth muscle of SHR, Wistar Kyoto, and Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriyama, S.; Denny, T.N.; Aviv, A.

    1988-06-01

    To gain further insight into differences in cellular Na+ and K+ regulation between the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and American Wistar (W) rats, 22Na+ and 86Rb+ washouts were performed under steady-state conditions in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from the three rat strains. SHR vascular smooth muscle cells showed significantly higher bumetanide sensitive 86Rb+ washout rate constant (x 10(-4)/min; mean +/- SEM) than WKY cells (-38.6 +/- 2.84 and -23.8 +/- 3.58, respectively; p less than 0.005). SHR vascular smooth muscle cells also exhibited significantly higher values than WKY cells in the total 22Na+ washout rate constant (x 10(-2)/min) (-61.0 +/- 1.57 vs. -53.8 +/- 1.24; p less than 0.005). The amiloride sensitive component of the 22Na+ washout rate constant accounted for these differences (-18.6 +/- 1.04 for SHR and -12.1 +/- 2.00 for WKY; p less than 0.05). There were no apparent differences in cellular Na+ concentrations between WKY and SHR cells. In general, the 86Rb+ and 22Na+ washout parameters of W rat cells were quite similar to those of cells from SHR. We conclude that the bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb+ washout (the Na+ K+-cotransport), the overall, and the amiloride-sensitive 22Na+ washout (the latter primarily represents the Na+/H+ antiport) are higher in SHR than WKY rat vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings indicate innate differences in cellular Na+ and K+ transport in vascular smooth muscle cells of the SHR and WKY rat. The mechanisms responsible for these differences are yet to be determined.

  19. Hydrodynamics-based delivery of the viral interleukin-10 gene suppresses experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, N; Maruyama, H; Kuroda, T; Kameda, S; Iino, N; Kawachi, H; Nishikawa, Y; Hanawa, H; Tahara, H; Miyazaki, J; Gejyo, F

    2003-08-01

    Gene therapy is expected to revolutionize the treatment of kidney diseases. Viral interleukin (vIL)-10 has a variety of immunomodulatory properties. We examined the applicability of vIL-10 gene transfer to the treatment of rats with crescentic glomerulonephritis, a T helper 1 (Th 1) predominant disease. To produce the disease, Wistar-Kyoto rats were injected with a rabbit polyclonal anti-rat glomerular basement membrane antibody. After 3 h, a large volume of plasmid DNA expressing vIL-10 (pCAGGS-vIL-10) solution was rapidly injected into the tail vein. pCAGGS solution was similarly injected into control rats (pCAGGS rats). We confirmed the presence of vector-derived vIL-10 mainly in the liver and observed high serum vIL-10 levels in pCAGGS-vIL-10-injected rats. Compared with the pCAGGS rats, the pCAGGS-vIL-10 rats showed significant therapeutic effects: reduced frequency of crescent formation, decrease in the number of total cells, macrophages, and CD4+ T cells in the glomeruli, decrease in urine protein, and attenuation of kidney dysfunction. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we also observed that this model was Th1-predominant in the glomeruli and that the ratio of the transcripts of CD4, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 to the transcripts of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the glomeruli were all significantly lower in the pCAGGS-vIL-10 rats than in the pCAGGS rats. These results demonstrate that pCAGGS-vIL-10 gene transfer by hydrodynamics-based transfection suppresses crescentic glomerulonephritis.

  20. Lung transcriptional profiling: insights into the mechanisms of ozone-induced pulmonary injury in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ward, William O; Ledbetter, Allen D; Schladweiler, Mette C; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2015-01-01

    Acute ozone-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation are well characterized in rats; however, mechanistic understanding of the pathways involved is limited. We hypothesized that acute exposure of healthy rats to ozone will cause transcriptional alterations, and comprehensive analysis of these changes will allow us to better understand the mechanism of pulmonary injury and inflammation. Male Wistar Kyoto rats (10-12 week) were exposed to air, or ozone (0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 ppm) for 4 h and pulmonary injury and inflammation were assessed at 0-h or 20-h (n = 8/group). Lung gene expression profiling was assessed at 0-h (air and 1.0 ppm ozone, n = 3-4/group). At 20-h bronchoalveolar lavage, fluid protein and neutrophils increased at 1 ppm ozone. Numerous genes involved in acute inflammatory response were up-regulated along with changes in genes involved in cell adhesion and migration, steroid metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle control and cell growth. A number of NRF2 target genes were also induced after ozone exposure. Based on expression changes, Rela, SP1 and TP3-mediated signaling were identified to be mediating downstream changes. Remarkable changes in the processes of endocytosis provide the insight that ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation are likely initiated by changes in cell membrane components and receptors likely from oxidatively modified lung lining lipids and proteins. In conclusion, ozone-induced injury and inflammation are preceded by changes in gene targets for cell adhesion/migration, apoptosis, cell cycle control and growth regulated by Rela, SP1 and TP53, likely mediated by the process of endocytosis and altered steroid receptor signaling.

  1. IMPACT OF ISOPRENALINE AND CAFFEINE ON DEVELOPMENT OF LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY AND RENAL HEMODYNAMIC IN WISTAR KYOTO RATS.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Sattar, Munavvar Z A; Rathore, Hassaan A; Khan, Safia Akhtar; Lazhari, Mohammed A; Hashmi, Fayaz; Abdullah, Nor A; Johns, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a compensatory mechanism in response to an increased work load on the heart. This study investigated the impact of chronic isoprenaline and caffeine (I/C model) administration on cardiac geometry, systemic hemodynamic and physiological data in rats as LVH develops. LVH was induced by administering isoprenaline (5 mg/kg s.c. every 72 h) and caffeine (62 mg/L) in drinking water for 14 days to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart weight, LV weight, LV chamber diameter and thickness of myocardium were observed as LVH indicators. MAP was significantly higher (142 ± 13 vs. 119 ± 2 mmHg, respectively) while heart rate (HR) in LVH was lower (314 ± 9 vs. 264 ± 18 BPM) compared to control WKY. Heart weight, LV weight and kidney weight were 31%, 38% and 7%, respectively, greater in the LVH group as compared to the control WKY (all p < 0.05).The myocardium thickness was 101% greater while LV chamber diameter was 44% smaller in the LVH group as compared to the control WKY (p < 0.05). The superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels were significantly reduced while malonodialdehyde (MDA) level increased in LVH as compared to control WKY (all p < 0.05). In conclusion, isoprenaline and caffeine (I/C) induces LVH and cardiac hypertrophy with increases in blood pressure, fluid excretion and reduced renal hemodynamics. Prooxidant mechanism of the body and arterial stiffness are dominant in this disease model. This model of LVH is easily generated and associated with low mortality.

  2. Cardiopulmonary responses in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats exposed to concentrated ambient particles from Detroit, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Annette C; Wagner, James G; Morishita, Masako; Kamal, Ali; Keeler, Gerald J; Harkema, Jack R

    2010-05-01

    Toxicological effects have been observed in rats exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiopulmonary and systemic effects of CAPs in Detroit. The authors stationed a mobile concentrator at a location near major traffic and industrial sources. Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were exposed to fine CAPs (diameter < 0.1-2.5 microm) 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days. Animals were implanted with telemeters, and electrocardiogram data were recorded continuously. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and plasma were analyzed. Comprehensive exposure monitoring was conducted, including CAPs components. CAPs exposure concentrations were 103-918 microg/m(3) (mean = 502 microg/m(3)). The authors found no statistically significant differences in heart rate or SDNN (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals), a measure of heart rate variability, between CAPs-exposed and control rats. The authors found significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein in the serum of CAPs-exposed SH rats compared with air-exposed animals. Protein in BAL fluid was elevated in WKY rats exposed to CAPs. Measurement of trace metals in lung tissue showed elevated concentrations of V, Sb, La, and Ce in CAPs-exposed SH animals versus controls. These elements are generally associated with oil combustion, oil refining, waste incineration, and traffic. Examination of wind rose data from the exposure period confirmed that the predominant wind direction was SSW, the direction of many of the aforementioned sources. These results indicate that ambient particles in Detroit can cause mild pulmonary and systemic changes in rats, and suggest the importance of local PM(2.5) sources in these effects.

  3. The α1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin enhances sleep continuity in fear-conditioned Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Laitman, Benjamin M; Gajewski, Nicholas D; Mann, Graziella L; Kubin, Leszek; Morrison, Adrian R; Ross, Richard J

    2014-03-03

    Fragmentation of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is well described in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and likely has significant functional consequences. Fear-conditioned rodents may offer an attractive model of the changes in sleep that characterize PTSD. Following fear conditioning (FC), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a strain known to be particularly stress-sensitive, have increased REMS fragmentation that can be quantified as a shift in the distribution of REMS episodes towards the more frequent occurrence of sequential REMS (inter-REMS episode interval≤3 min) vs. single REMS (interval>3 min). The α1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin has demonstrated efficacy in normalizing sleep in PTSD. To determine the utility of fear-conditioned WKY rats as a model of sleep disturbances typical of PTSD and as a platform for the development of new treatments, we tested the hypothesis that prazosin would reduce REMS fragmentation in fear-conditioned WKY rats. Sleep parameters and freezing (a standard measure of anxiety in rodents) were quantified at baseline and on Days 1, 7, and 14 following FC, with either prazosin (0.01mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle injections administered prior to testing in a between-group design. Fear conditioning was achieved by pairing tones with a mild electric foot shock (1.0mA, 0.5s). One, 7, and 14 days following FC, prazosin or vehicle was injected, the tone was presented, freezing was measured, and then sleep was recorded from 11 AM to 3 PM. WKY rats given prazosin, compared to those given vehicle, had a lower amount of seq-REMS relative to total REMS time 14 days after FC. They also had a shorter non-REMS latency and fewer non-REMS arousals at baseline and on Days 1 and 7 after FC. Thus, in FC rats, prazosin reduced both REMS fragmentation and non-REMS discontinuity.

  4. Early action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions before the commitment period of the Kyoto protocol: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Michaelowa, A; Rolfe, C

    2001-09-01

    Current "business as usual" projections suggest greenhouse gas emissions from industrialized nations will grow substantially over the next decade. However, if it comes into force, the Kyoto Protocol will require industrialized nations to reduce emissions to an average of 5% below 1990 levels in the 2008-2012 period. Taking early action to close this gap has a number of advantages. It reduces the risks of passing thresholds that trigger climate change "surprises." Early action also increases future generations' ability to choose greater levels of climate protection, and it leads to faster reductions of other pollutants. From an economic sense, early action is important because it allows shifts to less carbon-intensive technologies during the course of normal capital stock turnover. Moreover, many options for emission reduction have negative costs, and thus are economically worthwhile, because of paybacks in energy costs, healthcare costs, and other benefits. Finally, early emission reductions enhance the probability of successful ratification and lower the risk of noncompliance with the protocol. We discuss policy approaches for the period prior to 2008. Disadvantages of the current proposals for Credit for Early Action are the possibility of adverse selection due to problematic baseline calculation methods as well as the distributionary impacts of allocating a part of the emissions budget already before 2008. One simple policy without drawbacks is the so-called baseline protection, which removes the disincentive to early action due to the expectation that businesses may, in the future, receive emission rights in proportion to past emissions. It is particularly important to adopt policies that shift investment in long-lived capital stock towards less carbon-intensive technologies and to encourage innovation and technology development that will reduce future compliance costs.

  5. Functional approach using intraoperative brain mapping and neurophysiological monitoring for the surgical treatment of brain metastases in the central region.

    PubMed

    Sanmillan, Jose L; Fernández-Coello, Alejandro; Fernández-Conejero, Isabel; Plans, Gerard; Gabarrós, Andreu

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Brain metastases are the most frequent intracranial malignant tumor in adults. Surgical intervention for metastases in eloquent areas remains controversial and challenging. Even when metastases are not infiltrating intra-parenchymal tumors, eloquent areas can be affected. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the role of a functional guided approach for the resection of brain metastases in the central region. METHODS Thirty-three patients (19 men and 14 women) with perirolandic metastases who were treated at the authors' institution were reviewed. All participants underwent resection using a functional guided approach, which consisted of using intraoperative brain mapping and/or neurophysiological monitoring to aid in the resection, depending on the functionality of the brain parenchyma surrounding each metastasis. Motor and sensory functions were monitored in all patients, and supplementary motor and language area functions were assessed in 5 and 4 patients, respectively. Clinical data were analyzed at presentation, discharge, and the 6-month follow-up. RESULTS The most frequent presenting symptom was seizure, followed by paresis. Gross-total removal of the metastasis was achieved in 31 patients (93.9%). There were 6 deaths during the follow-up period. After the removal of the metastasis, 6 patients (18.2%) presented with transient neurological worsening, of whom 4 had worsening of motor function impairment and 2 had acquired new sensory disturbances. Total recovery was achieved before the 3rd month of follow-up in all cases. Excluding those patients who died due to the progression of systemic illness, 88.9% of patients had a Karnofsky Performance Scale score greater than 80% at the 6-month follow-up. The mean survival time was 24.4 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of intraoperative electrical brain stimulation techniques in the resection of central region metastases may improve surgical planning and resection and may spare eloquent

  6. Exogenous Cortisol Administration; Effects on Risk Taking Behavior, Exercise Performance, and Physiological and Neurophysiological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Caroline V.; Immink, Maarten A.; Marino, Frank E.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Exogenous cortisol is a modulator of behavior related to increased motivated decision making (Putman et al., 2010), where risky choices yield potentially big reward. Making risk based judgments has been shown to be important to athletes in optimizing pacing during endurance events (Renfree et al., 2014; Micklewright et al., 2015). Objectives: Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine the effect of 50 mg exogenous cortisol on neurophysiological responses and risk taking behavior in nine healthy men. Further to this, to examine the effect of exogenous cortisol on exercise performance. Methods: Using a double blind counterbalanced design, cyclists completed a placebo (PLA), and a cortisol (COR) trial (50 mg cortisol), with drug ingestion at 0 min. Each trial consisted of a rest period from 0 to 60 min, followed by a risk taking behavior task, a 30 min time trial (TT) with 5 × 30 s sprints at the following time intervals; 5, 11, 17, 23, and 29 min. Salivary cortisol (SaCOR), Electroencephalography (EEG) and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRs) were measured at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-ingestion. Glucose and lactate samples were taken at 0 and 60 min post-ingestion. During exercise, power output (PO), heart rate (HR), EEG, and NIRS were measured. SaCOR was measured 10 min post-exercise. Results: Cortisol increased risk taking behavior from baseline testing. This was in line with significant neurophysiological changes at rest and during exercise. At rest, SaCOR levels were higher (P < 0.01) in COR compared to PLA (29.7 ± 22.7 and 3.27 ± 0.7 nmol/l, respectively). At 60 min alpha slow EEG response was higher in COR than PLA in the PFC (5.5 ± 6.4 vs. −0.02 ± 8.7% change; P < 0.01). During the TT there was no difference in total km, average power or average sprint power, although Peak power (PP) achieved was lower in COR than PLA (465.3 ± 83.4 and 499.8 ± 104.3; P < 0.05) and cerebral oxygenation was lower in COR (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This is

  7. Assessing motor imagery in brain-computer interface training: Psychological and neurophysiological correlates.

    PubMed

    Vasilyev, Anatoly; Liburkina, Sofya; Yakovlev, Lev; Perepelkina, Olga; Kaplan, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is considered to be a promising cognitive tool for improving motor skills as well as for rehabilitation therapy of movement disorders. It is believed that MI training efficiency could be improved by using the brain-computer interface (BCI) technology providing real-time feedback on person's mental attempts. While BCI is indeed a convenient and motivating tool for practicing MI, it is not clear whether it could be used for predicting or measuring potential positive impact of the training. In this study, we are trying to establish whether the proficiency in BCI control is associated with any of the neurophysiological or psychological correlates of motor imagery, as well as to determine possible interrelations among them. For that purpose, we studied motor imagery in a group of 19 healthy BCI-trained volunteers and performed a correlation analysis across various quantitative assessment metrics. We examined subjects' sensorimotor event-related EEG events, corticospinal excitability changes estimated with single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), BCI accuracy and self-assessment reports obtained with specially designed questionnaires and interview routine. Our results showed, expectedly, that BCI performance is dependent on the subject's capability to suppress EEG sensorimotor rhythms, which in turn is correlated with the idle state amplitude of those oscillations. Neither BCI accuracy nor the EEG features associated with MI were found to correlate with the level of corticospinal excitability increase during motor imagery, and with assessed imagery vividness. Finally, a significant correlation was found between the level of corticospinal excitability increase and kinesthetic vividness of imagery (KVIQ-20 questionnaire). Our results suggest that two distinct neurophysiological mechanisms might mediate possible effects of motor imagery: the non-specific cortical sensorimotor disinhibition and the focal corticospinal excitability increase

  8. Immunosuppressive effects of the standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus on cellular immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Ilangkovan, Menaga; Jantan, Ibrahim; Mesaik, Mohamed Ahmed; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (family: Euphorbiaceae) is of immense interest due to its wide spectrum of biological activities. In the present study, the standardized 80% ethanol extract of P. amarus was investigated for its modulatory activity on various cellular immune parameters, including chemotaxis of neutrophils, engulfment of Escherichia coli by neutrophils, and Mac-1 expression, in leukocytes isolated from treated/nontreated Wistar-Kyoto rats. The detailed cell-mediated activity of P. amarus was also investigated, including analysis of the effects on T- and B-cell proliferation and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in splenic mononuclear cells, and estimation of serum cytokine production by activated T-cells. The main components of the extract, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin, geraniin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts, using validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced neutrophils isolated from rats administered with the extract of P. amarus, at doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg for 14 days, revealed a significant dose-dependent reduction in neutrophil migration (P<0.05). Similar patterns of inhibition were also observed in phagocytic activity and in fMLP-induced changes in expression of β2 integrin polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The results in P. amarus-treated rats also demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of both lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B-cell proliferation and concanavalin A–stimulated T-cell proliferation as compared with sensitized control. At a dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01), there was a significant decrease in the (%) expression of CD4+ and CD8+ in splenocytes and in serum cytokines of T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4). In conclusion, P. amarus showed effective immunosuppressive activities in cellular immune response, by various immune regulatory mechanisms, and may be useful for

  9. Immunostimulatory effects of the standardized extract of Tinospora crispa on innate immune responses in Wistar Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Waqas; Jantan, Ibrahim; Kumolosasi, Endang; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Tinospora crispa (TC) has been used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of various diseases and has been reported for several pharmacological activities. However, the effects of TC extract on the immune system are largely unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of a standardized 80% ethanol extract of the stem of TC on innate immune responses. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were treated daily at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg doses of the extract for 21 days by oral gavage. The immunomodulatory potential of TC was evaluated by determining its effect on chemotaxis and phagocytic activity of neutrophils isolated from the blood of rats. To further elucidate the mechanism of action, its effects on the proliferation of T- and B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) and on the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were also monitored. The main components of the extracts, syringin and magnoflorine, were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. It was observed that the chemotactic activity of neutrophils obtained from extract-treated rats increased as compared to controls. A dose-dependent increase in the number of migrated cells and phagocytosis activity of neutrophils was observed. Dose-dependent increase was also observed in the T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation stimulated with concanavalin A (5 μg/mL) and lipopolysaccharide (10 μg/mL), and was statistically significant at 400 mg/kg (P>0.01). Apart from cell-mediated immune response, the concentrations of Th1 (TNF-α, IL-2, and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were significantly increased in sera of rats treated with different doses as compared with the control group. From these findings, it can be concluded that TC possesses immunostimulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of immune diseases. PMID:26089645

  10. The independent influence of concussive and sub-concussive impacts on soccer players' neurophysiological and neuropsychological function.

    PubMed

    Moore, R Davis; Lepine, Julien; Ellemberg, Dave

    2017-02-01

    Accumulating research demonstrates that repetitive sub-concussive impacts can alter the structure, function and connectivity of the brain. However, the functional significance of these alterations as well as the independent contribution of concussive and sub-concussive impacts to neurophysiological and neuropsychological health are unclear. Accordingly, we compared the neurophysiological and neuropsychological function of contact athletes with (concussion group) and without (sub-concussion group) a history of concussion, to non-contact athletes. We evaluated event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited during an oddball task and performance on a targeted battery of neuropsychological tasks. Athletes in the sub-concussion and concussion groups exhibited similar amplitude reductions in the ERP indices of attentional resource allocation (P3b) and attentional orienting (P3a) relative to non-contact athletes. However, only athletes in the concussion group exhibited reduced amplitude in the ERP index of perceptual attention (N1). Athletes in the sub-concussion and concussion groups also exhibited deficits in memory recall relative to non-contact athletes, but athletes in the concussion group also exhibited significantly more recall errors than athletes in the sub-concussion group. Additionally, only athletes in the concussion group exhibited response delays during the oddball task. The current findings suggest that sub-concussive impacts are associated with alterations in the neurophysiological and neuropsychological indices of essential cognitive functions, albeit to a lesser degree than the combination of sub-concussive and concussive impacts.

  11. Neurophysiological correlates of altered response inhibition in internet gaming disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: Perspectives from impulsivity and compulsivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minah; Lee, Tak Hyung; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kwak, Yoo Bin; Hwang, Wu Jeong; Kim, Taekwan; Lee, Ji Yoon; Lim, Jae-A; Park, Minkyung; Kim, Yeon Jin; Kim, Sung Nyun; Kim, Dai Jin; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2017-01-30

    Although internet gaming disorder (IGD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) represent opposite ends of the impulsivity and compulsivity dimensions, the two disorders share common neurocognitive deficits in response inhibition. However, the similarities and differences in neurophysiological features of altered response inhibition between IGD and OCD have not been investigated sufficiently. In total, 27 patients with IGD, 24 patients with OCD, and 26 healthy control (HC) subjects participated in a Go/NoGo task with electroencephalographic recordings. N2-P3 complexes elicited during Go and NoGo condition were analyzed separately and compared among conditions and groups. NoGo-N2 latency at the central electrode site was delayed in IGD group versus the HC group and correlated positively with the severity of internet game addiction and impulsivity. NoGo-N2 amplitude at the frontal electrode site was smaller in OCD patients than in IGD patients. These findings suggest that prolonged NoGo-N2 latency may serve as a marker of trait impulsivity in IGD and reduced NoGo-N2 amplitude may be a differential neurophysiological feature between OCD from IGD with regard to compulsivity. We report the first differential neurophysiological correlate of the altered response inhibition in IGD and OCD, which may be a candidate biomarker for impulsivity and compulsivity.

  12. Measuring neurophysiological signals in aircraft pilots and car drivers for the assessment of mental workload, fatigue and drowsiness.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Gianluca; Astolfi, Laura; Vecchiato, Giovanni; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews published papers related to neurophysiological measurements (electroencephalography: EEG, electrooculography EOG; heart rate: HR) in pilots/drivers during their driving tasks. The aim is to summarise the main neurophysiological findings related to the measurements of pilot/driver's brain activity during drive performance and how particular aspects of this brain activity could be connected with the important concepts of "mental workload", "mental fatigue" or "situational awareness". Review of the literature suggests that exists a coherent sequence of changes for EEG, EOG and HR variables during the transition from normal drive, high mental workload and eventually mental fatigue and drowsiness. In particular, increased EEG power in theta band and a decrease in alpha band occurred in high mental workload. Successively, increased EEG power in theta as well as delta and alpha bands characterise the transition between mental workload and mental fatigue. Drowsiness is also characterised by increased blink rate and decreased HR values. The detection of such mental states is actually performed "offline" with accuracy around 90% but not online. A discussion on the possible future applications of findings provided by these neurophysiological measurements in order to improve the safety of the vehicles will be also presented.

  13. PLDAPS: A Hardware Architecture and Software Toolbox for Neurophysiology Requiring Complex Visual Stimuli and Online Behavioral Control

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Kyler M.; Huk, Alexander C.

    2012-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies in awake, behaving primates (both human and non-human) have focused with increasing scrutiny on the temporal relationship between neural signals and behaviors. Consequently, laboratories are often faced with the problem of developing experimental equipment that can support data recording with high temporal precision and also be flexible enough to accommodate a wide variety of experimental paradigms. To this end, we have developed a MATLAB toolbox that integrates several modern pieces of equipment, but still grants experimenters the flexibility of a high-level programming language. Our toolbox takes advantage of three popular and powerful technologies: the Plexon apparatus for neurophysiological recordings (Plexon, Inc., Dallas, TX, USA), a Datapixx peripheral (Vpixx Technologies, Saint-Bruno, QC, Canada) for control of analog, digital, and video input–output signals, and the Psychtoolbox MATLAB toolbox for stimulus generation (Brainard, 1997; Pelli, 1997; Kleiner et al., 2007). The PLDAPS (“Platypus”) system is designed to support the study of the visual systems of awake, behaving primates during multi-electrode neurophysiological recordings, but can be easily applied to other related domains. Despite its wide range of capabilities and support for cutting-edge video displays and neural recording systems, the PLDAPS system is simple enough for someone with basic MATLAB programming skills to design their own experiments. PMID:22319490

  14. Neurophysiological correlates of altered response inhibition in internet gaming disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: Perspectives from impulsivity and compulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minah; Lee, Tak Hyung; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kwak, Yoo Bin; Hwang, Wu Jeong; Kim, Taekwan; Lee, Ji Yoon; Lim, Jae-A; Park, Minkyung; Kim, Yeon Jin; Kim, Sung Nyun; Kim, Dai Jin; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2017-01-01

    Although internet gaming disorder (IGD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) represent opposite ends of the impulsivity and compulsivity dimensions, the two disorders share common neurocognitive deficits in response inhibition. However, the similarities and differences in neurophysiological features of altered response inhibition between IGD and OCD have not been investigated sufficiently. In total, 27 patients with IGD, 24 patients with OCD, and 26 healthy control (HC) subjects participated in a Go/NoGo task with electroencephalographic recordings. N2-P3 complexes elicited during Go and NoGo condition were analyzed separately and compared among conditions and groups. NoGo-N2 latency at the central electrode site was delayed in IGD group versus the HC group and correlated positively with the severity of internet game addiction and impulsivity. NoGo-N2 amplitude at the frontal electrode site was smaller in OCD patients than in IGD patients. These findings suggest that prolonged NoGo-N2 latency may serve as a marker of trait impulsivity in IGD and reduced NoGo-N2 amplitude may be a differential neurophysiological feature between OCD from IGD with regard to compulsivity. We report the first differential neurophysiological correlate of the altered response inhibition in IGD and OCD, which may be a candidate biomarker for impulsivity and compulsivity. PMID:28134318

  15. PLDAPS: A Hardware Architecture and Software Toolbox for Neurophysiology Requiring Complex Visual Stimuli and Online Behavioral Control.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Kyler M; Huk, Alexander C

    2012-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies in awake, behaving primates (both human and non-human) have focused with increasing scrutiny on the temporal relationship between neural signals and behaviors. Consequently, laboratories are often faced with the problem of developing experimental equipment that can support data recording with high temporal precision and also be flexible enough to accommodate a wide variety of experimental paradigms. To this end, we have developed a MATLAB toolbox that integrates several modern pieces of equipment, but still grants experimenters the flexibility of a high-level programming language. Our toolbox takes advantage of three popular and powerful technologies: the Plexon apparatus for neurophysiological recordings (Plexon, Inc., Dallas, TX, USA), a Datapixx peripheral (Vpixx Technologies, Saint-Bruno, QC, Canada) for control of analog, digital, and video input-output signals, and the Psychtoolbox MATLAB toolbox for stimulus generation (Brainard, 1997; Pelli, 1997; Kleiner et al., 2007). The PLDAPS ("Platypus") system is designed to support the study of the visual systems of awake, behaving primates during multi-electrode neurophysiological recordings, but can be easily applied to other related domains. Despite its wide range of capabilities and support for cutting-edge video displays and neural recording systems, the PLDAPS system is simple enough for someone with basic MATLAB programming skills to design their own experiments.

  16. Neurophysiological Tools to Investigate Consumer's Gender Differences during the Observation of TV Commercials

    PubMed Central

    Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Graziani, Ilenia; Trettel, Arianna

    2014-01-01

    Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender. PMID:25147579

  17. Using Movement to Regulate Emotion: Neurophysiological Findings and Their Application in Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shafir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation is a person's active attempt to manage their emotional state by enhancing or decreasing specific feelings. Peripheral theories of emotion argue that the origins of emotions stem from bodily responses. This notion has been reformulated in neurophysiological terms by Damasio, who claimed that emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with conscious feelings. This proposition implies that through deliberate control of motor behavior and its consequent proprioception and interoception, one could regulate his emotions and affect his feelings. This concept is used in dance/movement (psycho)therapy where, by guiding to move in a certain way, the therapist helps the client to evoke, process, and regulate specific emotions. Exploration and practice of new and unfamiliar motor patterns can help the client to experience new unaccustomed feelings. The idea that certain motor qualities enhance specific emotions is utilized by the therapist also when she mirrors the client's movements or motor qualities in order to feel what the client feels, and empathize with them. Because of the mirror neurons, feeling what the client feels is enabled also through observation and imagination of their movements and posture. This principle can be used by verbal therapists as well, who should be aware of its bi-directionality: clients seeing the therapist's motor behavior are unconsciously affected by the therapist's bodily expressions. Additional implications for psychotherapy, of findings regarding mirror neurons activation, are discussed.

  18. An Open Source 3-D Printed Modular Micro-Drive System for Acute Neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Eskandar, Emad N.

    2014-01-01

    Current, commercial, electrode micro-drives that allow independent positioning of multiple electrodes are expensive. Custom designed solutions developed by individual laboratories require fabrication by experienced machinists working in well equipped machine shops and are therefore difficult to disseminate into widespread use. Here, we present an easy to assemble modular micro-drive system for acute primate neurophysiology (PriED) that utilizes rapid prototyping (3-d printing) and readily available off the shelf-parts. The use of 3-d printed parts drastically reduces the cost of the device, making it available to labs without the resources of sophisticated machine shops. The direct transfer of designs from electronic files to physical parts also gives researchers opportunities to easily modify and implement custom solutions to specific recording needs. We also demonstrate a novel model of data sharing for the scientific community: a publicly available repository of drive designs. Researchers can download the drive part designs from the repository, print, assemble and then use the drives. Importantly, users can upload their modified designs with annotations making them easily available for others to use. PMID:24736691

  19. Rhythm in joint action: psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms for real-time interpersonal coordination.

    PubMed

    Keller, Peter E; Novembre, Giacomo; Hove, Michael J

    2014-12-19

    Human interaction often requires simultaneous precision and flexibility in the coordination of rhythmic behaviour between individuals engaged in joint activity, for example, playing a musical duet or dancing with a partner. This review article addresses the psychological processes and brain mechanisms that enable such rhythmic interpersonal coordination. First, an overview is given of research on the cognitive-motor processes that enable individuals to represent joint action goals and to anticipate, attend and adapt to other's actions in real time. Second, the neurophysiological mechanisms that underpin rhythmic interpersonal coordination are sought in studies of sensorimotor and cognitive processes that play a role in the representation and integration of self- and other-related actions within and between individuals' brains. Finally, relationships between social-psychological factors and rhythmic interpersonal coordination are considered from two perspectives, one concerning how social-cognitive tendencies (e.g. empathy) affect coordination, and the other concerning how coordination affects interpersonal affiliation, trust and prosocial behaviour. Our review highlights musical ensemble performance as an ecologically valid yet readily controlled domain for investigating rhythm in joint action.

  20. God will forgive: reflecting on God’s love decreases neurophysiological responses to errors

    PubMed Central

    Inzlicht, Michael; Larson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    In religions where God is portrayed as both loving and wrathful, religious beliefs may be a source of fear as well as comfort. Here, we consider if God’s love may be more effective, relative to God’s wrath, for soothing distress, but less effective for helping control behavior. Specifically, we assess whether contemplating God’s love reduces our ability to detect and emotionally react to conflict between one’s behavior and overarching religious standards. We do so within a neurophysiological framework, by observing the effects of exposure to concepts of God’s love vs punishment on the error-related negativity (ERN)—a neural signal originating in the anterior cingulate cortex that is associated with performance monitoring and affective responses to errors. Participants included 123 students at Brigham Young University, who completed a Go/No-Go task where they made ‘religious’ errors (i.e. ostensibly exhibited pro-alcohol tendencies). Reflecting on God’s love caused dampened ERNs and worse performance on the Go/No-Go task. Thinking about God’s punishment did not affect performance or ERNs. Results suggest that one possible reason religiosity is generally linked to positive well-being may be because of a decreased affective response to errors that occurs when God’s love is prominent in the minds of believers. PMID:25062839

  1. Toward emotion aware computing: an integrated approach using multichannel neurophysiological recordings and affective visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Frantzidis, Christos A; Bratsas, Charalampos; Papadelis, Christos L; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos; Pappas, Costas; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2010-05-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for the robust classification of neurophysiological data into four emotional states collected during passive viewing of emotional evocative pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System. The proposed classification model is formed according to the current neuroscience trends, since it adopts the independency of two emotional dimensions, namely arousal and valence, as dictated by the bidirectional emotion theory, whereas it is gender-specific. A two-step classification procedure is proposed for the discrimination of emotional states between EEG signals evoked by pleasant and unpleasant stimuli, which also vary in their arousal/intensity levels. The first classification level involves the arousal discrimination. The valence discrimination is then performed. The Mahalanobis (MD) distance-based classifier and support vector machines (SVMs) were used for the discrimination of emotions. The achieved overall classification rates were 79.5% and 81.3% for the MD and SVM, respectively, significantly higher than in previous studies. The robust classification of objective emotional measures is the first step toward numerous applications within the sphere of human-computer interaction.

  2. Central pattern generators for social vocalization: Androgen-dependent neurophysiological mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Andrew H.; Remage-Healey, Luke

    2008-01-01

    Historically, most studies of vertebrate central pattern generators (CPGs) have focused on mechanisms for locomotion and respiration. Here, we highlight new results for ectothermic vertebrates, namely teleost fish and amphibians, showing how androgenic steroids can influence the temporal patterning of CPGs for social vocalization. Investigations of vocalizing teleosts show how androgens can rapidly (within minutes) modulate the neurophysiological output of the vocal CPG (fictive vocalizations that mimic the temporal properties of natural vocalizations) inclusive of their divergent actions between species, as well as intraspecific differences between male reproductive morphs. Studies of anuran amphibians (frogs) demonstrate that long-term steroid treatments (wks) can masculinize the fictive vocalizations of females, inclusive of its sensitivity to rapid modulation by serotonin. Given the conserved organization of vocal control systems across vertebrate groups, the vocal CPGs of fish and amphibians provide tractable models for identifying androgen-dependent events that are fundamental to the mechanisms of vocal motor patterning. These basic mechanisms can also inform our understanding of the more complex CPGs for vocalization, and social behaviors in general, that have evolved among birds and mammals. PMID:18262186

  3. Pattern of Peripheral Nerve Involvement in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2: a Neurophysiological Assessment.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Marcio Luiz Escorcio; Pedroso, José Luiz; Braga-Neto, Pedro; Abrahao, Agessandro; de Albuquerque, Marcus Vinicius Cristino; Borges, Franklin Roberto Pereira; Saraiva-Pereira, Maria Luiza; Jardim, Laura Bannach; de Oliveira Braga, Nadia Iandoli; Manzano, Gilberto Mastrocola; Barsottini, Orlando G P

    2016-12-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is frequent in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), but the pattern and characteristics of nerve involvement are still an unsettled issue. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, extent, and distribution of nerve involvement in SCA2 patients through neurophysiological studies. Thirty-one SCA2 patients and 20 control subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects were prospectively evaluated through electromyography, including nerve conduction, needle electromyography in proximal and distal muscles of the upper and lower limbs, and sural radial amplitude ratio (SRAR). We aimed to differentiate distal axonopathy from diffuse nerve commitment, characterizing neuronopathy. Nerve involvement was observed in 83.6 % (26 individuals) of SCA2 patients. Among these, 19 had diffuse sensory abnormalities on nerve conduction predominantly on the upper limbs, with diffuse chronic denervation on needle electromyography and elevated SRAR values. Four individuals had only diffuse sensory involvement, and 2 had only motor involvement on needle evaluation and normal nerve conduction. These were interpreted as neuronopathy due to the diffuse distribution of the involvement. One individual had distal sensory axonopathy, with lower limb predominance. In this study, we found neuronopathy as the main pattern of nerve involvement in SCA2 patients and that motor involvement is a frequent feature. This information brings new insights into the understanding of the pathophysiology of nerve involvement in SCA2 and sets some key points about the phenotype, which is relevant to guide the genetic/molecular diagnosis.

  4. Tetrahydrocurcumin exerts protective effect on vincristine induced neuropathy: Behavioral, biochemical, neurophysiological and histological evidence.

    PubMed

    Greeshma, N; Prasanth, K G; Balaji, Bhaskar

    2015-08-05

    Hyperalgesia, allodynia, delayed motor nerve conduction velocity, oxidative stress and axonal damage are signs and symptoms of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Present treatment/preventive strategies of CIPN are futile and the neuropathy may even lead to discontinuation of chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) 40 and 80mg/kg in experimental vincristine induced neuropathy in rats. Hyperalgesia was assessed by hot plate (thermal), Randall-Selitto (mechanical) test, allodynia was assessed by cold plate (thermal) test, functional loss was measured by sciatic function index, nociception was evaluated by formalin test. Neurophysiological recordings were carried out to assess motor nerve conduction velocity. Total calcium levels, oxidative stress and TNF-α was measured in sciatic nerve tissue homogenate to assess neuropathy. Histopathological changes was observed on sciatic nerve to assess the protective effect of THC against the vincristine. Pregabalin was used as a standard in this study. Rats administered with THC at 80mg/kg significantly attenuated the vincristine induced neuropathic pain manifestations which may be due to its multiple actions including anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, calcium inhibitory and antioxidant effect. This study delineates that THC can be a promising candidate for the prevention of CIPN by chemotherapeutic agents.

  5. Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring in Spine Surgery: A Significant Tool for Neuronal Protection and Functional Restoration.

    PubMed

    Scibilia, Antonino; Raffa, Giovanni; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Quartarone, Angelo; Visocchi, Massimiliano; Germanò, Antonino; Tomasello, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Although there is recent evidence for the role of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) in spine surgery, there are no uniform opinions on the optimal combination of the different tools. At our institution, multimodal IONM (mIONM) approach in spine surgery involves the evaluation of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) with electrical transcranial stimulation, including the use of a multipulse technique with multiple myomeric registration of responses from limbs, and a single-pulse technique with D-wave registration through epi- and intradural recording, and free running and evoked electromyography (frEMG and eEMG) with bilateral recording from segmental target muscles. We analyzed the impact of the mIONM on the preservation of neuronal structures and on functional restoration in a prospective series of patients who underwent spine surgery. We observed an improvement of neurological status in 50 % of the patients. The D-wave registration was the most useful intraoperative tool, especially when MEP and SEP responses were absent or poorly recordable. Our preliminary data confirm that mIONM plays a fundamental role in the identification and functional preservation of the spinal cord and nerve roots. It is highly sensitive and specific for detecting and avoiding neurological injury during spine surgery and represents a helpful tool for achieving optimal postoperative functional outcome.

  6. Neurophysiological Correlates of Featural and Spacing Processing for Face and Non-face Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Negrini, Marcello; Brkić, Diandra; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Premoli, Isabella; Rivolta, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The peculiar ability of humans to recognize hundreds of faces at a glance has been attributed to face-specific perceptual mechanisms known as holistic processing. Holistic processing includes the ability to discriminate individual facial features (i.e., featural processing) and their spatial relationships (i.e., spacing processing). Here, we aimed to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of featural- and spacing-processing of faces and objects. Nineteen healthy volunteers completed a newly created perceptual discrimination task for faces and objects (i.e., the “University of East London Face Task”) while their brain activity was recorded with a high-density (128 electrodes) electroencephalogram. Our results showed that early event related potentials at around 100 ms post-stimulus onset (i.e., P100) are sensitive to both facial features and spacing between the features. Spacing and features discriminability for objects occurred at circa 200 ms post-stimulus onset (P200). These findings indicate the existence of neurophysiological correlates of spacing vs. features processing in both face and objects, and demonstrate faster brain processing for faces. PMID:28348535

  7. From the philosophy auditorium to the neurophysiology laboratory and back: from Bergson to Damasio.

    PubMed

    Blumen, Sergiu C; Blumen, Nava

    2002-03-01

    Henri Bergson (1859-1941) was probably the most influential French philosopher at the turn of the twentieth century. In 1927 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. Far beyond the restricted academic philosophical milieu, the impact of his thinking reached personalities as diverse as Claude Debussy, Marcel Proust, George Bemard Shaw, and the impressionists. His essay The Laughter (Le Rire) is one of the most profound and original ever written on the sense of humor. Bergson's opinions, with their emphasis on life, instinct and intuition, represented a deviation from the rationalist mainstream of western philosophical tradition. In some circles he was received with skepticism and irony, as in Bertrand Russel's History of Western Philosophy. Today, unbiased by theoretical "bergsonism," neurophysiologic research--as undertaken mainly by Antonio Damasio's team at Iowa University--confirms many of his hypotheses and elucidates their mechanisms. In this new light, intuition and "recognition by the body" should not be seen as the personal fantasy of an original thinker but as fundamental cognitive tools.

  8. Neurophysiological evidence for the country-of-origin effect: an event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kwangsu; Sung, Jungyeon; Cho, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Consumers often rely on observable cues that hint at the hidden quality of a product. The aim of this study was to investigate brain activities associated with the country-of-origin (COO) effect and consumer evaluation of a product design. Electroencephalogram recordings were used to observe event-related brain potentials associated with the COO effect and design evaluation. We found that the frontocentral N90 and parieto-occipital P220 amplitudes are involved in forming preference to design, whereas the COO effect is processed in the centroparietal P500 amplitude. We also found a significant interaction effect between COO and design preference with regard to reaction times. Specifically, participants tended to spend more time making a preference decision when they did not like the product design made in a country with a favorable COO. These results imply that the two cognitive processes, evaluation of COO and formation of design preference, are activated independently at an early stage. It also suggests that these two processes interact with each other toward the end of the decision phase. Together, the results of this study provide neuropsychological evidence supporting a significant role of COO in the formation of design preference. Future studies are required to further delve into other neurophysiological activities associated with the COO effect. PMID:24518230

  9. Neurophysiological tools to investigate consumer's gender differences during the observation of TV commercials.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Cherubino, Patrizia; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Latuszynska, Anna; Latuszynska, Malgorzata; Nermend, Kesra; Graziani, Ilenia; Leucci, Maria Rita; Trettel, Arianna; Babiloni, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender.

  10. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring of somatosensory evoked potentials during hip arthroscopy surgery.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Barbara C; Herzka, Andrea; Yaylali, Ilker

    2012-12-01

    Arthroscopic hip surgery is used to treat many of the causes of hip pain, hip instability, and hip disorders. Hip pain and instability are often caused by injuries to the acetabular labrum. Repairing labral tears, suturing, and debridement involve stabilizing the hip and placing the operative side leg in traction (Phillipon 2006, Phillipon and Schenker 2006) to allow for instrument clearance and to avoid iatrogenic injury to the chondral surfaces. This places the sciatic nerve in a stretched position and may cause temporary or permanent nerve injury. Transient neuropraxia is the most common injury occurring in 5% of the patients undergoing arthroscopic hip surgery (McCarthy and Lee 2006). 35 patients; 24 women and 11 men, (a total of 36 surgeries) were monitored with intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring using somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) during hip arthroscopy for labral repair and femoral head osteoplasty. They ranged in age from 15 to 59 years; mean age: 39.81 years. During surgery 19 (54%) patients experienced significant SSEP waveform changes. Time from placement of traction to loss of signals in those patients experiencing SSEP changes ranged from 7 minutes to 46 minutes. Recovery of SSEP signals ranged from 2 minutes to over 15 minutes when the traction of the leg was released. Surgeries ranged from 2 to 4 hours; mean: 2.78 hours. These findings show that neuromonitoring during hip arthroscopic labral repair and debridement procedures might be useful to prevent temporary and permanent neural tissue injuries.

  11. Shock wave over hand muscles: a neurophysiological study on peripheral conduction nerves in normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Manganotti, Paolo; Amelio, Ernesto; Guerra, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and purpose: shock waves are defined as a sequence of single sonic pulses largely used in the treatment of bone and tendon diseases and recently on muscular hypertonia in stroke patients. Our purpose is to investigate the short and long term effect of extra-corporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on the peripheral nerve conduction and central conductions from the treated muscles in normal human subjects in order to define safety criteria. Methods: we studied 10 patients normal subjects. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity and F response from right ipothenar eminence (abductor digiti minimi) of the hand was recorded. Furthermore MEP latency and amplitude and central conduction from the same muscles by transcranial magnetic stimulation was evaluated. In all subjects each neurophysiological measures were monitored before, immediately after, 15 minutes and after 30 minutes from the active ESWT treatment (1600 shots with an energy applied of 0.030 mj/mm2). Results: no significant short or long term changes were noted in sensory and motor peripheral nerve conduction and in central motor conduction in all the subjects evaluated after ESWT. Conclusions: the ESWT has no effect on sensory and motor peripheral nerve conduction and in central motor conduction. The ESWT using low level of energy represent a safety method for treating the muscles in human subjects without involvement of motor or sensory nervous trunks. Different mechanisms of action of ESWT are discussed. PMID:23738282

  12. Visually-guided correction of hand reaching movements: The neurophysiological bases in the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Archambault, P S; Ferrari-Toniolo, S; Caminiti, R; Battaglia-Mayer, A

    2015-05-01

    The ability of human and non-human primates to make fast corrections to hand movement trajectories after a sudden shift in the target's location is a key feature of visuo-motor behavior. In healthy individuals, hand movements smoothly adapt to a change in target location without needing to complete the movement to the first target location, as typical of parietal patients. This finding indicates that the nervous system continuously monitors the visual scene and is able to integrate new information in order to produce an efficient motor response. In this paper, we review the kinematics, reaction times and muscle activity observed during the online correction of hand movements as well as the underlying neurophysiological processes studied through single-cell neural recordings in monkeys. Brain stimulation, lesion and imaging studies in humans are also discussed. We demonstrate that while online correction mechanisms strongly depend on the activity of a parieto-frontal network of which the posterior parietal cortex is a crucial node, these mechanisms proceed smoothly and are similar to what is observed during simple point-to-point movements. Online correction of hand movements would rely on feedforward and feedback mechanisms in the parietal cortex, as part of the activity within the fronto-parietal network for the planning and execution of visuo-motor tasks.

  13. Free will: reconciling German civil law with Libet's neurophysiological studies on the readiness potential.

    PubMed

    Kawohl, Wolfram; Habermeyer, Elmar

    2007-01-01

    The free will debate widely exceeds the neuroscientific and philosophical fields due to profound implications for legislation, case law and psychiatric expert opinion. Data from Benjamin Libet's experiments on the readiness potential have been used as an argument against personal responsibility and for changes in the law. Due to the explicit use of the term "free will" in German civil law, the psychiatrist as an expert witness is confronted with this debate. In this article we outline the role of this crucial term in German civil law and we describe the neurophysiologic challenge in the form of Libet's experiments, which is led on three levels: the correctness of the data, the impact on the question of whether free will exists and possible consequences for the law. We conclude that the problem of free will cannot be debated on the basis of the data provided by Libet's experiments and that doubts about the existence of a free will must not lead to changes in the law or in psychiatric expert testimony. Therefore, advice for the psychiatrist as an expert witness is offered on the basis of a psychopathological approach that takes into account cognitive and motivational preconditions and the structure of values and personality.

  14. Effects of Auditory Attention Training with the Dichotic Listening Task: Behavioural and Neurophysiological Evidence.

    PubMed

    Tallus, Jussi; Soveri, Anna; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Facilitation of general cognitive capacities such as executive functions through training has stirred considerable research interest during the last decade. Recently we demonstrated that training of auditory attention with forced attention dichotic listening not only facilitated that performance but also generalized to an untrained attentional task. In the present study, 13 participants underwent a 4-week dichotic listening training programme with instructions to report syllables presented to the left ear (FL training group). Another group (n = 13) was trained using the non-forced instruction, asked to report whichever syllable they heard the best (NF training group). The study aimed to replicate our previous behavioural results, and to explore the neurophysiological correlates of training through event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We partially replicated our previous behavioural training effects, as the FL training group tended to show more allocation of auditory spatial attention to the left ear in a standard dichotic listening task. ERP measures showed diminished N1 and enhanced P2 responses to dichotic stimuli after training in both groups, interpreted as improvement in early perceptual processing of the stimuli. Additionally, enhanced anterior N2 amplitudes were found after training, with relatively larger changes in the FL training group in the forced-left condition, suggesting improved top-down control on the trained task. These results show that top-down cognitive training can modulate the left-right allocation of auditory spatial attention, accompanied by a change in an evoked brain potential related to cognitive control.

  15. Functional Polymorphisms in Dopaminergic Genes Modulate Neurobehavioral and Neurophysiological Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Holst, Sebastian C.; Müller, Thomas; Valomon, Amandine; Seebauer, Britta; Berger, Wolfgang; Landolt, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs cognitive performance and reliably alters brain activation in wakefulness and sleep. Nevertheless, the molecular regulators of prolonged wakefulness remain poorly understood. Evidence from genetic, behavioral, pharmacologic and imaging studies suggest that dopaminergic signaling contributes to the behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) consequences of sleep loss, although direct human evidence thereof is missing. We tested whether dopamine neurotransmission regulate sustained attention and evolution of EEG power during prolonged wakefulness. Here, we studied the effects of functional genetic variation in the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) genes, on psychomotor performance and standardized waking EEG oscillations during 40 hours of wakefulness in 64 to 82 healthy volunteers. Sleep deprivation consistently enhanced sleepiness, lapses of attention and the theta-to-alpha power ratio (TAR) in the waking EEG. Importantly, DAT1 and DRD2 genotypes distinctly modulated sleep loss-induced changes in subjective sleepiness, PVT lapses and TAR, according to inverted U-shaped relationships. Together, the data suggest that genetically determined differences in DAT1 and DRD2 expression modulate functional consequences of sleep deprivation, supporting the hypothesis that striato-thalamo-cortical dopaminergic pathways modulate the neurobehavioral and neurophysiological consequences of sleep loss in humans. PMID:28393838

  16. Behavioural and neurophysiological disruption of corticobulbar motor systems and their effects on sequential pharyngeal swallowing.

    PubMed

    Al-Toubi, Aamir; Daniels, Stephanie K; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee; Corey, David M; Doeltgen, Sebastian H

    2016-10-15

    Primary motor networks are known to be involved in the control of voluntary oral movements as well as the modulation of pharyngeal movements during experimentally controlled single swallows performed on command. The role of these networks in the more typical task of sequential swallowing remains unexplored. This study evaluated the hypothesis that experimental disruption of motor cortical activation would reduce the rate and regularity of repeatedly performed volitional or volitionally initiated motor tasks controlled by corticospinal (finger tapping) and corticobulbar (eyebrow movement, jaw opening, volitional sequential swallowing) motor systems, but would not influence a more reflexive corticobulbar task (reflexive sequential swallowing to pharyngeal water infusion). This premise was investigated in 24 healthy participants using two techniques: a dual task paradigm and a transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm. Disruption effects were quantified by changes in rate and regularity of performance for each tested motor task. In summary, volitional motor tasks controlled by corticospinal motor networks (finger tapping) are more susceptible to behavioural and neurophysiological disruption than tasks controlled by cortiobulbar motor networks containing a reflexive component (both volitional and experimentally initiated consecutive swallowing). Purely volitional motor tasks controlled by the corticobulbar motor system (eyebrow raising or jaw opening) were affected in similar ways as the volitional corticospinal motor tasks. In summary, tasks involving sequential pharyngeal swallowing - whether volitionally or experimentally initiated - are largely robust against disruption of primary cortical motor networks, supporting a key role of medullary CPGs in the motor control of sequential pharyngeal swallowing.

  17. Neurophysiological assessment of perceived image quality using steady-state visual evoked potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, Sebastian; Acqualagna, Laura; Porbadnigk, Anne K.; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Blankertz, Benjamin; Wiegand, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    An approach to the neural measurement of perceived image quality using electroencephalography (EEG) is presented. 6 different images were tested on 6 different distortion levels. The distortions were introduced by a hybrid video encoder. The presented study consists of two parts: In a first part, subjects were asked to evaluate the quality of the test stimuli behaviorally during a conventional psychophysical test using a degradation category rating procedure. In a second part, subjects were presented undistorted and distorted texture images in a periodically alternating fashion at a fixed frequency. This alternating presentation elicits so called steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) as a brain response that can be measured on the scalp. The amplitude of modulations in the brain signals is significantly and strongly negatively correlated with the magnitude of visual impairment reported by the subjects. This neurophysiological approach to image quality assessment may potentially lead to a more objective evaluation, as behavioral approaches suffer from drawbacks such as biases, inter-subject variances and limitations to test duration.

  18. A Pause-then-Cancel model of stopping: evidence from basal ganglia neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert; Berke, Joshua D

    2017-04-19

    Many studies have implicated the basal ganglia in the suppression of action impulses ('stopping'). Here, we discuss recent neurophysiological evidence that distinct hypothesized processes involved in action preparation and cancellation can be mapped onto distinct basal ganglia cell types and pathways. We examine how movement-related activity in the striatum is related to a 'Go' process and how going may be modulated by brief epochs of beta oscillations. We then describe how, rather than a unitary 'Stop' process, there appear to be separate, complementary 'Pause' and 'Cancel' mechanisms. We discuss the implications of these stopping subprocesses for the interpretation of the stop-signal reaction time-in particular, some activity that seems too slow to causally contribute to stopping when assuming a single Stop processes may actually be fast enough under a Pause-then-Cancel model. Finally, we suggest that combining complementary neural mechanisms that emphasize speed or accuracy respectively may serve more generally to optimize speed-accuracy trade-offs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Movement suppression: brain mechanisms for stopping and stillness'.

  19. God will forgive: reflecting on God's love decreases neurophysiological responses to errors.

    PubMed

    Good, Marie; Inzlicht, Michael; Larson, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    In religions where God is portrayed as both loving and wrathful, religious beliefs may be a source of fear as well as comfort. Here, we consider if God's love may be more effective, relative to God's wrath, for soothing distress, but less effective for helping control behavior. Specifically, we assess whether contemplating God's love reduces our ability to detect and emotionally react to conflict between one's behavior and overarching religious standards. We do so within a neurophysiological framework, by observing the effects of exposure to concepts of God's love vs punishment on the error-related negativity (ERN)--a neural signal originating in the anterior cingulate cortex that is associated with performance monitoring and affective responses to errors. Participants included 123 students at Brigham Young University, who completed a Go/No-Go task where they made 'religious' errors (i.e. ostensibly exhibited pro-alcohol tendencies). Reflecting on God's love caused dampened ERNs and worse performance on the Go/No-Go task. Thinking about God's punishment did not affect performance or ERNs. Results suggest that one possible reason religiosity is generally linked to positive well-being may be because of a decreased affective response to errors that occurs when God's love is prominent in the minds of believers.

  20. CUSTOM-FIT RADIOLUCENT CRANIAL IMPLANTS FOR NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL RECORDING AND STIMULATION

    PubMed Central

    Mulliken, Grant H; Bichot, Narcisse P; Ghadooshahy, Azriel; Sharma, Jitendra; Kornblith, Simon; Philcock, Michael; Desimone, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Recording and manipulating neural activity in awake behaving animal models requires long-term implantation of cranial implants that must address a variety of design considerations, which include preventing infection, minimizing tissue damage, mechanical strength of the implant, and MRI compatibility. New Method Here we address these issues by designing legless, custom-fit cranial implants using structural MRI-based reconstruction of the skull and that are made from carbon-reinforced PEEK. Results We report several novel custom-fit radiolucent implant designs, which include a legless recording chamber, a legless stimulation chamber, a multi-channel microdrive and a head post. The fit to the skull was excellent in all cases, with no visible gaps between the base of the implants and the skull. The wound margin was minimal in size and showed no sign of infection or skin recession. Comparison with Existing Methods Cranial implants used for neurophysiological investigation in awake behaving animals often employ methyl methacrylate (MMA) to serve as a bonding agent to secure the implant to the skull. Other designs rely on radially extending legs to secure the implant. Both of these methods have significant drawbacks. MMA is toxic to bone and frequently leads to infection while radially extending legs cause the skin to recede away from the implant, ultimately exposing bone and proliferating granulation tissue. Conclusions These radiolucent implants constitute a set of technologies suitable for reliable long-term recording, which minimize infection and tissue damage. PMID:25542350

  1. Psychophysical and neurophysiological responses to acupuncture stimulation to incorporated rubber hand.

    PubMed

    Chae, Youngbyoung; Lee, In-Seon; Jung, Won-Mo; Park, Kyungmo; Park, Hi-Joon; Wallraven, Christian

    2015-03-30

    From a neuroscientific perspective, the sensations induced by acupuncture are not only the product of the bottom-up modulation of simple needling at somatosensory receptors, but also of the reciprocal interaction of top-down modulation from the brain. The present study investigated whether acupuncture stimulation to incorporated body parts produces brain responses that are similar to the responses observed following acupuncture stimulation to the real hand. The present study included 17 participants who watched a rubber hand being synchronously stroked with their unseen left hand to induce incorporation of the rubber hand into their body. After the experimental modification of body ownership, acupuncture needle stimulation was applied to the LI4 acupoint on the incorporated rubber hand while brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). When the rubber hand was fully incorporated with the real body, acupuncture stimulation to the rubber hand resulted in the experience of the DeQi sensation as well as brain activations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), insula, secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), and medial temporal (MT) visual area. The insular activation was associated with the DeQi sensation from the rubber hand. The psychophysical and neurophysiological responses associated with acupuncture stimulation to the incorporated rubber hand were influenced by an enhanced bodily awareness of the hand, which was likely due to top-down modulation from the interoceptive system in the brain.

  2. Neurophysiological measures of sensory registration, stimulus discrimination, and selection in schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Rissling, Anthony J; Light, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Cortical Neurophysiological event related potentials (ERPs) are multidimensional measures of information processing that are well suited to efficiently parse automatic and controlled components of cognition that span the range of deficits exhibited in schizophrenia patients. Components following a stimulus reflect the sequence of neural processes triggered by the stimulus, beginning with early automatic sensory processes and proceeding through controlled decision and response related processes. Previous studies employing ERP paradigms have reported deficits of information processing in schizophrenia across automatic through attention dependent processes including sensory registration (N1), automatic change detection (MMN), the orienting or covert shift of attention towards novel or infrequent stimuli (P3a), and attentional allocation following successful target detection processes (P3b). These automatic and attention dependent information components are beginning to be recognized as valid targets for intervention in the context of novel treatment development for schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we describe three extensively studied ERP components (N1, mismatch negativity, P300) that are consistently deficient in schizophrenia patients and may serve as genetic endophenotypes and as quantitative biological markers of response outcome.

  3. Rhythm in joint action: psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms for real-time interpersonal coordination

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Peter E.; Novembre, Giacomo; Hove, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Human interaction often requires simultaneous precision and flexibility in the coordination of rhythmic behaviour between individuals engaged in joint activity, for example, playing a musical duet or dancing with a partner. This review article addresses the psychological processes and brain mechanisms that enable such rhythmic interpersonal coordination. First, an overview is given of research on the cognitive-motor processes that enable individuals to represent joint action goals and to anticipate, attend and adapt to other's actions in real time. Second, the neurophysiological mechanisms that underpin rhythmic interpersonal coordination are sought in studies of sensorimotor and cognitive processes that play a role in the representation and integration of self- and other-related actions within and between individuals' brains. Finally, relationships between social–psychological factors and rhythmic interpersonal coordination are considered from two perspectives, one concerning how social-cognitive tendencies (e.g. empathy) affect coordination, and the other concerning how coordination affects interpersonal affiliation, trust and prosocial behaviour. Our review highlights musical ensemble performance as an ecologically valid yet readily controlled domain for investigating rhythm in joint action. PMID:25385772

  4. Neurophysiological signals of ignoring and attending are separable and related to performance during sustained intersensory attention.

    PubMed

    Lenartowicz, Agatha; Simpson, Gregory V; Haber, Catherine M; Cohen, Mark S

    2014-09-01

    The ability to attend to an input selectively while ignoring distracting sensations is thought to depend on the coordination of two processes: enhancement of target signals and attenuation of distractor signals. This implies that attending and ignoring may be dissociable neural processes and that they make separable contributions to behavioral outcomes of attention. In this study, we tested these hypotheses in the context of sustained attention by measuring neurophysiological responses to attended and ignored stimuli in a noncued, continuous, audiovisual selective attention task. We compared these against responses during a passive control to quantify effects of attending and ignoring separately. In both sensory modalities, responses to ignored stimuli were attenuated relative to a passive control, whereas responses to attended stimuli were enhanced. The scalp topographies and brain activations of these modulatory effects were consistent with the sensory regions that process each modality. They also included parietal and prefrontal activations that suggest these effects arise from interactions between top-down and sensory cortices. Most importantly, we found that both attending and ignoring processes contributed to task accuracy and that these effects were not correlated--suggesting unique neural trajectories. This conclusion was supported by the novel observation that attending and ignoring differed in timing and in active cortical regions. The data provide direct evidence for the separable contributions of attending and ignoring to behavioral outcomes of attention control during sustained intersensory attention.

  5. Central pattern generators for social vocalization: androgen-dependent neurophysiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bass, Andrew H; Remage-Healey, Luke

    2008-05-01

    Historically, most studies of vertebrate central pattern generators (CPGs) have focused on mechanisms for locomotion and respiration. Here, we highlight new results for ectothermic vertebrates, namely teleost fish and amphibians, showing how androgenic steroids can influence the temporal patterning of CPGs for social vocalization. Investigations of vocalizing teleosts show how androgens can rapidly (within minutes) modulate the neurophysiological output of the vocal CPG (fictive vocalizations that mimic the temporal properties of natural vocalizations) inclusive of their divergent actions between species, as well as intraspecific differences between male reproductive morphs. Studies of anuran amphibians (frogs) demonstrate that long-term steroid treatments (wks) can masculinize the fictive vocalizations of females, inclusive of its sensitivity to rapid modulation by serotonin. Given the conserved organization of vocal control systems across vertebrate groups, the vocal CPGs of fish and amphibians provide tractable models for identifying androgen-dependent events that are fundamental to the mechanisms of vocal motor patterning. These basic mechanisms can also inform our understanding of the more complex CPGs for vocalization, and social behaviors in general, that have evolved among birds and mammals.

  6. Neurophysiological markers of novelty processing are modulated by COMT and DRD4 genotypes.

    PubMed

    Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Nager, Wido; Krämer, Ulrike M; Cunillera, Toni; Càmara, Estela; Cucurell, David; Schüle, Rebecca; Schöls, Ludger; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2010-11-15

    Humans are faced with the dilemma to maintain a stable cognitive set on the one hand and to be able to redirect and switch attention to novel stimuli of potential importance. The dopaminergic system has been implicated in the balance between these two antagonistic constraints and in particular in novelty processing. Here we studied the impact of two polymorphisms affecting dopaminergic functioning (COMT Val108/158Met and DRD4 SNP -521) on neurophysiological correlates of novelty processing. Recording event-related potentials (ERPs) and oscillatory activity in a modified oddball task that featured infrequent but task-irrelevant novel sounds in addition to frequent standard and rare target tones, we examined participants homozygous for the Met or Val variant of COMT as well as homozygous for the C or T variant of DRD4. We found effects mainly on the P3a component to novel stimuli. A greater P3a amplitude was found for the COMT-ValVal group relative to MetMet. There was a tendency for DRD4-TT participants to show greater P3a amplitude and shorter P3a latency. Finally, DRD4-TT and COMT-ValVal participants showed the greatest increase of theta-power to novel stimuli. By contrast, the P3b component to target stimuli showed little influence of the studied polymorphism. Individual differences in dopaminergic genes explain part of the interindividual variance in the neural correlates of novelty but not target processing.

  7. Cognitive aspects of nociception and pain: bridging neurophysiology with cognitive psychology.

    PubMed

    Legrain, V; Mancini, F; Sambo, C F; Torta, D M; Ronga, I; Valentini, E

    2012-10-01

    The event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by nociceptive stimuli are largely influenced by vigilance, emotion, alertness, and attention. Studies that specifically investigated the effects of cognition on nociceptive ERPs support the idea that most of these ERP components can be regarded as the neurophysiological indexes of the processes underlying detection and orientation of attention toward the eliciting stimulus. Such detection is determined both by the salience of the stimulus that makes it pop out from the environmental context (bottom-up capture of attention) and by its relevance according to the subject's goals and motivation (top-down attentional control). The fact that nociceptive ERPs are largely influenced by information from other sensory modalities such as vision and proprioception, as well as from motor preparation, suggests that these ERPs reflect a cortical system involved in the detection of potentially meaningful stimuli for the body, with the purpose to respond adequately to potential threats. In such a theoretical framework, pain is seen as an epiphenomenon of warning processes, encoded in multimodal and multiframe representations of the body, well suited to guide defensive actions. The findings here reviewed highlight that the ERPs elicited by selective activation of nociceptors may reflect an attentional gain apt to bridge a coherent perception of salient sensory events with action selection processes.

  8. Structural bases for neurophysiological investigations of amygdaloid complex of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Kalimullina, Liliya B.; Kalkamanov, Kh. A.; Akhmadeev, Azat V.; Zakharov, Vadim P.; Sharafullin, Ildus F.

    2015-01-01

    Amygdala (Am) as a part of limbic system of the brain defines such important functions as adaptive behavior of animals, formation of emotions and memory, regulation of endocrine and visceral functions. We worked out, with the help of mathematic modelling of the pattern recognition theory, principles for organization of neurophysiological and neuromorphological studies of Am nuclei, which take into account the existing heterogeneity of its formations and optimize, to a great extent, the protocol for carrying out of such investigations. The given scheme of studies of Am’s structural-functional organization at its highly-informative sections can be used as a guide for precise placement of electrodes’, cannulae’s and microsensors into particular Am nucleus in the brain with the registration not only the nucleus itself, but also its extensions. This information is also important for defining the number of slices covering specific Am nuclei which must be investigated to reveal the physiological role of a particular part of amygdaloid complex. PMID:26608527

  9. From Phenomenology to Neurophysiological Understanding of Hallucinations in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jardri, Renaud; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Debbané, Martin; Jenner, Jack A.; Kelleher, Ian; Dauvilliers, Yves; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Demeulemeester, Morgane; David, Christopher N.; Rapoport, Judith; Dobbelaere, Dries; Escher, Sandra; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Typically reported as vivid, multisensory experiences which may spontaneously resolve, hallucinations are present at high rates during childhood. The risk of associated psychopathology is a major cause of concern. On the one hand, the risk of developing further delusional ideation has been shown to be reduced by better theory of mind skills. On the other hand, ideas of reference, passivity phenomena, and misidentification syndrome have been shown to increase the risk of self-injury or heteroaggressive behaviors. Cognitive psychology and brain-imaging studies have advanced our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these early-onset hallucinations. Notably, specific functional impairments have been associated with certain phenomenological characteristics of hallucinations in youths, including intrusiveness and the sense of reality. In this review, we provide an update of associated epidemiological and phenomenological factors (including sociocultural context, social adversity, and genetics, considered in relation to the psychosis continuum hypothesis), cognitive models, and neurophysiological findings concerning hallucinations in children and adolescents. Key issues that have interfered with progress are considered and recommendations for future studies are provided. PMID:24936083

  10. Return of the living dead: Re-reading Pierre Flourens' contributions to neurophysiology and literature.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Sharman

    2013-01-01

    Historians of neurophysiology remember Marie Jean Pierre Flourens (1794-1867) for his experimental approach to nineteenth-century debates on cortical localization and, in particular, for his successful attacks on Frantz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) phrenology (Gall and Spurzheim, 1810-19). Whereas Gall and his colleague, Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832), posited correlations between features of the skull and brain development and claimed to have localized character traits, competencies and temperaments in specific cortical regions, Flourens advocated cerebral equipotentiality and provided empirical as well as philosophical grounds for his theories. Flourens has also been recognized for his contributions to the understanding of the cerebellum's role in the coordination of movement, the localization of a respiratory center in the medulla oblongata, the relationship between the semicircular canals and balance, the role of the periosteum in bone growth and regeneration, and finally, the anesthetic properties of chloroform. Less known to historians of neuroscience is the fact that Pierre Flourens was not only a neurophysiologist and Secrétaire Perpetuel of the French Académie des Sciences, he was also a member of the Académie Française, France's most prestigious literary academy. Examining Flourens' contributions as a writer and, at the same time, a prime target for criticism and caricature from journalists, yields a particularly interesting example of the problematic relations between different genres of science writing and their respective publics in mid-nineteenth-century France.

  11. Neurophysiological correlates of embodiment and motivational factors during the perception of virtual architectural environments.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Jelic, Andrea; Tieri, Gaetano; Maglione, Anton Giulio; De Matteis, Federico; Babiloni, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    The recent efforts aimed at providing neuroscientific explanations of how people perceive and experience architectural environments have largely justified the initial belief in the value of neuroscience for architecture. However, a systematic development of a coherent theoretical and experimental framework is missing. To investigate the neurophysiological reactions related to the appreciation of ambiances, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in an immersive virtual reality during the appreciation of interior designs. Such data have been analyzed according to the working hypothesis that appreciated environments involve embodied simulation mechanisms and circuits mediating approaching stimuli. EEG recordings of 12 healthy subjects have been performed during the perception of three-dimensional interiors that have been simulated in a CAVE system and judged according to dimensions of familiarity, novelty, comfort, pleasantness, arousal and presence. A correlation analysis on personal judgments returned that scores of novelty, pleasantness and comfort are positively correlated, while familiarity and novelty are in negative way. Statistical spectral maps reveal that pleasant, novel and comfortable interiors produce a de-synchronization of the mu rhythm over left sensorimotor areas. Interiors judged more pleasant and less familiar generate an activation of left frontal areas (theta and alpha bands), along an involvement of areas devoted to spatial navigation. An increase in comfort returns an enhancement of the theta frontal midline activity. Cerebral activations underlying appreciation of architecture could involve different mechanisms regulating corporeal, emotional and cognitive reactions. Therefore, it might be suggested that people's experience of architectural environments is intrinsically structured by the possibilities for action.

  12. Eye-movement assessment of the time course in facial expression recognition: Neurophysiological implications.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Manuel G; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2009-12-01

    Happy, surprised, disgusted, angry, sad, fearful, and neutral faces were presented extrafoveally, with fixations on faces allowed or not. The faces were preceded by a cue word that designated the face to be saccaded in a two-alternative forced-choice discrimination task (2AFC; Experiments 1 and 2), or were followed by a probe word for recognition (Experiment 3). Eye tracking was used to decompose the recognition process into stages. Relative to the other expressions, happy faces (1) were identified faster (as early as 160 msec from stimulus onset) in extrafoveal vision, as revealed by shorter saccade latencies in the 2AFC task; (2) required less encoding effort, as indexed by shorter first fixations and dwell times; and (3) required less decision-making effort, as indicated by fewer refixations on the face after the recognition probe was presented. This reveals a happy-face identification advantage both prior to and during overt attentional processing. The results are discussed in relation to prior neurophysiological findings on latencies in facial expression recognition.

  13. Neurophysiological Organization of the Middle Face Patch in Macaque Inferior Temporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Paul L; Issa, Elias B; DiCarlo, James J

    2016-12-14

    While early cortical visual areas contain fine scale spatial organization of neuronal properties, such as orientation preference, the spatial organization of higher-level visual areas is less well understood. The fMRI demonstration of face-preferring regions in human ventral cortex and monkey inferior temporal cortex ("face patches") raises the question of how neural selectivity for faces is organized. Here, we targeted hundreds of spatially registered neural recordings to the largest fMRI-identified face-preferring region in monkeys, the middle face patch (MFP), and show that the MFP contains a graded enrichment of face-preferring neurons. At its center, as much as 93% of the sites we sampled responded twice as strongly to faces than to nonface objects. We estimate the maximum neurophysiological size of the MFP to be ∼6 mm in diameter, consistent with its previously reported size under fMRI. Importantly, face selectivity in the MFP varied strongly even between neighboring sites. Additionally, extremely face-selective sites were ∼40 times more likely to be present inside the MFP than outside. These results provide the first direct quantification of the size and neural composition of the MFP by showing that the cortical tissue localized to the fMRI defined region consists of a very high fraction of face-preferring sites near its center, and a monotonic decrease in that fraction along any radial spatial axis.

  14. Neurophysiological analysis of the suprachiasmatic nucleus: a challenge at multiple levels.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Johanna H; Michel, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the neurophysiology of the circadian timing system requires investigation at multiple levels of organization. Neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) function as autonomous single-cell oscillators, which warrant studies at the single-cell level. Combining patch-clamp recordings of ion channels with imaging techniques to measure clock gene expression and intracellular calcium has proven extremely valuable to study cellular properties. To achieve and maintain rhythmic activity, SCN neurons require sufficient stimulation (i.e., input) from surrounding cells. At the network level, SCN rhythms are robust and can be measured in vitro, for example, in brain slices that contain the SCN. These recordings revealed that the collective behavior of the SCN neuronal network is strongly determined by the phase dispersal of the neurons. This phase dispersal is plastic, with high synchronization in short photoperiod, desynchronization in long photoperiod, and antiphase oscillations in aging and/or continuous light. In vivo recordings are needed in order to study the SCN as part of a larger network (i.e., interacting with other brain centers) and to study the SCN's response to light. Interestingly, superimposed on the circadian waveform are higher frequency fluctuations that are present in vivo but not in vitro. These fluctuations are attributed to input from other brain centers and computational analyses suggest that these fluctuations are beneficial to the system. Hence, the SCN's properties arise from several organizational levels, and a combination of approaches is needed in order to fully understand the circadian system.

  15. Translational neurophysiology in sheep: measuring sleep and neurological dysfunction in CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep

    PubMed Central

    Perentos, Nicholas; Martins, Amadeu Q.; Watson, Thomas C.; Bartsch, Ullrich; Mitchell, Nadia L.; Palmer, David N.; Jones, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Creating valid mouse models of slowly progressing human neurological diseases is challenging, not least because the short lifespan of rodents confounds realistic modelling of disease time course. With their large brains and long lives, sheep offer significant advantages for translational studies of human disease. Here we used normal and CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep to demonstrate the use of the species for studying neurological function in a model of human disease. We show that electroencephalography can be used in sheep, and that longitudinal recordings spanning many months are possible. This is the first time such an electroencephalography study has been performed in sheep. We characterized sleep in sheep, quantifying characteristic vigilance states and neurophysiological hallmarks such as sleep spindles. Mild sleep abnormalities and abnormal epileptiform waveforms were found in the electroencephalographies of Batten disease affected sheep. These abnormalities resemble the epileptiform activity seen in children with Batten disease and demonstrate the translational relevance of both the technique and the model. Given that both spontaneous and engineered sheep models of human neurodegenerative diseases already exist, sheep constitute a powerful species in which longitudinal in vivo studies can be conducted. This will advance our understanding of normal brain function and improve our capacity for translational research into neurological disorders. PMID:25724202

  16. Neurophysiological evidence of an association between cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes in young children.

    PubMed

    Lo, Sharon L; Schroder, Hans S; Moran, Tim P; Durbin, C Emily; Moser, Jason S

    2015-10-01

    Interactions between cognitive control and affective processes, such as defensive reactivity, are intimately involved in healthy and unhealthy human development. However, cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes are often studied in isolation and rarely examined in early childhood. To address these gaps, we examined the relationships between multiple neurophysiological measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity in young children. Specifically, we assessed two event-related potentials thought to index cognitive control processes--the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe)--measured across two tasks, and two markers of defensive reactivity processes--startle reflex and resting parietal asymmetry--in a sample of 3- to 7-year old children. Results revealed that measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity were related such that evidence of poor cognitive control (smaller ERN) was associated with high defensive reactivity (larger startle and greater right relative to left parietal activity). The strength of associations between the ERN and measures of defensive reactivity did not vary by age, providing evidence that poor cognitive control relates to greater defensive reactivity across early childhood years.

  17. Perisaccadic Updating of Visual Representations and Attentional States: Linking Behavior and Neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Alexandria C.; Mazer, James A.

    2016-01-01

    During natural vision, saccadic eye movements lead to frequent retinal image changes that result in different neuronal subpopulations representing the same visual feature across fixations. Despite these potentially disruptive changes to the neural representation, our visual percept is remarkably stable. Visual receptive field remapping, characterized as an anticipatory shift in the position of a neuron’s spatial receptive field immediately before saccades, has been proposed as one possible neural substrate for visual stability. Many of the specific properties of remapping, e.g., the exact direction of remapping relative to the saccade vector and the precise mechanisms by which remapping could instantiate stability, remain a matter of debate. Recent studies have also shown that visual attention, like perception itself, can be sustained across saccades, suggesting that the attentional control system can also compensate for eye movements. Classical remapping could have an attentional component, or there could be a distinct attentional analog of visual remapping. At this time we do not yet fully understand how the stability of attentional representations relates to perisaccadic receptive field shifts. In this review, we develop a vocabulary for discussing perisaccadic shifts in receptive field location and perisaccadic shifts of attentional focus, review and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological studies of perisaccadic perception and perisaccadic attention, and identify open questions that remain to be experimentally addressed. PMID:26903820

  18. Effects of Auditory Attention Training with the Dichotic Listening Task: Behavioural and Neurophysiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Tallus, Jussi; Soveri, Anna; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Facilitation of general cognitive capacities such as executive functions through training has stirred considerable research interest during the last decade. Recently we demonstrated that training of auditory attention with forced attention dichotic listening not only facilitated that performance but also generalized to an untrained attentional task. In the present study, 13 participants underwent a 4-week dichotic listening training programme with instructions to report syllables presented to the left ear (FL training group). Another group (n = 13) was trained using the non-forced instruction, asked to report whichever syllable they heard the best (NF training group). The study aimed to replicate our previous behavioural results, and to explore the neurophysiological correlates of training through event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We partially replicated our previous behavioural training effects, as the FL training group tended to show more allocation of auditory spatial attention to the left ear in a standard dichotic listening task. ERP measures showed diminished N1 and enhanced P2 responses to dichotic stimuli after training in both groups, interpreted as improvement in early perceptual processing of the stimuli. Additionally, enhanced anterior N2 amplitudes were found after training, with relatively larger changes in the FL training group in the forced-left condition, suggesting improved top-down control on the trained task. These results show that top-down cognitive training can modulate the left-right allocation of auditory spatial attention, accompanied by a change in an evoked brain potential related to cognitive control. PMID:26439112

  19. Microvascular decompression for glossopharyngeal neuralgia using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring: Technical case report

    PubMed Central

    Motoyama, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Takatani, Tsunenori; Park, Hun-Soo; Kotani, Yukiko; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Gurung, Pritam; Park, Young-Soo; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GN) is a rare functional disorder representing around 1% of cases of trigeminal neuralgia. Lancinating throat and ear pain while swallowing are the typical manifestations, and are initially treated using anticonvulsants such as carbamazepine. Medically refractory GN is treated surgically. Microvascular decompression (MVD) is reportedly effective against GN, superseding rhizotomy and tractotomy. Methods: We encountered three patients with medically refractory GN who underwent MVD using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). The offending vessels were the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries, which were confirmed intraoperatively via a transcondylar fossa approach to be affecting the root exit zones of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. As IONM, facial motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and brainstem auditory-evoked potentials were monitored during microsurgery in all three patients. Pharyngeal and vagal MEPs were added for two patients to avoid postoperative dysphagia. Results: GN disappeared immediately after surgery with complete preservation of hearing acuity and facial nerve function. Transient mild swallowing disturbance was observed in 1 patient without pharyngeal or vagal MEPs, whereas the remaining two patients with pharyngeal and vagal MEPs demonstrated no postoperative dysphagia. Conclusion: Although control of severe pain is expected in surgical intervention for GN, lower cranial nerves are easily damaged because of their fragility, even in MVD. IONM including pharyngeal and vagal MEPs appears very useful for avoiding postoperative sequelae during MVD for GN. PMID:26862458

  20. Neurophysiological evidence of an association between cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes in young children

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Sharon L.; Schroder, Hans S.; Moran, Tim P.; Durbin, C. Emily; Moser, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between cognitive control and affective processes, such as defensive reactivity, are intimately involved in healthy and unhealthy human development. However, cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes are often studied in isolation and rarely examined in early childhood. To address these gaps, we examined the relationships between multiple neurophysiological measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity in young children. Specifically, we assessed two event-related potentials thought to index cognitive control processes – the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) – measured across two tasks, and two markers of defensive reactivity processes – startle reflex and resting parietal asymmetry – in a sample of 3- to 7-year old children. Results revealed that measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity were related such that evidence of poor cognitive control (smaller ERN) was associated with high defensive reactivity (larger startle and greater right relative to left parietal activity). The strength of associations between the ERN and measures of defensive reactivity did not vary by age, providing evidence that poor cognitive control relates to greater defensive reactivity across early childhood years. PMID:26386550

  1. Intraoperative neurophysiological mapping and monitoring in spinal tumor surgery: sirens or indispensable tools?

    PubMed

    Scibilia, Antonino; Terranova, Carmen; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Raffa, Giovanni; Morelli, Adolfo; Esposito, Felice; Mallamace, Raffaella; Buda, Gaetano; Conti, Alfredo; Quartarone, Angelo; Germanò, Antonino

    2016-08-01

    Spinal tumor (ST) surgery carries the risk of new neurological deficits in the postoperative period. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring and mapping (IONM) represents an effective method of identifying and monitoring in real time the functional integrity of both the spinal cord (SC) and the nerve roots (NRs). Despite consensus favoring the use of IONM in ST surgery, in this era of evidence-based medicine, there is still a need to demonstrate the effective role of IONM in ST surgery in achieving an oncological cure, optimizing patient safety, and considering medicolegal aspects. Thus, neurosurgeons are asked to establish which techniques are considered indispensable. In the present study, the authors focused on the rationale for and the accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) of IONM in ST surgery in light of more recent evidence in the literature, with specific emphasis on the role of IONM in reducing the incidence of postoperative neurological deficits. This review confirms the role of IONM as a useful tool in the workup for ST surgery. Individual monitoring and mapping techniques are clearly not sufficient to account for the complex function of the SC and NRs. Conversely, multimodal IONM is highly sensitive and specific for anticipating neurological injury during ST surgery and represents an important tool for preserving neuronal structures and achieving an optimal postoperative functional outcome.

  2. Supervisory control system and frontal asymmetry: neurophysiological traits of emotion-based impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Mechin, Nicole C.; Hicks, Joshua A.; Adams, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Approach, avoidance and the supervisory control system are fundamental to human behavior. Much past research has examined the neurophysiological models relating trait approach and avoidance. Using measures of electroencephalographic (EEG) frontal asymmetry, trait approach has been associated with greater left-frontal activity and trait avoidance has been associated with greater right-frontal activity. However, traits related to the supervisory control system have not been previously associated with frontal asymmetry. The current study sought to test whether trait positive urgency, measuring the tendency towards rash action in response to extreme positive emotional states, would relate to frontal alpha asymmetry. One hundred twenty-six individuals completed a measure of positive urgency and resting EEG recordings. Greater positive urgency was associated with greater relative left-frontal EEG activity. Source localization revealed that this relationship appeared to originate from reduced right-frontal activity in the inferior frontal gyrus. These results clarify that the link between frontal asymmetry and positive urgency is related to reduced right-frontal activity. Reduced right-frontal activity may be a potential neurobiological trait related to the supervisory control system. PMID:25678550

  3. Short-term neurophysiologic consequences of intrapartum asphyxia in piglets born by spontaneous parturition.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Gregorio, H; Mota-Rojas, D; Alonso-Spilsbury, M; Olmos-Hernandez, A; Ramirez-Necoechea, R; Velazquez-Armenta, E Y; Nava-Ocampo, A A; Hernandez-Gonzalez, R; Trujillo-Ortega, M E; Villanueva-Garcia, D

    2008-09-01

    Piglets appear to be neurologically sensitive to intrapartum asphyxia. Our aim was to investigate the short-term neurophysiologic consequences of intrapartum asphyxia in piglets. We studied 10 piglets suffering intrapartum asphyxia and 10 control piglets. Glucose and blood gas levels, tympanic membrane temperature, and body weight were measured within the first 2 min after birth. Animals were followed up for a 5-day period. As surrogated markers of piglets' neurological function, a viability score and the time elapsed from birth to the first contact with the maternal udder were recorded. In the control group, temperature and blood pH levels at birth were significantly higher (p < or = .001), whereas calcium, lactate and PCO2 levels were statistically lower (p < or = .05) than in the piglets experiencing intrapartum asphyxia. Lower temperature and blood pH levels as well as higher blood PCO2 and lactate levels were observed in piglets with lower viability scores and in piglets with prolonged times until first udder contact. At the end of the study, asphyxiated piglets weighed on average 200 g less (p = .023) than control piglets. In conclusion, intrapartum asphyxia in spontaneously born piglets was associated with signs of acute neurological dysfunction and lower weight gain, supporting the hypothesis that they may be used as a naturalistic model for the study of asphyxia in newborns.

  4. Structural bases for neurophysiological investigations of amygdaloid complex of the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalimullina, Liliya B.; Kalkamanov, Kh. A.; Akhmadeev, Azat V.; Zakharov, Vadim P.; Sharafullin, Ildus F.

    2015-11-01

    Amygdala (Am) as a part of limbic system of the brain defines such important functions as adaptive behavior of animals, formation of emotions and memory, regulation of endocrine and visceral functions. We worked out, with the help of mathematic modelling of the pattern recognition theory, principles for organization of neurophysiological and neuromorphological studies of Am nuclei, which take into account the existing heterogeneity of its formations and optimize, to a great extent, the protocol for carrying out of such investigations. The given scheme of studies of Am’s structural-functional organization at its highly-informative sections can be used as a guide for precise placement of electrodes’, cannulae’s and microsensors into particular Am nucleus in the brain with the registration not only the nucleus itself, but also its extensions. This information is also important for defining the number of slices covering specific Am nuclei which must be investigated to reveal the physiological role of a particular part of amygdaloid complex.

  5. Neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of cognitive control during low and moderate intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Olson, Ryan L; Chang, Yu-Kai; Brush, Christopher J; Kwok, Andrea N; Gordon, Valentina X; Alderman, Brandon L

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of cognitive control elicited by a modified flanker task while exercising at low and moderate intensities. A secondary aim was to examine cognitive control processes at several time points during an acute bout of exercise to determine whether cognition is selectively influenced by the duration of exercise. Twenty-seven healthy participants completed a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task while exercising on a cycle ergometer at 40% and 60% VO2 peak and during a no-exercise seated control across three separate days. During task performance, continuous EEG was collected to assess neurocognitive function using the N2 and P3 event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Neurocognitive performance was assessed at 5, 15, and 25min time points during steady-state exercise. Regardless of intensity, behavioral findings revealed impaired accuracy during both exercise conditions for the flanker task trials that require greater cognitive control. However, faster reaction times were found during moderate-intensity exercise. Neuroelectric measures revealed increased N2 and P3 amplitudes during both exercise conditions relative to rest. Together, these findings suggest divergent effects of exercise on behavioral performance measures accompanied by an upregulation of cognitive control during aerobic exercise. These impairments are discussed in terms of dual-task paradigms and the transient hypofrontality theory.

  6. LRRK2 mouse models: dissecting the behavior, striatal neurochemistry and neurophysiology of PD pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Volta, Mattia; Melrose, Heather

    2017-02-08

    Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common genetic cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD), resembling the sporadic disorder. Intensive effort has been directed toward LRRK2 mouse modeling and investigation, aimed at reproducing the human disease to inform mechanistic studies of pathogenesis and design of neuroprotective therapies. The physiological function of LRRK2 is still under exploration, but a clear role in striatal neurophysiology and animal behavior has emerged. Alterations in LRRK2 impair dopamine (DA) transmission, regulation and signaling, in addition to corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. Consistently, several subtle abnormalities in motor and nonmotor abilities have been demonstrated in LRRK2 genetic mouse models, generally paralleling preclinical symptoms of early DA dysfunction. However, the variability in model design and phenotypes observed requires a critical approach in interpreting the results, adapting the model used to the specific research question. Etiologically appropriate knockin mice might represent the ultimate animal model in which to study early disease mechanisms and therapies as well as to investigate drug effectiveness and off-target consequences.

  7. Further dissection of a genomic locus associated with behavioral activity in the Wistar-Kyoto hyperactive rat, an animal model of hyperkinesis.

    PubMed

    Moisan, M-P; Llamas, B; Cook, M N; Mormède, P

    2003-03-01

    Molecular genetic studies of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are a major focus of current research since this syndrome has been shown to be highly heritable.(1) Our approach has been to search for quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a genetic animal model of hyperkinesis, the Wistar-Kyoto hyperactive (WKHA) rat, by a whole-genome scan analysis. In a previous article, we reported the detection of a major QTL associated with behavioral activity in an F2 cross between WKHA and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strains.(2) Here, we extend our analysis of this cross by adding new genetic markers, now defining a 10 cM interval on rat chromosome 8 associated with ambulatory and exploratory activities. Then we present a replication of this QTL detection, at least for exploratory activity, by a new genetic mapping analysis of an activity QTL in an F2 cross between the WKHA and Brown Norway (BN) rat strains. Overall, the results provide compelling evidence for the presence of gene(s) influencing activity at this locus. The QTL interval has been refined such that the human orthologous region could be defined and tested in human populations for association with ADHD. Ultimately, the improved dissection of this genomic locus should allow the identification of the causal genes.

  8. The relationship between 1-deoxynojirimycin content and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity in leaves of 276 mulberry cultivars (Morus spp.) in Kyoto, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yatsunami, Kazuhisa; Ichida, Masatoshi; Onodera, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) content and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity in mulberry (Morus) leaves is discussed. Mulberry leaves were collected from the Center for Bioresource Field Science, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto, Japan on 19 May, 9 July, and 9 August, 2003. Mulberry leaves were extracted with 75% ethanol. The inhibitory activity for rat intestinal crude enzyme was measured using maltose. The content of DNJ in the extracts was measured using HPLC. The mean DNJ content in the 0.04-0.06% range was high in collected samples. The inhibitory activities in July and August were higher (P < 0.01) than in May, and the activity in July was higher (P < 0.01) than in August. A strong correlation (r = 0.901, r (2) = 0.811, n = 15) existed between DNJ content and alpha-glucosidase inhibition in leaves of Morus bombycis harvested in July. Similarly, correlation coefficients of the other mulberry varieties in July were higher than they were in May or August. The inhibitory activity and the DNJ content of Morus latifolia in August were lower than for any other mulberry variety. These results show that the high inhibitory cultivars harvested in July, except for M. latifolia, are more suited to products that contain high DNJ contents.

  9. Neurophysiological measures of working memory and individual differences in cognitive ability and cognitive style.

    PubMed

    Gevins, A; Smith, M E

    2000-09-01

    The capacity to deliberately control attention in order to hold and manipulate information in working memory is critical to higher cognitive functions. This suggests that between-subject differences in general cognitive ability might be related to observable differences in the activity of brain systems that support working memory and attention control. To test this notion, electroencephalograms were recorded from 80 healthy young adults during spatial working memory tasks. Measures of task-related neurophysiological and behavioral variables were derived from these data and compared to scores on a test battery commonly used to assess general cognitive ability (the WAIS-R). Subjects who scored high on the psychometric test also tended to respond faster in the experimental tasks without any loss of accuracy. The amplitude of the late positive component of the event-related potential was larger in high-ability subjects, and the frontal midline theta component of the EEG signal was also selectively enhanced in this group under conditions of sustained performance and high working memory load. These results suggest that subjects who scored high on the WAIS-R were better able to focus and sustain attention to task performance. Changes in the EEG alpha rhythm in response to manipulations of task practice and load were also examined and compared between frontal and parietal regions. The results indicated that high-ability subjects developed strategies that made relatively greater use of parietal regions, whereas low-ability subjects relied more exclusively on frontal regions. Other analyses indicated that hemispheric asymmetries in alpha band measures distinguish between individuals with relatively high verbal aptitude and those with relatively high nonverbal aptitude. In particular, subjects with a verbal cognitive style tended to make greater use of the left parietal region during task performance, and subjects with a nonverbal style tended to make greater use of the right

  10. Neurophysiological Defects and Neuronal Gene Deregulation in Drosophila mir-124 Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kailiang; Westholm, Jakub Orzechowski; Tsurudome, Kazuya; Hagen, Joshua W.; Lu, Yubing; Kohwi, Minoree; Betel, Doron; Gao, Fen-Biao; Haghighi, A. Pejmun; Doe, Chris Q.; Lai, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    miR-124 is conserved in sequence and neuronal expression across the animal kingdom and is predicted to have hundreds of mRNA targets. Diverse defects in neural development and function were reported from miR-124 antisense studies in vertebrates, but a nematode knockout of mir-124 surprisingly lacked detectable phenotypes. To provide genetic insight from Drosophila, we deleted its single mir-124 locus and found that it is dispensable for gross aspects of neural specification and differentiation. On the other hand, we detected a variety of mutant phenotypes that were rescuable by a mir-124 genomic transgene, including short lifespan, increased dendrite variation, impaired larval locomotion, and aberrant synaptic release at the NMJ. These phenotypes reflect extensive requirements of miR-124 even under optimal culture conditions. Comparison of the transcriptomes of cells from wild-type and mir-124 mutant animals, purified on the basis of mir-124 promoter activity, revealed broad upregulation of direct miR-124 targets. However, in contrast to the proposed mutual exclusion model for miR-124 function, its functional targets were relatively highly expressed in miR-124–expressing cells and were not enriched in genes annotated with epidermal expression. A notable aspect of the direct miR-124 network was coordinate targeting of five positive components in the retrograde BMP signaling pathway, whose activation in neurons increases synaptic release at the NMJ, similar to mir-124 mutants. Derepression of the direct miR-124 target network also had many secondary effects, including over-activity of other post-transcriptional repressors and a net incomplete transition from a neuroblast to a neuronal gene expression signature. Altogether, these studies demonstrate complex consequences of miR-124 loss on neural gene expression and neurophysiology. PMID:22347817

  11. Evolution of the binge drinking pattern in college students: neurophysiological correlates.

    PubMed

    López-Caneda, Eduardo; Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Corral, Montserrat; Doallo, Sonia; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    It is well known that alcohol impairs response inhibition and that adolescence is a critical period of neuromaturation where cognitive processes such as inhibitory control are still developing. In recent years, growing evidence has shown the negative consequences of alcohol binge drinking on the adolescent and young human brain. However, the effects of cessation of binge drinking on brain function remain unexplored. The objective of the present study was to examine brain activity during response execution and inhibition in young binge drinkers in relation to the progression of their drinking habits over time. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by a Go/NoGo task were recorded twice within a 2-year interval in 57 undergraduate students (25 controls, 22 binge drinkers, and 10 ex-binge drinkers) with no personal or family history of alcoholism or psychopathological disorders. The results showed that the amplitude of NoGo-P3 over the frontal region correlated with an earlier age of onset of regular drinking as well as with greater quantity and speed of alcohol consumption. Regression analysis showed that NoGo-P3 amplitude was significantly predicted by the speed of alcohol intake and the age of onset of regular drinking. The group comparisons showed that, after maintaining a binge drinking pattern for at least 2 years, binge drinkers displayed significantly larger NoGo-P3 amplitudes than controls, whereas ex-binge drinkers were in an intermediate position between the two other groups (with no significant differences with respect to controls or binge drinkers). These findings suggest that binge drinking in young people may impair the neural functioning related to inhibitory processes, and that the cessation of binge drinking may act as a brake on the neurophysiological impairments related to response inhibition.

  12. Using Movement to Regulate Emotion: Neurophysiological Findings and Their Application in Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shafir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation is a person’s active attempt to manage their emotional state by enhancing or decreasing specific feelings. Peripheral theories of emotion argue that the origins of emotions stem from bodily responses. This notion has been reformulated in neurophysiological terms by Damasio, who claimed that emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with conscious feelings. This proposition implies that through deliberate control of motor behavior and its consequent proprioception and interoception, one could regulate his emotions and affect his feelings. This concept is used in dance/movement (psycho)therapy where, by guiding to move in a certain way, the therapist helps the client to evoke, process, and regulate specific emotions. Exploration and practice of new and unfamiliar motor patterns can help the client to experience new unaccustomed feelings. The idea that certain motor qualities enhance specific emotions is utilized by the therapist also when she mirrors the client’s movements or motor qualities in order to feel what the client feels, and empathize with them. Because of the mirror neurons, feeling what the client feels is enabled also through observation and imagination of their movements and posture. This principle can be used by verbal therapists as well, who should be aware of its bi-directionality: clients seeing the therapist’s motor behavior are unconsciously affected by the therapist’s bodily expressions. Additional implications for psychotherapy, of findings regarding mirror neurons activation, are discussed. PMID:27721801

  13. Principal components of hand kinematics and neurophysiological signals in motor cortex during reach to grasp movements

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vikram; Thakor, Nitish V.; Schieber, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    A few kinematic synergies identified by principal component analysis (PCA) account for most of the variance in the coordinated joint rotations of the fingers and wrist used for a wide variety of hand movements. To examine the possibility that motor cortex might control the hand through such synergies, we collected simultaneous kinematic and neurophysiological data from monkeys performing a reach-to-grasp task. We used PCA, jPCA and isomap to extract kinematic synergies from 18 joint angles in the fingers and wrist and analyzed the relationships of both single-unit and multiunit spike recordings, as well as local field potentials (LFPs), to these synergies. For most spike recordings, the maximal absolute cross-correlations of firing rates were somewhat stronger with an individual joint angle than with any principal component (PC), any jPC or any isomap dimension. In decoding analyses, where spikes and LFP power in the 100- to 170-Hz band each provided better decoding than other LFP-based signals, the first PC was decoded as well as the best decoded joint angle. But the remaining PCs and jPCs were predicted with lower accuracy than individual joint angles. Although PCs, jPCs or isomap dimensions might provide a more parsimonious description of kinematics, our findings indicate that the kinematic synergies identified with these techniques are not represented in motor cortex more strongly than the original joint angles. We suggest that the motor cortex might act to sculpt the synergies generated by subcortical centers, superimposing an ability to individuate finger movements and adapt the hand to grasp a wide variety of objects. PMID:24990564

  14. A neurophysiological basis for the coordination between hand and foot movement.

    PubMed

    McIntyre-Robinson, Andrew J K; Byblow, Winston D

    2013-09-01

    Hand and foot movements are made more reliably when both limbs move in the same direction at the same time (isodirectional) compared with when they are made in opposite directions (anisodirectional). We hypothesized that M1 intracortical facilitation may subserve hand-foot coordination and reveal correlates that explain the preference for hand-foot movements to be performed in an isodirectional pattern. To test our hypothesis we investigated behavioral kinematics of hand-foot coordination (experiment 1) and neurophysiological measures of corticomotor excitability and intracortical facilitation (experiment 2) in 17 healthy young adults. As expected, coordination became unstable in the anisodirectional pattern but not the isodirectional pattern, as confirmed in measures of wrist and ankle relative phase error and stability (both P < 0.001). Short-latency paired-pulse TMS was used to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and produce short-latency intracortical facilitation (sICF) in right extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR) in the presence and absence of right ankle plantarflexion/dorsiflexion (P < 0.015). An isodirectional preference was confirmed by facilitation of FCR MEPs and TMS-induced wrist flexion during ankle plantarflexion (both P < 0.025) but no evidence of modulation of any particular "I wave" during foot movement compared with rest. A novel finding was the association between loss of stability of the anisodirectional pattern (experiment 1) and the modulation of corticomotor excitability in support of the isodirectional pattern (experiment 2) (P < 0.05). The preference for isodirectional hand-foot movements appears not to depend on M1 intracortical facilitation.

  15. A systematic review of the neurophysiology of mindfulness on EEG oscillations.

    PubMed

    Lomas, Tim; Ivtzan, Itai; Fu, Cynthia H Y

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness meditation has been purported to be a beneficial practice for wellbeing. It would therefore be expected that the neurophysiology of mindfulness would reflect this impact on wellbeing. However, investigations of the effects of mindfulness have generated mixed reports of increases, decreases, as well as no differences in EEG oscillations in comparison with a resting state and a variety of tasks. We have performed a systematic review of EEG studies of mindfulness meditation in order to determine any common effects and to identify factors which may impact on the effects. Databases were reviewed from 1966 to August 2015. Eligibility criteria included empirical quantitative analyses of mindfulness meditation practice and EEG measurements acquired in relation to practice. A total of 56 papers met the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review, consisting of a total 1715 subjects: 1358 healthy individuals and 357 individuals with psychiatric diagnoses. Studies were principally examined for power outcomes in each bandwidth, in particular the power differentials between mindfulness and a control state, as well as outcomes relating to hemispheric asymmetry and event-related potentials. The systematic review revealed that mindfulness was most commonly associated with enhanced alpha and theta power as compared to an eyes closed resting state, although such outcomes were not uniformly reported. No consistent patterns were observed with respect to beta, delta and gamma bandwidths. In summary, mindfulness is associated with increased alpha and theta power in both healthy individuals and in patient groups. This co-presence of elevated alpha and theta may signify a state of relaxed alertness which is conducive to mental health.

  16. From Positivity to Negativity Bias: Ambiguity Affects the Neurophysiological Signatures of Feedback Processing.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Henning; Schnuerch, Robert; Stahl, Jutta

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies on the neurophysiological underpinnings of feedback processing almost exclusively used low-ambiguity feedback, which does not fully address the diversity of situations in everyday life. We therefore used a pseudo trial-and-error learning task to investigate ERPs of low- versus high-ambiguity feedback. Twenty-eight participants tried to deduce the rule governing visual feedback to their button presses in response to visual stimuli. In the blocked condition, the same two feedback words were presented across several consecutive trials, whereas in the random condition feedback was randomly drawn on each trial from sets of five positive and five negative words. The feedback-related negativity (FRN-D), a frontocentral ERP difference between negative and positive feedback, was significantly larger in the blocked condition, whereas the centroparietal late positive complex indicating controlled attention was enhanced for negative feedback irrespective of condition. Moreover, FRN-D in the blocked condition was due to increased reward positivity (Rew-P) for positive feedback, rather than increased (raw) FRN for negative feedback. Our findings strongly support recent lines of evidence that the FRN-D, one of the most widely studied signatures of reinforcement learning in the human brain, critically depends on feedback discriminability and is primarily driven by the Rew-P. A novel finding concerned larger frontocentral P2 for negative feedback in the random but not the blocked condition. Although Rew-P points to a positivity bias in feedback processing under conditions of low feedback ambiguity, P2 suggests a specific adaptation of information processing in case of highly ambiguous feedback, involving an early negativity bias. Generalizability of the P2 findings was demonstrated in a second experiment using explicit valence categorization of highly emotional positive and negative adjectives.

  17. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF MODERATE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN OLDER AND YOUNGER SOCIAL DRINKERS

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ben; Boissoneault, Jeff; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nearly 40% of adults aged 65 and older in the United States consume alcohol. Research in older adults has largely examined potential health effects of a moderate drinking lifestyle. Examination of acute effects in this population is generally lacking. To investigate alcohol-induced alteration of electrophysiological correlates of attention in this population, we employed a covert attentional task. We hypothesized that moderate alcohol administration as well as older age would reduce P3 amplitude and increase latency. We anticipated an interaction such that, relative to their age-matched controls, older adults receiving alcohol would be more affected than their younger counterparts. Methods Participants included healthy older (aged 50–67; n = 20; 9 men) and younger (aged 25–35; n = 12; 5 men) moderate drinkers. Participants received either a moderate dose of alcohol (breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] ~50 mg/dl) or a placebo beverage. Following absorption, the task was administered and neurophysiological measures were obtained. P3 amplitude and latency were separately subjected to ANOVA across cue conditions using age and dose as independent variables. Results As predicted, P3 amplitude in older adults was significantly lower than younger adults across cue conditions. An age by alcohol interaction was detected, revealing that older adults receiving alcohol showed lower P3 amplitudes than any other group. An age effect for P3 latency was found, with older adults having longer latencies than their younger counterparts. A significant age by alcohol interaction for P3 latency was detected, revealing that older adults receiving alcohol displayed delayed P3 latencies relative to older adults receiving placebo. In contrast, younger adults receiving alcohol had reduced latency compared to those receiving placebo although this effect did not reach significance. Conclusions Results suggest that older adults demonstrated alcohol related shifts in P3

  18. Neurophysiologic effects of chemical agent hydrolysis products on cortical neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pancrazio, J J; Keefer, E W; Ma, W; Stenger, D A; Gross, G W

    2001-06-01

    The neurophysiologic effects of chemical agent hydrolysis products were examined on cultured cortical neurons using multielectrode array (MEA) recording and the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Measurement of neuronal network extracellular potentials showed that the primary hydrolysis product of soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA), inhibited network mean burst and spike rates with an EC50 of approximately 2 mM. In contrast, the degradation product of sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA), and the final common hydrolysis product of both soman and sarin, methylphosphonic acid (MPA), failed to affect neuronal network behavior at concentrations reaching 5 mM. Closer examination of the effects of PMPA (2 mM) on discriminated extracellular units revealed that mean spike amplitude was slightly diminished to 95 +/- 1% (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 6, P < 0.01) of control. Whole-cell patch clamp records under current clamp mode also showed a PMPA-induced depression of the firing rate of spontaneous action potentials (APs) to 36 +/- 6% (n = 5, P < 0.001) of control. In addition, a minor depression with exposure to PMPA was observed in spontaneous and evoked AP amplitude to 93 +/- 3% (n = 5, P < 0.05) of control with no change in either the baseline membrane potential or input resistance. Preliminary voltage clamp recordings indicated a reduction in the occurrence of spontaneous inward currents with application of PMPA. These findings suggest that PMPA, unlike MPA or IMPA, may more readily interfere with one or more aspects of excitatory synaptic transmission. Furthermore, the data demonstrate that the combination of extracellular microelectrode array and patch clamp recording techniques facilitates analysis of compounds with neuropharmacologic effects.

  19. Development of nap neurophysiology: preliminary insights into sleep regulation in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Salome; Lassonde, Jonathan M; Pierpoint, Lauren A; Rusterholz, Thomas; Jenni, Oskar G; McClain, Ian J; Achermann, Peter; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2016-12-01

    Although all young children nap, the neurophysiological features and associated developmental trajectories of daytime sleep remain largely unknown. Longitudinal studies of napping physiology are fundamental to understanding sleep regulation during early childhood, a sensitive period in brain and behaviour development and a time when children transition from a biphasic to a monophasic sleep-wakefulness pattern. We investigated daytime sleep in eight healthy children with sleep electroencephalography (EEG) assessments at three longitudinal points: 2 years (2.5-3.0 years), 3 years (3.5-4.0 years) and 5 years (5.5-6.0 years). At each age, we measured nap EEG during three randomized conditions: after 4 h (morning nap), 7 h (afternoon nap) and 10 h (evening nap) duration of prior wakefulness. Developmental changes in sleep were most prevalent in the afternoon nap (e.g. decrease in sleep duration by 30 min from 2 to 3 years and by 20 min from 3 to 5 years). In contrast, nap sleep architecture (% of sleep stages) remained unchanged across age. Maturational changes in non-rapid eye movement sleep EEG power were pronounced in the slow wave activity (SWA, 0.75-4.5 Hz), theta (4.75-7.75 Hz) and sigma (10-15 Hz) frequency ranges. These findings indicate that the primary marker of sleep depth, SWA, is less apparent in daytime naps as children mature. Moreover, our fundamental data provide insight into associations between sleep regulation and functional modifications in the central nervous system during early childhood.

  20. Neurophysiological evidence for whole form retrieval of complex derived words: a mismatch negativity study

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Jeff; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Complex words can be seen as combinations of elementary units, decomposable into stems and affixes according to morphological rules. Alternatively, complex forms may be stored as single lexical entries and accessed as whole forms. This study uses an event-related potential brain response capable of indexing both whole-form retrieval and combinatorial processing, the Mismatch Negativity (MMN), to investigate early brain activity elicited by morphologically complex derived words in German. We presented complex words consisting of stems “sicher” (secure), or “sauber” (clean) combined with abstract nominalizing derivational affixes -heit or -keit, to form either congruent derived words: “Sicherheit” (security) and “Sauberkeit” (cleanliness), or incongruent derived pseudowords: *“Sicherkeit”, and *“Sauberheit”. Using this orthogonal design, it was possible to record brain responses for -heit and -keit in both congruent and incongruent contexts, therefore balancing acoustic variance. Previous research has shown that incongruent combinations of symbols elicit a stronger MMN than congruent combinations, but that single words or constructions stored as whole forms elicit a stronger MMN than pseudowords or non-existent constructions. We found that congruent derived words elicited a stronger MMN than incongruent derived words, beginning about 150 ms after perception of the critical morpheme. This pattern of results is consistent with whole-form storage of morphologically complex derived words as lexical units, or mini-constructions. Using distributed source localization methods, the MMN enhancement for well-formed derivationally complex words appeared to be most prominent in the left inferior anterior-temporal, bilateral superior parietal and bilateral post-central, supra-marginal areas. In addition, neurophysiological results reflected the frequency of derived forms, thus providing further converging evidence for whole form storage and against a

  1. Neurophysiological Effects of Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Adults, a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Klumpers, Ursula M. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Kloet, Reina W.; Boellaard, Ronald; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Total sleep deprivation (TSD) may induce fatigue, neurocognitive slowing and mood changes, which are partly compensated by stress regulating brain systems, resulting in altered dopamine and cortisol levels in order to stay awake if needed. These systems, however, have never been studied in concert. At baseline, after a regular night of sleep, and the next morning after TSD, 12 healthy subjects performed a semantic affective classification functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task, followed by a [11C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) scan. Saliva cortisol levels were acquired at 7 time points during both days. Affective symptoms were measured using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) and visual analogue scales. After TSD, perceived energy levels, concentration, and speed of thought decreased significantly, whereas mood did not. During fMRI, response speed decreased for neutral words and positive targets, and accuracy decreased trendwise for neutral words and for positive targets with a negative distracter. Following TSD, processing of positive words was associated with increased left dorsolateral prefrontal activation. Processing of emotional words in general was associated with increased insular activity, whereas contrasting positive vs. negative words showed subthreshold increased activation in the (para)hippocampal area. Cortisol secretion was significantly lower after TSD. Decreased voxel-by-voxel [11C]raclopride binding potential (BPND) was observed in left caudate. TSD induces widespread cognitive, neurophysiologic and endocrine changes in healthy adults, characterized by reduced cognitive functioning, despite increased regional brain activity. The blunted HPA-axis response together with altered [11C]raclopride binding in the basal ganglia indicate that sustained wakefulness requires involvement of additional adaptive biological systems. PMID:25608023

  2. Effects of 0. 6-Gy prenatal X irradiation on postnatal neurophysiologic development in the Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1986-04-01

    Forty-one pregnant Wistar strain rats were irradiated with 0.6-Gy X rays or were sham irradiated on the 9th or 17th days of gestation to determine if this dosage level would result in alterations in postnatal neurophysiologic development. Half of the mothers were sacrificed at term, and the developmental status of 221 newborns was evaluated. The remaining mothers delivered and raised their litters. The 161 offspring were observed for the age of attainment of the following physiologic parameters: pinna detachment, eye opening, testes opening. Offspring were also tested for the acquisition of the following selected reflexes: surface righting, negative geotaxis, auditory startle, air righting, and visual placing. Term fetal weight was lower than the controls in the group irradiated on the 9th day but was recuperable postnatally. None of the 9 developmental tests performed postnatally were abnormal in the animals irradiated on the 9th day. Thus, at least with regard to these measures, the surviving embryos exposed during the all-or-none period could not be differentiated from the controls. Offspring irradiated on the 17th day exhibited retarded growth which persisted during neonatal life. The three-day-mean neonatal weight was significantly lower in the group irradiated on the 17th day compared to controls. There were no significant maternal body weight or organ/weight differences between the groups. Rats exposed in utero on the 17th day had a significantly delayed acquisition of air righting. These results demonstrate that 0.6-Gy in utero irradiation on the 17th day of gestation can cause subtle alterations in growth and development of the Wistar strain rat during postnatal life.

  3. Accuracy of pedicle screw placement using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Korres, Demetrios S; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Sakas, Damianos E; Pneumaticos, Spiros

    2009-01-01

    Fifty consecutive patients with posterior thoracolumbar spine fusion were included in a prospective study to determine the accuracy of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) for safe pedicle screw placement using postoperative computed tomography (CT). The patients were allocated into two equal groups. Pedicle screw placement was evaluated intraoperatively by using the image intensifier. In group A, the integrity of the pedicle wall was evaluated intraoperatively with monopolar stimulation of each screw head with a hand-held single-tip stimulator; the compound muscle action potentials were recorded. A constant current threshold of 7 mA was considered indicative of pedicle breach; < 7 mA was considered as direct contact with neural elements, and > 7mA was considered normal. In group B, pedicle screw placement was performed without IONM. Overall, 306 pedicle screws were inserted in both groups. Postoperatively, all patients underwent CT scans of the spine to evaluate pedicle screw placement. Intraoperatively, five screws in respective group A patients had to be repositioned after IONM (threshold of < 7 mA); in these patients, postoperative CT scans showed proper screw placement. Postoperative CT scans showed eight misdirected screws; two screws (1.26%) in group A patients and six screws (4%) in group B patients. Two screws were misdirected through the medial pedicle wall and six screws were misdirected through the lateral pedicle wall. Both medially misdirected screws were observed in group B patients (1.35%); these patients developed neurologic symptoms postoperatively and underwent revision surgery, with redirection of the misdirected screws and subsequent resolution of the neurologic symptoms. Two of the six laterally misdirected screws were observed in group A patients (1.26%); the remaining four laterally misdirected screws were observed in group B patients (2.7%). None of these patients had neurologic sequelae; no revision surgery was required. The

  4. Testing interactive effects of automatic and conflict control processes during response inhibition - A system neurophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Witold X; Beste, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In everyday life successful acting often requires to inhibit automatic responses that might not be appropriate in the current situation. These response inhibition processes have been shown to become aggravated with increasing automaticity of pre-potent response tendencies. Likewise, it has been shown that inhibitory processes are complicated by a concurrent engagement in additional cognitive control processes (e.g. conflicting monitoring). Therefore, opposing processes (i.e. automaticity and cognitive control) seem to strongly impact response inhibition. However, possible interactive effects of automaticity and cognitive control for the modulation of response inhibition processes have yet not been examined. In the current study we examine this question using a novel experimental paradigm combining a Go/NoGo with a Simon task in a system neurophysiological approach combining EEG recordings with source localization analyses. The results show that response inhibition is less accurate in non-conflicting than in conflicting stimulus-response mappings. Thus it seems that conflicts and the resulting engagement in conflict monitoring processes, as reflected in the N2 amplitude, may foster response inhibition processes. This engagement in conflict monitoring processes leads to an increase in cognitive control, as reflected by an increased activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate areas, while simultaneously the automaticity of response tendencies is decreased. Most importantly, this study suggests that the quality of conflict processes in anterior cingulate areas and especially the resulting interaction of cognitive control and automaticity of pre-potent response tendencies are important factors to consider, when it comes to the modulation of response inhibition processes.

  5. Principal components of hand kinematics and neurophysiological signals in motor cortex during reach to grasp movements.

    PubMed

    Mollazadeh, Mohsen; Aggarwal, Vikram; Thakor, Nitish V; Schieber, Marc H

    2014-10-15

    A few kinematic synergies identified by principal component analysis (PCA) account for most of the variance in the coordinated joint rotations of the fingers and wrist used for a wide variety of hand movements. To examine the possibility that motor cortex might control the hand through such synergies, we collected simultaneous kinematic and neurophysiological data from monkeys performing a reach-to-grasp task. We used PCA, jPCA and isomap to extract kinematic synergies from 18 joint angles in the fingers and wrist and analyzed the relationships of both single-unit and multiunit spike recordings, as well as local field potentials (LFPs), to these synergies. For most spike recordings, the maximal absolute cross-correlations of firing rates were somewhat stronger with an individual joint angle than with any principal component (PC), any jPC or any isomap dimension. In decoding analyses, where spikes and LFP power in the 100- to 170-Hz band each provided better decoding than other LFP-based signals, the first PC was decoded as well as the best decoded joint angle. But the remaining PCs and jPCs were predicted with lower accuracy than individual joint angles. Although PCs, jPCs or isomap dimensions might provide a more parsimonious description of kinematics, our findings indicate that the kinematic synergies identified with these techniques are not represented in motor cortex more strongly than the original joint angles. We suggest that the motor cortex might act to sculpt the synergies generated by subcortical centers, superimposing an ability to individuate finger movements and adapt the hand to grasp a wide variety of objects.

  6. Insight into the neurophysiological processes of melodically intoned language with functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Méndez Orellana, Carolina P; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke E; Saliasi, Emi; van der Meulen, Ineke; Klip, Simone; van der Lugt, Aad; Smits, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Background Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) uses the melodic elements of speech to improve language production in severe nonfluent aphasia. A crucial element of MIT is the melodically intoned auditory input: the patient listens to the therapist singing a target utterance. Such input of melodically intoned language facilitates production, whereas auditory input of spoken language does not. Methods Using a sparse sampling fMRI sequence, we examined the differential auditory processing of spoken and melodically intoned language. Nineteen right-handed healthy volunteers performed an auditory lexical decision task in an event related design consisting of spoken and melodically intoned meaningful and meaningless items. The control conditions consisted of neutral utterances, either melodically intoned or spoken. Results Irrespective of whether the items were normally spoken or melodically intoned, meaningful items showed greater activation in the supramarginal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, predominantly in the left hemisphere. Melodically intoned language activated both temporal lobes rather symmetrically, as well as the right frontal lobe cortices, indicating that these regions are engaged in the acoustic complexity of melodically intoned stimuli. Compared to spoken language, melodically intoned language activated sensory motor regions and articulatory language networks in the left hemisphere, but only when meaningful language was used. Discussion Our results suggest that the facilitatory effect of MIT may – in part – depend on an auditory input which combines melody and meaning. Conclusion Combined melody and meaning provide a sound basis for the further investigation of melodic language processing in aphasic patients, and eventually the neurophysiological processes underlying MIT. PMID:25328839

  7. Resection of Beak-Type Thoracic Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament from a Posterior Approach under Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring for Paralysis after Posterior Decompression and Fusion Surgery.

    PubMed

    Imagama, Shiro; Ando, Kei; Ito, Zenya; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Tsushima, Mikito; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Machino, Masaaki; Ota, Kyotaro; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Wakao, Norimitsu; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-12-01

    Study Design Prospective clinical study. Objective Posterior decompression and fusion surgery for beak-type thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (T-OPLL) generally has a favorable outcome. However, some patients require additional surgery for postoperative severe paralysis, a condition that is inadequately discussed in the literature. The objective of this study was to describe the efficacy of a procedure we refer to as "resection at an anterior site of the spinal cord from a posterior approach" (RASPA) for severely paralyzed patients after posterior decompression and fusion surgery for beak-type T-OPLL. Methods Among 58 consecutive patients who underwent posterior decompression and fusion surgery for beak-type T-OPLL since 1999, 3 with postoperative paralysis (5%) underwent RASPA in our institute. Clinical records, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score, gait status, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) findings, and complications were evaluated in these cases. Results All three patients experienced a postoperative decline in Manual Muscle Test (MMT) scores of 0 to 2 after the first surgery. RASPA was performed 3 weeks after the first surgery. All patients showed gradual improvements in MMT scores for the lower extremity and in ambulatory status; all could walk with a cane at an average of 4 months following RASPA surgery. There were no postoperative complications. Conclusions RASPA surgery for beak-type T-OPLL after posterior decompression and fusion surgery resulted in good functional outcomes as a salvage surgery for patients with severe paralysis. Advantages of RASPA include a wide working space, no spinal cord retraction, and additional decompression at levels without T-OPLL resection and spinal cord shortening after additional dekyphosis and compression maneuvers. When used with IONM, this procedure may help avoid permanent postoperative paralysis.

  8. Resection of Beak-Type Thoracic Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament from a Posterior Approach under Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring for Paralysis after Posterior Decompression and Fusion Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Imagama, Shiro; Ando, Kei; Ito, Zenya; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Tsushima, Mikito; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Machino, Masaaki; Ota, Kyotaro; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Wakao, Norimitsu; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective clinical study. Objective Posterior decompression and fusion surgery for beak-type thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (T-OPLL) generally has a favorable outcome. However, some patients require additional surgery for postoperative severe paralysis, a condition that is inadequately discussed in the literature. The objective of this study was to describe the efficacy of a procedure we refer to as “resection at an anterior site of the spinal cord from a posterior approach” (RASPA) for severely paralyzed patients after posterior decompression and fusion surgery for beak-type T-OPLL. Methods Among 58 consecutive patients who underwent posterior decompression and fusion surgery for beak-type T-OPLL since 1999, 3 with postoperative paralysis (5%) underwent RASPA in our institute. Clinical records, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score, gait status, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) findings, and complications were evaluated in these cases. Results All three patients experienced a postoperative decline in Manual Muscle Test (MMT) scores of 0 to 2 after the first surgery. RASPA was performed 3 weeks after the first surgery. All patients showed gradual improvements in MMT scores for the lower extremity and in ambulatory status; all could walk with a cane at an average of 4 months following RASPA surgery. There were no postoperative complications. Conclusions RASPA surgery for beak-type T-OPLL after posterior decompression and fusion surgery resulted in good functional outcomes as a salvage surgery for patients with severe paralysis. Advantages of RASPA include a wide working space, no spinal cord retraction, and additional decompression at levels without T-OPLL resection and spinal cord shortening after additional dekyphosis and compression maneuvers. When used with IONM, this procedure may help avoid permanent postoperative paralysis. PMID:27853667

  9. [Passive tactile stimulation and its clinical and neurophysiological repercussions (P300) in blind children with symptoms of attention deficit disorder].

    PubMed

    Serrano-Marugán, Isabel; Herrera, Begoña; Romero, Sara; Nogales, Ramón; Poch-Broto, Joaquín; Quintero, Javier; Ortiz, Tomás

    2014-02-24

    Introduccion. La estimulacion tactil es clave en la reorganizacion de la actividad cerebral y en los procesos de atencion, pero todavia no esta clara su eficacia en trastornos por deficit de atencion (TDA) en niños ciegos. Sujetos y metodos. Para valorar la eficacia de la estimulacion tactil realizamos un estudio en niños ciegos con TDA y sin TDA, consistente en un protocolo de estimulacion tactil diaria en dos sesiones (mañana y tarde), de media hora por sesion, durante seis meses. Se midio la capacidad para detectar un estimulo tactil infrecuente, el tiempo de reaccion, la latencia P300, las fuentes de actividad cerebral y la sintomatologia del TDA, tanto al inicio como al final del entrenamiento. Resultados. La estimulacion tactil en los niños ciegos con TDA mejora significativamente la sintomatologia del TDA, especialmente la atencion, la conducta y el autocontrol de los movimientos involuntarios y tics. Ademas, se observa que el entrenamiento tactil en niños ciegos con TDA cambia el patron de actividad cerebral induciendo una mayor actividad en las areas frontales y occipitales, que podrian estar asociadas a una compensacion del deficit de atencion. Conclusion. La estimulacion tactil pasiva diaria mejora la sintomatologia clinica y reorganiza la actividad cerebral en areas frontooccipitales de niños ciegos con TDA.

  10. Impact of Spectral Notch Width on Neurophysiological Plasticity and Clinical Effectiveness of the Tailor-Made Notched Music Training

    PubMed Central

    Wunderlich, Robert; Lau, Pia; Stein, Alwina; Engell, Alva; Wollbrink, Andreas; Rudack, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus, the ringing in the ears that is unrelated to any external source, causes a significant loss in quality of life, involving sleep disturbance and depression for 1 to 3% of the general population. While in the first place tinnitus may be triggered by damage to the inner ear cells, the neural generators of subjective tinnitus are located in central regions of the nervous system. A loss of lateral inhibition, tonotopical reorganization and a gain-increase in response to the sensory deprivation result in hypersensitivity and hyperactivity in certain regions of the auditory cortex. In the tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT) patients listen to music from which the frequency spectrum of the tinnitus has been removed. This evokes strong lateral inhibition from neurons tuned to adjacent frequencies onto the neurons involved in the tinnitus percept. A reduction of tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related neural activity was achieved with TMNMT in previous studies. As the effect of lateral inhibition depends on the bandwidth of the notch, in the current study we altered the notch width to find the most effective notch width for TMNMT. We compared 1-octave notch width with ½-octave and ¼-octave. Participants chose their favorite music for the training that included three month of two hours daily listening. The outcome was measured by means of standardized questionnaires and magnetoencephalography. We found a general reduction of tinnitus distress in all administered tinnitus questionnaires after the training. Additionally, tinnitus-related neural activity was reduced after the training. Nevertheless, notch width did not have an influence on the behavioral or neural effects of TMNMT. This could be due to a non-linear resolution of lateral inhibition in high frequencies. PMID:26406446

  11. Dorsal midbrain syndrome associated with persistent neck extension: Clinical and diagnostic imaging findings in 2 dogs

    PubMed Central

    Canal, Sara; Baroni, Massimo; Falzone, Cristian; De Benedictis, Giulia M.; Bernardini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Two young dogs were evaluated for an acute onset of abnormal head posture and eye movement. Neurological examination was characterized mostly by permanent neck extension, abnormalities of pupils, and eye movement. A mesencephalic mass lesion was detected on magnetic resonance imaging in both cases. Neurophysiological pathways likely responsible for this peculiar clinical presentation are discussed. PMID:26663922

  12. Computer-Based Clinical Instrumentation for Processing and Analysis of Electroneuromyographic Signals in the Upper Limb

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    Jaberzadeh2 and Khosrow Behbehani3 1School of Informatics and Engineering, Flinders University of South Australia 2School of Physiotherapy , University of...Quantitative measures of spasticity in post- stroke patients,” Clinical Neurophysiology. 111 (6): 1015-1022, 2000. [4] J Oksa, H Rintamaki, S Rissanen

  13. Transcranial direct current stimulation reverses neurophysiological and behavioural effects of focal inhibition of human pharyngeal motor cortex on swallowing.

    PubMed

    Vasant, Dipesh H; Mistry, Satish; Michou, Emilia; Jefferson, Samantha; Rothwell, John C; Hamdy, Shaheen

    2014-02-15

    The human cortical swallowing system exhibits bilateral but functionally asymmetric representation in health and disease as evidenced by both focal cortical inhibition (pre-conditioning with 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; rTMS) and unilateral stroke, where disruption of the stronger (dominant) pharyngeal projection alters swallowing neurophysiology and behaviour. Moreover, excitatory neurostimulation protocols capable of reversing the disruptive effects of focal cortical inhibition have demonstrated therapeutic promise in post-stroke dysphagia when applied contralaterally. In healthy participants (n = 15, 8 males, mean age (±SEM) 35 ± 9 years), optimal parameters of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) (anodal, 1.5 mA, 10 min) were applied contralaterally after 1 Hz rTMS pre-conditioning to the strongest pharyngeal projection. Swallowing neurophysiology was assessed in both hemispheres by intraluminal recordings of pharyngeal motor-evoked responses (PMEPs) to single-pulse TMS as a measure of cortical excitability. Swallowing behaviour was examined using a pressure-based reac