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Sample records for clinical neurophysiology kyoto

  1. Clinical neurophysiology of fatigue.

    PubMed

    Zwarts, M J; Bleijenberg, G; van Engelen, B G M

    2008-01-01

    reliability of the psychological and clinical neurophysiological assessment techniques available today allows a multidisciplinary approach to fatigue in neurological patients, which may contribute to the elucidation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic fatigue, with the ultimate goal to develop tailored treatments for fatigue in neurological patients. The present report discusses the different manifestations of fatigue and the available tools to assess peripheral and central fatigue.

  2. Clinical neurophysiology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Leocani, Letizia; Comi, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The availability of new treatments able to modify the natural course of multiple sclerosis (MS) has generated interest in paraclinical measures to monitor disease evolution. Among these, neurophysiologic measures, mainly evoked potentials (EPs), are used in the functional assessment of central sensorimotor and cognitive networks affected by MS. EP abnormalities may reveal subclinical lesions, objectivate the involvement of sensory and motor pathways in the presence of vague disturbances, and provide indications of the demyelinating nature of the disease process. However, their diagnostic value is much lower than that of magnetic resonance imaging, and is more sensitive to brain and cervical spinal cord lesions. The application of EPs in assessing disease severity and monitoring the evolution of nervous damage is more promising, thanks to their good correlation with disability in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, and potential use as paraclinical endpoints in clinical trials. Recent evidence indicates that EPs performed early in the disease may help to predict a worse future progression in the long term. If confirmed, these data suggest the possible usefulness of EPs in the early identification of patients who are more likely to develop future disability, thus requiring more frequent monitoring or being potential candidates for more aggressive disease-modifying treatments.

  3. [Mixed depressions: clinical and neurophysiological biomarkers].

    PubMed

    Micoulaud Franchi, J-A; Geoffroy, P-A; Vion-Dury, J; Balzani, C; Belzeaux, R; Maurel, M; Cermolacce, M; Fakra, E; Azorin, J-M

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of major depressive episodes (MDE) highlighted the frequent association of symptoms or signs of mania or hypomania with depressive syndrome. Beyond the strict definition of DSM-IV, epidemiological recognition of a subset of MDE characterized by the presence of symptoms or signs of the opposite polarity is clinically important because it is associated with pejorative prognosis and therapeutic response compared to the subgroup of "typical MDE". The development of DSM-5 took into account the epidemiological data. DSM-5 opted for a more dimensional perspective in implementing the concept of "mixed features" from an "episode" to a "specification" of mood disorder. As outlined in the DSM-5: "Mixed features associated with a major depressive episode have been found to be a significant risk factor for the development of bipolar I and II disorder. As a result, it is clinically useful to note the presence of this specifier for treatment planning and monitoring of response to therapeutic". However, the mixed features are sometimes difficult to identify, and neurophysiological biomarkers would be useful to make a more specific diagnosis. Two neurophysiological models make it possible to better understand MDE with mixed features : i) the emotional regulation model that highlights a tendency to hyper-reactive and unstable emotion response, and ii) the vigilance regulation model that highlights, through EEG recording, a tendency to unstable vigilance. Further research is required to better understand relationships between these two models. These models provide the opportunity of a neurophysiological framework to better understand the mixed features associated with MDE and to identify potential neurophysiological biomarkers to guide therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  4. Posterior cingulate epilepsy: clinical and neurophysiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Enatsu, Rei; Bulacio, Juan; Nair, Dileep R; Bingaman, William; Najm, Imad; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Posterior cingulate epilepsy (PCE) is misleading because the seizure onset is located in an anatomically deep and semiologically silent area. This type of epilepsy is rare and has not been well described yet. Knowledge of the characteristics of PCE is important for the interpretation of presurgical evaluation and better surgical strategy. The purpose of this study was to better characterise the clinical and neurophysiological features of PCE. This retrospective analysis included seven intractable PCE patients. Six patients had postcingulate ictal onset identified by stereotactic EEG (SEEG) evaluations. One patient had a postcingulate tumour. We analysed clinical semiology, the scalp EEG/SEEG findings and cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP). The classifications of scalp EEG were various, including non-localisible, lateralised to the seizure onset side, regional parieto-occipital, regional frontocentral and regional temporal. Three of seven patients showed motor manifestations, including bilateral asymmetric tonic seizures and hypermotor seizures. In these patients, ictal activities spread to frontal (lateral premotor area, orbitofrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, anteior cingulate gyrus) and parietal (precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, inferior parietal lobule (IPL), postcentral gyrus) areas. Four patients showed dialeptic seizures or automotor seizures, with seizure spread to medial temporal or IPL areas. CCEP was performed in four patients, suggesting electrophysiological connections from the posterior cingulate gyrus to parietal, temporal, mesial occipital and mesial frontal areas. This study revealed that the network from the posterior cingulate gyrus and the semiology of PCE (motor manifestation vs dialeptic/automotor seizure) varies depending upon the seizure spread patterns.

  5. Learning clinical neurophysiology: gaming is better than lectures.

    PubMed

    Schuh, Lori; Burdette, David E; Schultz, Lonni; Silver, Brian

    2008-06-01

    We sought to find evidence for generalizability of a game and team oriented educational intervention in clinical neurophysiology in a neurology residency program. A prospective educational intervention was studied in a single neurology residency program and compared with a historical control. Seventeen PGY 2-4 residents studied neurophysiology in 2004-2005. The historical control was 20 PGY 2-4 residents from 1998 to 2002. The neurophysiology educational intervention consisted of weekly presentations, followed by a game show-type oral quiz which was team-based and required all residents to participate. The control group attended faculty-prepared didactic lectures. Outcome measures were percent correct subset neurophysiology Residency Inservice Training Examination scores. United States Medical Licensing Examination step 1 scores were also compared between the groups. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance methods accounting for multiple measurements. The mean+/-standard error neurophysiology subset percent correct Residency Inservice Training Examination score was 63.6+/-4.12 for the intervention group and 49.4+/-2.35 for the control (P=0.002). There was no difference in United States Medical Licensing Examination step 1 scores between the two groups (P=0.11). We found evidence for generalizability of the effectiveness of a team-oriented educational intervention in clinical neurophysiology with gaming and oral quizzing in improving subset Residency Inservice Training Examination performance compared with faculty prepared didactics.

  6. [Clinical neurophysiology for estimation of progression and prognosis in ALS].

    PubMed

    Pouget, J

    2004-01-01

    The role of clinical neurophysiology in the evaluation of disease progression in ALS has to be precised. To be included in the methodology of therapeutic trials, neurophysiological methods have to be quantitative, sensitive and reproducible. Their goal is to assess peripheral and central motor neuron loss but also compensatory processes such as reinnervation. The peripheral motor neuron loss can be evaluated by compound muscle action potential amplitude and mainly by motor unit number estimate (MUNE). Peripheral reinnervation can be evaluated by fiber density and macro-MUP amplitude. Functional aspects of reinnervation can be assessed by jitter measurement or the occurrence of decrement when using repetitive stimulation. Central motor neuron loss can be evaluated by transcranial magnetic stimulation and the triple collision technique (TST). Among the various electrophysiological approaches, MUNE and TST seem to be the most appropriate to evaluate peripheral and central motor neuron loss over time in ALS.

  7. Neurophysiology versus clinical genetics in Rett syndrome: A multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Halbach, Nicky; Julu, Peter; Witt‐Engerström, Ingegerd; Pini, Giorgio; Bigoni, Stefania; Hansen, Stig; Apartopoulos, Flora; Delamont, Robert; van Roozendaal, Kees; Scusa, Maria F.; Borelli, Paolo; Candel, Math; Curfs, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have attempted to establish the genotype–phenotype correlation in Rett syndrome (RTT). Cardiorespiratory measurements provide robust objective data, to correlate with each of the different clinical phenotypes. It has important implications for the management and treatment of this syndrome. The aim of this study was to correlate the genotype with the quantitative cardiorespiratory data obtained by neurophysiological measurement combined with a clinical severity score. This international multicenter study was conducted in four European countries from 1999 to 2012. The study cohort consisted of a group of 132 well‐defined RTT females aged between 2 and 43 years with extended clinical, molecular, and neurophysiological assessments. Diagnosis of RTT was based on the consensus criteria for RTT and molecular confirmation. Genotype–phenotype analyses of clinical features and cardiorespiratory data were performed after grouping mutations by the same type and localization or having the same putative biological effect on the MeCP2 protein, and subsequently on eight single recurrent mutations. A less severe phenotype was seen in females with CTS, p.R133C, and p.R294X mutations. Autonomic disturbances were present in all females, and not restricted to nor influenced by one specific group or any single recurrent mutation. The objective information from non‐invasive neurophysiological evaluation of the disturbed central autonomic control is of great importance in helping to organize the lifelong care for females with RTT. Further research is needed to provide insights into the pathogenesis of autonomic dysfunction, and to develop evidence‐based management in RTT. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27354166

  8. Primary lateral sclerosis: clinical, neurophysiological, and magnetic resonance findings

    PubMed Central

    Kuipers-Upmeijer, J; de Jager, A E J; Hew, J; Snoek, J; van Weerden, T W

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the clinical, neurophysiological, and MRI findings in 10 patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS).
RESULTS—The course of the disease was very slowly progressive. Spasticity due to upper motor neuron dysfunction was the most prominent sign, but EMG showed slight lower motor neuron signs, such as a mixed pattern on maximal voluntary contraction and enlarged motor unit potentials. One patient had clinically mild lower motor neuron involvement. Central motor conduction times (CMCT) were more prolonged in PLS than is the case in ALS. Minor sensory signs were found on neurophysiological examination, comparable with those in ALS. In four patients serum creatine kinase activity was raised. On MRI cortical atrophy was seen, most pronounced in the precentral gyrus and expanding into the parietal-occipital region.
CONCLUSIONS—PLS is a distinct clinical syndrome, part of the range of motor neuron diseases. Besides pronounced upper motor neuron symptoms, mild lower motor neuron symptoms can also be found, as well as (subclinical) sensory symptoms. PLS can be distinguished from ALS by its slow clinical course, a severely prolonged MEP, and a more extensive focal cortical atrophy.

 PMID:11606672

  9. [Clinical and neurophysiologic tests in the normal elderly].

    PubMed

    Paradiso, G; Micheli, F; Casas Parera, I

    1989-03-01

    Clinical and neurophysiological examination was performed in 35 normal aged subjects (72 +/- 6.4; range 65-86 years). Seventeen showed abnormal ankle reflex (48.6%), one case had patellar areflexia as well (2.9%), six had malleolar appalesthesia (17%), and five revealed both areflexia and apallesthesia (14%). Electromyography and motor conduction were normal in every case. Sural nerve conduction velocity and the amplitude of the sensory evoked potential showed no differences between subjects with and without clinical abnormalities. It is concluded that a) reflex and vibration sensibility changes in the elderly are not consequence of peripheral nerve involvement and b) there is no reason to believe there is an "aging neuropathy".

  10. Clinical and neurophysiological changes in patients with pineal region expansions.

    PubMed

    Hajnsek, Sanja; Paladino, Josip; Gadze, Zeljka Petelin; Nanković, Sibila; Mrak, Goran; Lupret, Velimir

    2013-03-01

    In the last 20 years neurological and neurosurgical follow up of our patients with pineal region expansions (118 patients) pointed to certain clinical and neurophysiological regularities. We performed retrospective study which included 84 patients with pineal region expansions in the period from 1992 to 2009. The study included 55 women and 29 men, mean age 30.08 +/- 13.93 years, with positive brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)--70 patients (83.4%) had simple pineal gland cysts, and 14 patients (16.67%) had expansive process in pineal region with compressive effect. All patients had headache, while 32 patients (38%) had epileptic phenomena--primary generalized seizures. Patients had common electroencephalography (EEG) pattern with paroxysmal discharges of 3Hz (or more than 3 Hz) spike-and-wave complexes. Operation with supracerebellar infratentorial approach was performed in 70 patients. In most of our patients indication for the operation was established based on the size of the cyst (15 mm or more), with the signs of compression on the quadrigeminal plate and compression of the surrounding veins, which could result in seizures and EEG changes verified in our group of patients. Pathohistological analysis revealed pineocytomas in 11 cases (15.71%), pinealoblastomas in 2 cases (2.86%), one case of teratoma (1.43%), while 56 patients had pineal gland cysts (80%). Following surgery clinical condition improved in all patients--patients became seizure-free and headaches significantly decreased. Other symptoms including diplopiae, nausea, vomiting, vertigo as well as blurred vision also disappeared. There were no complications after surgical procedures. This study points to often appearance of seizures that clinically and neurophysiologically present as primary generalized epilepsy in patients with pineal region expansions. Our hypotheses are that mass effect on the surrounding veins that affects normal perfusion, compressive effect on the quadrigeminal plate and the

  11. Customer needs, expectations, and satisfaction with clinical neurophysiology services in Ireland: a case for tele-neurophysiology development.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, M; Ronan, L; Murphy, K; Browne, G; Connolly, S; McMenamin, J; Delanty, N

    2004-01-01

    Although equitable access to services should be based on need, geographical location of patients and their clinicians can give rise to inequalities in healthcare delivery. Development of tele-medicine services can improve equity of access. The specialty of Clinical Neurophysiology (CN), currently under-developed in Ireland provides an example of such potential. This study aimed to determine the needs, expectations, and satisfaction of CN customers, namely patients and referring clinicians. The goal was to examine geographical impediments to access that might be addressed by the introduction of tele-neurophysiology. Two customer surveys were conducted: CN referring clinicians and CN patients. Thirty-one North Western Health Board (NWHB) consultant clinicians responded to a postal survey. Distance and delays caused by long waiting lists were felt to deter or make CN referral irrelevant. Ninety-seven percent believed the lack of a local service negatively impacts on patient management and 93% would welcome the introduction of a tele-neurophysiology service. The geographical location of patient's residence and/or the location of the referring clinician's practice influenced waiting lists for CN. Fifty-eight (105/182) percent of patients living in a region with a CN service compared to 39% (50/128) of those living in a region with no service received an appointment within one month. In addition to the current insufficient CN service capacity in Ireland, these surveys highlighted geographical inequities. Tele-neurophysiology has the potential to speed-up diagnosis, result in more patients being appropriately investigated and be fairer to patients.

  12. Strategies for bringing stem cell-derived dopamine neurons to the clinic: The Kyoto trial.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Concerted efforts are realizing cell-based therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). In this chapter, I describe efforts at the Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University. These efforts use induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as donor cells. The iPSCs were established as human leukocyte antigen homozygous at CiRA and are intended for allogeneic transplantation. Our manufacturing protocol includes a feeder-free cell culture with laminin fragment LM511-E8 and the sorting of CORIN(+) cells. Animal experiments, including those with monkey PD models, proved that the grafted cells survive and function as dopaminergic neurons in the brain without forming any tumors. Furthermore, I emphasize that not only the donor cells but also the host brain environment is critical for successful transplantation. To achieve optimization of the host environment, drug administration, gene modification, and rehabilitation are recommended. Based on these results, researchers plan to start a clinical trial at Kyoto University Hospital in the near future. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A survey of attitudes toward clinical research among physicians at Kyoto University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Eriko; Murayama, Toshinori; Yokode, Masayuki

    2009-12-22

    In Japan, only clinical research related to investigational new drug trials must be notified to regulatory bodies, and this lack of a uniform standard for clinical research has caused a number of difficulties. The objective of this study was to assess the willingness of physicians to participate in clinical research and to identify effective methods to promote and enhance clinical research. We conducted a cross-sectional survey by administrating questionnaires to physicians in 31 departments in Kyoto University Hospital from October through November 2007. A total of 51.5% (310 of 602) of physicians completed the questionnaire. More than two-thirds of them reported currently participating in clinical research, and nearly all believed that clinical research is necessary for physicians. Less than 20% of respondents had specific training regarding clinical research, and most reported a need to acquire concepts and skills regarding clinical research, especially those related to statistics. "Paperwork was complicated and onerous" was the most frequently cited obstacle in conducting clinical research, followed by "few eligible patients" and "lack of time". Previous participation in and prospective participation in clinical research, previous writing a research protocol were positively associated with current participation in clinical research. Physicians in university hospitals need more training regarding clinical research, particularly in biostatistics. They also require administrative assistance. Our findings indicate that the quality of clinical research could be improved if training in clinical research methodology and biostatistics were provided, and if greater assistance in the preparation of study documents requested by the institutional Independent Ethics Committee were available.

  14. A survey of attitudes toward clinical research among physicians at Kyoto University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In Japan, only clinical research related to investigational new drug trials must be notified to regulatory bodies, and this lack of a uniform standard for clinical research has caused a number of difficulties. The objective of this study was to assess the willingness of physicians to participate in clinical research and to identify effective methods to promote and enhance clinical research. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey by administrating questionnaires to physicians in 31 departments in Kyoto University Hospital from October through November 2007. Results A total of 51.5% (310 of 602) of physicians completed the questionnaire. More than two-thirds of them reported currently participating in clinical research, and nearly all believed that clinical research is necessary for physicians. Less than 20% of respondents had specific training regarding clinical research, and most reported a need to acquire concepts and skills regarding clinical research, especially those related to statistics. "Paperwork was complicated and onerous" was the most frequently cited obstacle in conducting clinical research, followed by "few eligible patients" and "lack of time". Previous participation in and prospective participation in clinical research, previous writing a research protocol were positively associated with current participation in clinical research. Conclusions Physicians in university hospitals need more training regarding clinical research, particularly in biostatistics. They also require administrative assistance. Our findings indicate that the quality of clinical research could be improved if training in clinical research methodology and biostatistics were provided, and if greater assistance in the preparation of study documents requested by the institutional Independent Ethics Committee were available. PMID:20025782

  15. Primary headache pathophysiology in children: the contribution of clinical neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Pro, S; Tarantino, S; Capuano, A; Vigevano, F; Valeriani, M

    2014-01-01

    Although primary headaches are very prevalent also in pediatric age, most neurophysiologic studies in these diseases concerned only the adulthood. The neurophysiologic investigation of the pathophysiological mechanisms subtending migraine and tension-type headache in children and adolescents could be particularly interesting, since during the developmental age the migrainous phenotype is scarcely influenced by many environmental factors that can typically act on adult headache patients. The neurophysiologic abnormality most frequently found in adult migraineurs, that is the reduced habituation of evoked potentials, was confirmed also in migraine children, although it was shown to involve also children with tension-type headache. Some studies showed abnormalities in the maturation of brain functions in migraine children and adolescents. While the visual system maturation seems slowed in young migraineurs, the psychophysiological mechanisms subtending somatosensory spatial attention in migraine children are more similar to those of healthy adults than to those of age-matched controls. There are some still unexplored fields that will have to be subjects of future studies. The nociceptive modality, which has been investigated in adult patients with primary headaches, should be studied also in pediatric migraine. Moreover, the technique of transcranial magnetic stimulation, not yet used in young migraineurs, will possibly provide further elements about brain excitability in migraine children.

  16. Clinical differentiation and outcome evaluation in vegetative and minimally conscious state patients: the neurophysiological approach

    PubMed Central

    De Salvo, Simona; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Summary The neurophysiological approach to patients with disorders of consciousness allows recording of both central and peripheral nervous system electrical activities and provides a functional assessment. Data obtained using this approach can supplement information from clinical neurological examination, but also from the use of morphological neuroimaging techniques: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Neurophysiological techniques, such as electroencephalography (EEG), evoked potentials, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and EEG in association with functional magnetic resonance imaging, allow monitoring of clinical conditions and can help in the formulation of a prognosis. The aim of this review is to describe the main neurophysiological techniques used in disorders of consciousness to evaluate residual cerebral function, to provide information on the neuronal dysfunction for outcome evaluation, and to differentiate clinically between the vegetative and minimally conscious states. PMID:23402676

  17. Application of Higuchi's fractal dimension from basic to clinical neurophysiology: A review.

    PubMed

    Kesić, Srdjan; Spasić, Sladjana Z

    2016-09-01

    For more than 20 years, Higuchi's fractal dimension (HFD), as a nonlinear method, has occupied an important place in the analysis of biological signals. The use of HFD has evolved from EEG and single neuron activity analysis to the most recent application in automated assessments of different clinical conditions. Our objective is to provide an updated review of the HFD method applied in basic and clinical neurophysiological research. This article summarizes and critically reviews a broad literature and major findings concerning the applications of HFD for measuring the complexity of neuronal activity during different neurophysiological conditions. The source of information used in this review comes from the PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and IEEE Xplore Digital Library databases. The review process substantiated the significance, advantages and shortcomings of HFD application within all key areas of basic and clinical neurophysiology. Therefore, the paper discusses HFD application alone, combined with other linear or nonlinear measures, or as a part of automated methods for analyzing neurophysiological signals. The speed, accuracy and cost of applying the HFD method for research and medical diagnosis make it stand out from the widely used linear methods. However, only a combination of HFD with other nonlinear methods ensures reliable and accurate analysis of a wide range of neurophysiological signals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Propriospinal myoclonus: The spectrum of clinical and neurophysiological phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Antelmi, Elena; Provini, Federica

    2015-08-01

    Propriospinal myoclonus (PSM) is a rare type of spinal myoclonus characterized by muscle jerks that usually start in the midthoracic segments and then slowly propagate up and down into the spinal cord, resulting in repetitive and irregular jerky flexion, or extension of the trunk, neck, knees and hips. PSM can be symptomatic, but up to 80% of reported cases appear idiopathic. PSM tends to occur especially while the subject is lying down. PSM at sleep onset was first described by experts in sleep medicine. The original electrophysiological features included fixed pattern of muscle activations, slow spinal cord conduction (5-15 m/s), electromyographic burst duration less than 1000 ms, synchronous activation of agonist and antagonist muscles and no involvement of facial muscles. PSM has been reported to be a functional (psychogenic) movement disorder in a number of cohorts. The differential diagnosis between idiopathic PSM and the functional forms is not always straightforward. A consistent polymyographically documented muscle activation pattern may be supportive but by no means sufficient and additional neurophysiological investigations are required. PSM should be differentiated from other movement disorders involving the abdomen and trunk, or occurring at sleep-wake transition. This article offers a comprehensive overview of the spectrum of PSM phenotypes.

  19. Clinical and Neurophysiological Aspects of Epilepsy in Subjects with Autism and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elia, M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Clinical and neurophysiological findings for 28 patients (mean age 15 years) with mental retardation, autism, and epilepsy were described, including classification of seizure type and epileptic syndrome, etiology, severity of autism and epilepsy, electroencephalography findings, and neuroimaging findings. No particular epileptic syndrome…

  20. Clinical and Neurophysiological Aspects of Epilepsy in Subjects with Autism and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elia, M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Clinical and neurophysiological findings for 28 patients (mean age 15 years) with mental retardation, autism, and epilepsy were described, including classification of seizure type and epileptic syndrome, etiology, severity of autism and epilepsy, electroencephalography findings, and neuroimaging findings. No particular epileptic syndrome…

  1. [Neurophysiological endophenotypes and schizophrenic disorder: emergence and evolution of a clinical concept].

    PubMed

    Micoulaud Franchi, J-A; Vion Dury, J; Cermolacce, M

    2012-12-01

    It is proposed an historical approach to concepts leading to the development of operational paradigms for measuring objectives neurophysiological endophenotypes. It is hypothesized that psychiatric interest for paradigms measuring Event-Related Potential (ERP) come from Bleuler (1911) and McGhie and Chapman (1961) phenomenological and clinical descriptions. They noted, first that patients with schizophrenia generally feel as if they are being flooded by an overwhelming mass of sensory input combined with a heightened sensory perception, second that they were distractible to irrelevant sensory stimuli. These subjective abnormalities may be related, first to inability to filter incongruent information measured in a double click paradigm by a deficit in P50 amplitude gating, and second to an inability to select a stimulus of interest measured in the oddball paradigm by a deficit in P300 amplitude. The analysis of these P50 and P300 ERP in cohorts of patients with schizophrenia found most of Gottesman endophenotype criteria. P50 and P300 ERP are therefore relevant neurophysiological endophenotypes. However, from a clinical point of view, these endophenotypes lack specificity. The hypothesis of this article leads us to formulate ways of research. It is shown the value of combining objective neurophysiological measures with subjective measures using self-administered questionnaires ("offline") or psychophysiological tests ("online") to develop rigorous neurophysiological experimental paradigms especially as clinical observations of their origins are not forgotten.

  2. [Clinical and neurophysiological aspects of severe forms of autism in children].

    PubMed

    Simashkova, N V; Iakupova, L P; Bashina, V M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate fundamentals for the phenomenon of universality of childhood autism by comparison of clinical and neurophysiological features of its severest forms--children endogenous autism (CEA) and Rett's syndrome (RS). Each group included 20 patients. Both groups were similar by age-at-disease-onset, clinical appearances during the disease course and dynamics of psychopathological syndromes. The theta-rhythm is common for CEA and RS at the disease stage with marked signs of disease acuity, autism, regress and, therefore, may be regarded as a marker of severity and development delay. The universality of autism phenomenon in its severe forms was confirmed both at the clinical and neurophysiological levels.

  3. Hospital-referred polyneuropathies--causes, prevalences, clinical- and neurophysiological findings.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, T; Farbu, E

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes, prevalences, clinical manifestations of hospital-referred polyneuropathies, and evaluate neurophysiological findings in idiopathic polyneuropathy. From 2000 to 2005, 226 patients with polyneuropathy were examined. Polyneuropathy was diagnosed when symptoms, clinical- and neurophysiological findings were compatible with affection of at least two peripheral nerves. They were classified in symptomatic and idiopathic polyneuropathy after investigation. Clinical manifestations were evaluated for diabetes- (DPN), inflammatory- (INPN), hereditary- (HPN) and idiopathic polyneuropathy (IDPN). Neurophysiological findings were investigated in IDPN. 72% had a symptomatic polyneuropathy. Most frequent causes were diabetes mellitus (18%), inflammation, (16%) and hereditary (14%). Most common prevalences per 100,000 were as follows: IDPN, 21; DPN, 13 and HPN, 11. Predominating clinical manifestations were: sensory and motor in INPN, HPN and IPN; sensory in DPN. Pain was more present in IDPN and DPN than in others. In IDPN axonal demyelinating affection was present in 20%. Symptomatic polyneuropathy was common and diabetes mellitus, inflammation and hereditary were frequent causes. In IDPN, DPN, HPN and INPN different clinical patterns were found. Additionally, in IDPN axonal demyelinating affection was more frequent than previously reported.

  4. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 7: Guidelines for EEG Reporting.

    PubMed

    Tatum, William O; Olga, Selioutski; Ochoa, Juan G; Munger Clary, Heidi; Cheek, Janna; Drislane, Frank; Tsuchida, Tammy N

    2016-08-01

    This EEG Guideline incorporates the practice of structuring a report of results obtained during routine adult electroencephalography. It is intended to reflect one of the current practices in reporting an EEG and serves as a revision of the previous guideline entitled "Writing an EEG Report." The goal of this guideline is not only to convey clinically relevant information, but also to improve interrater reliability for clinical and research use by standardizing the format of EEG reports. With this in mind, there is expanded documentation of the patient history to include more relevant clinical information that can affect the EEG recording and interpretation. Recommendations for the technical conditions of the recording are also enhanced to include post hoc review parameters and type of EEG recording. Sleep feature documentation is also expanded upon. More descriptive terms are included for background features and interictal discharges that are concordant with efforts to standardize terminology. In the clinical correlation section, examples of common clinical scenarios are now provided that encourages uniformity in reporting. Including digital samples of abnormal waveforms is now readily available with current EEG recording systems and may be beneficial in augmenting reports when controversial waveforms or important features are encountered.

  5. [Occupational N-hexane neuropathy: clinical and neurophysiological investigation].

    PubMed

    Głuszcz-Zielińska, A

    1999-01-01

    A group of 37 patients (26 men and 11 women), aged 18-49 (mean: 29.7) with subacute toxic polyneuropathy was investigated clinically and electrophysiologically. In all cases the disease was induced by occupational exposure to n-hexane in a small enterprise of purse makers. Toxicological investigations revealed a highly increased concentration of n-hexane in glue used in the manufacture process. The clinical course, including delayed worsening of symptoms after cessation of exposure, was typical when compared with previously reported cases of n-hexan-induced neuropathy after glue sniffing and industrial exposure. Electroneurographic (ENeG) studies showed a predominately decreased motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) with focal conduction block followed by dramatically diminished CMAPs. Recovery of EneG abnormalities paralled the clinical improvement.

  6. [Congenital insensitivity to pain: clinical and neurophysiological study in three sisters of a Moroccan family].

    PubMed

    Kissani, N; Krrati, H; Alarcon, G; Belaaidi, H; Ouazzani, R

    2013-11-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain is a rare hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN). This disorder is an autosomal recessive condition: since 1996, mutations attributed to this entity have been found in the neurotrophin tyrosine-kinase gene receptor on chromosome 1. The authors report 3 cases of congenital insensitivity to pain. In these 3 sisters of consanguineous parents, the clinical investigation showed total absence of pain and temperature sensations with preservation of all other sensory modalities, mental retardation, but in contrast to HSAN type IV, there was no anhidrosis. The neurophysiological investigation revealed an isolated axonal sensory polyneuropathy in the 3 patients. The clinical and neurophysiological investigations were normal in both parents and the brother. The physiopathology of this entity is discussed. We suggest a particular form of HSAN type IV with preservation of transpiration or a new entity of congenital insensitivity to pain, which should be analyzed genetically.

  7. [Interactive microcomputer program for calculation and normal values for routine clinical neurophysiological research].

    PubMed

    Hess, C W; Moll, C; Ludin, H P

    1986-09-01

    A BASIC program for a 128 KByte microcomputer is described which is deviced to support every day clinical neurophysiological investigations. It provides calculating routines and normal values with a hard copy print option for visual, auditory, and somatosensory evoked potentials, peripheral motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, and needle EMG potential analysis. All important arm and leg nerves and muscles are included. By its simplicity the program gives easy access to changes according to individual requirements.

  8. Pre- and postoperative evaluation of patients with lumbosacral disc herniation by neurophysiological and clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Wojtysiak, Magdalena; Huber, Juliusz; Wiertel-Krawczuk, Agnieszka; Szymankiewicz-Szukała, Agnieszka; Moskal, Jakub; Janicki, Jacek

    2014-10-01

    The application of complex neurophysiological examination including motor evoked potentials (MEP) for pre- and postoperative evaluation of patients experiencing acute sciatica. The assessment of sensitivity and specificity of needle electromyography, MEP, and H-reflex examinations. The comparative analysis of preoperative and postoperative neurophysiological examination. In spite of the fact that complex neurophysiological diagnostic tools seem to be important for interpretation of incompatible results of neuroimaging and clinical examination, especially in the patients qualified for surgical treatment, their application has never been completely analyzed and documented. Pre- and postoperative electromyography, electroneurography, F-waves, H-reflex, and MEP examination were performed in 23 patients with confirmed disc-root conflict at lumbosacral spine. Clinical evaluation included examination of sensory perception for L5-S1 dermatomes, muscles strength with Lovett's scale, deep tendon reflexes, pain intensity with visual analogue scale, and straight leg raising test. Sensitivity of electromyography at rest and MEP examination for evaluation of L5-S1 roots injury was 22% to 63% and 31% to 56% whereas specificity was 71% to 83% and 57% to 86%, respectively. H-reflex sensitivity and specificity for evaluation of S1 root injury were 56% and 67%, respectively. A significant improvement of root latency parameter in postoperative MEP studies as compared with preoperative was recorded for L5 (P = 0.039) and S1 root's levels (P = 0.05). The analysis of the results from neurophysiological tests together with neuroimaging and clinical examination allow for a precise preoperative indication of the lumbosacral roots injury and accurate postoperative evaluation of patients experiencing sciatica. 3.

  9. Sativex(®) and clinical-neurophysiological measures of spasticity in progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Leocani, Letizia; Nuara, Arturo; Houdayer, Elise; Schiavetti, Irene; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Amadio, Stefano; Straffi, Laura; Rossi, Paolo; Martinelli, Vittorio; Vila, Carlos; Sormani, Maria Pia; Comi, Giancarlo

    2015-11-01

    Despite the proven efficacy of Sativex(®) (9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol plus cannabidiol) oromucosal spray in reducing spasticity symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS), little is known about the neurophysiological correlates of such effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Sativex on neurophysiological measures of spasticity (H/M ratio) and corticospinal excitability in patients with progressive MS. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Consecutive subjects with progressive MS and lower limb spasticity referred to our center were randomized to 4 weeks' treatment (including 2 weeks' titration) with Sativex or placebo, with crossover after a 2-week washout. Clinical and neurophysiological measures (H/M ratio and cortical excitability) of spasticity were assessed. The H/M ratio was the primary outcome, with sample size calculation of 40 patients. Of 44 recruited patients, 34 were analyzed due to 6 drop-outs and 4 exclusions, which lowered the power of the study to show differences between treatments. Neurophysiological measures did not differ significantly according to treatment and did not correlate significantly with clinical response. Response on the modified Ashworth scale (at least 20 % improvement) was significantly more frequent after Sativex than placebo (50 vs 23.5 %; p = 0.041; McNemar). Side effects did not differ significantly according to treatment. Our findings confirm the clinical benefit of Sativex on MS spasticity. The lack of corresponding changes in corticospinal excitability and on the monosynaptic component, of the stretch reflex, although in a limited sample size, points to the involvement of other spinal and supraspinal mechanisms in the physiopathology of spasticity in progressive MS.

  10. Gelsolin-related familial amyloidosis, Finnish type, in a Portuguese family: clinical and neurophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Isabel; Sales-Luis, Maria Lurdes; De Carvalho, Mamede; Evangelista, Teresinha; Fernandes, Rui; Paunio, Tiina; Kangas, Hannele; Coutinho, Paula; Neves, Carlos; Saraiva, Maria João

    2003-12-01

    We report a Portuguese family with familial amyloid polyneuropathy related to gelsolin. There were no known Finnish ancestors, but the same mutation as described in Finnish patients (G654A) was carried. Clinical and neurophysiological investigations were performed in four patients. Corneal lattice dystrophy affected all four patients; an axonal lesion of the facial nerve occurred in three patients; visual tract involvement was documented in one case; and corticospinal and posterior column dysfunction was present in one patient. Polarizing microscopy of skin and muscle samples demonstrated amyloid deposits in two patients; anti-gelsolin immunohistochemistry was positive for amyloidogenic gelsolin. The Finnish mutation of gelsolin protein (G654A) was detected in five family members. The utility of neurophysiological testing in the evaluation and follow-up of this type of amyloidosis is discussed.

  11. Spina bifida occulta. Foot deformities, enuresis and vertebral cleft: clinical picture and neurophysiological assessment.

    PubMed

    Zambito, A; Dall'oca, C; Polo, A; Bianchini, D; Aldegheri, R

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the clinical evidence of foot deformities in spina bifida occulta and the associated neurophysio-logical damage. The authors studied 47 patients with foot deformities (37 flat foot, 10 pes cavus) and vertebral cleft, variably associated with enuresis, midline cutaneous lesions, and further orthopaedic deformities. An electrophysiological evaluation was performed in an attempt to investigate the peripheral nervous system in greater detail, including conventional motor and sensory nerve conduction, F-wave recording and electromyogram (EMG) testing. The peroneal nerve F wave latency was longer in patients with pes cavus than in those with flat foot (P<0.04). Conversely, the posterior tibial nerve F-wave latency was longer in patients with flat foot than in those with pes cavus (P<0.02). Needle EMG showed large amplitude motor unit potentials during voluntary recruitment in all patients, suggesting a neurogenic origin of these EMG changes. Neurophysiological study makes it possible to distinguish between myogenic and lower motor neuron involvement. The existence of some degree of spinal cord dysraphism may be pathophysiologically associated with foot deformities. Children with foot deformities and clinical evidence of occult spinal dysraphism should have a neuro-physiological assessment in order to obtain an early diagnosis and avoid ineffective foot surgery.

  12. Clinical neurophysiology of prolonged disorders of consciousness: From diagnostic stimulation to therapeutic neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Ragazzoni, Aldo; Cincotta, Massimo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Cruse, Damian; Young, G Bryan; Miniussi, Carlo; Rossi, Simone

    2017-09-01

    The identification of signs of awareness in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DoC) after severe brain injury is a challenging task for clinicians. Differentiating on behavioural examination the vegetative state (VS) from the minimally conscious state (MCS) can lead to a high misdiagnosis rate. Advanced neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques can supplement clinical evaluation by providing physiological evidence of brain activity. However, an open issue remains whether these empirical results are directly or indirectly associated with covert consciousness and limitations emerge for their diagnostic application at the single-patient level. On the therapeutic side, the efficacy of both non-invasive and invasive brain stimulation/modulation trials is matter of debate. The present review provides an updated analysis of the diagnostic and prognostic impact that the different neurophysiological techniques of stimulation [including short-latency evoked potentials, long-latency event related potentials (ERPs), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), TMS-EEG co-registration] offer in prolonged DoC. The results of the therapeutic stimulation techniques are also evaluated. It is concluded that TMS-EEG emerges as the most promising tool for differentiating VS from MCS whereas ERPs allow neurophysiologists to probe covert cognitive capacities of each patient. Significant behavioural improvements in prolonged DoC with brain stimulation techniques are still anecdotical and further treatment options are awaited. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurophysiological localisation of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow: Validation of diagnostic criteria developed by a taskforce of the Danish Society of clinical neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Pugdahl, K; Beniczky, S; Wanscher, B; Johnsen, B; Qerama, E; Ballegaard, M; Benedek, K; Juhl, A; Ööpik, M; Selmar, P; Sønderborg, J; Terney, D; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A

    2017-09-09

    This study validates consensus criteria for localisation of ulnar neuropathy at elbow (UNE) developed by a taskforce of the Danish Society of Clinical Neurophysiology and compares them to the existing criteria from the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM). The Danish criteria are based on combinations of conduction slowing in the segments of the elbow and forearm expressed in Z-scores, and difference between the segments in m/s. Examining fibres to several muscles and sensory fibres can increase the certainty of the localisation. Diagnostic accuracy for UNE was evaluated on 181 neurophysiological studies of the ulnar nerve from 171 peer-reviewed patients from a mixed patient-group. The diagnostic reference standard was the consensus diagnosis based on all available clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic information reached by a group of experienced Danish neurophysiologists. The Danish criteria had high specificity (98.4%) and positive predictive value (PPV) (95.2%) and fair sensitivity (76.9%). Compared to the AANEM criteria, the Danish criteria had higher specificity (p<0.001) and lower sensitivity (p=0.02). The Danish consensus criteria for UNE are very specific and have high PPV. The Danish criteria for UNE are reliable and well suited for use in different centres as they are based on Z-scores. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis and its impact on Chinese clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Lu, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastritis has had a great effect on the field of H. pylori studies worldwide. For the first time H. pylori gastritis was defined entirely as an infectious disease and H. pylori-associated dyspepsia as a new category of organic dyspepsia apart from functional dyspepsia, together with a proposed diagnostic algorithm. Accordingly, the report states that the eradication of H. pylori should be regarded as the first-line treatment for dyspepsia. Moreover, H. pylori eradication before the development of pre-neoplastic changes is recommended to reduce the risk of more serious complications of H. pylori gastritis. Despite the recommendations of this new global consensus, the task of transforming them into feasible and practical recommendations for individual countries will require them to become region-specific, which requires further discussion.

  15. An international survey of physicians regarding clinical trials: a comparison between Kyoto University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ito-Ihara, Toshiko; Hong, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Ock-Joo; Sumi, Eriko; Kim, Soo-Youn; Tanaka, Shiro; Narita, Keiichi; Hatta, Taichi; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Choi, Kyu-Jin; Miyagawa, Takuya; Minami, Manabu; Murayama, Toshinori; Yokode, Masayuki

    2013-10-25

    International clinical trials are now rapidly expanding into Asia. However, the proportion of global trials is higher in South Korea compared to Japan despite implementation of similar governmental support in both countries. The difference in clinical trial environment might influence the respective physicians' attitudes and experience towards clinical trials. Therefore, we designed a questionnaire to explore how physicians conceive the issues surrounding clinical trials in both countries. A questionnaire survey was conducted at Kyoto University Hospital (KUHP) and Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) in 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions and 2 open-ended questions on broad key issues relating to clinical trials. The number of responders was 301 at KUHP and 398 at SNUH. Doctors with trial experience were 196 at KUHP and 150 at SNUH. Among them, 12% (24/196) at KUHP and 41% (61/150) at SUNH had global trial experience. Most respondents at both institutions viewed clinical trials favorably and thought that conducting clinical trials contributed to medical advances, which would ultimately lead to new and better treatments. The main reason raised as a hindrance to conducting clinical trials was the lack of personnel support and time. Doctors at both university hospitals thought that more clinical research coordinators were required to conduct clinical trials more efficiently. KUHP doctors were driven mainly by pure academic interest or for their desire to find new treatments, while obtaining credits for board certification and co-authorship on manuscripts also served as motivation factors for doctors at SNUH. Our results revealed that there might be two different approaches to increase clinical trial activity. One is a social level approach to establish clinical trial infrastructure providing sufficient clinical research professionals. The other is an individual level approach that would provide incentives to encourage doctors to participate in and

  16. An international survey of physicians regarding clinical trials: a comparison between Kyoto University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background International clinical trials are now rapidly expanding into Asia. However, the proportion of global trials is higher in South Korea compared to Japan despite implementation of similar governmental support in both countries. The difference in clinical trial environment might influence the respective physicians’ attitudes and experience towards clinical trials. Therefore, we designed a questionnaire to explore how physicians conceive the issues surrounding clinical trials in both countries. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted at Kyoto University Hospital (KUHP) and Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) in 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions and 2 open-ended questions on broad key issues relating to clinical trials. Results The number of responders was 301 at KUHP and 398 at SNUH. Doctors with trial experience were 196 at KUHP and 150 at SNUH. Among them, 12% (24/196) at KUHP and 41% (61/150) at SUNH had global trial experience. Most respondents at both institutions viewed clinical trials favorably and thought that conducting clinical trials contributed to medical advances, which would ultimately lead to new and better treatments. The main reason raised as a hindrance to conducting clinical trials was the lack of personnel support and time. Doctors at both university hospitals thought that more clinical research coordinators were required to conduct clinical trials more efficiently. KUHP doctors were driven mainly by pure academic interest or for their desire to find new treatments, while obtaining credits for board certification and co-authorship on manuscripts also served as motivation factors for doctors at SNUH. Conclusions Our results revealed that there might be two different approaches to increase clinical trial activity. One is a social level approach to establish clinical trial infrastructure providing sufficient clinical research professionals. The other is an individual level approach that would provide incentives to

  17. Anconeus Epitrochlearis Muscle Causing Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow: Clinical and Neurophysiological Differential Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Erdem Bagatur, A; Yalcin, Mehmet Burak; Ozer, Utku Erdem

    2016-09-01

    Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow is the second most frequent entrapment neuropathy and is considered idiopathic in most patients. However, several anatomic variations, including the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle, have been reported to cause ulnar nerve compression. The anconeus epitrochlearis muscle is a common anatomic variation, with a prevalence of up to 34%, but the clinical diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy of the elbow as a result of this variation is rare, with an unknown prevalence. It is a congenital accessory muscle between the medial humeral epicondyle and the olecranon that covers the posterior aspect of the cubital tunnel and is usually an operative finding, not a preoperative diagnosis. Ulnar neuropathy as a result of the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle usually has different characteristics than idiopathic disease, including younger age at onset, more rapid progression with a short duration of symptoms, distinct neurophysiology with velocity drop or conduction block of the ulnar nerve, and edema of the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle on magnetic resonance imaging. Neurophysiologic findings in anconeus epitrochlearis-associated ulnar neuropathy indicate subacute onset of symptoms rather than the chronic demyelinating process that is seen in idiopathic ulnar neuropathy. Medial elbow pain may be more exacerbated in these patients rather than the more common sensorial symptoms. This is probably the result of static compression of the nerve and increased cubital tunnel pressure, even when the elbow is in extension. This article describes a case of ulnar nerve entrapment of the elbow in a 28-year-old woman as a result of compression by the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle and includes magnetic resonance imaging findings, surgical correlations, and clinical and neurophysiologic findings. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(5):e988-e991.].

  18. Response inhibition in Attention deficit disorder and neurofibromatosis type 1 - clinically similar, neurophysiologically different.

    PubMed

    Bluschke, Annet; von der Hagen, Maja; Papenhagen, Katharina; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2017-03-06

    There are large overlaps in cognitive deficits occurring in attention deficit disorder (ADD) and neurodevelopmental disorders like neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). This overlap is mostly based on clinical measures and not on in-depth analyses of neuronal mechanisms. However, the consideration of such neuronal underpinnings is crucial when aiming to integrate measures that can lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Inhibitory control deficits, for example, are a hallmark in ADD, but it is unclear how far there are similar deficits in NF1. We thus compared adolescent ADD and NF1 patients to healthy controls in a Go/Nogo task using behavioural and neurophysiological measures. Clinical measures of ADD-symptoms were not different between ADD and NF1. Only patients with ADD showed increased Nogo errors and reductions in components reflecting response inhibition (i.e. Nogo-P3). Early perceptual processes (P1) were changed in ADD and NF1. Clinically, patients with ADD and NF1 thus show strong similarities. This is not the case in regard to underlying cognitive control processes. This shows that in-depth analyses of neurophysiological processes are needed to determine whether the overlap between ADD and NF1 is as strong as assumed and to develop appropriate treatment strategies.

  19. Response inhibition in Attention deficit disorder and neurofibromatosis type 1 – clinically similar, neurophysiologically different

    PubMed Central

    Bluschke, Annet; von der Hagen, Maja; Papenhagen, Katharina; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2017-01-01

    There are large overlaps in cognitive deficits occurring in attention deficit disorder (ADD) and neurodevelopmental disorders like neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). This overlap is mostly based on clinical measures and not on in-depth analyses of neuronal mechanisms. However, the consideration of such neuronal underpinnings is crucial when aiming to integrate measures that can lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Inhibitory control deficits, for example, are a hallmark in ADD, but it is unclear how far there are similar deficits in NF1. We thus compared adolescent ADD and NF1 patients to healthy controls in a Go/Nogo task using behavioural and neurophysiological measures. Clinical measures of ADD-symptoms were not different between ADD and NF1. Only patients with ADD showed increased Nogo errors and reductions in components reflecting response inhibition (i.e. Nogo-P3). Early perceptual processes (P1) were changed in ADD and NF1. Clinically, patients with ADD and NF1 thus show strong similarities. This is not the case in regard to underlying cognitive control processes. This shows that in-depth analyses of neurophysiological processes are needed to determine whether the overlap between ADD and NF1 is as strong as assumed and to develop appropriate treatment strategies. PMID:28262833

  20. Task-related influences on neurophysiological assessment of auditory rhyme: implications for clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Davids, Nina; van den Brink, Daniëlle; van Turennout, Miranda; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-08-01

    The present study investigated whether implicit rhyme detection, as an implicit measure of phonological processing, can be assessed using a passive ERP paradigm. Pseudoword pairs were presented to healthy adults while their EEG was recorded. Participants were either instructed to (a) indicate by a button press after each pseudoword pair whether the words rhymed or not (active paradigm) or (b) ignore the speech stimuli (passive paradigm). In the active rhyme paradigm, a typical phonological N400 effect was elicited with non-rhyming targets showing more negative ERPs at posterior sites during 400-600 ms compared to rhyming targets. In the passive paradigm, an anterior positive effect was elicited for non-rhyming targets during 350-750 ms compared to rhyming targets. Auditory rhyme processing can be studied at the group level by a passive neurophysiological measurement. In such a test, one should focus on the anterior positivity, which seems to reflect automatic rhyme detection. Future research is needed to make this task more reliable for studying rhyme detection at the individual level. A passive ERP measurement of implicit phonological processing could possibly function as an indicator of future success in learning to read in children from clinical populations. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Current neurophysiological tests and revised JSCN technical standards for clinical EEG].

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, Yoji

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this lecture is to review the development of current neurophysiology and the revised standard of society for clinical EEG. 1. The improvement of neurophysiological tests. 1) EEG and evoked potential: EEG and evoked potential testing includes the routine EEG recording, EEG monitoring in surgical operation, all night sleep polygraph for the diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome and many kinds of brain evoked potentials. Especially, the P300 component in the ERP(event-related evoked potential) is useful for the testing of essential brain functions. 2) EMG and evoked EMG: These tests are applied for the diagnosis of neurogenic, myogenic and neuromuscular junction disorder, and also the single fiber EMG using micro needle electrode is useful for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity are calculated from the latency of evoked EMGs. Furthermore, the distribution of these conduction velocities in many nerve fibers is measured by the collision technique. 3) Other tests: Near-infrared spectroscopy for the testing of brain functions has made rapid progress, and the transcranial magnetic stimulation method has come to be used for evaluation of functional diseases in the pyramidal tract, cerebellum and the spinal cord. 2. The revised JSCN technical standards for clinical EEG. The revised recording conditions of ECI(electro cerebral inactivity: flat EEG) in brain death are the focus of this lecture.

  2. Charcot-Marie-Tooth and pain: correlations with neurophysiological, clinical, and disability findings.

    PubMed

    Padua, Luca; Cavallaro, Tiziana; Pareyson, Davide; Quattrone, Aldo; Vita, Giuseppe; Schenone, Angelo

    2008-06-01

    Pain is not considered a relevant symptom in Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) patients and no studies have comprehensively assessed it. We performed a multidimensional assessment in 211 consecutive CMT patients to evaluate the clinical features, quality of life (QoL) and disability. For QoL we used the SF-36, which comprises one domain called "Bodily Pain" (BP), which is a generic measure of intensity of pain. Results showed that pain is a relevant symptom related to gender, CMT subtypes, clinical picture, disability, and mildly to neurophysiological impairment. In our study the importance of pain was an occasional finding. Because of the study design we are not able to ascertain if pain is primarily due to the neuropathy or if it is due to the muscoloskeletal deformities arising as a consequence of the neuropathy. Our study underlined that pain should be considered as a relevant symptom in CMT patients and further studies should be performed.

  3. [Clinical, neurophysiological and psychological characteristics of neurosis in patients with panic disorders].

    PubMed

    Tuter, N V

    2008-01-01

    Forty-eight patients with panic disorders (PD), aged 31,5 years, 17 men, 31 women, were studied. The results were analyzed in comparison to a control group which comprised 16 healthy people, 6 men, 10 women, mean age 29,5 years. A traditional clinical approach, including somatic, neurologic and psychiatric examination, was used in the study. Also, a neurophysiological study using compression and spectral analyses, EEG, cognitive evoked potentials, skin evoked potentials, was conducted. A psychological examination included assessment of personality traits (Cattell's test), MMPI personality profile, mechanisms of psychological defense, the "Life style index" and Sondy test. A decrease of - and -rhythms was found that implied the reduction of activation processes. The psychological data mirror as common signs characteristic of all PD, as well as psychological features characteristic of neurotic disorders. The results obtained confirm the heterogeneity of PD in nosological aspect that demands using differential approach to the problems of their diagnostics and treatment.

  4. Neurophysiological assessment of craniofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Galeotti, Francesca; Truini, Andrea; Cruccu, Giorgio

    2006-04-01

    This review deals with the diagnostic usefulness of neurophysiological testing in patients with craniofacial pain. Neurophysiological testing of trigeminal nerve function relies on trigeminal reflexes and laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). This review briefly describes the physiology of trigeminal reflexes and LEPs, reports normal values and highlights the neurophysiological abnormalities in the main clinical conditions.

  5. Long-term treatment of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy with tafamidis: a clinical and neurophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Planté-Bordeneuve, Violaine; Gorram, Farida; Salhi, Hayet; Nordine, Tarik; Ayache, Samar S; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Azoulay, Daniel; Feray, Cyrille; Damy, Thibaud; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2017-02-01

    Tafamidis is a transthyretin (TTR) stabilizer recently approved to slow the neurologic impairment in TTR familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP). The pivotal studies on Tafamidis reported encouraging results on the short term, in the early onset Val30Met-TTR-FAP patients at an early stage of the neuropathy. However, the effect of the drug in the non-Val30Met patients, at a more advanced stage of the disease and on the long term, is less known. In this study, we report the effect of Tafamidis in 43 TTR-FAP patients with a variety of pathogenic mutations, including 53% of non-Val30Met variants, at different stages of neuropathy followed on the long term. General and neurological assessment was performed in a standardized protocol every 6-12 months along with neurophysiological variables, including testing of small nerve fibres. The mean follow-up under treatment was 2 years with a subset of 26 patients treated for 3 years. Overall, Tafamidis was well tolerated. A significant clinical deterioration of the neuropathy and the patient's general condition was observed across the 3 years follow-up, although neurophysiological parameters remained stable for the first 2 years. In contrast, patients had a significant increase of BMI under treatment. Deterioration of the neuropathy correlated to an older age at disease onset or treatment initiation and to poor clinical status at baseline. A higher BMI at baseline was associated with a lower progression of the neuropathy. About one-third of the patients who received 3 years of tafamidis had still preserved walking capacity or good clinical condition, suggesting that tafamidis slowed the disease progression in some patients. Overall, our work shows that tafamidis is well tolerated in TTR-FAP but does not prevent the steady progression of the neuropathy on the long term. Age, neurologic status, and general condition at baseline appear to be best predictors of tafamidis efficacy on the neurological function.

  6. May clinical neurophysiology help to predict the recovery of neurological early rehabilitation patients?

    PubMed

    Rollnik, Jens D

    2015-11-21

    So far, the role of clinical neurophysiology in the prediction of outcome from neurological and neurosurgical early rehabilitation is unclear. Clinical and neurophysiological data of a large sample of 803 early rehabilitation cases of the BDH-Clinic Hessisch Oldendorf in Northern Germany have been carefully reviewed. Most patients (43.5%) were transferred to rehabilitation after stroke, mean age was 66.6 (15.5) years. Median somatosensory (SEP), auditory (AEP) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) along with EEG recordings took place within the first two weeks after admission. Length of stay (LOS) in early rehabilitation was 38.3 (37.2) days. Absence of SEP on one or both sides was associated with poor outcome, χ2 = 12.98 (p = 0.005); only 12.5% had a good outcome (defined as Barthel index, BI ≥50) when SEP were missing on both sides. In AEP, significantly longer bilateral latencies III were observed in the poor outcome group (p < 0.05). Flash VEP showed that patients in the poor outcome group had a significantly longer latency III on both sides (p < 0.05). The longer latency III, the smaller BI changes (BI discharge minus admission) were observed (latency III right r = -0.145, p < 0.01; left r = -0.206, p < 0.001). While about half of the patients with alpha EEG activity belonged to the good outcome group (80/159, 50.3%), only 39/125 (31.2%) with theta and 5/41 (12.2%) with delta rhythm had a favourable outcome, χ2 = 24.2, p < 0.001. Results from this study suggest that loss of median SEP, prolongation of wave III in AEP and flash-VEP as well as theta or delta rhythms in EEG are associated with poor outcome from neurological early rehabilitation. Further studies on this topic are strongly encouraged.

  7. Neurophysiological and clinical effects of dry needling in patients with upper trapezius myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadeh-Amirdehi, Maryam; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Dry needling (DN) is a widely used in treatment of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The purpose of this pretest-posttest clinical trial was to investigate the neurophysiological and clinical effects of DN in patients with MTrPs. A sample of 20 patients (3 man, 17 women; mean age 31.7 ± 10.8) with upper trapezius MTrPs received one session of deep DN. The outcomes of neuromuscular junction response (NMJR), sympathetic skin response (SSR), pain intensity (PI) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were measured at baseline and immediately after DN. There were significant improvements in SSR latency and amplitude, pain, and PPT after DN. The NMJR decreased and returned to normal after DN. A single session of DN to the active upper trapezius MTrP was effective in improving pain, PPT, NMJR, and SSR in patients with myofascial trigger points. Further studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) in neurological early rehabilitation: clinical and neurophysiological features.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Simone B; Rollnik, Jens D

    2016-12-15

    Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) is a complex disease affecting 30-70% of critically ill patients. Clinical (Barthel index, length of stay (LOS), morbidity, duration of mechanical ventilation, routine lab results) and neurophysiological (neurography) data of 191 patients admitted to neurological early rehabilitation and diagnosed with CIP have been analyzed retrospectively. CIP diagnosis was correct in 159 cases (83%). In this study, systemic inflammation, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), multiple organic failure (MOF), chronic renal failure, liver dysfunction, mechanical ventilation, diabetes, dyslipidemia and impaired ion homeostasis (hypocalcaemia, hypokalemia) were associated with CIP. Neurography, in particular of the peroneal, sural, tibial and median nerves, helped to identify CIP patients. Compound muscle action potential amplitude (r = -0.324, p < 0.05), as well as sensory (r = -0.389, p < 0.05) and motor conduction velocity (r = -0.347, p < 0.05) of the median nerve correlated with LOS in neurological early rehabilitation but not with outcome measures. In most cases, diagnosis of CIP among neurological early rehabilitation patients seems to be correct. Neurography may help to verify the diagnosis and to learn more about CIP pathophysiology, but it does not allow outcome prediction. Further studies on CIP are strongly encouraged.

  9. Clinical, genetic, neurophysiological and functional study of new mutations in episodic ataxia type 1.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Susan Elizabeth; Rajakulendran, Sanjeev; Tan, Stella Veronica; Graves, Tracey Dawn; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Labrum, Robyn W; Burke, David; Sue, Carolyn M; Giunti, Paola; Schorge, Stephanie; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Hanna, Michael G

    2013-10-01

    Heterozygous mutations in KCNA1 cause episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1), an ion channel disorder characterised by brief paroxysms of cerebellar dysfunction and persistent neuromyotonia. This paper describes four previously unreported families with EA1, with the aim of understanding the phenotypic spectrum associated with different mutations. 15 affected individuals from four families underwent clinical, genetic and neurophysiological evaluation. The functional impact of new mutations identified in the KCNA1 gene was investigated with in vitro electrophysiology and immunocytochemistry. Detailed clinical documentation, dating back to 1928 in one family, indicates that all patients manifested episodic ataxia of varying severity. Four subjects from three families reported hearing impairment, which has not previously been reported in association with EA1. New mutations (R167M, C185W and I407M) were identified in three out of the four families. When expressed in human embryonic kidney cells, all three new mutations resulted in a loss of K(v)1.1 channel function. The fourth family harboured a previously reported A242P mutation, which has not been previously described in association with ataxia. The genetic basis of EA1 in four families is established and this report presents the earliest documented case from 1928. All three new mutations caused a loss of K(v)1.1 channel function. The finding of deafness in four individuals raises the possibility of a link between K(v)1.1 dysfunction and hearing impairment. Our findings broaden the phenotypic range associated with mutations in KCNA1.

  10. Clinical, genetic, neurophysiological and functional study of new mutations in episodic ataxia type 1

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, Susan Elizabeth; Rajakulendran, Sanjeev; Tan, Stella Veronica; Graves, Tracey Dawn; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Labrum, Robyn W; Burke, David; Sue, Carolyn M; Giunti, Paola; Schorge, Stephanie; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Hanna, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Heterozygous mutations in KCNA1 cause episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1), an ion channel disorder characterised by brief paroxysms of cerebellar dysfunction and persistent neuromyotonia. This paper describes four previously unreported families with EA1, with the aim of understanding the phenotypic spectrum associated with different mutations. Methods 15 affected individuals from four families underwent clinical, genetic and neurophysiological evaluation. The functional impact of new mutations identified in the KCNA1 gene was investigated with in vitro electrophysiology and immunocytochemistry. Results Detailed clinical documentation, dating back to 1928 in one family, indicates that all patients manifested episodic ataxia of varying severity. Four subjects from three families reported hearing impairment, which has not previously been reported in association with EA1. New mutations (R167M, C185W and I407M) were identified in three out of the four families. When expressed in human embryonic kidney cells, all three new mutations resulted in a loss of Kv1.1 channel function. The fourth family harboured a previously reported A242P mutation, which has not been previously described in association with ataxia. Conclusions The genetic basis of EA1 in four families is established and this report presents the earliest documented case from 1928. All three new mutations caused a loss of Kv1.1 channel function. The finding of deafness in four individuals raises the possibility of a link between Kv1.1 dysfunction and hearing impairment. Our findings broaden the phenotypic range associated with mutations in KCNA1. PMID:23349320

  11. A critical review of the neurophysiological evidence underlying clinical vestibular testing using sound, vibration and galvanic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Curthoys, Ian S

    2010-02-01

    In addition to activating cochlear receptors, air conducted sound (ACS) and bone conducted vibration (BCV) activate vestibular otolithic receptors, as shown by neurophysiological evidence from animal studies--evidence which is the foundation for using ACS and BCV for clinical vestibular testing by means of vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). Recent research is elaborating the specificity of ACS and BCV on vestibular receptors. The evidence that saccular afferents can be activated by ACS has been mistakenly interpreted as showing that ACS only activates saccular afferents. That is not correct - ACS activates both saccular and utricular afferents, just as BCV activates both saccular and utricular afferents, although the patterns of activation for ACS and BCV do not appear to be identical. The otolithic input to sternocleidomastoid muscle appears to originate predominantly from the saccular macula. The otolithic input to the inferior oblique appears to originate predominantly from the utricular macula. Galvanic stimulation by surface electrodes on the mastoids very generally activates afferents from all vestibular sense organs. This review summarizes the physiological results, the potential artifacts and errors of logic in this area, reconciles apparent disagreements in this field. The neurophysiological results on BCV have led to a new clinical test of utricular function - the n10 of the oVEMP. The cVEMP tests saccular function while the oVEMP tests utricular function. Copyright (c) 2009 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Neurophysiological monitoring options in brain tumour resections. Consensus statement from the Spanish Society of Neurosurgery's (SENEC) Neuro-oncology Working Group and the Spanish Society of Clinical Neurophysiology (SENFC)].

    PubMed

    de Quintana-Schmidt, Cristian; Lladó-Carbo, Estela; Cortés-Doñate, Victoria Eugenia

    2017-10-05

    Brain tumours located in or in proximity to eloquent areas are a significant neurosurgical challenge. Performing this kind of surgery with neurophysiological monitoring to improve resections with reduced permanent focal neurological deficit has become widely accepted in the literature. However, how to conduct this monitoring, the exact definition of an eloquent area and whether to perform this surgery with the patient awake or asleep are still subject to rigorous scientific debate. Members of the Neuro-oncology Working Group (GTNO) of the Spanish Society of Neurosurgery (SENEC) and members of the Spanish Society of Clinical Neurophysiology (SENFC) have published a consensus statement to explain the different neurophysiological monitoring options currently available in awake and asleep patients to obtain better surgical resection without neurological deficits. An exhaustive review of the literature has also been conducted. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical, neurophysiological and morphological study of dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth type C neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Florian P; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Gondim, Francisco A A; Tournev, Ivailo; Rao, Chitharanjan V; Ishpekova, Boryana; Kinsella, Laurence J; Pan, Yi; Geller, Thomas J; Litvinenko, Ivan; De Jonghe, Peter; Scherer, Steven S; Jordanova, Albena

    2016-03-01

    Dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy subtype C (DI-CMTC) was associated with mutations in the YARS gene, encoding tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, in two large unrelated Bulgarian and US pedigrees and one sporadic case. Here for the first time we describe the clinical, neurophysiological and histopathological features, and phenotypic differences between these two DI-CMTC families. Twenty-one affected individuals from the US family and 27 from the Bulgarian family were evaluated. The mean age of onset in US subjects was 10.7 years in men and 7.3 years in women, while in the Bulgarian participants it was 18.2 years in men and 33.7 years in women. The course was slowly progressive. Extensor digitorum brevis atrophy was uniform. Atrophy and/or weakness of upper and lower limb muscles were found in over 50 % of the subjects. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) were abnormal in all US adults and five of six children and all Bulgarian patients except one asymptomatic 25-year-old man. Median motor NCS were in the range of 29.5-45.6 m/s in the US family and 24.7-57.8 m/s in the Bulgarian family. Sural sensory nerve action potentials were absent in 14/21 and 4/12 NCS from adult US and Bulgarian participants, respectively. Analysis of sural nerve biopsies from US patients revealed age-dependent morphological changes of axonal degeneration, absence of onion bulbs, and <10 % fibers with segmental remyelination. Our findings provide further insights into the diagnosis and pathology of intermediate CMT. They also extend the phenotypic spectrum of peripheral neuropathies associated with aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase mutations.

  14. Neurophysiology Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2001-01-01

    flight. Building on these basic research studies are more applied studies focused on the development of countermeasures to the untoward neurophysiological responses to space flight. At the 2001 workshop, applied research studies were presented addressing issues related to the use of rotational artificial gravity (centripetal acceleration) as a multisystem (bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and, perhaps, neurovestibular) countermeasure. Also presented was a clinical study reporting on a new rating system for clinical evaluation of postflight functional neurological status.

  15. Formative evaluation of a telemedicine model for delivering clinical neurophysiology services part I: Utility, technical performance and service provider perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Formative evaluation is conducted in the early stages of system implementation to assess how it works in practice and to identify opportunities for improving technical and process performance. A formative evaluation of a teleneurophysiology service was conducted to examine its technical and sociological dimensions. Methods A teleneurophysiology service providing routine EEG investigation was established. Service use, technical performance and satisfaction of clinical neurophysiology personnel were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. These were contrasted with a previously reported analysis of the need for teleneurophysiology, and examination of expectation and satisfaction with clinical neurophysiology services in Ireland. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis was also conducted. Results Over the course of 40 clinical sessions during 20 weeks, 142 EEG investigations were recorded and stored on a file server at a satellite centre which was 130 miles away from the host clinical neurophysiology department. Using a virtual private network, the EEGs were accessed by a consultant neurophysiologist at the host centre for interpretation. The model resulted in a 5-fold increase in access to EEG services as well as reducing average waiting times for investigation by a half. Technically the model worked well, although a temporary loss of virtual private network connectivity highlighted the need for clarity in terms of responsibility for troubleshooting and repair of equipment problems. Referral quality, communication between host and satellite centres, quality of EEG recordings, and ease of EEG review and reporting indicated that appropriate organisational processes were adopted by the service. Compared to traditional CN service delivery, the teleneurophysiology model resulted in a comparable unit cost per EEG. Conclusion Observations suggest that when traditional organisational boundaries are crossed challenges associated with the social dimension of service

  16. Microneurography as a tool in clinical neurophysiology to investigate peripheral neural traffic in humans.

    PubMed

    Mano, Tadaaki; Iwase, Satoshi; Toma, Shinobu

    2006-11-01

    Microneurography is a method using metal microelectrodes to investigate directly identified neural traffic in myelinated as well as unmyelinated efferent and afferent nerves leading to and coming from muscle and skin in human peripheral nerves in situ. The present paper reviews how this technique has been used in clinical neurophysiology to elucidate the neural mechanisms of autonomic regulation, motor control and sensory functions in humans under physiological and pathological conditions. Microneurography is particularly important to investigate efferent and afferent neural traffic in unmyelinated C fibers. The recording of efferent discharges in postganglionic sympathetic C efferent fibers innervating muscle and skin (muscle sympathetic nerve activity; MSNA and skin sympathetic nerve activity; SSNA) provides direct information about neural control of autonomic effector organs including blood vessels and sweat glands. Sympathetic microneurography has become a potent tool to reveal neural functions and dysfunctions concerning blood pressure control and thermoregulation. This recording has been used not only in wake conditions but also in sleep to investigate changes in sympathetic neural traffic during sleep and sleep-related events such as sleep apnea. The same recording was also successfully carried out by astronauts during spaceflight. Recordings of afferent discharges from muscle mechanoreceptors have been used to understand the mechanisms of motor control. Muscle spindle afferent information is particularly important for the control of fine precise movements. It may also play important roles to predict behavior outcomes during learning of a motor task. Recordings of discharges in myelinated afferent fibers from skin mechanoreceptors have provided not only objective information about mechanoreceptive cutaneous sensation but also the roles of these signals in fine motor control. Unmyelinated mechanoreceptive afferent discharges from hairy skin seem to be

  17. Neurotoxicity in Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) envenoming in Sri Lanka: a clinical and neurophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Anjana; Maduwage, Kalana; Sedgwick, Michael; Pilapitiya, Senaka; Weerawansa, Prasanna; Dahanayaka, Niroshana J; Buckley, Nicholas A; Siribaddana, Sisira; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2016-06-01

    Russell's viper is more medically important than any other Asian snake, due to number of envenoming's and fatalities. Russell's viper populations in South India and Sri Lanka (Daboia russelii) cause unique neuromuscular paralysis not seen in other Russell's vipers. To investigate the time course and severity of neuromuscular dysfunction in definite Russell's viper bites, including antivenom response. We prospectively enrolled all patients (>16 years) presenting with Russell's viper bites over 14 months. Cases were confirmed by snake identification and/or enzyme immunoassay. All patients had serial neurological examinations and in some, single fibre electromyography (sfEMG) of the orbicularis oculi was performed. 245 definite Russell's viper bite patients (median age: 41 years; 171 males) presented a median 2.5 h (interquartile range: 1.75-4.0 h) post-bite. All but one had local envenoming and 199 (78%) had systemic envenoming: coagulopathy in 166 (68%), neurotoxicity in 130 (53%), and oliguria in 19 (8%). Neurotoxicity was characterised by ptosis (100%), blurred vision (93%), and ophthalmoplegia (90%) with weak extraocular movements, strabismus, and diplopia. Neurotoxicity developed within 8 h post-bite in all patients. No bulbar, respiratory or limb muscle weakness occurred. Neurotoxicity was associated with bites by larger snakes (p < 0.0001) and higher peak serum venom concentrations (p = 0.0025). Antivenom immediately decreased unbound venom in blood. Of 52 patients without neurotoxicity when they received antivenom, 31 developed neurotoxicity. sfEMG in 27 patients with neurotoxicity and 23 without had slightly elevated median jitter on day 1 compared to 29 normal subjects but normalised thereafter. Neurological features resolved in 80% of patients by day 3 with ptosis and weak eye movements resolving last. No clinical or neurophysiological abnormality was detected at 6 weeks or 6 months. Sri Lankan Russell's viper envenoming causes mild

  18. Clinical neurophysiology of visual and auditory processing in dyslexia: a review.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Bruder, Jennifer

    2010-11-01

    Neurophysiological studies on children and adults with dyslexia provide a deeper understanding of how visual and auditory processing in dyslexia might relate to reading deficits. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of research findings in the last two decades on motion related and contrast sensitivity visual evoked potentials and on auditory event related potentials to basic tone and speech sound processing in dyslexia. These results are particularly relevant for three important theories about causality in dyslexia: the magnocellular deficit hypothesis, the temporal processing deficit hypothesis and the phonological deficit hypothesis. Support for magnocellular deficits in dyslexia are primarily provided from evidence for altered visual evoked potentials to rapidly moving stimuli presented at low contrasts. Consistently ERP findings revealed altered neurophysiological processes in individuals with dyslexia to speech stimuli, but evidence for deficits processing certain general acoustic information relevant for speech perception, such as frequency changes and temporal patterns, are also apparent.

  19. Neural network classification of clinical neurophysiological data for acute care monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sgro, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of neurophysiological monitoring of the 'acute care' patient is to allow the accurate recognition of changing or deteriorating neurological function as close to the moment of occurrence as possible, thus permitting immediate intervention. Results confirm that: (1) neural networks are able to accurately identify electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns and evoked potential (EP) wave components, and measuring EP waveform latencies and amplitudes; (2) neural networks are able to accurately detect EP and EEG recordings that have been contaminated by noise; (3) the best performance was obtained consistently with the back propagation network for EP and the HONN for EEG's; (4) neural network performed consistently better than other methods evaluated; and (5) neural network EEG and EP analyses are readily performed on multichannel data.

  20. Neurophysiology of robot-mediated training and therapy: a perspective for future use in clinical populations.

    PubMed

    Turner, Duncan L; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Birbaumer, Niels; Hoffmann, Ulrich; Luft, Andreas

    2013-11-13

    The recovery of functional movements following injury to the central nervous system (CNS) is multifaceted and is accompanied by processes occurring in the injured and non-injured hemispheres of the brain or above/below a spinal cord lesion. The changes in the CNS are the consequence of functional and structural processes collectively termed neuroplasticity and these may occur spontaneously and/or be induced by movement practice. The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying such brain plasticity may take different forms in different types of injury, for example stroke vs. spinal cord injury (SCI). Recovery of movement can be enhanced by intensive, repetitive, variable, and rewarding motor practice. To this end, robots that enable or facilitate repetitive movements have been developed to assist recovery and rehabilitation. Here, we suggest that some elements of robot-mediated training such as assistance and perturbation may have the potential to enhance neuroplasticity. Together the elemental components for developing integrated robot-mediated training protocols may form part of a neurorehabilitation framework alongside those methods already employed by therapists. Robots could thus open up a wider choice of options for delivering movement rehabilitation grounded on the principles underpinning neuroplasticity in the human CNS.

  1. Does Swedish amateur boxing lead to chronic brain damage? 3. A retrospective clinical neurophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Y; Persson, H E

    1990-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate possible chronic brain damage due to Swedish amateur boxing. Forty seven former amateur boxers, 22 with many (HM = high-matched) and 25 with few matches (LM = low-matched) during their career were examined and compared with two control groups of 25 soccer players and 25 track and field athletes in the same age-range. No severe EEG abnormality was found. There was a somewhat higher incidence of slight or moderate EEG deviations among HM-(32%, 7/22) and LM-(36%, 9/25) boxers than among soccer players (20%, 5/25) and track and field athletes (12%, 3/25). Brain electric activity mapping (BEAM), brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) and auditory evoked P 300 potential (P 300) did not differ significantly between the groups. No neurophysiological variable was correlated to the number of bouts, number of lost fights or length of boxing career. Thus, no signs of serious chronic brain damage was found among the amateur boxers or the soccer players and the track and field athletes. However, it cannot be excluded that the EEG differences between the groups may be a sign of slight brain dysfunction in some of the amateur boxers.

  2. Neurophysiology of Robot-Mediated Training and Therapy: A Perspective for Future Use in Clinical Populations

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Duncan L.; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Birbaumer, Niels; Hoffmann, Ulrich; Luft, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of functional movements following injury to the central nervous system (CNS) is multifaceted and is accompanied by processes occurring in the injured and non-injured hemispheres of the brain or above/below a spinal cord lesion. The changes in the CNS are the consequence of functional and structural processes collectively termed neuroplasticity and these may occur spontaneously and/or be induced by movement practice. The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying such brain plasticity may take different forms in different types of injury, for example stroke vs. spinal cord injury (SCI). Recovery of movement can be enhanced by intensive, repetitive, variable, and rewarding motor practice. To this end, robots that enable or facilitate repetitive movements have been developed to assist recovery and rehabilitation. Here, we suggest that some elements of robot-mediated training such as assistance and perturbation may have the potential to enhance neuroplasticity. Together the elemental components for developing integrated robot-mediated training protocols may form part of a neurorehabilitation framework alongside those methods already employed by therapists. Robots could thus open up a wider choice of options for delivering movement rehabilitation grounded on the principles underpinning neuroplasticity in the human CNS. PMID:24312073

  3. No clinical or neurophysiological evidence of botulinum toxin diffusion to non-injected muscles in patients with hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Lorenzano, C; Bagnato, S; Gilio, F; Fabbrini, G; Berardelli, A

    2006-04-01

    Botulinum toxin injected into a muscle may diffuse to nearby muscles thus producing unwanted effects. In patients with hemifacial spasm, we evaluated clinically and neurophysiologically, whether botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) diffuses from the injection site (orbicularis oculi) to untreated muscles (orbicularis oris from the affected side and orbicularis oculi and oris from the unaffected side). We studied 38 patients with idiopathic hemifacial spasm. Botulinum toxin was injected into the affected orbicularis oculi muscle alone (at 3 standardized sites) at a clinically effective dose. Patients were studied before (T0) and 3-4 weeks after treatment (T1). We evaluated the clinical effects of botulinum toxin and muscle strength in the affected and unaffected muscles. We also assessed the peak-to-peak amplitude compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recorded from the orbicularis oculi and orbicularis oris muscles on both sides after supramaximal electrical stimulation of the facial nerve at the stylomastoid foramen. In all patients, botulinum toxin treatment reduced muscle spasms in the injected orbicularis oculi muscle and induced no muscle weakness in the other facial muscles. The CMAP amplitude significantly decreased in the injected orbicularis oculi muscle, but remained unchanged in the other facial muscles (orbicularis oris muscle on the affected side and contra-lateral unaffected muscles). In conclusion, in patients with hemifacial spasm, botulinum toxin, at a clinically effective dose, induces no clinical signs of diffusion and does not reduce the CMAP size in the nearby untreated orbicularis oris or contralateral facial muscles.

  4. Adrenoleucodystrophy: neurophysiological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, A; Harden, A; Pampiglione, G; Walsh, P J

    1981-01-01

    Neurophysiological investigations (EEG, ERG, VEP) were carried out in 14 boys with adrenoleucodystrophy, and in two siblings with adrenocortical deficiency, but without neurological symptoms. Irregular large amplitude (200-800 microvolts) slow activity was found in the EEG of all adrenoleucodystrophy patients, usually more prominent over the posterior regions of the brain. No short duration spikes or complex wave were seen in any of the EEGs, even in those patients who had had seizures. Clinical deterioration was not always accompanied by an increase in EEG abnormalities. The ERG was of usual amplitude and wave form, while the VEP (flash) was altered in four cases. The two clinically unaffected siblings had normal ERG/VEP, and only a modest excess of slow waves in the EEG. The neurophysiological findings in adrenoleucodystrophy are not seen in other diseases with similar clinical symptoms in the same age group. PMID:7310417

  5. [Clinical neurophysiology and functional neuroimaging at the Société Française de Neurologie (1948-1998)].

    PubMed

    Mauguière, F

    1999-10-01

    The historical role of the French Neurology in the development of anatomo-clinical method is likely to explain why the first communications on electrophysiology were presented in Paris with some delay, as compared with other european societies where the neurophysiological tradition had been more lively. Though clinical neurophysiology, by essence, addresses the pathophysiology of neurological disorders, it has sometimes missed this target at its very beginning, when it aimed at providing data supposed to have some aetiological specificity, causing distrust among neurologists used to accept aetiological diagnosis only when based on post-mortem anatomical evidence. Thanks to the discovery of computerized tomography this time has been over for 25 years, and no one would question anymore the role of clinical neurophysiology and neuroimaging in Neurology, the former giving access to the timing of sensori-motor and cognitive pocesses and the latter to the localization of brain functions. This article reviews the neurophysiological literature published in the Revue Neurologique from 1948 to 1998.

  6. Tailoring neurophysiological strategies with clinical context enhances resection and safety and expands indications in gliomas involving motor pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Lorenzo; Riva, Marco; Fava, Enrica; Ferpozzi, Valentina; Castellano, Antonella; Raneri, Fabio; Pessina, Federico; Bizzi, Alberto; Falini, Andrea; Cerri, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Background Resection of motor pathway gliomas requires the intraoperative recognition of essential cortical-subcortical motor structures. The degree of involvement of motor structures is variable, and increases as result of treatments patients are submitted to. Intraoperative neurophysiology offers various stimulation modalities, which efficiency is based on the ability to recognize essential sites with the highest possible resolution in most clinical conditions. Two stimulation paradigms evolved for intraoperative guidance of motor tumors removal: the 60 Hz-technique [low frequency (LF)] and the pulse-technique [high frequency-(HF)], delivered by bipolar or monopolar probe respectively. Most surgical teams rely on to either of the 2 techniques. The key point is the integration of the choice of the stimulation modality with the clinical context. Methods In 591 tumors involving the corticospinal tract, the use of HF and LF was tailored to the clinical context defined by patient clinical history and tumor features (by imaging). The effect was evaluated on the feasibility of mapping, the impact on immediate and permanent morbidity, the extent of resection, and the number of patients treated. Results By integrating the choice of the probe and the stimulation protocol with patient clinical history and tumor characteristics, the best probe-frequency match was identified for the different sets of clinical conditions. This integrative approach allows increasing the extent of resection and patient functional integrity, and greatly expands the number of patients who could benefit from surgery. Conclusions The integration of stimulation modalities with clinical context enhances the extent and safety of resection and expands the population of patients who could benefit from surgical treatment. PMID:24500420

  7. Sexual dysfunction in pre-menopausal diabetic women: clinical, metabolic, psychological, cardiovascular, and neurophysiologic correlates.

    PubMed

    Cortelazzi, Donatella; Marconi, Annamaria; Guazzi, Marco; Cristina, Maurizio; Zecchini, Barbara; Veronelli, Annamaria; Cattalini, Claudio; Innocenti, Alessandro; Bosco, Giovanna; Pontiroli, Antonio E

    2013-12-01

    An increased prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) has been reported in women with diabetes mellitus (DM). Our aim was to evaluate correlates (psychological, cardiovascular, and neurophysiologic) of FSD in DM women without chronic diabetic complications. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Michigan Diabetic Neuropathy Index (DNI), and the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy (SDN) questionnaires, metabolic variables, endothelial vascular function (flow-mediated dilation, FMD), echocardiography, and electromyography were studied. 109 pre-menopausal women (18-50 years) [48 with DM (14 type 1 DM, 34 type 2 DM, duration 12.6 ± 1.91 years), and 61 healthy women] received the above questionnaires; physical activity, smoking habits, parity, BMI, waist circumference, HOMA-IR index, fibrinogen, cholesterol (total, HDL, LDL), triglycerides, HbA1c, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, total testosterone, and estradiol were measured; echocardiography, assessment of intima-media thickness (IMT), FMD, ECG (heart rate and Qtc, indexes of sympathetic activity), and electromyography were performed. FSFI total score and score for arousal, lubrication, and orgasm domains were lower in DM women than in controls (P < 0.05); DM women had higher BDI, Doppler A wave peak velocity, DNI, and SDN score (P < 0.001 to P < 0.04). Doppler E wave peak velocity, peroneal, posterior tibial and sural nerves conduction velocity and amplitude were lower in diabetic women than in controls (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). FSFI score was positively correlated with physical activity, Doppler E wave peak velocity, and peroneal nerve amplitude and negatively with BDI, parity, IMT, SDN, and HbA1c (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). At stepwise regression, SDN score (negatively) and Doppler E wave peak velocity (positively) predicted FSFI score (r = 507, P < 0.001). In conclusion, cardiovascular and neurological impairments are associated with FSD in diabetic women. Follow-up studies are

  8. Formative evaluation of a telemedicine model for delivering clinical neurophysiology services part II: The referring clinician and patient perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Feedback from service users will provide insight into opportunities for improvement so that performance can be optimised. In the context of a formative evaluation referring clinician and patient satisfaction with a teleneurophysiology service was examined during a 20 week pilot period. Methods Questionnaire surveys of referring clinicians and patients were conducted. Results Fifteen (58%) clinicians responded to the first part of a postal survey which examined their satisfaction with traditional clinical neurophysiology services. Nine (35%) responded to a second part which assessed their experience with the teleneurophysiology service. Teleneurophysiology improved satisfaction with waiting times, availability of results and impact on patient management. There was unanimous support from the clinicians for the permanent development of a teleneurophysiology service, although 2 cautioned this could delay establishing a neurology service in their region. Eighty-two percent (116/142) of patients responded to a survey of their satisfaction with teleneurophysiology. This was compared to a previous report of 322 patients' experience with traditional CN services in Ireland. Waiting times for appointment were shorter for the former group who supported the telemedicine model recognising that it reduced the travel burden and need for overnight journeys. The two groups were equally anxious about the investigation although the teleneurophysiology patients received more prior information. Conclusion This study illustrates that teleneurophysiology is an acceptable model of service delivery for its primary customers. Their feedback is important in informing appropriate design and governance of such innovative models of health service provision. PMID:20843310

  9. Clinical, neurophysiological, and skin biopsy findings in peripheral neuropathy associated with hepatitis C virus-related cryoglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Biasiotta, A; Casato, M; La Cesa, S; Colantuono, S; Di Stefano, G; Leone, C; Carlesimo, M; Piroso, S; Cruccu, G; Truini, A

    2014-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cryoglobulinemia commonly causes disabling complications including peripheral neuropathy and neuropathic pain. In this prospective clinical, neurophysiological, and skin biopsy study we aimed at assessing clinical characteristics and risk factors of peripheral neuropathy and neuropathic pain in patients with HCV-related cryoglobulinemia. We enrolled 69 consecutive patients with HCV-related cryoglobulinemia. We diagnosed neuropathic pain with the DN4 (Neuropathic Pain Diagnostic) questionnaire, and rated the various neuropathic pains with the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI). All patients underwent a standard nerve conduction study to assess Aβ-fiber function, laser-evoked potentials to assess Aδ-fiber function, and skin biopsy to assess C-fiber terminals. Of the 69 patients studied, 47 had a peripheral neuropathy, and 29 had neuropathic pain. Patients with peripheral neuropathy were older than those without (P < 0.0001). While peripheral neuropathy was significantly associated with the duration of HCV infection (P < 0.01), it was unrelated to the duration of cryoglobulinemia and cryocrit (P > 0.5). The severity of peripheral neuropathy significantly correlated with the duration of HCV infection (P < 0.05). Laser-evoked potential amplitudes were significantly lower in patients with than in those without neuropathic pain (P < 0.05). Conversely, no difference was found in nerve conduction study and skin biopsy findings (P > 0.05). Our findings show that peripheral neuropathy is related to age and HCV infection, rather than to cryoglobulinemia, and neuropathic pain is associated with damage to nociceptive pathways as assessed with laser-evoked potentials; this might be useful for designing more effective clinical interventions for these common HCV related-cryoglobulinemia complications.

  10. Correlations between the clinical, histological and neurophysiological examinations in patients before and after parotid gland tumor surgery: verification of facial nerve transmission.

    PubMed

    Wiertel-Krawczuk, Agnieszka; Huber, Juliusz; Wojtysiak, Magdalena; Golusiński, Wojciech; Pieńkowski, Piotr; Golusiński, Paweł

    2015-05-01

    Parotid gland tumor surgery sometimes leads to facial nerve paralysis. Malignant more than benign tumors determine nerve function preoperatively, while postoperative observations based on clinical, histological and neurophysiological studies have not been reported in detail. The aims of this pilot study were evaluation and correlations of histological properties of tumor (its size and location) and clinical and neurophysiological assessment of facial nerve function pre- and post-operatively (1 and 6 months). Comparative studies included 17 patients with benign (n = 13) and malignant (n = 4) tumors. Clinical assessment was based on House-Brackmann scale (H-B), neurophysiological diagnostics included facial electroneurography [ENG, compound muscle action potential (CMAP)], mimetic muscle electromyography (EMG) and blink-reflex examinations (BR). Mainly grade I of H-B was recorded both pre- (n = 13) and post-operatively (n = 12) in patients with small (1.5-2.4 cm) benign tumors located in superficial lobes. Patients with medium size (2.5-3.4 cm) malignant tumors in both lobes were scored at grade I (n = 2) and III (n = 2) pre- and mainly VI (n = 4) post-operatively. CMAP amplitudes after stimulation of mandibular marginal branch were reduced at about 25 % in patients with benign tumors after surgery. In the cases of malignant tumors CMAPs were not recorded following stimulation of any branch. A similar trend was found for BR results. H-B and ENG results revealed positive correlations between the type of tumor and surgery with facial nerve function. Neurophysiological studies detected clinically silent facial nerve neuropathy of mandibular marginal branch in postoperative period. Needle EMG, ENG and BR examinations allow for the evaluation of face muscles reinnervation and facial nerve regeneration.

  11. Clinical and neurophysiological risk factors for falls in patients with bilateral vestibulopathy.

    PubMed

    Schniepp, Roman; Schlick, Cornelia; Schenkel, Fabian; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Brandt, Thomas; Wuehr, Max

    2017-02-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) exhibit imbalance when standing and walking that is linked to a higher fall risk. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for falls in BVF. We therefore systematically investigated the interrelationship of clinical and demographic characteristics, gait impairments, and the fall frequency of these patients. Clinical and demographic characteristics as well as quantitative measures of gait performance on a pressure-sensitive gait carpet were collected from 55 patients with different etiologies of BVF. Clinical and demographic data as well as spatiotemporal gait characteristics were used for ANOVA testing and a logistic regression model with categorized fall events as dependent variables. The impairment of peripheral vestibular function, duration of disease, and the overall gait status were not associated with the history of falls in patients with BVF. In contrast, the most predictive factors for falls in BVF were an increase in temporal gait variability, especially at slow walking speeds (p < 0.001; OR = 1.3), and the presence of a concomitant peripheral neuropathy (p < 0.045; OR = 3.6). BVF patients with a high risk of falling exhibit specific gait alterations in a speed-dependent manner. In particular, increased gait fluctuations during slow walking are most predictive for an increased fall risk. The presence of a concomitant peripheral neuropathy further critically impairs postural stability in these patients. Clinical assessment of both these aspects is therefore important to identify those patients at a particularly high fall risk and to initiate preventive procedures early.

  12. Influence of emotional states on inhibitory gating: Animals models to clinical neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Cromwell, Howard C.; Atchley, Rachel M.

    2014-01-01

    Integrating research efforts using a cross-domain approach could redefine traditional constructs used in behavioral and clinical neuroscience by demonstrating that behavior and mental processes arise not from functional isolation but from integration. Our research group has been examining the interface between cognitive and emotional processes by studying inhibitory gating. Inhibitory gating can be measured via changes in behavior or neural signal processing. Sensorimotor gating of the startle response is a well-used measure. To study how emotion and cognition interact during startle modulation in the animal model, we examined ultrasonic vocalization (USV) emissions during acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition. We found high rates of USV emission during the sensorimotor gating paradigm and revealed links between prepulse inhibition (PPI) and USV emission that could reflect emotional and cognitive influences. Measuring inhibitory gating as P50 event-related potential suppression has also revealed possible connections between emotional states and cognitive processes. We have examined the single unit responses during the traditional gating paradigm and found that acute and chronic stress can alter gating of neural signals in regions such as amygdala, striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. Our findings point to the need for more cross-domain research on how shifting states of emotion can impact basic mechanisms of information processing. Results could inform clinical work with the development of tools that depend upon cross-domain communication, and enable a better understanding and evaluation of psychological impairment. PMID:24861710

  13. Influence of emotional states on inhibitory gating: animals models to clinical neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Howard C; Atchley, Rachel M

    2015-01-01

    Integrating research efforts using a cross-domain approach could redefine traditional constructs used in behavioral and clinical neuroscience by demonstrating that behavior and mental processes arise not from functional isolation but from integration. Our research group has been examining the interface between cognitive and emotional processes by studying inhibitory gating. Inhibitory gating can be measured via changes in behavior or neural signal processing. Sensorimotor gating of the startle response is a well-used measure. To study how emotion and cognition interact during startle modulation in the animal model, we examined ultrasonic vocalization (USV) emissions during acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition. We found high rates of USV emission during the sensorimotor gating paradigm and revealed links between prepulse inhibition (PPI) and USV emission that could reflect emotional and cognitive influences. Measuring inhibitory gating as P50 event-related potential suppression has also revealed possible connections between emotional states and cognitive processes. We have examined the single unit responses during the traditional gating paradigm and found that acute and chronic stress can alter gating of neural signals in regions such as amygdala, striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. Our findings point to the need for more cross-domain research on how shifting states of emotion can impact basic mechanisms of information processing. Results could inform clinical work with the development of tools that depend upon cross-domain communication, and enable a better understanding and evaluation of psychological impairment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of pregabalin in a case of stiff-person syndrome: clinical and neurophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Squintani, G; Bovi, T; Ferigo, L; Musso, A M; Ottaviani, S; Moretto, G; Morgante, F; Tinazzi, M

    2012-03-15

    Symptomatic treatment of stiff-person syndrome (SPS) might be challenging and a significant improvement of stiffness and rigidity is generally reached with high doses of benzodiazepines or baclofen causing side effects. A 71-year old woman diagnosed with SPS complained of marked stiffness of trunk and lower limb muscles with sudden painful spasms. She was unable to walk and she could not lean on her right leg. Cortical silent period (CSP) duration evaluated from right abductor pollicis brevis (APB) with transcranial magnetic stimulation was shortened. Polygraphic electromyographic (EMG) evaluation from paraspinal and leg muscles disclosed continuous motor unit activity at rest with interference muscular pattern. Symptomatic treatment with diazepam was withdrawn because of excessive sedation. In order to relieve the intense lumbar pain, she was prescribed pregabalin; since the day after, rigidity and painful spasms dramatically improved and she could walk without assistance. The clinical benefit persisted at 3 months follow-up and was paralleled by almost complete disappearance of EMG activity at rest and prolongation of CSP. The clinical and electrophysiological data in this SPS patient suggest the possible efficacy of pregabalin as symptomatic treatment without any significant side effects, which needs to be replicated in larger case series.

  15. The neurophysiological effects of dry needling in patients with upper trapezius myofascial trigger points: study protocol of a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadeh-Amirdehi, Maryam; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-05-28

    Dry needling (DN) is an effective method for the treatment of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). There is no report on the neurophysiological effects of DN in patients with MTrPs. The aim of the present study will be to assess the immediate neurophysiological efficacy of deep DN in patients with upper trapezius MTrPs. A prospective, controlled clinical trial was designed to include patients with upper trapezius MTrPs and volunteered healthy participants to receive one session of DN. The primary outcome measures are neuromuscular junction response and sympathetic skin response. The secondary outcomes are pain intensity and pressure pain threshold. Data will be collected at baseline and immediately after intervention. This study protocol has been approved by the Research Council, School of Rehabilitation and the Ethics Committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The results of the study will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses.

  16. Ambient intelligence for monitoring and research in clinical neurophysiology and medicine: the MIMERICA* project and prototype.

    PubMed

    Pignolo, L; Riganello, F; Dolce, G; Sannita, W G

    2013-04-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) provides extended but unobtrusive sensing and computing devices and ubiquitous networking for human/environment interaction. It is a new paradigm in information technology compliant with the international Integrating Healthcare Enterprise board (IHE) and eHealth HL7 technological standards in the functional integration of biomedical domotics and informatics in hospital and home care. AmI allows real-time automatic recording of biological/medical information and environmental data. It is extensively applicable to patient monitoring, medicine and neuroscience research, which require large biomedical data sets; for example, in the study of spontaneous or condition-dependent variability or chronobiology. In this respect, AML is equivalent to a traditional laboratory for data collection and processing, with minimal dedicated equipment, staff, and costs; it benefits from the integration of artificial intelligence technology with traditional/innovative sensors to monitor clinical or functional parameters. A prototype AmI platform (MIMERICA*) has been implemented and is operated in a semi-intensive unit for the vegetative and minimally conscious states, to investigate the spontaneous or environment-related fluctuations of physiological parameters in these conditions.

  17. A Neurophysiological and Neuropsychological Consideration of Mindful Movement: Clinical and Research Implications

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Tamara Anne; Arcuri, Silvia Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present ideas related to three key aspects of mindfulness training: the regulation of attention via noradrenaline, the importance of working memory and its various components (particularly the central executive and episodic buffer), and the relationship of both of these to mind-wandering. These same aspects of mindfulness training are also involved in the preparation and execution of movement and implicated in the pathophysiology of psychosis. We argue that by moving in a mindful way, there may be an additive effect of training as the two elements of the practice (mindfulness and movement) independently, and perhaps synergistically, engage common underlying systems (the default mode network). We discuss how working with mindful movement may be one route to mindfulness training for individuals who would struggle to sit still to complete the more commonly taught mindfulness practices. Drawing on our clinical experience working with individuals with severe and enduring mental health conditions, we show the real world application of these ideas and how they can be used to help those who are suffering and for whom current treatments are still far from adequate. PMID:26074800

  18. Clinical and neurophysiological features of active convulsive epilepsy in rural Kenya: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Munyoki, Gilbert; Edwards, Tansy; White, Steve; Kwasa, Thomas; Chengo, Eddie; Kokwaro, Gilbert; Odera, Victor Mung’ala; Sander, Josemir W; Neville, Brian George; Newton, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa but is poorly characterized. Most studies are hospital-based, and may not reflect the situation in rural areas with limited access to medical care. We examined people with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), to determine if the clinical features could help elucidate the causes. Methods We conducted a detailed descriptive analysis of 445 people with ACE identified through a community-based survey of 151,408 people in rural Kenya, including the examination of electroencephalograms. Results Approximately half of the 445 people with ACE were children or adolescents. Seizures began in childhood in 78% of those diagnosed. An episode of status epilepticus was recalled by 36% cases, with an episode of status epilepticus precipitated by fever in 26%. Overall 169 had an abnormal electroencephalogram, 29% had focal features, 34% had epileptiform activity. In the 146 individuals who reported generalised tonic-clonic seizures only, 22% had focal features on their electroencephalogram. Overall 71% of patients with ACE had evidence of focal abnormality, documented by partial onset seizures, focal neurological deficits or focal abnormalities on the electroencephalogram. Increased seizure frequency was strongly associated with age and cognitive impairment in all ages and non-attendance at school in children (p < 0.01). Discussion Children and adolescents bear the brunt of epilepsy in a rural population in Africa. The predominance of focal features and the high proportion of patients with status epilepticus, suggests that much of the epilepsy in this region has identifiable causes, many of which could be prevented. PMID:20608962

  19. [Clinical and neurophysiological data of neurofeedback therapy in children with ADHD].

    PubMed

    Kubik, Alicja; Kubik, Paweł; Stanios, Martyna; Kraj, Bogusława

    2016-01-01

    ADHD occurs in 3% of school-age children (and in 70% of them in adulthood) and represents an important medical and social problem. It is characterized by attention deficits, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Neurofeedback therapy (EEG biofeedback, NF) is carried out based on the analysis of EEG. To investigate the effect of NF therapy on clinical status and parameters of the EEG in ADHD. In the years 2007-2014, 287 children (191 boys), aged 6-17 years were included into the study. Some children with ADHD had other coexisting disorders like: tics, dyslexia, emotional or behavior disorders. Visual analysis of EEG was made and 7 selected parameters of bioelectrical activity were assessed. EEG tracing before and after NF therapy were compared. NF therapy lasted from 9 months to 3 years (mean 1.5 years). 60-240 NF training sessions were performed with the use of NF device, video-games and 16-channel Elmiko devices. Statistical analysis of the results was made. Children with ADHD additionally presented low self-esteem, anxiety and sleep disorders. The baseline theta/beta ratio in children with ADHD and ADHD with cooccurring dyslexia was >4.0 and in children with ADHD and coexisting tics 3.0-3.8, with coexisting behavioral disorders 3.7-4.0 and emotional disorders 3.3-3.7. After therapy, this ratio decreased significantly in all groups, but most significantly in ADHD and ADHD with dyslexia group. In the group with dyslexia theta and alpha activity in the left fronto-temporo-parietal region (the speech centers) has been increased. In children with ADHD and behavior disorders right-sided paroxysmal changes in the form of slow and sharp waves in the temporo-centro-parietal regions were found. In emotionally disturbed children increased fast beta activity in the right hemisphere (anxiety, fear) was observed. Initially NF therapy reduced hyperactivity and impulsivity of children, subsequently improvement of attention was observed and eventually reduction of emotional and

  20. Correlation of clinical and neurophysiological findings with health-related quality of life in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vukojević, Zoran; Pekmezović, Tatjana; Nikolić, Ana; Perić, Stojan; Basta, Ivana; Marjanović, Ivan; Lavrnić, Dragana

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy is defined as the presence of clinical or subclinical symptoms and/or signs of peripheral nerve damage in patients with diabetes mellitus in the absence of the other causes of peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study was to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy and its correlation with clinical and neurophysiological findings. This study comprised 60 patients with distal, symmetric, sensorimotor diabetic polyneuropathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus. For evaluation of clinical findings the following scales were used: Medical Research Council strenth score (MRC sum score), Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) disability scale (arm disability and leg disability scales), INCAT sensory sum score, Hamilton depression and anxiety rating scales. Nerve conduction study (NCS) was performed on the motor part of the median and peroneal nerves, the sensory part of the median nerve and sural nerve. All the patients completed the Serbian version of the SF-36 questionnaire as a measure of HRQoL. Our results showed mild to moderate QoL impairment in the patients with diabetic polyneuropathy with no difference in physical and mental composite scores (p > 0.05). The age of the patients, mean MRC sum score, arm disability scale score, leg disability scale score and mean INCAT sensory sum score correlated with scores in the SF-36 questionnaire (p < 0.01). The patients with higher scores of anxiety and depression had significantly worse health perception for all QoL domains, for both composite scores and for the total SF-36 score (p < 0.01). Both motor and sensory NCS parameters of the median nerve showed significant correlations with QoL scores (p < 0.05). Our results showed mild to moderate QoL impairment in the patients with diabetic polyneuropathy. HRQoL significantly correlated with the age of the patients, muscle strength, disability, sensory complaints, depressiveness and anxiety of the

  1. Neurophysiological investigations in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Leocani, L; Comi, G

    2000-06-01

    The advent of magnetic resonance imaging techniques has greatly reduced the diagnostic value of neurophysiological tests, particularly evoked potentials, in multiple sclerosis patients, because of the higher sensitivity in revealing subclinical involvement of the central nervous system. Technical progress and new methods of investigating afferent and efferent nervous pathways would seem to increase the sensitivity in detecting neural dysfunction, but the 'clinical gain' is modest at best. More promising is the utilization of neurophysiological tests to quantify the severity of white matter involvement. Transversal and longitudinal studies have demonstrated good correlations between neurophysiological parameters and disability measures, indicating that a battery of neurophysiological tests could be useful in monitoring the disease evolution in single patients and as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials. Further studies are needed for a better definition of the applications of evoked potentials and other neurophysiological techniques. Finally, event-related potentials and advanced electroencephalogram techniques, such as coherence analysis, could provide useful information on the pathophysiology of cognitive dysfunction, so common in multiple sclerosis patients, and with a strong impact on the quality of life.

  2. Pharmacokinetics & Neurophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew S.; Salpekar, Jay A.

    2009-01-01

    Medications administered in clinical practice obtain their therapeutic effect only to the extent that the drug is present in the appropriate concentration at the desired site. To achieve this goal, the prescribing clinician must be aware of how a drug may interact with the physiology of the patient. Pharmacokinetics is the study of this process…

  3. Pharmacokinetics & Neurophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew S.; Salpekar, Jay A.

    2009-01-01

    Medications administered in clinical practice obtain their therapeutic effect only to the extent that the drug is present in the appropriate concentration at the desired site. To achieve this goal, the prescribing clinician must be aware of how a drug may interact with the physiology of the patient. Pharmacokinetics is the study of this process…

  4. Neurophysiological Aspects and their relationship to clinical and functional impairment in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Miranda Rocco, Carolina Chiusoli; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Stirbulov, Roberto; Corrêa, João Carlos Ferrari

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to assess functional (balance L–L and A–P displacement, sit‐to‐stand test (SST) and Tinetti scale – balance and gait) and neurophysiological aspects (patellar and Achilles reflex and strength) relating these responses to the BODE Index. INTRODUCTION: The neurophysiological alterations found in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with the severity of the disease. There is also involvement of peripheral muscle which, in combination with neurophysiological impairment, may further compromise the functional activity of these patients. METHODS: A cross‐sectional study design was used. Twenty‐two patients with moderate to very severe COPD (>60 years) and 16 age‐matched healthy volunteers served as the control group (CG). The subjects performed spirometry and several measures of static and dynamic balance, monosynaptic reflexes, peripheral muscle strength, SST and the 6‐minute walk test. RESULTS: The individuals with COPD had a reduced reflex response, 36.77±3.23 (p<0.05) and 43.54±6.60 (p<0.05), achieved a lower number repetitions on the SST 19.27±3.88 (p<0.05), exhibited lesser peripheral muscle strength on the femoral quadriceps muscle, 24.98±6.88 (p<0.05) and exhibited deficits in functional balance and gait on the Tinetti scale, 26.86±1.69 (p<0.05), compared with the CG. The BODE Index demonstrated correlations with balance assessment (determined by the Tinetti scale), r = 0.59 (p<0.05) and the sit‐to‐stand test, r = 0.78 (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The individuals with COPD had functional and neurophysiological alterations in comparison with the control group. The BODE Index was correlated with the Tinetti scale and the SST. Both are functional tests, easy to administer, low cost and feasible, especially the SST. These results suggest a worse prognosis; however, more studies are needed to identify the causes of these changes and the repercussions that could result in their

  5. Cerebellar TMS in Treatment of a Patient with Cerebellar Ataxia: Evidence from Clinical, Biomechanics and Neurophysiological Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Faranak; Wu, Yunfen; Manor, Brad; Anastasio, Elana M.; Lough, Matthew; Novak, Vera; Greenstein, Patricia E.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    We describe a patient with a probable diagnosis of idiopathic late-onset cerebellar atrophy who shows improvement of limb coordination, speech and gait following 21 days of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied to scalp regions presumably corresponding to the cerebellum. This case study provides, for the first time, a quantitative assessment of gait improvement in response to TMS therapy in ataxia, as well as neurophysiological evidence in support of modification of cerebello-cortical interaction that may underlie some of the improvements. PMID:23625327

  6. Clinical outcome and intraoperative neurophysiology for focal limb dystonic tremor without generalized dystonia treated with deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Kaszuba, Brian; Gee, Lucy; Prusik, Julia; Molho, Eric; Wilock, Meghan; Shin, Damian; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2016-11-01

    Dystonic tremor (DT) is defined as a postural/kinetic tremor occurring in the body region affected by dystonia. DT is typically characterized by focal tremors with irregular amplitudes and variable frequencies typically below 7Hz. Pharmacological treatment is generally unsuccessful and guidelines for deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting and indications are scarce. In this article, we present the outcome and neurophysiologic data of two patients with refractory, focal limb DT treated with Globus Pallidus interna (Gpi) DBS and critically review the current literature regarding surgical treatment of DT discussing stereotactic targets and treatment considerations. A search of literature concerning treatment of DT was conducted. Additionally, Gpi DBS was performed in two patients with DT and microelectrode recordings for multi unit analysis (MUAs) and local field potentials (LFPs) were obtained. The mean percentage improvement in tremor severity was 80.5% at 3 years follow up. MUAs and LFPs did not show significant differences in DT patients compared with other forms of dystonia or PD except for higher interspikes bursting indices. LFP recordings in DT demonstrated high power at low frequencies with action (<3.5Hz). Gpi DBS is an effective treatment in patients with focal limb DT without associated generalized dystonia. Intraoperative neurophysiologic findings suggest that DT is part of phenotypic motor manifestations in dystonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The neurophysiological effects of dry needling in patients with upper trapezius myofascial trigger points: study protocol of a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh-Amirdehi, Maryam; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dry needling (DN) is an effective method for the treatment of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). There is no report on the neurophysiological effects of DN in patients with MTrPs. The aim of the present study will be to assess the immediate neurophysiological efficacy of deep DN in patients with upper trapezius MTrPs. Methods and analysis A prospective, controlled clinical trial was designed to include patients with upper trapezius MTrPs and volunteered healthy participants to receive one session of DN. The primary outcome measures are neuromuscular junction response and sympathetic skin response. The secondary outcomes are pain intensity and pressure pain threshold. Data will be collected at baseline and immediately after intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study protocol has been approved by the Research Council, School of Rehabilitation and the Ethics Committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The results of the study will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. PMID:23793673

  8. Gut to brain interaction in Autism Spectrum Disorders: a randomized controlled trial on the role of probiotics on clinical, biochemical and neurophysiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Santocchi, Elisa; Guiducci, Letizia; Fulceri, Francesca; Billeci, Lucia; Buzzigoli, Emma; Apicella, Fabio; Calderoni, Sara; Grossi, Enzo; Morales, Maria Aurora; Muratori, Filippo

    2016-06-04

    A high prevalence of a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms is frequently reported in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The GI disturbances in ASD might be linked to gut dysbiosis representing the observable phenotype of a "gut-brain axis" disruption. The exploitation of strategies which can restore normal gut microbiota and reduce the gut production and absorption of toxins, such as probiotics addition/supplementation in a diet, may represent a non-pharmacological option in the treatment of GI disturbances in ASD. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine the effects of supplementation with a probiotic mixture (Vivomixx®) in ASD children not only on specific GI symptoms, but also on the core deficits of the disorder, on cognitive and language development, and on brain function and connectivity. An ancillary aim is to evaluate possible effects of probiotic supplementation on urinary concentrations of phthalates (chemical pollutants) which have been previously linked to ASD. A group of 100 preschoolers with ASD will be classified as belonging to a GI group or to a Non-GI (NGI) group on the basis of a symptom severity index specific to GI disorders. In order to obtain four arms, subjects belonging to the two groups (GI and NGI) will be blind randomized 1:1 to regular diet with probiotics or with placebo for 6 months. All participants will be assessed at baseline, after three months and after six months from baseline in order to evaluate the possible changes in: (1) GI symptoms; (2) autism symptoms severity; (3) affective and behavioral comorbid symptoms; (4) plasmatic, urinary and fecal biomarkers related to abnormal intestinal function; (5) neurophysiological patterns. The effects of treatments with probiotics on children with ASD need to be evaluated through rigorous controlled trials. Examining the impact of probiotics not only on clinical but also on neurophysiological patterns, the current trial sets out to provide new

  9. Modulation of motor cortex excitability in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an exploratory study on the relations of neurophysiology measures with clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Antonio; Rossi, Simone; Bassi, Bruce D; Simpson, Helen B; Fallon, Brian A; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2013-12-30

    Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to supplementary motor area (SMA) showed clinical benefit in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we tested whether clinical improvement was associated with enhanced cortical inhibition as measured by single and paired-pulse TMS variables. In 18 OCD patients receiving 4 weeks of either active or sham rTMS in a double-blind randomized trial, we assessed bilateral resting and active motor thresholds (RMT and AMT), cortical silent period (CSP), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). We tested correlations between changes in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Self-report (Y-BOCS-SR), Clinical Global Impression-Severity subscale (CGI-S) and cortical excitability measures. Active rTMS increased right hemisphere RMT whose change correlated with Y-BOCS-SR improvement. Baseline RMT hemispheric asymmetry, defined as the difference between left and right hemispheres RMT, and its normalization after active rTMS correlated with Y-BOCS-SR and CGI-S improvements. Active rTMS also increased right hemisphere SICI whose change correlated with Y-BOCS-SR and CGI-S at week 4, and with normalization of baseline RMT hemispheric asymmetry. Treatment-induced changes in cortical excitability measures are consistent with an inhibitory action of SMA rTMS on dysfunctional motor circuits in OCD. Correlations of neurophysiology measures with therapeutic outcome are supportive of the role of SMA in the modulation of OCD symptoms.

  10. Correspondence between neurophysiological and clinical measurements of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: secondary analysis of data from the CI-PeriNoms study

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Kathleen A.; Dorsey, Susan G.; Renn, Cynthia L.; Zhu, Shijun; Johantgen, Mary E.; Cornblath, David R.; Argyriou, Andreas A.; Cavaletti, Guido; Merkies, Ingemar S. J.; Alberti, Paola; Postma, Tjeerd J.; Rossi, Emanuela; Frigeni, Barbara; Bruna, Jordi; Velasco, Roser; Kalofonos, Haralabos P.; Psimaras, Dimitri; Ricard, Damien; Pace, Andrea; Galie, Edvina; Briani, Chiara; Torre, Chiara Dalla; Faber, Catharina G.; Lalisang, Roy I.; Boogerd, Willem; Brandsma, Dieta; Koeppen, Susanne; Hense, Joerg; Storey, Dawn J.; Kerrigan, Simon; Schenone, Angelo; Fabbri, Sabrina; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) lacks standardized clinical measurement. The objective of the current secondary analysis was to examine data from the CIPN Outcomes Standardization (CI-PeriNomS) study for associations between clinical examinations and neurophysiological abnormalities. Logistic regression estimated the strength of associations of vibration, pin, and monofilament examinations with lower limb sensory and motor amplitudes. Examinations were classified as normal (0), moderately abnormal (1), or severely abnormal (2). Among 218 participants, those with class 1 upper extremity (UE) and class 1 or 2 lower extremity (LE) monofilament abnormality were 2.79 (95%CI: 1.28-6.07), 3.49 (95%CI: 1.61-7.55) and 4.42 (95%CI: 1.35-14.46) times more likely to have abnormal sural nerve amplitudes, respectively, compared to individuals with normal examinations. Likewise, those with class 2 UE and class 1 or 2 LE vibration abnormality were 8.65 (95%CI: 1.81-41.42), 2.54 (95%CI: 1.19-5.41) and 7.47 (95%CI: 2.49-22.40) times more likely to have abnormal sural nerve amplitudes, respectively, compared to participants with normal examinations. Abnormalities in vibration and monofilament examinations are associated with abnormal sural nerve amplitudes and are useful in identifying CIPN. PMID:24814100

  11. [Climate change and Kyoto protocol].

    PubMed

    Ergasti, G; Pippia, V; Murzilli, G; De Luca D'Alessandro, E

    2009-01-01

    Due to industrial revolution and the heavy use of fossil fuels, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dramatically during the last hundred years, and this has lead to an increase in mean global temperature. The environmental consequences of this are: the melting of the ice caps, an increase in mean sea-levels, catastrophic events such as floodings, hurricanes and earthquakes, changes to the animal and vegetable kingdoms, a growth in vectors and bacteria in water thus increasing the risk of infectious diseases and damage to agriculture. The toxic effects of the pollution on human health are both acute and chronic. The Kyoto Protocol is an important step in the campaign against climatic changes but it is not sufficient. A possible solution might be for the States which produce the most of pollution to adopt a better political stance for the environment and to use renewable resources for the production of energy.

  12. The Neurophysiology of Learning and Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellettieri, A. J.

    In an effort to narrow the gap between scientific findings and applied clinicians, the author exposed clinical cases to recent laboratory findings of neurophysiology and sought to relate some possible linkage between the two. Two studies about the operation of the mind in information processing and learning were related to two clinical cases. The…

  13. Similar changes in clinical and pathological parameters in Wistar Kyoto rats after a 13-week dietary intake of canola oil or a fatty acid composition-based interesterified canola oil mimic.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Naoki; Naito, Yukiko; Kasama, Kikuko; Shindo, Tomoko; Yoshida, Hiromichi; Nagata, Tomoko; Okuyama, Harumi

    2009-01-01

    Canola oil (CO) given as a dietary fat deteriorates hypertension-related condition and shortens the life of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Although substances other than fatty acids have been presumed as causatives, CO mimics consisting of oils other than CO also shorten the life. In this study we intended to examine whether or not fatty acid composition unique to CO participates in the adverse effect. CO or an interesterified CO mimic (ICOM) consisting of safflower oil, flaxseed oil and erucic acid was fed as a dietary fat for 13 weeks to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, and clinical and pathological signs were compared. WKY rats were used to avoid the difficulty in evaluating the results in SHRSP due to irregular deterioration in conditions by stroke. Compared to a standard diet, both diets containing CO or ICOM similarly elevated blood pressure, increased plasma lipids, activated hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, decreased platelets, shortened blood coagulation times and induced abnormalities in the kidney. Thus, CO-specific fatty acid composition appeared to affect the pathophysiology of the rat and produce consequent aggravation of pathological status, especially in SHRSP. However, the existence of causative factors other than fatty acids was suggested by increased neutrophil count exclusively induced by CO.

  14. Reverse Correlation in Neurophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringach, Dario; Shapley, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a review of reverse correlation in neurophysiology. We discuss the basis of reverse correlation in linear transducers and in spiking neurons. The application of reverse correlation to measure the receptive fields of visual neurons using white noise and m-sequences, and classical findings about spatial and color processing in…

  15. Tactile stimulation interventions: influence of stimulation parameters on sensorimotor behavior and neurophysiological correlates in healthy and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Parianen Lesemann, Franca H; Reuter, Eva-Maria; Godde, Ben

    2015-04-01

    The pure exposure to extensive tactile stimulation, without the requirement of attention or active training, has been revealed to enhance sensorimotor functioning presumably due to an induction of plasticity in the somatosensory cortex. The induced effects, including increased tactile acuity and manual dexterity have repeatedly been observed in basic as well as clinical research. However, results vary greatly in respect to the strength and direction of the effects on the behavioral and on the brain level. Multiple evidences show that differences in the stimulation protocols (e.g., two vs. multiple stimulation sites) and parameters (e.g., duration, frequency, and amplitude) might contribute to this variability of effects. Nevertheless, stimulation protocols have not been comprehensively compared yet. Identifying favorable parameters for tactile stimulation interventions is especially important because of its possible application as a treatment option for patients suffering from sensory loss, maladaptive plasticity, or certain forms of motor impairment. This review aims to compare the effects of different tactile stimulation protocols and to assess possible implications for tactile interventions. Our goal is to identify ways of optimizing stimulation protocols to improve sensorimotor performance. To this end, we reviewed research on tactile stimulation in the healthy population, with a focus on the effectiveness of the applied parameters regarding psychophysiological measures. We discuss the association of stimulation-induced changes on the behavioral level with alterations in neural representations and response characteristics.

  16. Peripheral Nerve Ultrasonography in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy and Multifocal Motor Neuropathy: Correlations with Clinical and Neurophysiological Data

    PubMed Central

    Merola, Aristide; Rosso, Michela; Romagnolo, Alberto; Peci, Erdita; Cocito, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This cross-sectional study analyzes the pattern of ultrasound peripheral nerve alterations in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) at different stages of functional disability. Material and Methods. 22 CIDP and 10 MMN patients and a group of 70 healthy controls were evaluated with an ultrasound scan of the median, ulnar, peroneal, tibial, and sural nerves. Results were correlated with clinical disability scales and nerve conduction studies. Results. Patients with intermediate functional impairment showed relatively larger cross-sectional areas than subjects with either a milder (p < 0.05) or more severe impairment (p < 0.05), both in CIDP and in MMN. In addition, MMN was associated with greater side-to-side intranerve variability (p < 0.05), while higher cross-sectional areas were observed in CIDP (p < 0.05) and in nerve segments with predominantly demyelinating features (p < 0.05). Higher CSA values were observed in nerves with demyelinating features versus axonal damage (p < 0.05 for CIDP; p < 0.05 for MMN). Discussion and Conclusions. Greater extent of quantitative and qualitative US alterations was observed in patients at intermediate versus higher functional disability and in nerves with demyelinating versus axonal damage. CIDP and MMN showed differential US aspects, with greater side-to-side intranerve variability in MMN and higher cross-sectional areas in CIDP. PMID:27313890

  17. Neurophysiological Measures and Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): Hypothesizing Links between Clinical Severity Index and Molecular Neurobiological Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vitali, Mario; Napolitano, Carmen; Berman, Marlene Oscar; Minuto, Simona Flamminii; Battagliese, Gemma; Attilia, Maria Luisa; Braverman, Eric R; Romeo, Marina; Blum, Kenneth; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Background In 1987, Cloninger proposed a clinical description and classification of different personality traits genetically defined and independent from each other. Moreover, he elaborated a specific test the TCI to investigate these traits/states. The study of craving in Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) assumed a greater significance, since ever more data seems to suggest a direct correlation between high levels of craving and a higher risk of relapse in alcoholics. Thus, our study aim is to explore the possible correlations among TCI linked molecular neurobiological pattern (s), craving and alcohol addiction severity measures in a sample of Italian alcoholics. Materials and Methods 191 alcoholics were recruited in a Day Hospital (DH) setting at the Alcohol Addiction Program Latium Region Referral Center, Sapienza University of Rome. After 7 days detoxification treatment a psychodiagnostic protocol was administered, including TCI, VAS-C, ASI and SADQ. All patients signed an Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved informed consent. Results Principally, we detected a significant positive correlation between HA-scale scores and the VAS scale: increasing in HA-scale corresponds to an increase in craving perception for both intensity (r=0.310; p ≤ 0.001) and frequency (r=0.246; p ≤ 0.001). Moreover, perception of dependence severity, measured with SADQ was also found to be significantly associated positively to both HA-scale (r=0.246; p ≤ 0.001) and NS-scale (r=0.224; p ≤ 0.01). While, for character scales, Persistence (r=−0.195; p=.008) and Self-directedness (r=−0.294; p ≤ 0.001) was negatively associated with ASI linked to alcohol problems. Self-directedness was also negatively correlated with ASI linked to family and social problems (r=−0.349; p ≤ 0.001), employment and support problems (r=−0.220; p=0.003) and psychiatric problems (r=−0.358; p ≤ 0.001). Cooperativeness was a negative correlate with Legal Problems (r=−0.173; p=0.019). and Self

  18. Long term clinical and neurophysiological effects of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with neurodegenerative ataxia.

    PubMed

    Benussi, Alberto; Dell'Era, Valentina; Cotelli, Maria Sofia; Turla, Marinella; Casali, Carlo; Padovani, Alessandro; Borroni, Barbara

    Neurodegenerative cerebellar ataxias represent a group of disabling disorders for which we currently lack effective therapies. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive technique, which has been demonstrated to modulate cerebellar excitability and improve symptoms in patients with cerebellar ataxias. The present study investigated whether a two-weeks' treatment with cerebellar anodal tDCS could improve symptoms in patients with neurodegenerative cerebellar ataxia and could modulate cerebello-motor connectivity, at short and long term. We performed a double-blind, randomized, sham controlled trial with cerebellar tDCS (5 days/week for 2 weeks) in twenty patients with ataxia. Each patient underwent a clinical evaluation pre- and post-anodal tDCS or sham stimulation. A follow-up evaluation was performed at one and three months. Cerebello-motor connectivity was evaluated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at baseline and at follow-up. Patients who underwent anodal tDCS showed a significant improvement in all performance scores (scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia, international cooperative ataxia rating scale, 9-hole peg test, 8-m walking time) and in cerebellar brain inhibition compared to patients who underwent sham stimulation. A two-weeks' treatment with anodal cerebellar tDCS improves symptoms in patients with ataxia and restores physiological cerebellar brain inhibition pathways. Cerebellar tDCS might represent a promising future therapeutic and rehabilitative approach in patients with neurodegenerative ataxia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Kyoto Protocol: A business perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, C.B.

    1998-01-19

    Governments have made a tentative start in responding to climate change. In marathon negotiating sessions that extended into an extra day Dec. 1--11 in Kyoto, Japan, representatives from more than 160 governments hammered out the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The protocol calls for developed countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on averaged by 5.2% below 1990 levels by the years 2008--2012. Developing countries have no new obligations. The paper discusses the agreement, ratification, future questions, business role, and the challenge.

  20. [Neurophysiological bases of hypnosis].

    PubMed

    Hernándex Peón, R

    1977-01-01

    A neurophysiological hypothesis for hypnosis is suggested. Frequently, a hypnotic state is considered close to sleep. Experiments show that it closer to wakefulness, that attention is present and, at times, increased. Physiological changes under hypnosis, changes in suggestibility, conditionability, memory, visceral and endocrine changes, are outlined. Four large neuronal groups with diverse functions are described: wakefulness system, sleep system, that of conscious experience and the executive system; these last two, localized in the midbrain, pons and medulla, are considered the structural basis for the hypnotic state which arises from their increased or decreased functions. In the hypnotic state, through functional variations in these groups, modifications are seen in the spinal chord, in afferent fibers such as the optic ribbon and in complicated cortical functions such as memory.

  1. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  2. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  3. Neurophysiology of swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Ianessa A.; Fitzgerald, Michelle E.; McLaren, Donald G.; Johnson, Sterling; Porcaro, Eva; Kosmatka, Kris; Hind, Jacqueline; Robbins, JoAnne

    2009-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in swallowing from an integrated biomechanical and functional imaging perspective in order to more comprehensively characterize changes in swallowing associated with age. We examined swallowing-related fMRI brain activity and videoflouroscopic biomechanics of three bolus types (saliva, water and barium) in 12 young and 11 older adults. We found that age-related neurophysiological changes in swallowing are evident. The group of older adults recruited more cortical regions than young adults, including the pericentral gyri and inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis and pars triangularis (primarily right-sided). Saliva swallows elicited significantly higher BOLD responses in regions important for swallowing compared to water and barium. In separate videofluoroscopy sessions, we obtained durational measures of supine swallowing. The older cohort had significantly longer delays before the onset of the pharyngeal swallow response and increased residue of ingested material in the pharynx. These findings suggest that older adults without neurological insult elicit more cortical involvement to complete the same swallowing tasks as younger adults. PMID:19010424

  4. Increasing use of yellow colors in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Munehira; Nara, Iwao

    2002-06-01

    Colors used for commercial signboards, displayed outdoors as well as indoors through windows, such as a store sign, an advertising sign, a sky sign, a poster, a placard, and a billboard were extensively surveyed in Kyoto City, Japan, in 1998. The survey showed that various kinds of yellow painted signs have increased rapidly and invaded a center area and suburbs of the city. Vivid yellow, what we called it the Y98 virus, is specially considered a color unpleasantly matched to the city image of Kyoto which was the capital of Japan for nearly 1000 years (794 to 1868) and is endowed with cultural and historic heritage. Discussions trying to find out what we could do to prevent the rapid spread of a big commercial display painted with vivid yellows what we called 'the Y98 virus' over the city will be summarized in a main text.

  5. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, Kentaro; Tack, Jan; Kuipers, Ernst J; Graham, David Y; El-Omar, Emad M; Miura, Soichiro; Haruma, Ken; Asaka, Masahiro; Uemura, Naomi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate diagnostic assessment of gastritis and (4) when, whom and how to treat H. pylori gastritis. Design Twenty-three clinical questions addressing the above-mentioned four domains were drafted for which expert panels were asked to formulate relevant statements. A Delphi method using an anonymous electronic system was adopted to develop the consensus, the level of which was predefined as ≥80%. Final modifications of clinical questions and consensus were achieved at the face-to-face meeting in Kyoto. Results All 24 statements for 22 clinical questions after extensive modifications and omission of one clinical question were achieved with a consensus level of >80%. To better organise classification of gastritis and duodenitis based on aetiology, a new classification of gastritis and duodenitis is recommended for the 11th international classification. A new category of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia together with a diagnostic algorithm was proposed. The adoption of grading systems for gastric cancer risk stratification, and modern image-enhancing endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastritis, were recommended. Treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection before preneoplastic changes develop, if feasible, was recommended to minimise the risk of more serious complications of the infection. Conclusions A global consensus for gastritis was developed for the first time, which will be the basis for an international classification system and for further research on the subject. PMID:26187502

  6. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Kentaro; Tack, Jan; Kuipers, Ernst J; Graham, David Y; El-Omar, Emad M; Miura, Soichiro; Haruma, Ken; Asaka, Masahiro; Uemura, Naomi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-09-01

    To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate diagnostic assessment of gastritis and (4) when, whom and how to treat H. pylori gastritis. Twenty-three clinical questions addressing the above-mentioned four domains were drafted for which expert panels were asked to formulate relevant statements. A Delphi method using an anonymous electronic system was adopted to develop the consensus, the level of which was predefined as ≥80%. Final modifications of clinical questions and consensus were achieved at the face-to-face meeting in Kyoto. All 24 statements for 22 clinical questions after extensive modifications and omission of one clinical question were achieved with a consensus level of >80%. To better organise classification of gastritis and duodenitis based on aetiology, a new classification of gastritis and duodenitis is recommended for the 11th international classification. A new category of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia together with a diagnostic algorithm was proposed. The adoption of grading systems for gastric cancer risk stratification, and modern image-enhancing endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastritis, were recommended. Treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection before preneoplastic changes develop, if feasible, was recommended to minimise the risk of more serious complications of the infection. A global consensus for gastritis was developed for the first time, which will be the basis for an international classification system and for further research on the subject. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. In Brief: Kyoto Protocol moves forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-10-01

    The Russian cabinet's 30 September endorsement of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) likely clears the way for the treaty's ratification by that country's parliament and for its entry into force. The protocol enters into force when not less than 55 Parties to the Convention, including industrialized countries (so called ``Annex I Parties'') which accounted in total for at least 55 % of the total carbon dioxide emissions for 1990 from that group, officially have agreed to the treaty.

  8. Neurological impairment among heterozygote women for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy: a case control study on a clinical, neurophysiological and biochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Habekost, Clarissa Troller; Schestatsky, Pedro; Torres, Vitor Felix; de Coelho, Daniella Moura; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Torrez, Vitor; Oses, Jean Pierre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Pereira, Fernanda dos Santos; Matte, Ursula; Jardim, Laura Bannach

    2014-01-13

    Neurologic impairments in female heterozygotes for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) are poorly understood. Our aims were to describe the neurological and neurophysiological manifestations of a cohort of X-ALD heterozygotes, and to correlate them with age, disease duration, mutations, X-inactivation and serum concentrations of a marker of neuronal damage, neuron-specific enolase (NSE). All 45 heterozygotes identified in our region, with previous VLCFA and molecular diagnosis, were invited to be evaluated through myelopathy scales JOA and SSPROM, nerve conduction studies and somatosensory evoked responses. X inactivation pattern was tested by HUMARA methylation assay. Serum NSE was measured by eletrochemiluminescense. Thirty three heterozygote women were recruited: 29 (87%) were symptomatic. Symptomatic and asymptomatic women presented different m ± sd ages (43.9 ± 10.2 versus 24.3 ± 4.6), JOA (14.5 ± 1.7 versus 16.6 ± 0.2) and SSPROM (86.6 ± 7.9 versus 98.4 ± 1.1) scores (p<0.05). Both JOA (r=-0.68) and SSPROM (r=-0.65) correlated with age, irrespectively of the disease status (p=0.0001, Spearman). Delayed latencies in the central ascending conduction studies on the lower limbs were present in 72% of all heterozygotes, and correlated with SSPROM (r=-0.47, p=0.018, Spearman). NSE values were higher in heterozygote than in control women (12.9 ± 7 and 7.2 ± 7 ng/ml, p=0.012, Mann-Whitney U). Mutation severity and inactivation patterns were not associated with neurologic status. Neurologic manifestations, clearly related to age, were quite common in the present cohort. JOA and SSPROM scales were able to discriminate the asymptomatic from the symptomatic heterozygotes. Both scales might be useful tools to follow disease progression, in future studies.

  9. Development and characterization of a novel rat model of cervical spondylotic myelopathy: the impact of chronic cord compression on clinical, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, JangBo; Satkunendrarajah, Kajana; Fehlings, Michael G

    2012-03-20

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of spinal cord impairment worldwide and is a risk factor for traumatic central cord syndrome. Despite advances in surgery, there are no effective neuroprotective treatments for CSM, which reflects a limited understanding of its pathophysiology. In order to develop therapeutic strategies, we have developed a novel rat model of chronic progressive cervical spinal cord compression that mimics CSM. A titanium-screw-based chronic compression device (CCD) was designed to achieve progressive cord compression at the C6 level. The CCD was fixed to the C2 and T2 spinous processes and a threaded screw was turned to induce compression. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=75) were divided into three groups: (1) sham (no compression, n=6), (2) mild compression (1.4 mm stenosis, n=27), and (3) severe compression (2.6 mm stenosis, n=42). Compression was evaluated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The area of spared white matter, extent of cord flattening ratio, and loss of neurons were assessed. Functional deficits were characterized using sensory-evoked potential (SEP) recordings, and with neurobehavioral tests: the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale, inclined plane, paw grip strength, and assessment of mechanical and thermal allodynia. Micro-CT confirmed progressive canal stenosis. The loss of intact white matter and cord flattening were significantly greater in rats with severe cord compression, and the number of neurons was reduced at the epicenter of cord compression. With chronic cord compression there was a significant decline in locomotor function, forelimb function, trunk stability/coordination, an increase in mechanical allodynia, and impaired axonal conduction. The CCD model results in chronic and precise cervical cord compression. The compression is associated with mechanical allodynia and measurable neurobehavioral, neurophysiological, and neuropathological deficits. We anticipate

  10. Fabrication of neurophysiological monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A system designed to collect electroencephalographic, electro-oculographic, electromyographic, and head motion data is described. The portable instrumentation provides a rapid and simple means by which neurophysiological data can be obtained by the patient in his home and the taped data returned to the laboratory for analysis. The system was designed primarily for the study of sleep.

  11. Neurophysiological Factors in Spatial Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Lauren Jay

    Some of the major lines of investigation that point to neurophysiological factors in spatial skill are presented. These lines include: the two hemispheres of the brain, recent studies, tachistoscopic studies, morphological differences between the cerebral hemispheres, Geschwind and Levitsky's discovery, cerebral dominance re-examined, sex…

  12. Neurophysiological Factors in Spatial Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Lauren Jay

    Some of the major lines of investigation that point to neurophysiological factors in spatial skill are presented. These lines include: the two hemispheres of the brain, recent studies, tachistoscopic studies, morphological differences between the cerebral hemispheres, Geschwind and Levitsky's discovery, cerebral dominance re-examined, sex…

  13. Neurological impairment among heterozygote women for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy: a case control study on a clinical, neurophysiological and biochemical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurologic impairments in female heterozygotes for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) are poorly understood. Our aims were to describe the neurological and neurophysiological manifestations of a cohort of X-ALD heterozygotes, and to correlate them with age, disease duration, mutations, X-inactivation and serum concentrations of a marker of neuronal damage, neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Methods All 45 heterozygotes identified in our region, with previous VLCFA and molecular diagnosis, were invited to be evaluated through myelopathy scales JOA and SSPROM, nerve conduction studies and somatosensory evoked responses. X inactivation pattern was tested by HUMARA methylation assay. Serum NSE was measured by eletrochemiluminescense. Results Thirty three heterozygote women were recruited: 29 (87%) were symptomatic. Symptomatic and asymptomatic women presented different m ± sd ages (43.9 ± 10.2 versus 24.3 ± 4.6), JOA (14.5 ± 1.7 versus 16.6 ± 0.2) and SSPROM (86.6 ± 7.9 versus 98.4 ± 1.1) scores (p < 0.05). Both JOA (r = −0.68) and SSPROM (r = −0.65) correlated with age, irrespectively of the disease status (p = 0.0001, Spearman). Delayed latencies in the central ascending conduction studies on the lower limbs were present in 72% of all heterozygotes, and correlated with SSPROM (r = −0.47, p = 0.018, Spearman). NSE values were higher in heterozygote than in control women (12.9 ± 7 and 7.2 ± 7 ng/ml, p = 0.012, Mann-Whitney U). Mutation severity and inactivation patterns were not associated with neurologic status. Conclusion Neurologic manifestations, clearly related to age, were quite common in the present cohort. JOA and SSPROM scales were able to discriminate the asymptomatic from the symptomatic heterozygotes. Both scales might be useful tools to follow disease progression, in future studies. PMID:24410807

  14. [Neurophysiology of corticobasal degeneration].

    PubMed

    Tyvaert, L; Cassim, F; Derambure, P; Defebvre, L

    2007-09-01

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of mid- to late-adult life. From a clinical standpoint, CBD is characterized by (i) an insidious onset and a slowly progressing, unilateral, levodopa-unresponsive parkinsonian syndrome with dystonia or myoclonus and (ii) cerebral features such as apraxia, alien limb phenomena and cortical sensory loss. Decisive clinical diagnostic criteria are not available and thus a neuropathological study remains essential for accurate CBD diagnosis. Consequently, additional non-clinical criteria must be identified in order to improve diagnosis while patients are still alive. Electrophysiological exploration can yield functional information on a number of brain structures (both cortical and sub-cortical) involved in CBD. The disorder features a specific cortical (frontoparietal) alteration which could help with differential diagnoses for other extrapyramidal syndromes. Hence, exploration of a patient's myoclonus can provide some specific arguments for CBD. Indeed, myoclonus displays a number of clinical and electromyographical characteristics which are consistent with a cortical origin (a shorter latency of the cortical C response, for example). However, some typical cortical features are missing (giant somesthesic evoked potentials, and cortical potentials preceding myoclonus in jerk-locked back-averaging studies). Some authors explain these abnormalities in terms of a sub-cortical origin for the myoclonus. The frontoparietal alteration in CBD has also been explored in studies of oculomotor movement. Indeed, asymmetric lengthening of the lateral ocular saccade latency argues more in favour of CBD than progressive supranuclear palsy. Moreover, cognitive function is also compromised in the early stages of CBD, although it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between CBD, PSP and frontotemporal dementia. Studying cognitive potentials enables one to confirm subcorticofrontal abnormalities and to dissociate CBD

  15. Continuity and Change: Kyoto Chefs Engage with Science.

    PubMed

    de St Maurice, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Kyoto's chefs have reacted proactively to changes brought about by the most recent phase of globalization, hoping to ensure the continued existence and resonance of Kyoto cuisine by using science to adapt it to contemporary circumstances. These chefs are breaking new ground in their pursuit of a scientific understanding of how Kyoto cuisine works. They meet once a month in a kitchen laboratory at Kyoto University to present and analyze culinary experiments in keeping with a predetermined theme. They use their acquired knowledge to more precisely hone their culinary skills and to explain Kyoto cuisine to a global audience. Chefs visit local elementary schools, appear on national television, and welcome chefs from abroad into their kitchens so that people across the world will better understand what authentic Kyoto cuisine consists of. Although these chefs' efforts are groundbreaking, there is also remarkable continuity to their approach. Not only has Kyoto cuisine always been in a steady state of transformation, but the chefs in the Laboratory are engaging with science and a global audience specifically so that they can ascertain Kyoto cuisine's continued existence and importance. Though their means of understanding and articulating what Kyoto cuisine is differs from that of their predecessors, concepts like shun (seasonality) and hin (refinement) still guide chefs today. Ultimately, then, based on interviews and participant observation conducted in and outside of the Japanese Cuisine Laboratory in 2012 and 2013, I argue that by engaging with contemporary food science, Kyoto's chefs achieve a strategic balance of protecting their culinary heritage while adapting it to contemporary circumstances.

  16. Neurophysiology of hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Laureys, S; Faymonville, M-E

    2014-10-01

    We here review behavioral, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies of hypnosis as a state, as well as hypnosis as a tool to modulate brain responses to painful stimulations. Studies have shown that hypnotic processes modify internal (self awareness) as well as external (environmental awareness) brain networks. Brain mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain perception under hypnotic conditions involve cortical as well as subcortical areas including anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices, basal ganglia and thalami. Combined with local anesthesia and conscious sedation in patients undergoing surgery, hypnosis is associated with improved peri- and postoperative comfort of patients and surgeons. Finally, hypnosis can be considered as a useful analogue for simulating conversion and dissociation symptoms in healthy subjects, permitting better characterization of these challenging disorders by producing clinically similar experiences.

  17. GEHS Neurophysiological Classification System for Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Greathouse, David G; Ernst, Greg; Halle, John S; Shaffer, Scott W

    2016-01-01

    Median neuropathy at or distal to the wrist or carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of a number of muscle, tendon, and nerve-related disorders that affect people performing intensive work with their hands. Following a thorough history and physical examination, electrophysiological examination including both nerve conduction studies (NCS) and electromyography (EMG) testing may be performed and currently serve as the reference standard for the diagnosis of CTS. The EMG and NCS exams should identify the peripheral nerve, specific location in the nerve pathway, involvement of sensory and/or motor axons, and the presence of myelinopathy and/or axonopathy neuropathic process. Clinical electrophysiologists now have 2 neurophysiological classification systems for patients with CTS from which to choose when preparing their electrophysiological testing reports. The Bland (2000) and GEHS (2012) neurophysiological classification systems for patients with CTS are discussed. Two case studies of patients with electrophysiological evidence of CTS are presented. Application and comparison of categorizations by the Bland and GEHS neurophysiological classification systems are incorporated into the presentation and discussion of these case studies. This article describes 2 neurophysiological classification systems for patients with CTS. The Bland system documents the distribution of patients with CTS on a scale based upon nerve conduction study findings, but it does not include any EMG findings in its grading scale. The GEHS neurophysiological classification system includes findings for both the NCS and EMG components of the electrophysiological examination. The GEHS classification system provides electrophysiological evidence of myelinopathy and/or axonopathy for patients with CTS. Additional research comparing the psychometric properties and prognostic utility of the Bland and GEHS neurophysiologic classifications is warranted.

  18. [Neurophysiology of gastrointestinal pain].

    PubMed

    Cerveró, F

    1990-08-01

    The only non-general sensation that can be elicited from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is that of pain, which can go from slight discomfort to severe pain. However, in certain parts of the intestine, such as the rectum and gastroesophagus, the sensation of pain can be preceded by a non-painful sensation of distension at low levels of stimulation. GI pain is often dull, poorly defined and difficult to pinpoint. In some cases, GI pain is projected to areas of the body distant from the source organ ("referred" pain). These characteristics indicate that the representation of internal organs within the nervous system is very imprecise. Experimental evidence based on behavioral, neurological and clinical testing shows that most GI pain is the result of activity in afferent visceral sensory fibers contained in sympathetic nerves, and that the afferent intestinal innervation by means of parasympathetic nerves is not essentially related to GI pain signalling and transmission. As for the peripheral sensory receptor coding mechanism in the intestine, experimental tests have shown the existence of specific visceral nociceptors in certain places (e.g., the biliary system) and the existence of a king of non-specific "intensity" receptors in others (e.g. the colon). In any case, the number of afferent nociceptive fibers in the intestine is minimal, and this accounts for the fact that large areas of the GI tract appear to be insensitive or to require considerable stimulation before pain can be elicited. The few afferent nociceptive fibers contained in the sympathetic nerves can excite quite a few second order neurons in the medulla spinalis, which in turn generate an extensive divergence within the medulla spinalis and brain stem, including at times long supraspinal branches. This divergent input can activate different motor, autonomous and sensory systems, thus triggering the general reactions which characterize visceral nociception: diffuse pain which is difficult to pinpoint

  19. KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes.

    PubMed

    Ogata, H; Goto, S; Sato, K; Fujibuchi, W; Bono, H; Kanehisa, M

    1999-01-01

    Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions in terms of the networks of genes and molecules. The major component of KEGG is the PATHWAY database that consists of graphical diagrams of biochemical pathways including most of the known metabolic pathways and some of the known regulatory pathways. The pathway information is also represented by the ortholog group tables summarizing orthologous and paralogous gene groups among different organisms. KEGG maintains the GENES database for the gene catalogs of all organisms with complete genomes and selected organisms with partial genomes, which are continuously re-annotated, as well as the LIGAND database for chemical compounds and enzymes. Each gene catalog is associated with the graphical genome map for chromosomal locations that is represented by Java applet. In addition to the data collection efforts, KEGG develops and provides various computational tools, such as for reconstructing biochemical pathways from the complete genome sequence and for predicting gene regulatory networks from the gene expression profiles. The KEGG databases are daily updated and made freely available (http://www.genome.ad.jp/kegg/).

  20. KEGG: kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes.

    PubMed

    Kanehisa, M; Goto, S

    2000-01-01

    KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions, linking genomic information with higher order functional information. The genomic information is stored in the GENES database, which is a collection of gene catalogs for all the completely sequenced genomes and some partial genomes with up-to-date annotation of gene functions. The higher order functional information is stored in the PATHWAY database, which contains graphical representations of cellular processes, such as metabolism, membrane transport, signal transduction and cell cycle. The PATHWAY database is supplemented by a set of ortholog group tables for the information about conserved subpathways (pathway motifs), which are often encoded by positionally coupled genes on the chromosome and which are especially useful in predicting gene functions. A third database in KEGG is LIGAND for the information about chemical compounds, enzyme molecules and enzymatic reactions. KEGG provides Java graphics tools for browsing genome maps, comparing two genome maps and manipulating expression maps, as well as computational tools for sequence comparison, graph comparison and path computation. The KEGG databases are daily updated and made freely available (http://www. genome.ad.jp/kegg/).

  1. Post-hypoxic Myoclonus: Current Concepts, Neurophysiology, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Harsh V.; Caviness, John N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Myoclonus may occur after hypoxia. In 1963, Lance and Adams described persistent myoclonus with other features after hypoxia. However, myoclonus occurring immediately after hypoxia may demonstrate different syndromic features from classic Lance–Adams syndrome (LAS). The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date information about the spectrum of myoclonus occurring after hypoxia with emphasis on neurophysiological features. Methods A literature search was performed on PubMed database from 1960 to 2015. The following search terms were used: “myoclonus,” “post anoxic myoclonus,” “post hypoxic myoclonus,” and “Lance Adams syndrome.” The articles describing clinical features, neurophysiology, management, and prognosis of post-hypoxic myoclonus cases were included for review. Results Several reports in the literature were separated clinically into “acute post-hypoxic myoclonus,” which occurred within hours of severe hypoxia, and “chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus,” which occurred with some recovery of mental status as the LAS. Acute post-hypoxic myoclonus was generalized in the setting of coma. Chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus presented as multifocal cortical action myoclonus that was significantly disabling. There was overlap of neurophysiological findings for these two syndromes but also different features. Treatment options for these two distinct clinical–neurophysiologic post-hypoxic myoclonus syndromes were approached differently. Discussion The review of clinical and neurophysiological findings suggests that myoclonus after hypoxia manifests in one or a combination of distinct syndromes: acute and/or chronic myoclonus. The mechanism of post-hypoxic myoclonus may arise either from cortical and/or subcortical structures. More research is needed to clarify mechanisms and treatment of post-hypoxic myoclonus. PMID:27708982

  2. [Approach to Teaching Kampo Medicine at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    An approach to educating our pharmaceutical students about Kampo medicine in the six-year system of undergraduate pharmacy education at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University is introduced, including the author's opinions. Curriculum revisions have been made in our university for students entering after 2012. In teaching Kampo medicine at present, a medical doctor and an on-site pharmacist share information difficult to give in a lecture with the teaching staff in my laboratory. For example, before the curriculum revision, we conferred with a pharmacist and a doctor in the course "Kampo Medicine A, B" for 4th year students, in which students were presented a basic knowledge of Kampo medicine, the application of important Kampo medicines, combinations of crude drugs, etc. Further, in our "Introduction to Kampo Medicine" for 6th year students, presented after they have practiced in hospitals and community pharmacies, we again lecture on the pharmacological characteristics of Kampo medicines, on "pattern (Sho)", and on evidence-based medicine (EBM) and research studies of important Kampo medicines. After our curriculum revision, "Kampo Medicine A, B" was rearranged into the courses "Kampo and Pharmacognosy" and "Clinical Kampo Medicine". "Kampo and Pharmacognosy" is now provided in the second semester of the 3rd year, and in this course we lecture on the basic knowledge of Kampo medicine. An advanced lecture will be given on "Clinical Kampo Medicine" in the 6th year. We are searching for the best way to interest students in Kampo medicine, and to counteract any misunderstandings about Kampo medicine.

  3. [Clinical, psychological and neurophysiological results of double-blind study on vincamine-cromesilate in patients with cerebro-vascular insufficiency (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mikus, P

    1978-01-01

    In a long-term double-blind cross-over design 26 patients with amnestic syndrome due to cerebro-vascular insufficiency were submitted to vincamine-cromesilate (Vincaryl) and placebo treatment. The efficiency of vincamine was proved by mildly ameliorated psychometric patterns, biochemically by decreased cholesterol level and ophthalmodynamographically by slight increase of pulsation capacity. By means of EMG, ECG and EEG clinic side effects were excluded.

  4. PREFACE: Beyond Kyoto - the necessary road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen

    2009-03-01

    The Beyond Kyoto conference in Aarhus March 2009 was organised in collaboration with other knowledge institutions, businesses and authorities. It brought together leading scientists, policy-makers, authorities, intergovernmental organisations, NGO's, business stakeholders and business organisations. The conference was a joint interdisciplinary project involving many academic areas and disciplines. These conference proceedings are organised in central and recurring themes that cut across many debates on climate change, the climatic challenges as well as the solutions. In the front there is a short presentation of the conference concept. Part I of the proceedings focuses on issues related to the society - covering climate policy, law, market based instruments, financial structure, behaviour and consumption, public participation, media communication and response from indigenous peoples etc. Part II of the proceedings concerns the scientific knowledge base on climate related issues - covering climate change processes per se, the potential impacts of projected climate change on biodiversity and adaptation possibilities, the interplay between climate, agriculture and biodiversity, emissions, agricultural systems, increasing pressure on the functioning of agriculture and natural areas, vulnerability to extreme weather events and risks in respect to sea-level rise etc. The conference proceedings committee consists of four professors from Aarhus University: Jens-Christian Svenning, Jørgen E Olesen, Mads Forchhammer and Ellen Margrethe Basse. Aarhus University's Climate Secretariat has had the overall responsibility for coordinating the many presentations, as well as the practical side of arranging the conference and supporting the publication of papers. As Head of the Climate Secretariat and Chair of Aarhus University's Climate Panel, I would like to thank everyone for their contribution. This applies both to the scientific and the practical efforts. Special thanks to

  5. Surgery for drug resistant partial epilepsy in children with focal cortical dysplasia: anatomical-clinical correlations and neurophysiological data in 10 patients.

    PubMed

    Francione, S; Vigliano, P; Tassi, L; Cardinale, F; Mai, R; Lo Russo, G; Munari, C

    2003-11-01

    To analyse a population of children with focal cortical dysplasia operated on for drug resistant partial epilepsy, with emphasis on clinical features, seizure semiology, interictal and ictal EEG and stereo EEG findings, histological and topographical characteristics of the lesions, extension and localisation of cerebral excision, and its postoperative effect on seizure frequency. 10 patients were studied, aged between 26 months and 11 years (median 6 years). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities were unilobar (temporal 3, frontal 2), bilobar (2), or multilobar (1); the two patients with negative MRI suffered from frontal seizures. Presurgical diagnostic steps varied in complexity and invasiveness depending on the anatomical/electrical/clinical features of each patient. In four patients they included only scalp video EEG monitoring, and in six, also invasive recordings using stereotactically implanted intracerebral electrodes. Surgery consisted of corticectomy plus lesionectomy in all cases. 70% of the patients were seizure-free after a minimum postoperative follow up of 25 months. These included three patients with temporal lesions and four of seven patients with other lobar or multilobar extratemporal localisation. One patient had improvement in seizure control. Outcome was poor in multilobar patients, but a class Ia outcome was obtained in one case after partial lesionectomy associated with bilobar corticectomy. All patients showed developmental improvement. Analysis of the data in these patients allowed the production of an "anatomical-clinical concordance" list, which appeared to be correlated with the diagnostic steps performed. Carrying out a stereo EEG exploration in the most complex cases proved useful in defining the epileptogenic zone in extratemporal and multilobar epilepsies. Stereo EEG recordings facilitated a tailored resection of extralesional cortex.

  6. Surgery for drug resistant partial epilepsy in children with focal cortical dysplasia: anatomical–clinical correlations and neurophysiological data in 10 patients

    PubMed Central

    Francione, S; Vigliano, P; Tassi, L; Cardinale, F; Mai, R; Lo, R; Munari, C

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To analyse a population of children with focal cortical dysplasia operated on for drug resistant partial epilepsy, with emphasis on clinical features, seizure semiology, interictal and ictal EEG and stereo EEG findings, histological and topographical characteristics of the lesions, extension and localisation of cerebral excision, and its postoperative effect on seizure frequency. Methods:10 patients were studied, aged between 26 months and 11 years (median 6 years). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities were unilobar (temporal 3, frontal 2), bilobar (2), or multilobar (1); the two patients with negative MRI suffered from frontal seizures. Presurgical diagnostic steps varied in complexity and invasiveness depending on the anatomical/electrical/clinical features of each patient. In four patients they included only scalp video EEG monitoring, and in six, also invasive recordings using stereotactically implanted intracerebral electrodes. Surgery consisted of corticectomy plus lesionectomy in all cases. Results:70% of the patients were seizure-free after a minimum postoperative follow up of 25 months. These included three patients with temporal lesions and four of seven patients with other lobar or multilobar extratemporal localisation. One patient had improvement in seizure control. Outcome was poor in multilobar patients, but a class Ia outcome was obtained in one case after partial lesionectomy associated with bilobar corticectomy. All patients showed developmental improvement. Conclusions:Analysis of the data in these patients allowed the production of an "anatomical-clinical concordance" list, which appeared to be correlated with the diagnostic steps performed. Carrying out a stereo EEG exploration in the most complex cases proved useful in defining the epileptogenic zone in extratemporal and multilobar epilepsies. Stereo EEG recordings facilitated a tailored resection of extralesional cortex. PMID:14617703

  7. The role of the circadian system in fractal neurophysiological control

    PubMed Central

    Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin R.; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.; Butler, Matthew P.; Shea, Steven A.; Hu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Many neurophysiological variables such as heart rate, motor activity, and neural activity are known to exhibit intrinsic fractal fluctuations - similar temporal fluctuation patterns at different time scales. These fractal patterns contain information about health, as many pathological conditions are accompanied by their alteration or absence. In physical systems, such fluctuations are characteristic of critical states on the border between randomness and order, frequently arising from nonlinear feedback interactions between mechanisms operating on multiple scales. Thus, the existence of fractal fluctuations in physiology challenges traditional conceptions of health and disease, suggesting that high levels of integrity and adaptability are marked by complex variability, not constancy, and are properties of a neurophysiological network, not individual components. Despite the subject's theoretical and clinical interest, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying fractal regulation remain largely unknown. The recent discovery that the circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nucleus) plays a crucial role in generating fractal patterns in motor activity and heart rate sheds an entirely new light on both fractal control networks and the function of this master circadian clock, and builds a bridge between the fields of circadian biology and fractal physiology. In this review, we sketch the emerging picture of the developing interdisciplinary field of fractal neurophysiology by examining the circadian system’s role in fractal regulation. PMID:23573942

  8. The role of the circadian system in fractal neurophysiological control.

    PubMed

    Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin R; Scheer, Frank A J L; Butler, Matthew P; Shea, Steven A; Hu, Kun

    2013-11-01

    Many neurophysiological variables such as heart rate, motor activity, and neural activity are known to exhibit intrinsic fractal fluctuations - similar temporal fluctuation patterns at different time scales. These fractal patterns contain information about health, as many pathological conditions are accompanied by their alteration or absence. In physical systems, such fluctuations are characteristic of critical states on the border between randomness and order, frequently arising from nonlinear feedback interactions between mechanisms operating on multiple scales. Thus, the existence of fractal fluctuations in physiology challenges traditional conceptions of health and disease, suggesting that high levels of integrity and adaptability are marked by complex variability, not constancy, and are properties of a neurophysiological network, not individual components. Despite the subject's theoretical and clinical interest, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying fractal regulation remain largely unknown. The recent discovery that the circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nucleus) plays a crucial role in generating fractal patterns in motor activity and heart rate sheds an entirely new light on both fractal control networks and the function of this master circadian clock, and builds a bridge between the fields of circadian biology and fractal physiology. In this review, we sketch the emerging picture of the developing interdisciplinary field of fractal neurophysiology by examining the circadian system's role in fractal regulation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  9. Low-frequency rTMS in patients with subacute ischemic stroke: clinical evaluation of short and long-term outcomes and neurophysiological assessment of cortical excitability

    PubMed Central

    Blesneag, AV; Slăvoacă, DF; Popa, L; Stan, AD; Jemna, N; Isai Moldovan, F; Mureșanu, DF

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is used alone or in combination with physiotherapy for rehabilitation of stroke patients. TMS mapping can also quantify the excitability of the motor area in both the ipsilesional (IL) and contralateral (CL) hemisphere. Objective: This study is the first to measure the dynamics of cortical excitability by TMS mapping before and after treatment with low-frequency (LF) rTMS in the contralesional hemisphere at three different timepoints. Furthermore, the patients were clinically evaluated during the same visit as the mapping to establish both short and long-term outcomes after rTMS treatment. Methods and Results: A total of 16 participants with acute ischemic stroke were assessed 10 days post-stroke by TMS mapping. The patients were randomized into two equal groups: a real rTMS group and a sham group. The rTMS group received LF-rTMS to the contralesional hemisphere for 10 days, starting on the first day after the first mapping. Each subject was also evaluated by mapping on days 45 and 90 after stroke onset. The primary clinical outcome measured was the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) on days 10, 45 and 90 post-stroke. At 10 days after stroke onset, both groups presented low excitability in the lesion side and high excitability in the non-affected side. In the real rTMS group, at 45 days after stroke, a downward trend in the excitability of the contralesional hemisphere and an upward trend in the excitability of the lesioned side were observed. At 90 days after stroke, a tendency toward balanced excitability between both hemispheres was observed. In the sham group, at both 45 and 90 days, we observed increased excitability in the non-affected side compared to the side with the lesioned motor area. At 45 days, the real rTMS group demonstrated a better recovery of the upper limb motor function than the sham group, but at 90 days, there was no significant difference between the two groups

  10. Interventional neurophysiology and an implantable system for neurostimulation of the sacral area.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Surgical or interventional neurophysiology is a term commonly used to refer to a large number of neurosurgical procedures involving the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system which, to be efficient and safe, demand specific neurophysiological know-how. As a result of the development of these procedures and their increasing use in the operating room, the role of clinical neurophysiology, traditionally diagnostic, has been extended. With the advent of 'neurostimulation' and 'neuromodulation', some neurophysiological techniques have, in themselves, progressively become more therapeutic, the therapeutic alteration of nervous system activity being achieved not only by surgical ablation or medication but also through electrophysiological means via implanted or non-implanted devices, whose development was made possible by extensive studies in the field of neurophysiology. The first application of electrical stimulation in urology opened up the way for progress in the therapeutic direction. Moreover, with regard to the mechanism of action underlying neuromodulation, the application of neurophysiology and neuroimaging procedures has contributed to understanding of the neural control mechanism of visceral (e.g. lower urinary tract) function. In our experience, the advent of sacral neuromodulation for lower urinary tract dysfunction and the use of neurophysiology has made it possible to shed light on the pathophysiological mechanisms of neuro-urological disorders, allowing us to assess and validate new therapeutic approaches and finally to develop a new method and device for chronic pudendal nerve stimulation.

  11. Circadian Rhythm Control: Neurophysiological Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glotzbach, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) was implicated as a primary component in central nervous system mechanisms governing circadian rhythms. Disruption of the normal synchronization of temperature, activity, and other rhythms is detrimental to health. Sleep wake disorders, decreases in vigilance and performance, and certain affective disorders may result from or be exacerbated by such desynchronization. To study the basic neurophysiological mechanisms involved in entrainment of circadian systems by the environment, Parylene-coated, etched microwire electrode bundles were used to record extracellular action potentials from the small somata of the SCN and neighboring hypothalamic nuclei in unanesthetized, behaving animals. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and chronically prepared with EEG ane EMG electrodes in addition to a moveable microdrive assembly. The majority of cells had firing rates 10 Hz and distinct populations of cells which had either the highest firing rate or lowest firing rate during sleep were seen.

  12. Carbon Sequestered, Carbon Displaced and the Kyoto Context

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1999-04-18

    The integrated system that embraces forest management, forest products, and land-use change impacts the global carbon cycle - and hence the net emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide - in four fundamental ways. Carbon is stored in living and dead biomass, carbon is stored in wood products and landfills, forest products substitute in the market place for products made from other materials, and forest harvests can be used wholly or partially to displace fossil fuels in the energy sector. Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change would result in the creation of international markets for carbon dioxide emissions credits, but the current Kyoto text does not treat all carbon identically. We have developed a carbon accounting model, GORCAM, to examine a variety of scenarios for land management and the production of forest products. In this paper we explore, for two simple scenarios of forest management, the carbon flows that occur and how these might be accounted for under the Kyoto text. The Kyoto protocol raises questions about what activities can result in emissions credits, which carbon reservoirs will be counted, who will receive the credits, and how much credit will be available? The Kyoto Protocol would sometimes give credits for carbon sequestered, but it would always give credits when fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are displaced.

  13. Asian School of Urology, Young Leaders' Workshop, Kyoto 2010.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    As part of the 20th Anniversary Celebration of the Urological Association of Asia (UAA), the Asian School of Urology, Young Leaders' Workshop was held in Kyoto, 23-25 April 2010. The workshop focused on future national Asian leaders in the field of Urology and was arranged by the Asian School of Urology (ASU), an educational branch of the UAA, and Dr Osamu Ogawa, the workshop Organizer. Urologists from several Japanese universities contributed to the workshop as advisors, taskforce members, and group members. The workshop was also actively supported by Dr Allen Chiu (Taiwan) and Dr Stephen Lim (Singapore). A younger generation of urologists was invited to attend the workshop and, in all, 29 delegates from 17 countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam), chosen on the basis of recommendations from local councils, attended. The purpose of the workshop was to open channels of communication between future Asian leaders in Urology. The workshop topic was "Asian Clinical Guidelines". Workshop participants were divided into five groups addressing distinct issues associated with the notion of clinical guidelines: Group A, General Problems; Group B, Prostate Cancer; Group C, Stone Disease; Group D, Infectious Diseases; and Group E, Bladder Cancer. The workshop consisted of an introductory session, followed by three main sessions, each of which consisted of a group discussion of specific problems associated with the establishment of Asian Guidelines for Urological Diseases and how best to deal with them, followed by a plenary presentation of the outcomes. © 2010 The Japanese Urological Association.

  14. Hypno-analgesia and acupuncture analgesia: a neurophysiological reality?

    PubMed

    Saletu, B; Saletu, M; Brown, M; Stern, J; Sletten, I; Ulett, G

    1975-01-01

    The effects of hypnosis, acupuncture and analgesic drugs on the subjective experience of pain and on objective neurophysiological parameters were investigated. Pain was produced by brief electric stimuli on the wrist. Pain challengers were: hypnosis (induced by two different video tapes), acupuncture (at specific and unspecific loci, with and without electrical stimulation of the needles), morphine and ketamine. Evaluation of clinical parameters included the subjective experience of pain intensity, blood pressure, puls, temperature, psychosomatic symptoms and side effects. Neurophysiological parameters consisted of the quantitatively analyzed EEG and somatosensory evlked potential (SEP). Pain was significantly reduced by hypnosis, morphine and ketamine, but not during the control seesion. Of the four acupuncture techniques, only electro-acupuncture at specific loci significantly decreased pain. The EEG changes during hypnosis were dependent on the wording of the suggestion and were characterized by an increase of slow and a decrease of fast waves. Acupuncture induced just the opposite changes, which were most significant when needles were inserted at traditional specific sites and stimulated electrically. The evoked potential findings suggested that ketamine attenuates pain in the thalamo-cortical pathways, while hypnosis, acupuncture and morphine induce analgesia at the later CNS stage of stimulus processing. Finally some clinical-neurophysiological correlations were explored.

  15. A Possible Common Neurophysiologic Basis for MDD, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia: Lessons from Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahaf, Goded

    2016-01-01

    There is ample electrophysiological evidence of attention dysfunction in the EEG/ERP signal of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. The reduced attention-related ERP waves show much similarity between MDD, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, raising the question whether there are similarities in the neurophysiologic process that underlies attention dysfunction in these pathologies. The present work suggests that there is such a unified underlying neurophysiologic process, which results in reduced attention in the three pathologies. Naturally, as these pathologies involve different clinical manifestations, we expect differences in their underlying neurophysiology. These differences and their subtle manifestation in the ERP marker for attention are also discussed. MDD, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are just three of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, which involve changes in the EEG/ERP manifestations of attention. Further work should expand the basic model presented here to offer comprehensive modeling of these multiple disorders and to emphasize similarities and dissimilarities of the underlying neurophysiologic processes. PMID:27313546

  16. Neurophysiological imaging techniques in dementia.

    PubMed

    Comi, G; Leocani, L

    1999-01-01

    Neurophysiological methods, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials, are useful tools in the investigation of brain cognitive function in normal and pathological conditions, with an excellent time resolution when compared to that of other functional imaging techniques. Advanced techniques using a high number of EEG channels also enable a good spatial resolution to be achieved. This, together with the possibility of integration with other anatomical and functional images, may increase the ability to localize brain functions. Spectral analysis of the resting EEG, which gives information on the integrity of the cortical and subcortical networks involved in the generation of cortical rhythms, has the limitation of low sensitivity and specificity for the type of cognitive impairment. In almost all types of dementia, decreased power of the high frequencies is indeed observed in mild stages, accompanied by increased power of the slow rhythms in the more advanced phases. The sensitivity for the detection of spectral abnormalities is improved by studying centroid modifications. More specific information on the type of dementia can be provided by coherence analysis of the resting EEG, a measure of functional cortico-cortical connections, which has different abnormal patterns in Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular dementia and dementia associated with multiple sclerosis. Another tool for improving the assessment of demented patients is the study of EEG activity related to particular tasks, such as event-related potentials and event-related desynchronization/synchronization of the EEG, which allow the study of brain activation during cognitive and motor tasks.

  17. Incorporating neurophysiological concepts in mathematical thermoregulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingma, Boris R. M.; Vosselman, M. J.; Frijns, A. J. H.; van Steenhoven, A. A.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W. D.

    2014-01-01

    Skin blood flow (SBF) is a key player in human thermoregulation during mild thermal challenges. Various numerical models of SBF regulation exist. However, none explicitly incorporates the neurophysiology of thermal reception. This study tested a new SBF model that is in line with experimental data on thermal reception and the neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control. Additionally, a numerical thermoregulation model was used as a platform to test the function of the neurophysiological SBF model for skin temperature simulation. The prediction-error of the SBF-model was quantified by root-mean-squared-residual (RMSR) between simulations and experimental measurement data. Measurement data consisted of SBF (abdomen, forearm, hand), core and skin temperature recordings of young males during three transient thermal challenges (1 development and 2 validation). Additionally, ThermoSEM, a thermoregulation model, was used to simulate body temperatures using the new neurophysiological SBF-model. The RMSR between simulated and measured mean skin temperature was used to validate the model. The neurophysiological model predicted SBF with an accuracy of RMSR < 0.27. Tskin simulation results were within 0.37 °C of the measured mean skin temperature. This study shows that (1) thermal reception and neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control can be captured in a mathematical model, and (2) human thermoregulation models can be equipped with SBF control functions that are based on neurophysiology without loss of performance. The neurophysiological approach in modelling thermoregulation is favourable over engineering approaches because it is more in line with the underlying physiology.

  18. Incorporating neurophysiological concepts in mathematical thermoregulation models.

    PubMed

    Kingma, Boris R M; Vosselman, M J; Frijns, A J H; van Steenhoven, A A; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    2014-01-01

    Skin blood flow (SBF) is a key player in human thermoregulation during mild thermal challenges. Various numerical models of SBF regulation exist. However, none explicitly incorporates the neurophysiology of thermal reception. This study tested a new SBF model that is in line with experimental data on thermal reception and the neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control. Additionally, a numerical thermoregulation model was used as a platform to test the function of the neurophysiological SBF model for skin temperature simulation. The prediction-error of the SBF-model was quantified by root-mean-squared-residual (RMSR) between simulations and experimental measurement data. Measurement data consisted of SBF (abdomen, forearm, hand), core and skin temperature recordings of young males during three transient thermal challenges (1 development and 2 validation). Additionally, ThermoSEM, a thermoregulation model, was used to simulate body temperatures using the new neurophysiological SBF-model. The RMSR between simulated and measured mean skin temperature was used to validate the model. The neurophysiological model predicted SBF with an accuracy of RMSR < 0.27. Tskin simulation results were within 0.37 °C of the measured mean skin temperature. This study shows that (1) thermal reception and neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control can be captured in a mathematical model, and (2) human thermoregulation models can be equipped with SBF control functions that are based on neurophysiology without loss of performance. The neurophysiological approach in modelling thermoregulation is favourable over engineering approaches because it is more in line with the underlying physiology.

  19. Study of the Neurophysiology of Central Fatigue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-05

    objective cognitive fatigue using event related potentials (ERPs). 2) To determine the neurophysiologic mechanisms underlying objective cognitive fatigue ...Study of the Neurophysiology of Central Fatigue The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not...AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 cognitive, fatigue , fatigability

  20. Neurophysiological monitoring and spinal cord integrity.

    PubMed

    Rabai, Ferenc; Sessions, Renard; Seubert, Christoph N

    2016-03-01

    An integral part of a major spine surgery is the intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). By providing continuous functional assessment of specific anatomic structures, IONM allows the rapid detection of neuronal compromise and the opportunity for corrective action before an insult causes permanent neurological damage. Thus, IONM functions not just as a diagnostic tool but may also improve surgical outcomes. Effective clinical application requires a thorough understanding of the scope and limitations of IONM modalities not only by the monitoring team but also by the surgeon and anesthesiologist. Intraoperatively, collaboration and communication between monitorist, surgeon, and anesthesiologist are critical to the effectiveness of IONM. In this study, we review specific monitoring modalities, focusing on the relevant anatomy, physiology, and mechanisms of neuronal injury during major spine surgery. We discuss how these factors interact with anesthetic and surgical management. This review concludes with the current controversies surrounding the evidence in support of IONM and directions of future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ocean fertilization, carbon credits and the Kyoto Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westley, M. B.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2008-12-01

    Commercial interest in ocean fertilization as a carbon sequestration tool was excited by the December 1997 agreement of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change. The Protocol commits industrialized countries to caps on net greenhouse gas emissions and allows for various flexible mechanisms to achieve these caps in the most economically efficient manner possible, including trade in carbon credits from projects that reduce emissions or enhance sinks. The carbon market was valued at 64 billion in 2007, with the bulk of the trading (50 billion) taking place in the highly regulated European Union Emission Trading Scheme, which deals primarily in emission allowances in the energy sector. A much smaller amount, worth $265 million, was traded in the largely unregulated "voluntary" market (Capoor and Ambrosi 2008). As the voluntary market grows, so do calls for its regulation, with several efforts underway to set rules and standards for the sale of voluntary carbon credits using the Kyoto Protocol as a starting point. Four US-based companies and an Australian company currently seek to develop ocean fertilization technologies for the generation of carbon credits. We review these plans through the lens of the Kyoto Protocol and its flexible mechanisms, and examine whether and how ocean fertilization could generate tradable carbon credits. We note that at present, ocean sinks are not included in the Kyoto Protocol, and that furthermore, the Kyoto Protocol only addresses sources and sinks of greenhouse gases within national boundaries, making open-ocean fertilization projects a jurisdictional challenge. We discuss the negotiating history behind the limited inclusion of land use, land use change and forestry in the Kyoto Protocol and the controversy and eventual compromise concerning methodologies for terrestrial carbon accounting. We conclude that current technologies for measuring and monitoring carbon sequestration following ocean fertilization

  2. Neurophysiological biomarkers for Lewy body dementias

    PubMed Central

    Cromarty, Ruth A.; Elder, Greg J.; Graziadio, Sara; Baker, Mark; Bonanni, Laura; Onofrj, Marco; O’Brien, John T.; Taylor, John-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lewy body dementias (LBD) include both dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease with dementia (PDD), and the differentiation of LBD from other neurodegenerative dementias can be difficult. Currently, there are few biomarkers which might assist early diagnosis, map onto LBD symptom severity, and provide metrics of treatment response. Traditionally, biomarkers in LBD have focussed on neuroimaging modalities; however, as biomarkers need to be simple, inexpensive and non-invasive, neurophysiological approaches might also be useful as LBD biomarkers. Methods In this review, we searched PubMED and PsycINFO databases in a semi-systematic manner in order to identify potential neurophysiological biomarkers in the LBDs. Results We identified 1491 studies; of these, 37 studies specifically examined neurophysiological biomarkers in LBD patients. We found that there was substantial heterogeneity with respect to methodologies and patient cohorts. Conclusion Generally, many of the findings have yet to be replicated, although preliminary findings reinforce the potential utility of approaches such as quantitative electroencephalography and motor cortical stimulation paradigms. Significance Various neurophysiological techniques have the potential to be useful biomarkers in the LBDs. We recommend that future studies focus on maximising the diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the most promising neurophysiological biomarkers. PMID:26183755

  3. Myasthenia gravis with presynaptic neurophysiological signs: Two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Alboini, Paolo Emilio; Damato, Valentina; Iorio, Raffaele; Luigetti, Marco; Evoli, Amelia

    2015-08-01

    The distinction between myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is based on clinical, neurophysiological and immunological features. We hereby report two cases with a clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis and neurophysiological features consistent with a pre-synaptic neuromuscular transmission defect. Both patients had increased anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody titres and showed a good response to cholinesterase inhibitors, along with a >100% facilitation of the compound muscle action potential on electrophysiological studies. We provide a review of English literature studies on co-existing features of myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, and discuss diagnostic controversies.

  4. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Workshop Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenqvist, Ake; Imhoff, Marc; Milne, Anthony; Dobson, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contains quantified, legally binding commitments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels and allows carbon emissions to be balanced by carbon sinks represented by vegetation. The issue of using vegetation cover as an emission offset raises a debate about the adequacy of current remote sensing systems and data archives to both assess carbon stocks/sinks at 1990 levels, and monitor the current and future global status of those stocks. These concerns and the potential ratification of the Protocol among participating countries is stimulating policy debates and underscoring a need for the exchange of information between the international legal community and the remote sensing community. On October 20-22 1999, two working groups of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) joined with the University of Michigan (Michigan, USA) to convene discussions on how remote sensing technology could contribute to the information requirements raised by implementation of, and compliance with, the Kyoto Protocol. The meeting originated as a joint effort between the Global Monitoring Working Group and the Radar Applications Working Group in Commission VII of the ISPRS, co-sponsored by the University of Michigan. Tile meeting was attended by representatives from national government agencies and international organizations and academic institutions. Some of the key themes addressed were: (1) legal aspects of transnational remote sensing in the context of the Kyoto Protocol; (2) a review of the current and future and remote sensing technologies that could be applied to the Kyoto Protocol; (3) identification of areas where additional research is needed in order to advance and align remote sensing technology with the requirements and expectations of the Protocol; and 94) the bureaucratic and research management approaches needed to align the remote sensing

  5. The Kyoto Protocol and forestry practices in the United States

    Treesearch

    Bov B. Eav; Richard A. Birdsey; Linda S. Heath

    2000-01-01

    Forestry may play an important if not critical role in the ability of the U.S. to meet its greenhouse gas emissions target under the terms of the Kyoto Protocol. Given the low rate of change in the U.S. forest land area, the major anthropogenic influences on the current net forest carbon flux are forest management and protection activities that have resulted in...

  6. Neurophysiological biomarkers for drug development in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Javitt, Daniel C.; Spencer, Kevin M.; Thaker, Gunvant K.; Winterer, Georg; Hajós, Mihály

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia represents a pervasive deficit in brain function, leading to hallucinations and delusions, social withdrawal and a decline in cognitive performance. As the underlying genetic and neuronal abnormalities in schizophrenia are largely unknown, it is challenging to measure the severity of its symptoms objectively, or to design and evaluate psychotherapeutic interventions. Recent advances in neurophysiological techniques provide new opportunities to measure abnormal brain functions in patients with schizophrenia and to compare these with drug-induced alterations. Moreover, many of these neurophysiological processes are phylogenetically conserved and can be modelled in preclinical studies, offering unique opportunities for use as translational biomarkers in schizophrenia drug discovery. PMID:18064038

  7. Neurophysiological Correlates of Sevoflurane-induced Unconsciousness

    PubMed Central

    Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Tarnal, Vijay; Vanini, Giancarlo; Alexander, Amir; Rosen, Derek; Shortal, Brenna; Janke, Ellen; Mashour, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness in humans have focused predominantly on the intravenous drug propofol and have identified anterior dominance of alpha rhythms and frontal phase-amplitude coupling patterns as neurophysiological markers. However, it is unclear whether the correlates of propofol-induced unconsciousness are generalizable to inhaled anesthetics, which have distinct molecular targets and which are used more commonly in clinical practice. Methods We recorded 64-channel electroencephalogram in healthy human participants during consciousness, sevoflurane-induced unconsciousness, and recovery (n=10; n=7 suitable for analysis). Spectrograms and scalp distributions of low-frequency (1 Hz) and alpha (10 Hz) power were analyzed, and phase-amplitude modulation between these two frequencies was calculated in frontal and parietal regions. Phase lag index was used to assess phase relationships across the cortex. Results At concentrations sufficient for unconsciousness, sevoflurane did not result in a consistent anteriorization of alpha power; the relationship between low-frequency phase and alpha amplitude in the frontal cortex did not undergo characteristic transitions. By contrast, there was significant cross-frequency coupling in the parietal region during consciousness that was not observed after loss of consciousness. Furthermore, a reversible disruption of anterior-posterior phase relationships in the alpha bandwidth was identified as a correlate of sevoflurane-induced unconsciousness. Conclusion In humans, sevoflurane-induced unconsciousness is not correlated with anteriorization of alpha and related cross-frequency patterns, but rather by a disruption of phase-amplitude coupling in the parietal region and phase-phase relationships across the cortex. PMID:25296108

  8. Neurophysiological correlates of sevoflurane-induced unconsciousness.

    PubMed

    Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Tarnal, Vijay; Vanini, Giancarlo; Alexander, Amir; Rosen, Derek; Shortal, Brenna; Janke, Ellen; Mashour, George A

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness in humans have focused predominantly on the intravenous drug propofol and have identified anterior dominance of alpha rhythms and frontal phase-amplitude coupling patterns as neurophysiological markers. However, it is unclear whether the correlates of propofol-induced unconsciousness are generalizable to inhaled anesthetics, which have distinct molecular targets and which are used more commonly in clinical practice. The authors recorded 64-channel electroencephalograms in healthy human participants during consciousness, sevoflurane-induced unconsciousness, and recovery (n = 10; n = 7 suitable for analysis). Spectrograms and scalp distributions of low-frequency (1 Hz) and alpha (10 Hz) power were analyzed, and phase-amplitude modulation between these two frequencies was calculated in frontal and parietal regions. Phase lag index was used to assess phase relationships across the cortex. At concentrations sufficient for unconsciousness, sevoflurane did not result in a consistent anteriorization of alpha power; the relationship between low-frequency phase and alpha amplitude in the frontal cortex did not undergo characteristic transitions. By contrast, there was significant cross-frequency coupling in the parietal region during consciousness that was not observed after loss of consciousness. Furthermore, a reversible disruption of anterior-posterior phase relationships in the alpha bandwidth was identified as a correlate of sevoflurane-induced unconsciousness. In humans, sevoflurane-induced unconsciousness is not correlated with anteriorization of alpha and related cross-frequency patterns, but rather by a disruption of phase-amplitude coupling in the parietal region and phase-phase relationships across the cortex.

  9. Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-27

    Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

  10. [Prof. Michiharu Matsuoka, founder of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University, and his achievements in orthopaedic surgery in the Meiji Era of Japan (part 1: establishment of the department)].

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Hayato

    2005-09-01

    The Department of Orthopaedic and Musculoskeletal Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (formerly the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University) was founded by Imperial Ordinance, Article No. 89 issued on April 23, 1906. On May 4, 1906, Dr. Shinichiro Asahara, Assistant Professor of the Department of Surgery, was appointed as the first director of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University. Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka, Assistant Doctor of the Department of Surgery, Tokyo Medical School, Imperial University of Tokyo, was appointed Assistant Professor of Surgery, Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University in March 1901. From August 1903 to May 1906, he studied orthopaedic surgery in Germany and returned on May 5, 1906. Dr. Matsuoka was appointed as the director and chief of the Department on May 13, 1906 and took over Dr. Asahara's position. On June 18, 1906, Dr. Matsuoka started his clinic and began giving lectures on orthopaedic surgery. This was the first department of orthopaedic surgery among the Japanese medical schools. Dr. Matsuoka was appointed as Professor in 1907. He had to overcome several obstacles to establish the medical department of a new discipline that had never existed in Japanese medical schools. This article discusses Dr. Matsuoka's contributions to establishing and developing orthopaedic surgery in Japan in the Meiji-era.

  11. [Experience of Collaborative Research through Department of Medical Instrumental Research and Technology in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Both of Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine which offers high, technical and safe medical treatment and Horiba, Ltd. which has small CBC analyzers in a core product established a joint research institute for development of advanced laboratory test analyzer from January 1, 2012 in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine as the "advanced treatment hospital" where the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has got approved. Clinical needs about analyzer and reagent for a laboratory test are being investigated to the emergency medical care unit and the intensive care unit as well as the laboratory test part in the affiliated hospital and many medical departments of the pediatrics, the internal medicine and the surgery. Developing the new analyzer based on high technology, evaluating the performance of them and spreading them to a medical examination and treatment site is our main target.

  12. Neurophysiological monitoring in adult and pediatric intensive care.

    PubMed

    Amantini, A; Carrai, R; Lori, S; Peris, A; Amadori, A; Pinto, F; Grippo, A

    2012-09-01

    Clinical neurophysiology is both an extension of clinical examination and an integration of neuroimaging. It plays a role in diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Electroencephalography (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) are the most informative neurophysiological tests. Both have a major prognostic role in the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the former the absence of bilateral cortical SEPs has an unfavorable prognostic significance of 100%, whereas bilateral normal SEPs has uncertain prognostic value. In TBI these SEP patterns have high early prognostic value for both bad and good outcome. Continuous EEG monitoring is indicated for diagnosis and treatment of non convulsive seizures and status epilepticus (NCSE), whereas SEPs are more able to indicate the occurrence of neurological deterioration. In our opinion EEG-SEP monitoring is also valuable for interpretation and management of ICP trends, contributing to optimise treatment in a single patient. The EEG seems to have the same prognostic utility in pediatric as in adult ICU. Recent reviews supported the use of SEPs in the integrated process of outcome prediction after acute brain injury in children. However differences in interpretation are needed and the issue is whether it is possible to establish an age limit over which the prediction of SEPs is similar to that in adults. There are only a few studies of seizure prevalence in pediatric ICU. The variability of frequency of NCSE in comatose children is high as in adults and, similar to the adult, remains unclear the impact on outcome.

  13. Brain Oscillations Forever--Neurophysiology in Future Research of Child Psychiatric Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberger, Aribert

    2009-01-01

    For decades neurophysiology has successfully contributed to research and clinical care in child psychiatry. Recently, methodological progress has led to a revival of interest in brain oscillations (i.e., a band of periodic neuronal frequencies with a wave-duration from milliseconds to several seconds which may code and decode information). These…

  14. Brain Oscillations Forever--Neurophysiology in Future Research of Child Psychiatric Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberger, Aribert

    2009-01-01

    For decades neurophysiology has successfully contributed to research and clinical care in child psychiatry. Recently, methodological progress has led to a revival of interest in brain oscillations (i.e., a band of periodic neuronal frequencies with a wave-duration from milliseconds to several seconds which may code and decode information). These…

  15. Neurophysiological aspects of neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuyoshi

    2014-05-01

    Recently, amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) has been increasingly used and proved useful in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) for the management of neonatal seizures. It does not replace, but is supplementary to standard EEG. This article reviews some of findings obtained with standard EEGs, and tries to interpret them with recent findings in the field of basic science. Seizures mainly occur in active-REM sleep in neonates. This is in sharp contrast to those in older children and adults, in whom epileptic seizures occur mainly in NREM sleep. This may be explained by neurotransmitter effects on sleep mechanisms of the neonatal brain that are different from those of older individuals. When all clinical seizures have no electrical correlates, they are non-epileptic, but when the correlation between clinical seizures and frequent electrical discharges are inconsistent, they should rather be considered epileptic, reflecting progression of status epilepticus causing electro-clinical dissociation. Electro-clinical dissociation is not a characteristic of neonatal seizures per se, but a feature of prolonged status epilepticus in adults as well as children. It occurs when prolonged status epilepticus itself causes a progressively severe encephalopathy, or when status occurs in the presence of a severe underlying encephalopathy. In neonates without pre-existing brain damage, frequent seizures per se may cause mild depression characterized by the loss of high voltage slow patterns, an important constituent of slow wave sleep reflecting cortico-cortical connectivity. Mild depression only in the acute stage is not associated with neurological sequelae, but previously damaged brain may be more vulnerable than normal brain.

  16. Let`s focus on sustainability, not Kyoto

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, H.R.

    1999-03-01

    This article addresses how to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide produced in the combustion of fossil fuels -- oil, natural gas, and coal -- in a less painful way than that called for in the Kyoto Protocol. Adopting a 1,000-gigatonne global carbon budget for years 1991 to 2100 and a peak annual carbon emission level of 11 gigatonnes between years 2030 and 2040 will buy the time to develop and deploy low- and zero-carbon emission technologies while deferring the controversial issue of the compliance of developing countries.

  17. Carbon emissions. The economic benefits of the Kyoto Protocol.

    PubMed

    De Leo, G A; Rizzi, L; Caizzi, A; Gatto, M

    2001-10-04

    The third Conference of the Parties in Kyoto set the target of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions by an average of 5.3% with respect to 1990 values by 2008-2012. One of the main objections to the protocol's ratification is that compliance would pose an unbearable economic burden on the countries involved. But we show here that this is not the case if costs apart from the direct costs of energy production are also considered. Costs are also incurred in rectifying damage to human health, material goods, agriculture and the environment related to greenhouse-gas emissions.

  18. [The links between neuropsychology and neurophysiology].

    PubMed

    Stolarska-Weryńska, Urszula; Biedroń, Agnieszka; Kaciński, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish current scope of knowledge regarding associations between neurophysiological functioning, neuropsychology and psychoterapy. A systematic review was performed including 93 publications from Science Server, which contains the collections of Elsevier, Springer Journals, SCI-Ex/ICM, MEDLINE/PubMed, and SCOPUS. The works have been selected basing on following key words: 'neuropsychology, neurocognitive correlates, electrodermal response, event related potential, EEG, pupillography, electromiography' out of papers published between 2004-2015. Present reports on the use of neurophysiological methods in psychology can be divided into two areas: experimental research and research of the practical use of conditioning techniques and biofeedback in the treatment of somatic disease. Among the experimental research the following have been distinguished: research based on the startle reflex, physiological reaction to novelty, stress, type/amount of cognitive load and physiological correlates of emotion; research on the neurophysiological correlates of mental disorders, mostly mood and anxiety disorders, and neurocognitive correlates: of memory, attention, learning and intelligence. Among papers regarding the use of neurophysiological methods in psychology two types are the most frequent: on the mechanisms of biofeedback, related mainly to neuro- feedback, which is a quickly expanding method of various attention and mental disorders'treatment, and also research of the use of conditioning techniques in the treatment of mental disorders, especially depression and anxiety. A special place among all the above is taken by the research on electrophysiological correlates of psychotherapy, aiming to differentiate between the efficacy of various psychotherapeutic schools (the largest amount of publications regard the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) in patients of different age groups and different diagnosis.

  19. Neurophysiological Analysis of Circadian Rhythm Entrainment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-24

    the newly discovered 5 - HT7 receptor have yet to be performed. These results demonstrate that serotonin acting through a 5 -HTIA-like receptor can...ANNUAL 1 Jan 93 TO 31 Dec 93 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF CIRCADIAN RHYTHM F49620-93-1-0089 ENTRAINMENT j...sensitivity of SCN cells to serotonin ( 5 -HT) and the effects of serotonin on rhythm entrainment. The evidence to date has suggested, however, that

  20. Neurophysiological assessment of the electrostimulation procedures used in stroke patients during rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Lisinski, P; Huber, J; Samborski, W; Witkowska, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the associated electrotherapeutical and kinesiotherapeutical treatment in patients after ischemic stroke (N=24), mainly by means of neurophysiological tests. All patients underwent the same 20 days of neurorehabilitation procedures. Particular attention was paid to three-stage modified electrotherapy procedures such as: oververtebral functional electrical stimulation (FES), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and the alternate neuromuscular functional electrical stimulation (NMFES) of antagonistic muscles of the wrist and the ankle (N=16). Electrotherapy was supplemented with kinesiotherapeutic (mainly PNF) procedures acting as an amplifier. Clinical assessment included muscle tension (Ashworth's scale), muscle force (Lovett's scale) and reflex scoring at wrist and ankle. However, the effectiveness of the procedures was measured by the assessment of results in complex and repetitive, bilaterally performed global electromyography (EMG) and electroneurography (ENG; M-wave studies). The statistical analysis obtained from results in clinical and neurophysiological examinations suggested that the dorsiflexion of wrist and ankle was improved in the majority of patients who took part in this study. EMG and ENG examinations showed that 20 days of therapy improved both activity in muscle motor units on the more paralyzed side (mainly within upper extremities) and to a lesser degree in the transmission of efferent impulses within motor fibers of nerves. The results obtained suggest that patients after ischemic strokes never show an isolated unilateral disability in motor functions. No definite similarities between the results of clinical and neurophysiological studies were found, which may suggest greater accuracy of the neurophysiological evaluation.

  1. GHG emission reductions and costs to achieve Kyoto target.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-ying

    2003-07-01

    Emission projection and marginal abatement cost curves (MACs) are the central components of any assessment of future carbon market, such as CDM (clean development mechanism) potentials, carbon quota price etc. However, they are products of very complex, dynamic systems driven by forces like population growth, economic development, resource endowments, technology progress and so on. The modeling approaches for emission projection and MACs evaluation were summarized, and some major models and their results were compared. Accordingly, reduction and cost requirements to achieve the Kyoto target were estimated. It is concluded that Annex I Parties' total reduction requirements range from 503-1304 MtC with USA participation and decrease significantly to 140-612 MtC after USA's withdrawal. Total costs vary from 21-77 BUSD with USA and from 5-36 BUSD without USA if only domestic reduction actions are taken. The costs would sharply reduce while considering the three flexible mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol with domestic actions' share in the all mitigation strategies drops to only 0-16% .

  2. Anatomy and Neurophysiology of Cough

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Brendan J.; Chang, Anne B.; Bolser, Donald C.; Smith, Jaclyn A.; Mazzone, Stuart B.; Adams, Todd M.; Altman, Kenneth W.; Barker, Alan F.; Birring, Surinder S.; Blackhall, Fiona; Bolser, Donald, C.; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Braman, Sidney S.; Brightling, Christopher; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla; Canning, Brendan; Chang, Anne Bernadette; Coeytaux, Remy; Cowley, Terrie; Davenport, Paul; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ebihara, Satoru; El Solh, Ali A.; Escalante, Patricio; Feinstein, Anthony; Field, Stephen K.; Fisher, Dina; French, Cynthia T.; Gibson, Peter; Gold, Philip; Grant, Cameron; Harding, Susan M.; Harnden, Anthony; Hill, Adam T.; Irwin, Richard S.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Keogh, Karina A.; Lane, Andrew P.; Lewis, Sandra Zelman; Lim, Kaiser; Malesker, Mark A.; Mazzone, Peter; Mazzone, Stuart; Molasiotis, Alex; Murad, M. Hassan; Newcombe, Peter; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Oppenheimer, John; Prezant, David; Pringsheim, Tamara; Restrepo, Marcos I.; Rosen, Mark; Rubin, Bruce; Ryu, Jay H.; Smith, Jaclyn; Tarlo, Susan M.; Turner, Ronald B.; Vertigan, Anne; Wang, Gang; Weir, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary C-fibers and a subset of mechanically sensitive, acid-sensitive myelinated sensory nerves play essential roles in regulating cough. These vagal sensory nerves terminate primarily in the larynx, trachea, carina, and large intrapulmonary bronchi. Other bronchopulmonary sensory nerves, sensory nerves innervating other viscera, as well as somatosensory nerves innervating the chest wall, diaphragm, and abdominal musculature regulate cough patterning and cough sensitivity. The responsiveness and morphology of the airway vagal sensory nerve subtypes and the extrapulmonary sensory nerves that regulate coughing are described. The brainstem and higher brain control systems that process this sensory information are complex, but our current understanding of them is considerable and increasing. The relevance of these neural systems to clinical phenomena, such as urge to cough and psychologic methods for treatment of dystussia, is high, and modern imaging methods have revealed potential neural substrates for some features of cough in the human. PMID:25188530

  3. UNFINISHED BUSINESS: The Economics of The Kyoto Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    JA Edmonds; CN MacCracken; RD Sands; SH Kim

    2000-07-06

    The Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) was completed on the morning of December 11, 1997, following over two years of negotiations. The product of these deliberations is a complex and incomplete document knitting together the diversity of interests and perspectives represented by the more than 150 delegations. Because the document is complex, its implications are not immediately obvious. If it enters into force, the Kyoto Protocol will have far-reaching implications for all nations--both nations with obligations under the Protocol and those without obligations. National energy systems, and the world's energy system, could be forever changed. In this paper the authors develop an assessment of the energy and economic implications of achieving the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. They find that many of the details of the Protocol that remain to be worked out introduce critical uncertainties affecting the cost of compliance. There are also a variety of uncertainties that further complicate the analysis. These include future non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas emissions and the cost of their mitigation. Other uncertainties include the resolution of negotiations to establish rules for determining and allocating land-use emissions rights, mechanisms for Annex 1 trading, and participation by non-Annex 1 members in the Clean Development Mechanism. In addition, there are economic uncertainties, such as the behavior of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union in supplying emissions credits under Annex 1 trading. These uncertainties in turn could affect private sector investments in anticipation of the Protocol's entrance into force. The longer the nature of future obligations remains unclear, the less able decision makers will be to incorporate these rules into their investment decisions. They find that the cost of implementing the Protocol in the US can vary by more than an order of magnitude. The marginal cost could be as low as $26 per tonne of

  4. Positron beam facility at Kyoto University Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Q.; Sato, K.; Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H.; Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A.; Shirai, Y.

    2014-04-01

    A positron beam facility is presently under construction at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), which is a light-water moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A cadmium (Cd) - tungsten (W) source similar to that used in NEPOMUC was chosen in the KUR because Cd is very efficient at producing γ-rays when exposed to thermal neutron flux, and W is a widely used in converter and moderator materials. High-energy positrons are moderated by a W moderator with a mesh structure. Electrical lenses and a solenoid magnetic field are used to extract the moderated positrons and guide them to a platform outside of the reactor, respectively. Since Japan is an earthquake-prone country, a special attention is paid for the design of the in-pile positron source so as not to damage the reactor in the severe earthquake.

  5. DNA damage in Wistar Kyoto rats exercised during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Mikaela da Silva; Gelaleti, Rafael Bottaro; Bento, Giovana Fernanda; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Peraçoli, José Carlos

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate DNA damage levels in pregnant rats undergoing a treadmill exercise program. Wistar Kyoto rats were allocated into two groups (n= 5 animals/group): non-exercise and exercise. The pregnant rats were underwent an exercise protocol on a treadmill throughout pregnancy. Exercise intensity was set at 50% of maximal capacity during maximal exercise testing performed before mating. Body weight, blood pressure and glucose levels, and triglyceride concentration were measured during pregnancy. At day 10 post-natal, the animals were euthanized and maternal blood samples were collected for DNA damage. Blood pressure and glucose levels and biochemical measurements showed no significant differences. Increased DNA damage levels were found in exercise group compared to those of non-exercise group (p<0.05). The exercise intensity protocol used in the study might have been exhaustive leading to maternal increased DNA damage levels, demonstrating the relevance of an adequate protocol of physical exercise.

  6. Functional MRI of swallowing: from neurophysiology to neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Malandraki, Georgia A; Johnson, Sterling; Robbins, Joanne

    2011-10-01

    Swallowing is a complex neurogenic sensorimotor process involving all levels of the neuraxis and a vast number of muscles and anatomic structures. Disruption of any of these anatomic or functional components can lead to swallowing disorders (also known as dysphagia). Understanding the neural pathways that govern swallowing is necessary in diagnosing and treating patients with dysphagia. Functional MRI (fMRI) is a prevalent and effective neuroimaging method that has been used to study the complex neurophysiologic control of swallowing in vivo. This article presents a summary of the research studies that have used fMRI to study the neural control of swallowing in normal subjects and dysphagic patients, and to investigate the effects of swallowing treatments on neuroplasticity. Methodologic challenges and caveats are discussed, and a case study of a pre-posttreatment paradigm is presented to highlight potential future directions of fMRI applications in swallowing research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [A Matter of Nerves - Applied Neurophysiology of Female Sexuality].

    PubMed

    Bischof, Karoline

    2015-06-17

    Sexual problems are often attributed to psychological or physical deficits that are difficult to modify, or to a poor lover. In contrast, the neurophysiological interaction between body and brain can be understood as fundamental for the genital and emotional experience of sexuality. Neuropsychological discoveries and clinical observations show that elevated muscle tension, superficial breathing and reduced body movement, as employed by many individuals during sexual arousal, will limit the perception of arousal and the degree of sexual pleasure. In contrast, deep breathing and variations in movement and muscle tension support it. Through the use of self awareness exercises and physical learning steps, patients can integrate their sexuality and increases its resistance to psychological, medical and relational interferences.

  8. Neurophysiologic Markers of Abnormal Brain Activity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rissling, Anthony J.; Makeig, Scott; Braff, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Cortical electrophysiologic event-related potentials are multidimensional measures of information processing that are well-suited for efficiently parsing automatic and controlled components of cognition that span the range of deficits evidenced in schizophrenia patients. These information processes are key cognitive measures that are recognized as informative and valid targets for understanding the neurobiology of schizophrenia. These measures may be used in concert with the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) neurocognitive measures in the development of novel treatments for schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. The employment of novel event-related potential paradigms designed to carefully characterize the early spectrum of perceptual and cognitive information processing allows investigators to identify the neurophysiologic basis of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia and to examine the associated clinical and functional impairments. PMID:20857348

  9. [AMYGDALA: NEUROANATOMY AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF FEAR].

    PubMed

    Tsvetkov, E A; Krasnoshchekova, E I; Vesselkin, N P; Kharazova, A D

    2015-01-01

    This work describes neuroanatomical and neurophysiological mechanisms of Pavlovian fear conditioning, focusing on contributions of the amygdala, a subcortical nuclear group, to control of conditioned fear responses. The mechanisms of synaptic plasticity at projections to the amygdala and within amygdala were shown to mediate the formation and retention of fear memory. This work reviews current data on anatomical organization of the amygdala, as well as its afferent and efferent projections, in respect to the role of the amygdala in auditory fear conditioning during which acoustic signals serve as the conditioned stimulus.

  10. SOME THOUGHTS ON NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF YOGA

    PubMed Central

    Ramamurthi, B.

    1981-01-01

    Yoga presents the culmination of efforts made by mankind till now control mind and behaviour. It is living science, practiced in an elementary fashion by many in India. While a few perhaps are there who have attained mastery of this science. The background of the derivation and concept of yoga in India is presented followed by a simple exposition of yogic practices and some possible neurophysiologic explanations. Research in yoga will be rewarding as it gives means of exploring and enlarging the functions of the human brain. PMID:22556457

  11. Conceptual Coordination Bridges Information Processing and Neurophysiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Norrig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Information processing theories of memory and skills can be reformulated in terms of how categories are physically and temporally related, a process called conceptual coordination. Dreaming can then be understood as a story understanding process in which two mechanisms found in everyday comprehension are missing: conceiving sequences (chunking categories in time as a categorization) and coordinating across modalities (e.g., relating the sound of a word and the image of its meaning). On this basis, we can readily identify isomorphisms between dream phenomenology and neurophysiology, and explain the function of dreaming as facilitating future coordination of sequential, cross-modal categorization (i.e., REM sleep lowers activation thresholds, "unlearning").

  12. Evaluation of TV commercials using neurophysiological responses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Do-Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Choi, Jinsook; Kim, Chajoong; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2015-04-24

    In recent years, neuroscientific knowledge has been applied to marketing as a novel and efficient means to comprehend the cognitive and behavioral aspects of consumers. A number of studies have attempted to evaluate media contents, especially TV commercials using various neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG). Yet neurophysiological examination of detailed cognitive and affective responses in viewers is still required to provide practical information to marketers. Here, this study develops a method to analyze temporal patterns of EEG data and extract affective and cognitive indices such as happiness, surprise, and attention for TV commercial evaluation. Twenty participants participated in the study. We developed the neurophysiological indices for TV commercial evaluation using classification model. Specifically, these model-based indices were customized using individual EEG features. We used a video game for developing the index of attention and four video clips for developing indices of happiness and surprise. Statistical processes including one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and the cross validation scheme were used to select EEG features for each index. The EEG features were composed of the combinations of spectral power at selected channels from the cross validation for each individual. The Fisher's linear discriminant classifier (FLDA) was used to estimate each neurophysiological index during viewing four different TV commercials. Post hoc behavioral responses of preference, short-term memory, and recall were measured. Behavioral results showed significant differences for all preference, short-term memory rates, and recall rates between commercials, leading to a 'high-ranked' commercial group and a 'low-ranked' group (P < 0.05). Neural estimation of happiness results revealed a significant difference between the high-ranked and the low-ranked commercials in happiness index (P < 0.01). The order of rankings based on happiness and

  13. Biomechanical correlates of symptomatic and asymptomatic neurophysiological impairment in high school football.

    PubMed

    Breedlove, Evan L; Robinson, Meghan; Talavage, Thomas M; Morigaki, Katherine E; Yoruk, Umit; O'Keefe, Kyle; King, Jeff; Leverenz, Larry J; Gilger, Jeffrey W; Nauman, Eric A

    2012-04-30

    Concussion is a growing public health issue in the United States, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is the chief long-term concern linked to repeated concussions. Recently, attention has shifted toward subconcussive blows and the role they may play in the development of CTE. We recruited a cohort of high school football players for two seasons of observation. Acceleration sensors were placed in the helmets, and all contact activity was monitored. Pre-season computer-based neuropsychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tests were also obtained in order to assess cognitive and neurophysiological health. In-season follow-up scans were then obtained both from individuals who had sustained a clinically-diagnosed concussion and those who had not. These changes were then related through stepwise regression to history of blows recorded throughout the football season up to the date of the scan. In addition to those subjects who had sustained a concussion, a substantial portion of our cohort who did not sustain concussions showed significant neurophysiological changes. Stepwise regression indicated significant relationships between the number of blows sustained by a subject and the ensuing neurophysiological change. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that the effects of repetitive blows to the head are cumulative and that repeated exposure to subconcussive blows is connected to pathologically altered neurophysiology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies for restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movement disorder].

    PubMed

    Happe, S; Paulus, W

    2006-06-01

    The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a clinical diagnosis based on the four essential criteria defined by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). An idiopathic form can be separated from a symptomatic form. Neurophysiological studies have investigated the pathophysiology of the idiopathic RLS or have been used to exclude a symptomatic cause, in particular polyneuropathy. So far cortical excitability changes, corticomotor, somatosensory and auditory pathways, spinal cord excitability, B-wave rhythm and cycling alternating pattern, as well as reflex mechanisms have been investigated by electroencephalography, evoked potentials, Bereitschaftspotentials, nerve conduction and thermal threshold measurements, electromyography, transcranial Doppler sonography, measurements of the spinal flexor reflex as well as neuroimaging techniques. The etiology of the RLS cannot be revealed by these methods, neurophysiological studies in RLS are, however, useful for a better understanding of the pathophysiology and for exclusion of a polyneuropathy or other symptomatic causes. In addition to neurophysiological investigations, small fiber neuropathy, which seems to be a more common finding in RLS patients than expected to date, may need biopsy for confirmation. This review will focus on investigations of the different systems involved with diverse neurophysiological methods.

  15. Pain processing in atypical Parkinsonisms and Parkinson disease: A comparative neurophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Avenali, Micol; Tassorelli, Cristina; De Icco, Roberto; Perrotta, Armando; Serrao, Mariano; Fresia, Mauro; Pacchetti, Claudio; Sandrini, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    Pain is a frequent non-motor feature in Parkinsonism but mechanistic data on the alteration of pain processing are insufficient to understand the possible causes and to define specifically-targeted treatments. we investigated spinal nociception through the neurophysiological measure of the threshold (TR) of nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) and its temporal summation threshold (TST) comparatively in 12 Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) subjects, 11 Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) patients, 15 Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects and 24 healthy controls (HC). We also investigated the modulatory effect of L-Dopa in these three parkinsonian groups. We found a significant reduction in the TR of NWR and in the TST of NWR in PSP, MSA and PD patients compared with HC. L-Dopa induced an increase in the TR of NWR in the PSP group while TST of NWR increased in both PSP and PD. Our neurophysiological findings identify a facilitation of nociceptive processing in PSP that is broadly similar to that observed in MSA and PD. Specific peculiarities have emerged for PSP. Our data advance the knowledge of the neurophysiology of nociception in the advanced phases of parkinsonian syndromes and on the role of dopaminergic pathways in the control on pain processing. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Proposal for a Standard Format for Neurophysiology Data Recording and Exchange.

    PubMed

    Stead, Matt; Halford, Jonathan J

    2016-10-01

    The lack of interoperability between information networks is a significant source of cost in health care. Standardized data formats decrease health care cost, improve quality of care, and facilitate biomedical research. There is no common standard digital format for storing clinical neurophysiologic data. This review proposes a new standard file format for neurophysiology data (the bulk of which is video-electroencephalographic data), entitled the Multiscale Electrophysiology Format, version 3 (MEF3), which is designed to address many of the shortcomings of existing formats. MEF3 provides functionality that addresses many of the limitations of current formats. The proposed improvements include (1) hierarchical file structure with improved organization; (2) greater extensibility for big data applications requiring a large number of channels, signal types, and parallel processing; (3) efficient and flexible lossy or lossless data compression; (4) industry standard multilayered data encryption and time obfuscation that permits sharing of human data without the need for deidentification procedures; (5) resistance to file corruption; (6) facilitation of online and offline review and analysis; and (7) provision of full open source documentation. At this time, there is no other neurophysiology format that supports all of these features. MEF3 is currently gaining industry and academic community support. The authors propose the use of the MEF3 as a standard format for neurophysiology recording and data exchange. Collaboration between industry, professional organizations, research communities, and independent standards organizations is needed to move the project forward.

  17. Operational neuroscience: neurophysiological measures in applied environments.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Amy A

    2007-05-01

    There is, without question, an interest within the military services to understand, account for, and adapt to the cognitive state of the individual warfighter. As the field of neuroscience has matured through investments from numerous government agencies, we are on the cusp of being able to move confidently from the lab into the field--and deepen our understanding of the cognitive issues embedded in the warfighting environment. However, as we edge closer to this integration--it is critical for researchers in this arena to understand the landscape they are entering-reflected not only in the challenges of each task or operational environment but also in the individual differences intrinsic to each warfighter. The research papers in this section cover this spectrum, including individual differences and their prediction of adaptability to high-stress environments, the influence of sleep-deprivation on neurophysiological measures of stimulus categorization, neurophysiological measures of stress in the training environment and, finally, real-time neural measures of task engagement, mental workload and vigilance. It is clear from this research, and other work detailed in this supplement, that the judicious use of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and physiology in the applied environment is desirable for both researchers and operators. In fact, we suggest that these investigations merit a field designation unto their own: Operational Neuroscience. It is our hope that the discussion of this new field of study will galvanize others to increase the confidence and utility of this research through their own investigations.

  18. Dynamic publication model for neurophysiology databases.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D; Abato, M; Knuth, K H; DeBellis, R; Erde, S M

    2001-08-29

    We have implemented a pair of database projects, one serving cortical electrophysiology and the other invertebrate neurones and recordings. The design for each combines aspects of two proven schemes for information interchange. The journal article metaphor determined the type, scope, organization and quantity of data to comprise each submission. Sequence databases encouraged intuitive tools for data viewing, capture, and direct submission by authors. Neurophysiology required transcending these models with new datatypes. Time-series, histogram and bivariate datatypes, including illustration-like wrappers, were selected by their utility to the community of investigators. As interpretation of neurophysiological recordings depends on context supplied by metadata attributes, searches are via visual interfaces to sets of controlled-vocabulary metadata trees. Neurones, for example, can be specified by metadata describing functional and anatomical characteristics. Permanence is advanced by data model and data formats largely independent of contemporary technology or implementation, including Java and the XML standard. All user tools, including dynamic data viewers that serve as a virtual oscilloscope, are Java-based, free, multiplatform, and distributed by our application servers to any contemporary networked computer. Copyright is retained by submitters; viewer displays are dynamic and do not violate copyright of related journal figures. Panels of neurophysiologists view and test schemas and tools, enhancing community support.

  19. Handling Metadata in a Neurophysiology Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Zehl, Lyuba; Jaillet, Florent; Stoewer, Adrian; Grewe, Jan; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Brochier, Thomas G; Riehle, Alexa; Denker, Michael; Grün, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    To date, non-reproducibility of neurophysiological research is a matter of intense discussion in the scientific community. A crucial component to enhance reproducibility is to comprehensively collect and store metadata, that is, all information about the experiment, the data, and the applied preprocessing steps on the data, such that they can be accessed and shared in a consistent and simple manner. However, the complexity of experiments, the highly specialized analysis workflows and a lack of knowledge on how to make use of supporting software tools often overburden researchers to perform such a detailed documentation. For this reason, the collected metadata are often incomplete, incomprehensible for outsiders or ambiguous. Based on our research experience in dealing with diverse datasets, we here provide conceptual and technical guidance to overcome the challenges associated with the collection, organization, and storage of metadata in a neurophysiology laboratory. Through the concrete example of managing the metadata of a complex experiment that yields multi-channel recordings from monkeys performing a behavioral motor task, we practically demonstrate the implementation of these approaches and solutions with the intention that they may be generalized to other projects. Moreover, we detail five use cases that demonstrate the resulting benefits of constructing a well-organized metadata collection when processing or analyzing the recorded data, in particular when these are shared between laboratories in a modern scientific collaboration. Finally, we suggest an adaptable workflow to accumulate, structure and store metadata from different sources using, by way of example, the odML metadata framework.

  20. Handling Metadata in a Neurophysiology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Zehl, Lyuba; Jaillet, Florent; Stoewer, Adrian; Grewe, Jan; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Brochier, Thomas G.; Riehle, Alexa; Denker, Michael; Grün, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    To date, non-reproducibility of neurophysiological research is a matter of intense discussion in the scientific community. A crucial component to enhance reproducibility is to comprehensively collect and store metadata, that is, all information about the experiment, the data, and the applied preprocessing steps on the data, such that they can be accessed and shared in a consistent and simple manner. However, the complexity of experiments, the highly specialized analysis workflows and a lack of knowledge on how to make use of supporting software tools often overburden researchers to perform such a detailed documentation. For this reason, the collected metadata are often incomplete, incomprehensible for outsiders or ambiguous. Based on our research experience in dealing with diverse datasets, we here provide conceptual and technical guidance to overcome the challenges associated with the collection, organization, and storage of metadata in a neurophysiology laboratory. Through the concrete example of managing the metadata of a complex experiment that yields multi-channel recordings from monkeys performing a behavioral motor task, we practically demonstrate the implementation of these approaches and solutions with the intention that they may be generalized to other projects. Moreover, we detail five use cases that demonstrate the resulting benefits of constructing a well-organized metadata collection when processing or analyzing the recorded data, in particular when these are shared between laboratories in a modern scientific collaboration. Finally, we suggest an adaptable workflow to accumulate, structure and store metadata from different sources using, by way of example, the odML metadata framework. PMID:27486397

  1. Neurophysiological findings in patients 1 year after snake bite induced neurotoxicity in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bell, D J; Wijegunasinghe, D; Samarakoon, S; Palipana, H; Gunasekera, S; de Silva, H A; Lalloo, D G; Ranawaka, U K; de Silva, H J

    2010-05-01

    Snake bite causes significant morbidity and mortality in Sri Lanka. Snake venoms contain neurotoxins that block neuromuscular junction transmission. Presynaptic neurotoxicity most commonly causes destruction of nerve terminals with recovery by regrowth, whilst postsynaptic neurotoxicity usually involves competition at the acetylcholine receptor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were long-term clinical or neurophysiological changes in snake bite survivors 1 year after their envenoming. Detailed neurophysiological tests and clinical examinations were performed on 26 snake bite victims who had presented with neurotoxicity 12 months previously, and their results were compared with controls recruited from the same communities. Significant differences were observed in some nerve conduction parameters in some snake bite victims compared with controls, predominantly in those thought to have elapid bites, including prolongation of sensory, motor and F-wave latencies and reduction of conduction velocities. There was no evidence of any residual deficits in neuromuscular junction transmission. These results suggest a possible demyelinating type polyneuropathy. None of the cases or controls had abnormalities on clinical examination. This is one of the few studies to report possible long-term neurological damage following systemic neurotoxicity after snake bite. The clinical significance of these neurophysiological abnormalities is uncertain and further studies are required to investigate whether the abnormalities persist and to see whether clinical consequences develop.

  2. The characteristic of the building damage from historical large earthquakes in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Akihito

    2016-04-01

    The Kyoto city, which is located in the northern part of Kyoto basin in Japan, has a long history of >1,200 years since the city was initially constructed. The city has been a populated area with many buildings and the center of the politics, economy and culture in Japan for nearly 1,000 years. Some of these buildings are now subscribed as the world's cultural heritage. The Kyoto city has experienced six damaging large earthquakes during the historical period: i.e., in 976, 1185, 1449, 1596, 1662, and 1830. Among these, the last three earthquakes which caused severe damage in Kyoto occurred during the period in which the urban area had expanded. These earthquakes are considered to be inland earthquakes which occurred around the Kyoto basin. The damage distribution in Kyoto from historical large earthquakes is strongly controlled by ground condition and earthquakes resistance of buildings rather than distance from estimated source fault. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only the strength of ground shaking but also the condition of building such as elapsed years since the construction or last repair in order to more accurately and reliably estimate seismic intensity distribution from historical earthquakes in Kyoto. The obtained seismic intensity map would be helpful for reducing and mitigating disaster from future large earthquakes.

  3. Suppressed expression of cystathionine β-synthase and smaller cerebellum in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Mao; Ikeda, Hiromi; Kawase, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuiro

    2015-10-22

    We previously reported that Wistar Kyoto rats, an animal model of depression, have a characteristically abnormal serine metabolism in the brain, i.e., lower serine and cystathionine, which is a metabolite of serine, concentrations in the brain. To explore the mechanism underlying this abnormality, the expression of cystathionine β-synthase and serine racemase, which are the enzymes involved in the serine metabolism, was investigated in the cerebellum and hippocampus of Wistar and Wistar Kyoto rats. Wistar Kyoto rats exhibited a significantly lower mRNA expression of cystathionine β-synthase in the cerebellum in comparison with Wistar rats, while expression levels in the hippocampus did not differ between strains. Previous study indicated that the reduction of cystathionine β-synthase in the brain induced cerebellar aplasia in mice. Therefore, the cerebellar size was compared between Wistar rats and Wistar Kyoto rats. Wistar Kyoto rats displayed a lower ratio of cerebellum weight to whole-brain weight compared with Wistar rats of the same generation or similar body weight, suggesting that Wistar Kyoto rats exhibit smaller cerebellum. These results suggest that the lower mRNA expression of cystathionine β-synthase in the cerebellum and the smaller size of cerebellum may be related to the depression-like behavior in Wistar Kyoto rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The characteristic of the earthquake damage in Kyoto during the historical period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Akihito

    2017-04-01

    The Kyoto city is located in the northern part of the Kyoto basin, central Japan and has a history of more than 1200 years. Kyoto has long been populated area with many buildings, and the center of politics, economics and culture of Japan. Due to historical large earthquakes, the Kyoto city was severely damaged such as collapses of buildings and human casualties. In the historical period, the Kyoto city has experienced six damaging large earthquake of 976, 1185, 1449, 1596, 1662 and 1830. Among them, Kyoto has experienced three damaging large earthquakes from the end of the 16th century to the middle of the 19th century, when the urban area was being expanded. All of these earthquakes are considered to be not the earthquakes in the Kyoto basin but inland earthquakes occurred in the surrounding area. The earthquake damage in Kyoto during the historical period is strongly controlled by ground conditions and earthquakes resistance of buildings rather than distance from the estimated source fault. To better estimate seismic intensity based on building damage, it is necessary to consider the state of buildings (e.g., elapsed years since established, histories of repairs and/or reinforcements, building structures) as well as the strength of ground shakings. By considering the strength of buildings at the time of an earthquake occurrence, the seismic intensity distribution due to historical large earthquakes can be estimated with higher reliability than before. The estimated seismic intensity distribution map for such historical earthquakes can be utilized for developing the strong ground motion prediction in the Kyoto basin.

  5. Advances in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at kyoto university - From reactor-based BNCT to accelerator-based BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Fujimoto, Nozomi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-07-01

    At the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a neutron irradiation facility installed at the research nuclear reactor has been regularly performed since February 1990. As of November 2014, 510 clinical irradiations were carried out using the reactor-based system. The world's first accelerator-based neutron irradiation system for BNCT clinical irradiation was completed at this institute in early 2009, and the clinical trial using this system was started in 2012. A shift of BCNT from special particle therapy to a general one is now in progress. To promote and support this shift, improvements to the irradiation system, as well as its preparation, and improvements in the physical engineering and the medical physics processes, such as dosimetry systems and quality assurance programs, must be considered. The recent advances in BNCT at KURRI are reported here with a focus on physical engineering and medical physics topics.

  6. [Kyoto global consensus report for treatment of Helicobacter pylori and its implications for China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuan; Lyu, Nonghua

    2016-01-01

    Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis (Gut, July 2015) is another important international consensus since the European Maastricht Ⅳ consensus was published. Kyoto consensus will improve the etiology-based classification, the diagnostic assessment of gastritis, and the treatment of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia and H. pylori gastritis. However, because of high rate of H. pylori infection and antibiotic resistance as well as limited health resources in China, we need to develop our own strategies of H. pylori infection control with the reference of the Kyoto global consensus.

  7. Neurophysiological correlates of word recognition in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Körne, G; Deimel, W; Bartling, J; Remschmidt, H

    2004-07-01

    The neurobiological basis of learning word spellings and recognition of recently learned words was assessed in a learning experiment in 9 dyslexics and 9 controls male adolescents. In a recognition paradigm previously learned pseudowords and graphic symbols were presented 50 times each interspersed pseudo-randomly between 3 unlearned items which were repeated 50 times and 150 filler pseudowords. The electrophysiological correlate of recognition of learned pseudowords and graphic symbols was a positivity around 600 ms. For pseudowords the amplitude of this ERP component was significantly attenuated in the dyslexic group, no differences between the groups were found for recognition of graphic material. These data suggest that dyslexic children are able to learn the spelling of simple words, however, the neurophysiological correlate of recognition of these learned words is significantly attenuated. This result strengthens the view that dyslexic children are not generally impaired in recognition memory but specific for linguistic material like words.

  8. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological insights into hoarding disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grisham, Jessica R; Baldwin, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Hoarding disorder (HD) is associated with significant personal impairment in function and constitutes a severe public health burden. Individuals who hoard experience intense distress in discarding a large number of objects, which results in extreme clutter. Research and theory suggest that hoarding may be associated with specific deficits in information processing, particularly in the areas of attention, memory, and executive functioning. There is also growing interest in the neural underpinnings of hoarding behavior. Thus, the primary aim of this review is to summarize the current state of evidence regarding neuropsychological deficits associated with hoarding and review research on its neurophysiological underpinnings. We also outline the prominent theoretical model of hoarding and provide an up-to-date description of empirically based psychological and medical treatment approaches for HD. Finally, we discuss important future avenues for elaborating our model of HD and improving treatment access and outcomes for this disabling disorder. PMID:25897231

  9. [Mental Imagery: Neurophysiology and Implications in Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Nathalie Tamayo

    2014-03-01

    To provide an explanation about what mental imagery is and some implications in psychiatry. This article is a narrative literature review. There are many terms in which imagery representations are described in different fields of research. They are defined as perceptions in the absence of an external stimulus, and can be created in any sensory modality. Their neurophysiological substrate is almost the same as the one activated during sensory perception. There is no unified theory about its function, but it is possibly the way that our brain uses and manipulates the information to respond to the environment. Mental imagery is an everyday phenomenon, and when it occurs in specific patterns it can be a sign of mental disorders. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. [Neurophysiologic bases and neuropsychological approach to the study of infantile hyperactivity].

    PubMed

    Polaino-Lorente, A; Cabanyes, J

    1989-01-01

    Hyperactivity is a common important group of childhood behaviour problems with great influence on the personal, familiar and social sphere, a better knowledge of which is important. Up to now several explanatory hypotheses have been pointed out. From some time ago, the physiopathological roots of this clinical description has been studied in depth. The authors make a review of the neurophysiological and neuropsychological bases of hyperactivity in children.

  11. Diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy: A comparative study of five neurophysiological tests.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, J-P; Wahab, A; Planté-Bordeneuve, V; Sène, D; Ménard-Lefaucheur, I; Rouie, D; Tebbal, D; Salhi, H; Créange, A; Zouari, H; Ng Wing Tin, S

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is a challenge for clinical neurophysiology. Conventional nerve conduction studies are inappropriate for this purpose and therefore various neurophysiological tests have been proposed. In this study, we compared the diagnostic value of five of these tests in 87 patients with clinically definite (n=33) or possible (n=54) SFN related to amyloid neuropathy secondary to transthyretin gene mutation or monoclonal gammopathy (n=30), primary Sjögren's syndrome (n=20), Fabry's disease (n=2), or unknown cause (n=35). Neurophysiological tests included quantitative sensory testing with determination of warm and cold detection thresholds (WDT, CDT), recording of laser-evoked potentials (LEP) and sympathetic skin responses (SSRs), and measurement of electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) using Sudoscan(®) device. All tests were performed at the four extremities (hands and feet). All patients with clinically definite SFN and 70% of the patients with possible SFN had at least one abnormal test. The LEP was the most sensitive test (altered in 79% of the patients with at least one abnormal test), followed by ESC (61%), WDT (55%), SSR (41%), and CDT (32%). The combination of LEP, assessing A-delta sensory fibers, WDT, assessing sensory C fibers, and ESC, assessing autonomic C fibers, appears a relevant approach for the diagnosis of SFN. Compared to SSR and CDT, these three tests, LEP, WDT, and ESC, had a significantly better diagnostic sensitivity and their combination further improved diagnostic accuracy.

  12. Influence of outdoor advertisement colors on psychological evaluation of townscape in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Ayumi; Ishida, Taiichiro; Katsuya, Yoshiko

    2002-06-01

    Outdoor advertisements must be one of the major factors that affect our psychological impression for townscapes. They often conflict with propr color environments in cities particularly in historic cities like Kyoto. In this study we investigated how outdoor advertisements influenced our visual evaluation of townscapes in Kyoto. In recent years, a new regulation for outdoor advertisements came into operation in Kyoto and some of the advertisements have been replaced or removed gradually. We examined psychological evaluation for the townscapes before and after their changes. In the experiment, subjects evaluated 'visual harmony,' 'visual busyness,' 'visual comfort' and 'suitability to Kyoto' of townscapes projected on a screen. The results indicated that the evaluation of 'visual busyness' significantly decreased with the amount of the advertisements. The relations between the advertisements and the psychological evaluation of the townscape are discussed.

  13. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  14. Global warming and environmental production efficiency ranking of the Kyoto Protocol nations.

    PubMed

    Feroz, Ehsan H; Raab, Raymond L; Ulleberg, Gerald T; Alsharif, Kamal

    2009-02-01

    This paper analyzes the United Nations Organization's Kyoto Protocol nations to address two questions. First, what are the environmental production efficiency rankings of these nations? Second, is there a relationship between a nation's ratification status and its environmental production efficiency ranking? Our findings suggest that the nations that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol are more likely to be environmentally production efficient as compared to the nations that have not ratified the Protocol.

  15. Functional Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology of Functional Neurological Disorders (Conversion Disorder).

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Cavanna, Andrea E; Coburn, Kerry; Sampson, Shirlene; Reeve, Alya; LaFrance, W Curt

    2016-01-01

    Much is known regarding the physical characteristics, comorbid symptoms, psychological makeup, and neuropsychological performance of patients with functional neurological disorders (FNDs)/conversion disorders. Gross neurostructural deficits do not account for the patients' deficits or symptoms. This review describes the literature focusing on potential neurobiological (i.e. functional neuroanatomic/neurophysiological) findings among individuals with FND, examining neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies of patients with the various forms of motor and sensory FND. In summary, neural networks and neurophysiologic mechanisms may mediate "functional" symptoms, reflecting neurobiological and intrapsychic processes.

  16. [Neurophysiological methods in evaliuation of neurorehabiltation in children].

    PubMed

    Świerczyńska, Anna; Kłusek, Renata; Kaciński, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The authors reviewed neurophysiological methods, which are used in the evaluation of children referred for neurorehabilitation. Rehabilitation techniques which may stimulate or provoke pathological changes in EEG must be ruled out. Electrophysiological and clinical improvement allow for the extension and intensification of rehabilitation. Normal EEG pattern ensures the safe use of techniques consisting of neuromuscular re-education or passive verticalisation, electrotherapy and thermotherapy. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of cognitive impairment is based on neuropsychological tests and endogenous evoked potentials (most often P300). Presence of cognitive dysfunction needs the use of neuropsychological and neurologopedic therapy. Based on results of exogenous evoked potentials appropriate neurorehabilitation program (physiotherapy, kinezytherapy) can be determined and clinical outcome predicted. EMG allows appropriate usage of applications, patterns and principles in the PNF method (such as compression, stretching, resistance), adapting them optimally to the possibility of a child. ENG estimates conduction in motor and sensory nerves. Based on the results nerve impairment can be localized, severity and character of damage estimated (demyelinating, axonal or complex) and course of the disease and treatment monitored. Short characteristics of 37 children with Guillain-Barre syndrome referred for rehabilitation was presented. Special attention was drawn to floppy infants. Results of neuroelectrophysiological examinations determine suitable rehabilitation program adjusted to the course of central nervous system impairment.

  17. Neurophysiologic correlates of sonication treatment in patients with essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jin Woo; Min, Byoung-Kyong; Kim, Bong-Soo; Chang, Won Seok; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) is gaining attention as a potent substitute for surgical intervention in the treatment of neurologic disorders. To discern the neurophysiologic correlates of its therapeutic effects, we applied MRgHIFU to an intractable neurologic disorder, essential tremor, while measuring magnetoencephalogram mu rhythms from the motor cortex. Focused ultrasound sonication destroyed tissues by focusing a high-energy beam on the ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus. The post-treatment effectiveness was also evaluated using the clinical rating scale for tremors. Thalamic MRgHIFU had substantial therapeutic effects on patients, based on MRgHIFU-mediated improvements in movement control and significant changes in brain mu rhythms. Ultrasonic thalamotomy may reduce hyper-excitable activity in the motor cortex, resulting in normalized behavioral activity after sonication treatment. Thus, non-invasive and spatially accurate MRgHIFU technology can serve as a potent therapeutic tool with broad clinical applications.

  18. Resting-state connectivity biomarkers define neurophysiological subtypes of depression.

    PubMed

    Drysdale, Andrew T; Grosenick, Logan; Downar, Jonathan; Dunlop, Katharine; Mansouri, Farrokh; Meng, Yue; Fetcho, Robert N; Zebley, Benjamin; Oathes, Desmond J; Etkin, Amit; Schatzberg, Alan F; Sudheimer, Keith; Keller, Jennifer; Mayberg, Helen S; Gunning, Faith M; Alexopoulos, George S; Fox, Michael D; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Voss, Henning U; Casey, B J; Dubin, Marc J; Liston, Conor

    2017-01-01

    Biomarkers have transformed modern medicine but remain largely elusive in psychiatry, partly because there is a weak correspondence between diagnostic labels and their neurobiological substrates. Like other neuropsychiatric disorders, depression is not a unitary disease, but rather a heterogeneous syndrome that encompasses varied, co-occurring symptoms and divergent responses to treatment. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a large multisite sample (n = 1,188), we show here that patients with depression can be subdivided into four neurophysiological subtypes ('biotypes') defined by distinct patterns of dysfunctional connectivity in limbic and frontostriatal networks. Clustering patients on this basis enabled the development of diagnostic classifiers (biomarkers) with high (82-93%) sensitivity and specificity for depression subtypes in multisite validation (n = 711) and out-of-sample replication (n = 477) data sets. These biotypes cannot be differentiated solely on the basis of clinical features, but they are associated with differing clinical-symptom profiles. They also predict responsiveness to transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy (n = 154). Our results define novel subtypes of depression that transcend current diagnostic boundaries and may be useful for identifying the individuals who are most likely to benefit from targeted neurostimulation therapies.

  19. Idiopathic pes cavus in adults is not associated with neurophysiological impairment in the lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Roberto; Lispi, Ludovico; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Castagnoli, Claudio; Matrigale, Andrea; Dentini, Alessandra; Locuratolo, Nicoletta; Fattapposta, Francesco; Pierelli, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    The nerve conduction characteristics of adults with idiopathic pes cavus/hammer toes have not been studied extensively. Among 2048 out-patients (59.5 ± 13.9 years) referring to a laboratory of Neurophysiology in Rome, we recruited 18 patients with idiopathic pes cavus (61.3 ± 12.5 years). Fifty-four age/sex-matched controls were also studied. No nerve conduction differences were observed between patients with and without cavus foot (p > 0.05). The absence of deep tendon reflexes and slight muscle weakness and hypotrophy in the lower limbs were more common in subjects with cavus foot deformity than in controls (p < 0.001). Adult patients with idiopathic pes cavus/hammer toes do not differ from healthy controls from a neurophysiological standpoint, but they could show minor signs of clinical impairment, such as lower limb weakness, hypotrophy and areflexia.

  20. Brainstem Monitoring in the Neurocritical Care Unit: A Rationale for Real-Time, Automated Neurophysiological Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Stone, James L; Bailes, Julian E; Hassan, Ahmed N; Sindelar, Brian; Patel, Vimal; Fino, John

    2017-02-01

    Patients with severe traumatic brain injury or large intracranial space-occupying lesions (spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, infarction, or tumor) commonly present to the neurocritical care unit with an altered mental status. Many experience progressive stupor and coma from mass effects and transtentorial brain herniation compromising the ascending arousal (reticular activating) system. Yet, little progress has been made in the practicality of bedside, noninvasive, real-time, automated, neurophysiological brainstem, or cerebral hemispheric monitoring. In this critical review, we discuss the ascending arousal system, brain herniation, and shortcomings of our current management including the neurological exam, intracranial pressure monitoring, and neuroimaging. We present a rationale for the development of nurse-friendly-continuous, automated, and alarmed-evoked potential monitoring, based upon the clinical and experimental literature, advances in the prognostication of cerebral anoxia, and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.

  1. [Neurophysiologic evaluation of patients with chronic prostatitis (III B chronic pain syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Kogan, M I; Belousov, I I; Shornikov, P V

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the results of neurophysiological examination of 32 patients with noninflammatory form of abacterial chronic prostatitis/ chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS III B). Intramuscular electromyography was performed, right and left bulbocavernous reflex and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials during stimulation of n. pudendus were evaluated. It is shown that there is a high frequency of abnormal neurophysiological patterns in the absence of clinical neurological disease in patients with CP/CPPS III B. In this case, the pain as the main symptom was not associated with prostate disease. It is suggested that some patients with a diagnosis of CP/CPPS III B have neurological pathology that not manifested at the time of the examination.

  2. Individual neurophysiological profile in external effects investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtseva, Daria; Tatiana Kotrovskaya, D..

    Cortex biopotentials are the significant elements in human psychophysiological individuality. Considered that cortical biopotentials are diverse and individually stable, therefore there is the existence of certain dependence between the basic properties of higher nervous activity and cerebral bioelectric activity. The main purpose of the study was to reveal the individual neurophysiological profile and CNS initial functional state manifestation in human electroencephalogram (EEG) under effect of inert gases (argon, xenon, helium), hypoxia, pressure changes (0.02 and 0.2 MPa). We obtained 5-minute eyes closed background EEG on 19 scalp positions using Ag/AgCl electrodes mounted in an electrode cap. All EEG signals were re-referenced to average earlobes; Fast Furies Transformation analysis was used to calculate the relative power spectrum of delta-, theta-, alpha- and beta frequency band in artifact-free EEG. The study involved 26 healthy men who provided written informed consent, aged 20 to 35 years. Data obtained depend as individual EEG type and initial central nervous functional state as intensity, duration and mix of factors. Pronounced alpha rhythm in the raw EEG correlated with their adaptive capacity under studied factor exposure. Representation change and zonal distribution perversion of EEG alpha rhythm were accompanied by emotional instability, increased anxiety and difficulty adapting subjects. High power factor or combination factor with psychological and emotional or physical exertion minimizes individual EEG pattern.

  3. Neurophysiology of Drosophila Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    West, Ryan J. H.; Furmston, Rebecca; Williams, Charles A. C.; Elliott, Christopher J. H.

    2015-01-01

    We provide an insight into the role Drosophila has played in elucidating neurophysiological perturbations associated with Parkinson's disease- (PD-) related genes. Synaptic signalling deficits are observed in motor, central, and sensory systems. Given the neurological impact of disease causing mutations within these same genes in humans the phenotypes observed in fly are of significant interest. As such we observe four unique opportunities provided by fly nervous system models of Parkinson's disease. Firstly, Drosophila models are instrumental in exploring the mechanisms of neurodegeneration, with several PD-related mutations eliciting related phenotypes including sensitivity to energy supply and vesicular deformities. These are leading to the identification of plausible cellular mechanisms, which may be specific to (dopaminergic) neurons and synapses rather than general cellular phenotypes. Secondly, models show noncell autonomous signalling within the nervous system, offering the opportunity to develop our understanding of the way pathogenic signalling propagates, resembling Braak's scheme of spreading pathology in PD. Thirdly, the models link physiological deficits to changes in synaptic structure. While the structure-function relationship is complex, the genetic tractability of Drosophila offers the chance to separate fundamental changes from downstream consequences. Finally, the strong neuronal phenotypes permit relevant first in vivo drug testing. PMID:25960916

  4. Neurophysiological effects of exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Roelands, B; De Pauw, K; Meeusen, R

    2015-06-01

    Fatigue during prolonged exercise is a multifactorial phenomenon. The complex interplay between factors originating from both the periphery and the brain will determine the onset of fatigue. In recent years, electrophysiological and imaging tools have been fine-tuned, allowing for an improved understanding of what happens in the brain. In the first part of the review, we present literature that studied the changes in electrocortical activity during and after exercise in normal and high ambient temperature. In general, exercise in a thermo-neutral environment or at light to moderate intensity increases the activity in the β frequency range, while exercising at high intensity or in the heat reduces β activity. In the second part, we review literature that manipulated brain neurotransmission, through either pharmacological or nutritional means, during exercise in the heat. The dominant outcomes were that manipulations changing brain dopamine concentration have the potential to delay fatigue, while the manipulation of serotonin had no effect and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition was detrimental for performance in the heat. Research on the effects of neurotransmitter manipulations on brain activity during or after exercise is scarce. The combination of brain imaging techniques with electrophysiological measures presents one of the major future challenges in exercise physiology/neurophysiology.

  5. Advancing the Neurophysiological Understanding of Delirium.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Mouhsin M; Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Fong, Tamara G; Jones, Richard N; Marcantonio, Edward R; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Inouye, Sharon K

    2017-06-01

    Delirium is a common problem associated with substantial morbidity and increased mortality. However, the brain dysfunction that leads some individuals to develop delirium in response to stressors is unclear. In this article, we briefly review the neurophysiologic literature characterizing the changes in brain function that occur in delirium, and in other cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Based on this literature, we propose a conceptual model for delirium. We propose that delirium results from a breakdown of brain function in individuals with impairments in brain connectivity and brain plasticity exposed to a stressor. The validity of this conceptual model can be tested using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in combination with Electroencephalography, and, if accurate, could lead to the development of biomarkers for delirium risk in individual patients. This model could also be used to guide interventions to decrease the risk of cerebral dysfunction in patients preoperatively, and facilitate recovery in patients during or after an episode of delirium. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Neurophysiological indices of language impairment in children.

    PubMed

    Shafer, V L; Schwartz, R G; Mor, M L; Kessler, K L; Kurtzberg, D; Ruben, R J

    2001-01-01

    Recent investigations of children with specific language impairment (SLI) have found deviant anatomical asymmetry of the perisylvian cortex. These studies argue that this deviant anatomical asymmetry is linked to the language disorders of SLI children. To date no studies have examined whether deviant functional asymmetry underlies the processing of spoken language in these children. In the current study, brain-electrical activity was recorded from 31 scalp sites while children with SLI listened to auditorally presented stories and two different nonsense contexts. Electrical activity was time-locked to the grammatical word "the" in these contexts. The SLI children showed reversed asymmetry compared to control children from 200 ms to 400 ms in processing "the" in all contexts. More specifically, they showed depressed processing at the left temporal scalp site (T7) and enhanced processing at the right temporal site (T8). The second spatial derivative (the Laplacian) of the voltage activity was calculated to remove constant voltage potential and uniform changes in voltage potential across the scalp. The Laplacian analysis indicated that the sources of the positive electrical activity seen at the temporal electrode sites T7 and T8 are the lateral surfaces of the temporal cortices. A comparison of the scalp topography of the voltage potentials and Laplacian also suggests that children with SLI lack some contribution from a deep neural generator, possibly in the hippocampus or basal ganglia. This investigation is the first to demonstrate a direct link between deviant neurophysiological asymmetry and the processing of spoken language in children with SLI.

  7. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in spinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Hwa; Hyun, Seung-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many surgeons have been using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) in spinal surgery to reduce the incidence of postoperative neurological complications, including level of the spinal cord, cauda equina and nerve root. Several established technologies are available and combined motor and somatosensory evoked potentials are considered mandatory for practical and successful IOM. Spinal cord evoked potentials are elicited compound potentials recorded over the spinal cord. Electrical stimulation is provoked on the dorsal spinal cord from an epidural electrode. Somatosensory evoked potentials assess the functional integrity of sensory pathways from the peripheral nerve through the dorsal column and to the sensory cortex. For identification of the physiological midline, the dorsal column mapping technique can be used. It is helpful for reducing the postoperative morbidity associated with dorsal column dysfunction when distortion of the normal spinal cord anatomy caused by an intramedullary cord lesion results in confusion in localizing the midline for the myelotomy. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) consist of spinal, neurogenic and muscle MEPs. MEPs allow selective and specific assessment of the functional integrity of descending motor pathways, from the motor cortex to peripheral muscles. Spinal surgeons should understand the concept of the monitoring techniques and interpret monitoring records adequately to use IOM for the decision making during the surgery for safe surgery and a favorable surgical outcome. PMID:26380823

  8. Kyoto islet isolation method: the optimized one for non-heart-beating donors with highly efficient islet retrieval.

    PubMed

    Okitsu, T; Matsumoto, S; Iwanaga, Y; Noguchi, H; Nagata, H; Yonekawa, Y; Maekawa, T; Tanaka, K

    2005-10-01

    The availability of pancreata for clinical cadaveric islet transplantation is restricted to non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) in Japan. This forced us to modify the current standard islet isolation protocol that was made up for brain-dead donors and make it suitable for NHBDs. The Kyoto islet isolation method is the one with induction of several steps based on the ideas both already reported literally and invented originally by ourselves. Using this islet isolation method, we isolated islets from 13 human pancreata of NHBDs and transplanted 11 preparations to six type-1 diabetic patients. The rate to meet release criteria of Edmonton protocol was 84.6%. Establishment of this method allowed us to begin a clinical islet transplantation program in Japan and to continue to perform the preparation of islets from NHBDs with high rate to meet the release criteria of the Edmonton protocol.

  9. Neurophysiological and neurochemical basis of modern pruritus treatment.

    PubMed

    Ständer, Sonja; Weisshaar, Elke; Luger, Thomas A

    2008-03-01

    Chronic pruritus of any origin is a frequent discomfort in daily medical practice, and its therapy is challenging. Frequently, the underlying origin may not be identified and symptomatic therapy is necessary. Conventional treatment modalities such as antihistamines often lack efficacy, and hence new therapeutic strategies are necessary. The neuronal mechanisms underlying chronic pruritus have been partly identified during the past years and offer new therapeutic strategies. For example, mast cell degranulation, activation of neuroreceptors on sensory nerve fibres and neurogenic inflammation have been identified to be involved in induction and chronification of the symptom. Accordingly, controlling neuroreceptors such as cannabinoid receptors by agonists or antagonists showed high antipruritic efficacy. Pruritus is transmitted to the central nervous system by specialized nerve fibres and sensory receptors. It has been demonstrated that pruritus and pain have their own neuronal pathways with broad interactions. Accordingly, classical analgesics for neuropathic pain (gabapentin, antidepressants) also exhibit antipruritic efficacy upon clinical use. In summary, these recent developments show that highlighting the basis of pruritus offers modern neurophysiological and neurochemical therapeutic models and the possibility to treat patients with refractory itching of different origin.

  10. Psychological pain interventions and neurophysiology: implications for a mechanism-based approach.

    PubMed

    Flor, Herta

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an illustrative overview of neurophysiological changes related to acute and chronic pain involving structural and functional brain changes, which might be the targets of psychological interventions. A number of psychological pain treatments have been examined with respect to their effects on brain activity, ranging from cognitive- and operant behavioral interventions, meditation and hypnosis, to neuro- and biofeedback, discrimination training, imagery and mirror treatment, as well as virtual reality and placebo applications. These treatments affect both ascending and descending aspects of pain processing and act through brain mechanisms that involve sensorimotor areas as well as those involved in affective-motivational and cognitive-evaluative aspects. The analysis of neurophysiological changes related to effective psychological pain treatment can help to identify subgroups of patients with chronic pain who might profit from different interventions, can aid in predicting treatment outcome, and can assist in identifying responders and nonresponders, thus enhancing the efficacy and efficiency of psychological interventions. Moreover, new treatment targets can be developed and tested. Finally, the use of neurophysiological measures can also aid in motivating patients to participate in psychological interventions and can increase their acceptance in clinical practice.

  11. The evolving natural history of neurophysiologic function in patients with well controlled diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Christopher H.; Freeman, Roy; Tecilazich, Francisco; Dinh, Thanh; Lyons, Thomas E.; Gnardellis, Charalambos; Veves, Aristidis

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective changes to neurophysiologic function over 3 years in patients with well-controlled diabetes. Sixty-two subjects had neurologic examinations, symptom scores, autonomic testing, nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing and laser-Doppler flowmetry at 18-month intervals for 3 years. During the study, there was a 1 μV decrease in sural amplitude (P<0.05), an increase in monofilament detection threshold of 0.36 grams (P<0.001) and a decrease in the axon-reflex vasodilation in the foot (P<0.005) and forearm (P<0.05). There was an increase in symptoms of distal hypersensitivity (P<0.005) but no change in neuropathy frequency or severity. Our findings suggest that laser-Doppler flowmetry, a test of small fiber function, can detect the largest neurophysiologic change over time in groups of patients with diabetes. Sural nerve amplitude and monofilament thresholds may be more effective at detecting change in individual patients. Other tests of neurophysiologic function may require longer periods of time and greater numbers of participants to detect a difference. We conclude that patients with well-controlled diabetes and optimal medical management of co-morbid risk factors have low rates of neuropathy development and progression although the clinical relevance of this finding to the general population of individuals with diabetes is unknown. PMID:23781962

  12. The evolving natural history of neurophysiologic function in patients with well-controlled diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Christopher H; Freeman, Roy; Tecilazich, Francisco; Dinh, Thanh; Lyons, Thomas E; Gnardellis, Charalambos; Veves, Aristidis

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective changes to neurophysiologic function over 3 years in patients with well-controlled diabetes. Sixty-two subjects had neurologic examinations, symptom scores, autonomic testing, nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing, and laser-Doppler flowmetry at 18-month intervals for 3 years. During the study, there was a 1 µV decrease in sural amplitude (p < 0.05), an increase in monofilament detection threshold of 0.36 g (p < 0.001), and a decrease in the axon-reflex vasodilation in the foot (p < 0.005) and forearm (p < 0.05). There was an increase in symptoms of distal hypersensitivity (p < 0.005) but no change in neuropathy frequency or severity. Our findings suggest that laser-Doppler flowmetry, a test of small fiber function, can detect the largest neurophysiologic change over time in groups of patients with diabetes. Sural nerve amplitude and monofilament thresholds may be more effective at detecting change in individual patients. Other tests of neurophysiologic function may require longer periods of time and greater numbers of participants to detect a difference. We conclude that patients with well-controlled diabetes and optimal medical management of comorbid risk factors have low rates of neuropathy development and progression although the clinical relevance of this finding to the general population of individuals with diabetes is unknown.

  13. Combined neuropsychological and neurophysiological assessment of drug effects on groups and individuals.

    PubMed

    Gevins, Alan; Ilan, Aaron B; Jiang, An; Sam-Vargas, Lita; Baum, Cliff; Chan, Cynthia S

    2011-08-01

    An initial standardized approach for combining neuropsychological and neurophysiological measures in order to assess the neurocognitive effects of drugs in groups and individuals is introduced. Its application is illustrated with sedatives, antiepileptic drugs, psychostimulants, antihistamines, and intoxicants. Task performance, electroencephalography, and evoked potential measures during computerized attention and memory testing that are most sensitive to drug effects are identified in a sample population and then applied to individuals. In six example exploratory studies, drug effects were detected with an average area under curve (AUC) of 0.97 (p < 0.0001; 95% sensitivity, 96% specificity). In 10 example validation studies with other drugs and/or different subjects and populations, detection was strong in the eight studies with drugs and doses known to have significant neurocognitive effects (AUC 0.83, p < 0.0001; 82% sensitivity, 89% specificity), whereas no effect was detected in the two studies with drugs known to have faint neurocognitive effects (AUC 0.56, p > 0.10). Individual differences in response to different drugs with similar clinical uses, to varying doses of the same drug, and in pharmacodynamic response were then demonstrated. The significant (p < 0.01) increase in sensitivity and specificity of combined neuropsychological and neurophysiological measures compared with the former alone suggests that fewer subjects may be needed to assess the neurocognitive effects of drugs in future studies. The findings suggest that the concept of combining neuropsychological testing with simultaneous measures of neurophysiological function is worth further exploration.

  14. Neurophysiological basis of creativity in healthy elderly people: a multiscale entropy approach.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kanji; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Koichi; Mizukami, Kimiko; Tanaka, Yuji; Wada, Yuji

    2015-03-01

    Creativity, which presumably involves various connections within and across different neural networks, reportedly underpins the mental well-being of older adults. Multiscale entropy (MSE) can characterize the complexity inherent in EEG dynamics with multiple temporal scales. It can therefore provide useful insight into neural networks. Given that background, we sought to clarify the neurophysiological bases of creativity in healthy elderly subjects by assessing EEG complexity with MSE, with emphasis on assessment of neural networks. We recorded resting state EEG of 20 healthy elderly subjects. MSE was calculated for each subject for continuous 20-s epochs. Their relevance to individual creativity was examined concurrently with intellectual function. Higher individual creativity was linked closely to increased EEG complexity across higher temporal scales, but no significant relation was found with intellectual function (IQ score). Considering the general "loss of complexity" theory of aging, our finding of increased EEG complexity in elderly people with heightened creativity supports the idea that creativity is associated with activated neural networks. Results reported here underscore the potential usefulness of MSE analysis for characterizing the neurophysiological bases of elderly people with heightened creativity. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cannabinoids and Vanilloids in Schizophrenia: Neurophysiological Evidence and Directions for Basic Research.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Rafael N; Rossignoli, Matheus T; De Ross, Jana B; Hallak, Jaime E C; Leite, Joao P; Bueno-Junior, Lezio S

    2017-01-01

    Much of our knowledge of the endocannabinoid system in schizophrenia comes from behavioral measures in rodents, like prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle and open-field locomotion, which are commonly used along with neurochemical approaches or drug challenge designs. Such methods continue to map fundamental mechanisms of sensorimotor gating, hyperlocomotion, social interaction, and underlying monoaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic disturbances. These strategies will require, however, a greater use of neurophysiological tools to better inform clinical research. In this sense, electrophysiology and viral vector-based circuit dissection, like optogenetics, can further elucidate how exogenous cannabinoids worsen (e.g., tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) or ameliorate (e.g., cannabidiol, CBD) schizophrenia symptoms, like hallucinations, delusions, and cognitive deficits. Also, recent studies point to a complex endocannabinoid-endovanilloid interplay, including the influence of anandamide (endogenous CB1 and TRPV1 agonist) on cognitive variables, such as aversive memory extinction. In fact, growing interest has been devoted to TRPV1 receptors as promising therapeutic targets. Here, these issues are reviewed with an emphasis on the neurophysiological evidence. First, we contextualize imaging and electrographic findings in humans. Then, we present a comprehensive review on rodent electrophysiology. Finally, we discuss how basic research will benefit from further combining psychopharmacological and neurophysiological tools.

  16. Neurophysiological models for new treatment development in schizophrenia: early sensory approaches

    PubMed Central

    Javitt, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a major mental disorder associated with core neurocognitive impairments. The ability to recreate these deficits in animal models is limited, hampering ongoing translational drug development efforts. This paper reviews the use of electroencephalography (EEG)-based neurophysiological measures, such as event-related potentials (ERP) or event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP), as novel translational biomarkers for both etiological and treatment development research in neuropsychiatry. In schizophrenia, cognitive impairments manifest as deficits not only in high-level processes, such as working memory or executive processing, but also as deficits in neurophysiological responses to simple auditory and visual stimuli. Moreover, neurophysiological responses can be assessed even in untrained animals and are therefore particularly amenable to translational, cross-species investigation. To date, several sensory-level ERP measures, including auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) and N1, and visual P1 and steady-state responses, have been validated in both human clinical investigations and animal models. Deficits have been tied to impaired neurotransmission at N-methyl-D-aspartate–type glutamate receptors (NMDARs). Time-frequency analysis of ERSP permits further extension of these findings from physiological to circuit/cellular levels of analysis. PMID:25721890

  17. Cannabinoids and Vanilloids in Schizophrenia: Neurophysiological Evidence and Directions for Basic Research

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Rafael N.; Rossignoli, Matheus T.; De Ross, Jana B.; Hallak, Jaime E. C.; Leite, Joao P.; Bueno-Junior, Lezio S.

    2017-01-01

    Much of our knowledge of the endocannabinoid system in schizophrenia comes from behavioral measures in rodents, like prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle and open-field locomotion, which are commonly used along with neurochemical approaches or drug challenge designs. Such methods continue to map fundamental mechanisms of sensorimotor gating, hyperlocomotion, social interaction, and underlying monoaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic disturbances. These strategies will require, however, a greater use of neurophysiological tools to better inform clinical research. In this sense, electrophysiology and viral vector-based circuit dissection, like optogenetics, can further elucidate how exogenous cannabinoids worsen (e.g., tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) or ameliorate (e.g., cannabidiol, CBD) schizophrenia symptoms, like hallucinations, delusions, and cognitive deficits. Also, recent studies point to a complex endocannabinoid-endovanilloid interplay, including the influence of anandamide (endogenous CB1 and TRPV1 agonist) on cognitive variables, such as aversive memory extinction. In fact, growing interest has been devoted to TRPV1 receptors as promising therapeutic targets. Here, these issues are reviewed with an emphasis on the neurophysiological evidence. First, we contextualize imaging and electrographic findings in humans. Then, we present a comprehensive review on rodent electrophysiology. Finally, we discuss how basic research will benefit from further combining psychopharmacological and neurophysiological tools. PMID:28680405

  18. Auditory-neurophysiological responses to speech during early childhood: Effects of background noise

    PubMed Central

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Davies, Evan C.; Thompson, Elaine C.; Carr, Kali Woodruff; Nicol, Trent; Bradlow, Ann R.; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical period of auditory learning, during which children are constantly mapping sounds to meaning. But learning rarely occurs under ideal listening conditions—children are forced to listen against a relentless din. This background noise degrades the neural coding of these critical sounds, in turn interfering with auditory learning. Despite the importance of robust and reliable auditory processing during early childhood, little is known about the neurophysiology underlying speech processing in children so young. To better understand the physiological constraints these adverse listening scenarios impose on speech sound coding during early childhood, auditory-neurophysiological responses were elicited to a consonant-vowel syllable in quiet and background noise in a cohort of typically-developing preschoolers (ages 3–5 yr). Overall, responses were degraded in noise: they were smaller, less stable across trials, slower, and there was poorer coding of spectral content and the temporal envelope. These effects were exacerbated in response to the consonant transition relative to the vowel, suggesting that the neural coding of spectrotemporally-dynamic speech features is more tenuous in noise than the coding of static features—even in children this young. Neural coding of speech temporal fine structure, however, was more resilient to the addition of background noise than coding of temporal envelope information. Taken together, these results demonstrate that noise places a neurophysiological constraint on speech processing during early childhood by causing a breakdown in neural processing of speech acoustics. These results may explain why some listeners have inordinate difficulties understanding speech in noise. Speech-elicited auditory-neurophysiological responses offer objective insight into listening skills during early childhood by reflecting the integrity of neural coding in quiet and noise; this paper documents typical response properties

  19. Auditory-neurophysiological responses to speech during early childhood: Effects of background noise.

    PubMed

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Davies, Evan C; Thompson, Elaine C; Woodruff Carr, Kali; Nicol, Trent; Bradlow, Ann R; Kraus, Nina

    2015-10-01

    Early childhood is a critical period of auditory learning, during which children are constantly mapping sounds to meaning. But this auditory learning rarely occurs in ideal listening conditions-children are forced to listen against a relentless din. This background noise degrades the neural coding of these critical sounds, in turn interfering with auditory learning. Despite the importance of robust and reliable auditory processing during early childhood, little is known about the neurophysiology underlying speech processing in children so young. To better understand the physiological constraints these adverse listening scenarios impose on speech sound coding during early childhood, auditory-neurophysiological responses were elicited to a consonant-vowel syllable in quiet and background noise in a cohort of typically-developing preschoolers (ages 3-5 yr). Overall, responses were degraded in noise: they were smaller, less stable across trials, slower, and there was poorer coding of spectral content and the temporal envelope. These effects were exacerbated in response to the consonant transition relative to the vowel, suggesting that the neural coding of spectrotemporally-dynamic speech features is more tenuous in noise than the coding of static features-even in children this young. Neural coding of speech temporal fine structure, however, was more resilient to the addition of background noise than coding of temporal envelope information. Taken together, these results demonstrate that noise places a neurophysiological constraint on speech processing during early childhood by causing a breakdown in neural processing of speech acoustics. These results may explain why some listeners have inordinate difficulties understanding speech in noise. Speech-elicited auditory-neurophysiological responses offer objective insight into listening skills during early childhood by reflecting the integrity of neural coding in quiet and noise; this paper documents typical response

  20. Neurophysiological correlates of various mental perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hinterberger, Thilo; Zlabinger, Milena; Blaser, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    A common view of consciousness is that our mind presents emotions, experiences, and images in an internal mental (re-)presentation space which in a state of wakefulness is triggered by the world outside. Consciousness can be defined as the observation of this inner mental space. We propose a new model, in which the state of the conscious observer is defined by the observer's mental position and focus of attention. The mental position of the observer can either be within the mental self (intrapersonal space), in the mental outer world (extrapersonal space) or in an empathic connection, i.e., within the intrapersonal space of another person (perspective taking). The focus of attention can be directed toward the self or toward the outside world. This mental space model can help us to understand the patterns of relationships and interactions with other persons as they occur in social life. To investigate the neurophysiological correlates and discriminability of the different mental states, we conducted an EEG experiment measuring the brain activity of 16 subjects via 64 electrodes while they engaged in different mental positions (intrapersonal, extrapersonal, perspective taking) with different attentional foci (self, object). Compared to external mental locations, internal ones showed significantly increased alpha2 power, especially when the observer was focusing on an object. Alpha2 and beta2 were increased in the empathic condition compared to the extrapersonal perspective. Delta power was significantly higher when the attentional focus was directed toward an object in comparison to the participant's own self. This exploratory study demonstrates highly significant differences between various mental locations and foci, suggesting that the proposed categories of mental location and intra- and interpersonal attentional foci are not only helpful theoretical concepts but are also physiologically relevant and therefore may relate to basic brain processing mechanisms.

  1. Neurophysiological evaluation of healthy human anorectal sensation.

    PubMed

    Harris, M L; Hobson, A R; Hamdy, S; Thompson, D G; Akkermans, L M; Aziz, Q

    2006-11-01

    Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders often demonstrate abnormal visceral sensation. Currently, rectal sensation is assessed by manual balloon distension or barostat. However, neither test is adaptable for use in the neurophysiological characterization of visceral afferent pathways by sensory evoked potentials. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and quality of sensation evoked by electrical stimulation (ES) and rapid balloon distension (RBD) in the anorectum and to apply the optimum stimulus to examine the visceral afferent pathway with rectal evoked potentials. Healthy subjects (n = 8, median age 33 yr) were studied on three separate occasions. Variability, tolerance, and stimulus characteristics were assessed with each technique. Overall ES consistently invoked pain and was chosen for measuring rectal evoked potential whereas RBD in all cases induced the strong urge to defecate. Rectal intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for ES and RBD (0.82 and 0.72, respectively) demonstrated good reproducibility at pain/maximum tolerated volume but not at sensory threshold. Only sphincter ICC for ES at pain showed acceptable between-study reproducibility (ICC 0.79). Within studies ICC was good (>0.6) for anorectal ES and RBD at both levels of sensation. All subjects reported significantly more unpleasantness during RBD than ES (P < 0.01). This study demonstrates that ES and RBD are similarly reproducible. However, the sensations experienced with each technique differed markedly, probably reflecting differences in peripheral and/or central processing of the sensory input. This is of relevance in interpreting findings of neuroimaging studies of anorectal sensation and may provide insight into the physiological characteristics of visceral afferent pathways in health and disease.

  2. Antidepressants and REM sleep in Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Paterson, Louise M; Hutson, Peter H

    2005-10-17

    Compared to other rat strains, the Wistar-Kyoto rats show increased amount of REM sleep, one of the characteristic sleep changes observed in depressed patients. The aims of this study were firstly to validate a simple sleep stage discriminator and then compare the effect of antidepressants on suppression of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in Wistar-Kyoto rats and an outbred rat strain (Sprague-Dawley). Rats were implanted with telemetry transmitters with electroencephalogram/electromyogram electrodes. Following recovery, the animals were orally dosed at light onset with either desipramine (20 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), citalopram (10 or 40 mg/kg) or vehicle in a cross-over design. Every 12-s epoch was automatically scored as WAKE, NREM or REM sleep. Results confirm that Wistar-Kyoto rats show increased amount of REM sleep and decreased REM latency compared with Sprague-Dawley rats. All antidepressants significantly suppressed REM sleep in Sprague-Dawley rats, but only the high dose of citalopram suppressed REM sleep in Wistar-Kyoto rats. These findings suggest that the enhanced REM activity in Wistar-Kyoto rats is less sensitive to the effect of antidepressants and therefore does not provide any additional predictive validity for assessing antidepressant efficacy.

  3. Efficacy of 0.1% adapalene in a non-inflammatory Kyoto Rhino Rat acne model.

    PubMed

    Yoshimasu, Takashi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Kaminaka, Chikako; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2014-11-01

    Acne vulgaris is a disorder of the pilosebaceous unit of the skin, and the underlying mechanism is still obscure. Kyoto rhino (krh/krh) rats were made by ethylnitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis and harbor S413X nonsense mutation of the rat hairless (Hr) gene. Krh/krh rats develop comedones with hair loss on their back as they grow. Our purpose is to assess whether or not the krh/krh rat is a suitable model of non-inflammatory acne, and to investigate the comedolytic effects of adapalene in krh/krh rats. Krh/krh rats at 12weeks of age were topically treated with adapalene or a vehicle 6 times a week, for 12weeks. Skin lesions were clinically investigated and skin samples were obtained from treated skins from each animal after 6 and 12weeks of treatments. Comedone was clinically enlarged in the control group compared with the adapalene group. The adapalene group showed significantly increased epidermal thickness as compared to the control group. Furthermore, open comedone areas were also significantly decreased in the adapalene group as compared to the control group. The adapalene group also showed reduced lipid production in open comedones as compared to the control group. Cytokine productions including IL-10 and IL-12a tended to increase in skin treated with adapalene as compared to the control group. Krh/krh rats represented a new model for non-inflammatory acne with abnormalities in both hair follicles and sebaceous glands. It is hypothesized that adapalene is a superior drug to decrease open comedones by modifying lipid metaboism and cytokine production in krh/krh rats. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using Crickets to Introduce Neurophysiology to Early Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    Dagda, Ruben K.; Thalhauser, Rachael M.; Dagda, Raul; Marzullo, Timothy C.; Gage, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy and physiology instructors often face the daunting task of teaching the principles of neurophysiology as part of a laboratory course with very limited resources. Teaching neurophysiology can be a difficult undertaking as sophisticated electrophysiology and data acquisition equipment is often financially out-of-reach for two-year institutions, and for many preparations, instructors need to be highly skilled in electrophysiology techniques when teaching hands-on laboratories. In the absence of appropriate laboratory tools, many undergraduate students have difficulty understanding concepts related to neurophysiology. The cricket can serve as a reliable invertebrate model to teach the basic concepts of neurophysiology in the educational laboratory. In this manuscript, we describe a series of hands-on, demonstrative, technologically simple, and affordable laboratory activities that will help undergraduate students gain an understanding of the principles of neurophysiology. By using the cerci ganglion and leg preparation, students can quantify extracellular neural activity in response to sensory stimulation, understand the principles of rate coding and somatotopy, perform electrical microstimulation to understand the threshold of sensory stimulation, and do pharmacological manipulation of neuronal activity. We describe the utility of these laboratory activities, provide a convenient protocol for quantifying extracellular recordings, and discuss feedback provided by undergraduate students with regards to the quality of the educational experience after performing the lab activities. PMID:24319394

  5. [Anaesthetic management of excision of a cervical intraspinal tumor with intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring in a pregnant woman at 29 weeks].

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Domínguez, R; González-González, G; Rubio-Romero, R; Federero-Martínez, F; Jiménez, I

    2016-05-01

    The intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring is a technique used to test and monitor nervous function. This technique has become essential in some neurosurgery interventions, since it avoids neurological injuries during surgery and reduces morbidity. The experience of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring is limited in some clinical cases due to the low incidence of pregnant women undergoing a surgical procedure. A case is presented of a 29-weeks pregnant woman suffering from a cervical intraspinal tumour with intense pain, which required surgery. The collaboration of a multidisciplinary team composed of anaesthesiologists, neurosurgeons, neurophysiologists and obstetricians, the continuous monitoring of the foetus, the intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, and maintaining the neurophysiological and utero-placental variables were crucial for the proper development of the surgery. According to our experience and the limited publications in the literature, no damaging effects of this technique were detected at maternal-foetal level. On the contrary, it brings important benefits during the surgery and for the final result. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Ischaemic myelopathy associated with cocaine: clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroradiological features

    PubMed Central

    Di, L; Restuccia, D; Oliviero, A; Profice, P; Nardone, R; Valeriani, M; Colosimo, C; Tartaglione, T; Della, C; Pennisi, M; Tonali, P

    1997-01-01

    Two patients with spinal infarction and one patient with the previously unreported complication of spinal transient ischaemic attack associated with cocaine misuse are reported. Spinal MRI documented an infarction in the territory of the anterior spinal artery in the first two patients and was completely normal in the patient with a transient ischaemic attack. Motor evoked potentials were abnormal in all three patients.

 PMID:9343140

  7. Neurophysiology of Sleep and Wakefulness: Basic Science and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jonathan R.L; Roth, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Increased attention to the prevalence of excessive sleepiness has led to a clear need to treat this symptom, thus reinforcing the need for a greater understanding of the neurobiology of sleep and wakefulness. Although the physiological mechanisms of sleep and wakefulness are highly interrelated, recent research reveals that there are distinct differences in the active brain processing and the specific neurochemical systems involved in the two states. In this review, we will examine the specific neuronal pathways, transmitters, and receptors composing the ascending arousal system that flow from the brainstem through the thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex. We will also discuss the mutually inhibitory interaction between the core neuronal components of this arousal system and the sleep-active neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, which serves as a brainstem-switch, regulating the stability of the sleep-wake states. In addition, we will review the role of homeostatic and circadian processes in the sleep-wake cycle, including the influence of the suprachiasmatic nucleus on coordination of sleep-wake systems. Finally, we will summarize how the above processes are reflected in disorders of sleep and wakefulness, including insomnia, narcolepsy, disorders associated with fragmented sleep, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, and primary neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. PMID:19587857

  8. Myasthenic syndrome of snake envenomation: a clinical and neurophysiological study.

    PubMed Central

    Sanmuganathan, P. S.

    1998-01-01

    In this prospective study, 65 consecutive patients with neurological manifestations after snake envenomation, were examined in order to describe the natural history of the reversible nature of muscle weakness. Snake envenoming led to a completely reversible muscle paralysis involving the external ocular muscles with sparing of the pupils, muscles of mastication, facial muscles, palatal muscles, neck and proximal limb muscles. The deep tendon reflexes were preserved with no sensory abnormalities. The muscular weakness usually set in within an hour of envenomation and lasted up to 10 days, with fatigability lasting for 12 days. Respiratory muscle paralysis led to ventilatory failure needing ventilation in severely envenomed patients. Motor and sensory nerve conduction were normal with normal resting compound motor action potentials on electromyography. Repetitive nerve stimulation gave rise to a decremental response during high frequency stimulation. The edrophonium test gave negative results. These manifestations are due to abnormalities of neuromuscular transmission and are not typical of myasthenia gravis. As the exact pathophysiology of venom-related neurotoxicity is not known, it is suggested that the neurological manifestations of snake envenoming be designated a myasthenic syndrome. Further studies to isolate the neurotoxin and its mechanism and exact site of blocking at the neuromuscular junction would pave the way for the development of a novel long-acting neuromuscular blocking agent. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10211352

  9. Deep brain stimulation activation volumes and their association with neurophysiological mapping and therapeutic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maks, Christopher B.; Butson, Christopher R.; Walter, Benjamin L.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Despite the clinical success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD), little is known about the electrical spread of the stimulation. The primary goal of this study was to integrate neuroimaging, neurophysiology, and neurostimulation data sets from 10 PD patients, unilaterally implanted with subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS electrodes, to identify the theoretical volume of tissue activated (VTA) by clinically defined therapeutic stimulation parameters. Methods Each patient-specific model was created with a series of five steps: 1) definition of the neurosurgical stereotactic coordinate system within the context of pre-operative imaging data; 2) entry of intra-operative microelectrode recording locations from neurophysiologically defined thalamic, subthalamic, and substantia nigra neurons into the context of the imaging data; 3) fitting a 3D brain atlas to the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the patient; 4) positioning the DBS electrode in the documented stereotactic location, verified by post-operative imaging data; and 5) calculation of the VTA using a diffusion tensor based finite element neurostimulation model. Results The patient-specific models show that therapeutic benefit was achieved with direct stimulation of a wide range of anatomical structures in the subthalamic region. Interestingly, of the 5 patients exhibiting a greater than 40% improvement in their unified PD rating scale (UPDRS), all but one had the majority of their VTA outside the atlas defined borders of the STN. Further, of the 5 patients with less than 40% UPDRS improvement all but one had the majority of their VTA inside the STN. Conclusions Our results are consistent with previous studies suggesting that therapeutic benefit is associated with electrode contacts near the dorsal border of the STN, and provide quantitative estimates of the electrical spread of the stimulation in a clinically relevant context. PMID:18403440

  10. Implementation of a telemetry system for neurophysiological signals.

    PubMed

    Thorbergsson, P T; Garwicz, M; Schouenborg, J; Johansson, A J

    2008-01-01

    With an ever increasing need for assessment of neurophysiological activity in connection with injury and basic research, the demand for an efficient and reliable data acquisition system rises. Brain-machine interfaces is one class of such systems that targets the central nervous system. A necessary step in the development of a brain-machine interface is to design and implement a reliable and efficient measurement system for neurophysiological signals. The use of telemetric devices increases the flexibility of the devices in terms of subject mobility and unobtrusiveness of the equipment. In this paper, we present a complete system architecture for a wearable telemetry system for the acquisition of neurophysiological data. The system has been miniaturized and implemented using surface-mount technology. System performance has been successfully verified and bottlenecks in the architecture have been identified.

  11. [Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka, founder of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University, and his achievements. Part 4: Prof. M. Matsuoka's lecture to medical and civic communities].

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Hayato

    2010-03-01

    Dr. M. Matsuoka gave many lectures to physicians at the Postdoctoral Course Lectures sponsored by the Kyoto Eisei Kensasho (Kyoto Bacterial and Biochemical Laboratory) run by the Kyoto Medical Association, and the Postdoctoral Course Lectures of the Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University. He was also invited to give lectures at several regional medical associations. He also was a speaker at the Kyoto Imperial University Extension course and he lectured at the Enryakuji Temple on Mt. Hiei, sponsored by a newspaper company. It is remarkable that these activities were carried out in addition to his other notable academic work previously reported.

  12. Learned helplessness and social avoidance in the Wistar-Kyoto rat

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyungwoo; Clinton, Sarah M.; Jackson, Nateka L.; Kerman, Ilan A.

    2014-01-01

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is an established depression model characterized by elevated anxiety- and depression-like behavior across a variety of tests. Here we further characterized specific behavioral and functional domains relevant to depression that are altered in WKY rats. Moreover, since early-life experience potently shapes emotional behavior, we also determined whether aspects of WKYs' phenotype were modifiable by early-life factors using neonatal handling or maternal separation. We first compared WKYs' behavior to that of Sprague–Dawley (SD), Wistar, and Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR) rats in: the open field test, elevated plus maze, novelty-suppressed feeding test, a social interaction test, and the forced swim test (FST). WKYs exhibited high baseline immobility in the FST and were the only strain to show increased immobility on FST Day 2 vs. Day 1 (an indicator of learned helplessness). WKYs also showed greater social avoidance, along with enlarged adrenal glands and hearts relative to other strains. We next tested whether neonatal handling or early-life maternal separation stress influenced WKYs' behavior. Neither manipulation affected their anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, likely due to a strong genetic underpinning of their phenotype. Our findings indicate that WKY rats are a useful model that captures specific functional domains relevant to clinical depression including: psychomotor retardation, behavioral inhibition, learned helplessness, social withdrawal, and physiological dysfunction. WKY rats appear to be resistant to early-life manipulations (i.e., neonatal handling) that are therapeutic in other strains, and may be a useful model for the development of personalized anti-depressant therapies for treatment resistant depression. PMID:24744709

  13. Intradural Intramedullary Mixed Type Hemangioma: Optimizing the Surgical Management through Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Rahyussalim, Ahmad Jabir; Situmeang, Adrian; Safri, Ahmad Yanuar; Fadhly, Zulfa Indah K.

    2015-01-01

    Intradural intramedullary mixed type hemangioma is a rare histotype of primary spinal cord tumors, though it can carry a severe clinical burden leading to limb dysfunction or motor and sensory disturbances. Timely intervention with radical resection is the hallmark of treatment but achieving it is not an easy task even for experienced neurosurgeons. We herein present an exemplificative case presenting with sudden paraplegia in which total resection was achieved under intraoperative neurophysiology monitoring. A thorough discussion on the operative technique and the role of neuromonitoring in allowing a safe surgical management of primary spinal cord tumors is presented. PMID:26839729

  14. Neurophysiological profile of peripheral neuropathy associated with childhood mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Manoj P; Rahman, Shamima; Bhattacharya, Kaustuv; Clark, Damian; Christodoulou, John; Ellaway, Carolyn; Farrar, Michelle; Pitt, Matthew; Sampaio, Hugo; Ware, Tyson L; Wedatilake, Yehani; Thorburn, David R; Ryan, Monique M; Ouvrier, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Peripheral nerve involvement is common in mitochondrial disease but often unrecognised due to the prominent central nervous system features. Identification of the underlying neuropathy may assist syndrome classification, targeted genetic testing and rehabilitative interventions. Clinical data and the results of nerve conduction studies were obtained retrospectively from the records of four tertiary children's hospital metabolic disease, neuromuscular or neurophysiology services. Nerve conductions studies were also performed prospectively on children attending a tertiary metabolic disease service. Results were classified and analysed according to the underlying genetic cause. Nerve conduction studies from 27 children with mitochondrial disease were included in the study (mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) - 7, POLG - 7, SURF1 - 10, PDHc deficiency - 3). Four children with mtDNA mutations had a normal study while three had mild abnormalities in the form of an axonal sensorimotor neuropathy when not acutely unwell. One child with MELAS had a severe acute axonal motor neuropathy during an acute stroke-like episode that resolved over 12months. Five children with POLG mutations and disease onset beyond infancy had a sensory ataxic neuropathy with an onset in the second decade of life, while the two infants with POLG mutations had a demyelinating neuropathy. Seven of the 10 children with SURF1 mutations had a demyelinating neuropathy. All three children with PDHc deficiency had an axonal sensorimotor neuropathy. Unlike CMT, the neuropathy associated with mitochondrial disease was not length-dependent. This is the largest study to date of peripheral neuropathy in genetically- classified childhood mitochondrial disease. Characterising the underlying neuropathy may assist with the diagnosis of the mitochondrial syndrome and should be an integral part of the assessment of children with suspected mitochondrial disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society

  15. Does intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring matter in noncomplex spine surgeries?

    PubMed Central

    van der Goes, David N.; Nuwer, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine associations between intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IOM) for spinal decompressions and simple fusions with neurologic complications, length of stay, and hospitalization charges. Methods: Adult discharges in the Nationwide/National Inpatient Sample (NIS) (2007–2012) with spinal decompressions and simple spinal fusions were included. Revision surgeries, instrumentations, complicated approaches, and tumor- and trauma-related surgeries were excluded. Extracted data included patient demographics, medical comorbidities, primary spinal surgery type, and hospital characteristics. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses using NIS survey design variables correlated IOM use with neurologic complications, hospital charges, and length of stay. Results: IOM was reported in 4.9% of an estimated 1.1 million discharges in the weighted sample. Discharges reporting IOM were more often privately insured (61% vs 57%, p < 0.001) and had slightly more comorbidities (25% vs 24% with 3+ comorbidities, p = 0.01). Spinal fusions more often reported IOM than decompressions. The IOM group had fewer neurologic complications (0.8% vs 1.4% of controls) with no difference in length of stay (3.0 days for each group), but increased hospital charges (39% greater). Multiple regression adjustment showed significant associations of IOM with fewer neurologic complications (odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47, 0.76, p < 0.001), while the estimated percentage of hospital charges was sizably diminished from the unadjusted analysis (IOM effect +9%, 95% CI +4%, +13%, p < 0.001), and length of stay was reduced (IOM effect −0.26 days, 95% CI −0.42, −0.11, p < 0.001). Conclusions: IOM was associated with better clinical outcomes and some increased hospital charges among discharges of simple spinal fusions and laminectomies in a large, multiyear, nationally representative dataset. PMID:26446062

  16. Museum as an integrated imaging device: visualization of ancient Kyoto cityscape from folding screen artifact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Oyabu, Umi; Kojima, Michihiro

    2012-03-01

    Museums hold cultural resources such as artworks, historical artifacts, and folklore materials. The National Museum of Japanese History holds over 200,000 of the cultural resources. A role of museum is to exhibit the cultural resources, therefore a museum could be referred to as a visualization device for the information society. In this research, visualization of a history image from cultural resources with interactive user interface will be mentioned. The material focused on is the oldest extant version of a genre of folding screen paintings that depict the thriving city of Kyoto in the four seasons, named Rekihaku's "Scenes In and Around Kyoto" designated as a nationally important cultural property in Japan. Over 1,400 people and a lot of residences, temples, and houses are drawn, and those are also information resource telling us about city scenes and people's life in Kyoto at that time. Historical researches were done by using a high resolution digital image obtained by a large scaled scanner, and scanned images are used for computer programs to visualize a history image of ancient Kyoto. Combinations between real materials and information provided by using the computer programs are also described in this research.

  17. Analysis of the Impacts of an Early Start for Compliance with the Kyoto Protocol

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Energy Information Administration's analysis of the impacts of an early start, using the same methodology as in Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on U.S. Energy Markets and Economic Activity, with only those changes in assumptions caused by the early start date.

  18. BRAIN ACONITASE ACTIVITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHR) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of susceptibility are critical for human health risk assessment. Previous studies indicate that spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats are more sensitive than Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats to the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors such as carbaryl and chlorpyrifos. This diffe...

  19. BRAIN ACONITASE ACTIVITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHR) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of susceptibility are critical for human health risk assessment. Previous studies indicate that spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats are more sensitive than Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats to the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors such as carbaryl and chlorpyrifos. This diffe...

  20. Development of a national forest inventory for carbon accounting purposes in New Zealand's planted Kyoto forests

    Treesearch

    John Moore; Ian Payton; Larry Burrows; Chris Goulding; Peter Beets; Paul Lane; Peter Stephens

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the development of a monitoring system to estimate carbon sequestration in New Zealand's planted Kyoto forests, those forests that have been planted since January 1, 1990, on land that previously did not contain forest. The system must meet the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change good practice guidance and must be seen to be unbiased,...

  1. Neurophysiological changes induced by the botulinum toxin type A injection in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Frascarelli, Flaminia; Di Rosa, Giuseppe; Bisozzi, Eleonora; Castelli, Enrico; Santilli, Valter

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) has been widely used in the management of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy in order to reduce hypertonicity and improve functional outcomes enhancing motor skill development. The botulinum toxin injection seems to interact with intrafusal and extrafusal fibers producing a reduction of hypertone both through synaptic blockade and inhibition of stretch reflex loop and these changes may influence not only the spinal cord but also the central nervous system (CNS). The purpose of our study was to determine the neurophysiological changes induced by the BTX-A through an evaluation of cortical somatosensory Evoked Potential (SEP) and Soleus H wave, that is the index of excitability of stretch reflex loop. Eighteen children with Cerebral Palsy (CP), aged between 5 and 12, were recruited at Children's Hospital "Bambino Gesù" of Rome. All children were evaluated with appropriate clinical scales before and 1 month after the BTX-A injection. Neurophysiological measurements were performed before, and 1 month after botulinum toxin injection through lower limb SEPs, M-wave and Soleus H wave recording. After the injection the results showed a statistically significant improvement both of clinical scales and the neurophysiological variables. These findings suggest that spasticity itself can be considered as a factor affecting the cortical SEPs. And even though it seems that BTX-A does not have any direct central effect on sensory pathways we suppose an indirect mechanism on modulation of afferent fibers Ia due to the modification induced by BTX-A to central loop reflex. © 2010 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic in vivo multi-circuit neurophysiological recordings in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dzirasa, Kafui; Fuentes, Romulo; Kumar, Sunil; Potes, Juan M.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2010-01-01

    While genetically modified mice have become a widely accepted tool for modeling the influence of gene function on the manifestation of neurological and psychiatric endophenotypes, only modest headway has been made in characterizing the functional circuit changes that underlie the disruption of complex behavioral processes in various models. This challenge partially arises from the fact that even simple behaviors require the coordination of many neural circuits vastly distributed across multiple brain areas. As such, many independent neurophysiological alterations are likely to yield overlapping circuit disruptions and ultimately lead to the manifestation of similar behavioral deficits. Here we describe the expansion of our neurophysiological recording approach in an effort to quantify neurophysiological activity across many large scale brain circuits simultaneously in freely behaving genetically modified mice. Using this expanded approach we were able to isolate up to 70 single neurons and record local field potential (LFP) activity simultaneously across 11 brain areas. Moreover, we found that these neurophysiological signals remained viable up to 16 months after implantation. Thus, our approach provides a powerful tool that will aid in dissecting the central brain network changes that underlie the complex behavioral deficits displayed by various genetically modified mice. PMID:21115042

  3. A systems neurophysiology approach to voluntary event coding.

    PubMed

    Petruo, Vanessa A; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Münchau, Alexander; Beste, Christian

    2016-07-15

    Mechanisms responsible for the integration of perceptual events and appropriate actions (sensorimotor processes) have been subject to intense research. Different theoretical frameworks have been put forward with the "Theory of Event Coding (TEC)" being one of the most influential. In the current study, we focus on the concept of 'event files' within TEC and examine what sub-processes being dissociable by means of cognitive-neurophysiological methods are involved in voluntary event coding. This was combined with EEG source localization. We also introduce reward manipulations to delineate the neurophysiological sub-processes most relevant for performance variations during event coding. The results show that processes involved in voluntary event coding included predominantly stimulus categorization, feature unbinding and response selection, which were reflected by distinct neurophysiological processes (the P1, N2 and P3 ERPs). On a system's neurophysiological level, voluntary event-file coding is thus related to widely distributed parietal-medial frontal networks. Attentional selection processes (N1 ERP) turned out to be less important. Reward modulated stimulus categorization in parietal regions likely reflecting aspects of perceptual decision making but not in other processes. The perceptual categorization stage appears central for voluntary event-file coding.

  4. At the Root of Embodied Cognition: Cognitive Science Meets Neurophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarini, Francesca; Adenzato, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    Recent experimental research in the field of neurophysiology has led to the discovery of two classes of visuomotor neurons: canonical neurons and mirror neurons. In light of these studies, we propose here an overview of two classical themes in the cognitive science panorama: James Gibson's theory of affordances and Eleanor Rosch's principles of…

  5. Backwards and Forwards: Behavioral and Neurophysiological Investigations into Dependency Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witzel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the processing of sentences involving long-distance linguistic dependencies, or sentences containing elements that must be linked across intervening words and phrases. Specifically, both behavioral (self-paced reading and eye tracking) and neurophysiological (electroencephalography) methods were used (a) to evaluate the…

  6. Science Education: An Experiment in Facilitating the Learning of Neurophysiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Herbert

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes the experiences of a zoology professor attempting to construct a student-centered course in neurophysiology. Various aspects of the organization and conduct of the course are described, including the beginning experience, topics of interest, lecture, laboratory, computer simulation, examinations, student lectures. Evaluation of the…

  7. At the Root of Embodied Cognition: Cognitive Science Meets Neurophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarini, Francesca; Adenzato, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    Recent experimental research in the field of neurophysiology has led to the discovery of two classes of visuomotor neurons: canonical neurons and mirror neurons. In light of these studies, we propose here an overview of two classical themes in the cognitive science panorama: James Gibson's theory of affordances and Eleanor Rosch's principles of…

  8. Science Education: An Experiment in Facilitating the Learning of Neurophysiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Herbert

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes the experiences of a zoology professor attempting to construct a student-centered course in neurophysiology. Various aspects of the organization and conduct of the course are described, including the beginning experience, topics of interest, lecture, laboratory, computer simulation, examinations, student lectures. Evaluation of the…

  9. Is There a Link between Learning Style and Neurophysiology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garger, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    To succeed in traditional classrooms, students must first learn not to talk, fidget, or move around. The neurophysiology field suggests that some students who do not succeed in school fail initially because their physiological needs are being controverted. This article explores the relationship between learning style and the field of…

  10. Neurophysiological Influence of Musical Training on Speech Perception

    PubMed Central

    Shahin, Antoine J.

    2011-01-01

    Does musical training affect our perception of speech? For example, does learning to play a musical instrument modify the neural circuitry for auditory processing in a way that improves one's ability to perceive speech more clearly in noisy environments? If so, can speech perception in individuals with hearing loss (HL), who struggle in noisy situations, benefit from musical training? While music and speech exhibit some specialization in neural processing, there is evidence suggesting that skills acquired through musical training for specific acoustical processes may transfer to, and thereby improve, speech perception. The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the influence of musical training on speech processing and the extent of this influence remains a rich area to be explored. A prerequisite for such transfer is the facilitation of greater neurophysiological overlap between speech and music processing following musical training. This review first establishes a neurophysiological link between musical training and speech perception, and subsequently provides further hypotheses on the neurophysiological implications of musical training on speech perception in adverse acoustical environments and in individuals with HL. PMID:21716639

  11. Robot cognitive control with a neurophysiologically inspired reinforcement learning model.

    PubMed

    Khamassi, Mehdi; Lallée, Stéphane; Enel, Pierre; Procyk, Emmanuel; Dominey, Peter F

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in modern robotics is to liberate robots from controlled industrial settings, and allow them to interact with humans and changing environments in the real-world. The current research attempts to determine if a neurophysiologically motivated model of cortical function in the primate can help to address this challenge. Primates are endowed with cognitive systems that allow them to maximize the feedback from their environment by learning the values of actions in diverse situations and by adjusting their behavioral parameters (i.e., cognitive control) to accommodate unexpected events. In such contexts uncertainty can arise from at least two distinct sources - expected uncertainty resulting from noise during sensory-motor interaction in a known context, and unexpected uncertainty resulting from the changing probabilistic structure of the environment. However, it is not clear how neurophysiological mechanisms of reinforcement learning and cognitive control integrate in the brain to produce efficient behavior. Based on primate neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, we propose a novel computational model for the interaction between lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex reconciling previous models dedicated to these two functions. We deployed the model in two robots and demonstrate that, based on adaptive regulation of a meta-parameter β that controls the exploration rate, the model can robustly deal with the two kinds of uncertainties in the real-world. In addition the model could reproduce monkey behavioral performance and neurophysiological data in two problem-solving tasks. A last experiment extends this to human-robot interaction with the iCub humanoid, and novel sources of uncertainty corresponding to "cheating" by the human. The combined results provide concrete evidence for the ability of neurophysiologically inspired cognitive systems to control advanced robots in the real-world.

  12. Robot Cognitive Control with a Neurophysiologically Inspired Reinforcement Learning Model

    PubMed Central

    Khamassi, Mehdi; Lallée, Stéphane; Enel, Pierre; Procyk, Emmanuel; Dominey, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in modern robotics is to liberate robots from controlled industrial settings, and allow them to interact with humans and changing environments in the real-world. The current research attempts to determine if a neurophysiologically motivated model of cortical function in the primate can help to address this challenge. Primates are endowed with cognitive systems that allow them to maximize the feedback from their environment by learning the values of actions in diverse situations and by adjusting their behavioral parameters (i.e., cognitive control) to accommodate unexpected events. In such contexts uncertainty can arise from at least two distinct sources – expected uncertainty resulting from noise during sensory-motor interaction in a known context, and unexpected uncertainty resulting from the changing probabilistic structure of the environment. However, it is not clear how neurophysiological mechanisms of reinforcement learning and cognitive control integrate in the brain to produce efficient behavior. Based on primate neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, we propose a novel computational model for the interaction between lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex reconciling previous models dedicated to these two functions. We deployed the model in two robots and demonstrate that, based on adaptive regulation of a meta-parameter β that controls the exploration rate, the model can robustly deal with the two kinds of uncertainties in the real-world. In addition the model could reproduce monkey behavioral performance and neurophysiological data in two problem-solving tasks. A last experiment extends this to human–robot interaction with the iCub humanoid, and novel sources of uncertainty corresponding to “cheating” by the human. The combined results provide concrete evidence for the ability of neurophysiologically inspired cognitive systems to control advanced robots in the real-world. PMID:21808619

  13. Neurophysiological assessment for evaluating residual cognition in vegetative and minimally conscious state patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    De Salvo, Simona; Caminiti, Fabrizia; Bonanno, Lilla; De Cola, Maria Cristina; Corallo, Francesco; Caizzone, Antonio; Rifici, Carmela; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess residual cognitive function and perform outcome evaluation in vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) patients, using Neurowave, a system able to monitor event-related potentials (ERPs) induced by neurosensory stimulation. Eleven VS and five MCS patients underwent neurological examination and clinical evaluation performed using validated clinical and behavioral scales; they also underwent neurosensory stimulation, which consisted of administration of target images (rare stimuli), relevant to the patient's personal history and having emotional significance, alternated with nontarget images ("standard" stimuli), which had no emotional significance. All simultaneous ERP responses at baseline (T0) and at three months from T0 (T1) were recorded. At T0 we found significant differences between the VS and MCS patients for the N200 (p=0.02) and P300 (p=0.04) waves. The neurophysiological analysis at T1 showed a significant difference only for P300 (p=0.02), probably due to the improvements observed in the VS subjects for the N100 (p=0.009) and N200 (p=0.02) sensory components. Neurophysiological assessment for evaluating residual cognition in vegetative and minimally conscious state patients: a pilot study Our findings seem to show the value of ERP monitoring in VS and MCS patients as a means of investigating residual cognitive function. This approach could guide early therapeutic and rehabilitation interventions, and contribute to identifying better diagnostic and prognostic markers for use in unresponsive or low-responsive patients.

  14. Neurophysiological assessment of brain dysfunction in critically ill patients: an update.

    PubMed

    Azabou, Eric; Fischer, Catherine; Guerit, Jean Michel; Annane, Djillali; Mauguiere, François; Lofaso, Fréderic; Sharshar, Tarek

    2017-01-21

    The aim of this review was to provide up-to-date information about the usefulness of clinical neurophysiology testing in the management of critically ill patients. Evoked potentials (EPs) and electroencephalogram (EEG) are non-invasive clinical neurophysiology tools that allow an objective assessment of the central nervous system's function at the bedside in intensive care unit (ICU). These tests are quite useful in diagnosing cerebral complications, and establishing the vital and functional prognosis in ICU. EEG keeps a particularly privileged importance in detecting seizures phenomena such as subclinical seizures and non-convulsive status epilepticus. Quantitative EEG (QEEG) analysis techniques commonly called EEG Brain mapping can provide obvious topographic displays of digital EEG signals characteristics, showing the potential distribution over the entire scalp including filtering, frequency, and amplitude analysis and color mapping. Evidences of usefulness of QEEG for seizures detection in ICU are provided by several recent studies. Furthermore, beyond detection of epileptic phenomena, changes of some QEEG panels are early warning indicators of sedation level as well as brain damage or dysfunction in ICU. EPs offer the opportunity for assessing brainstem's functional integrity, as well as subcortical and cortical brain areas. A multimodal use, combining EEG and various modalities of EPs is recommended since this allows a more accurate functional exploration of the brain and helps caregivers to tailor therapeutic measures according to neurological worsening trends and to anticipate the prognosis in ICU.

  15. Autonomic nervous system abnormalities in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a cardiovascular neurophysiologic study.

    PubMed

    De Joanna, G; De Rosa, A; Salvatore, E; Castaldo, I; De Luca, N; Izzo, R; Manzo, V; Filla, A; De Michele, G

    2008-12-15

    Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is part of the spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) clinical picture, but few data are available on this topic. The present study is aimed to report a detailed investigation of autonomic nervous system in patients with molecular diagnosis of SCA type 2, one of the most frequent forms and the commonest in Italy. Nine patients with a mild to moderate form of SCA2 underwent a questionnaire about dysautonomic symptoms and a complete cardiovascular neurophysiologic evaluation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic system, comprising head-up tilt, standing, isometric hand grip, cold pressure, mental arithmetic, Valsalva manoeuvre, deep breathing, and hyperventilation tests. An echocardiographic study and Holter-ECG recording were also performed. All patients complained dysautonomic problems regarding urinary tract, cardiovascular system, or gastrointestinal dysfunction. The neurophysiologic study showed both sympathetic and parasympathetic involvement, with highly variable degree and pattern of dysautonomia. The present study results show that the autonomic dysfunction is common in SCA2 representing a significant component of the complex picture of the disease. We found a wide spectrum of cardiovascular autonomic abnormalities, without a typical pattern of dysfunction and without correlation with clinical variables.

  16. Serial magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological studies in multiple sulphatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I; Vargiami, Euthymia; Papadopoulou, Kyriaki; Dimitriou, Evangelia; Mavridou, Irene; Santamaria, Raul; Canals, Isaak; Michelakakis, Helen

    2008-05-01

    We present serial clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurophysiological findings of a patient with multiple sulphatase deficiency (MSD), who was first admitted at the age of 9 months, because of psychomotor retardation. MRI demonstrated extensive diffuse symmetrical high signal in the deep white matter of both cerebral hemispheres, as well as of the subcortical white matter and the brainstem, while there was additional enlargement of sulci and subdural spaces and mild atrophy. Assay of arylsulphatase A activity in white blood cell homogenates at the age of 29 months disclosed a marked deficiency of the enzyme, compatible with the diagnosis of early-infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy. During the course of a later admission, the presence of ichthyosis pointed out to the possible diagnosis of MSD; further assays of sulphatases in plasma, leukocytes as well as in cultured fibroblasts, combined with an abnormal excretion of mucopolysaccharides and sulphatides in urine confirmed the diagnosis. Molecular analysis identified a homozygous disease-causing mutation (R349W) of the SUMF1 gene. Serial neurophysiological and MRI studies demonstrated the progressive nature of the disorder (regarding both central and peripheral nervous system), correlating with the clinical deterioration (spastic quadriplegia, optic atrophy and epilepsy) with subsequent death at the age of 4 years.

  17. The relationship between knowledge of pain neurophysiology and fear avoidance in people with chronic pain: A point in time, observational study.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Claire; Bradnam, Lynley; Barr, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Chronic pain is prevalent in the western world; however fear of pain often has a greater impact than the degree of initial injury. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between knowledge of the neurophysiology of pain and fear avoidance in individuals diagnosed with chronic pain. Twenty-nine people with chronic musculoskeletal pain were recruited and completed questionnaires to determine their understanding of pain neurophysiology and the degree of their fear avoidance beliefs. There was an inverse relationship between knowledge of pain neurophysiology and the level of fear avoidance. Patients with higher pain knowledge reported less fear avoidance and lower perceived disability due to pain. There was no relationship with the educational level or compensable status for either variable. The findings suggest that fear avoidance is positively influenced by neurophysiology of pain education, so that a higher level of pain knowledge is associated with less activity-related fear. The clinical implication is that reducing fear avoidance/kinesiophobia using neurophysiology of pain education in people with chronic pain may provide an effective strategy to help manage fear avoidance and related disability in the chronic pain population in order to improve treatment outcomes.

  18. New Paradigm for Understanding In-Flight Decision Making Errors: a Neurophysiological Model Leveraging Human Factors

    PubMed Central

    Souvestre, P A; Landrock, C K; Blaber, A P

    2008-01-01

    Human factors centered aviation accident analyses report that skill based errors are known to be cause of 80% of all accidents, decision making related errors 30% and perceptual errors 6%1. In-flight decision making error is a long time recognized major avenue leading to incidents and accidents. Through the past three decades, tremendous and costly efforts have been developed to attempt to clarify causation, roles and responsibility as well as to elaborate various preventative and curative countermeasures blending state of the art biomedical, technological advances and psychophysiological training strategies. In-flight related statistics have not been shown significantly changed and a significant number of issues remain not yet resolved. Fine Postural System and its corollary, Postural Deficiency Syndrome (PDS), both defined in the 1980's, are respectively neurophysiological and medical diagnostic models that reflect central neural sensory-motor and cognitive controls regulatory status. They are successfully used in complex neurotraumatology and related rehabilitation for over two decades. Analysis of clinical data taken over a ten-year period from acute and chronic post-traumatic PDS patients shows a strong correlation between symptoms commonly exhibited before, along side, or even after error, and sensory-motor or PDS related symptoms. Examples are given on how PDS related central sensory-motor control dysfunction can be correctly identified and monitored via a neurophysiological ocular-vestibular-postural monitoring system. The data presented provides strong evidence that a specific biomedical assessment methodology can lead to a better understanding of in-flight adaptive neurophysiological, cognitive and perceptual dysfunctional status that could induce in flight-errors. How relevant human factors can be identified and leveraged to maintain optimal performance will be addressed. PMID:19048097

  19. An Aerosol Climatology at Kyoto: Observed Local Radiative Forcing and Columnar Optical Properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, Takahiro; Höller, Robert; Tohno, Susumu; Kasahara, Mikio

    2003-06-01

    In order to evaluate the radiative effect of the atmospheric aerosol at Kyoto, Japan, surface solar irradiance and columnar aerosol optical properties were observed in the period between September 1998 and December 2001. The aerosol optical thickness, which is an indicator of the columnar mass burden and the overall radiative effect of the aerosol, was on average 0.27 at a wavelength of 500 nm. Springtime aerosol optical thickness was generally higher primarily because of `yellow dust' from the Asian continent. The Ångström exponent had values ranging from 0.5 to 2.8, with an average value of 1.64, and was found to be low in periods during which the aerosol optical thickness was high. As a first step toward calculating the local climate impact of the atmospheric aerosol at Kyoto, the clear-sky direct radiative forcing is considered in this paper. For an evaluation of the surface aerosol radiative forcing, observed total surface fluxes measured by a pyranometer are subtracted from modeled surface fluxes derived from a non-aerosol-laden atmosphere. From the obtained relationship between the aerosol optical thickness and the surface aerosol radiative forcing, it is concluded that there is a high variability in the physical and chemical characteristics of the aerosol at this location. The surface radiative forcing efficiency, which is the radiative forcing for unit optical thickness, was 85.4 W m2 on average at Kyoto. This observed value is very similar to recently observed surface aerosol radiative forcings during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) and the Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) field campaigns. The aerosol radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) was calculated from measured in situ aerosol optical properties and retrieved properties from a comparison of measured and simulated ground solar irradiances. While employing average aerosol optical properties at Kyoto, comprehensive cooling at the TOA was found

  20. Neurophysiology and neurobiology of the musical experience.

    PubMed

    Boso, Marianna; Politi, Pierluigi; Barale, Francesco; Enzo, Emanuele

    2006-01-01

    Music, a universal art form that exists in every culture around the world, is integral to a number of social and courtship activities, and is closely associated with other creative behaviours such as dancing. Recently, neuroimaging studies have allowed researchers to investigate the neural correlates of music processing and perception in the brain. Notably, musical stimuli have been shown to activate specific pathways in several brain areas associated with emotional behaviours, such as the insular and cingulate cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex. In addition, neurochemical studies have suggested that several biochemical mediators, such as endorphins, endocannabinoids, dopamine and nitric oxide, may play a role in the musical experience. A growing body of evidence also indicates that music therapy could be useful in the clinical management of numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders. Indeed, music therapy could be effective in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson?s disease, as well as in psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety and autism spectrum disorders. Unfortunately, there is still a shortage of rigorous scientific data supporting the clinical application of music therapy, and there is thus a need to confirm and expand the preliminary findings regarding the potential and actual effectiveness of music therapy. This need should be addressed through prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blinded investigations of the short- and long-term effects of music therapy in diverse clinical conditions.

  1. Neurophysiological investigations for the diagnosis of non-epileptic attack disorder in neuropsychiatry services: from safety standards to improved effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, Andrea E; Seri, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    The discipline of clinical neuropsychiatry currently provides specialised services for a number of conditions that cross the traditional boundaries of neurology and psychiatry, including non-epileptic attack disorder. Neurophysiological investigations have an important role within neuropsychiatry services, with video-electroencephalography (EEG) telemetry being the gold standard investigation for the differential diagnosis between epileptic seizures and non-epileptic attacks. This article reviews existing evidence on best practices for neurophysiology investigations, with focus on safety measures for video-EEG telemetry. We conducted a systematic literature review using the PubMed database in order to identify the scientific literature on the best practices when using neurophysiological investigations in patients with suspected epileptic seizures or non-epileptic attacks. Specific measures need to be implemented for video-EEG telemetry to be safely and effectively carried out by neuropsychiatry services. A confirmed diagnosis of non-epileptic attack disorder following video-EEG telemetry carried out within neuropsychiatry units has the inherent advantage of allowing diagnosis communication and implementation of treatment strategies in a timely fashion, potentially improving clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness significantly. The identified recommendations set the stage for the development of standardised guidelines to enable neuropsychiatry services to implement streamlined and evidence-based care pathways.

  2. Effort of Course Evaluation Survey and Its Characteristics at Faculty of Engineering of Kyoto University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Yusaku; Matsushita, Kayo; Yuasa, Taiichi; Araki, Mituhiko

    At Faculty of Engineering of Kyoto University, the course evaluation survey was carried out to 120 lectures in the second semester of the 2004 fiscal year. In this paper, the structure of the course evaluation questionnaire was clarified, and the feature of the education of the faculty was described based on the results. Although the lectures seem generally to be well-organized and the students had attended the classes seriously, some problems also had been observed. For example, the wide variation of class means would suggest some lectures might not be so effective. Besides, the lack of active self-study of the students was shown. For improvement of engineering education in Kyoto University, it was suggested that a further follow-up survey from entrance to graduation should be carried out.

  3. Efficacy of the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis in Identifying Patients at High Risk for Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Ban, Hiromitsu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Sahara, Shu; Otsuka, Taketo; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Furuta, Takahisa; Andoh, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Kyoto gastritis classification categorizes the endoscopic characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-associated gastritis and identifies patterns associated with a high risk of gastric cancer. We investigated its efficacy, comparing scores in patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis and with gastric cancer. Methods A total of 1,200 patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis alone (n=932), early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer (n=189), and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer (n=79) were endoscopically graded according to the Kyoto gastritis classification for atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, fold hypertrophy, nodularity, and diffuse redness. Results The prevalence of O-II/O-III-type atrophy according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification in early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer groups was 45.1%, which was significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (12.7%, p<0.001). Kyoto gastritis scores of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cancer group were significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (all p<0.001). No significant differences were noted in the rates of gastric fold hypertrophy or diffuse redness between the two groups. In a multivariate analysis, the risks for H. pylori-positive gastric cancer increased with intestinal metaplasia (odds ratio: 4.453, 95% confidence interval: 3.332-5.950, <0.001) and male sex (1.737, 1.102-2.739, p=0.017). Conclusion Making an appropriate diagnosis and detecting patients at high risk is crucial for achieving total eradication of gastric cancer. The scores of intestinal metaplasia and atrophy of the scoring system in the Kyoto gastritis classification may thus be useful for detecting these patients.

  4. Efficacy of the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis in Identifying Patients at High Risk for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Ban, Hiromitsu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Sahara, Shu; Otsuka, Taketo; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Furuta, Takahisa; Andoh, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Kyoto gastritis classification categorizes the endoscopic characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-associated gastritis and identifies patterns associated with a high risk of gastric cancer. We investigated its efficacy, comparing scores in patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis and with gastric cancer. Methods A total of 1,200 patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis alone (n=932), early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer (n=189), and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer (n=79) were endoscopically graded according to the Kyoto gastritis classification for atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, fold hypertrophy, nodularity, and diffuse redness. Results The prevalence of O-II/O-III-type atrophy according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification in early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer groups was 45.1%, which was significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (12.7%, p<0.001). Kyoto gastritis scores of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cancer group were significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (all p<0.001). No significant differences were noted in the rates of gastric fold hypertrophy or diffuse redness between the two groups. In a multivariate analysis, the risks for H. pylori-positive gastric cancer increased with intestinal metaplasia (odds ratio: 4.453, 95% confidence interval: 3.332-5.950, <0.001) and male sex (1.737, 1.102-2.739, p=0.017). Conclusion Making an appropriate diagnosis and detecting patients at high risk is crucial for achieving total eradication of gastric cancer. The scores of intestinal metaplasia and atrophy of the scoring system in the Kyoto gastritis classification may thus be useful for detecting these patients. PMID:28321054

  5. Considering WTO law in the design of climate change regimes beyond Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, Sanford E.

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the most important provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements that should be considered in designing laws and regulations under likely post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes. The Kyoto Protocol and the expected post-Kyoto international climate agreement depend on national measures to implement market-based mitigation measures. This market strategy promotes international exchanges of goods, investments, and services such as cross-border trading of credits for emissions reductions and transnational financing for projects that avoid emissions through the Clean Development Mechanism. Moreover, the United States and other countries, concerned over "leakage" of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through relocation of industry to other countries coupled with political worry over manufacturing competitiveness, have proposed national climate legislation containing border adjustments on imported goods or implicit subsidies for national producers, raising additional WTO considerations. The article assesses the likely effectiveness of such trade-related measures in achieving climate change mitigation goals and the potential trade policy infringements and trade distortions that they might bring about. Alternative strategies for achieving GHG mitigation goals in closer conformity with WTO law and policy will be suggested.

  6. Neurophysiological investigation of idiopathic acquired auditory-visual synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Afra, Pegah; Anderson, Jeffrey; Funke, Michael; Johnson, Michael; Matsuo, Fumisuke; Constantino, Tawnya; Warner, Judith

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of acquired auditory-visual synesthesia and its neurophysiological investigation in a healthy 42-year-old woman. She started experiencing persistent positive and intermittent negative visual phenomena at age 37 followed by auditory-visual synesthesia. Her neurophysiological investigation included video-EEG, fMRI, and MEG. Auditory stimuli (700 Hz, 50 ms duration, 0.5 s ISI) were presented binaurally at 60 db above the hearing threshold in a dark room. The patient had bilateral symmetrical auditory-evoked neuromagnetic responses followed by an occipital-evoked field 16.3 ms later. The activation of occipital cortex following auditory stimuli may represent recruitment of existing cross-modal sensory pathways.

  7. Neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring of the glossopharyngeal nerve: technical case report.

    PubMed

    Husain, Aatif M; Wright, David R; Stolp, Bret W; Friedman, Allan H; Keifer, John C

    2008-10-01

    Neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring of the glossopharyngeal nerve has been performed only with needle electrodes inserted into the pharyngeal muscles or soft palate. We describe a noninvasive method of monitoring this cranial nerve. A 30-year-old man who presented with headache, as well as speech and swallowing difficulty, underwent surgical resection of a right vagus nerve schwannoma. Neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring of multiple lower cranial nerves, including the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, was performed. The glossopharyngeal nerve was monitored with an adhesive surface electrode mounted on the cuff of a laryngeal mask airway, and the vagus nerve was monitored with a similar electrode mounted on the endotracheal tube. Successful monitoring allowed separation of the glossopharyngeal nerve from the tumor, and there was no postoperative swallowing deficit. Monitoring of the glossopharyngeal nerve with surface electrodes is possible and reliable, but it must be combined with vagus nerve monitoring.

  8. [Neurophysiological mechanisms and effects of emotional regulation on time perception].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

    2016-08-25

    Time is an important element for cognitive processes. Timing and time perception have been investigated by neuroscientists and psychologists for many years. It is well accepted that emotions could alter our experience of time. Previous studies of the emotional modulation on temporal perception focus primarily on behavioral and psychological experiments. In recent years, studies about the neurophysiological mechanisms of time perception have made some progress. Therefore, researchers started to explore how emotions influence our sense of time on the aspects of neural networks, neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity. In this paper, we tried to review current studies about the effects of emotional regulation on time perception and the relevant neurophysiological mechanisms. This review will help us to deeply understand the neural mechanisms of time perception.

  9. Surge of neurophysiological coherence and connectivity in the dying brain

    PubMed Central

    Borjigin, Jimo; Lee, UnCheol; Liu, Tiecheng; Pal, Dinesh; Huff, Sean; Klarr, Daniel; Sloboda, Jennifer; Hernandez, Jason; Wang, Michael M.; Mashour, George A.

    2013-01-01

    The brain is assumed to be hypoactive during cardiac arrest. However, the neurophysiological state of the brain immediately following cardiac arrest has not been systematically investigated. In this study, we performed continuous electroencephalography in rats undergoing experimental cardiac arrest and analyzed changes in power density, coherence, directed connectivity, and cross-frequency coupling. We identified a transient surge of synchronous gamma oscillations that occurred within the first 30 s after cardiac arrest and preceded isoelectric electroencephalogram. Gamma oscillations during cardiac arrest were global and highly coherent; moreover, this frequency band exhibited a striking increase in anterior–posterior-directed connectivity and tight phase-coupling to both theta and alpha waves. High-frequency neurophysiological activity in the near-death state exceeded levels found during the conscious waking state. These data demonstrate that the mammalian brain can, albeit paradoxically, generate neural correlates of heightened conscious processing at near-death. PMID:23940340

  10. Sensory Processing in Autism: A Review of Neurophysiologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Elysa Jill; Hinkley, Leighton Barett Nicholas; Hill, Susanna Shan; Nagarajan, Srikantan Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Atypical sensory-based behaviors are a ubiquitous feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this article, we review the neural underpinnings of sensory processing in autism by reviewing the literature on neurophysiological responses to auditory, tactile, and visual stimuli in autistic individuals. We review studies of unimodal sensory processing and multi-sensory integration that use a variety of neuroimaging techniques, including: electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). We then explore the impact of covert and overt attention on sensory processing. With additional characterization, neurophysiologic profiles of sensory processing in ASD may serve as valuable biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic interventions for autism and reveal potential strategies and target brain regions for therapeutic interventions. PMID:21289533

  11. Nighttime instabilities of neurophysiological, cardiovascular, and respiratory activity: integrative modeling and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Shusterman, Vladimir; Troy, William C.; Abdelmessih, Medhat; Hoffman, Stacy; Nemec, Jan; Strollo, Patrick J.; London, Barry; Lampert, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Unstable (cyclical alternating pattern, or CAP) sleep is associated with surges of sympathetic nervous system activity, increased blood pressure and vasoconstriction, heightened baroreflex sensitivity, and unstable heart rhythm and breathing. In susceptible persons, CAP sleep provokes clinically significant events, including hypertensive crises, sleep-disordered breathing, and cardiac arrhythmias. Here we explore the neurophysiology of CAP sleep and its impact on cardiovascular and respiratory functions. We show that: (i) an increase in neurophysiological recovery rate can explain the emergence of slow, self-sustained, hypersynchronized A1 CAP-sleep pattern and its transition to the faster A2-A3 CAP-sleep patterns; (ii) in a two-dimensional, continuous model of cardiac tissue with heterogeneous action potential duration (APD) distribution, heart rate accelerations during CAP sleep may encounter incompletely recovered electrical excitability in cell clusters with longer APD. If the interaction between short cycle length and incomplete, spatially heterogeneous repolarization persists over multiple cycles, irregularities and asymmetry of depolarization front may accumulate and ultimately lead to a conduction block, retrograde conduction, breakup of activation waves, reentrant activity, and arrhythmias; and (iii) these modeling results are consistent with the nighttime data obtained from patients with structural heart disease (N=13) that show clusters of atrial and ventricular premature beats occurring during the periods of unstable heart rhythm and respiration that accompany CAP sleep. In these patients, CAP sleep is also accompanied by delayed adaptation of QT intervals and T-wave alternans. PMID:26341647

  12. Neurophysiological insights into the pathophysiology of REM sleep behavior disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Golaszewski, Stefan; Höller, Yvonne; Christova, Monica; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2013-07-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a clinical condition characterized by an intermittent or complete loss of muscle atonia and an increase of phasic muscular activity during REM sleep (or Stage R), leading to complex nocturnal motor behaviors. Correct and early diagnosis is important because RBD may lead to serious injuries and is a well-treatable disorder. Since the characteristic electrophysiologic finding in patients with RBD is the increased electromyographic tone during REM sleep/Stage R, simultaneous video/polysomnography recording is essential for diagnosing this parasomnia. Moreover, several neurophysiological techniques have been used to improve our knowledge and understanding of this troubling sleep disorder. We reviewed the most important studies employing quantitative electroencephalography, event-related potentials, transcranial magnetic stimulation, brainstem reflexes and cortico-muscular coherence analysis. All these neurophysiological techniques have proven to provide a valuable tool to gain insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying RBD. The review concludes with a brief discussion on the possible future implications for improving therapeutic approaches.

  13. Role of multimodal intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during positioning of patient prior to cervical spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Plata Bello, Julio; Pérez-Lorensu, Pedro Javier; Roldán-Delgado, Héctor; Brage, Liberto; Rocha, Verónica; Hernández-Hernández, Vanessa; Dóniz, Ayoze; García-Marín, Víctor

    2015-06-01

    To determine the use of multimodal intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) during positioning procedures in cervical spine surgery. IONM data was collected from 75 patients from the onset of positioning to the end of the surgical procedure. These included: transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEP), somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and free running electromyography (EMG) recordings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (PNV) were calculated. IONM warnings were given in 5 cases during neck positioning. These consisted of the disappearance of TcMEP in all the cases, while two cases showed a loss of SEPs as well. Four of these patients presented a complete recovery of TcMEP and SEPs after neck repositioning. The patient in which this recovery was not present, woke up with new postoperative neurological deficits. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of TcMEP during cervical positioning were all 100%. Sensitivity of SEPs was 40%; specificity and PPV were 100%; and the NPV of SEPs was 95.9%. Multimodal IONM is a useful method to prevent spinal cord injury during neck positioning in cervical spine surgical procedures. TcMEPs showed the highest sensitivity in detecting injuries to cervical spine related to neck positioning. Multimodal IONM should not only be considered for detecting intra-operative warnings, but also during positioning. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neurophysiology training in the Neurology Specialist Education Program in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Antigüedad, A; Matías-Guiu, J; Hernández-Pérez, M A; Jiménez Hernández, M D; Martín González, M R; Morales Ortiz, A; Delgado, G; Frank, A; López de Silanes, C; Martínez-Vila, E

    2011-06-01

    The training period in neurophysiology is a substantial part of the Neurology Specialist Program in Spain. The National Neurology Committee (La Comisión Nacional de Neurología (CNN), which is the body reporting to the Ministries of Health and Education, must ensure compliance to the Program. During the first trimester of 2008, the CNN sent a questionnaire, in which there was a question asking about this training period, to each of the managers of the 69 teaching units accredited for neurology training in Spain, for them to answer. Of the 69 questionnaires issued, 49 were received completed, which was a response rate of 71%. The neurophysiology training period of the neurology specialist program in Spain was carried out in the same hospital in 44 teaching unit (90%): the remaining 5 sent their neurology trainees to 4 different hospitals. The Unit that carried out the neurophysiology training period was incorporated into the Neurology Department in 27 (55%) cases, and the formula was mixed in 3 (6%). A total of 69% of tutors were satisfied with the training, but was 90% in the hospitals where the unit was integrated into Neurology, and was 65% where this relationship did not exist. The neurologists in training were informed about EEG in 49% of education units, performed EMG/ENG 57%, and informed about evoked potentials in 35% after their training period. Although the level of satisfaction is high, the level of responsibility assumed by the neurologists in training during their rotation into neurophysiology does not appear to comply to the demands laid out in the training program, particularly in these units not integrated into Neurology Departments. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurophysiologic Correlates of Post-stroke Mood and Emotional Control

    PubMed Central

    Doruk, Deniz; Simis, Marcel; Imamura, Marta; Brunoni, André R.; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Anghinah, Renato; Fregni, Felipe; Battistella, Linamara R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Emotional disturbance is a common complication of stroke significantly affecting functional recovery and quality of life. Identifying relevant neurophysiologic markers associated with post-stroke emotional disturbance may lead to a better understanding of this disabling condition, guiding the diagnosis, development of new interventions and the assessments of treatment response. Methods: Thirty-five subjects with chronic stroke were enrolled in this study. The emotion sub-domain of Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-Emotion) was used to assess post-stroke mood and emotional control. The relation between SIS-Emotion and neurophysiologic measures was assessed by using covariance mapping and univariate linear regression. Multivariate analyses were conducted to identify and adjust for potential confounders. Neurophysiologic measures included power asymmetry and coherence assessed by electroencephalography (EEG); and motor threshold, intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Results: Lower scores on SIS-Emotion was associated with (1) frontal EEG power asymmetry in alpha and beta bands, (2) central EEG power asymmetry in alpha and theta bands, and (3) lower inter-hemispheric coherence over frontal and central areas in alpha band. SIS-Emotion also correlated with higher ICF and MT in the unlesioned hemisphere as measured by TMS. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study using EEG and TMS to index neurophysiologic changes associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control. Our results suggest that inter-hemispheric imbalance measured by EEG power and coherence, as well as an increased ICF in the unlesioned hemisphere measured by TMS might be relevant markers associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control which can guide future studies investigating new diagnostic and treatment modalities in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:27625600

  16. Neurophysiological findings relevant to echolocation in marine animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, T. H.; Ridgway, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    A review of echolocation mechanisms in marine mammals, chiefly porpoises, is given. Data cover peripheral auditory and central neurophysiological specializations favorable to the analysis of echolocating clicks and their echoes. Conclusions show (1) signals are received from 50 up to at least 135 kHz, (2) sound is received through the mandible skin, and (3) the midbrain sites are insensitive to low frequencies (below 6 kHz).

  17. Mind the Brain: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Harty, Siobhán; Sella, Francesco; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2017-01-01

    Most studies involving experimental manipulations or interventions tailored to modulate behavior do not account for variability in the critical antecedent of behavior, the brain. Here, we describe elegant approaches to model the role that neurophysiology can play in mediating or moderating relationships in this context. We highlight the capacity for these approaches to improve the inferential power of research, bridge the gap between neural and behavioral levels of analysis, and bolster the prospects for reproducibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human skin wetness perception: psychophysical and neurophysiological bases

    PubMed Central

    Filingeri, Davide; Havenith, George

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perceive thermal changes in the surrounding environment is critical for survival. However, sensing temperature is not the only factor among the cutaneous sensations to contribute to thermoregulatory responses in humans. Sensing skin wetness (i.e. hygrosensation) is also critical both for behavioral and autonomic adaptations. Although much has been done to define the biophysical role of skin wetness in contributing to thermal homeostasis, little is known on the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning the ability to sense skin wetness. Humans are not provided with skin humidity receptors (i.e., hygroreceptors) and psychophysical studies have identified potential sensory cues (i.e. thermal and mechanosensory) which could contribute to sensing wetness. Recently, a neurophysiological model of human wetness sensitivity has been developed. In helping clarifying the peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved in sensing skin wetness, this model has provided evidence for the existence of a specific human hygrosensation strategy, which is underpinned by perceptual learning via sensory experience. Remarkably, this strategy seems to be shared by other hygroreceptor-lacking animals. However, questions remain on whether these sensory mechanisms are underpinned by specific neuromolecular pathways in humans. Although the first study on human wetness perception dates back to more than 100 years, it is surprising that the neurophysiological bases of such an important sensory feature have only recently started to be unveiled. Hence, to provide an overview of the current knowledge on human hygrosensation, along with potential directions for future research, this review will examine the psychophysical and neurophysiological bases of human skin wetness perception. PMID:27227008

  19. Neurophysiological indices of atypical auditory processing and multisensory integration are associated with symptom severity in autism.

    PubMed

    Brandwein, Alice B; Foxe, John J; Butler, John S; Frey, Hans-Peter; Bates, Juliana C; Shulman, Lisa H; Molholm, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Atypical processing and integration of sensory inputs are hypothesized to play a role in unusual sensory reactions and social-cognitive deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reports on the relationship between objective metrics of sensory processing and clinical symptoms, however, are surprisingly sparse. Here we examined the relationship between neurophysiological assays of sensory processing and (1) autism severity and (2) sensory sensitivities, in individuals with ASD aged 6-17. Multiple linear regression indicated significant associations between neural markers of auditory processing and multisensory integration, and autism severity. No such relationships were apparent for clinical measures of visual/auditory sensitivities. These data support that aberrant early sensory processing contributes to autism symptoms, and reveal the potential of electrophysiology to objectively subtype autism.

  20. Neurophysiological indices of atypical auditory processing and multisensory integration are associated with symptom severity in autism

    PubMed Central

    Brandwein, A.B.; Foxe, J.J.; Butler, J.S.; Frey, H.P.; Bates, J.C.; Shulman, L.; Molholm, S.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical processing and integration of sensory inputs are hypothesized to play a role in unusual sensory reactions and social-cognitive deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reports on the relationship between objective metrics of sensory processing and clinical symptoms, however, are surprisingly sparse. Here we examined the relationship between neurophysiological assays of sensory processing and 1) autism severity and 2) sensory sensitivities, in individuals with ASD aged 6–17. Multiple linear regression indicated significant associations between neural markers of auditory processing and multisensory integration, and autism severity. No such relationships were apparent for clinical measures of visual/auditory sensitivities. These data support that aberrant early sensory processing contributes to autism symptoms, and reveal the potential of electrophysiology to objectively subtype autism. PMID:25245785

  1. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Review of Available and Future Technology for Monitoring Treaty Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Rosenquist, A.; Milne, A. K.; Dobson, M. C.; Qi, J.

    2000-01-01

    An International workshop was held to address how remote sensing technology could be used to support the environmental monitoring requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. An overview of the issues addressed and the findings of the workshop are discussed.

  2. Measuring consciousness: relating behavioural and neurophysiological approaches

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Anil K.; Dienes, Zoltán; Cleeremans, Axel; Overgaard, Morten; Pessoa, Luiz

    2009-01-01

    The resurgent science of consciousness has been accompanied by a recent emphasis on the problem of measurement. Having dependable measures of consciousness is essential both for mapping experimental evidence to theory and for designing perspicuous experiments. Here, we review a series of behavioural and brain-based measures, assessing their ability to track graded consciousness and clarifying how they relate to each other by showing what theories are presupposed by each. We identify possible and actual conflicts among measures that can stimulate new experiments, and we conclude that measures must prove themselves by iteratively building knowledge in the context of theoretical frameworks. Advances in measuring consciousness have implications for basic cognitive neuroscience, for comparative studies of consciousness and for clinical applications. PMID:18606562

  3. Preterm EEG: a multimodal neurophysiological protocol.

    PubMed

    Stjerna, Susanna; Voipio, Juha; Metsäranta, Marjo; Kaila, Kai; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2012-02-18

    Since its introduction in early 1950s, electroencephalography (EEG) has been widely used in the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) for assessment and monitoring of brain function in preterm and term babies. Most common indications are the diagnosis of epileptic seizures, assessment of brain maturity, and recovery from hypoxic-ischemic events. EEG recording techniques and the understanding of neonatal EEG signals have dramatically improved, but these advances have been slow to penetrate through the clinical traditions. The aim of this presentation is to bring theory and practice of advanced EEG recording available for neonatal units. In the theoretical part, we will present animations to illustrate how a preterm brain gives rise to spontaneous and evoked EEG activities, both of which are unique to this developmental phase, as well as crucial for a proper brain maturation. Recent animal work has shown that the structural brain development is clearly reflected in early EEG activity. Most important structures in this regard are the growing long range connections and the transient cortical structure, subplate. Sensory stimuli in a preterm baby will generate responses that are seen at a single trial level, and they have underpinnings in the subplate-cortex interaction. This brings neonatal EEG readily into a multimodal study, where EEG is not only recording cortical function, but it also tests subplate function via different sensory modalities. Finally, introduction of clinically suitable dense array EEG caps, as well as amplifiers capable of recording low frequencies, have disclosed multitude of brain activities that have as yet been overlooked. In the practical part of this video, we show how a multimodal, dense array EEG study is performed in neonatal intensive care unit from a preterm baby in the incubator. The video demonstrates preparation of the baby and incubator, application of the EEG cap, and performance of the sensory stimulations.

  4. Neurophysiologic correlates of fMRI in human motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Dora; Miller, Kai J; Vansteensel, Mariska J; Aarnoutse, Erik J; Leijten, Frans S S; Ramsey, Nick F

    2012-07-01

    The neurophysiological underpinnings of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are not well understood. To understand the relationship between the fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal and neurophysiology across large areas of cortex, we compared task related BOLD change during simple finger movement to brain surface electric potentials measured on a similar spatial scale using electrocorticography (ECoG). We found that spectral power increases in high frequencies (65-95 Hz), which have been related to local neuronal activity, colocalized with spatially focal BOLD peaks on primary sensorimotor areas. Independent of high frequencies, decreases in low frequency rhythms (<30 Hz), thought to reflect an aspect of cortical-subcortical interaction, colocalized with weaker BOLD signal increase. A spatial regression analysis showed that there was a direct correlation between the amplitude of the task induced BOLD change on different areas of primary sensorimotor cortex and the amplitude of the high frequency change. Low frequency change explained an additional, different part of the spatial BOLD variance. Together, these spectral power changes explained a significant 36% of the spatial variance in the BOLD signal change (R(2) = 0.36). These results suggest that BOLD signal change is largely induced by two separate neurophysiological mechanisms, one being spatially focal neuronal processing and the other spatially distributed low frequency rhythms. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Memory formation during anaesthesia: plausibility of a neurophysiological basis

    PubMed Central

    Veselis, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    As opposed to conscious, personally relevant (explicit) memories that we can recall at will, implicit (unconscious) memories are prototypical of ‘hidden’ memory; memories that exist, but that we do not know we possess. Nevertheless, our behaviour can be affected by these memories; in fact, these memories allow us to function in an ever-changing world. It is still unclear from behavioural studies whether similar memories can be formed during anaesthesia. Thus, a relevant question is whether implicit memory formation is a realistic possibility during anaesthesia, considering the underlying neurophysiology. A different conceptualization of memory taxonomy is presented, the serial parallel independent model of Tulving, which focuses on dynamic information processing with interactions among different memory systems rather than static classification of different types of memories. The neurophysiological basis for subliminal information processing is considered in the context of brain function as embodied in network interactions. Function of sensory cortices and thalamic activity during anaesthesia are reviewed. The role of sensory and perisensory cortices, in particular the auditory cortex, in support of memory function is discussed. Although improbable, with the current knowledge of neurophysiology one cannot rule out the possibility of memory formation during anaesthesia. PMID:25735711

  6. Pain in trigeminal neuralgia: neurophysiology and measurement: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S; Rastogi, S; Kumar, S; Mahendra, P; Bansal, M; Chandra, L

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is defined as sudden, usually unilateral, severe, brief, stabbing recurrent episodes of pain within the distribution of one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve. It is the most frequent cranial neuralgia, the incidence being 1 per 1,000,00 persons per year. Pain attacks start abruptly and last several seconds but may persist 1 to 2 minutes. The attacks are initiated by non painful physical stimulation of specific areas (trigger points or zones) that are located ipsilateral to the pain. After each episode, there is usually a refractive period during which stimulation of the trigger zone will not induce the pain. According to the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) guidelines on neuropathic pain assessment and the American Academy of Neurology (AAN)-EFNS guidelines on TN management the neurophysiological recording of trigeminal reflexes represents the most useful and reliable test for the neurophysiological diagnosis of trigeminal pains. The present article discusses different techniques for investigation of the trigeminal system by which an accurate topographical diagnosis and profile of sensory fiber pathology can be determined. With the aid of neurophysiological recordings and quantitative sensory testing, it is possible to approach a mechanism-based classification of orofacial pain. PMID:24701256

  7. Memory formation during anaesthesia: plausibility of a neurophysiological basis.

    PubMed

    Veselis, R A

    2015-07-01

    As opposed to conscious, personally relevant (explicit) memories that we can recall at will, implicit (unconscious) memories are prototypical of 'hidden' memory; memories that exist, but that we do not know we possess. Nevertheless, our behaviour can be affected by these memories; in fact, these memories allow us to function in an ever-changing world. It is still unclear from behavioural studies whether similar memories can be formed during anaesthesia. Thus, a relevant question is whether implicit memory formation is a realistic possibility during anaesthesia, considering the underlying neurophysiology. A different conceptualization of memory taxonomy is presented, the serial parallel independent model of Tulving, which focuses on dynamic information processing with interactions among different memory systems rather than static classification of different types of memories. The neurophysiological basis for subliminal information processing is considered in the context of brain function as embodied in network interactions. Function of sensory cortices and thalamic activity during anaesthesia are reviewed. The role of sensory and perisensory cortices, in particular the auditory cortex, in support of memory function is discussed. Although improbable, with the current knowledge of neurophysiology one cannot rule out the possibility of memory formation during anaesthesia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Pain in trigeminal neuralgia: neurophysiology and measurement: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Rastogi, S; Kumar, S; Mahendra, P; Bansal, M; Chandra, L

    2013-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is defined as sudden, usually unilateral, severe, brief, stabbing recurrent episodes of pain within the distribution of one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve. It is the most frequent cranial neuralgia, the incidence being 1 per 1,000,00 persons per year. Pain attacks start abruptly and last several seconds but may persist 1 to 2 minutes. The attacks are initiated by non painful physical stimulation of specific areas (trigger points or zones) that are located ipsilateral to the pain. After each episode, there is usually a refractive period during which stimulation of the trigger zone will not induce the pain. According to the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) guidelines on neuropathic pain assessment and the American Academy of Neurology (AAN)-EFNS guidelines on TN management the neurophysiological recording of trigeminal reflexes represents the most useful and reliable test for the neurophysiological diagnosis of trigeminal pains. The present article discusses different techniques for investigation of the trigeminal system by which an accurate topographical diagnosis and profile of sensory fiber pathology can be determined. With the aid of neurophysiological recordings and quantitative sensory testing, it is possible to approach a mechanism-based classification of orofacial pain.

  9. Neurophysiological symptoms and aspartame: What is the connection?

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2017-02-15

    Aspartame (α-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine-o-methyl ester), an artificial sweetener, has been linked to behavioral and cognitive problems. Possible neurophysiological symptoms include learning problems, headache, seizure, migraines, irritable moods, anxiety, depression, and insomnia. The consumption of aspartame, unlike dietary protein, can elevate the levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid in the brain. These compounds can inhibit the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which are known regulators of neurophysiological activity. Aspartame acts as a chemical stressor by elevating plasma cortisol levels and causing the production of excess free radicals. High cortisol levels and excess free radicals may increase the brains vulnerability to oxidative stress which may have adverse effects on neurobehavioral health. We reviewed studies linking neurophysiological symptoms to aspartame usage and conclude that aspartame may be responsible for adverse neurobehavioral health outcomes. Aspartame consumption needs to be approached with caution due to the possible effects on neurobehavioral health. Whether aspartame and its metabolites are safe for general consumption is still debatable due to a lack of consistent data. More research evaluating the neurobehavioral effects of aspartame are required.

  10. Prevalence of spina bifida occulta in patients with functional disorders of the lower urinary tract and its relation to urodynamic and neurophysiological measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Fidas, A.; MacDonald, H. L.; Elton, R. A.; McInnes, A.; Wild, S. R.; Chisholm, G. D.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the relation between neurophysiological abnormalities and the radiological detection of spina bifida occulta in patients with dysfunction of the lower urinary tract. DESIGN--Blind assessment and subsequent decoding of mixed batch of abdominal radiographs from patients with and without urological symptoms for evidence of spina bifida occulta and comparison of results with those of previous control series. SETTING--Review study among tertiary referrals to an incontinence clinic of a city hospital. PATIENTS--One hundred and thirty eight adults with proved urodynamic abnormalities in whom neurophysiological measurements were available. INTERVENTIONS--None. END POINT--Correlation of neurophysiological abnormalities in lower urinary tract dysfunction with presence and type of spina bifida occulta and level of opening of posterior sacral arcs. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--On decoding radiographs those from patients without urological symptoms showed a similar prevalence of spina bifida occulta to that in the control series (631/2707 controls; 23%). By contrast, patients with urological symptoms had a significantly increased prevalence of spina bifida occulta at S1 and S2 and a higher level of opening of posterior sacral arcs. The increased prevalence of the bony defect was particularly striking in men with urgency and instability and in women with stress incontinence. No significant correlation was found between any particular neurophysiological abnormality and the presence of spina bifida. CONCLUSIONS--In patients with dysfunction of the lower urinary tract neurophysiological abnormalities may be associated with congenital dysraphic lesions in the lower lumbar spine and sacrum. There appears to be no direct causal relation between the radiological and neurophysiological abnormalities but the findings suggest a common aetiological factor. PMID:2493933

  11. Use of virtual slide system for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchihashi, Yasunari; Takamatsu, Terumasa; Hashimoto, Yukimasa; Takashima, Tooru; Nakano, Kooji; Fujita, Setsuya

    2008-01-01

    We started to use virtual slide (VS) and virtual microscopy (VM) systems for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan. In the system we used a digital slide scanner, VASSALO by CLARO Inc., and a broadband optic fibre provided by NTT West Japan Inc. with the best effort capacity of 100 Mbps. The client is the pathology laboratory of Yamashiro Public hospital, one of the local centre hospitals located in the south of Kyoto Prefecture, where a fulltime pathologist is not present. The client is connected by VPN to the telepathology centre of our institute located in central Kyoto. As a result of the recent 15 test cases of VS telepathology diagnosis, including cases judging negative or positive surgical margins, we could estimate the usefulness of VS in intra-operative remote diagnosis. The time required for the frozen section VS file making was found to be around 10 min when we use ×10 objective and if the maximal dimension of the frozen sample is less than 20 mm. Good correct focus of VS images was attained in all cases and all the fields of each tissue specimen. Up to now the capacity of best effort B-band appears to be sufficient to attain diagnosis on time in intra-operation. Telepathology diagnosis was achieved within 5 minutes in most cases using VS viewer provided by CLARO Inc. The VS telepathology system was found to be superior to the conventional still image telepathology system using a robotic microscope since in the former we can observe much greater image information than in the latter in a certain limited time of intra-operation and in the much more efficient ways. In the near future VS telepathology will replace conventional still image telepathology with a robotic microscope even in quick frozen intra-operative diagnosis. PMID:18673520

  12. Use of virtual slide system for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuchihashi, Yasunari; Takamatsu, Terumasa; Hashimoto, Yukimasa; Takashima, Tooru; Nakano, Kooji; Fujita, Setsuya

    2008-07-15

    We started to use virtual slide (VS) and virtual microscopy (VM) systems for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan. In the system we used a digital slide scanner, VASSALO by CLARO Inc., and a broadband optic fibre provided by NTT West Japan Inc. with the best effort capacity of 100 Mbps. The client is the pathology laboratory of Yamashiro Public Hospital, one of the local centre hospitals located in the south of Kyoto Prefecture, where a full-time pathologist is not present. The client is connected by VPN to the telepathology centre of our institute located in central Kyoto. As a result of the recent 15 test cases of VS telepathology diagnosis, including cases judging negative or positive surgical margins, we could estimate the usefulness of VS in intra-operative remote diagnosis. The time required for the frozen section VS file making was found to be around 10 min when we use x10 objective and if the maximal dimension of the frozen sample is less than 20 mm. Good correct focus of VS images was attained in all cases and all the fields of each tissue specimen. Up to now the capacity of best effort B-band appears to be sufficient to attain diagnosis on time in intra-operation. Telepathology diagnosis was achieved within 5 minutes in most cases using VS viewer provided by CLARO Inc. The VS telepathology system was found to be superior to the conventional still image telepathology system using a robotic microscope since in the former we can observe much greater image information than in the latter in a certain limited time of intra-operation and in the much more efficient ways. In the near future VS telepathology will replace conventional still image telepathology with a robotic microscope even in quick frozen intra-operative diagnosis.

  13. [Climatic change and public health: scenarios after the coming into force of the Kyoto Protocol].

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ferran; Díaz, Julio; Moreno, José Manuel

    2006-03-01

    According to the reports of the intergovernmental panel for climatic change (IPCC) human beings of the present and near future are going to experiment, in fact we are already experimenting, important changes in the world climate. Conscious of the magnitude of the problem, international organizations have taken a series of initiatives headed to stop the climatic change and to reduce its impact. This willingness has been shaped into the agreements established in the Kyoto protocol, where countries commit to reduce greenhouse-effect gas emissions. Kyoto protocol has come into force on February 16th 2005 with the support of 141 signing countries. Among the major worries are the effects which climatic change may have upon health, such as: 1) changes in the morbidity- mortality related to temperature; 2) Effects on health related with extreme meteorological events (tornados, storms, hurricanes and extreme raining); 3) Air pollution and increase of associated health effects; d) Diseases transmitted by food and water and 4) Infectious diseases transmitted by vectors and by rodents. Even if all the countries in the world committed to the Kyoto Protocol, some consequences of the climatic change will be inevitable; among them some will have a negative impact on health. It would be necessary to adapt a key response strategy to minimize the impacts of climatic change and to reduce, at minimum cost, its adverse effects on health. From the Public Health position, a relevant role can and must be played concerning the understanding of the risks for health of such climatic changes, the design of surveillance systems to evaluate possible impacts, and the establishment of systems to prevent or reduce damages as well as the identification and development of investigation needs.

  14. Shortened Conditioned Eyeblink Response Latency in Male but not Female Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Schachinger, Kira M.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in the volume of the cerebellum and impairments in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recently, it was reported that subjects with ADHD as well as male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a strain that is frequently employed as an animal model in the study of ADHD, exhibit a parallel pattern of timing deficits in eyeblink conditioning. One criticism that has been posed regarding the validity of the SHR strain as an animal model for the study of ADHD is that SHRs are not only hyperactive but also hypertensive. It is conceivable that many of the behavioral characteristics seen in SHRs that seem to parallel the behavioral symptoms of ADHD are not solely due to hyperactivity but instead are the net outcome of the interaction between hyperactivity and hypertension. We used Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) and Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) rats (males and females), strains generated from recombinant inbreeding of SHRs and their progenitor strain, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, to compare eyeblink conditioning in strains that are exclusively hyperactive or hypertensive. We used a long-delay eyeblink conditioning task in which a tone conditioned stimulus was paired with a periorbital stimulation unconditioned stimulus (750-ms delay paradigm). Our results showed that WKHA and WKHT rats exhibited similar rates of conditioned response (CR) acquisition. However, WKHA males displayed shortened CR latencies (early onset and peak latency) in comparison to WKHT males. In contrast, female WKHAs and WKHTs did not differ. In subsequent extinction training, WKHA rats extinguished at similar rates in comparison to WKHT rats. The current results support the hypothesis of a relationship between cerebellar abnormalities and ADHD in an animal model of ADHD-like symptoms that does not also exhibit hypertension, and suggest that cerebellar-related timing deficits are specific to males. PMID:19485572

  15. Music enhances spatial-temporal reasoning: towards a neurophysiological basis using EEG.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G L; Bodner, M

    1999-10-01

    Motivated by predictions from the structured trion model of the cortex, based on Mountcastle's columnar organizational principle, behavioral experiments have demonstrated a causal short-term enhancement of spatial-temporal reasoning in college students following listening to a Mozart Sonata (K.448) but not in control conditions. An EEG coherence study reported presence of right frontal and left temporoparietal activity induced by listening to the Mozart Sonata, which carried over into the spatial-temporal tasks in three of the seven subjects. In this paper, we present further predictions from the trion model and discuss how the new SYMMETRIC analysis method can be used in EEG recordings to help determine the neurophysiological basis of specific music enhancing spatial-temporal reasoning. We conclude with potential clinical applications of major significance.

  16. Reward Prediction Errors in Drug Addiction and Parkinson's Disease: from Neurophysiology to Neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    García-García, Isabel; Zeighami, Yashar; Dagher, Alain

    2017-06-01

    Surprises are important sources of learning. Cognitive scientists often refer to surprises as "reward prediction errors," a parameter that captures discrepancies between expectations and actual outcomes. Here, we integrate neurophysiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results addressing the processing of reward prediction errors and how they might be altered in drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. By increasing phasic dopamine responses, drugs might accentuate prediction error signals, causing increases in fMRI activity in mesolimbic areas in response to drugs. Chronic substance dependence, by contrast, has been linked with compromised dopaminergic function, which might be associated with blunted fMRI responses to pleasant non-drug stimuli in mesocorticolimbic areas. In Parkinson's disease, dopamine replacement therapies seem to induce impairments in learning from negative outcomes. The present review provides a holistic overview of reward prediction errors across different pathologies and might inform future clinical strategies targeting impulsive/compulsive disorders.

  17. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: neurophysiology, information processing, arousal and drug development.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Donald L; Hermens, Daniel F

    2006-11-01

    In this review, we draw on literature from both animal and human neurophysiological studies to consider the neurochemical mechanisms underlying attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychophysiological and neuropsychological research is used to propose possible etiological endophenotypes of ADHD. These are conceptualized as patients with distinct cortical-arousal, information-processing or maturational abnormalities, or a combination thereof, and how the endophenotypes can be used to help drug development and optimize treatment and management. To illustrate, the paper focuses on neuro- and psychophysiological evidence that suggests cholinergic mechanisms may underlie specific information-processing abnormalities that occur in ADHD. The clinical implications for a cholinergic hypothesis of ADHD are considered, along with its possible implications for treatment and pharmacological development.

  18. SWIMMY: Free Software for Teaching Neurophysiology of Neuronal Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Krasne, Franklin B.

    2008-01-01

    To circumvent the many problems in teaching neurophysiology as a “wet lab,” we developed SWIMMY, a virtual fish that swims by moving its virtual tail by means of a virtual neural circuit. SWIMMY diminishes the need for expensive equipment, troubleshooting, and manual skills that require practice. Also, SWIMMY effectively replaces live preparations, which some students find objectionable. Using SWIMMY, students (1) review the basics of neurophysiology, (2) identify the neurons in the circuit, (3) ascertain the neurons’ synaptic interconnections, (4) discover which cells generate the motor pattern of swimming, (5) discover how the rhythm is generated, and finally (6) use an animation that corresponds to the activity of the motoneurons to discover the behavioral effects produced by various lesions and explain them in terms of their neural underpinnings. SWIMMY is a genuine inquiry-based exercise producing data that requires individual thought and interpretation. It is neither a cookbook exercise nor a demonstration. We have used SWIMMY for several terms with great success. SWIMMY solidifies students’ understanding of material learned in traditional lecture courses because they must apply the concepts. Student ratings of SWIMMY have been very positive, particularly ratings from students who have also been exposed to a “wet” neurophysiology lab. Because SWIMMY requires only computers for implementation and makes minimal demands on instructional resources, it provides for a great deal of flexibility. Instructors could use SWIMMY as part of a traditional lab course, as a classroom exercise, in distance learning, or in blended instructional formats (internet with classroom). SWIMMY is now available for free online complete with student and instructor manuals at http://mdcune.psych.ucla.edu. PMID:23492869

  19. [Developments in neurophysiology in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Hess, C W

    1994-04-19

    The rise of neurophysiology in the 19th century was kindled by Luigi Aloysius Galvani's revolutionary claim for animal electricity at the end of the preceding century. He was first challenged by Allessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta who showed that the muscle twitch in Galvani's experiment was the result of electric stimulation rather than of an enabled biological current. The controversy between Galvani and Volta became a predominant and stimulating issue among the scientists of the early century and found its ultimate elucidation only 40 years later by the pioneering work of Carlo Matteucci of Pisa and Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond of Berlin, who both deserve the reknown as founders of modern neurophysiology. As the first influential promoter and mastermind of the experimental physiology, François Magendie of Paris primarily investigated the nervous system and inaugurated the lesion experiments to clarify specific functions of neural structures. Johannes Müller founded the German school of physiology with its eminent neurophysiological offspring: Du Bois-Reymond, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, and Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Pflüger. It was Helmholtz's merit to have for the first time precisely assessed the motor conduction velocity by measuring the time interval between two different stimulation sites of the sciatic nerve of the frog. In their brilliant work published in 1870 Gustav Theodor Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig demonstrated that appropriately located focal electrical stimulation of the exposed cortex of dogs induces movement of the contralateral limbs and unequivocally disproved the then prevailing dogma of holistic capacity of the hemispheres, which denied localised functions within the cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Neurophysiologic effect of GWAS derived schizophrenia and bipolar risk variants.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mei-Hua; Levy, Deborah L; Salisbury, Dean F; Haddad, Steve; Gallagher, Patience; Lohan, Mary; Cohen, Bruce; Ongür, Dost; Smoller, Jordan W

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as disease associated variants for schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BPD), or both. Although these results are statistically robust, the functional effects of these variants and their role in the pathophysiology of SCZ or BPD remain unclear. Dissecting the effects of risk genes on distinct domains of brain function can provide important biological insights into the mechanisms by which these genes may confer illness risk. This study used quantitative event related potentials to characterize the neurophysiological effects of well-documented GWAS-derived SCZ/BPD susceptibility variants in order to map gene effects onto important domains of brain function. We genotyped 199 patients with DSM-IV diagnoses of SCZ or BPD and 74 healthy control subjects for 19 risk SNPs derived from previous GWAS findings and tested their association with five neurophysiologic traits (P3 amplitude, P3 latency, N1 amplitude, P2 amplitude, and P50 sensory gating responses) known to be abnormal in psychosis. The TCF4 SNP rs17512836 risk allele showed a significant association with reduced auditory P3 amplitude (P = 0.00016) after correction for multiple testing. The same allele was also associated with delayed P3 latency (P = 0.005). Our results suggest that a SCZ risk variant in TCF4 is associated with neurophysiologic traits thought to index attention and working memory abnormalities in psychotic disorders. These findings suggest a mechanism by which TCF4 may contribute to the neurobiological basis of psychotic illness.

  1. High contrast neutron radiography with optical devices in Kyoto University reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Y.; Nakano, T.; Hino, M.; Sunohara, H.; Matsushima, U.; Takenaka, N.

    2004-08-01

    The high-contrast neutron radiography has been performed at a VCN guide (VCN) and a supermirror cold neutron guide (CN-3) in Kyoto University Reactor. The large absorption cross-section of very low-energy neutrons can show a slight change of sample which thermal neutrons can not show. The effectiveness is shown in the fields of botany, agriculture and industrial researches. A new spectrum change option using high Qc supermirror ( m=4) is attached. It can change the upper limit of the energy of exposure neutrons by reflections, and gives a high flexibility of the experimental condition.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of organic waste in Japan: the first demonstration plant at Kyoto City.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, T; Kimura, T; Kuriyama, Y; Isshiki, Y; Kawano, T; Hirao, T; Masuda, M; Yokoyama, K; Matsumoto, T; Takeda, M

    2002-01-01

    Recycling of Municipal Solid Waste is vigorously promoted in Japan and the necessity of energy recovery from organic waste is increasing. An anaerobic digestion demonstration plant for organic waste in Kyoto City, Japan has been operated for about two years. Three kinds of wastes (garbage and leftovers from hotels, yard waste and used paper) mixed at various ratios are used. The plant has maintained stable operations with each mixture, generating biogas by the decomposition of VS at the rate of about 820 m3N/ton-VS.

  3. Neurophysiological evaluation of the pedunculopontine nucleus in humans.

    PubMed

    Profice, P; Mazzone, P; Pilato, F; Dileone, M; Insola, A; Ranieri, F; Di Lazzaro, V

    2011-10-01

    The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPTg) is constituted by a heterogeneous cluster of neurons located in caudal mesencephalic tegmentum which projects to the thalamus to trigger thalamocortical rhythms and the brainstem to modulate muscle tone and locomotion. It has been investigated as potential deep brain stimulation (DBS) target for treating Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms. Neurophysiological studies conducted in humans using DBS electrodes for exploring functional properties of PPTg in vivo, reviewed in this paper, demonstrated that the functional connections between PPTg and cortex, basal ganglia, brainstem network involved in sleep/wake control, and spinal cord can be explored in vivo and provided useful insights about the physiology of this nucleus and pathophysiology of PD.

  4. [Neurophysiological study of propofol (2-6 diisopropylphenol): experimental data].

    PubMed

    Emperaire-Le Pouleuf, N; Planche, D; Ottomani, A; Vuillon-Cacciuttolo, G; Dejode, J M; Delmoral, B; Manelli, J C; Bimar, J

    1990-01-01

    Propofol was assessed in laboratory animals using an experimental technique which leads to an over all appreciation of central nervous system function. After Bimar and Naquet, (1966) a battery of neurophysiological tests in the cat investigate specific primary pathways (visual evoked potentials), non specific pathways (arousal reaction) and hemodynamic response to painful aggression (stimulation of dentine). Propofol appears to be a powerful narco-hypnotic drug. More, it have an original property which is quite rapidly effective and unconnected with narcosis: a protective hemodynamic ("sympathoplegic or neuroleptic") effect. So, propofol, a new anesthetic agent, seems to be a progress with regard to other drugs used previously.

  5. Intraoperative neurophysiology in deep brain surgery for psychogenic dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Vesper Fe Marie L; Pillai, Ajay S; Lungu, Codrin; Ostrem, Jill; Starr, Philip; Hallett, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic dystonia is a challenging entity to diagnose and treat because little is known about its pathophysiology. We describe two cases of psychogenic dystonia who underwent deep brain stimulation when thought to have organic dystonia. The intraoperative microelectrode recordings in globus pallidus internus were retrospectively compared with those of five patients with known DYT1 dystonia using spontaneous discharge parameters of rate and bursting, as well as movement-related discharges. Our data suggest that simple intraoperative neurophysiology measures in single subjects do not differentiate psychogenic dystonia from DYT1 dystonia. PMID:26125045

  6. Neurophysiological assessment of Alzheimer's disease individuals by a single electroencephalographic marker.

    PubMed

    Lizio, Roberta; Del Percio, Claudio; Marzano, Nicola; Soricelli, Andrea; Yener, Görsev G; Başar, Erol; Mundi, Ciro; De Rosa, Salvatore; Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Ferri, Raffaele; Arnaldi, Dario; Nobili, Flavio Mariano; Cordone, Susanna; Lopez, Susanna; Carducci, Filippo; Santi, Giulia; Gesualdo, Loreto; Rossini, Paolo M; Cavedo, Enrica; Mauri, Margherita; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Babiloni, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Here we presented a single electroencephalographic (EEG) marker for a neurophysiological assessment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients already diagnosed by current guidelines. The ability of the EEG marker to classify 127 AD individuals and 121 matched cognitively intact normal elderly (Nold) individuals was tested. Furthermore, its relationship to AD patients' cognitive status and structural brain integrity was examined. Low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) freeware estimated cortical sources of resting state eyes-closed EEG rhythms. The EEG marker was defined as the ratio between the activity of parieto-occipital cortical sources of delta (2-4 Hz) and low-frequency alpha (8-10.5 Hz) rhythms. Results showed 77.2% of sensitivity in the recognition of the AD individuals; 65% of specificity in the recognition of the Nold individuals; and 0.75 of area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve. Compared to the AD subgroup with the EEG maker within one standard deviation of the Nold mean (EEG-), the AD subgroup with EEG+ showed lower global cognitive status, as revealed by Mini-Mental State Evaluation score, and more abnormal values of white-matter and cerebrospinal fluid normalized volumes, as revealed by structural magnetic resonance imaging. We posit that cognitive and functional status being equal, AD patients with EEG+ should receive special clinical attention due to a neurophysiological "frailty". EEG+ label can be also used in clinical trials (i) to form homogeneous groups of AD patients diagnosed by current guidelines and (ii) as end-point to evaluate intervention effects.

  7. A preliminary study of volatile agents or total intravenous anesthesia for neurophysiological monitoring during posterior spinal fusion in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Martin, David P; Bhalla, Tarun; Thung, Arlyne; Rice, Julie; Beebe, Allan; Samora, Walter; Klamar, Jan; Tobias, Joseph D

    2014-10-15

    A prospective randomized controlled trial. The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare the efficacy of neurophysiological monitoring during general anesthesia with either a total intravenous technique or with the volatile anesthetic agent, desflurane. A total intravenous anesthetic technique is generally chosen when neurophysiological monitoring is used as it has been shown to facilitate such monitoring. Despite this, with prolonged infusions of propofol, prolonged awakening times may be seen, which may impact the time required for postoperative neurological assessment or more importantly result in significant delays, should a wake-up test become necessary. To date, there are no prospective trials comparing intravenous techniques with a volatile agent-based anesthetic technique and its effects on neurophysiological monitoring. This prospective study compares somatosensory evoked potential and motor evoked potential monitoring during posterior spinal fusion in 30 adolescents. The patients were randomized to receive a total intravenous technique with propofol-remifentanil or a volatile agent-based technique with desflurane-remifentanil. The groups were similar with regard to age, weight, height, body mass index, Cobb angle, and distribution of Lenke classifications. No differences were noted in anesthesia time, surgery time, intraoperative fluids, or estimated blood loss between the 2 groups. Time to eye opening, time to following commands, and time to tracheal extubation were shorter in the volatile anesthesia group than the total intravenous anesthesia group. No clinically significant difference was noted in the amplitude or latency of somatosensory evoked potential monitoring. Although statistically significantly greater voltage amplitude was required to generate a motor evoked potential, the voltage amount was within a clinically acceptable range. Our data demonstrate that a volatile agent-based anesthetic regimen is feasible even during

  8. Impacts of the Kyoto protocol on U.S. energy markets and economic activity

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program in 1988 to assess the available scientific, technical, and socioeconomic information in the field of climate change. The most recent report of the IPCC concluded that ``Our ability to quantify the human influence on global climate is currently limited because the expected signal is still emerging from the noise of natural variability, and because there are uncertainties in key factors. These include the magnitudes and patterns of long-term variability and the time-evolving pattern of forcing by, and response to, changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and land surface changes. Nevertheless the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernible human influence on global climate. The first and second Conference of the Parties in 1995 and 1996 agreed to address the issue of greenhouse gas emissions for the period beyond 2000, and to negotiate quantified emission limitations and reductions for the third Conference of the Parties. On December 1 through 11, 1997, representatives from more than 160 countries met in Kyoto, Japan, to negotiate binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for developed nations. The resulting Kyoto Protocol established emissions targets for each of the participating developed countries--the Annex 1 countries--relative to their 1990 emissions levels. 114 refs., 138 figs., 33 tabs.

  9. Mental Health Problems among Undergraduates in Fukushima, Tokyo, and Kyoto after the March 11 Tohoku Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Motoya, Ryo; Sasagawa, Satoko; Takahashi, Takahito; Okajima, Isa; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Essau, Cecilia A

    2015-06-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake devastated the Tohoku region, which led to a tsunami and a nuclear disaster. While these three disasters caused tremendous physical damage, their psychological impact remains unclear. The present study evaluated traumatic responses, internalizing (i.e., anxiety and depression), and externalizing (i.e., anger) symptoms among Japanese young people in the immediate aftermath and 2.5 years later. A total of 435 undergraduates were recruited from universities in three differentially exposed regions: Fukushima, Tokyo, and Kyoto. They completed a set of questionnaires retrospectively (i.e., September to December 2013) to measure their traumatic responses, anxiety and depressive symptoms, functional impairment, and anger immediately after the disaster and 2.5 years later. Participants in Tokyo had the highest level of traumatic response and internalizing symptoms immediately after the earthquake, whereas those in Fukushima had significantly higher levels of trait anger, anger-in (holding one's anger in), and anger-out (expressing one's anger externally). In Kyoto, the levels of anxiety and depression after 2.5 years were significantly higher than they were immediately after the disasters. In conclusion, anger symptoms were high among young people who lived at or near the center of the disasters, while anxiety and depression were high among those who lived far away from the disasters. These findings suggest the importance of providing mental health services to young people who did not live near the disaster area as well as to those living in the directly affected area.

  10. Cerebellar structure and function in male Wistar-Kyoto hyperactive rats.

    PubMed

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T

    2013-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, male WKHAs emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in male WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone conditional stimulus (CS) or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs, and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC.

  11. Cerebellar Structure and Function in Male Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, WKHA emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone CS or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC. PMID:23398437

  12. Detection of rickettsial DNA in ticks and wild boars in Kyoto City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Someya, Azusa; Ito, Ryuki; Maeda, Akihiko; Ikenaga, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The tick is a well-known vector for arthropod-borne pathogens, such as tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, Japanese spotted fever and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. It is therefore important to know the tick population and distribution in our environment and wild animals in order to prevent tick-borne diseases. Here, we report the results of tick surveillance from May to September 2011 at 14 geographical points and in 5 wild boars in Kyoto City, Kyoto prefecture, Japan. We collected 3,198 ticks comprising 5 tick species, Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis, H. flava, H. kitaokai, Amblyomma testudinarium and Dermacentor taiwanensis. Interestingly, the proportion of tick species varied according to geographical region within the city. The ticks collected in the city were reported as potential vectors of pathogens, such as rickettsiosis. We detected rickettsial DNA by PCR in 71.1% of 201 ticks investigated. The ticks that carried rickettsiae were distributed across the whole the city. The sequences of PCR-amplified DNA fragments were determined and showed similarities to spotted fever group rickettsiae. Although their pathogenicity for animals including humans is still unclear, it is important to stay alert and pay attention to tick-borne diseases in order to ensure the safety of the citizens of the city as well as that of visitors.

  13. Early neurophysiological indices of second language morphosyntax learning.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Jeff; Shtyrov, Yury; Williams, John; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-02-01

    Humans show variable degrees of success in acquiring a second language (L2). In many cases, morphological and syntactic knowledge remain deficient, although some learners succeed in reaching nativelike levels, even if they begin acquiring their L2 relatively late. In this study, we use psycholinguistic, online language proficiency tests and a neurophysiological index of syntactic processing, the syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) to local agreement violations, to compare behavioural and neurophysiological markers of grammar processing between native speakers (NS) of English and non-native speakers (NNS). Variable grammar proficiency was measured by psycholinguistic tests. When NS heard ungrammatical word sequences lacking agreement between subject and verb (e.g. *we kicks), the MMN was enhanced compared with syntactically legal sentences (e.g. he kicks). More proficient NNS also showed this difference, but less proficient NNS did not. The main cortical sources of the MMN responses were localised in bilateral superior temporal areas, where, crucially, source strength of grammar-related neuronal activity correlated significantly with grammatical proficiency of individual L2 speakers as revealed by the psycholinguistic tests. As our results show similar, early MMN indices to morpho-syntactic agreement violations among both native speakers and non-native speakers with high grammar proficiency, they appear consistent with the use of similar brain mechanisms for at least certain aspects of L1 and L2 grammars. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Early neurophysiological indices of second language morphosyntax learning

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Jeff; Shtyrov, Yury; Williams, John; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Humans show variable degrees of success in acquiring a second language (L2). In many cases, morphological and syntactic knowledge remain deficient, although some learners succeed in reaching nativelike levels, even if they begin acquiring their L2 relatively late. In this study, we use psycholinguistic, online language proficiency tests and a neurophysiological index of syntactic processing, the syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) to local agreement violations, to compare behavioural and neurophysiological markers of grammar processing between native speakers (NS) of English and non-native speakers (NNS). Variable grammar proficiency was measured by psycholinguistic tests. When NS heard ungrammatical word sequences lacking agreement between subject and verb (e.g. *we kicks), the MMN was enhanced compared with syntactically legal sentences (e.g. he kicks). More proficient NNS also showed this difference, but less proficient NNS did not. The main cortical sources of the MMN responses were localised in bilateral superior temporal areas, where, crucially, source strength of grammar-related neuronal activity correlated significantly with grammatical proficiency of individual L2 speakers as revealed by the psycholinguistic tests. As our results show similar, early MMN indices to morpho-syntactic agreement violations among both native speakers and non-native speakers with high grammar proficiency, they appear consistent with the use of similar brain mechanisms for at least certain aspects of L1 and L2 grammars. PMID:26752451

  15. Linking Behavioral and Neurophysiological Indicators of Perceptual Tuning to Language

    PubMed Central

    Fava, Eswen; Hull, Rachel; Bortfeld, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the neural mechanisms that underlie tuning to the native language(s) in early infancy. Here we review language tuning through the lens of type and amount of language experience and introduce a new manner in which to conceptualize the phenomenon of language tuning: the relative speed of tuning hypothesis. This hypothesis has as its goal a characterization of the unique time course of the tuning process, given the different components (e.g., phonology, prosody, syntax, semantics) of one or more languages as they become available to infants, and biologically based maturational constraints. In this review, we first examine the established behavioral findings and integrate more recent neurophysiological data on neonatal development, which together demonstrate evidence of early language tuning given differential language exposure even in utero. Next, we examine traditional accounts of sensitive and critical periods to determine how these constructs complement current data on the neural mechanisms underlying language tuning. We then synthesize the extant infant behavioral and neurophysiological data on monolingual, bilingual, and sensory deprived tuning, thereby scrutinizing the effect of these three different language profiles on the specific timing, progression, and outcome of language tuning. Finally, we discuss future directions researchers might pursue to further understand this aspect of language development, advocating our relative speed of tuning hypothesis as a useful framework for conceptualizing the complex process by which language experience works together with biological constraints to shape language development. PMID:21866226

  16. Current Concepts in the Neurophysiologic Basis of Sleep; a Review

    PubMed Central

    Ezenwanne, EB

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sleep is a very vital physiological mechanism, which involves complex interactions in the nervous system. These interactions are not well understood and have been a subject of controversy in contemporary medical practice. Objectives: To review of the neurophysiological factors in the subject of sleep, and recent research findings that forms the basis for the current knowledge on sleep. Methods: Information sources consulted included, published works of past researchers, current articles on sleep in conference papers, recent editions of textbooks on neuroscience, articles in seminar papers, reports extracted from newspaper and magazine articles on sleep, reports accessed from the Internet using Google Search Engines and lecture notes. Results: It was noted that emphasis has now shifted from the concept that sleep was predominantly the product of activities in the neural systems in phylogenetically old reticular core of the brain through withdrawal of sensory input, to emphasis on the role of neurotransmitter systems, especially - Ach, serotonin and GABA. This review also noted that, among others, emphasis is further shifting to the PGO waves which is fast gaining prominence as the mechanism involved in the production of REM sleep and dreams in particular. Conclusion: It became obvious from this review, that full knowledge of the neurophysiological processes involved in sleep production appear generally to still be more of speculative, and are yet far from full understanding. PMID:23209972

  17. Aspartame: neuropsychologic and neurophysiologic evaluation of acute and chronic effects.

    PubMed

    Spiers, P A; Sabounjian, L; Reiner, A; Myers, D K; Wurtman, J; Schomer, D L

    1998-09-01

    Neurobehavioral symptoms have been reported anecdotally with aspartame. This study sought to determine whether aspartame can disrupt cognitive, neurophysiologic, or behavioral functioning in normal individuals. Forty-eight healthy volunteers completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. The first month was aspartame free. Subjects then consumed sodas and capsules with placebo, aspartame, or sucrose for 20 d each. Order was randomized and subjects were assigned to either a high- (45 mg x kg body wt(-1) x d(-1)) or low- (15 mg x kg body wt(-1) x d(-1)) dose aspartame group. Neuropsychologic and laboratory testing was done on day 10 of each treatment period to determine possible acute effects and on day 20 for possible chronic effects. Plasma phenylalanine concentrations increased significantly during aspartame treatment. Neuropsychologic results; adverse experiences; amino acid, insulin, and glucose values; and electroencephalograms were compared by sex and by treatment. No significant differences were found for any dependent measure. Large daily doses of aspartame had no effect on neuropsychologic, neurophysiologic, or behavioral functioning in healthy young adults.

  18. Action Priority: Early Neurophysiological Interaction of Conceptual and Motor Representations

    PubMed Central

    Koester, Dirk; Schack, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Handling our everyday life, we often react manually to verbal requests or instruction, but the functional interrelations of motor control and language are not fully understood yet, especially their neurophysiological basis. Here, we investigated whether specific motor representations for grip types interact neurophysiologically with conceptual information, that is, when reading nouns. Participants performed lexical decisions and, for words, executed a grasp-and-lift task on objects of different sizes involving precision or power grips while the electroencephalogram was recorded. Nouns could denote objects that require either a precision or a power grip and could, thus, be (in)congruent with the performed grasp. In a control block, participants pointed at the objects instead of grasping them. The main result revealed an event-related potential (ERP) interaction of grip type and conceptual information which was not present for pointing. Incongruent compared to congruent conditions elicited an increased positivity (100–200 ms after noun onset). Grip type effects were obtained in response-locked analyses of the grasping ERPs (100–300 ms at left anterior electrodes). These findings attest that grip type and conceptual information are functionally related when planning a grasping action but such an interaction could not be detected for pointing. Generally, the results suggest that control of behaviour can be modulated by task demands; conceptual noun information (i.e., associated action knowledge) may gain processing priority if the task requires a complex motor response. PMID:27973539

  19. The neurophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    di Michele, Flavia; Prichep, Leslie; John, E Roy; Chabot, Robert J

    2005-10-01

    Recent reviews of the neurobiology of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) have concluded that there is no single pathophysiological profile underlying this disorder. Certainly, dysfunctions in the frontal/subcortical pathways that control attention and motor behavior are implicated. However, no diagnostic criteria or behavioral/neuroimaging techniques allow a clear discrimination among subtypes within this disorder, especially when problems with learning are also considered. Two major Quantitative EEG (QEEG) subtypes have been found to characterize AD/HD. Here we review the major findings in the neurophysiology of AD/HD, focusing on QEEG, and briefly present our previous findings using a source localization technique called Variable Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (VARETA). These two techniques represent a possible objective method to identify specific patterns corresponding to EEG-defined subtypes of AD/HD. We then propose a model representing the distribution of the neural generators in these two major AD/HD subtypes, localized within basal ganglia and right anterior cortical regions, and hippocampal, para-hippocampal and temporal cortical regions, respectively. A comprehensive review of neurochemical, genetic, neuroimaging, pharmacological and neuropsychological evidence in support of this model is then presented. These results indicate the value of the neurophysiological model of AD/HD and support the involvement of different neuroanatomical systems, particularly the dopaminergic pathways.

  20. Action Priority: Early Neurophysiological Interaction of Conceptual and Motor Representations.

    PubMed

    Koester, Dirk; Schack, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Handling our everyday life, we often react manually to verbal requests or instruction, but the functional interrelations of motor control and language are not fully understood yet, especially their neurophysiological basis. Here, we investigated whether specific motor representations for grip types interact neurophysiologically with conceptual information, that is, when reading nouns. Participants performed lexical decisions and, for words, executed a grasp-and-lift task on objects of different sizes involving precision or power grips while the electroencephalogram was recorded. Nouns could denote objects that require either a precision or a power grip and could, thus, be (in)congruent with the performed grasp. In a control block, participants pointed at the objects instead of grasping them. The main result revealed an event-related potential (ERP) interaction of grip type and conceptual information which was not present for pointing. Incongruent compared to congruent conditions elicited an increased positivity (100-200 ms after noun onset). Grip type effects were obtained in response-locked analyses of the grasping ERPs (100-300 ms at left anterior electrodes). These findings attest that grip type and conceptual information are functionally related when planning a grasping action but such an interaction could not be detected for pointing. Generally, the results suggest that control of behaviour can be modulated by task demands; conceptual noun information (i.e., associated action knowledge) may gain processing priority if the task requires a complex motor response.

  1. Neurophysiological Endophenotypes of Schizophrenia: The Viability of Selected Candidate Measures

    PubMed Central

    Turetsky, Bruce I.; Calkins, Monica E.; Light, Gregory A.; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D.; Swerdlow, Neal R.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to reveal susceptibility genes, schizophrenia research has turned to the endophenotype strategy. Endophenotypes are characteristics that reflect the actions of genes predisposing an individual to a disorder, even in the absence of diagnosable pathology. Individual endophenotypes are presumably determined by fewer genes than the more complex phenotype of schizophrenia and would, therefore, reduce the complexity of genetic analyses. Unfortunately, despite there being rational criteria to define a viable endophenotype, the term is sometimes applied indiscriminately to characteristics that are deviant in affected individuals. Schizophrenia patients exhibit deficits in several neurophysiological measures of information processing that have been proposed as candidate endophenotypes. Successful processing of sensory inputs requires the ability to inhibit intrinsic responses to redundant stimuli and, reciprocally, to facilitate responses to less frequent salient stimuli. There is evidence to suggest that both these processes are “impaired” in schizophrenia. Measures of inhibitory failure include prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex, P50 auditory evoked potential suppression, and antisaccade eye movements. Measures of impaired deviance detection include mismatch negativity and the P300 event-related potential. The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate the endophenotype candidacy of these key neurophysiological abilities. For each candidate, we describe typical experimental procedures, the current understanding of the underlying neurobiology, the nature of the abnormality in schizophrenia, the reliability, stability and heritability of the measure, and any reported gene associations. We conclude with a discussion of the few studies thus far that have employed a multivariate approach with these candidates. PMID:17135482

  2. Anxiety- and depressive-like profiles during early- and mid-adolescence in the female Wistar Kyoto rat.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Deepthi; Sadananda, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Approaches for the development of preclinical models of depression extensively use adult and male animals owing to the discrepancies arising out of the hormonal flux in adult females and adolescents during attainment of puberty. Thus the increased vulnerability of females towards clinical depression and anxiety-related disorders remains incompletely understood. Development of clinical models of depression in adolescent females is essential in order to evolve effective treatment strategies for adolescent depression. In the present study, we have examined the anxiety and depressive-like profiles in a putative animal model of childhood depression, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, during early adolescence (∼postnatal day 30) and mid-adolescence (∼postnatal day 40). Female adolescent WKY rats, tested on a series of behavioural tests modelling anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours with age-matched Wistars as controls, demonstrated marked differences during early adolescence in a strain- and age-specific manner. Anxiety indices were obtained from exposure to the elevated plus maze, where social communication vide 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations was also assessed, while immobility and other parameters in the forced swim test were screened for depressive-like profiles. Sucrose preference, used as a measure of anhedonia in animals, was lower in WKYs at both ages tested and decreased with age. Anxiety-related behaviours were prominent in WKY rats only during early adolescence. WKY female rats are anxious during early adolescence and exhibit anhedonia as a core symptom of depression during early- and mid-adolescence, thus indicating that inclusion of female animals in preclinical trials is essential and will contribute to gender-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment of adolescent depression in females. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion (from the CREDO-Kyoto registry cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Erika; Natsuaki, Masahiro; Morimoto, Takeshi; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Ono, Koh; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Doi, Osamu; Tamura, Takashi; Tanaka, Masaru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2013-09-15

    Despite improving success rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions, the clinical benefit of recanalization of CTO is still a matter of debate. Of 13,087 patients who underwent PCI in the CREDO-Kyoto registry cohort-2, 1,524 patients received PCI for CTO (CTO-PCI). Clinical outcomes were compared between 1,192 patients with successful CTO-PCI and 332 patients with failed CTO-PCI. In-hospital death tended to occur less frequently in the successful CTO-PCI group than in the failed CTO-PCI group (1.4% vs 3.0%, p = 0.053). Through 3-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of all-cause death was not significantly different between the successful and failed CTO-PCI groups (9.0% vs 13.1%, p = 0.18), whereas the cumulative incidence of cardiac death was significantly less in the successful CTO-PCI group than in the failed CTO-PCI group (4.5% vs 8.4%, p = 0.03). However, after adjusting confounders, successful CTO-PCI was associated with lesser risk for neither all-cause death (hazard ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 1.37, p = 0.69) nor cardiac death (hazard ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 1.16, p = 0.16). The cumulative incidence of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was remarkably less in patients with successful PCI compared with those with failed PCI (1.8% vs 19.6%, p <0.0001). In conclusion, successful CTO-PCI compared with failed PCI was not associated with lesser risk for 3-year mortality. However, successful CTO-PCI was associated with significantly less subsequent CABG.

  4. The impact of neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring on surgical decisions: a critical analysis of 423 cases.

    PubMed

    Wiedemayer, Helmut; Fauser, Barbara; Sandalcioglu, Ibrahim Erol; Schäfer, Heike; Stolke, Dietmar

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this observational clinical study was to analyze the impact of neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring (IOM) on the surgical procedure and to assess the benefits of such monitoring. Data for 423 patients who underwent neurophysiological IOM with somatosensory evoked potentials and brainstem auditory evoked potentials during neurosurgical procedures were collected prospectively. The patients were classified into one of five groups according to the findings of IOM, the intervention following a monitoring alarm, and the patient's postoperative neurological condition. These groups were as follows: patients with true-positive findings with intervention (42 cases, 9.9%), those with true-positive findings without intervention (42 cases, 9.9%), those with false-positive findings (nine cases, 2.1%), those with false-negative findings (16 cases, 3.8%), and those with true-negative findings (314 cases, 74.2%). Different interventions followed an event identified with monitoring. These interventions were related to dissection in 17 cases, to perfusion pressure in 11, to a limitation of the surgical procedure in five, to vessel clipping in four, to vasospasm in three, and to retraction in one case. In one case the surgical procedure was abandoned. A critical analysis and cautious estimation of the interventions revealed that IOM was helpful in preventing a postoperative deficit in 5.2% of the monitored cases. CONCLUSIONS; For critical analysis of the benefits of IOM one must evaluate not only the findings of IOM and the patient's postoperative neurological condition but also the intraoperative findings and surgical interventions following a monitoring alarm. Evidence is presented that IOM is helpful in preventing a postoperative deficit.

  5. A neurophysiological study of the detrimental effects of alprazolam on human action monitoring.

    PubMed

    Riba, Jordi; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2005-10-01

    In order to adapt their behavior to different unexpected situations, humans need to be able to monitor their performance and detect and correct errors. Benzodiazepines have long been shown to impair performance in humans, but the performance-related neurophysiological processes targeted by these drugs remain largely unknown. In the present article, we assessed the impact of alprazolam administration on relevant aspects of action monitoring, i.e., the monitoring of response conflict and the detection and correction of errors by means of neurophysiological measures. Multichannel event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded to assess the impact of the benzodiazepine alprazolam (0.25 mg and 1.00 mg) on action monitoring and motor preparation in a group of twelve healthy male volunteers who participated in a double-blind cross-over placebo-controlled clinical trial involving a letter flanker task. Error detection was evaluated using the error-related negativity (ERN); response conflict on correct trials was measured by means of the N2 amplitude difference between congruent and incongruent trials; motor preparation was assessed by means of the lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs); and post-error adjustments were assessed by measuring post-error slowing in reaction time. Alprazolam significantly reduced the amplitude of the ERN and the number of corrective responses and increased reaction time and LRP latencies. The drug had no effect on amplitude differences in the N2 component between congruent and incongruent trials or on post-error slowing. Thus, alprazolam was shown to affect brain correlates of error detection (ERN) and motor preparation (LRPs), while it did not disturb conflict monitoring on correct trials (N2) or post-error adjustments of behavior.

  6. Physiological and neurophysiological determinants of postcancer fatigue: design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Postcancer fatigue is a frequently occurring, severe, and invalidating problem, impairing quality of life. Although it is possible to effectively treat postcancer fatigue with cognitive behaviour therapy, the nature of the underlying (neuro)physiology of postcancer fatigue remains unclear. Physiological aspects of fatigue include peripheral fatigue, originating in muscle or the neuromuscular junction; central fatigue, originating in nerves, spinal cord, and brain; and physical deconditioning, resulting from a decreased cardiopulmonary function. Studies on physiological aspects of postcancer fatigue mainly concentrate on deconditioning. Peripheral and central fatigue and brain morphology and function have been studied for patients with fatigue in the context of chronic fatigue syndrome and neuromuscular diseases and show several characteristic differences with healthy controls. Methods/design Fifty seven severely fatigued and 21 non-fatigued cancer survivors will be recruited from the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. Participants should have completed treatment of a malignant, solid tumour minimal one year earlier and should have no evidence of disease recurrence. Severely fatigued patients are randomly assigned to either the intervention condition (cognitive behaviour therapy) or the waiting list condition (start cognitive behaviour therapy after 6 months). All participants are assessed at baseline and the severely fatigued patients also after 6 months follow-up (at the end of cognitive behaviour therapy or waiting list). Primary outcome measures are fatigue severity, central and peripheral fatigue, brain morphology and function, and physical condition and activity. Discussion This study will be the first randomized controlled trial that characterizes (neuro)physiological factors of fatigue in disease-free cancer survivors and evaluates to which extent these factors can be influenced by cognitive behaviour therapy. The results of this

  7. Body schema plasticity after stroke: Subjective and neurophysiological correlates of the rubber hand illusion.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Roberto; Borrego, Adrián; Palomo, Priscila; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Noé, Enrique; I Badia, Sergi Bermúdez; Baños, Rosa

    2017-02-01

    Stroke can lead to motor impairments that can affect the body structure and restraint mobility. We hypothesize that brain lesions and their motor sequelae can distort the body schema, a sensorimotor map of body parts and elements in the peripersonal space through which human beings embody the reachable space and ready the body for forthcoming movements. Two main constructs have been identified in the embodiment mechanism: body-ownership, the sense that the body that one inhabits is his/her own, and agency, the sense that one can move and control his/her body. To test this, the present study simultaneously investigated different embodiment subcomponents (body-ownership, localization, and agency) and different neurophysiological measures (galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and surface electromyographic activity), and the interaction between them, in clinically-controlled hemiparetic individuals with stroke and in healthy subjects after the rubber hand illusion. Individuals with stroke reported significantly stronger body-ownership and agency and reduced increase of galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and muscular activity in the stimulated hand. We suggest that differences in embodiment could have been motivated by increased plasticity of the body schema and pathological predominance of the visual input over proprioception. We also suggest that differences in neurophysiological responses could have been promoted by a suppression of the reflex activity of the sympathetic nervous system and by the involvement of the premotor cortex in the reconfiguration of the body schema. These results could evidence a body schema plasticity promoted by the brain lesion and a main role of the premotor cortex in this mechanism.

  8. Trigeminal laser-evoked potentials: a neurophysiological tool to detect post-surgical outcome in trigeminovascular contact neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Squintani, G; Turri, M; Donato, F; Tinazzi, M; Masotto, B; Tramontano, V; Talacchi, A; Sala, F; Moretto, G; Valeriani, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the nociceptive system of patients affected by trigeminal neuralgia (TN) secondary to documented vascular contact who underwent microvascular decompression. For that purpose, we used the classical trigeminal reflexes and the trigeminal laser-evoked potentials (tLEPs) before and after surgery, in order to verify any possible change after decompression and determine if there was any correlation between the neurophysiological parameters and the clinical outcome. Eleven patients affected by TN caused by trigeminovascular contact and 10 age-matched controls underwent conventional trigeminal reflexes (bilateral Blink Reflex/BR and Masseter Inhibitory Reflex stimulating infraorbital and mental nerves/MIR V2 and V3) and tLEPs. Patients repeated neurophysiological tests one week after surgery. Short-latency BR and MIR were normal in all patients before surgery and there was no statistical difference before and after surgery. Conversely, in patients before surgery, tLEPs' amplitudes were significantly lower in the affected than in the healthy side (p = 0.017 for V2 and 0.037 for V3 branches). After surgery, on the affected side, tLEP amplitude increased and the pre/post-operative difference was significant (p = 0.017 for V2 and 0.028 for V3 divisions). Nine patients referred satisfactory pain relief and the favourable clinical outcome correlated with the neurophysiological recovery. This study demonstrates that TN caused by trigeminovascular compression may be related to Aδ fibres impairment, and tLEPs are more sensitive than conventional trigeminal reflexes to reveal small fibre dysfunction and to monitor the post-surgical outcome in these patients. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  9. Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state: six recommendations to avoid common pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Zander, Thorsten O; van Erp, Jan B F; Korteling, Johannes E; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W

    2015-01-01

    Estimating cognitive or affective state from neurophysiological signals and designing applications that make use of this information requires expertise in many disciplines such as neurophysiology, machine learning, experimental psychology, and human factors. This makes it difficult to perform research that is strong in all its aspects as well as to judge a study or application on its merits. On the occasion of the special topic "Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state" we here summarize often occurring pitfalls and recommendations on how to avoid them, both for authors (researchers) and readers. They relate to defining the state of interest, the neurophysiological processes that are expected to be involved in the state of interest, confounding factors, inadvertently "cheating" with classification analyses, insight on what underlies successful state estimation, and finally, the added value of neurophysiological measures in the context of an application. We hope that this paper will support the community in producing high quality studies and well-validated, useful applications.

  10. Behavioral and Neurophysiological Signatures of Benzodiazepine-Related Driving Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Bradly T.; Correa, Kelly A.; Brown, Timothy L.; Spurgin, Andrew L.; Stikic, Maja; Johnson, Robin R.; Berka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Impaired driving due to drug use is a growing problem worldwide; estimates show that 18–23.5% of fatal accidents, and up to 34% of injury accidents may be caused by drivers under the influence of drugs (Drummer et al., 2003; Walsh et al., 2004; NHTSA, 2010). Furthermore, at any given time, up to 16% of drivers may be using drugs that can impair one’s driving abilities (NHTSA, 2009). Currently, drug recognition experts (DREs; law enforcement officers with specialized training to identify drugged driving), have the most difficult time with identifying drivers potentially impaired on central nervous system (CNS) depressants (Smith et al., 2002). The fact that the use of benzodiazepines, a type of CNS depressant, is also associated with the greatest likelihood of causing accidents (Dassanayake et al., 2011), further emphasizes the need to improve research tools in this area which can facilitate the refinement of, or additions to, current assessments of impaired driving. Our laboratories collaborated to evaluate both the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of a benzodiazepine, alprazolam, in a driving simulation (miniSimTM). This drive was combined with a neurocognitive assessment utilizing time synched neurophysiology (electroencephalography, ECG). While the behavioral effects of benzodiazepines are well characterized (Rapoport et al., 2009), we hypothesized that, with the addition of real-time neurophysiology and the utilization of simulation and neurocognitive assessment, we could find objective assessments of drug impairment that could improve the detection capabilities of DREs. Our analyses revealed that (1) specific driving conditions were significantly more difficult for benzodiazepine impaired drivers and (2) the neurocognitive tasks’ metrics were able to classify “impaired” vs. “unimpaired” with up to 80% accuracy based on lane position deviation and lane departures. While this work requires replication in larger studies, our results not

  11. Gastroparesis and lipid metabolism-associated dysbiosis in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, J E; Fraser, Karl; Young, Wayne; McKenzie, Catherine M; Bassett, Shalome A; Roy, Nicole C

    2017-07-01

    Altered gastric accommodation and intestinal morphology suggest impaired gastrointestinal (GI) transit may occur in the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, as common in stress-associated functional GI disorders. Because changes in GI transit can alter microbiota composition, we investigated whether these are altered in WKY rats compared with the resilient Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats under basal conditions and characterized plasma lipid and metabolite differences. Bead transit was tracked by X-ray imaging to monitor gastric emptying (4 h), small intestine (SI) transit (9 h), and large intestine transit (12 h). Plasma extracts were analyzed by lipid and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Cecal microbial composition was determined by Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and analysis using the QIIME pipeline. Stomach retention of beads was 77% for WKY compared with 35% for SD rats. GI transit was decreased by 34% (9 h) and 21% (12 h) in WKY compared with SD rats. Excluding stomach retention, transiting beads moved 29% further along the SI over 4-9 h for WKY compared with SD rats. Cecal Ruminococcus, Roseburia, and unclassified Lachnospiraceae genera were less abundant in WKY rats, whereas the minor taxa Dorea, Turicibacter, and Lactobacillus were higher. Diglycerides, triglycerides, phosphatidyl-ethanolamines, and phosphatidylserine were lower in WKY rats, whereas cholesterol esters and taurocholic acids were higher. The unexpected WKY rat phenotype of delayed gastric emptying, yet rapid SI transit, was associated with altered lipid and metabolite profiles. The delayed gastric emptying of the WKY phenotype suggests this rat strain may be useful as a model for gastroparesis.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study reveals that the stress-prone Wistar-Kyoto rat strain has a baseline physiology of gastroparesis and rapid small intestine transit, together with metabolic changes consistent with lipid metabolism

  12. Gastroparesis and lipid metabolism-associated dysbiosis in Wistar-Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Karl; Young, Wayne; McKenzie, Catherine M.; Bassett, Shalome A.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2017-01-01

    Altered gastric accommodation and intestinal morphology suggest impaired gastrointestinal (GI) transit may occur in the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, as common in stress-associated functional GI disorders. Because changes in GI transit can alter microbiota composition, we investigated whether these are altered in WKY rats compared with the resilient Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats under basal conditions and characterized plasma lipid and metabolite differences. Bead transit was tracked by X-ray imaging to monitor gastric emptying (4 h), small intestine (SI) transit (9 h), and large intestine transit (12 h). Plasma extracts were analyzed by lipid and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Cecal microbial composition was determined by Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and analysis using the QIIME pipeline. Stomach retention of beads was 77% for WKY compared with 35% for SD rats. GI transit was decreased by 34% (9 h) and 21% (12 h) in WKY compared with SD rats. Excluding stomach retention, transiting beads moved 29% further along the SI over 4–9 h for WKY compared with SD rats. Cecal Ruminococcus, Roseburia, and unclassified Lachnospiraceae genera were less abundant in WKY rats, whereas the minor taxa Dorea, Turicibacter, and Lactobacillus were higher. Diglycerides, triglycerides, phosphatidyl-ethanolamines, and phosphatidylserine were lower in WKY rats, whereas cholesterol esters and taurocholic acids were higher. The unexpected WKY rat phenotype of delayed gastric emptying, yet rapid SI transit, was associated with altered lipid and metabolite profiles. The delayed gastric emptying of the WKY phenotype suggests this rat strain may be useful as a model for gastroparesis. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study reveals that the stress-prone Wistar-Kyoto rat strain has a baseline physiology of gastroparesis and rapid small intestine transit, together with metabolic changes consistent with lipid metabolism

  13. Dreaming and the brain: from phenomenology to neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Nir, Yuval; Tononi, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Dreams are a most remarkable experiment in psychology and neuroscience, conducted every night in every sleeping person. They show that our brain, disconnected from the environment, can generate by itself an entire world of conscious experiences. Content analysis and developmental studies have furthered our understanding of dream phenomenology. In parallel, brain lesion studies, functional imaging, and neurophysiology have advanced our knowledge of the neural basis of dreaming. It is now possible to start integrating these two strands of research in order to address some fundamental questions that dreams pose for cognitive neuroscience: how conscious experiences in sleep relate to underlying brain activity; why the dreamer is largely disconnected from the environment; and whether dreaming is more closely related to mental imagery or to perception. PMID:20079677

  14. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impact of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Persad, Leeana Aarthi Bagwath

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine, and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted. This review focuses on the neurophysiological impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body.

  15. Teaching Neurophysiology to Undergraduates using Neurons in Action

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Ann E.

    2009-01-01

    Neurons in Action, a set of 25 hyperlinked tutorials and interactive simulations on CD-ROM, provides the student with a completely different approach to neurophysiology from that of textbooks. Guided by the tutorials, by their professor, by the urge to test their understanding, or simply by curiosity, students specify the parameters of a patch of membrane, an axon, a postsynaptic membrane, or a cell and run virtual experiments. Parameters include geometry, the number and type of ion channels in the membrane, the number of myelin wraps of the axon, the ion concentrations inside and out, synaptic variables, and temperature. Hyperlinked explanations, historical information, and classic papers on the CD provide the “textbook” material. This article describes this learning tool and details several ways in which it is being used at the undergraduate level. PMID:23493486

  16. Intra-operative neurophysiology during microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Conejero, I; Ulkatan, S; Sen, C; Deletis, V

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that primary hemifacial spasm (HFS) in the majority of patients is related to a vascular compression of the facial nerve at its root exit zone (REZ). As a consequence, the hyperexcitability of facial nerve generates spasms of the facial muscles. Microvascular decompression (MVD) of the facial nerve near its REZ has been established as an effective treatment of HFS. Intra-operative disappearance of abnormal muscle responses (lateral spread) elicited by stimulating one of the facial nerve branches has been used as a method to predict MVD effectiveness. Other neurophysiologic techniques, such as facial F-wave, blink reflex and facial corticobulbar motor evoked potentials (FCoMEP), are feasible to intra-operatively study changes in excitability of the facial nerve and its nucleus during MVDs. Intra-operative neuromonitoring with the mentioned techniques allows a better understanding of HFS pathophysiology and helps to optimise the MVD.

  17. Teaching Neurophysiology to Undergraduates using Neurons in Action.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Ann E

    2009-01-01

    Neurons in Action, a set of 25 hyperlinked tutorials and interactive simulations on CD-ROM, provides the student with a completely different approach to neurophysiology from that of textbooks. Guided by the tutorials, by their professor, by the urge to test their understanding, or simply by curiosity, students specify the parameters of a patch of membrane, an axon, a postsynaptic membrane, or a cell and run virtual experiments. Parameters include geometry, the number and type of ion channels in the membrane, the number of myelin wraps of the axon, the ion concentrations inside and out, synaptic variables, and temperature. Hyperlinked explanations, historical information, and classic papers on the CD provide the "textbook" material. This article describes this learning tool and details several ways in which it is being used at the undergraduate level.

  18. Dreaming and the brain: from phenomenology to neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Nir, Yuval; Tononi, Giulio

    2010-02-01

    Dreams are a remarkable experiment in psychology and neuroscience, conducted every night in every sleeping person. They show that the human brain, disconnected from the environment, can generate an entire world of conscious experiences by itself. Content analysis and developmental studies have promoted understanding of dream phenomenology. In parallel, brain lesion studies, functional imaging and neurophysiology have advanced current knowledge of the neural basis of dreaming. It is now possible to start integrating these two strands of research to address fundamental questions that dreams pose for cognitive neuroscience: how conscious experiences in sleep relate to underlying brain activity; why the dreamer is largely disconnected from the environment; and whether dreaming is more closely related to mental imagery or to perception.

  19. Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying affiliative social behavior: insights from comparative research.

    PubMed

    Stoesz, Brenda M; Hare, James F; Snow, Wanda M

    2013-02-01

    Humans are intensely social animals, and healthy social relationships are vital for proper mental health (see Lim and Young, 2006). By using animal models, the behavior, mental, and physiological processes of humans can be understood at a level that cannot be attained by studying human behavior and the human brain alone. The goals of this review are threefold. First, we define affiliative social behavior and describe the primary relationship types in which affiliative relationships are most readily observed--the mother-infant bond and pair-bonding. Second, we summarize neurophysiological studies that have investigated the role of neurohypophyseal nanopeptides (oxytocin and vasopressin) and the catecholamine dopamine in regulating affiliative social behavior and the implications of said research for our understanding of human social behavior. Finally, we discuss the merits and limitations of the using a comparative approach to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying human affiliative social behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurophysiological model of the normal and abnormal human pupil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenz, W.; Robin, M.; Barez, S.; Stark, L.

    1985-01-01

    Anatomical, experimental, and computer simulation studies were used to determine the structure of the neurophysiological model of the pupil size control system. The computer simulation of this model demonstrates the role played by each of the elements in the neurological pathways influencing the size of the pupil. Simulations of the effect of drugs and common abnormalities in the system help to illustrate the workings of the pathways and processes involved. The simulation program allows the user to select pupil condition (normal or an abnormality), specific site along the neurological pathway (retina, hypothalamus, etc.) drug class input (barbiturate, narcotic, etc.), stimulus/response mode, display mode, stimulus type and input waveform, stimulus or background intensity and frequency, the input and output conditions, and the response at the neuroanatomical site. The model can be used as a teaching aid or as a tool for testing hypotheses regarding the system.

  1. Energy Drinks and the Neurophysiological Impact of Caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Persad, Leeana Aarthi Bagwath

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine, and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted. This review focuses on the neurophysiological impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body. PMID:22025909

  2. Neurophysiological model of the normal and abnormal human pupil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenz, W.; Robin, M.; Barez, S.; Stark, L.

    1985-01-01

    Anatomical, experimental, and computer simulation studies were used to determine the structure of the neurophysiological model of the pupil size control system. The computer simulation of this model demonstrates the role played by each of the elements in the neurological pathways influencing the size of the pupil. Simulations of the effect of drugs and common abnormalities in the system help to illustrate the workings of the pathways and processes involved. The simulation program allows the user to select pupil condition (normal or an abnormality), specific site along the neurological pathway (retina, hypothalamus, etc.) drug class input (barbiturate, narcotic, etc.), stimulus/response mode, display mode, stimulus type and input waveform, stimulus or background intensity and frequency, the input and output conditions, and the response at the neuroanatomical site. The model can be used as a teaching aid or as a tool for testing hypotheses regarding the system.

  3. An Insight Into Neurophysiology of Pulpal Pain: Facts and Hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Abhishek; N., Meena

    2013-01-01

    Pain and pain control are important to the dental profession because the general perception of the public is that dental treatment and pain go hand in hand. Successful dental treatment requires that the source of pain be detected. If the origin of pain is not found, inappropriate dental care and, ultimately, extraction may result. Pain experienced before, during, or after endodontic therapy is a serious concern to both patients and endodontists, and the variability of discomfort presents a challenge in terms of diagnostic methods, endodontic therapy, and endodontic knowledge. This review will help clinicians understand the basic neurophysiology of pulpal pain and other painful conditions of the dental pulp that are not well understood. PMID:24156000

  4. Diesel Exhaust Worsens Cardiac Conduction Instability in Dobutamine-Challenged Wistar-Kyoto and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Hazari, Mehdi S; Lancaster, Jarrett L; Starobin, Joseph M; Farraj, Aimen K; Cascio, Wayne E

    2017-04-01

    Short-term exposure to air pollution, particularly from vehicular sources, increases the risk of acute clinical cardiovascular events. However, cardiotoxicity is not always clearly discernible under ambient conditions; therefore, more subtle measures of cardiac dysfunction are necessary to elucidate the latent effects of exposure. Determine the effect of whole diesel exhaust (DE) exposure on reserve of refractoriness (RoR), an intrinsic electrophysiological measure of the heart's minimum level of refractoriness relative to development of electrical conduction instability, in rats undergoing exercise-like stress. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats implanted with radiotelemeters to continuously collect electrocardiogram (ECG) and heart rate were exposed to 150 µg/m(3) of DE and challenged with dobutamine 24 h later to mimic exercise-induced increases of the heart rate. The Chernyak-Starobin-Cohen (CSC) model was then applied to the ECG-derived QT and RR intervals collected during progressive increases in heart rate to calculate RoR for each rat. Filtered air-exposed WKY and SH rats did not have any decrease in RoR, which indicates increased risk of cardiac conduction instability; however, DE caused a significant decrease in both strains. Yet, the decrease in RoR in SH rats was eight times steeper when compared to WKY rats indicating greater cardiac conduction instability in the hypertensive strain. These data indicate that after exposure to DE, risk of cardiac instability increases during increasing stress, particularly in the presence of underlying cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, the CSC model, which was previously shown to reveal cardiac risk in humans, can be applied to rodent toxicology studies.

  5. Dual Format Course Design: Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology for Adult Learners

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Rebecca I.

    2007-01-01

    Adult learners require alternative learning opportunities to enable them to work and still be able to upgrade their education. This dual format course, combining online and face-to-face components, was developed to meet the need of students to complete a prerequisite undergraduate level neuroanatomy and neurophysiology course while attending a program that included fly-in weekends (seven) and online instruction (15 weeks). A combination of online lectures and on-campus lectures were used to teach pre-requisite neuroanatomy and neurophysiology course topics. The article presents the teaching material division between online and on-campus lectures and presentation of data collected. Survey data collected included student preferred: online media presentation, online activities developed to facilitate learning of the online material, online case study discussion, and testing formats. Students also were asked to comment on whether the class should move to a 100% online format and what their concerns would be moving to an all online format. Additional qualitative data on student input related to the course, adult learning and the learning environment will be presented. Blackboard data include: student daily access patterns, media and documents access and download patterns, and case study participation. Additionally, descriptive statistics from in class quizzes versus online quizzes includes: student patterns of test taking in an unlimited retake environment, scores on retakes and final scores (highest of retakes), in-class quiz scores, and comparison of comprehensive final exam scores from online versus face-to-face lecture material and testing. Findings provide valuable information for online course formatting, revisions and additional course development. PMID:23493658

  6. Surgeon-driven neurophysiologic monitoring in a spinal surgery population

    PubMed Central

    Pickell, Michael; Mann, Stephen M.; Chakravertty, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Background This is a prospective observational study examining the use of a surgeon-driven intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring system. Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring is becoming the standard of care for spinal surgeries with potential post-operative neurologic deficits. This standard applies to both adult and pediatric spinal surgery, but a shortage of appropriately trained and certified technologists and physiologists can compromise monitoring capabilities in some centers. A surgeon-driven, intra-operative monitoring system in the absence of a technologist or physiologist was examined for safety and efficacy. Methods One hundred thirty-five patients undergoing a variety of spinal procedures were monitored intra-operatively using a surgeon-driven neuro-monitoring system over a period of 80 months. Intraoperative monitoring included serial motor evoked potentials via an automated system that provided visual and audible feedback directly to the operative surgeon. Changes in monitoring and any corresponding surgical responses were evaluated and compared with postoperative neurological status. Results Of the 135 patients studied, intraoperative adjustments based on neuro-monitoring took place in four patients (3.0%): following reduction in spondylolisthesis, during instrumentation and fusion for a large kyphoscoliosis deformity, due to low hemoglobin, and because of traction. In all cases, surgical and/or anaesthetic modification restored MEPs toward baseline values. The accuracy of the neuro-monitoring results was sensitive to narcotics, benzodiazepines and changes in haemoglobin concentrations. No new postoperative deficits were observed in any patients in the cohort. Conclusions The authors concluded that surgeon-driven neuro-monitoring was a safe and effective means of intraoperative neuro-monitoring during spinal surgery. It reliably detected intraoperative insults, which could potentially have resulted in postoperative neurologic compromise

  7. Neurophysiology and neuroanatomy of smooth pursuit in humans.

    PubMed

    Lencer, Rebekka; Trillenberg, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements enable us to focus our eyes on moving objects by utilizing well-established mechanisms of visual motion processing, sensorimotor transformation and cognition. Novel smooth pursuit tasks and quantitative measurement techniques can help unravel the different smooth pursuit components and complex neural systems involved in its control. The maintenance of smooth pursuit is driven by a combination of the prediction of target velocity and visual feedback about performance quality, thus a combination of retinal and extraretinal information that has to be integrated in various networks. Different models of smooth pursuit with specific in- and output parameters have been developed for a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms and to make quantitative predictions that can be tested in experiments. Functional brain imaging and neurophysiological studies have defined motion sensitive visual area V5, frontal (FEF) and supplementary (SEF) eye fields as core cortical smooth pursuit regions. In addition, a dense neural network is involved in the adjustment of an optimal smooth pursuit response by integrating also extraretinal information. These networks facilitate interaction of the smooth pursuit system with multiple other visual and non-visual sensorimotor systems on the cortical and subcortical level. Future studies with fMRI advanced techniques (e.g., event-related fMRI) promise to provide an insight into how smooth pursuit eye movements are linked to specific brain activation. Applying this approach to neurological and also mental illness can reveal distinct disturbances within neural networks being present in these disorders and also the impact of medication on this circuitry.

  8. Rising to the Kyoto challenge: is the response of Canadian industry adequate?

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Nakamura, M; van Kooten, G C; Vertinsky, I

    2001-10-01

    A major weapon in Canada's CO2-emissions reduction arsenal is reliance on moral suasion and voluntary action. In this regard, the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program constitutes a major effort to encourage industrial firms to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we begin by providing a critical review of Canadian climate change policy and Canada's international commitments. We then investigate the effectiveness of Canadian policies by analyzing a survey of industrial firms, examining factors that determine firms' familiarity with, participation in and commitment to the VCR program, and their stated potential to reduce emissions by 2008-2012 (Kyoto's commitment period). Results indicate that voluntary programs are unlikely to make a significant contribution to emissions reduction, with industrial firms indicating that, on average, they plan to reduce emissions by some 1-2% below their 1990 level under the current policy approach, much lower than Canada's 6% reduction target.

  9. Links between Cairo and Kyoto: addressing global warming through voluntary family planning.

    PubMed

    Skeer, Jeffrey

    2002-02-01

    Over the past three decades, with a combination of new technology, rising female literacy rates, and strengthened family planning programs, the world has seen dramatic increases in the use of contraception, with corresponding declines in fertility and population growth rates. At the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo in 1994, parties pledged a tripling of funding for reproductive health programs in developing countries. Many demographers believe that making such programs more widely available to women would extend the decline in birth rates and shift the world towards the low scenario of United Nations population projections over the next century and a half. By examining the costs and impacts of such programs, in view of the links between population and carbon emissions, this paper shows that extension of voluntary family planning could make a large and cost-effective contribution to the greenhouse gas limitation goals of the Kyoto Protocol that was negotiated in 1997.

  10. Design study of multi-imaging plate system for BNCT irradiation field at Kyoto university reactor.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Endo, Satoru

    2016-09-01

    The converter configuration for a multi-imaging plate system was investigated for the application of quality assurance in the irradiation field profile for boron neutron capture therapy. This was performed by the simulation calculation using the PHITS code in the fields at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Reactor. The converter constituents investigated were carbon for gamma rays, and polyethylene with and without LiF at varied (6)Li concentration for thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons. Consequently, potential combinations of the converters were found for two components, gamma rays and thermal neutrons, for the standard thermal neutron mode and three components of gamma rays, epithermal neutrons, and thermal or fast neutrons, for the standard mixed or epithermal neutron modes, respectively.

  11. Development of a mono-energetic positron beam line at the Kyoto University Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Xu, Q.; Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H.; Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A.; Shirai, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Positron beam facilities are widely used for solid state physics and material science studies. A positron beam facility has been constructed at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) in order to expand its application range. The KUR is a light-water-moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A positron beam has been transported successfully from the reactor to the irradiation chamber. The total moderated positron rate was greater than 1.4 × 106/s while the reactor operated at a reduced power of 1 MW. Special attention was paid for the design of the in-pile position source to prevent possible damage of the reactor in case of severe earthquakes.

  12. [Climate change and Kyoto Protocol. Science and strategies. Obligations for Spain].

    PubMed

    de Castro González, Federico Velázquez

    2005-01-01

    This article presents climate change as the major environmental problem of our time. A result of the so-called "greenhouse effect", climate change is caused by certain gases, the concentrations in the atmosphere of which are growing exponentially. The consequences of these gases are going to be felt throughout the entire biosphere, from weather phenomenon to humans, creating a uncertain panorama which is going to be requiring some fast-paced adaptation on the part of all species. This is not, however, an irreversible process, taking action thus being possible and necessary, by combining education and lawmaking measures brought into being within the timeframes and to the extents set forth under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. Spain will be one of the most highly-affected countries, and its strategy may therefore mean a highly-valuable tool for correcting the deviations caused and contributing to the urgent control of global emissions.

  13. Neurophysiological mechanisms and functional impact of mirror movements in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsing-Ching; Friel, Kathleen M; Gordon, Andrew M

    2017-09-08

    Children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) often have mirror movements, i.e. involuntary imitations of unilateral voluntary movements of the contralateral upper extremity. The pathophysiology of mirror movements has been investigated in small and heterogeneous cohorts in the literature. Specific pathophysiology of mirror movements and their impact on upper extremity function require systematic investigation in larger and homogeneous cohorts of children with unilateral spastic CP. Here we review two possible neurophysiological mechanisms underlying mirror movements in children with CP and those with typical development: (1) an ipsilateral corticospinal tract projecting from the contralesional motor cortex (M1) to both upper extremities; (2) insufficient interhemispheric inhibition between the two M1s. We also discuss clinical implications of mirror movements in children with unilateral CP and suggest that a thorough examination of the relationship between the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of mirror movements is warranted. We suggest two premises: (1) the presence of mirror movements is indicative of an ipsilateral corticospinal tract reorganization; and (2) the corticospinal tract organization may affect patients' responses to certain treatment. If these premises are supported through future research, mirror movements should be clinically evaluated for patient selection to maximize benefits of therapy, hence promoting individualized medicine in this population. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  14. A post-Kyoto partner: Considering the Montreal Protocol as a tool to manage nitrous oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauzerall, D. L.; Kanter, D.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Grabiel, P.; Moomaw, W.; Galloway, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    While nitrous oxide (N2O) was recently identified as the largest remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer, it is currently regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol due to its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the 1987 Montreal Protocol if they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues for the Montreal Protocol and its parent treaty, the 1985 Vienna Convention, to regulate N2O, as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address its most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to mitigation efforts. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built upon by the Montreal Protocol's existing bodies to implement N2O controls. Given the tight coupling of the nitrogen cycle, such controls would likely simultaneously reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen and hence have co-benefits for ecosystems and public health. Nevertheless, there are at least three major regulatory challenges that are unique and central to N2O control: food security, equity, and the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the Montreal Protocol need not be viewed as a sign of the Kyoto Protocol's failure to adequately deal with climate change, given the complexity of the issue. Rather, it could represent an additional tool in the field of sustainable development diplomacy.lt;img border=0 src="images/B43K-06_B.jpg">

  15. DIAGNOSTICS ALGORITHM OF DIABETIC POLYNEUROPATHY IN PREDICTION OF CLINICAL COURSE.

    PubMed

    Popova, T E; Tappahov, A A; Shnaider, N A; Petrova, M M; Nikolaeva, T Y; Konnikova, E E; Kozhevnikov, A A; Ammosov, V G; Vinokurova, N E

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the importance of new algorithm introducing of PDP diagnostics in practice of NEFU medical institute Clinic in detection of severity level and predicting of clinical course. 50 people with sensory-motor PDP form among patients with 2 type diabetes were examined on the basis of Clinic of NEFU medical institute. Patients have been divided into 2 groups by disease duration: the first groups were patients with duration of disease till 10 years, the second group--more than 10 years. Diagnostics methods: clinical neurologic, neurophysiological. Patients underwent polymodal sensitivity analysis, computer pallesteziometry, stabilometry, electroneuromyography. The dependence of clinical neurophysiological PDP parametres from severity of the duration of type 2 diabetes has been revealed. Thus, dependence of clinical-neurophysiological parametres of PDP severity from the duration of 2 type diabetes has been revealed. The new algorithm raised efficacy of clinical-neurophysiological PDP diagnostics and helped the predicting of the clinical course.

  16. Economic Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session, March 25, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    This hearing focuses on the economic impact of the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. In the Kyoto Protocol, which was completed in December 1997, the administration agreed to legally binding obligations to reduce US greenhouse gas emissions to seven percent below 1990 levels during the years 2008--2011. This climate treaty does not subject developing countries to emission targets.

  17. CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPs) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS.
    UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, LC Walsh, PS Gilmour, MI Gilmour, WP Watkinson, JP Nolan, JH Richards, D Andrews, DL Costa. US EPA...

  18. CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPs) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS.
    UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, LC Walsh, PS Gilmour, MI Gilmour, WP Watkinson, JP Nolan, JH Richards, D Andrews, DL Costa. US EPA...

  19. Hypnic jerks are an underestimated sleep motor phenomenon in patients with parkinsonism. A video-polysomnographic and neurophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Chiaro, Giacomo; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Sambati, Luisa; Cecere, Annagrazia; Ferri, Caterina; Caletti, Maria Turchese; Cortelli, Pietro; Provini, Federica

    2016-10-01

    Hypnic jerks (HJs) are sudden contractions of one or more body segments occurring mostly at sleep onset. They are highly sporadic and affect all ages and both sexes with prevalence between 60% and 70% in the general population. This study describes the frequency and the neurophysiological characteristics of HJs in a population of patients with parkinsonism by means of nocturnal video-polysomnographic recordings. This is a prospective cohort study and is reported following the STROBE guidelines. We analyzed the clinical and video-polysomnographic data of the first 66 consecutive patients recruited in the ongoing prospective study "Bologna motor and non-motor Prospective study on Parkinsonism at onset" (BoProPark). Each patient underwent a full neurological workup including a whole-night video- polysomnography. Neurophysiological characteristics including the propagation patterns of the HJs were studied with an extended muscle montage polysomnography. We recorded a total of 62 HJs in 16 patients out of 66 (24%). Sleep parameters were not statistically different between patients with and without HJs. All HJs were spontaneous and occurred randomly throughout the night. Electromyographic analysis showed that muscle activity arose from different muscles with no prevalence of one over the other and without any ordered propagation. No recurring motor pattern of the jerks was detected. Our findings demonstrated that HJs are a frequent, underestimated, sleep-related motor phenomenon in patients with parkinsonism. As they may represent a further cause of sleep disruption and insomnia, HJs should be actively examined. Neurophysiological analysis suggests a subcortical origin of HJs as shown previously for a healthy subject. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Large-scale, high-resolution neurophysiological maps underlying FMRI of macaque temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Issa, Elias B; Papanastassiou, Alex M; DiCarlo, James J

    2013-09-18

    Maps obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are thought to reflect the underlying spatial layout of neural activity. However, previous studies have not been able to directly compare fMRI maps to high-resolution neurophysiological maps, particularly in higher level visual areas. Here, we used a novel stereo microfocal x-ray system to localize thousands of neural recordings across monkey inferior temporal cortex (IT), construct large-scale maps of neuronal object selectivity at subvoxel resolution, and compare those neurophysiology maps with fMRI maps from the same subjects. While neurophysiology maps contained reliable structure at the sub-millimeter scale, fMRI maps of object selectivity contained information at larger scales (>2.5 mm) and were only partly correlated with raw neurophysiology maps collected in the same subjects. However, spatial smoothing of neurophysiology maps more than doubled that correlation, while a variety of alternative transforms led to no significant improvement. Furthermore, raw spiking signals, once spatially smoothed, were as predictive of fMRI maps as local field potential signals. Thus, fMRI of the inferior temporal lobe reflects a spatially low-passed version of neurophysiology signals. These findings strongly validate the widespread use of fMRI for detecting large (>2.5 mm) neuronal domains of object selectivity but show that a complete understanding of even the most pure domains (e.g., faces vs nonface objects) requires investigation at fine scales that can currently only be obtained with invasive neurophysiological methods.

  1. CCD system upgrading of the Kyoto3DII and integral field spectroscopic observation with the new system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuda, Kazuma; Hashiba, Yasuhito; Minowa, Yosuke; Hayano, Yutaka; Sugai, Hajime; Shimono, Atsushi; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Hattori, Takashi; Kamata, Yukiko; Ozaki, Shinobu; Doi, Mamoru; Sako, Shigeyuki

    2016-08-01

    The Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II (Kyoto 3DII) is an optical integral field spectrograph mounted on the Subaru telescope as a PI-type instrument. Used with AO188, Kyoto 3DII provides us unique opportunities of optical Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) with adaptive optics (AO). While AO works better in redder wavelength regions, quantum efficiency of the previous CCD was low there with optimization for a wider wavelength coverage. To optimize Kyoto 3DII to AO observations, we have newly installed the red-sensitive Hamamatsu fully depleted CCD, which enhances the system efficiency by a factor of 2 in the red wavelength range. Fringes are dramatically reduced, and the readout noise drops to 3:2-3:4e- about two times smaller than previous, due to refrigerator and readout system. With these improvements, we carried out engineering and scientific observations in September 2015, February and March 2016. We measured the system efficiency using a standard star, and confirmed the successful improvement of the system efficiency. We observed galactic nuclei of nearby galaxies in the Natural Guide Star (NGS) and the Laser Guide Star (LGS) modes. We found the spatial resolution of 0.1'' FWHM using a 9.5-magnitude NGS, and 0.2 - 0:4'' in LGS mode. Together with the AO resolution, improved efficiency opens a new window for Kyoto 3DII to carry out high resolution optical IFS targeting faint objects such as high-redshift galaxies as well as faint lines such as [OI] λ6300° A and absorption lines of nearby objects.

  2. Neurophysiological assessment for evaluating residual cognition in vegetative and minimally conscious state patients: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    De Salvo, Simona; Caminiti, Fabrizia; Bonanno, Lilla; De Cola, Maria Cristina; Corallo, Francesco; Caizzone, Antonino; Rifici, Carmela; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to assess residual cognitive function and perform outcome evaluation in vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) patients, using Neurowave, a system able to monitor event-related potentials (ERPs) induced by neurosensory stimulation. Eleven VS and five MCS patients underwent neurological examination and clinical evaluation performed using validated clinical and behavioral scales; they also underwent neurosensory stimulation, which consisted of administration of target images (rare stimuli), relevant to the patient’s personal history and having emotional significance, alternated with non-target images (“standard” stimuli), which had no emotional significance. All simultaneous ERP responses at baseline (T0) and at three months from T0 (T1) were recorded. At T0 we found significant differences between the VS and MCS patients for the N200 (p=0.02) and P300 (p=0.04) waves. The neurophysiological analysis at T1 showed a significant difference only for P300 (p=0.02), probably due to the improvements observed in the VS subjects for the N100 (p=0.009) and N200 (p=0.02) sensory components. Our findings seem to show the value of ERP monitoring in VS and MCS patients as a means of investigating residual cognitive function. This approach could guide early therapeutic and rehabilitation interventions, and contribute to identifying better diagnostic and prognostic markers for use in unresponsive or low-responsive patients. PMID:26727702

  3. Neurocognitive rehabilitation for addiction medicine: From neurophysiological markers to cognitive rehabilitation and relapse prevention.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Currently, relapse prevention remains the main challenge in addiction medicine, indicating that the established treatment methods combining psychotherapy with neuropharmacological interventions are not entirely effective. Therefore, there is a push to develop alternatives to psychotherapy- and medication-based approaches to addiction treatment. Two major cognitive factors have been identified that trigger relapse in addicted patients: attentional biases directed toward drug-related cues, which increase the urge to consume, and impaired response inhibition toward these cues, which makes it more difficult for addicted people to resist temptation. Recent studies on newly detoxified alcoholic patients have shown that by using the appropriate tasks to index these cognitive functions with event-related potentials (ERPs), it is possible to discriminate between future relapsers and nonrelapsers. These preliminary data suggest that the ERP technique has great clinical potential for preventing relapse in alcohol-dependent patients, as well as for addictive states in general. Indeed, ERPs may help to identify patients highly vulnerable to relapse and allow the development of individually adapted cognitive rehabilitation programs. The implementation of this combined approach requires an intense collaboration between psychiatry departments, clinical neurophysiology laboratories, and neuropsychological rehabilitation centers. The potential pitfalls and limitations of this approach are also discussed. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurophysiological evidence for generalized sensory neuronopathy in cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and bilateral vestibular areflexia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Szmulewicz, David J; Seiderer, Linda; Halmagyi, G Michael; Storey, Elsdon; Roberts, Leslie

    2015-04-01

    Cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and bilateral vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) is a recently described multisystem ataxia defined by the presence of cerebellar ataxia, bilateral vestibulopathy, and a somatosensory deficit. The characteristic clinical sign is an abnormal visually enhanced vestibuloocular reflex. The somatosensory deficit contributes to a significant level of disability in CANVAS. This study was a neurophysiological investigation of 14 patients with CANVAS. Findings revealed uniformly absent sensory nerve action potentials in all limbs, abnormal blink reflexes in 13 of 14 patients, and abnormal masseter reflexes in 6 of 11 patients. Tibial H-reflexes were absent in 11 of 14 patients. Somatosensory evoked potentials were abnormal in 10 of the 11 patients tested, and brainstem auditory evoked responses were abnormal in 3 of 8. Cutaneous silent period responses were abnormal in 7 of 14 patients. We suggest that a sensory neuronopathy should be sought in cerebellar and/or vestibular ataxias, particularly where the degree of ataxia is out of proportion to the clinically identified cerebellar and/or vestibular dysfunction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Altered evoked γ-band responses as a neurophysiological marker of schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Lenz, Daniel; Fischer, Susanne; Schadow, Jeanette; Bogerts, Bernhard; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2011-01-01

    Evoked gamma-band responses (GBRs) were shown to be involved in different aspects of human cognition and behavior. They have been linked to the integration and processing of incoming information leading to an adequate behavioral outcome. Consequently, altered evoked GBRs have been associated with impaired cognitive and behavioral states present in a variety of psychiatric disorders. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reports directly comparing evoked GBRs of different clinical groups in the same experimental setting. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to shed light on the question, whether evoked GBRs, as a kind of a neurophysiological biomarker of pathological states, might serve for characterization and distinguishing of groups suffering from diverse psychiatric disorders. We measured EEG during a passive auditory oddball-paradigm. Participants were patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, mood disorder, and personality disorders as well as a fourth group consisting of healthy participants. Our results indicate that evoked GBRs significantly differed from healthy participants only in schizophrenic patients whereas no difference could be observed for the other clinical groups. Our findings support the notion that early evoked GBRs could be indeed a trait variable of schizophrenia and are not a general marker of pathological brain states. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of 1014 consecutive operative cases to determine the utility of intraoperative neurophysiological data

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Namath Syed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) during neurosurgical procedures has become the standard of care at tertiary care medical centers. While prospective data regarding the clinical utility of IOM are conspicuously lacking, retrospective analyses continue to provide useful information regarding surgeon responses to reported waveform changes. Methods: Data regarding clinical presentation, operative course, IOM, and postoperative neurological examination were compiled from a database of 1014 cranial and spinal surgical cases at a tertiary care medical center from 2005 to 2011. IOM modalities utilized included somatosensory evoked potentials, transcranial motor evoked potentials, pedicle screw stimulation, and electromyography. Surgeon responses to changes in IOM waveforms were recorded. Results: Changes in IOM waveforms indicating potential injury were present in 87 of 1014 cases (8.6%). In 23 of the 87 cases (26.4%), the surgeon responded by repositioning the patient (n = 12), repositioning retractors (n = 1) or implanted instrumentation (n = 9), or by stopping surgery (n = 1). Loss of IOM waveforms predicted postoperative neurological deficit in 10 cases (11.5% of cases with IOM changes). Conclusions: In the largest IOM series to date, we report that the surgeon responded by appropriate interventions in over 25% of cases during which there were IOM indicators of potential harm to neural structures. Prospective studies remain to be undertaken to adequately evaluate the utility of IOM in changing surgeon behavior. Our data is in agreement with previous observations in indicating a trend that supports the continued use of IOM. PMID:26396602

  7. Neurophysiological indices of strategy development and skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Smith, M E; McEvoy, L K; Gevins, A

    1999-01-01

    In order to examine neurophysiological changes associated with the development of cognitive and visuomotor strategies and skills, spectral features of the EEG were measured as participants learned to perform new tasks. In one experiment eight individuals practiced working memory tasks that required development of either spatial or verbal rehearsal and updating strategies. In a second experiment six individuals practiced a video game with a difficult visuomotor tracking component. The alpha rhythm, which is attenuated by functional cortical activation, was affected by task practice. In both experiments, a lower-frequency, centrally distributed alpha component increased between practice sessions in a task-independent fashion, reflecting an overall decrease in the extent of cortical activation after practice. A second, higher-frequency, posterior component of the alpha rhythm displayed task-specific practice effects. Practice in the verbal working memory task resulted in an increase of this signal over right posterior regions, an effect not seen after practice with the spatial working memory task or with the video game. This between-task difference presumably reflects a continued involvement of the posterior region of the right hemisphere in tasks that invoke visuospatial processes. This finding thus provides neurophysiological evidence for the formation of a task-specific neurocognitive strategy. In the second experiment a third component of the alpha rhythm, localized over somatomotor cortex, was enhanced in conjunction with acquisition of tracking skill. These alpha band results suggest that cortical regions not necessary for task performance become less active as skills develop. In both experiments the frontal midline (Fm) theta rhythm also displayed increases over the course of test sessions. This signal is associated with states of focused concentration, and its enhancement might reflect the conscious control over attention associated with maintenance of a task

  8. Physiological and Perceptual Sensory Attenuation Have Different Underlying Neurophysiological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Davare, Marco; Kilner, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory attenuation, the top-down filtering or gating of afferent information, has been extensively studied in two fields: physiological and perceptual. Physiological sensory attenuation is represented as a decrease in the amplitude of the primary and secondary components of the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) before and during movement. Perceptual sensory attenuation, described using the analogy of a persons' inability to tickle oneself, is a reduction in the perception of the afferent input of a self-produced tactile sensation due to the central cancellation of the reafferent signal by the efference copy of the motor command to produce the action. The fields investigating these two areas have remained isolated, so the relationship between them is unclear. The current study delivered median nerve stimulation to produce SEPs during a force-matching paradigm (used to quantify perceptual sensory attenuation) in healthy human subjects to determine whether SEP gating correlated with the behavior. Our results revealed that these two forms of attenuation have dissociable neurophysiological correlates and are likely functionally distinct, which has important implications for understanding neurological disorders in which one form of sensory attenuation but not the other is impaired. Time–frequency analyses revealed a negative correlation over sensorimotor cortex between gamma-oscillatory activity and the magnitude of perceptual sensory attenuation. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that gamma-band power is related to prediction error and that this might underlie perceptual sensory attenuation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We demonstrate that there are two functionally and mechanistically distinct forms of sensory gating. The literature regarding somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) gating is commonly cited as a potential mechanism underlying perceptual sensory attenuation; however, the formal relationship between physiological and perceptual sensory

  9. Aquatic exercise and pain neurophysiology education versus aquatic exercise alone for patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pires, Diogo; Cruz, Eduardo Brazete; Caeiro, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a combination of aquatic exercise and pain neurophysiology education with aquatic exercise alone in chronic low back pain patients. Single-blind randomized controlled trial. Outpatient clinic. Sixty-two chronic low back pain patients were randomly allocated to receive aquatic exercise and pain neurophysiology education (n = 30) or aquatic exercise alone (n = 32). Twelve sessions of a 6-week aquatic exercise programme preceded by 2 sessions of pain neurophysiology education. Controls received only 12 sessions of the 6-week aquatic exercise programme. The primary outcomes were pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale) and functional disability (Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale) at the baseline, 6 weeks after the beginning of the aquatic exercise programme and at the 3 months follow-up. Secondary outcome was kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia). Fifty-five participants completed the study. Analysis using mixed-model ANOVA revealed a significant treatment condition interaction on pain intensity at the 3 months follow-up, favoring the education group (mean SD change: -25.4± 26.7 vs -6.6 ± 30.7, P < 0.005). Although participants in the education group were more likely to report perceived functional benefits from treatment at 3 months follow-up (RR=1.63, 95%CI: 1.01-2.63), no significant differences were found in functional disability and kinesiophobia between groups at any time. This study's findings support the provision of pain neurophysiology education as a clinically effective addition to aquatic exercise. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Global SF6 emission estimates inferred from atmospheric observations - a test case for Kyoto reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, I.; Naegler, T.

    2009-04-01

    Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is one of the strongest greenhouse gases per molecule in the atmosphere. SF6 emissions are also one of the six greenhouse gases targeted for reduction under the Kyoto Protocol. Here we present a long-term data set of globally distributed high-precision atmospheric SF6 observations which show an increase in mixing ratios from near zero in the 1970s to a global mean value of 6.3 ppt by the end of 2007. Because of its long atmospheric lifetime of around 3000 years, the accumulation of SF6 in the atmosphere is a direct measure of its global emissions: Analysis of our long-term data records implies a decrease of global SF6 sources after 1995, most likely due to emission reductions in industrialised countries. However, after 1998 the global SF6 source increases again, which is probably due to enhanced emissions from transition economies such as in China and India. Moreover, observed north-south concentration differences in SF6 suggest that emissions calculated from statistical (bottom-up) information and reported by Annex II parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) may be too low by up to 50%. This clearly shows the importance and need for atmospheric (top-down) validation of Kyoto reporting which is only feasible with a dense world-wide observational network for greenhouse and other trace gases. Other members of the Global SF6 Trends Team: R. Heinz (1), D. Osusko (1), E. Cuevas (2), A. Engel (3), J. Ilmberger (1), R.L. Langenfelds (4), B. Neininger (5), C.v. Rohden (1), L.P. Steele (4), A. Varlagin (6), R. Weller (7), D.E. Worthy (8), S.A. Zimov (9) (1) Institut für Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany, (2) Centro de Investigación Atmosférica de Izaña, Instituto Nacional de Meteorología (INM), 38071 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain, (3) Institut für Atmosphäre und Umwelt, J.W. Goethe Universität Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt/Main, Germany, (4) Centre for Australian Weather and

  11. Descartes' visit to the town library, or how Augustinian is Descartes' neurophysiology?

    PubMed

    Smith, C U

    1998-08-01

    Rene Descartes was early accused of taking his central philosophical proposition from St Augustine. Did he also take his central neurophysiological concept from the same source? This is the question which this paper sets out to answer. It is concluded that the foundational neurophysiology propounded in L'Homme does indeed show strong and interesting resemblences to Augustine's largely Erasistratean version. Descartes, however, working within the new paradigm of seventeenth-century physical science, introduced a new principle: whereas Augustine's neurophysiology is pervaded throughout by a vital factor, the pneuma, Descartes' theory involved only inanimate material forces. It is concluded, further, that in spite of the interesting similarities between Augustinian and Cartesian neurophysiology there is no evidence for any direct plagiarism. It seems more likely that Augustine's influence was filtered through the Galenical physiologists of Descartes' own time and of the preceding century.

  12. Can neurophysiologic measures serve as biomarkers for the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment of major depressive disorder?

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Brian; Cook, Ian A; Hunter, Aimee M; Minzenberg, Michael J; Krantz, David E; Leuchter, Andrew F

    2017-03-31

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective treatment for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). There are clinical data that support the efficacy of many different approaches to rTMS treatment, and it remains unclear what combination of stimulation parameters is optimal to relieve depressive symptoms. Because of the costs and complexity of studies that would be necessary to explore and compare the large number of combinations of rTMS treatment parameters, it would be useful to establish reliable surrogate biomarkers of treatment efficacy that could be used to compare different approaches to treatment. This study reviews the evidence that neurophysiologic measures of cortical excitability could be used as biomarkers for screening different rTMS treatment paradigms. It examines evidence that: (1) changes in excitability are related to the mechanism of action of rTMS; (2) rTMS has consistent effects on measures of excitability that could constitute reliable biomarkers; and (3) changes in excitability are related to the outcomes of rTMS treatment of MDD. An increasing body of evidence indicates that these neurophysiologic measures have the potential to serve as reliable biomarkers for screening different approaches to rTMS treatment of MDD.

  13. Systems-level neurophysiological state characteristics for drug evaluation in an animal model of levodopa-induced dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Tamtè, Martin; Brys, Ivani; Richter, Ulrike; Ivica, Nedjeljka; Halje, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Disorders affecting the central nervous system have proven particularly hard to treat, and disappointingly few novel therapies have reached the clinics in recent decades. A better understanding of the physiological processes in the brain underlying various symptoms could therefore greatly improve the rate of progress in this field. We here show how systems-level descriptions of different brain states reliably can be obtained through a newly developed method based on large-scale recordings in distributed neural networks encompassing several different brain structures. Using this technology, we characterize the neurophysiological states associated with parkinsonism and levodopa-induced dyskinesia in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease together with pharmacological interventions aimed at reducing dyskinetic symptoms. Our results show that the obtained electrophysiological data add significant information to conventional behavioral evaluations and hereby elucidate the underlying effects of treatments in greater detail. Taken together, these results potentially open up for studies of neurophysiological mechanisms underlying symptoms in a wide range of neurological and psychiatric conditions that until now have been very hard to investigate in animal models of disease. PMID:26740532

  14. American neurophysiology and two nineteenth-century American Physiological Societies.

    PubMed

    Lazar, J Wayne

    2017-01-01

    This article contrasts two American Physiological Societies, one founded near the beginning of the nineteenth century in 1837 and the other founded near its end in 1887. The contrast allows a perspective on how much budding neuroscience had developed during the nineteenth century in America. The contrast also emphasizes the complicated structure needed in both medicine and physiology to allow neurophysiology to flourish. The objectives of the American Physiological Society of 1887 were (and are) to promote physiological research and to codify physiology as a discipline. These would be accomplished by making physiology much more inclusive than traditionally accepted by raising research standards, by giving prestige to its members, by providing members a source of professional interchange, by protecting its members from antivivisectionists, and by promoting physiology as fundamental to medicine. The quantity of neuroscientific experiments by its members was striking. The main organizers of the society were Silas Weir Mitchell, John Call Dalton, Henry Pickering Bowditch, and Henry Newell Martin. The objective of the American Physiological Society of 1837 was to disperse knowledge of the "laws of life" and to promote human health and longevity. The primary organizers were William Andrus Alcott and Sylvester Graham with the encouragement of John Benson. Its technique was to use physiological information, not create it as was the case in 1887. Its object was to disseminate the word that healthy eating will improve the quality of life.

  15. Cough: neurophysiology, methods of research, pharmacological therapy and phonoaudiology

    PubMed Central

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The cough is the more common respiratory symptom in children and adults. Objective: To present a revision on the neurophysiology and the methods for study of the consequence of the cough, as well as the pharmacotherapy and phonoaudiology therapy of the cough, based on the works published between 2005 and 2010 and indexed in the bases Medline, Lilacs and Library Cochrane under them to keywords “cough” or “anti-cough”. Synthesis of the data: The consequence of the cough involves activation of receiving multiples becomes vacant in the aerial ways and of neural projections of the nucleus of the solitary treatment for other structures of the central nervous system. Experimental techniques allow studying the consequence of the cough to the cellular and molecular level to develop new anti-cough agents. It does not have evidences of that anti-cough exempt of medical lapsing they have superior effectiveness to the one of placebo for the relief of the cough. The phonoaudiology therapy can benefit patients with refractory chronic cough to the pharmacological treatment, over all when paradoxical movement of the vocal folds coexists. Final Comments: The boarding to multidiscipline has basic paper in the etiological diagnosis and treatment of the cough. The otolaryngologist must inform the patients on the risks of the anti-cough of free sales in order to prevent adverse poisonings and effect, especially in children. PMID:25991944

  16. Neurophysiological Correlates of Visual Dominance: A Lateralized Readiness Potential Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Liu, Mingxin; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Sai; Zhang, Bao; Liu, Xingzhou; Chen, Qi

    2017-01-01

    When multisensory information concurrently arrives at our receptors, visual information often receives preferential processing and eventually dominates awareness and behavior. Previous research suggested that the visual dominance effect implicated the prioritizing of visual information into the motor system. In order to further reveal the underpinning neurophysiological mechanism of how visual information is prioritized into the motor system when vision dominates audition, the present study examined the time course of a particular motor activation ERP component, the lateralized readiness potential (LRP), during multisensory competition. The onsets of both stimulus-locked LRP (S-LRP) and response-locked LRP (R-LRP) were measured. Results showed that, the R-LRP onset to the auditory target was delayed about 91 ms when it was paired with a simultaneous presented visual target, compared to that when it was presented by itself. For the visual target, however, the R-LRP onset was comparable irrespective of whether it was paired with an auditory target or not. No significant difference was obtained for the onset of S-LRP. Taken together, the time courses of LRPs indicated that visual information was preferentially processed within the motor system, which coincides with the previous finding that the dorsal visual stream prioritizes the flow of visual information into the motor system. PMID:28303113

  17. [Neurophysiological markers of generalized and focal epileptic seizures].

    PubMed

    Kravtsova, E Yu; Shulakova, K V

    To identify neurophysiological markers of focal and generalized epileptic seizures in the inter-epileptic period. Sixty-four patients, including 36 with isolated generalized tonic-clonic seizures and 28 with focal seizures, were examined. The control group consisted of 27 healthy people. EEG-video monitoring and bioelectric activity analysis of the brain during wakefulness and day sleep, spectral EEG analysis, quantitative and quality indicators of sleep were used. In generalized epileptic seizures, alpha rhythm is predominantly recorded in the left hemisphere. In wakefulness, the focal epileptiform activity develops during the first two stages of day sleep. In focal epileptic seizures, delta and beta-2 rhythms were recorded in the left hemisphere, regional epileptiform changes are aggravated during the 1st and 2nd stages of slow sleep initiated in the frontal regions. A focal component of the epileptiform activity in the inter-epileptic period in patients with different types of seizures should be taken into account in examination and treatment planning of patients who had difficulties with the diagnosis of epilepsy type.

  18. Physiological and Perceptual Sensory Attenuation Have Different Underlying Neurophysiological Correlates.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Clare E; Davare, Marco; Kilner, James M

    2016-10-19

    Sensory attenuation, the top-down filtering or gating of afferent information, has been extensively studied in two fields: physiological and perceptual. Physiological sensory attenuation is represented as a decrease in the amplitude of the primary and secondary components of the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) before and during movement. Perceptual sensory attenuation, described using the analogy of a persons' inability to tickle oneself, is a reduction in the perception of the afferent input of a self-produced tactile sensation due to the central cancellation of the reafferent signal by the efference copy of the motor command to produce the action. The fields investigating these two areas have remained isolated, so the relationship between them is unclear. The current study delivered median nerve stimulation to produce SEPs during a force-matching paradigm (used to quantify perceptual sensory attenuation) in healthy human subjects to determine whether SEP gating correlated with the behavior. Our results revealed that these two forms of attenuation have dissociable neurophysiological correlates and are likely functionally distinct, which has important implications for understanding neurological disorders in which one form of sensory attenuation but not the other is impaired. Time-frequency analyses revealed a negative correlation over sensorimotor cortex between gamma-oscillatory activity and the magnitude of perceptual sensory attenuation. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that gamma-band power is related to prediction error and that this might underlie perceptual sensory attenuation.

  19. Neurophysiological mechanisms involved in language learning in adults

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Mestres-Missé, Anna; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in word learning during infancy and in second language acquisition and about the way these new words become stable representations that sustain language processing. In several studies we have adopted the human simulation perspective, studying the effects of brain-lesions and combining different neuroimaging techniques such as event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging in order to examine the language learning (LL) process. In the present article, we review this evidence focusing on how different brain signatures relate to (i) the extraction of words from speech, (ii) the discovery of their embedded grammatical structure, and (iii) how meaning derived from verbal contexts can inform us about the cognitive mechanisms underlying the learning process. We compile these findings and frame them into an integrative neurophysiological model that tries to delineate the major neural networks that might be involved in the initial stages of LL. Finally, we propose that LL simulations can help us to understand natural language processing and how the recovery from language disorders in infants and adults can be accomplished. PMID:19933142

  20. Neurophysiological Pathways to Obesity: Below Awareness and Beyond Individual Control

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    A global obesity epidemic is occurring simultaneously with ongoing increases in the availability and salience of food in the environment. Obesity is increasing across all socioeconomic groups and educational levels and occurs even among individuals with the highest levels of education and expertise in nutrition and related fields. Given these circumstances, it is plausible that excessive food consumption occurs in ways that defy personal insight or are below individual awareness. The current food environment stimulates automatic reflexive responses that enhance the desire to eat and increase caloric intake, making it exceedingly difficult for individuals to resist, especially because they may not be aware of these influences. This article identifies 10 neurophysiological pathways that can lead people to make food choices subconsciously or, in some cases, automatically. These pathways include reflexive and uncontrollable neurohormonal responses to food images, cues, and smells; mirror neurons that cause people to imitate the eating behavior of others without awareness; and limited cognitive capacity to make informed decisions about food. Given that people have limited ability to shape the food environment individually and no ability to control automatic responses to food-related cues that are unconsciously perceived, it is incumbent upon society as a whole to regulate the food environment, including the number and types of food-related cues, portion sizes, food availability, and food advertising. PMID:18586908

  1. Postnatal neurophysiologic effects of prenatal X-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jensh, R P; Eisenman, L M; Brent, R L

    1995-02-01

    Histological and neurophysiological effects of in utero irradiation were examined following exposure of pregnant Wistar rat to 2.0 Gy X-irradiation or sham-irradiated on the 17th day of gestation. The 234 newborns were monitored for the age of appearance of four selected physiologic markers and the age of acquisition of five selected reflexes. Offspring were evaluated as young adults using selected behavioural tests. Postnatal growth was monitored weekly. Selected offspring were autopsied to determine the presence of morphologic central nervous system alterations. The results indicated that 2.0 Gy X-irradiation during the foetal period in rat gestation caused permanent alterations in the mature adult organism, which include non-recuperable growth retardation, morphologic changes in the brain such as microcephaly, abnormal cerebellar cortical cellular patterns, and alterations in the cell architecture of the hippocampus; diminished attainment of selected reflexes; alterations in the appearance of selected physiologic markers; and changes in adult test performance indicating significant hyperactivity among the irradiated offspring. Such exposure to X-irradiation during this period results in behavioural and morphologic alterations, which persist throughout life.

  2. Afference copy as a quantitative neurophysiological model for consciousness.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Hugo; Coop, Allan D

    2014-06-01

    Consciousness is a topic of considerable human curiosity with a long history of philosophical analysis and debate. We consider there is nothing particularly complicated about consciousness when viewed as a necessary process of the vertebrate nervous system. Here, we propose a physiological "explanatory gap" is created during each present moment by the temporal requirements of neuronal activity. The gap extends from the time exteroceptive and proprioceptive stimuli activate the nervous system until they emerge into consciousness. During this "moment", it is impossible for an organism to have any conscious knowledge of the ongoing evolution of its environment. In our schematic model, a mechanism of "afference copy" is employed to bridge the explanatory gap with consciously experienced percepts. These percepts are fabricated from the conjunction of the cumulative memory of previous relevant experience and the given stimuli. They are structured to provide the best possible prediction of the expected content of subjective conscious experience likely to occur during the period of the gap. The model is based on the proposition that the neural circuitry necessary to support consciousness is a product of sub/preconscious reflexive learning and recall processes. Based on a review of various psychological and neurophysiological findings, we develop a framework which contextualizes the model and briefly discuss further implications.

  3. Neurophysiology for Detection of High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex and often disabling disorder that is characterized by a wide range of social, emotional, and cognitive deficits. Increasing research suggests that the greatest social and cognitive therapeutic impact comes from early identification. The present study applied a well-established neurophysiological paradigm in the schizophrenia literature, mismatch negativity (MMN), to college students identified as high risk (HR) for psychosis to investigate MMN as a potential biomarker for the onset of psychosis. The hypothesis was that HR would exhibit attenuated MMN amplitudes compared to controls, as has been established in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Participants (N = 121) were separated into Group 1 (controls) (n1 = 72) and Group 2 (HR) (n2 = 49) based on the established cutoff score of the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire. Participants then completed a time based MMN paradigm during which brain activity was recorded with EEG. For all electrode locations, controls demonstrated significantly more negative amplitudes than HR (Cz: F(1,119) = 8.09, p = .005; Fz: F(1, 119) = 5.74, p = .018; Pz: F(1,119) = 5.88, p = .017). Results suggested that MMN may assist in identifying those who appear high-functioning but may be at risk for later development of psychosis or cognitive and psychological difficulties associated with psychosis. PMID:27579180

  4. Neurophysiology for Detection of High Risk for Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Pantlin, Lara N; Davalos, Deana

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex and often disabling disorder that is characterized by a wide range of social, emotional, and cognitive deficits. Increasing research suggests that the greatest social and cognitive therapeutic impact comes from early identification. The present study applied a well-established neurophysiological paradigm in the schizophrenia literature, mismatch negativity (MMN), to college students identified as high risk (HR) for psychosis to investigate MMN as a potential biomarker for the onset of psychosis. The hypothesis was that HR would exhibit attenuated MMN amplitudes compared to controls, as has been established in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Participants (N = 121) were separated into Group 1 (controls) (n 1 = 72) and Group 2 (HR) (n 2 = 49) based on the established cutoff score of the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire. Participants then completed a time based MMN paradigm during which brain activity was recorded with EEG. For all electrode locations, controls demonstrated significantly more negative amplitudes than HR (Cz: F(1,119) = 8.09, p = .005; Fz: F(1, 119) = 5.74, p = .018; Pz: F(1,119) = 5.88, p = .017). Results suggested that MMN may assist in identifying those who appear high-functioning but may be at risk for later development of psychosis or cognitive and psychological difficulties associated with psychosis.

  5. Neurophysiological Correlates of Visual Dominance: A Lateralized Readiness Potential Investigation.

    PubMed

    Li, You; Liu, Mingxin; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Sai; Zhang, Bao; Liu, Xingzhou; Chen, Qi

    2017-01-01

    When multisensory information concurrently arrives at our receptors, visual information often receives preferential processing and eventually dominates awareness and behavior. Previous research suggested that the visual dominance effect implicated the prioritizing of visual information into the motor system. In order to further reveal the underpinning neurophysiological mechanism of how visual information is prioritized into the motor system when vision dominates audition, the present study examined the time course of a particular motor activation ERP component, the lateralized readiness potential (LRP), during multisensory competition. The onsets of both stimulus-locked LRP (S-LRP) and response-locked LRP (R-LRP) were measured. Results showed that, the R-LRP onset to the auditory target was delayed about 91 ms when it was paired with a simultaneous presented visual target, compared to that when it was presented by itself. For the visual target, however, the R-LRP onset was comparable irrespective of whether it was paired with an auditory target or not. No significant difference was obtained for the onset of S-LRP. Taken together, the time courses of LRPs indicated that visual information was preferentially processed within the motor system, which coincides with the previous finding that the dorsal visual stream prioritizes the flow of visual information into the motor system.

  6. Neurophysiological predictor of SMR-based BCI performance.

    PubMed

    Blankertz, Benjamin; Sannelli, Claudia; Halder, Sebastian; Hammer, Eva M; Kübler, Andrea; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Curio, Gabriel; Dickhaus, Thorsten

    2010-07-15

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow a user to control a computer application by brain activity as measured, e.g., by electroencephalography (EEG). After about 30years of BCI research, the success of control that is achieved by means of a BCI system still greatly varies between subjects. For about 20% of potential users the obtained accuracy does not reach the level criterion, meaning that BCI control is not accurate enough to control an application. The determination of factors that may serve to predict BCI performance, and the development of methods to quantify a predictor value from psychological and/or physiological data serve two purposes: a better understanding of the 'BCI-illiteracy phenomenon', and avoidance of a costly and eventually frustrating training procedure for participants who might not obtain BCI control. Furthermore, such predictors may lead to approaches to antagonize BCI illiteracy. Here, we propose a neurophysiological predictor of BCI performance which can be determined from a two minute recording of a 'relax with eyes open' condition using two Laplacian EEG channels. A correlation of r=0.53 between the proposed predictor and BCI feedback performance was obtained on a large data base with N=80 BCI-naive participants in their first session with the Berlin brain-computer interface (BBCI) system which operates on modulations of sensory motor rhythms (SMRs). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sudarshan Kriya yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression: part I-neurophysiologic model.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard P; Gerbarg, Patricia L

    2005-02-01

    Mind-body interventions are beneficial in stress-related mental and physical disorders. Current research is finding associations between emotional disorders and vagal tone as indicated by heart rate variability. A neurophysiologic model of yogic breathing proposes to integrate research on yoga with polyvagal theory, vagal stimulation, hyperventilation, and clinical observations. Yogic breathing is a unique method for balancing the autonomic nervous system and influencing psychologic and stress-related disorders. Many studies demonstrate effects of yogic breathing on brain function and physiologic parameters, but the mechanisms have not been clarified. Sudarshan Kriya yoga (SKY), a sequence of specific breathing techniques (ujjayi, bhastrika, and Sudarshan Kriya) can alleviate anxiety, depression, everyday stress, post-traumatic stress, and stress-related medical illnesses. Mechanisms contributing to a state of calm alertness include increased parasympathetic drive, calming of stress response systems, neuroendocrine release of hormones, and thalamic generators. This model has heuristic value, research implications, and clinical applications.

  8. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-23

    Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin Jillian L. Sanford1, Sharon A...the maxillary palps of gypsy moth larvae, and known to be sensitive to feeding deterrents, also responds to the insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and...JC, Shields VDC (2014) Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin. PLOS ONE 9

  9. Preliminary evidence of a neurophysiological basis for individual discrimination in filial imprinting.

    PubMed

    Town, Stephen Michael

    2011-12-01

    Filial imprinting involves a predisposition for biologically important stimuli and a learning process directing preferences towards a particular stimulus. Learning underlies discrimination between imprinted and unfamiliar individuals and depends upon the IMM (intermediate and medial mesopallium). Here, IMM neurons responded differentially to familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics following socialization and the neurophysiological effects of social experience differed between hemispheres. Such findings may provide a neurophysiological basis for individual discrimination in imprinting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. APFBC repowering could help meet Kyoto Protocol CO{sub 2} reduction goals[Advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, R.E.; Tonnemacher, G.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Clinton Administration signed the 1997 Kyoto Protocol agreement that would limit US greenhouse gas emissions, of which carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the most significant. While the Kyoto Protocol has not yet been submitted to the Senate for ratification, in the past, there have been few proposed environmental actions that had continued and wide-spread attention of the press and environmental activists that did not eventually lead to regulation. Since the Kyoto Protocol might lead to future regulation, its implications need investigation by the power industry. Limiting CO{sub 2} emissions affects the ability of the US to generate reliable, low cost electricity, and has tremendous potential impact on electric generating companies with a significant investment in coal-fired generation, and on their customers. This paper explores the implications of reducing coal plant CO{sub 2} by various amounts. The amount of reduction for the US that is proposed in the Kyoto Protocol is huge. The Kyoto Protocol would commit the US to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions to 7% below 1990 levels. Since 1990, there has been significant growth in US population and the US economy driving carbon emissions 34% higher by year 2010. That means CO{sub 2} would have to be reduced by 30.9%, which is extremely difficult to accomplish. The paper tells why. There are, however, coal-based technologies that should be available in time to make significant reductions in coal-plant CO{sub 2} emissions. Th paper focuses on one plant repowering method that can reduce CO{sub 2} per kWh by 25%, advanced circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle (APFBC) technology, based on results from a recent APFBC repowering concept evaluation of the Carolina Power and Light Company's (CP and L) L.V. Sutton steam station. The replacement of the existing 50-year base of power generating units needed to meet proposed Kyoto Protocol CO{sub 2} reduction commitments would be a massive undertaking. It is

  11. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 4: Recording Clinical EEG on Digital Media.

    PubMed

    Halford, Jonathan J; Sabau, Dragos; Drislane, Frank W; Tsuchida, Tammy N; Sinha, Saurabh R

    2016-08-01

    Digital EEG recording systems are now widely available and relatively inexpensive. They offer multiple advantages over previous analog/paper systems, such as higher fidelity recording, signal postprocessing, automated detection, and efficient data storage. This document provides guidance for the creation of digital EEG recordings including (1) documentation of patient information, (2) notation of information during the recording, (3) digital signal acquisition parameters during the recording, (4) storage of digital information, and (5) display of digital EEG signals.

  12. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 4: Recording Clinical EEG on Digital Media.

    PubMed

    Halford, Jonathan J; Sabau, Dragos; Drislane, Frank W; Tsuchida, Tammy N; Sinha, Saurabh R

    2016-01-01

    Digital EEG recording systems are now widely available and relatively inexpensive. They offer multiple advantages over previous analog/paper systems, such as higher fidelity recording, signal postprocessing, automated detection, and efficient data storage. This document provides guidance for the creation of digital EEG recordings including (1) documentation of patient information, (2) notation of information during the recording, (3) digital signal acquisition parameters during the recording, (4) storage of digital information, and (5) display of digital EEG signals.

  13. The neurophysiological effects of a single session of spinal joint mobilization: does the effect last?

    PubMed Central

    Hegedus, Eric J; Goode, Adam; Butler, Robert J; Slaven, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Studies detailing the neurophysiological effects of spinal manual therapy have fueled a paradigm shift away from a strict biomechanical model. However, a recent systematic review of the temporal nature of a single session of spinal thrust manipulation found that the neurophysiological effects were only temporary. The objective of this review was to examine the temporal nature of neurophysiological effects after one session of spinal mobilization. Studies eligible for this review had to report on the temporal component of the neurophysiological effects of a single session of joint mobilization of the spine in human subjects. In order to be sure that the temporal nature of these effects was captured, the studies had to monitor neurophysiological effects for a time beyond the immediate post-treatment period. This systematic review followed the methodology for preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. In order to assess the quality, strength, and importance of the included studies, the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation system was used. Results of this review showed that the neurophysiological effects of a single session of spinal mobilization are mostly 5 minutes or less. An exception to these findings is hypoalgesia which may last up to 24 hours, based on one study. Continued research on small samples of healthy subjects with irrelevant immediate outcomes like salivary rate, skin conductance, and skin temperature should give way to randomized controlled trials on subjects with pain and decreased function. PMID:22851877

  14. Genetic architecture of Wistar-Kyoto rat and spontaneously hypertensive rat substrains from different sources.

    PubMed

    Zhang-James, Yanli; Middleton, Frank A; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-07-02

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been widely used as a model for studies of hypertension and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat, derived from the same ancestral outbred Wistar rat as the SHR, are normotensive and have been used as the closest genetic control for the SHR, although the WKY has also been used as a model for depression. Notably, however, substantial behavioral and genetic differences among the WKY substrains, usually from the different vendors and breeders, have been observed. These differences have often been overlooked in prior studies, leading to inconsistent and even contradictory findings. The complicated breeding history of the SHR and WKY rats and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the genetic background of different commercial substrains make the selection of control rats a daunting task, even for researchers who are mindful of their genetic heterogeneity. In this study, we examined the genetic relationship of 16 commonly used WKY and SHR rat substrains using genome-wide SNP genotyping data. Our results confirmed a large genetic divergence and complex relationships among the SHR and WKY substrains. This understanding, although incomplete without the genome sequence, provides useful guidance in selecting substrains and helps to interpret previous reports when the source of the animals was known. Moreover, we found two closely related, yet distinct WKY substrains that may provide novel opportunities in modeling psychiatric disorders.

  15. Nickel Mirror And Supermirror Neutron Guide Tubes At The Kyoto University Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisawa, Toru; Akiyoshi, Tsunekazu; Tasaki, Seiji; Kawai, Takeshi; Achiwa, Norio; Utsuro, Masahiko; Okamoto, Sunao

    1989-01-01

    We installed the first nickel mirror neutron guide tube with a characteristic wavelength of 2.85 Å at Kyoto University research reactor(KUR, 5MW, cooled and moderated by light water) in 1973 and a supermirror guide tube with a characteristic wavelength of 1.17 Å in 1984, in order to get more intense thermal neutron beam. Four guide tubes are under construction at a cold neutron source installed in 1986. Two of them are supermirror type with a characteristic wavelength of 3 Å and the others are supermirror and Ni-mirror type with characteristic wavelengths of 6 Å and 23 Å, respectively. Supermirrors are made by automatically controlled vacuum deposition of nickel and titanium metal with electron gun. Their averaging reflectivity for the first supermirror guide tube are the following: The apparent critical wavelength, λ/θ, of reflection is 240 Å in term of wavelength(λ/θ) corresponding to the component of wave number perpendicular to the mirror surface. The reflectivity is 0.65 at the apparent critical wavelength and becomes higher with increasing neutron wavelength up to nearly unity for wavelength longer than 500 Å. Supermirror guide tubes are featured by more available neutrons with larger divergent angles and shorter length of the guide tubes. These features would bring us significant advantages depending on experimental requirements.

  16. Precocious differentiation of the virgin Wistar-Kyoto rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Benton, M E; Chen, K S; Haag, J D; Sattler, C A; Gould, M N

    1999-06-01

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain expresses high levels of beta-casein in its virgin mammary glands. We found that the onset of beta-casein overexpression (BCO) occurs at 6 weeks of age, with morphological differentiation of the mammary gland detectable at 7 weeks of age. BCO was previously shown to be cell autonomous; however, we found that adrenal and ovarian hormones were permissive and necessary for the expression of the BCO phenotype, indicating that the genetic variation that initiates BCO from within the mammary epithelium can only manifest BCO in the presence of virgin hormone levels. Sequencing of the WKY and Wistar-Furth (WF) rat beta-casein promoters showed them to be identical. Culture of primary rat mammary epithelial cells (RMEC) under lactogenic conditions revealed that expression of beta-casein was independent of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in RMEC from virgin WKYv, but was dependent in WFv, RMEC. RMEC from a pregnant WFp responded similarly to WKYv RMEC, suggesting that EGF-independent beta-casein expression occurs naturally in differentiated rat mammary epithelium. However, induction of beta-casein expression in RMEC from immature WKY rats was also independent of EGF, indicating that the induction as well as maintenance of BCO do not require EGF. We suggest that an EGF-independent signaling pathway, arising from a trans-acting inherited effector(s), underlies BCO.

  17. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Diaz, Ana Isabel; Moyon, Ben; Coan, Philip M.; Alfazema, Neza; Venda, Lara; Woollard, Kevin; Aitman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN) and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg) strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminary in vitro and in vivo imaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades. PMID:26769799

  18. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Garcia Diaz, Ana Isabel; Moyon, Ben; Coan, Philip M; Alfazema, Neza; Venda, Lara; Woollard, Kevin; Aitman, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN) and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg) strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminaryin vitroandin vivoimaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Daytime mother-calf relationships in reticulated giraffes (Giraffa cameloparadalis reticulate) at the Kyoto City Zoo.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Masayuki; Murata, Chisa; Eto, Ryo; Takagi, Naoko; Yamada, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    The present study quantitatively assesses the relationships between a reticulated giraffe mother and her first- and second-born calves during the first 22 months of the older calf's and the first 12 months of the younger calf's life at the Kyoto City Zoo, Japan. The mother permitted her calves to suckle at over 70% of their suckling attempts in the first month after their births, and the calves ceased suckling spontaneously in 65 to 70% of the suckling bouts. From the second month on, she showed a clear tendency to reject the calves' suckling attempts and terminated almost all of their suckling bouts, which resulted in approximately 60 sec or less of suckling duration per bout. The frequency of proximity between the mother and her calves remained at 20 to 30% throughout the first year, with no apparent developmental changes being evident. The mother was mainly responsible for terminating proximity by walking away from her calves throughout their first year after birth, while both calves were mainly responsible for attempting proximity by approaching their mother after reaching 2 months of age. Our study also showed that the giraffe mother became pregnant again while nursing her calves and ceased lactation (i.e., weaned the calves) before the fetus's growth started accelerating.

  20. WTC deafness Kyoto (dfk): a rat model for extensive investigations of Kcnq1 functions.

    PubMed

    Gohma, Hiroshi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Okajima, Ryoko; Tanimoto, Noriaki; Yamasaki, Ken-ichi; Nakanishi, Satoshi; Kitada, Kazuhiro; Makiyama, Takeru; Akao, Masaharu; Kita, Toru; Sasa, Masashi; Serikawa, Tadao

    2006-02-14

    KCNQ1 forms K+ channels by assembly with regulatory subunit KCNE proteins and plays a key role in the K+ homeostasis in a variety of tissues. In the heart, KCNQ1 is coassembled with KCNE1 to produce a cardiac delayed rectifier K+ current. In the inner ear, the KCNQ1/KCNE1 complex maintains the high concentration of K+ in the endolymph. In the stomach, KCNQ1 is coassembled with KCNE2 to form the K+ exflux channel that is essential for gastric acid secretion. In the colon and small intestine, KCNQ1 is coassembled with KCNE3 to play an important role in transepithelial cAMP-stimulated Cl- secretion. For further understanding of Kcnq1 function in vivo, an animal model has been required. Here we reported the identification of a coisogenic Kcnq1 mutant rat, named deafness Kyoto (dfk), and the characterization of its phenotypes. WTC-dfk rats carried intragenic deletion at the Kcnq1 gene and showed impaired gain of weight, deafness, and imbalance resulting from the marked reduction of endolymph, prolonged QT interval in the electrocardiogram (ECG), and gastric achlorhydria associated with hypertrophic gastric mucosa. Surprisingly, WTC-dfk rats showed hypertension, which suggested that Kcnq1 might be involved in the regulation of blood pressure. These findings suggest that WTC-dfk rats could represent a powerful tool for studying the physiological functions of KCNQ1 and for the establishment of new therapeutic procedures for Kcnq1-related diseases.

  1. Classical and instrumental conditioning of eyeblink responses in Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ricart, Thomas M; Jiao, Xilu; Pang, Kevin C H; Beck, Kevin D; Servatius, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of anxiety vulnerability, acquire lever-press avoidance faster than outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Faster avoidance acquisition may reflect an inherent ability to acquire cue-outcome associations, response-outcome associations or both. To evaluate cue-outcome learning, acquisition of classically conditioned eyeblink response was compared in SD and WKY rats using a delay-type paradigm (500-ms conditioned stimulus (CS) coterminating with a 10-ms unconditional stimulus (US)). WKY rats demonstrated enhanced classical conditioning, with both faster acquisition and greater asymptotic performance in delay-type training than SD rats. To evaluate response-outcome learning, separate SD and WKY rats were given control over US delivery through imposition of an omission contingency into delay-type training (emitting a conditioned response (CR) prevented delivery of the US). The schedule of US delivery derived by these rats became the training regimen for a separate group of SD and WKY rats, yoked within strain. In SD rats, no differences in acquisition were detected between those given control over US delivery and those trained with the same partial reinforcement schedule. Acquisition rates of those WKY rats with control exceeded those trained with a yoked-schedule of US presentation. Collectively, WKY rats exhibit enhanced classical conditioning and sensitivity to schedules of reinforcement compared to outbred SD rats. Anxiety vulnerability, in particular inhibited temperament, may be traced to active processes in the prediction and control of aversive events.

  2. Development and performance of Kyoto's x-ray astronomical SOI pixel (SOIPIX) sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuru, Takeshi G.; Matsumura, Hideaki; Takeda, Ayaki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Nakashima, Shinya; Arai, Yasuo; Mori, Koji; Takenaka, Ryota; Nishioka, Yusuke; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Hatsui, Takaki; Kameshima, Takashi; Ozaki, Kyosuke; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Wagai, Tatsuya; Takei, Dai; Kawahito, Shoji; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yasutomi, Keita; Kamehama, Hiroki

    2014-08-01

    We have been developing monolithic active pixel sensors, known as Kyoto's X-ray SOIPIXs, based on the CMOS SOI (silicon-on-insulator) technology for next-generation X-ray astronomy satellites. The event trigger output function implemented in each pixel offers microsecond time resolution and enables reduction of the non-X-ray background that dominates the high X-ray energy band above 5-10 keV. A fully depleted SOI with a thick depletion layer and back illumination offers wide band coverage of 0.3-40 keV. Here, we report recent progress in the X-ray SOIPIX development. In this study, we achieved an energy resolution of 300 eV (FWHM) at 6 keV and a read-out noise of 33 e- (rms) in the frame readout mode, which allows us to clearly resolve Mn-Kα and Kβ. Moreover, we produced a fully depleted layer with a thickness of 500 μm. The event-driven readout mode has already been successfully demonstrated.

  3. Dysfunctional Inhibitory Mechanisms in Locus Coeruleus Neurons of the Wistar Kyoto Rat

    PubMed Central

    Bruzos-Cidón, C; Llamosas, N; Ugedo, L

    2015-01-01

    Background: The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) has functional relevance in several psychopathologies such as stress, anxiety, and depression. In addition to glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs, the activation of somatodendritic α2-adrenoceptors is the main responsible for LC activity regulation. The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat exhibits depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and hyperresponse to stressors. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate in vitro the sensitivity of α2-adrenoceptors, as well as the glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic activity on LC neurons of the WKY strain. Methods: For that purpose patch-clamp whole-cell recordings were done in LC slices. Results: The α2-adrenoceptors of LC neurons from WKY rats were less sensitive to the effect induced by the agonist UK 14 304 as compared to that recorded in the Wistar (Wis) control strain. In addition, the GABAergic input to LC neurons of WKY rats was significantly modified compared to that in Wis rats, since the amplitude of spontaneous GABAergic postsynaptic currents was reduced and the half-width increased. On the contrary, no significant alterations were detected regarding glutamatergic input to LC neurons between rat strains. Conclusions: These results point out that in WKY rats the inhibitory control exerted by α2-adrenoceptors and GABAergic input onto LC neurons is dysregulated. Overall, this study supports in this animal model the hypothesis that claims an imbalance between the glutamatergic-GABAergic systems as a key factor in the pathophysiology of depression. PMID:25586927

  4. Cofiring fossil fuels with renewable energy in addressing global climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.; Hoppe, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    In addressing the issue of Global Climate Change, the use of renewable energy resources and energy efficiency has been traditionally touted as the most effective way to mitigate the production of greenhouse gases and to sequester carbon-based emissions resulting from the use of fossil fuels for the worldwide production of power. The goal set by the Kyoto Protocol of ``stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the atmosphere`` will not be met unless the predictions for world energy production based on the use of oil, gas and coal are considered in using renewable energy resources. The use of renewable energy in the US amounted to 7.4 quads in 1997 which was only 7.8% of total domestic gross energy demand. In the US alone the biomass renewable energy economically accessible resource base is estimated at 14 quads per year which can be considered for use in addressing predicted increases in electric power demand. In 1990 the biomass generated power was 3.1 quads in the US alone, and renewable energy accounted for 14.7% of the total world power production allowing for significant increases in the future. The most significant use of renewable energy other than the power sector is the use of biofuels (principally from wood) in the industrial sector which accounts for 21% of the total renewable demand of 7.432 quads in 1997.

  5. Cocaine self-administration in Wistar-Kyoto rats: a behavioral and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Joanna; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Szumiec, Łukasz; Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Haduch, Anna; Smaga, Irena; Bystrowska, Beata; Daniel, Wladyslawa A; Filip, Małgorzata

    2015-10-15

    Depression and cocaine abuse disorders are common concurrent diagnoses. In the present study, we employed Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats that showed a depressive-like phenotype to study intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement procedures. We also investigated the basal tissue level of neurotransmitters, their metabolites and plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations in WKY rats, bulbectomized (OBX) rats, and control rats. The WKY rats exhibited an attenuation of the cocaine-associated lever presses and cocaine intake during the acquisition/maintenance of cocaine self-administration only under specific conditions. Active lever presses exhibited by the WKY rats and control animals did not differ during the extinction training and cocaine-seeking behaviors. The WKY rats demonstrated alterations in the basal levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in selected brain structures involved in depression and drug addiction. The changes in the level of neurotransmitters in these animals refer not only to the control (Wistar) rats but also to bulbectomized animals, which represent another depression model. Furthermore, we identified unchanged levels of CORT in the WKY and OBX rats during the light phase and free-stress conditions. This finding suggests that WKY rats should not be used to investigate the co-occurrence of depression and cocaine addiction, as this rat strain does not show an enhanced risk of relapse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurophysiological effects of chronic indoor environmental toxic mold exposure on children.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Ebere C; Campbell, Andrew W; Vojdani, Aristo

    2003-04-28

    The phenomenon of building-related diseases is attracting much research interest in recent years because of the extent to which it affects people with compromised immune systems, especially children. In this study, we reported the neurological findings in children who attended our Center because of chronic exposure to toxic molds. Clinical neurological and neurobehavioral questionnaires were administered with the cooperation of the children's parents. The children then underwent a series of neurophysiological tests including electroencephalogram (EEG), brainstem evoked potential (BAEP), visual evoked potential (VEP), and somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP). The results showed high levels of abnormalities in the analysis of the subjective responses derived from the questionnaires. The EEG examination was abnormal in seven out of ten of the patients compared to the controls with only one in ten with episodes of bihemispheric sharp activity. In all the patients, there was frontotemporal theta wave activity that seemed to indicate diffuse changes characteristic of metabolic encephalopathies. Also, there was highly marked 1 to 3 Hz delta activity that was asymmetrical in the right hemisphere of the brain in three out of ten patients. The waveforms of BAEP showed abnormalities in 90% of the patients with both 15' and 31' check sizes compared to none in the controls. There were significant delays in waveform V in a majority of the patients representing dysfunctional cognitive process and conductive hearing loss in both ears. VEP showed clear abnormalities in four in ten of the patients with P100 amplitudes and latencies decreased bilaterally. In all the patients, there was slowing of conduction in the right tibial at an average of 36.9 ms and there was significant decrease in amplitude of response at the proximal stimulation site. Sensory latencies obtained in the median, ulnar, and sural nerves bilaterally showed abnormalities in five out of ten compared to none in the

  7. Insomnia in Shift Work Disorder Relates to Occupational and Neurophysiological Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, Ren; Gumenyuk, Valentina; Roth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine whether occupational and neurophysiological decrements within shift work disorder (SWD) are differentially related to its two diagnostic symptoms, insomnia and excessive sleepiness. Methods: Thirty-four permanent night workers participated in an overnight lab protocol including a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and an event-related brain potential (ERP) task testing auditory target detection (P3a and P3b). At 16:00, each subject completed an Endicott Work Productivity Scale (EWPS), two Insomnia Severity Indices (ISI-Day, ISI-Night), and an Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Subjects were grouped by ISI and ESS scores into clinical phenotypes. This study compared EWPS and ERP results between alert insomniacs (“AI,” reporting insomnia without sleepiness), sleepy insomniacs (“SI,” reporting both insomnia and sleepiness), and controls. Results: The AI group was most impaired on the EWPS, significantly more impaired than controls (25.8 ± 14.8 vs. 12.3 ± 9.4, p < 0.05). SI were not statistically different from controls (19.5 ± 8.7 vs. 12.3 ± 9.4, p > 0.05). Compared to controls, AI showed significantly attenuated P3a response (Fcz, Czp, Cpz, mean difference [MD] 1.62–1.77, p < 0.05) and target-detection P3b response (Fcz, Czp, Cpz, MD 1.28–1.64, p < 0.05). P3b in SI was not different from controls (p > 0.10), and P3a was only different at one electrode site (Cpz, MD 1.43, p < 0.01). Neither the MSLT nor the ESS correlated with EWPS scores or ERP (P3a/P3b) amplitudes (p > 0.10). However, the mean of the ISI measurements correlated with the EWPS (r = 0.409, p < 0.01) and the attention-to-novelty P3a (r = −0.410, p < 0.01). Conclusions: Among shift work disorder patients, insomnia is linked to functional and cognitive impairments. Insomniacs with normal sleepiness showed more severe impairments than insomniacs who also reported excessive sleepiness. Citation: Belcher R, Gumenyuk V, Roth T. Insomnia in shift work disorder

  8. Neurophysiological analysis of target-related sympathetic pathways--from animal to human: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Jänig, W; Häbler, H-J

    2003-03-01

    similar, if not identical, at least in the neuraxis, in both species. Future progress in the analysis of the central neuronal circuits that are associated with the different final sympathetic pathways will very much depend on whether we are able to align the human models and the animal models. Human models using microneurography have the advantage to work under awake conditions. The activity in the postganglionic neurons can be correlated with various other (afferent, centrally generated) signals, effector responses, perceptions, central changes monitored by imaging methods, etc. However, human models have considerable limitations. Animal models can be divided into in vivo models and various types of reduced in vitro models. Animal models allow using various methodological approaches (e.g., neurophysiological, pharmacological, modern anatomical tracing methods; behavioural animal models; transgenic animals), which cannot be used in the human. Interaction of the research performed in the human and animals will allow to design animal models that are relevant for diseases in which the sympathetic nervous systems is involved and to trace down the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. The scientific questions to be asked are formulated on the basis of clinical observations resulting in testable hypotheses that are investigated in the in vivo human and animal models. Results obtained in the in vivo models lead to the formulation of hypotheses that are testable in reduced in vivo and particularly in vitro animal models. Microneurographic recordings from sympathetic postganglionic fibres in the human will keep its place in the analysis of the sympathetic nervous system in health and disease although only relatively few laboratories in the world will be able to keep the standards and expertise to use this approach. Experimental investigation of the organization of the sympathetic nervous system in animal models has changed dramatically in the last 15 years. The number of in

  9. Assessing a novel polymer-wick based electrode for EEG neurophysiological research.

    PubMed

    Pasion, Rita; Paiva, Tiago O; Pedrosa, Paulo; Gaspar, Hugo; Vasconcelos, Beatriz; Martins, Ana C; Amaral, Maria H; Nóbrega, João M; Páscoa, Ricardo; Fonseca, Carlos; Barbosa, Fernando

    2016-07-15

    The EEG technique has decades of valid applications in clinical and experimental neurophysiology. EEG equipment and data analysis methods have been characterized by remarkable developments, but the skin-to-electrode signal transfer remains a challenge for EEG recording. A novel quasi-dry system - the polymer wick-based electrode - was developed to overcome the limitations of conventional dry and wet silver/silver-chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrodes for EEG recording. Nine participants completed an auditory oddball protocol with simultaneous EEG acquisition using both the conventional Ag/AgCl and the wick electrodes. Wick system successfully recorded the expected P300 modulation. Standard ERP analysis, residual random noise analysis, and single-trial analysis of the P300 wave were performed in order to compare signal acquired by both electrodes. It was found that the novel wick electrode performed similarly to the conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes. The developed wick electrode appears to be a reliable alternative for EEG research, representing a promising halfway alternative between wet and dry electrodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The cause of brachial plexopathy in robot-assisted transaxillary thyroidectomy-A neurophysiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Uri; Zarchi, Omer; Rabinovics, Naomi; Nachalon, Yuval; Feinmesser, Raphael; Bachar, Gideon

    2016-09-01

    During robot-assisted transaxillary thyroidectomy, the patient's arm is maintained in an overhead flexed position for a prolonged time, which poses a risk of postoperative brachial plexopathy. The aim of the study was to identify the causes of brachial plexopathy and to assess the benefit of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) in preventing positional brachial plexopathy in this setting. Retrospective case series. The computerized database of a tertiary medical center was searched for all consecutive patients who underwent robot-assisted transaxillary thyroidectomy between 2012 and 2014. Clinical, operative, and outcome parameters were collected from the medical files. Findings were compared between patients operated with and without IONM. The cohort included 30 patients, 14 operated with IONM and 16 without. Three events of impending brachial plexopathy were detected in the monitored group. The monitored group had significantly better shoulder movement (P = .003), a lower rate of hypoesthesia (P = .011), less pain (P = .001) in the early postoperative period than the nonmonitored group and higher quality of life in the early postoperative period (P = .012). The monitored group was significantly younger than the nonmonitored one (P = .02) and had a significantly larger diameter of thyroid nodule than the nonmonitored group (P = .043). IONM during robot-assisted transaxillary thyroidectomy may improve short-term postoperative pain and shoulder movement and longer-term quality of life. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2187-2193, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Neurophysiological substrates of stroke patients with motor imagery-based Brain-Computer Interface training.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingfen; Liu, Ye; Wu, Yi; Liu, Sirao; Jia, Jie; Zhang, Liqing

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the efficacy of motor imagery-based Brain Computer Interface (MI-based BCI) training for eight stroke patients with severe upper extremity paralysis using longitudinal clinical assessments. The results were compared with those of a control group (n = 7) that only received FES (Functional Electrical Stimulation) treatment besides conventional therapies. During rehabilitation training, changes in the motor function of the upper extremity and in the neurophysiologic electroencephalographic (EEG) were observed for two groups. After 8 weeks of training, a significant improvement in the motor function of the upper extremity for the BCI group was confirmed (p < 0.05 for ARAT), simultaneously with the activation of bilateral cerebral hemispheres. Additionally, event-related desynchronization (ERD) of the affected sensorimotor cortexes (SMCs) was significantly enhanced when compared to the pretraining course, which was only observed in the BCI group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the activation of affected SMC and parietal lobe were determined to contribute to motor function recovery (p < 0.05). In brief, our findings demonstrate that MI-based BCI training can enhance the motor function of the upper extremity for stroke patients by inducing the optimal cerebral motor functional reorganization.

  12. An effective intra-operative neurophysiological monitoring scheme for aneurysm clipping and spinal fusion surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryawala, Mohammed; Yaylali, Ilker; Cabrerizo, Mercedes; Vedala, Krishnatej; Adjouadi, Malek

    2012-04-01

    Somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEPs) have been widely used for intra-operative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). Currently at least 200-300 trials are required to generate a readable SSEP signal. This study introduces a novel approach that yields accurate detection results of the SSEP signal yet with a significantly reduced number of trials, resulting in an effectual monitoring process. The analysis was performed on data recorded in seven patients undergoing surgery, where the posterior tibial nerve was stimulated and the SSEP response was recorded from scalp electroencephalography using two bipolar electrodes, C3-C4 and CZ-FZ. The proposed approach employs an innovative, simple yet effective algorithm based on a patient-specific Gaussian template to detect the SSEP using only 30 trials. The time latencies of the P37 and N45 peaks are detected along with the peak-to-peak amplitudes. The time latencies are detected with a mean accuracy greater than 95%. Also, the P37 and N45 peak latencies and the peak-to-peak amplitude were found to be consistent throughout the surgical procedure within the 10% and 50% acceptable clinical limits, respectively. The results obtained support the assertion that the algorithm is capable of detecting SSEPs with high accuracy and consistency throughout the entire surgical procedure using only 30 trials.

  13. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in developmental stuttering: Relations with previous neurophysiological research and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Busan, P; Battaglini, P P; Sommer, M

    2017-06-01

    Developmental stuttering (DS) is a disruption of the rhythm of speech, and affected people may be unable to execute fluent voluntary speech. There are still questions about the exact causes of DS. Evidence suggests there are differences in the structure and functioning of motor systems used for preparing, executing, and controlling motor acts, especially when they are speech related. Much research has been obtained using neuroimaging methods, ranging from functional magnetic resonance to diffusion tensor imaging and electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography. Studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in DS have been uncommon until recently. This is surprising considering the relationship between the functionality of the motor system and DS, and the wide use of TMS in motor-related disturbances such as Parkinson's Disease, Tourette's Syndrome, and dystonia. Consequently, TMS could shed further light on motor aspects of DS. The present work aims to investigate the use of TMS for understanding DS neural mechanisms by reviewing TMS papers in the DS field. Until now, TMS has contributed to the understanding of the excitatory/inhibitory ratio of DS motor functioning, also helping to better understand and critically review evidence about stuttering mechanisms obtained from different techniques, which allowed the investigation of cortico-basal-thalamo-cortical and white matter/connection dysfunctions. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Targeting cellular prion protein reverses early cognitive deficits and neurophysiological dysfunction in prion-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Mallucci, Giovanna R; White, Melanie D; Farmer, Michael; Dickinson, Andrew; Khatun, Husna; Powell, Andrew D; Brandner, Sebastian; Jefferys, John G R; Collinge, John

    2007-02-01

    Currently, no treatment can prevent the cognitive and motor decline associated with widespread neurodegeneration in prion disease. However, we previously showed that targeting endogenous neuronal prion protein (PrP(C)) (the precursor of its disease-associated isoform, PrP(Sc)) in mice with early prion infection reversed spongiform change and prevented clinical symptoms and neuronal loss. We now show that cognitive and behavioral deficits and impaired neurophysiological function accompany early hippocampal spongiform pathology. Remarkably, these behavioral and synaptic impairments recover when neuronal PrP(C) is depleted, in parallel with reversal of spongiosis. Thus, early functional impairments precede neuronal loss in prion disease and can be rescued. Further, they occur before extensive PrP(Sc) deposits accumulate and recover rapidly after PrP(C) depletion, supporting the concept that they are caused by a transient neurotoxic species, distinct from aggregated PrP(Sc). These data suggest that early intervention in human prion disease may lead to recovery of cognitive and behavioral symptoms.

  15. Resting-State Neurophysiological Abnormalities in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    PubMed Central

    Badura-Brack, Amy S.; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; McDermott, Timothy J.; Becker, Katherine M.; Ryan, Tara J.; Khanna, Maya M.; Wilson, Tony W.

    2017-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric condition that is common in veterans returning from combat operations. While the symptoms of PTSD have been extensively characterized, the neural mechanisms that underlie PTSD are only vaguely understood. In this study, we examined the neurophysiology of PTSD using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in a sample of veterans with and without PTSD. Our primary hypothesis was that veterans with PTSD would exhibit aberrant activity across multiple brain networks, especially those involving medial temporal and frontal regions. To this end, we examined a total of 51 USA combat veterans with a battery of clinical interviews and tests. Thirty-one of the combat veterans met diagnostic criteria for PTSD and the remaining 20 did not have PTSD. All participants then underwent high-density MEG during an eyes-closed resting-state task, and the resulting data were analyzed using a Bayesian image reconstruction method. Our results indicated that veterans with PTSD had significantly stronger neural activity in prefrontal, sensorimotor and temporal areas compared to those without PTSD. Veterans with PTSD also exhibited significantly stronger activity in the bilateral amygdalae, parahippocampal and hippocampal regions. Conversely, healthy veterans had stronger neural activity in the bilateral occipital cortices relative to veterans with PTSD. In conclusion, these data suggest that veterans with PTSD exhibit aberrant neural activation in multiple cortical areas, as well as medial temporal structures implicated in affective processing. PMID:28487642

  16. Neurophysiology of circadian rhythm sleep disorders of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Jan, James E; Bax, Martin C O; Owens, Judith A; Ipsiroglu, Osman S; Wasdell, Michael B

    2012-09-01

    This article reviews circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs) of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities. These sleep disturbances frequently occur in this population but they are misunderstood and under diagnosed. The causes and features of CRSD in children with brain disorders differ in many ways from those seen in typically developing children. It is the brain, including the eyes, which regulates sleep and circadian rhythmicity by modulating pineal melatonin production/secretion and when there is significant brain damage, the sleep/wake patterns may be modified. In most instances CRSD are not disorders of the suprachiasmatic nuclei because these small hypothalamic structures only adjust their functions to the changing photic and non-photic modulatory influences. Each form of CRSD is accompanied by characteristic changes in serum melatonin levels and clinical features. When nocturnal melatonin production/secretion is inappropriately timed or impaired in relation to the environment, timed melatonin replacement therapy will often be beneficial. In this review an attempt is made to clarify the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the various forms of CRSD because without understanding the photic and non-photic influences on sleep, these sleep disorders can not be fully characterized, defined or even appropriately treated. In the future, the existing definitions for the different forms of CRSD should be modified by experts in pediatric sleep medicine in order to include children with neurodevelopmental disabilities.

  17. [Neurophysiological advances in carpal tunnel syndrome: process of central sensitisation or local neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Santiago, R; de-la-Llave-Rincon, A I; Laguarta-Val, S; Martinez-Perez, A; Pareja, J A; Fernandez-de-Las-Penas, C

    2012-04-16

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is considered a simple entrapment of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel. In the last years, several studies have demonstrated the presence of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms. To review the basis neurophysiology of peripheral and central sensitization by applying them to CTS and to determine their clinical repercussions. Several studies have revealed that patients with CTS exhibit somato-sensory changes in areas innervated by the median nerve and also in areas non-related with the median nerve. Individuals with CTS exhibited widespread mechanical and thermal pain hyperalgesia, although they suffered from unilateral symptoms. Further, patients also showed wide-spread impairments in vibration conduction, deficits in fine motor control and changes in the somato-sensory cortex. These evidences support the presence of a complex process of peripheral and central sensitization in patients with CTS which may constitute a negative prognosis factor for the management of these patients. The advances in neurosciences in the last years support the presence of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms in CTS. These mechanisms justify the necessity of conceptual changes and in the management, both conservative and surgical, of this syndrome. Additionally, central sensitization can also play a relevant role in the prognosis of CTS since it can constitute a negative prognosis factor for its treatment.

  18. The neurophysiological basis of the integration of written and heard syllables in dyslexic adults.

    PubMed

    Mittag, Maria; Thesleff, Paula; Laasonen, Marja; Kujala, Teija

    2013-02-01

    Letter-speech sound integration in fluent readers takes place automatically and is dependent on temporal synchrony between letters and sounds. In developmental dyslexia, however, letter-speech sound associations are hard to learn, compromising accurate and fluent reading. We studied the effect of printed text on processing speech sounds in dyslexic and fluent adult readers. Visual stimuli were presented with sequences of spoken syllables including vowel or consonant changes, or changes in syllable intensity, frequency, or vowel duration. As visual material, written syllables or their scrambled images were used. The auditory stimuli were presented either synchronously with the visual stimuli or time delayed. The mismatch negativity (MMN), an index of automatic neural change detection, was recorded. MMN amplitudes were larger to syllable changes in combination with written syllables than with scrambled images in fluent readers. However, dyslexic readers showed no difference between syllables vs. scrambled image condition. Furthermore, MMNs to consonant and frequency changes peaked later in dyslexic than fluent readers. Our results suggest deficient and sluggish audiovisual integration in dyslexic individuals, which is not dependent on the phonological relevance of the deviant type. Unlike previous studies, our study included several different types of syllable changes presented with concurrent print, enabling us to determine in more detail the nature of the audiovisual deficit in dyslexia. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Report from the 29th World Congress of Endourology and SWL (November 30-December 3, 2011 - Kyoto, Japan).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2012-02-01

    Kyoto is a city of surprises: from the most beautiful castles and temples known far and wide across the world, to the humblest temples, as beautiful as those appearing in all tourist guides, just hidden away in small lanes among busy traffic of bicycles and pedestrians shopping in markets or attending to their daily business. Add the innumerable tourists busily exploring the city's attractions, although this was not the reason for visiting Kyoto, which was the site of this year's World Congress of Endourology and SWL. Nevertheless, maybe as a compensation, the meeting was held in Kokusaikaikan, literally the International Conference Centre, which is a modern facility in the city outskirts, actually adjoining the Takaragaike park, with a beautiful lake and the mountains, brightly led by the trees' red leaves, just visible through the main hall windows.

  20. Promoting Health During the American Occupation of Japan The Public Health Section, Kyoto Military Government Team, 1945-1949

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Sey

    2008-01-01

    During the American occupation of Japan (1945–1952), young public health officers from the US Army Medical Corps were posted in local US Army military government teams. These young doctors (aged 25 to 27 years), who had not absorbed the strong anti-Japanese tradition of the US military during World War II, seem to have alleviated the initial resentment felt by the Japanese toward the new governors of their homeland. The case of the Kyoto Military Government Team illustrates the Kyoto citizenry’s positive view of some American-directed public health measures. The team’s services helped to counter widely held negative views on colonialism, occupation, and public health; lessened resentment toward the unilateral command structure of the occupation forces; and contributed to improved relations between the United States and Japan at the local level. PMID:18235076

  1. Subclinical neurophysiological effects of manganese in welding workers.

    PubMed

    He, S C; Niu, Q

    2004-01-01

    High-level occupational manganese (Mn) exposure has been reported to induce irreversible brain alterations determining a Parkinson-like disease. This study aimed to assess subclinical neurophysiological alterations in welding workers. They were employed in a machine building factory with an average Mn exposure <200 mg/m3. Sixty-eight workers (mean age: 34 years; mean Mn exposure duration: 16 years) and 42 flour factory workers (control group) with similar age and smoking habit were recruited. Autonomic nervous function test battery (ANSFT), composed of Valsalva maneuvre-induced heart rate variation (HR-V), heart rate variation following deep breathing (HR-DB) and heart rate variation following immediate standing up (HR-IS) was assessed. Electroencephalogram (EEG), brain electricity activity mapping (BEAM) were also performed. HR-V, HR-DB, and HR-IS were significantly lower in Mn-exposed subjects showing altered autonomic nervous system activity, parasympathetic-sympathetic imbalance and, and consequently, altered cardiovascular regulation and reactivity. The EEG of the Mn-exposed workers evidenced beta-wave rhythms significantly reduced, theta-waves markedly increased and abnormal wave activities of either localized or diffusive type. In the same workers BEAM revealed higher theta, delta and beta power values in the F7 area, lower d power values in the FP1, FP2 and C4 areas as well as dissymmetry in the central area, parietal region and occipital region. This study suggests that Mn impairs neuron activity within central nervous system. In this context, brainstem parasympathetic and sympathetic centers receiving axon projections from cortical and diencephalic areas, may reflect Mn effects on upper pathways. However, direct actions of Mn on these centers cannot be excluded.

  2. Artificial gravity exposure impairs exercise-related neurophysiological benefits.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Tobias; Abeln, Vera; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan

    2014-01-17

    Artificial gravity (AG) exposure is suggested to counteract health deconditioning, theoretically complementing exercise during space habitations. Exercise-benefits on mental health are well documented (i.e. well-being, enhanced executive functions). Although AG is coherent for the integrity of fundamental physiological systems, the effects of its exposure on neurophysiological processes related to cognitive performance are poorly understood and therefore characterize the primary aim of this study. 16 healthy males participated in two randomly assigned sessions, AG and exercise (30minute each). Participants were exposed to AG at continuous +2Gz in a short-arm human centrifuge and performed moderate exercise (cycling ergometer). Using 64 active electrodes, resting EEG was recorded before (pre), immediately after (post), and 15min after (post15) each session. Alpha (7.5-12.5Hz) and beta frequencies (12.5-35.0Hz) were exported for analysis. Cognitive performance and mood states were assessed before and after each session. Cognitive performance improved after exercise (p<0.05), but not after AG. This was reflected by typical EEG patterns after exercise, however not after AG. Frontal alpha (post p<0.01, post15 p<0.001) and beta activity (post15 p<0.001) increased after AG compared to a decrease in frontal alpha (post15 p<0.05) and beta activity (post p<0.01) after exercise. Relaxed cortical states were indicated after exercise, but were less apparent after AG. Changes in mood states failed significance after both sessions. Summarized, the benefits to mental health, recorded after exercise, were absent after AG, indicating that AG might cause neurocognitive deconditioning.

  3. Neurophysiological responses to music and vibroacoustic stimuli in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bergström-Isacsson, Märith; Lagerkvist, Bengt; Holck, Ulla; Gold, Christian

    2014-06-01

    People with Rett syndrome (RTT) have severe communicative difficulties. They have as well an immature brainstem that implies dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Music plays an important role in their life, is often used as a motivating tool in a variety of situations and activities, and caregivers are often clear about people with RTTs favourites. The aim of this study was to investigate physiological and emotional responses related to six different musical stimuli in people with RTT. The study included 29 participants with RTT who were referred to the Swedish Rett Center for medical brainstem assessment during the period 2006-2007. 11 children with a typical developmental pattern were used as comparison. A repeated measures design was used, and physiological data were collected from a neurophysiological brainstem assessment. The continuous dependent variables measured were Cardiac Vagal Tone (CVT), Cardiac Sensitivity to Baroreflex (CSB), Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MAP) and the Coefficient of Variation of Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MAP-CV). These parameters were used to categorise brainstem responses as parasympathetic (calming) response, sympathetic (activating) response, arousal (alerting) response and unclear response. The results showed that all participants responded to the musical stimuli, but not always in the expected way. It was noticeable that both people with and without RTT responded with an arousal to all musical stimuli to begin with. Even though the initial expressions sometimes changed after some time due to poor control functions of their brainstem, the present results are consistent with the possibility that the RTT participants' normal responses to music are intact. These findings may explain why music is so important for individuals with RTT throughout life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurophysiological and biophysical evidence on the mechanism of electric taste

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The phenomenon of electric taste was investigated by recording from the chorda tympani nerve of the rat in response to both electrical and chemical stimulations of the tongue with electrolytes in order to gain some insight into its mechanism on both a neurophysiological and biophysical basis. The maximum neural response levels were identical for an individual salt (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2), whether it was presented as a chemical solution or as an anodal stimulus through a subthreshold solution. These observations support the idea that stimulation occurs by iontophoresis of ions to the receptors at these current densities (less than 100 microA/cm2). Electric responses through dilute HCl were smaller than the chemically applied stimulations, but the integrated anodal responses appeared similar to chemical acid responses, as evidenced by an OFF response to both forms of stimuli. Hydrogen may be more permeant to the lingual epithelium and would thus be shunted away from the taste receptors during anodal stimulation. When the anion of electric taste was varied via subthreshold salt solutions, the response magnitude increased as the mobility of the anion decreased. The transport numbers of the salts involved adequately explains these differences. The physical aspects of ion migration occurring within the adapting fluid on the tongue are also discussed. Direct neural stimulation by the current appears to occur only at higher current densities (greater than 300 microA/cm2). If the taste cells of the tongue were inactivated with either iodoacetic acid (IAA) or N-ethyl maleimide (NEM), or removed with collagenase, then responses from the chorda tympani could be obtained only at these higher current densities. Latency measurements before and after IAA or NEM treatment corroborated these findings. The results are discussed in terms of several proposed mechanisms of electric taste and it is concluded that an ion accumulation mechanism can adequately explain the data. PMID

  5. Neurophysiological insights on flexibility improvements through motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Kanthack, Thiago Ferreira Dias; Guillot, Aymeric; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Guizard, Théophile; Collet, Christian; Rienzo, Franck Di

    2017-07-28

    The efficacy of motor imagery (MI) practice to facilitate muscle stretching remains controversial and the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms unexplored. We evaluated the effects of MI practice during a sit-and-reach task. Healthy participants were randomly assigned to a MI practice (n=15) or Control (n=15) group and completed 2 blocks of 5 sit-and-reach trials. During the first block (B1), participants performed 5 maximal stretching trials of 10s. During the second block (B2), trials were divided into two consecutive parts: i) reproducing the maximum performance of B1 (10s, B2 part 1), and ii) attempting to outperform the maximum performance of B1 (10s, B2 part 2). Participants performed kinesthetic MI of hamstring stretching during B2 trials in the MI practice group. We recorded electromyography from the hamstring and rectus femoris of the dominant leg. We also processed skin conductance as an index of sympathetic activity. We measured greater performance improvements from B1 to B2 part 2 in the MI practice group compared to Control (p<0.05). Participants in the MI practice group exhibited reduced hamstring activation during both B2 part 1 (p<0.001) and B2 part 2 (p<0.001) compared to Control. Skin conductance revealed higher sympathetic activation during B2 part 2 compared to both B1 and B2 part 1 in the two groups. Thus, performing MI during actual movement is likely to improve stretching performance through reduced muscle activation. Such improvement may be grounded in a cortical gain over spinal reflexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ecology and Neurophysiology of Sleep in Two Wild Sloth Species

    PubMed Central

    Voirin, Bryson; Scriba, Madeleine F.; Martinez-Gonzalez, Dolores; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Wikelski, Martin; Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Interspecific variation in sleep measured in captivity correlates with various physiological and environmental factors, including estimates of predation risk in the wild. However, it remains unclear whether prior comparative studies have been confounded by the captive recording environment. Herein we examine the effect of predation pressure on sleep in sloths living in the wild. Design: Comparison of two closely related sloth species, one exposed to predation and one free from predation. Setting: Panamanian mainland rainforest (predators present) and island mangrove (predators absent). Participants: Mainland (Bradypus variegatus, five males and four females) and island (Bradypus pygmaeus, six males) sloths. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded using a miniature data logger. Although both species spent between 9 and 10 h per day sleeping, the mainland sloths showed a preference for sleeping at night, whereas island sloths showed no preference for sleeping during the day or night. Standardized EEG activity during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed lower low-frequency power, and increased spindle and higher frequency power in island sloths when compared to mainland sloths. Conclusions: In sloths sleeping in the wild, predation pressure influenced the timing of sleep, but not the amount of time spent asleep. The preference for sleeping at night in mainland sloths may be a strategy to avoid detection by nocturnal cats. The pronounced differences in the NREM sleep EEG spectrum remain unexplained, but might be related to genetic or environmental factors. Citation: Voirin B; Scriba MF; Martinez-Gonzalez D; Vyssotski AL; Wikelski M; Rattenborg NC. Ecology and neurophysiology of sleep in two wild sloth species. SLEEP 2014;37(4):753-761. PMID:24899764

  7. Unravelling the neurophysiological basis of aggression in a fish model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aggression is a near-universal behaviour with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. The neurophysiological basis of aggression is, however, poorly understood in all species and approaches adopted to study this complex behaviour have often been oversimplified. We applied targeted expression profiling on 40 genes, spanning eight neurological pathways and in four distinct regions of the brain, in combination with behavioural observations and pharmacological manipulations, to screen for regulatory pathways of aggression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), an animal model in which social rank and aggressiveness tightly correlate. Results Substantial differences occurred in gene expression profiles between dominant and subordinate males associated with phenotypic differences in aggressiveness and, for the chosen gene set, they occurred mainly in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The patterns of differentially-expressed genes implied multifactorial control of aggression in zebrafish, including the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system, serotonin, somatostatin, dopamine, hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal, hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and histamine pathways, and the latter is a novel finding outside mammals. Pharmacological manipulations of various nodes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system and serotonin pathways supported their functional involvement. We also observed differences in expression profiles in the brains of dominant versus subordinate females that suggested sex-conserved control of aggression. For example, in the HNS pathway, the gene encoding arginine vasotocin (AVT), previously believed specific to male behaviours, was amongst those genes most associated with aggression, and AVT inhibited dominant female aggression, as in males. However, sex-specific differences in the expression profiles also occurred, including differences in aggression-associated tryptophan hydroxylases and estrogen receptors

  8. A Bottom-up Approach to Data Annotation in Neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Grewe, Jan; Wachtler, Thomas; Benda, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Metadata providing information about the stimulus, data acquisition, and experimental conditions are indispensable for the analysis and management of experimental data within a lab. However, only rarely are metadata available in a structured, comprehensive, and machine-readable form. This poses a severe problem for finding and retrieving data, both in the laboratory and on the various emerging public data bases. Here, we propose a simple format, the “open metaData Markup Language” (odML), for collecting and exchanging metadata in an automated, computer-based fashion. In odML arbitrary metadata information is stored as extended key–value pairs in a hierarchical structure. Central to odML is a clear separation of format and content, i.e., neither keys nor values are defined by the format. This makes odML flexible enough for storing all available metadata instantly without the necessity to submit new keys to an ontology or controlled terminology. Common standard keys can be defined in odML-terminologies for guaranteeing interoperability. We started to define such terminologies for neurophysiological data, but aim at a community driven extension and refinement of the proposed definitions. By customized terminologies that map to these standard terminologies, metadata can be named and organized as required or preferred without softening the standard. Together with the respective libraries provided for common programming languages, the odML format can be integrated into the laboratory workflow, facilitating automated collection of metadata information where it becomes available. The flexibility of odML also encourages a community driven collection and definition of terms used for annotating data in the neurosciences. PMID:21941477

  9. Large-Scale, High-Resolution Neurophysiological Maps Underlying fMRI of Macaque Temporal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Papanastassiou, Alex M.; DiCarlo, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Maps obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are thought to reflect the underlying spatial layout of neural activity. However, previous studies have not been able to directly compare fMRI maps to high-resolution neurophysiological maps, particularly in higher level visual areas. Here, we used a novel stereo microfocal x-ray system to localize thousands of neural recordings across monkey inferior temporal cortex (IT), construct large-scale maps of neuronal object selectivity at subvoxel resolution, and compare those neurophysiology maps with fMRI maps from the same subjects. While neurophysiology maps contained reliable structure at the sub-millimeter scale, fMRI maps of object selectivity contained information at larger scales (>2.5 mm) and were only partly correlated with raw neurophysiology maps collected in the same subjects. However, spatial smoothing of neurophysiology maps more than doubled that correlation, while a variety of alternative transforms led to no significant improvement. Furthermore, raw spiking signals, once spatially smoothed, were as predictive of fMRI maps as local field potential signals. Thus, fMRI of the inferior temporal lobe reflects a spatially low-passed version of neurophysiology signals. These findings strongly validate the widespread use of fMRI for detecting large (>2.5 mm) neuronal domains of object selectivity but show that a complete understanding of even the most pure domains (e.g., faces vs nonface objects) requires investigation at fine scales that can currently only be obtained with invasive neurophysiological methods. PMID:24048850

  10. [Current state of smoking and alcohol drinking among pregnant women in Kyoto City].

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Takayo; Taniguchi, Chiho; Hamagashira, Naoko

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the current state of smoking and alcohol drinking among pregnant women, and assess the factors related to smoking behavior during pregnancy. Subjects were mothers whose children had undergone 4-month checkups publicly provided by Kyoto City in February 2007. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey about their smoking and alcohol drinking behavior was conducted. Chi-square tests and a logistic regression analysis were carried out to assess the factors related to smoking behavior during pregnancy. Out of a total of 999, 722 questionnaires were returned (response rate, 72.3%). Usable questionnaires were 689 (available response rate, 69.0%). The prevalence levels of alcohol drinking during prenatal, pregnant and postnatal periods were 55.9%, 9.1%, 22.1%, respectively. In 586 breast feeding mothers, the prevalence of alcohol drinking was 19.5%. The percentages of women smoking during prenatal, pregnant and postnatal periods were 23.4%, 7.5%, 9.0%, respectively. Out of prenatal smokers, the rate of quit smoking taking advantage of pregnancy was 67.7%. The prevalence of their husbands' smoking was 43.1%. Logistic regression analysis showed that "young age (<25 years)", "drinking alcohol during pregnancy" and "passive smoking due to their husbands" were significantly related to smoking during pregnancy. Maternal smoking and alcohol drinking are important public health problems. The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy was found to be especially high in young women, and some pregnant women could not quit smoking. Approximately half of pregnant women were exposed to passive smoking. The prevalence of alcohol drinking during pregnancy was high in women aged more than 40 years. It is necessary to give knowledge about obstetric and perinatal complications of smoking and alcohol drinking for childbearing-age women, and provide support help quit smoking and alcohol drinking giving due consideration to age.

  11. The first back-side illuminated types of Kyoto's X-ray astronomy SOIPIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itou, Makoto; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Tanaka, Takaaki; Takeda, Ayaki; Matsumura, Hideaki; Ohmura, Shunichi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Shinya; Arai, Yasuo; Kurachi, Ikuo; Mori, Koji; Takenaka, Ryota; Nishioka, Yusuke; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Tamasawa, Koki; Tindall, Craig

    2016-09-01

    We have been developing Kyoto's X-ray astronomy SOI pixel sensors, called "XRPIX", aiming to extend the frontiers of X-ray astronomy with the wide-band imaging spectroscopy in the 0.5-40 keV band. A dead layer on the X-ray incident surface should ideally be as thin as possible to achieve a high sensitivity below 1 keV, and the depletion layer is required to be thick enough to detect 40 keV X-rays. Thus, we have started developing fully-depleted back-side illuminated (BI) types of XRPIXs. This paper reports on our first two BI devices and their X-ray evaluation (2.6-12 keV). The device named "XRPIX2b-FZ-LA" successfully reaches a full depletion with a thickness of 500 μm. On the other hand, it has a dead layer with a thickness of 1.1-1.5 μm and struggles to achieve the requirement of 1.0 μm. The other device named "XRPIX2b-CZ-PZ", which is applied with a thin Si sensor-layer and an improved back-side process, is found to satisfy the requirement with its thickness of 0.9-1.0 μm, including Al optical blocking filter of 0.2 μm, although the Si sensor-layer is rather thin with 62 μm. We also describe in this paper the X-ray calibration system that we have built for the X-ray evaluation of XRPIXs.

  12. Environmental manipulation affects depressive-like behaviours in female Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Mileva, Guergana R; Bielajew, Catherine

    2015-10-15

    While the efficacy of pharmacological interventions to treat depression has been well-studied in animal models, much less work has been done to shed light on how changes in the immediate environment can impact behaviour. Furthermore, most studies have focused on male rodents despite the prevalence of mood disorders in women. In this study, 36 Wistar Kyoto (validated animal model of depression) and 36 Wistar (control) female rats were used to examine the effects of environmental manipulation on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours. Animals were assigned to one of three groups: standard (3 rats/cage), enriched (6 rats/cage plus physical enrichment), and isolation (1 rat/cage) housing. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST) were conducted prior to, and four weeks after environmental assignment to measure anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviours, respectively. Sucrose preference assessed anhedonia both before and after environmental assignment. Weight was measured every week to monitor weight-gain over time. Post-environment sucrose preference was significantly increased in animals in enriched housing as compared to those in isolated housing in both strains. While there were significant differences between strains in measures of open arm duration in the EPM and immobility in the FST, there appeared to be no differences between environmental groups. The results of this study highlight the importance of environmental factors in the expression of anhedonia. Enrichment appears to reduce anhedonia while isolation increases anhedonia. These effects should be studied further to assess whether longer periods of social and physical enrichment alleviate other symptoms of depression.

  13. Why do restless legs occur at rest?--pathophysiology of neuronal structures in RLS. Neurophysiology of RLS (part 2).

    PubMed

    Trenkwalder, C; Paulus, W

    2004-09-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a heterogeneous disorder encompassing genetically caused types with early onset and acquired varieties occurring later in life. Genetic studies in the near future will most likely discover more than one causative gene. The acquired cases too have different etiologies ranging from idiopathic types to secondary forms with uremia, iron depletion, polyneuropathy and others. Here we aim to correlate typical RLS symptoms, such as the sensory symptoms at rest, the reduction of the complaint in response to movement or other physical stimuli, the dominant involvement of the legs, pain, circadian rhythm, and the responsiveness to dopaminergic drugs with neurophysiological features of the central nervous system. We outline the complexity of the neural structures involved and their connections. A diversity of hypothetical affections of different neuronal levels might lead to various combinations of RLS symptomatology. No single pathophysiological explanation has yet been developed that covers all clinical features.

  14. Correction and transformation of normative neurophysiological data: is there added value in the diagnosis of distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Mchugh, John C; Connolly, Sean

    2011-12-01

    Despite theoretical advantages, the practical impact of mathematical correction of normative electrodiagnostic data is poorly quantified. One hundred five healthy volunteers had clinical and neurophysiological assessment. The effects of age, height, gender, weight, and body mass index were explored using stepwise regression modeling. Reference values were derived from raw and adjusted data, which were transformed to allow appropriate use of parametric statistics. The diagnostic accuracy of derived limits was tested in patients at risk of distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) from chemotherapy. The variability of our normative data was reduced by up to 69% through the use of regression modeling, but the overall benefits of mathematical correction were marginal. The most accurate reference limits were established using the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the raw data. Stepwise statistical regression and mathematical transformation improve the distribution of normative data, but their practical impact for diagnosis of distal symmetrical polyneuropathy is small. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Consensus paper of the WFSBP Task Force on Biological Markers: Criteria for biomarkers and endophenotypes of schizophrenia part I: Neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Thibaut, Florence; Boutros, Nash N; Jarema, Marek; Oranje, Bob; Hasan, Alkomiet; Daskalakis, Zafiris Jeffrey; Wichniak, Adam; Schmitt, Andrea; Riederer, Peter; Falkai, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The neurophysiological components that have been proposed as biomarkers or as endophenotypes for schizophrenia can be measured through electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), polysomnography (PSG), registration of event-related potentials (ERPs), assessment of smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) and antisaccade paradigms. Most of them demonstrate deficits in schizophrenia, show at least moderate stability over time and do not depend on clinical status, which means that they fulfil the criteria as valid endophenotypes for genetic studies. Deficits in cortical inhibition and plasticity measured using non-invasive brain stimulation techniques seem promising markers of outcome and prognosis. However the utility of these markers as biomarkers for predicting conversion to psychosis, response to treatments, or for tracking disease progression needs to be further studied.

  16. Photic stimulation during electroencephalography: Efficacy and safety in an unselected cohort of patients referred to UK neurophysiology departments.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Kimberley; Sherratt, Michael; Kandler, Ros; Lawrence, Sarah; Pang, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To determine efficacy and safety of photic stimulation (PS) during electroencephalography (EEG) in a large group of adult and paediatric patients. A prospective multicentre National Service Evaluation was performed organised by the joint audit committee of the two UK professional organisations (Association of Neurophysiological Scientists and British Society for Clinical Neurophysiology). Questionnaires about every EEG performed in the two-month study period were completed contemporaneously by physiologists at the time of the recording-reporting. The occurrence during PS of photoparoxysmal responses (PPRs), seizures and psychogenic non-epileptic attacks was noted from the EEG trace and contemporary clinical observation backed up by the video that was synchronised with the EEG. 5383 patients investigated with EEG and PS, mostly for possible epilepsy, were included in the study. Seventy nine patients (1.5%) had a generalised PPR elicited by PS having had no generalised epileptiform discharges previously in the EEG. Thirty nine patients (0.7%) had seizures provoked by PS including two (0.04%) who had a generalised tonic clonic seizure (GTCS). Forty nine patients (0.9%) had non-epileptic attacks provoked by PS. Thus PS yielded potentially useful information (PPRs, seizures or non-epileptic attacks) in 167/5383 (3.1%) of patients. In a subset of 122/5383 (2.3%), PS provided the only useful information captured within the EEG. PS contributes to the diagnosis of epilepsy and non-epileptic attack disorder in 3.1% of patients. It is a safe technique which produces GTCSs in only 0.04% patients. We conclude that PS is a moderately useful activation technique in diagnostic EEG, where the potential benefits out-weigh the risks; this information may assist the informed consent process. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state: six recommendations to avoid common pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Zander, Thorsten O.; van Erp, Jan B. F.; Korteling, Johannes E.; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating cognitive or affective state from neurophysiological signals and designing applications that make use of this information requires expertise in many disciplines such as neurophysiology, machine learning, experimental psychology, and human factors. This makes it difficult to perform research that is strong in all its aspects as well as to judge a study or application on its merits. On the occasion of the special topic “Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state” we here summarize often occurring pitfalls and recommendations on how to avoid them, both for authors (researchers) and readers. They relate to defining the state of interest, the neurophysiological processes that are expected to be involved in the state of interest, confounding factors, inadvertently “cheating” with classification analyses, insight on what underlies successful state estimation, and finally, the added value of neurophysiological measures in the context of an application. We hope that this paper will support the community in producing high quality studies and well-validated, useful applications. PMID:25983676

  18. MatOFF: A Tool For Analyzing Behaviorally-Complex Neurophysiological Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Genovesio, Aldo; Mitz, Andrew R.

    2007-01-01

    The simple operant conditioning originally used in behavioral neurophysiology 30 years ago has given way to complex and sophisticated behavioral paradigms; so much so, that early general purpose programs for analyzing neurophysiological data are ill-suited for complex experiments. The trend has been to develop custom software for each class of experiment, but custom software can have serious drawbacks. We describe here a general purpose software tool for behavioral and electrophysiological studies, called MatOFF, that is especially suited for processing neurophysiological data gathered during the execution of complex behaviors. Written in the MATLAB programming language, MatOFF solves the problem of handling complex analysis requirements in a unique and powerful way. While other neurophysiological programs are either a loose collection of tools or append MATLAB as a post-processing step, MatOFF is an integrated environment that supports MATLAB scripting within the event search engine safely isolated in programming sandbox. The results from scripting are stored separately, but in parallel with the raw data, and thus available to all subsequent MatOFF analysis and display processing. An example from a recently published experiment shows how all the features of MatOFF work together to analyze complex experiments and mine neurophysiological data in efficient ways. PMID:17604115

  19. Neurophysiological maturation in adolescence - vulnerability and counteracting addiction to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Chwedorowicz, Roman; Skarżyński, Henryk; Pucek, Weronika; Studziński, Tadeusz

    2017-03-22

    The results of contemporary studies confirm the formation of two neural networks in the brain during the period of adolescence. The first is defined as emotional, located in the limbic system, develops earlier, quicker, and more intensively than the second one in the prefrontal cortex, called the judgement network, which fulfils the role of control and inhibition of emotional reactions. The domination of the emotional network in adolescence is manifested by hyperactivity of the limbic system, accompanied by intensified undertaking of courageous, reckless, risky, or even sometimes dangerous actions, so very characteristic in the maturation. The aim of the article is to present the state of the art in the field of latest achievements in experimental neurophysiology related to the maturation of the structural end functional processes in adolescents, and to alcohol vulnerability. Alcohol effect initiation starts in early adolescence, and therefore is connected with alcohol abuse and addiction in adulthood, which confirms the necessity for provision of an early prophylactic protection for juveniles, even before entering the phase of early adolescence. Some electrophysiological characteristics, such as low P3 amplitude of the Event-Related Potential (ERP) and Event-Related Oscillations (EROs), are manifested by their high risk offspring, and are considered to be biological markers (endophenotypes) of a predisposition to develop alcohol use disorders. Electroencephalographic oscillations induced within the range of the theta and delta waves (Event-Related Oscillation- ERO), considered as endophenotypes and markers of increased vulnerability for addiction, present three groups of genes and three types of neurotransmitters, with gamma aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine and glutamate as neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. A new research approach consisting in the application of electroencephalographic methods and techniques in developmental and genetic studies of

  20. Developmental and neurophysiologic deficits in iron deficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Madan, Nishi; Rusia, Usha; Sikka, Meera; Sharma, Satendra; Shankar, Nilima

    2011-01-01

    Several studies in animals and humans have clearly demonstrated the effect of ID on development, cognition, behavior and neurophysiology. The effect of ID have been shown: on brain metabolism, neurotransmitter function, and myelination. Changes in brain iron content caused by early ID in animals are not reversible by iron therapy, inspite of correction of anemia and other tissue deficits and result in changes in behavior which continue into adulthood. ID has repercussions in the perinatal period, infancy and childhood. Some effects are irreversible while other defects may be corrected: timing of ID in a child may be critical. Children (6-23 months) with moderate to severe anemia (ID) or chronic anemia (>3 months) had lower mental and psychomotor development scores than the nonanemic, and except for some continued to have lower scores in spite of iron therapy for 3 months although anemia was corrected. The deficits persisted on re-evaluation at 5, 11-14, and at 19 years. Scholastic achievement is lower and ID children are twice more likely to have problems with mathematics. Ten year follow-up indicated special educational assistance was required for initially anemic children. ID affects WICS items of information, comprehension and verbal performance and full scale IQ. EEG power spectrum had a slower activity suggesting developmental lag compared to iron sufficient children. Treatment with iron improved IQ scores significantly; other studies found differential effects: improvement in cognition and mental scores in older but not in younger children. IQ levels are affected by ID: IQ at 4 years may be predicted by hemoglobin at 5 and 36 months. Abnormal Evoked Response Potentials (ERPs):ABRs and VEPs are seen in ID, which persist in children who were anemic in infancy on retesting at 4 years. Differences have been consistently found in ID infants and in older children. Iron supplementation may significantly reduce latencies of some ERPs. ID affects newborn temperament

  1. Longitudinal neurophysiologic studies in a patient with metachromatic leukodystrophy following bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dhuna, A; Toro, C; Torres, F; Kennedy, W R; Krivit, W

    1992-10-01

    We describe a girl with late infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy. The patient has been followed up with serial neurologic and neurophysiologic examinations for 8 years following bone marrow transplantation, which she underwent when she was 4 3/4 years old. Her older sister died from metachromatic leukodystrophy at the age of 8 years, whereas our patient has retained significant cognitive and motor skills. Serial neurophysiologic studies initially demonstrated continued deterioration after the bone marrow transplantation, but since then, most results have remained stable or improved. Although, to our knowledge, there have been no previous serial studies of metachromatic leukodystrophy, individual case studies suggest that these findings in our patient are very unusual. With the advent of possible treatment for this condition, there is a need for further serial neurophysiologic studies to characterize the natural progression and the possible detection of progression or reversal with treatment.

  2. [Cortical mapping and neurophysiological monitoring during resection of an arteriovenous malformation in the rolandic region].

    PubMed

    Vega-Zelaya, Lorena; Pedrosa-Sánchez, Manuel; Pastor, Jesús

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCTION. Surgery of arteriovenous malformations of eloquent areas has a significant risk of causing severe neurological deficits. CASE REPORT. A 39 years old woman having a headache, showed an arteriovenous malformation in right rolandic region. During resection, performed under general anesthesia, a neurophysiological mapping and subsequently intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring of motor and somatosensory functions was performed. The temporary closure of an artery resulted in a severe motor impairment, reversible after remove the clipping, so that artery had to be respected during the intervention. After resection, the motor and sensory responses were normal. The patient was discharged without any neurological deficits. CONCLUSION. Functional mapping and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring were very helpful for the identification and protection of eloquent areas. The use of these techniques for resection of arteriovenous malformations located in functionally relevant areas, allows a safely surgery in patients under general anesthesia.

  3. Inhaled environmental combustion particles cause myocardial injury in the Wistar Kyoto rat.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, Urmila P; Moyer, Carolyn F; Ledbetter, Allen D; Schladweiler, Mette C; Costa, Daniel L; Hauser, Russ; Christiani, David C; Nyska, Abraham

    2003-02-01

    Epidemiologists have associated particulate matter (PM) air pollution with cardiovascular morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. However, experimental evidence demonstrating causality and pathogenesis of particulate matter (PM)-induced cardiovascular damage has been insufficient. We hypothesized that protracted, repeated inhalation by rats of oil combustion-derived, fugitive emission PM (EPM), similar in metal composition to selected sources of urban air PM, causes exposure duration- and dose-dependent myocardial injury in susceptible rat strains. Zinc was the only primary water-leachable/bioavailable element of this EPM. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were exposed nose-only to EPM (2, 5, or 10 mg/m(3), 6 h/day for 4 consecutive days or 10 mg/m(3), 6 h/day, 1 day/week for 4 or 16 consecutive weeks). Two days following the last EPM exposure, cardiac and pulmonary tissues were examined histologically. The results showed that particle-laden alveolar macrophages were the only pulmonary lesions observed in all three rat strains. However, WKY rats exposed to EPM (10 mg/m(3) 6 h/day, 1 day/week for 16 weeks) demonstrated cardiac lesions with inflammation and degeneration. To further characterize the nature of EPM-associated lesions, more rigorous histopathological and histochemical techniques were employed for WKY and SD rats. We examined the hearts for myocardial degeneration, inflammation, fibrosis, calcium deposits, apoptosis, and the presence of mast cells. Decreased numbers of granulated mast cells, and multifocal myocardial degeneration, chronic-active inflammation, and fibrosis were present in 5 of 6 WKY rats exposed to EPM for 16 weeks. None of these lesions were present in WKY exposed to clean air. EPM-related cardiac lesions were indistinguishable from air-exposed controls in SD and SH rats. This study demonstrates that long-term inhalation exposures to environmentally relevant PM containing

  4. Renal endothelin system and excretory function in Wistar-Kyoto and Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Girchev, R; Bäcker, A; Markova, P; Kramer, H J

    2006-01-01

    The role of the kidney endothelin system in the renal regulation of fluid and electrolyte excretion was investigated in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Long-Evans (LE) rats in which we found previously marked differences in the renal excretory responses to endothelin A receptor blockade. The selective endothelin A and B receptor antagonists BQ-123 (16.4 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)) and BQ-788 (25 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)) were infused i.v. for 50 min in conscious chronically instrumented WKY and LE rats and their renal function and renal endothelin system were studied. Without effects on glomerular filtration rate or renal blood flow, BQ-123 and BQ-788 decreased by more than 50% (P < 0.01) both urine flow rate and electrolyte excretion in WKY rats but only urine flow rate (P < 0.05) in LE rats. Endothelin-1 content, preproET-1/GPDH mRNA ratio, B(max) and K(d) of total endothelin receptors in renal cortex did not differ between the two strains. In contrast, plasma endothelin-1 concentration (0.58 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.05 +/- 0.01 femtomol mL(-1); P < 0.01), renal papillary ET-1 concentration (68 +/- 5 vs. 478 +/- 62 fmol mg(-1) protein; P < 0.01) and preproET-1/GPDH mRNA ratio (0.65 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.88 +/- 0.05; P < 0.05) as well as total endothelin receptor number in renal papilla (B(max) 5.3 +/- 0.4 vs. and 9.0 +/- 1.2 pmol mg(-1) protein; P < 0.05) were markedly lower in LE than in WKY rats. In vitro studies showed that in both strains ET(B) receptors on renal cortical membranes amounted between 65% and 67% and on papillary membranes between 85% and 88%. The present data show that the selective ET(A) or ET(B) receptor blockade differentially affects tubular water and salt handling, which becomes apparent in conditions of low renal papillary endothelin receptor number and tissue endothelin-1 concentration.

  5. Patterns of motor activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats compared to Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Johansen, Espen Borgå

    2016-12-01

    Increased motor activity is a defining characteristic of patients with ADHD, and spontaneously hypertensive rats have been suggested to be an animal model of this disorder. In the present study, we wanted to use linear and non-linear methods to explore differences in motor activity patterns in SHR/NCrl rats compared to Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NHsd) rats. A total number of 42 rats (23 SHR/NCrl and 19 WKY/NHsd, male and female) were tested. At PND 51, the animals' movements were video-recorded during an operant test procedure that lasted 90 min. Total activity level and velocity (mean and maximum), standard deviation (SD) and root mean square successive differences (RMSSD) were calculated. In addition, we used Fourier analysis, autocorrelations and two measures of complexity to characterize the time series; sample entropy and symbolic dynamics. The SHR/NCrl rats showed increased total activity levels in addition to increased mean and maximum velocity of movements. The variability measures, SD and RMSSD, were markedly lower in the SHR/NCrl compared to the WKY/NHsd rats. At the same time, the SHR/NCrl rats displayed a higher complexity of the time series, particularly with regard to the total activity level as evidenced by analyses of sample entropy and symbolic dynamics. Autocorrelation analyses also showed differences between the two strains. In the Fourier analysis, the SHR/NCrl rats had an increased variance in the high frequency part of the spectrum, corresponding to the time period of 9-17 s. The findings show that in addition to increased total activity and velocity of movement, the organization of behavior is different in SHR/NCrl relative to WKY/NHsd controls. Compared to controls, behavioral variability is reduced in SHR/NCrl at an aggregate level, and, concomitantly, more complex and unpredictable from moment-to-moment. These finding emphasize the importance of the measures and methods used when characterizing behavioral variability. If valid for ADHD, the

  6. Carbon sinks and emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol: a legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Bettelheim, Eric C; D'Origny, Gilonne

    2002-08-15

    The controversy over the issues of carbon sinks and emissions trading nearly aborted the Kyoto Protocol. The lengthy and intense debate over the roles that each are to play under the Protocol and the consequent political compromises has resulted in a complex set of provisions and an arcane nomenclature. The distinction drawn between the use of carbon sinks in developed countries under Joint Implementation and their use in developing countries under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a particular source of intricacy. It is at least arguable that key elements of the compromises reached at COP-6 and COP-7 in this regard are inconsistent with the terms of the Protocol and are ultra vires the Convention on Climate Change. This is a source of both uncertainty and potential legal challenge. Not only do the recent decisions create needless complexity, they also clearly discriminate against developing nations. Among the recent political compromises is the creation of a third type of non-bankable but tradeable unit with respect to forest management, which is only available to Annex I countries. The result is an anomalous one in which a variety of otherwise equivalent carbon credits can be generated under three different regimes including one, the CDM, that is subject to an elaborate regulatory overlay that discriminates against carbon sequestration by developing countries. For example, complying developed countries can essentially self-certify sequestration projects. In contrast, projects in developing countries must obtain prior approval from a subsidiary body, the CDM Executive Board, mandated to require detailed information and impose substantive and procedural hurdles not required or imposed by its companion body, the Article 6 Supervisory Committee on Joint Implementation Projects. The parallel and related debate over the third 'flexibility' mechanism, emissions trading, compounded the complexity of an already asymmetric and bifurcated system. The new requirements

  7. FOREWORD: The 7th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop, 17-19 December 2002, Kyoto, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Nobuyuki; Sasaki, Misao; Tagoshi, Hideyuki

    2003-09-01

    The 7th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW2002) was held at the International Institute for Advanced Studies (IIAS) in Kyoto, Japan, on 17-19 December 2002. The GWDAW series is one of the important international conferences supported by the Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC). The workshops have been held annually, and the topics covered range from data analyses for all kinds of gravitational wave detectors to theoretical issues on gravitational wave sources. This year's workshop consisted of seven categories of sessions: the status of detectors, space-based detectors, event search, detector characterization, coincidence of detectors and detector network analysis, new methods of analysis, and sources for advanced ground-based detectors. The year 2002 was an epoch-making year for gravitational wave detection experiments. Some of the large-scale ground-based laser interferometric detectors (LIGO, GEO and TAMA) entered their initial or developed stage of observation, performing scientific runs with durations of several weeks. As a result, many of the talks presented at the workshop were based on actual data taken from these experiments, and we were able to have more realistic discussions on gravitational wave detection. Furthermore, the successful operations of these laser interferometric detectors gave the gravitational wave community a strong motive to form a worldwide detector network, as practised by existing resonant-type detectors. In fact, there were reports on the simultaneous operation of five laser interferometric detectors, and a report on a plan for coincidence operations over a month. There were also reports on future space-based detectors and their source studies from aspects of the data analysis. Thanks to well-prepared talks and vivid discussions by the participants, the workshop was extremely fruitful. These proceedings contain refined and updated papers based on the talks given at the workshop and will provide readers of

  8. Behavioral and neurophysiological investigation of the influence of verbal suggestion on tactile perception.

    PubMed

    Fiorio, M; Recchia, S; Corrà, F; Tinazzi, M

    2014-01-31

    Recently we demonstrated that it is possible to influence tactile perception by applying a placebo manipulation consisting of verbal suggestion and conditioning and that this influence is associated to changes in the late components (N140 and P200) of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) (Fiorio et al., 2012). Due to the powerful effects of words in changing symptoms perception in the clinical domain, aim of this study was to investigate whether even in the tactile modality, perception can be changed by the mere use of persuasive words in a specific context. To this purpose, we adopted the same experimental setting of our previous study, apart from the conditioning procedure. A group of subjects (experimental group) has been verbally suggested about the effect of an inert cream in enhancing tactile perception, while a control group was informed about the inefficacy of the cream. In order to unveil the neurophysiological underpinnings of this effect, we compared the amplitude of late SEPs (P100, N140, P200), before and after treatment. Results showed that the experimental group did not perceive an increase of tactile sensation after the treatment and no modification occurred in the late SEPs. This study proves that verbal suggestion alone is not sufficient to induce enhanced tactile perception (at least with this experimental setting), suggesting that a conditioning procedure may be necessary in the tactile modality. The absence of changes in the late SEP components could reflect the lack of strong expectation following the placebo procedure. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spectrum of peripheral neuropathies associated with surgical interventions; A neurophysiological assessment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that a wide range of surgical procedures may be complicated by neuropathies, not just in close proximity but also remote from procedural sites. The aim of this study was to classify post-operative neuropathies and the procedures associated with them. Methods We retrospectively identified 66 patients diagnosed with post-procedure neuropathies between January 2005 and June 2008. We reviewed their referral cards and medical records for patient demographics, information on procedures, symptoms, as well as clinical and neurophysiological findings. Results Thirty patients (45.4%) had neuropathies remote from procedural sites and 36 patients (54.5%) had neuropathies in close proximity to procedural sites. Half of the remote neuropathies (15/30) developed following relatively short procedures. In 27% of cases (8/30) remote neuropathies were bilateral. Seven patients developed neuropathies remote from operative sites following hip arthroplasties (7/30: 23.3%), making hip arthroplasty the most common procedure associated with remote neuropathies. Sciatic neuropathies due to hip arthroplasty (12/36, 33.3%) accounted for the majority of neuropathies occurring in close proximity to operative sites. Five medial cutaneous nerve of forearm neuropathies occurred following arterio-venous fistula (AVF) formation. Conclusions An array of surgical procedures may be complicated by neuropathy. Almost half of post-procedure neuropathies occur remote from the site of procedure, emphasizing the need to try to prevent not just local, but also remote neuropathies. Mechanical factors and patient positioning should be considered in the prevention of post-operative neuropathies. There is a possible association between AVF formation and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm neuropathy, which requires further study for validation. PMID:20398427

  10. Short versus prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy duration after bare-metal stent implantation: 2-month landmark analysis from the CREDO-Kyoto registry cohort-2.

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Masahiro; Morimoto, Takeshi; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Kadota, Kazushige; Ando, Kenji; Shiomi, Hiroki; Toyota, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Hirotoshi; Ono, Koh; Shizuta, Satoshi; Tamura, Takashi; Inoko, Moriaki; Inada, Tsukasa; Shirotani, Manabu; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Aoyama, Takeshi; Onodera, Tomoya; Suwa, Satoru; Takeda, Teruki; Inoue, Katsumi; Kimura, Takeshi

    2016-09-19

    One-month duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) has widely been adopted after bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation in the real clinical practice. However, it has not been adequately addressed yet whether DAPT for only 1-month could provide sufficient protection from ischemic events beyond 1-month after BMS implantation. We assessed the effects of short DAPT relative to prolonged DAPT on clinical outcomes with the landmark analysis at 2 month after BMS implantation. Among 13,058 consecutive patients enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto registry cohort-2, this study population consisted of 4905 patients treated with BMS only in whom the information on the status of antiplatelet therapy was available at 2 month after stent implantation [single-antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) group: N = 2575 (acute myocardial infarction (AMI): N = 1257, and non-AMI: N = 1318), and DAPT group: N = 2330 (AMI: N = 1304, and non-AMI: N = 1026)]. Cumulative 3-year incidence of the primary outcome measure (a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, definite stent thrombosis, and GUSTO moderate/severe bleeding) was not significantly different between the SAPT and DAPT groups (9.8 versus 10.6 %, P = 0.34). After adjusting confounders, the risk of SAPT relative to DAPT for the primary outcome measure remained insignificant in the entire cohort (HR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.79-1.19, P = 0.77), and in both AMI and non-AMI strata without any significant interaction between clinical presentation (AMI versus non-AMI) and the effect of SAPT relative to DAPT (P interaction = 0.56). In conclusion, short DAPT <2 month after BMS implantation was as safe as prolonged DAPT ≥2-month in both AMI and non-AMI patients.

  11. Effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on neurophysiological correlates of performance monitoring in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; Hepark, Sevket; Kan, Cornelis C; Barendregt, Henk P; Buitelaar, Jan K; Speckens, Anne E M

    2014-07-01

    To examine whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) would enhance attenuated amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing performance monitoring biomarkers of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fifty adult ADHD patients took part in a randomised controlled study investigating ERP and clinical measures pre-to-post MBCT. Twenty-six patients were randomly allocated to MBCT, 24 to a wait-list control. Main outcome measures included error processing (ERN, Pe), conflict monitoring (NoGo-N2), and inhibitory control (NoGo-P3) ERPs concomitant to a continuous performance task (CPT-X). Inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity ADHD symptoms, psychological distress and social functioning, and mindfulness skills were also assessed. MBCT was associated with increased Pe and NoGo-P3 amplitudes, coinciding with reduced 'hyperactivity/impulsivity' and 'inattention' symptomatology. Specific to the MBCT; enhanced Pe amplitudes correlated with a decrease in hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and increased 'act-with-awareness' mindfulness skill, whereas, enhanced P3 correlated with amelioration in inattention symptoms. MBCT enhanced ERP amplitudes associated with motivational saliency and error awareness, leading to improved inhibitory regulation. MBCT suggests having comparable modulation on performance monitoring ERP amplitudes as pharmacological treatments. Further study and development of MBCT as a treatment for ADHD is warranted, in addition to its potential scope for clinical applicability to broader defined externalising disorders and clinical problems associated with impairments of the prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Implications of the Vienna Integrated Model of Art Perception for art-based interventions in clinical populations: Comment on "Move me, astonish me... delight my eyes and brain: The Vienna Integrated Model of top-down and bottom-up processes in Art Perception (VIMAP) and corresponding affective, evaluative, and neurophysiological correlates" by Matthew Pelowski et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    Pelowski et al. present a holistic framework within which the multiple processes underlying art viewing can be systematically organized [1]. The proposed model integrates a broad range of dynamic mechanisms, which can effectively account for empirical as well as humanistic perspectives on art perception. Particularly challenging is the final section of the article, where the authors draw a correspondence between behavioral and cognitive components and brain structures (as well as networks). Here, we comment on the implications of the Vienna Integrated Model of Art Perception for art therapy in clinical populations, particularly focusing on (1) expanding Pelowski et al.'s considerations of the Default Mode Network (DMN) into discussion of its relevance to mental diseases, and (2) elaborating on empathic resonance in aesthetic contexts and the capacity of art to build up empathic skills.

  13. Neurophysiologic Evaluation of Early Cognitive Development in High-Risk Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deRegnier, Raye-Ann

    2005-01-01

    New knowledge of the perceptual, discriminative, and memory capabilities of very young infants has opened the door to further evaluation of these abilities in infants who have risk factors for cognitive impairments. A neurophysiologic technique that has been very useful in this regard is the recording of event-related potentials (ERPs). The…

  14. A Study of the Effectiveness of Sensory Integration Therapy on Neuro-Physiological Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Christopher; Reynolds, Kathleen Sheena

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sensory integration theory proposes that because there is plasticity within the central nervous system (the brain is moldable) and because the brain consists of systems that are hierarchically organised, it is possible to stimulate and improve neuro-physiological processing and integration and thereby increase learning capacity.…

  15. [Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring of brain stem in a case of cavernoma in the pons].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, R; Molet, J; de Teresa, S; Treserras, P; Clavel, P; Cano, P; Solivera, J; Muñoz, F; Bartumeus, F

    2005-04-01

    Neurophysiological monitoring during surgery to avoid damaging of eloquent brain areas is a useful tool. We are performing intraoperative neurophysiological test to locate motor, sensitive and speech areas with cortical stimulation and cranial nerves during cerebellopontine cranial base surgery. Neurophysiological monitoring during brain stem surgery has been less described. Brain stem surgery implies a careful selection of patients for surgery given the high risk of morbidity and mortality. For this reason, conservative treatment is usually indicated when an asymptomatic cavernoma is incidentally found. Instead, when bleeding or neurological deficit appear, operative treatment may be indicated and then the goal of surgery is to avoid the disability linked to the natural history. We present the case of a 29 year old woman with diagnosis of multiple cavernomas. She was admitted at our hospital because she presented weakness and sensitive disturbance of left limbs and dizziness. The CT scan and MRI showed a pontine haemorrhage caused by a cavernous hemangioma. We operated her on using neurophysiological monitoring of VII, VIII, X and XII cranial nerves with electromyographic recordings. Postoperative disability could be reduced with a better knowledge of entry zone into the brain stem and early physiotherapy.

  16. Overcoming Misconceptions in Neurophysiology Learning: An Approach Using Color-Coded Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Anyone who has taught neurophysiology would be aware of recurring concepts that students find difficult to understand. However, a greater problem is the development of misconceptions that may be difficult to change. For example, one common misconception is that action potentials pass directly across chemical synapses. Difficulties may be…

  17. Behavioral and Neurophysiological Effects of Morphological Awareness Training on Spelling and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Silvana; Grabner, Roland H.; Kargl, Reinhard; Purgstaller, Christian; Fink, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and neurophysiological effects of a computer-aided morphological training protocol were examined in German-speaking children from Grades 3 to 9. Study 1 compared morphological awareness, reading, and spelling skills of 34 trained children with an untrained control group of 34 children matched for age, sex, and intelligence. All…

  18. Neurophysiologic Evaluation of Early Cognitive Development in High-Risk Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deRegnier, Raye-Ann

    2005-01-01

    New knowledge of the perceptual, discriminative, and memory capabilities of very young infants has opened the door to further evaluation of these abilities in infants who have risk factors for cognitive impairments. A neurophysiologic technique that has been very useful in this regard is the recording of event-related potentials (ERPs). The…

  19. Risk and Resilience: Early Manipulation of Macaque Social Experience and Persistent Behavioral and Neurophysiological Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Hanna E.; Leckman, James F.; Coplan, Jeremy D.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    A literature review on macaque monkeys finds that peer rearing of young macaques and rearing of young macaques by mothers that are undergoing variable foraging conditions result in emotional and neurophysiological disturbance. Certain genotypes contribute to resilience to this disturbance. The findings have implications to child mental health and…

  20. Syntax as a Reflex: Neurophysiological Evidence for Early Automaticity of Grammatical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Hasting, Anna S.; Carlyon, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    It has been a matter of debate whether the specifically human capacity to process syntactic information draws on attentional resources or is automatic. To address this issue, we recorded neurophysiological indicators of syntactic processing to spoken sentences while subjects were distracted to different degrees from language processing. Subjects…

  1. Toward Explaining Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: An Investigation of Selected Cultural and Neurophysiological Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Roland B; McDaniel, Ernest D.

    A number of cultural and neurophysiological variables were studied to examine their relationship with sex differences in spatial ability. Five paper-and-pencil spatial ability tests were administered to a group of 50 male and 51 female college students, with approximately equal numbers for each sex being left- or right-handed and left- or…

  2. Neurophysiologic Analysis of the Effects of Interactive Tailored Health Videos on Attention to Health Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung A.

    2011-01-01

    Web-based tailored approaches hold much promise as effective means for delivering health education and improving public health. This study examines the effects of interactive tailored health videos on attention to health messages using neurophysiological changes measured by Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Electrocardiogram (EKG). Sixty-eight…

  3. Understanding in an Instant: Neurophysiological Evidence for Mechanistic Language Circuits in the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Hauk, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    How long does it take the human mind to grasp the idea when hearing or reading a sentence? Neurophysiological methods looking directly at the time course of brain activity indexes of comprehension are critical for finding the answer to this question. As the dominant cognitive approaches, models of serial/cascaded and parallel processing, make…

  4. Overcoming Misconceptions in Neurophysiology Learning: An Approach Using Color-Coded Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Anyone who has taught neurophysiology would be aware of recurring concepts that students find difficult to understand. However, a greater problem is the development of misconceptions that may be difficult to change. For example, one common misconception is that action potentials pass directly across chemical synapses. Difficulties may be…

  5. Understanding in an Instant: Neurophysiological Evidence for Mechanistic Language Circuits in the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Hauk, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    How long does it take the human mind to grasp the idea when hearing or reading a sentence? Neurophysiological methods looking directly at the time course of brain activity indexes of comprehension are critical for finding the answer to this question. As the dominant cognitive approaches, models of serial/cascaded and parallel processing, make…

  6. Risk and Resilience: Early Manipulation of Macaque Social Experience and Persistent Behavioral and Neurophysiological Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Hanna E.; Leckman, James F.; Coplan, Jeremy D.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    A literature review on macaque monkeys finds that peer rearing of young macaques and rearing of young macaques by mothers that are undergoing variable foraging conditions result in emotional and neurophysiological disturbance. Certain genotypes contribute to resilience to this disturbance. The findings have implications to child mental health and…

  7. Maternal Behavior Predicts Infant Neurophysiological and Behavioral Attention Processes in the First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swingler, Margaret M.; Perry, Nicole B.; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2017-01-01

    We apply a biopsychosocial conceptualization to attention development in the 1st year and examine the role of neurophysiological and social processes on the development of early attention processes. We tested whether maternal behavior measured during 2 mother-child interaction tasks when infants (N = 388) were 5 months predicted infant medial…

  8. Monitoring Brain Activity of Geriatric Learners with Low-Cost Neurophysiological Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Hall, Enilda; Scott, JoAnne

    2017-01-01

    Cultural stereotypes rooted in both antiquated data and misinterpretation of data have long perpetuated the belief that older adults are unable to learn new concepts because they are doomed to lose brain cells at an alarming rate during their geriatric years. However, advances in neurophysiological technologies that allow researchers to observe…

  9. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Reflexive and Voluntary Saccades in Non-Human Primates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Kevin; Everling, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    A multitude of cognitive functions can easily be tested by a number of relatively simple saccadic eye movement tasks. This approach has been employed extensively with patient populations to investigate the functional deficits associated with psychiatric disorders. Neurophysiological studies in non-human primates performing the same tasks have…

  10. Maternal Behavior Predicts Infant Neurophysiological and Behavioral Attention Processes in the First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swingler, Margaret M.; Perry, Nicole B.; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2017-01-01

    We apply a biopsychosocial conceptualization to attention development in the 1st year and examine the role of neurophysiological and social processes on the development of early attention processes. We tested whether maternal behavior measured during 2 mother-child interaction tasks when infants (N = 388) were 5 months predicted infant medial…

  11. The Neurophysiological Correlates of Face Processing in Adults and Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kate; Hamm, Jeff P.; Kirk, Ian J.

    2005-01-01

    Past research has found evidence for face and emotional expression processing differences between individuals with Asperger's syndrome (AS) and neurotypical (NT) controls at both the neurological and behavioural levels. The aim of the present study was to examine the neurophysiological basis of emotional expression processing in children and…

  12. Monitoring Brain Activity of Geriatric Learners with Low-Cost Neurophysiological Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Hall, Enilda; Scott, JoAnne

    2017-01-01

    Cultural stereotypes rooted in both antiquated data and misinterpretation of data have long perpetuated the belief that older adults are unable to learn new concepts because they are doomed to lose brain cells at an alarming rate during their geriatric years. However, advances in neurophysiological technologies that allow researchers to observe…

  13. Syntax as a Reflex: Neurophysiological Evidence for Early Automaticity of Grammatical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Hasting, Anna S.; Carlyon, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    It has been a matter of debate whether the specifically human capacity to process syntactic information draws on attentional resources or is automatic. To address this issue, we recorded neurophysiological indicators of syntactic processing to spoken sentences while subjects were distracted to different degrees from language processing. Subjects…

  14. Neurophysiologic Analysis of the Effects of Interactive Tailored Health Videos on Attention to Health Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung A.

    2011-01-01

    Web-based tailored approaches hold much promise as effective means for delivering health education and improving public health. This study examines the effects of interactive tailored health videos on attention to health messages using neurophysiological changes measured by Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Electrocardiogram (EKG). Sixty-eight…

  15. Capping the cost of compliance with the Kyoto Protocol and recycling revenues into land-use projects.

    PubMed

    Schlamadinger, B; Obersteiner, M; Michaelowa, A; Grubb, M; Azar, C; Yamagata, Y; Goldberg, D; Read, P; Kirschbaum, M U; Fearnside, P M; Sugiyama, T; Rametsteiner, E; Böswald, K

    2001-07-14

    There is the concern among some countries that compliance costs with commitments under the Kyoto Protocol may be unacceptably high. There is also the concern that technical difficulties with the inclusion of land use, land-use change, and forestry activities in non-Annex I countries might lead to an effective exclusion of such activities from consideration under the Protocol. This paper is proposing a mechanism that addresses both these concerns. In essence, it is suggested that parties should be able to purchase fixed-price offset certificates if they feel they cannot achieve compliance through other means alone, such as by improved energy efficiency, increased use of renewable energy, or use of the flexible mechanisms in the Kyoto Protocol. These offset certificates would act as a price cap for the cost of compliance for any party to the Protocol. Revenues from purchase of the offset certificates would be directed to forest-based activities in non-Annex I countries such as forest protection that may carry multiple benefits including enhancing net carbon sequestration.

  16. H2S2014 in Kyoto: the 3rd International Conference on H2S in Biology and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideo

    2015-04-30

    About 20 years ago, a pungent gas was found to be the physiological mediator of cognitive function and vascular tone. Since then, studies on hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have uncovered its numerous physiological roles such as protecting various tissues/organs from ischemia and regulating inflammation, cell growth, oxygen sensing, and senescence. These effects of H2S were extensively studied, and some of the corresponding mechanisms were also studied in detail. Previous studies on the synergistic interaction between H2S and nitric oxide (NO) have led to the discovery of several potential signaling molecules. Polysulfides are considerably potent and are one of the most active forms of H2S. H2S has a significant therapeutic potential, which is evident from the large number of novel H2S-donating compounds and substances developed for manipulating endogenous levels of H2S. The Third International Conference on H2S was held in Kyoto in June 2014. One hundred and sixty participants from 21 countries convened in Kyoto to report new advances, discuss conflicting findings, and make plans for future research. This article summarizes each oral presentation presented at the conference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of economic activity in Asturias on greenhouse gas emissions: consequences for environmental policy within the Kyoto Protocol framework.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Margarita; Benavides, Carmen; Junquera, Beatriz

    2006-11-01

    Climate change is one of the major worldwide environmental concerns. It is especially the case in many developed countries, where the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for this change are mainly concentrated. For the first time, the Kyoto Protocol includes an international agreement for the reduction of the net emissions of these gases. To fulfil this agreement measures designed to reduce or limit current emissions have to be brought into force. Consequently, fears have arisen about possible consequences on competitiveness and future development of manufacturing activities and the need for support mechanisms for the affected sectors is obvious. In this paper, we carry out a study of the emissions of gases responsible for climate change in Asturias (Spain), a region with an important economic presence of sectors with intensive emissions of CO(2), the chief greenhouse gas. To be precise, in the first place, the volumes of direct emissions of the said gases in 1995 were calculated, showing that the sectors most affected by the Kyoto Protocol in Asturias are iron and steel and electricity production. Secondly, input-output analysis was applied to determine the direct and indirect emissions and the direct, indirect and induced emissions of the different production sectors, respectively. The results derived from the direct and indirect emissions analysis and their comparison with the results of the former allow us to reach some conclusions and environmental policy implications.

  18. Understanding in an instant: neurophysiological evidence for mechanistic language circuits in the brain.

    PubMed

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Hauk, Olaf

    2009-08-01

    How long does it take the human mind to grasp the idea when hearing or reading a sentence? Neurophysiological methods looking directly at the time course of brain activity indexes of comprehension are critical for finding the answer to this question. As the dominant cognitive approaches, models of serial/cascaded and parallel processing, make conflicting predictions on the time course of psycholinguistic information access, they can be tested using neurophysiological brain activation recorded in MEG and EEG experiments. Seriality and cascading of lexical, semantic and syntactic processes receives support from late (latency approximately 1/2s) sequential neurophysiological responses, especially N400 and P600. However, parallelism is substantiated by early near-simultaneous brain indexes of a range of psycholinguistic processes, up to the level of semantic access and context integration, emerging already 100-250ms after critical stimulus information is present. Crucially, however, there are reliable latency differences of 20-50ms between early cortical area activations reflecting lexical, semantic and syntactic processes, which are left unexplained by current serial and parallel brain models of language. We here offer a mechanistic model grounded in cortical nerve cell circuits that builds upon neuroanatomical and neurophysiological knowledge and explains both near-simultaneous activations and fine-grained delays. A key concept is that of discrete distributed cortical circuits with specific inter-area topographies. The full activation, or ignition, of specifically distributed binding circuits explains the near-simultaneity of early neurophysiological indexes of lexical, syntactic and semantic processing. Activity spreading within circuits determined by between-area conduction delays accounts for comprehension-related regional activation differences in the millisecond range.

  19. Detectability of Granger causality for subsampled continuous-time neurophysiological processes.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Lionel; Seth, Anil K

    2017-01-01

    Granger causality is well established within the neurosciences for inference of directed functional connectivity from neurophysiological data. These data usually consist of time series which subsample a continuous-time biophysiological process. While it is well known that subsampling can lead to imputation of spurious causal connections where none exist, less is known about the effects of subsampling on the ability to reliably detect causal connections which do exist. We present a theoretical analysis of the effects of subsampling on Granger-causal inference. Neurophysiological processes typically feature signal propagation delays on multiple time scales; accordingly, we base our analysis on a distributed-lag, continuous-time stochastic model, and consider Granger causality in continuous time at finite prediction horizons. Via exact analytical solutions, we identify relationships among sampling frequency, underlying causal time scales and detectability of causalities. We reveal complex interactions between the time scale(s) of neural signal propagation and sampling frequency. We demonstrate that detectability decays exponentially as the sample time interval increases beyond causal delay times, identify detectability "black spots" and "sweet spots", and show that downsampling may potentially improve detectability. We also demonstrate that the invariance of Granger causality under causal, invertible filtering fails at finite prediction horizons, with particular implications for inference of Granger causality from fMRI data. Our analysis emphasises that sampling rates for causal analysis of neurophysiological time series should be informed by domain-specific time scales, and t