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Sample records for clinical pharmacy faculty

  1. Workplace Correlates and Scholarly Performance of Clinical Pharmacy Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungnickel, Paul W.; Creswell, John W.

    1994-01-01

    This study sought to develop a correlate model of 3-year scholarly performance of 296 clinical pharmacy faculty. Participants were surveyed concerning refereed research, grants/books research, and nonresearch scholarship. Eight correlates, including two related to the departmental workplace, emerged as significant factors in scholarly performance.…

  2. Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A panel of pharmacy faculty ranked a broad inventory of basic pharmaceutical science topics in terms of their applicability to clinical pharmacy practice. The panel concluded that basic pharmaceutical sciences are essentially applications of foundation areas in biological, physical, and social sciences. (Author/MLW)

  3. The Faculties of Pharmacy Schools Should Make an Effort to Network with Community Pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.

  4. Clinical Pharmacy Education in a Dental Pharmacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helling, Dennis K.; Walker, John A.

    1978-01-01

    A clinical pharmacy training program for undergraduate students developed at the University of Iowa provides conjoint training of pharmacy and dental students in the clinic areas and pharmacy at the College of Dentistry. (LBH)

  5. Pharmacy Student Perception of Characteristics and Activities of Pharmacy Faculty; Basic Science Compared with Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doering, Paul L.; House, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    Student attitudes toward pharmacy faculty were measured. Areas of inquiry included faculty characteristics such as age, sex, academic rank, education, licensure, experience, teaching, research, service and credibility. Analysis of data involved a comparision of student answers for pharmacy practice and basic science faculty. (Author/MLW)

  6. Orientating Nonpharmacist Faculty Members to Pharmacy Practice

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Bianca; Sheridan, Leah; Sucher, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To design, implement, and evaluate a faculty development program intended to orient nonpharmacist faculty members to pharmacy practice. Design. A multifaceted program was implemented in 2012 that included 4 shadowing experiences in which faculty members visited acute care, ambulatory care, hospital, and community pharmacy settings under the guidance of licensed preceptors. Itineraries for each visit were based on objective lists of anticipated practice experiences that define the role of the pharmacist in each setting. Assessment. The 4 shadowing experiences culminated with reflection and completion of a survey to assess the impact of the program. All of the faculty participants agreed that the experience improved their conceptual understanding of contemporary pharmacy practice and the role of the pharmacist in the healthcare setting. The experience also improved faculty comfort with creating practice-relevant classroom activities. Conclusions. A shadowing experience is an effective way of orienting nonpharmacist faculty members to the practice of pharmacy. This program inspired the creation of an experience to introduce pharmacy practice faculty to pharmaceutical science faculty research initiatives. PMID:24954946

  7. Pharmacy Research Online. A Guide for Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Derral; And Others

    This document is a self-paced training packet developed for a pilot project at the University of Houston-University Park to teach pharmacy faculty members to do their own online searching. The training begins with general topics such as the kinds of searches that can be done effectively online, the selection of appropriate databases to search, and…

  8. Job Turnover Intentions Among Pharmacy Faculty

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Mark H.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine the primary reasons why pharmacy faculty intend to remain or leave their current institution and why they left their most recent academic institution, and the relative contribution of various organizational and individual characteristics toward explaining variance in turnover intentions. Methods A survey instrument was e-mailed to pharmacy faculty members asking respondents to indicate up to 5 reasons for their intentions and up to 5 reasons why they left a previous institution. The survey also elicited perceptions on quality of work life in addition to demographic and institutional data, upon which turnover intentions were regressed using a forward-conditional procedure. Organizational commitment as a moderator of turnover intentions was regressed over the remaining variables not acting directly on employer intentions. Results Just over 1 in 5 respondents indicated intentions to leave their current academic institution. Excessive workload, seeking a new challenge, poor salary, and poor relationships with college or school administrators were frequently cited as reasons for leaving. Turnover intentions are influenced directly by department chair support and organizational commitment, which moderates various support and satisfaction variables. Conclusions Pharmacy faculty members’ decision to remain or leave an institution is dependent upon developing a sense of commitment toward the institution. Commitment is facilitated by support from the institution and department chair, in addition to a sense of satisfaction with the teaching environment. PMID:17786250

  9. Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice, Executive Summary and Final Report, October 1, 1978 - March 15, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

    The areas of basic science pharmacy instruction and clinical pharmacy practice and their interrelationships were identified in order to help develop didactic and clinical experience alternatives. A 10-member advisory committee ranked basic pharmaceutical science topical areas in terms of their applicability to clinical practice utilizing a Delphi…

  10. History of Pharmacy Museum of the Faculty of Pharmacy University of Belgrade.

    PubMed

    Krajnović, Dusanka; Kernican, Leontina

    2009-01-01

    History of Pharmacy Museum at the Faculty of Pharmacy University of Belgrade was founded in Belgrade in 1952, thanks to many pharmacists and historians, but especially to Mr Andrija Mirković (Mpharm). His precious private collection of antiquities, which he donated to the Faculty of Pharmacy in Belgrade, subsequently a basic one for the Museum foundation, included apothecary vessels, apparatuses, manuscripts and books dated back to the XVI century. Furthermore, there were included many other antiquities, books and manuscripts from pharmacies on the territory of former Yugoslavia, mostly from Serbia, so the entire Museum collection comprises various apothecary vessels: 700 ceramic, wooden, glass, porcelain and halide glass jars, as well as the XIX century exhibits from Pravitelstvena Apoteka (the first state-owned pharmacy in Serbia, which operated between 1836-1859). The Museum collection of accessories and vessels is completed with a library and precious archive materials. The library itself includes the original manuscripts as well as the colour offprint of some manuscripts, and printed works; mostly scientific books, textbooks, journals and pharmacopoeias with drug tax lists. Some printed books dating back to the Late Middle Ages are very rare and precious, such as Curio's Medicina Salernitana (1612) and the Ruel's version of Dioscorides' De materia medica. This entire collection is considered a unique one in Serbia for its variety and greatness, representing a precious source for studying the History of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Ethics (as a subject was included into the Faculty's curriculum since 1952 and cancelled recently in 2008). PMID:20500004

  11. Micro Language Planning for Student Support in a Pharmacy Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Helen

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of organised support for students who experience problems with language or academic study skills at a pharmacy faculty of an Australian university. Employing the Language Management Theory (LMT), this study exemplifies organised management and explores the various processes involved, such as the noting of…

  12. Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmocology: Friends or Foes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csaky, T. Z.

    1973-01-01

    Two recent trends in the field of health education-the declining emphasis on basic sciences in medical instruction and the heavy emphasis on pharmacology, therapeutics, and clinical pharmacy in colleges of pharmacy-are compared. (Editor)

  13. The Impact of Biotechnology upon Pharmacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speedie, Marilyn K.

    1990-01-01

    Biotechnology is defined, and its impact on pharmacy practice, the professional curriculum (clinical pharmacy, pharmacy administration, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, basic sciences, and continuing education), research in pharmacy schools, and graduate education are discussed. Resulting faculty, library, and research resource…

  14. Pharmacy Faculty Retirement at Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the work-related activities of full-time faculty members 55 years of age and older; to describe the retirement plans and perceptions of these faculty members; and to examine the factors, perceptions, or conditions that might influence the retirement decision. Methods. Pharmacy faculty members aged 55 years and older in the United States and Canada were invited to participate in an online survey regarding their perceptions on issues related to their retirement planning behavior. Results. Four hundred eighty-eight faculty members completed the survey instrument. The typical respondent worked 50 hours per week on work-related activities, was active in teaching and service, and had published an average of 5 refereed papers during the previous 36 months. The number of articles published was positively related to the respondent's target retirement age. The average anticipated retirement age was 66.6 years, and most respondents participated in a defined benefit plan. The majority would revise their target retirement age downwards if conditions were favorable. Conclusion. The primary factors that influence the pharmacy faculty retirement decision include financial status, academic productivity, and higher order needs such as the opportunity to participate in meaningful activities. These findings can be used by administrators in strategic planning related to attracting and retaining quality faculty members. PMID:22412203

  15. Recommendations for the successful pursuit of scholarship by pharmacy practice faculty members.

    PubMed

    Bosso, John A; Hastings, Jan K; Speedie, Marilyn K; Rodriguez de Bittner, Magaly

    2015-02-17

    Scholarship has long been a basic expectation of faculty members at institutions of higher learning in the United States and elsewhere. This expectation is no less assumed in academic pharmacy. A number of organizations have verbalized and enforced this precept over the years.(1-3) For example, this expectation is spoken to directly in the American Council for Pharmacy Education's Accreditation Standards and Guidelines.(4) This expectation is further emphasized in the draft document of the accreditation standards to be implemented in 2016, in Standard 20. Specifically, Element 20.2 states: "The college or school must create an environment that both requires and promotes scholarship, and must also develop mechanisms to assess both the quantity and quality of faculty scholarly productivity."(5) The successful pursuit of scholarship by clinical faculty members (those engaged in both clinical practice and teaching, without regard to tenure or clinical track status) is challenging. (6-10) Thus, faculty member job descriptions or models should be designed so clinical faculty members can successfully meet all academic job expectations, including productive and meaningful scholarship. In 2012, an AACP Section of Teachers of Pharmacy Practice task force was charged with examining this issue and providing recommendations for models for clinical faculty members that would allow the successful pursuit of scholarship. The task force gathered information relating to the current state of affairs at a number of colleges and reviewed relevant literature. This information, along with personal experiences and much discussion and contemplation, led to some general observations as well as specific recommendations. This paper reiterates the task force's observations and recommendations and provides further detail regarding our interpretation of the findings and basis for the eventual recommendations to the section.

  16. [Clinical pharmacy practice education in master's course of Meijo University in affiliation with medical school].

    PubMed

    Matsuba, Kazuhisa

    2009-08-01

    In 2003, Meijo University has developed a new program to train students in master's degree in the field of clinical practice. This new curriculum has three big pillars of educational goal: Problem-Based Learning (PBL), communication skill and clinical pharmacy practice training. Before exposing students to clinical training, they must learn first how to solve various patients' problems through PBL and enhance their communication skill. To provide a clinical environment, education and training, the Faculty of Pharmacy cooperated with the School of Medicine of Fujita Health University. Master's students together with other members of the healthcare team observe patient's disease state and most especially monitor pharmacotherapy. At first, students will be trained for a month at the pharmacy division and experience one week-nursing job. Next, they will be trained at the clinical divisions such as General Internal Medicine, Cardiology, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology, Respiratory Medicine, Hematology, Chemotherapy, Gastroenterological Surgery, Psychiatry, and Emergency Unit. Students rotate three-month training on four clinical divisions during one year. The head physicians of the medical department hold concurrent post as professors and share responsibility with the pharmacy faculty in training the students. To have its venue where students, faculty and physicians conduct their discussion on clinical cases, a pharmacy satellite seminar class room was set up at Fujita Health University hospital. Through this, pharmacy students and faculty had more opportunities to exchange knowledge on medicine and pharmacy. Master's students are expected to acquire professionalism, ethical knowledge and pharmaceutical care skills through the clinical pharmacy practice program. PMID:19652496

  17. Educational Background and Academic Rank of Faculty Members within US Schools of Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Sowinski, Kevin M.; Corelli, Robin L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To characterize the educational background and academic rank of faculty members in US schools of pharmacy, estimate the extent to which they are employed by institutions where they received previous training, and determine whether differences in degree origin and rank exist between faculty members in established (≤1995) vs newer programs. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty database and demographic information from the public domain. Results. Among 5516 faculty members, 50.3% held two or more types of degrees. Established schools had a higher median number of faculty members and a higher mean faculty rank than did newer schools. Conclusion. The difference in mean faculty rank highlights the shortage of experienced faculty members in newer schools. Future research efforts should investigate educational attainment in correlation to other faculty and school characteristics and prospectively track and report trends related to pharmacy faculty members composition. PMID:27293228

  18. Multi-Institutional Study of Women and Underrepresented Minority Faculty Members in Academic Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Spivey, Christina A.; Billheimer, Dean; Schlesselman, Lauren S.; Flowers, Schwanda K.; Hammer, Dana; Engle, Janet P.; Nappi, Jean M.; Pasko, Mary T.; Ann Ross, Leigh; Sorofman, Bernard; Rodrigues, Helena A.; Vaillancourt, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine trends in the numbers of women and underrepresented minority (URM) pharmacy faculty members over the last 20 years, and determine factors influencing women faculty members’ pursuit and retention of an academic pharmacy career. Methods. Twenty-year trends in women and URM pharmacy faculty representation were examined. Women faculty members from 9 public colleges and schools of pharmacy were surveyed regarding demographics, job satisfaction, and their academic pharmacy career, and relationships between demographics and satisfaction were analyzed. Results. The number of women faculty members more than doubled between 1989 and 2009 (from 20.7% to 45.5%), while the number of URM pharmacy faculty members increased only slightly over the same time period. One hundred fifteen women faculty members completed the survey instrument and indicated they were generally satisfied with their jobs. The academic rank of professor, being a nonpharmacy practice faculty member, being tenured/tenure track, and having children were associated with significantly lower satisfaction with fringe benefits. Women faculty members who were tempted to leave academia for other pharmacy sectors had significantly lower salary satisfaction and overall job satisfaction, and were more likely to indicate their expectations of academia did not match their experiences (p<0.05). Conclusions. The significant increase in the number of women pharmacy faculty members over the last 20 years may be due to the increased number of female pharmacy graduates and to women faculty members’ satisfaction with their careers. Lessons learned through this multi-institutional study and review may be applicable to initiatives to improve recruitment and retention of URM pharmacy faculty members. PMID:22412206

  19. An Analysis of Community Pharmacy Shared Faculty Members’ Contributions to Teaching, Service, and Scholarship

    PubMed Central

    Akinwale, Tolu P.; Adams, Alex J.; McGivney, Melissa Somma

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify community pharmacy shared faculty members across the United States and to describe their roles and responsibilities in terms of teaching, service, and scholarship. Methods. This study was a mixed-methods analysis using surveys and key informant interviews. Results. Twenty-two faculty members completed the survey; nine were interviewed. Their major roles and responsibilities included teaching in community-based and experiential learning courses, precepting students and/or residents, being actively involved in professional organizations, providing patient care while leading innovation, and disseminating findings through scholarship. Conclusion. Community pharmacy shared faculty members contribute to their academic institutions and community pharmacy organizations by educating learners, providing direct patient care, and advancing community practice through innovation and service to the profession. Findings of this study can be used as a guide for academic institutions and community pharmacy organizations interested in partnering to develop a community pharmacy shared faculty position. PMID:27756923

  20. Integrating patient safety into health professionals’ curricula: a qualitative study of medical, nursing and pharmacy faculty perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tregunno, Deborah; Ginsburg, Liane; Clarke, Beth; Norton, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background As efforts to integrate patient safety into health professional curricula increase, there is growing recognition that the rate of curricular change is very slow, and there is a shortage of research that addresses critical perspectives of faculty who are on the ‘front-lines’ of curricular innovation. This study reports on medical, nursing and pharmacy teaching faculty perspectives about factors that influence curricular integration and the preparation of safe practitioners. Methods Qualitative methods were used to collect data from 20 faculty members (n=6 medical from three universities; n=6 pharmacy from two universities; n=8 nursing from four universities) engaged in medical, nursing and pharmacy education. Thematic analysis generated a comprehensive account of faculty perspectives. Results Faculty perspectives on key challenges to safe practice vary across the three disciplines, and these different perspectives lead to different priorities for curricular innovation. Additionally, accreditation and regulatory requirements are driving curricular change in medicine and pharmacy. Key challenges exist for health professional students in clinical teaching environments where the culture of patient safety may thwart the preparation of safe practitioners. Conclusions Patient safety curricular innovation depends on the interests of individual faculty members and the leveraging of accreditation and regulatory requirements. Building on existing curricular frameworks, opportunities now need to be created for faculty members to act as champions of curricular change, and patient safety educational opportunities need to be harmonises across all health professional training programmes. Faculty champions and practice setting leaders can collaborate to improve the culture of patient safety in clinical teaching and learning settings. PMID:24299734

  1. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A.; Dickey, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path. PMID:27756925

  2. Evaluation of Alcohol and Drug Use Attitudes and Behaviors in Pharmacy College Faculty: Part II. Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Jeffrey N.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A national survey of pharmacy faculty members (n=1,326) found most members saw chemical dependencies as diseases and favored rehabilitation over exclusion for chemically dependent health professionals, assistance programs for faculty and students, retention of faculty in recovery, and strengthening substance abuse and wellness curricula by a…

  3. The Racial and Ethnic Representation of Faculty in US Pharmacy Schools and Colleges

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Hope E.; Gaither, Caroline A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among faculty members (faculty) in schools and colleges of pharmacy (COP) compared to US Census Bureau data; to evaluate the representation of racial and ethnic minorities in historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), newer doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs, and PharmD programs with a religious affiliation compared with all pharmacy programs; and to compare racial and ethnic pharmacy faculty data to trends in medical and dental schools, and all higher education. Methods. Information was obtained from national databases and published reports; data was comparatively evaluated. Results. Compared to the general population, Asians are overrepresented in pharmacy, while all other minority groups are underrepresented. The HBCUs, newer schools, and religious-affiliated institutions have greater numbers of African American/Black faculty. Newer schools also have better representation of Hispanic faculty. Pharmacy has been more successful than medicine and dentistry in recruiting African American/Black faculty, but lag behind dental schools in their representation of Hispanic faculty. Conclusion. To meet the health care needs of the population, we recommend the implementation of short-term and long-term diversity and inclusion strategies that address minority representation in COP. PMID:27667845

  4. The Racial and Ethnic Representation of Faculty in US Pharmacy Schools and Colleges

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Hope E.; Gaither, Caroline A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among faculty members (faculty) in schools and colleges of pharmacy (COP) compared to US Census Bureau data; to evaluate the representation of racial and ethnic minorities in historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), newer doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs, and PharmD programs with a religious affiliation compared with all pharmacy programs; and to compare racial and ethnic pharmacy faculty data to trends in medical and dental schools, and all higher education. Methods. Information was obtained from national databases and published reports; data was comparatively evaluated. Results. Compared to the general population, Asians are overrepresented in pharmacy, while all other minority groups are underrepresented. The HBCUs, newer schools, and religious-affiliated institutions have greater numbers of African American/Black faculty. Newer schools also have better representation of Hispanic faculty. Pharmacy has been more successful than medicine and dentistry in recruiting African American/Black faculty, but lag behind dental schools in their representation of Hispanic faculty. Conclusion. To meet the health care needs of the population, we recommend the implementation of short-term and long-term diversity and inclusion strategies that address minority representation in COP.

  5. The Racial and Ethnic Representation of Faculty in US Pharmacy Schools and Colleges.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Angela M; Campbell, Hope E; Gaither, Caroline A

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To describe the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among faculty members (faculty) in schools and colleges of pharmacy (COP) compared to US Census Bureau data; to evaluate the representation of racial and ethnic minorities in historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), newer doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs, and PharmD programs with a religious affiliation compared with all pharmacy programs; and to compare racial and ethnic pharmacy faculty data to trends in medical and dental schools, and all higher education. Methods. Information was obtained from national databases and published reports; data was comparatively evaluated. Results. Compared to the general population, Asians are overrepresented in pharmacy, while all other minority groups are underrepresented. The HBCUs, newer schools, and religious-affiliated institutions have greater numbers of African American/Black faculty. Newer schools also have better representation of Hispanic faculty. Pharmacy has been more successful than medicine and dentistry in recruiting African American/Black faculty, but lag behind dental schools in their representation of Hispanic faculty. Conclusion. To meet the health care needs of the population, we recommend the implementation of short-term and long-term diversity and inclusion strategies that address minority representation in COP. PMID:27667845

  6. Part-time and job-share careers among pharmacy practice faculty members.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Brooke; Vest, Kathleen; Pohl, Shaunte; Mazan, Jennifer; Winkler, Susan

    2014-04-17

    Part-time and job-share policies may allow pharmacy practice faculty members to achieve work/life balance while pursuing their professional goals. Precedent for alternative work schedules within the health professions community can be found throughout the literature; however, little is known about part-time roles in academic pharmacy. The design and implementation of 3 different alternative faculty appointments are described and department chair and faculty perspectives are shared. Teaching, service, and scholarship responsibilities, as well as outcomes before and after changes in appointment, are described. Advantages and disadvantages, including advice for other colleges of pharmacy, are presented. Alternate appointments may be a key factor in retaining highly qualified faculty members who continue to bring their expertise to teaching, precepting, and scholarship within a college or school of pharmacy.

  7. Part-time and job-share careers among pharmacy practice faculty members.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Brooke; Vest, Kathleen; Pohl, Shaunte; Mazan, Jennifer; Winkler, Susan

    2014-04-17

    Part-time and job-share policies may allow pharmacy practice faculty members to achieve work/life balance while pursuing their professional goals. Precedent for alternative work schedules within the health professions community can be found throughout the literature; however, little is known about part-time roles in academic pharmacy. The design and implementation of 3 different alternative faculty appointments are described and department chair and faculty perspectives are shared. Teaching, service, and scholarship responsibilities, as well as outcomes before and after changes in appointment, are described. Advantages and disadvantages, including advice for other colleges of pharmacy, are presented. Alternate appointments may be a key factor in retaining highly qualified faculty members who continue to bring their expertise to teaching, precepting, and scholarship within a college or school of pharmacy. PMID:24761010

  8. Scholarly Performance and Related Variables: A Comparison of Pharmacy Practice Faculty and Department Chairpersons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungnickel, Paul W.

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of 296 pharmacy practice faculty and 57 department heads concerning scholarship found differences between the groups in age, experience, tenure, and workload. Administrators found the department environment more supportive and resources more satisfactory than did faculty. The groups produced about the same amount of scholarly work.…

  9. Pharmacy Faculty Workplace Issues: Findings From the 2009-2010 COD-COF Joint Task Force on Faculty Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Peirce, Gretchen L.; Crabtree, Brian L.; Acosta, Daniel; Early, Johnnie L.; Kishi, Donald T.; Nobles-Knight, Dolores; Webster, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the vitality of an individual faculty member, a department, and an entire academic organization. Some of the relationships among these factors are well understood, but many questions remain unanswered. The Joint Task Force on Faculty Workforce examined the literature on faculty workforce issues, including the work of previous task forces charged by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP). We identified and focused on 4 unique but interrelated concepts: organizational culture/climate, role of the department chair, faculty recruitment and retention, and mentoring. Among all 4 resides the need to consider issues of intergenerational, intercultural, and gender dynamics. This paper reports the findings of the task force and proffers specific recommendations to AACP and to colleges and schools of pharmacy. PMID:21769139

  10. The Role of the Mentor in Retaining Junior Pharmacy Faculty Members

    PubMed Central

    Maniscalco-Feichtl, Maria; Droege, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) has identified faculty retention as a top concern since 76 colleges of pharmacy reported a total of 406 vacant and/or lost positions in the 2004-2005 academic year. Since today's junior faculty members are tomorrow's leaders in pharmacy education, retention of quality faculty members is critical to our future. Mentoring is one effective method of retaining faculty members and decreasing workplace stress, especially in the area of scholarship. However, in the last decade, the disproportionate increase of junior faculty members to the number of senior faculty members employed has resulted in a major limitation of the dyad (mentor and protégé) mentoring process. One effective method of overcoming this limitation is the use of the triad mentoring model (organization, mentor, and protégé). Colleges of pharmacy that consider adopting this triad model will likely promote an environment that nurtures relationships, resulting in job satisfaction, and thereby leading to retention of junior faculty members. PMID:18496925

  11. Assessment of drug information resource preferences of pharmacy students and faculty

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Conor T.; Cole, Sabrina W.

    2014-01-01

    A 39-item survey instrument was distributed to faculty and students at Wingate University School of Pharmacy to assess student and faculty drug information (DI) resource use and access preferences. The response rate was 81% (n = 289). Faculty and professional year 2 to 4 students preferred access on laptop or desktop computers (67% and 75%, respectively), followed by smartphones (27% and 22%, respectively). Most faculty and students preferred using Lexicomp Online for drug information (53% and 74%, respectively). Results indicate that DI resources use is similar between students and faculty; laptop or desktop computers are the preferred platforms for accessing drug information. PMID:24860270

  12. Perceptions and Use of iPad Technology by Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members

    PubMed Central

    Zgarrick, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To explore the potential of tablet technology to address the specific workload challenges of pharmacy practice faculty members and to evaluate tablet usage after a department-wide iPad initiative. Methods. After conducting a needs assessment to determine pharmacy faculty attitudes towards tablet technology and to identify potential usage scenarios, all faculty members in a department of pharmacy practice received an iPad. After iPad distribution, training sessions and virtual tutorials were provided. An anonymous survey was administered to evaluate the pilot. Results. The needs assessment survey revealed positive attitudes towards iPad technology, identified use scenarios, and led to a department-wide iPad pilot program. Most faculty members used iPads for connectivity with students (86%), paper/project annotation (68%), assessment (57%), and demonstration of tools used in practice (36%). For teaching, 61% of faculty members used iPads in seminars/laboratories, 57% used iPads in the experiential setting, and 43% used iPads in the classroom. Use of iPads for patient-care activities varied and depended on site support for mobile technology. The 23 faculty members with external practice sites used iPads to a greater extent and had more positive attitudes towards this technology compared with campus-based faculty members. Conclusion. Integration of tablet technology into the pharmacy education setting resulted in faculty-reported increased productivity and decreased paper waste. It also allowed faculty members to experiment with new teaching strategies in the classroom and experiential setting. Administrators at institutions exploring the use of tablet technology should allocate resources based on faculty needs and usage patterns. PMID:24761013

  13. A Postdoctoral Fellowship in Industrial Clinical Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Joseph; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A postdoctoral pharmacy fellowship is described that provides training in industrial clinical pharmacy practice and related tasks associated with the development of new pharmaceuticals, through experience in industrial and hospital settings and in research projects. (MSE) PUBTYPE[141

  14. [The foundation and development of the Department of Pharmacy of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad (2000-2007)].

    PubMed

    Popović, Jovan

    2007-01-01

    THE DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY: The first 50 pharmacy students were enrolled at the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad in the academic year 2000/2001. The Institute of Pharmacy was established on July 10, 2001. The Department of Pharmacy was established on December 18, 2001, with more than 150 faculty members. Since then, 82 students have graduated with honours. Visiting professors from Athens, Skopje, Reading (Great Britain) and Banja Luka, and professors of the Faculty of Science and Mathematics and the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, together with the professors and associates of the the Faculty of Medicine, are members of the Faculty of the Department of Pharmacy. ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY: The Department offers a 5-year undergraduate program in pharmacy, practical courses in pharmacy, takes part in higher education reform in accordance with the Bologna objectives, organizes visits to Europen centers of the pharmaceutical industry, and provides mentoring activities in relation to writing a graduation paper. The First Balkan Congress of Phramacy Students was held March 7-12, 2006 in Novi Sad. The Department of Pharmacy of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad has achieved the objectives set for it when it was established. PMID:18666597

  15. Publication Rates for Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Members at Nonresearch-Intensive US Schools of Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Schlesselman, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To provide benchmarking data for faculty productivity by determining publication rates for pharmaceutical sciences faculty members at nonresearch-intensive schools and colleges of pharmacy between January 2010 and December 2013. Methods. Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched using faculty names from the AACP faculty and professional staff roster. Annual publication rates were calculated and compared for various demographic subcategories. Results. The average annual publication rate for the 4-year period was 0.82 per faculty member, and 10.95 per institution. Publication rates were significantly higher in departments offering a PhD program or with NIH funding. Conclusion. Because institutional missions are diverse, it can be useful to evaluate faculty scholarly productivity in relation to similar organizations. Pharmaceutical science faculty members at nonresearch-intensive institutions contribute to the literature despite institutional missions less focused on research. PMID:26839426

  16. Clinical pharmacy: is it a credible academic discipline?

    PubMed

    Walker, R

    1996-11-01

    A review of the development of clinical pharmacy in the UK reveals that its origins stem from the mid 70's when many undergraduates received short clinical attachments with physicians. The evolution was accelerated by the appointment of pharmacists who held joint university and hospital contracts. Innovative postgraduate diploma and masters programmes in clinical pharmacy established in the early 80's secured a steady supply of skilled individuals to undertake the various roles that arose. Acceptance within academia was marked by the establishment of a series of Chairs in clinical pharmacy in the late 80's and early 90's along with PhD research programmes in clinical pharmacy. As an emerging discipline the forthcoming university research assessment exercise will mark a milestone in the progress of clinical pharmacy. There is, however, concern that the assessment exercise will use criteria not entirely sympathetic to the uniqueness of clinical pharmacy. PMID:8973164

  17. Evaluation of Alcohol and Drug Use Attitudes and Behaviors in Pharmacy College Faculty: Part I. Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Jeffrey N.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A national survey of pharmacy faculty (n=1,326) found widespread current alcohol use, 2 percent diagnosed or undiagnosed self-reported alcoholism, and "drinking problems" in 3 percent. Prior recreational drug use was reported by 32 percent, current use 4 percent. Some reported drug addiction or abuse problems. Alcohol use rates are similar to…

  18. Faculty Attitudes Toward Required Evaluative Projects for Doctor of Pharmacy Candidates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes evaluative projects required of seniors in an entry-level pharmacy doctoral program, and faculty (n=57) attitudes toward them. Findings indicated 32 publications and 68 professional presentations resulted from the projects. Respondents agreed the research-related courses and projects are important and that the project improves analytical…

  19. Clinical Pharmacy Services in Canadian Emergency Departments: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wanbon, Richard; Lyder, Catherine; Villeneuve, Eric; Shalansky, Stephen; Manuel, Leslie; Harding, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Providing clinical pharmacy services in emergency departments (EDs) is important because adverse drug events commonly occur before, during, and after ED encounters. Survey studies in the United States have indicated a relatively low presence of clinical pharmacy services in the ED setting, but a descriptive survey specific to Canada has not yet been performed. Objectives: To describe the current status of pharmacy services in Canadian EDs and potential barriers to implementing pharmacy services in this setting. Methods: All Canadian hospitals with an ED and at least 50 acute care beds were contacted to identify the presence of dedicated ED pharmacy services (defined as at least 0.5 full-time equivalent [FTE] position). Three different electronic surveys were then distributed by e-mail to ED pharmacy team members (if available), pharmacy managers (at hospitals without an ED pharmacy team), and ED managers (all hospitals). The surveys were completed between July and September 2013. Results: Of the 243 hospitals identified, 95 (39%) had at least 0.5 FTE clinical pharmacy services in the ED (based on initial telephone screening). Of the 60 ED pharmacy teams that responded to the survey, 56 had pharmacists (27 of which also had ED pharmacy technicians) and 4 had pharmacy technicians (without pharmacists). Forty-four (79%) of the 56 ED pharmacist services had been established within the preceding 10 years. Order clarification, troubleshooting, medication reconciliation, and assessment of renal dosing were the services most commonly provided. The large majority of pharmacy managers and ED managers identified the need for ED pharmacy services where such services do not yet exist. Inadequate funding, competing priorities, and lack of training were the most commonly reported barriers to providing this service. Conclusions: Although the establishment of ward-based pharmacy services in Canadian EDs has increased over the past 10 years, lack of funding and a lack of

  20. A Faculty Toolkit for Formative Assessment in Pharmacy Education.

    PubMed

    DiVall, Margarita V; Alston, Greg L; Bird, Eleanora; Buring, Shauna M; Kelley, Katherine A; Murphy, Nanci L; Schlesselman, Lauren S; Stowe, Cindy D; Szilagyi, Julianna E

    2014-11-15

    This paper aims to increase understanding and appreciation of formative assessment and its role in improving student outcomes and the instructional process, while educating faculty on formative techniques readily adaptable to various educational settings. Included are a definition of formative assessment and the distinction between formative and summative assessment. Various formative assessment strategies to evaluate student learning in classroom, laboratory, experiential, and interprofessional education settings are discussed. The role of reflective writing and portfolios, as well as the role of technology in formative assessment, are described. The paper also offers advice for formative assessment of faculty teaching. In conclusion, the authors emphasize the importance of creating a culture of assessment that embraces the concept of 360-degree assessment in both the development of a student's ability to demonstrate achievement of educational outcomes and a faculty member's ability to become an effective educator.

  1. A Faculty Toolkit for Formative Assessment in Pharmacy Education.

    PubMed

    DiVall, Margarita V; Alston, Greg L; Bird, Eleanora; Buring, Shauna M; Kelley, Katherine A; Murphy, Nanci L; Schlesselman, Lauren S; Stowe, Cindy D; Szilagyi, Julianna E

    2014-11-15

    This paper aims to increase understanding and appreciation of formative assessment and its role in improving student outcomes and the instructional process, while educating faculty on formative techniques readily adaptable to various educational settings. Included are a definition of formative assessment and the distinction between formative and summative assessment. Various formative assessment strategies to evaluate student learning in classroom, laboratory, experiential, and interprofessional education settings are discussed. The role of reflective writing and portfolios, as well as the role of technology in formative assessment, are described. The paper also offers advice for formative assessment of faculty teaching. In conclusion, the authors emphasize the importance of creating a culture of assessment that embraces the concept of 360-degree assessment in both the development of a student's ability to demonstrate achievement of educational outcomes and a faculty member's ability to become an effective educator. PMID:26056399

  2. A Faculty Toolkit for Formative Assessment in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Alston, Greg L.; Bird, Eleanora; Buring, Shauna M.; Kelley, Katherine A.; Murphy, Nanci L.; Schlesselman, Lauren S.; Stowe, Cindy D.; Szilagyi, Julianna E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to increase understanding and appreciation of formative assessment and its role in improving student outcomes and the instructional process, while educating faculty on formative techniques readily adaptable to various educational settings. Included are a definition of formative assessment and the distinction between formative and summative assessment. Various formative assessment strategies to evaluate student learning in classroom, laboratory, experiential, and interprofessional education settings are discussed. The role of reflective writing and portfolios, as well as the role of technology in formative assessment, are described. The paper also offers advice for formative assessment of faculty teaching. In conclusion, the authors emphasize the importance of creating a culture of assessment that embraces the concept of 360-degree assessment in both the development of a student’s ability to demonstrate achievement of educational outcomes and a faculty member’s ability to become an effective educator. PMID:26056399

  3. Alcohol consumption in college students from the pharmacy faculty.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni

    2016-09-15

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency.

  4. Alcohol consumption in college students from the pharmacy faculty.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency. PMID:26437317

  5. Preparation of faculty members and students to be citizen leaders and pharmacy advocates.

    PubMed

    Ross, Leigh Ann; Janke, Kristin K; Boyle, Cynthia J; Gianutsos, Gerald; Lindsey, Cameron C; Moczygemba, Leticia R; Whalen, Karen

    2013-12-16

    To identify characteristics and quality indicators of best practices for leadership and advocacy development in pharmacy education, a national task force on leadership development in pharmacy invited colleges and schools to complete a phone survey to characterize the courses, processes, and noteworthy practices for leadership and advocacy development at their institution. The literature was consulted to corroborate survey findings and identify additional best practices. Recommendations were derived from the survey results and literature review, as well as from the experience and expertise of task force members. Fifty-four institutions provided information about lecture-based and experiential curricular and noncurricular components of leadership and advocacy development. Successful programs have a supportive institutional culture, faculty and alumni role models, administrative and/or financial support, and a cocurricular thread of activities. Leadership and advocacy development for student pharmacists is increasingly important. The recommendations and suggestions provided can facilitate leadership and advocacy development at other colleges and schools of pharmacy.

  6. Development of a Multidimensional Scale to Measure Work Satisfaction Among Pharmacy Faculty Members

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Mark H.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To develop a multidimensional scale to measure work satisfaction among pharmacy faculty members and determine its reliability and validity. Methods A literature review was used to assist in the generation of 36 statements that putatively comprise the satisfaction construct. The 25 items meeting a priori criteria in a modified Delphi procedure were included in a questionnaire sent by e-mail to 4,228 pharmacy faculty members. Principal axis factoring and scale purification procedures were used to identify a plausible factor structure. Results Using responses acquired from 885 pharmacy faculty members, 6 domains of work satisfaction were identified: resources for scholarship, institutional support and reward, requirements for tenure and promotion, availability of a graduate program, collegiality, and teaching environment. The overall measure demonstrated construct validity, while each domain subscale exhibited relatively high internal consistency reliability. Conclusions The overall work satisfaction measure and each subscale derived from composite domains can be used to identify sources of discontent and/or track interventions designed to improve work satisfaction. PMID:17786249

  7. Scholarly productivity for nursing clinical track faculty.

    PubMed

    Tschannen, Dana; Anderson, Christine; Strobbe, Stephen; Bay, Esther; Bigelow, April; Dahlem, Chin Hwa Gina Y; Gosselin, Ann K; Pollard, Jennifer; Seng, Julia S

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have yielded substantial advancement by clinical track faculty in cohort expansion and collective contributions to the discipline of nursing. As a result, standards for progression and promotion for clinical faculty need to be more fully developed, articulated, and disseminated. Our school formed a task force to examine benchmarks for the progression and promotion of clinical faculty across schools of nursing, with the goal of guiding faculty, reviewers, and decision makers about what constitutes excellence in scholarly productivity. Results from analyses of curriculum vitae of clinical professors or associate professors at six universities with high research activity revealed a variety of productivity among clinical track members, which included notable diversity in the types of scholarly products. Findings from this project help quantify types of scholarship for clinical faculty at the time of promotion. This work provides a springboard for greater understanding of the contributions of clinical track faculty to nursing practice.

  8. An Orientation Program for Clinical Adjunct Faculty.

    PubMed

    Rice, Gwendolyn

    2016-01-01

    Having highly competent clinical faculty in an institution of higher learning is a prerequisite for graduating safe nurses in the future. The purpose of this project was to increase each clinical nurse's knowledge and skills for the new role of clinical adjunct nursing faculty. Successful implementation of this program will help promote consistency in effective job performance of clinical adjunct faculty and facilitate achievement of the projected goals and outcomes. This orientation program was presented in a one day face-to-face encounter with twelve (12) adjunct faculty members, tenured and others on the tenured track. These faculty members were hired by City Colleges of Chicago (CCC) School of Nursing Program at the Malcolm X College. Presentations were given by attendees with a lesson plan. Pre-test, post-test and evaluation forms were presented and it was agreed that an orientation program should be developed and presented to all newly hired clinical adjunct nursing faculty at CCC.

  9. An Orientation Program for Clinical Adjunct Faculty.

    PubMed

    Rice, Gwendolyn

    2016-01-01

    Having highly competent clinical faculty in an institution of higher learning is a prerequisite for graduating safe nurses in the future. The purpose of this project was to increase each clinical nurse's knowledge and skills for the new role of clinical adjunct nursing faculty. Successful implementation of this program will help promote consistency in effective job performance of clinical adjunct faculty and facilitate achievement of the projected goals and outcomes. This orientation program was presented in a one day face-to-face encounter with twelve (12) adjunct faculty members, tenured and others on the tenured track. These faculty members were hired by City Colleges of Chicago (CCC) School of Nursing Program at the Malcolm X College. Presentations were given by attendees with a lesson plan. Pre-test, post-test and evaluation forms were presented and it was agreed that an orientation program should be developed and presented to all newly hired clinical adjunct nursing faculty at CCC. PMID:26930766

  10. Clinical or industrial pharmacy? Case studies of hospital pharmacy automation in Canada and France.

    PubMed

    Novek, J

    1998-01-01

    Automated medication dispensing systems for hospital pharmacies, heralded as an important means of reducing drug errors and improving labor productivity, have also been seen as a means of furthering the transformation of the pharmacy profession from its role in dispensing prescriptions to a clinical profession concerned with treatments and patient outcomes. Automation aids this transformation by transferring the responsibility for routine dispensing to technicians performing rationalized and computer-mediated tasks. Not all pharmacists agree with these trends. Some fear a loss of professional status and employment as their knowledge is expropriated and incorporated into machinery operated by those with lesser qualifications. They fear an industrial rather than a clinical future. Their concerns are compounded by health care cutbacks. These issues were studied at two hospitals in Canada and one in France, all mid-sized public hospitals with automated unit dose drug delivery systems installed in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Preliminary results indicated national differences in approaches to hospital pharmacy automation. In Canada, pharmacists have resisted major changes in their control of the dispensing process and in their traditional roles vis à vis doctors and pharmacy technicians. In France, where hospital pharmacy as a profession is less developed than in North America, automation has brought about a far more radical substitution for pharmacists' labor.

  11. Rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacy practitioners. American College of Clinical Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    It is important to recognize that pharmacy practice models are changing quickly. Although the concepts of pharmaceutical care depict all pharmacists as clinical practitioners, there are still significant opportunities for individuals to develop advanced and refined skills and knowledge, and to seek recognition. Criteria for professional advancement need to be reevaluated and modified periodically. As departments become more effective in implementing pharmaceutical care, and practice skills advance, criteria for advancement must be updated. Recognition and advancement within newer models of practice such as patient focus units, clinical path teams, and quality improvement teams complicate assessment and evaluation strategies. In the future, pharmacy managers will need to look at reward and advancement systems that incorporate the recommendations of the team manager or members for these newer models of practice. Perhaps there will be a shift in responsibility for recognition to the team manager. Career ladders may need to provide for new roles, and reward practitioners for behaviors not currently represented in most departmental performance evaluations. Performance evaluation, standards of practice, and advancement criteria will need to be carefully reviewed and integrated with the patient focus team's objectives, structure, and processes to assure that appropriate recognition is given to pharmacists in this exciting new environment. Career ladders provide one form of reward and advancement for practitioners. Institutions can include many elements of career ladder process, function, and structure, as well as implement many other management tools for reward and recognition, without implementing a complete career ladder.

  12. [Laboratory of Pharmacognosy of Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra (Portugal): teaching and et research (1902-1980)].

    PubMed

    Cabral, Célia; Lígia Salgueiro; Pita, João Rui

    2016-03-01

    In this article the authors present a brief history of the Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Portugal (1902-1980). The authors refer the importance of pharmacognosy in the study plans, the scientific research and the scientific collection of pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra. This heritage consists of collection of drugs prepared in the laboratory of pharmacognosy, a collection Drogen-Lehrsammlung purchased to E. Merck and a collection of botanic-didactic models of the XIXth century of the famous German manufacturer R. Brendel. The authors study the relationship between research and teaching, highlighting the importance of the collections of drugs. PMID:27281936

  13. [Laboratory of Pharmacognosy of Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra (Portugal): teaching and et research (1902-1980)].

    PubMed

    Cabral, Célia; Lígia Salgueiro; Pita, João Rui

    2016-03-01

    In this article the authors present a brief history of the Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Portugal (1902-1980). The authors refer the importance of pharmacognosy in the study plans, the scientific research and the scientific collection of pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra. This heritage consists of collection of drugs prepared in the laboratory of pharmacognosy, a collection Drogen-Lehrsammlung purchased to E. Merck and a collection of botanic-didactic models of the XIXth century of the famous German manufacturer R. Brendel. The authors study the relationship between research and teaching, highlighting the importance of the collections of drugs.

  14. Bullying in the Clinical Training of Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Shane, Patricia; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Yoshizuka, Keith; Chan, Paul; Vo, Thuy

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether bullying is a significant factor in the clinical training of pharmacy students. Methods. The literature as well as the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards and American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) surveys were reviewed for mention and/or measurement of bullying behaviors in the clinical training of pharmacy students. The authors used a Delphi process to define bullying behavior. The consensus definition was used to analyze 2,087 in-house student evaluations of preceptors for evidence of bullying behaviors. The authors mapped strings of text from in-house student comments to different, established categories of bullying behaviors. Results. The ACPE Standards and AACP surveys contained no mention or measures of bullying. The 2013 AACP survey data reported overwhelmingly positive preceptor ratings. Of the 2,087 student evaluations of preceptors, 119 (5.7%) had at least 1 low rating. Within those 119 survey instruments, 34 comments were found describing bullying behaviors. Students’ responses to the AACP survey were similar to data from the national cohort. Conclusions. Given the evidence that bullying behaviors occur in pharmacy education and that bullying has long-term and short-term damaging effects, more attention should be focused on this problem. Efforts should include addressing bullying in ACPE Standards and AACP survey tools developing a consensus definition for bullying and conducting more research into bullying in the clinical training of pharmacy students. PMID:25147389

  15. Towards an operational definition of pharmacy clinical competency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Charles Allen

    The scope of pharmacy practice and the training of future pharmacists have undergone a strategic shift over the last few decades. The pharmacy profession recognizes greater pharmacist involvement in patient care activities. Towards this strategic objective, pharmacy schools are training future pharmacists to meet these new clinical demands. Pharmacy students have clerkships called Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs), and these clerkships account for 30% of the professional curriculum. APPEs provide the only opportunity for students to refine clinical skills under the guidance of an experienced pharmacist. Nationwide, schools of pharmacy need to evaluate whether students have successfully completed APPEs and are ready treat patients. Schools are left to their own devices to develop assessment programs that demonstrate to the public and regulatory agencies, students are clinically competent prior to graduation. There is no widely accepted method to evaluate whether these assessment programs actually discriminate between the competent and non-competent students. The central purpose of this study is to demonstrate a rigorous method to evaluate the validity and reliability of APPE assessment programs. The method introduced in this study is applicable to a wide variety of assessment programs. To illustrate this method, the study evaluated new performance criteria with a novel rating scale. The study had two main phases. In the first phase, a Delphi panel was created to bring together expert opinions. Pharmacy schools nominated exceptional preceptors to join a Delphi panel. Delphi is a method to achieve agreement of complex issues among experts. The principal researcher recruited preceptors representing a variety of practice settings and geographical regions. The Delphi panel evaluated and refined the new performance criteria. In the second phase, the study produced a novel set of video vignettes that portrayed student performances based on recommendations of

  16. Ensuring rigour and trustworthiness of qualitative research in clinical pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; José Closs, S

    2016-06-01

    The use of qualitative research methodology is well established for data generation within healthcare research generally and clinical pharmacy research specifically. In the past, qualitative research methodology has been criticized for lacking rigour, transparency, justification of data collection and analysis methods being used, and hence the integrity of findings. Demonstrating rigour in qualitative studies is essential so that the research findings have the "integrity" to make an impact on practice, policy or both. Unlike other healthcare disciplines, the issue of "quality" of qualitative research has not been discussed much in the clinical pharmacy discipline. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of rigour in qualitative research, present different philosophical standpoints on the issue of quality in qualitative research and to discuss briefly strategies to ensure rigour in qualitative research. Finally, a mini review of recent research is presented to illustrate the strategies reported by clinical pharmacy researchers to ensure rigour in their qualitative research studies.

  17. Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in pharmacy education - a trend.

    PubMed

    Shirwaikar, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacy education has undergone a radical change as it evolves towards becoming a more patient oriented profession. With a greater emphasis on problem based teaching and competency, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), supported by its reliability and validity became the gold standard for the evaluation of clinical skills of undergraduate students of medicine and pharmacy worldwide. Core competency evaluation has become a mandatory and critical norm for accountability of educational objectives as the traditional testing tools cannot evaluate clinical competence. Interpersonal and communication skills, professional judgment, skills of resolution etc., may be best assessed through a well- structured OSCE in comparison to oral examinations, multiple choice tests and other methods of assessment. Though OSCEs as an objective method of evaluation offer several advantages to both students and teachers, it also has disadvantages and pitfalls in implementation. This article reviews the OSCE as a trend in pharmacy education. PMID:26759616

  18. Experience with the Implementation of Clinical Pharmacy Services and Processes in a University Hospital in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Somers, Annemie; Claus, Barbara; Vandewoude, Koen; Petrovic, Mirko

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes the experience with the development of clinical pharmacy services in the Ghent University Hospital in Belgium. Implementation of clinical pharmacy services in Belgian hospitals has not been evident because these activities were initially not structurally financed. The aim is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of the clinical pharmacy development process, and the milestones that enhanced the progress. Furthermore, the organisation of clinical pharmacy in the Ghent University Hospital is explained, including back- and front-office activities, seamless pharmaceutical care and medication safety improvement. Some working methods, procedures and tools are explained for different clinical pharmacy services. In particular, the clinical pharmacy projects for geriatric patients as well as the preparation of clinical pharmacy services for the accreditation process are explained. We also reflect on the organisation model and the future development of clinical pharmacy, taking into consideration facilitators and potential barriers. PMID:26922733

  19. Experience with the Implementation of Clinical Pharmacy Services and Processes in a University Hospital in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Somers, Annemie; Claus, Barbara; Vandewoude, Koen; Petrovic, Mirko

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes the experience with the development of clinical pharmacy services in the Ghent University Hospital in Belgium. Implementation of clinical pharmacy services in Belgian hospitals has not been evident because these activities were initially not structurally financed. The aim is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of the clinical pharmacy development process, and the milestones that enhanced the progress. Furthermore, the organisation of clinical pharmacy in the Ghent University Hospital is explained, including back- and front-office activities, seamless pharmaceutical care and medication safety improvement. Some working methods, procedures and tools are explained for different clinical pharmacy services. In particular, the clinical pharmacy projects for geriatric patients as well as the preparation of clinical pharmacy services for the accreditation process are explained. We also reflect on the organisation model and the future development of clinical pharmacy, taking into consideration facilitators and potential barriers.

  20. Anxiety of first cadaver demonstration in medical, dentistry and pharmacy faculty students.

    PubMed

    Bati, Ayse Hilal; Ozer, Mehmet Asim; Govsa, Figen; Pinar, Yelda

    2013-07-01

    Anatomy is the fundamental of medical and health professional education. Anatomic dissection enables the examination of the organs in the human cadavers systematically and topographically. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the first cadaver demonstration and the anxiety of medical, dental and pharmacy students. A questionnaire was distributed to 486 students in the same academic year (2009-2010) at Ege University. The review of anxiety reveals the circumstances such as exhaustion, stress, depression, anxiety, destructive life, deterioration of mental or physical quality or asthenia (over-fatigue), professionally having a serious effect on the students. 486 (85.3 %) students in total participated in this research carried out as based on voluntariness as 338 (93.9 %) students from the medical faculty, 78 (70.9 %) students from the faculty of dentistry and 70 (70 %) students from the faculty of pharmacy.A medium level of anxiety was detected in the students in their first encounter with the cadaver. The state anxiety score (SAS) average taken by all the students who took part in the research is 42.6 ± 5.60 and trait anxiety score average is 46.6 ± 5.0. No discrepancy was detected among the faculties with respect to anxiety score. While the SASs of the male students were higher than the girls, the trait anxiety scores of the girl students were detected to be higher than male students. While the characteristics and the cultural life of our society force the male students into stronger behavioral patterns, they may actually increase their anxiety level in distressed conditions. The fact that trait anxiety is high in both sexes, particularly in female students can be explained by the patient responsibility and the work load undertaken in the professions in the medical field as early as the period of education.Before the students' applied lessons with the cadavers start, a preparatory session must be planned for this education to decrease the

  1. Anxiety of first cadaver demonstration in medical, dentistry and pharmacy faculty students.

    PubMed

    Bati, Ayse Hilal; Ozer, Mehmet Asim; Govsa, Figen; Pinar, Yelda

    2013-07-01

    Anatomy is the fundamental of medical and health professional education. Anatomic dissection enables the examination of the organs in the human cadavers systematically and topographically. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the first cadaver demonstration and the anxiety of medical, dental and pharmacy students. A questionnaire was distributed to 486 students in the same academic year (2009-2010) at Ege University. The review of anxiety reveals the circumstances such as exhaustion, stress, depression, anxiety, destructive life, deterioration of mental or physical quality or asthenia (over-fatigue), professionally having a serious effect on the students. 486 (85.3 %) students in total participated in this research carried out as based on voluntariness as 338 (93.9 %) students from the medical faculty, 78 (70.9 %) students from the faculty of dentistry and 70 (70 %) students from the faculty of pharmacy.A medium level of anxiety was detected in the students in their first encounter with the cadaver. The state anxiety score (SAS) average taken by all the students who took part in the research is 42.6 ± 5.60 and trait anxiety score average is 46.6 ± 5.0. No discrepancy was detected among the faculties with respect to anxiety score. While the SASs of the male students were higher than the girls, the trait anxiety scores of the girl students were detected to be higher than male students. While the characteristics and the cultural life of our society force the male students into stronger behavioral patterns, they may actually increase their anxiety level in distressed conditions. The fact that trait anxiety is high in both sexes, particularly in female students can be explained by the patient responsibility and the work load undertaken in the professions in the medical field as early as the period of education.Before the students' applied lessons with the cadavers start, a preparatory session must be planned for this education to decrease the

  2. Comparison of planning and using free time among students of the Faculty of Pharmacy and the Faculty of Nursing and Health Sciences.

    PubMed

    Czabak-Garbacz, Róza; Skibniewska, Agnieszka; Mazurkiewicz, Piotr; Wisowska, Anna; Gdula, Agnieszka

    2003-01-01

    The work presents a research of the group of third year students from two faculties of the Medical University in Lublin. The aim of the research was find out the correlation and differences in the ways of managing and using the so-called 'leisure time'; in relation to stable factors, as well as the system and the direction of studies and environmental factors, dependent on the influences of the psychosociological surrounding. 114 students of the Faculty of Pharmacy and also 55 daily and 51 extramural students of the Faculty of Nursing and Health Education were examined. It has been stated that students of the Faculty of Nursing and Health Education devoted most of their time to house work, reading books and magazines and watching TV, which differentiated them from pharmacy students. Daily students of both faculties in comparison with extramural students spent more time on listening to the radio, going to the cinema or taking part in social meetings. Daily students of the Faculty of Nursing and Health Education devoted more time to sport, walking, reading books and magazines, hobbies and going to the theatre, opera, museum, concerts and exhibitions, not only in comparison with the extramural students, but also with the pharmacy students. A few students showed interest in part-time work during the academic year, although their number rose during the period of holidays, especially among daily students of the Faculty of Nursing and Health Sciences. On the basis of the research it was stated that the way of managing and actual spending of leisure time was influenced by the direction of studies, family situation and sex of the examined students.

  3. Clinical pharmacy service practice in a Chinese tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Huang, Jing-Jing; Chen, He-feng; Xu, Bei-ming

    2015-12-01

    Clinical pharmacy service is focused on the rationality and safety of medication therapy. Clinical pharmacists play an important role in designing therapeutic regimen, preventing medication errors, reducing the incidence of adverse drug reaction, and saving medical costs. Although clinical pharmacy service in China is in its early stage, its development is rapid. In this manuscript, the working model of clinical pharmacists in a Chinese tertiary hospital is introduced, including ward rounds, consultation, stewardship of antimicrobial therapy, drug adverse reaction monitoring, therapeutic drug monitoring, clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics, and training system. With the efforts of clinical pharmacists, there will be a significant increase in the optimization of medication therapy and a notable reduction in preventable adverse drug events as well as health-care cost in China. PMID:26457791

  4. Clinical pharmacy service practice in a Chinese tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Huang, Jing-Jing; Chen, He-feng; Xu, Bei-ming

    2015-12-01

    Clinical pharmacy service is focused on the rationality and safety of medication therapy. Clinical pharmacists play an important role in designing therapeutic regimen, preventing medication errors, reducing the incidence of adverse drug reaction, and saving medical costs. Although clinical pharmacy service in China is in its early stage, its development is rapid. In this manuscript, the working model of clinical pharmacists in a Chinese tertiary hospital is introduced, including ward rounds, consultation, stewardship of antimicrobial therapy, drug adverse reaction monitoring, therapeutic drug monitoring, clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics, and training system. With the efforts of clinical pharmacists, there will be a significant increase in the optimization of medication therapy and a notable reduction in preventable adverse drug events as well as health-care cost in China.

  5. Integrated Clinical Geriatric Pharmacy Clerkship in Long Term, Acute and Ambulatory Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Isabel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A clinical geriatric pharmacy clerkship containing three separate practice areas (long-term, acute, and ambulatory care) is described. The program follows the medical education clerkship protocol, with a clinical pharmacy specialist, pharmacy practice resident, and student. Participation in medical rounds, interdisciplinary conferences, and…

  6. A mixed methods evaluation of a patient care clinic located within a pharmacy school.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, Derek J; Landry, Eric J L; Lysak, Katherine J

    2016-08-01

    Background The Medication Assessment Center is a faculty and student run patient care clinic located within the pharmacy school at the University of Saskatchewan (Canada). It was created as a novel experiential education site for pharmacy students and to provide clinical pharmacist services for complex patients who have trouble accessing services elsewhere. Objective To determine if the clinical services provided by faculty and students at the Medication Assessment Center are valuable to patients who are referred to the program. Setting The Medication Assessment Center, which is faculty and student run patient care clinic. Method Convergent mixed methods design comprised of a retrospective patient chart audit and a paper based patient experience survey. All patients who attended at least one appointment at the Medication Assessment Center between March 1, 2014 and July 31, 2015 were included in the chart audit. All new patients who were referred between April 1, 2015 and October 26, 2015 were included in the survey. Main outcome measures Recommendations made by the pharmacist and patient experience survey indicators. Results 173 patients were included in the chart audit, which found that patients were elderly (64.8 years), highly medically complex (13.8 medications and 6.5 diagnoses each), and had a large number of recommendations made by the pharmacist to adjust drug therapy (6.2 per patient). 121 questionnaires were mailed to patients with a response rate of 66.9 % (n = 81). The survey found high levels of support and satisfaction for the program, including more than half of patients (59.2 %) who reported that their health had improved as a result of the Medication Assessment Center. Conclusion The patient care and experiential education program offered by the Medication Assessment Center provides a valuable service to patients who are referred to the clinic. PMID:27166829

  7. Missed Opportunities for HIV Screening in Pharmacies and Retail Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Dugdale, Caitlin; Zaller, Nickolas; Bratberg, Jeffrey; Berk, William; Flanigan, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In the wake of new recommendations to offer HIV screening to everyone aged 13–64 years and to start all people living with HIV/AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regardless of CD4 count, the need to generate widespread, scalable HIV screening programs is greater than ever. Nearly 50,000 new HIV infections occur in the United States each year, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that approximately half of these new infections are transmitted by individuals who are unaware of their HIV serostatus. Numerous barriers to screening exist, including the lack of primary care for many at-risk patients, expense of screening in traditional settings, and need for repeat testing in high-risk populations. With their relative accessibility and affordability, community pharmacies and retail clinics within those pharmacies are practical and appealing venues for expanded HIV screening. For widespread pharmacy-based testing to become a reality, policymakers and corporate pharmacy leadership would need to develop innovative solutions to the existing time pressures of pharmacists’ behind-the-counter functions and absence of reimbursement for direct patient care services. Pharmacists nationwide should also receive training to assist with risk reduction counseling and linkage to care for customers purchasing the new over-the-counter HIV test. PMID:24684638

  8. Innovative scheduling to maintain clinical pharmacy services despite budget retrenchment.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J; Schneider, P J; Moore, T D

    1984-02-01

    A process is described in which staff scheduling was adjusted to maintain pharmaceutical services while achieving a 7% cutback in personnel costs. The pharmacy department in a 1000-bed university hospital was unable to achieve the necessary cost savings through reductions in sick leave and overtime hours. The pharmacy administration developed a plan that required pharmacists to work four 10-hour shifts per week and resulted in reduced hours of service. The pharmacists objected and proposed an alternative plan in which clinical service was maintained for 16 hours on weekdays and 12 hours on weekends. Pharmacist teams worked one flexible shift per week. Pharmacists developed an innovative staffing plan that allowed them to maintain a high level of practice and acceptable working hours.

  9. Rethinking the Role of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Pharmacy Education.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel L

    2015-12-25

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) play a major role in pharmacy education. Students learn to locate, retrieve, and apply CPGs in didactic coursework and practice experiences. However, they often memorize and quote recommendations without critical analysis, which tends to undermine their clinical growth. Students should become genuine drug experts, based on strong critical-thinking skills and the ability to assimilate extensive clinical and scientific knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines improve health care, and students should be familiar with them, but there are legitimate criticisms of CPGs, stemming largely from potential conflicts of interest and limitations in the quality and scope of available evidence. Despite such flaws, CPGs can be used to facilitate the clinical growth of students if the emphasis is placed on critically analyzing and evaluating CPG recommendations, as opposed to blindly accepting them. From that perspective, the role that CPGs have come to play in education may need to be reconsidered.

  10. Rethinking the Role of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) play a major role in pharmacy education. Students learn to locate, retrieve, and apply CPGs in didactic coursework and practice experiences. However, they often memorize and quote recommendations without critical analysis, which tends to undermine their clinical growth. Students should become genuine drug experts, based on strong critical-thinking skills and the ability to assimilate extensive clinical and scientific knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines improve health care, and students should be familiar with them, but there are legitimate criticisms of CPGs, stemming largely from potential conflicts of interest and limitations in the quality and scope of available evidence. Despite such flaws, CPGs can be used to facilitate the clinical growth of students if the emphasis is placed on critically analyzing and evaluating CPG recommendations, as opposed to blindly accepting them. From that perspective, the role that CPGs have come to play in education may need to be reconsidered. PMID:26889060

  11. Evaluation of the PMA-Coordinated Industry Program for Pharmacy Administration Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Edward T.; Herman, Colman M.

    1978-01-01

    The Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association sponsored a program in 1976 to acquaint faculty with "pharmaceutical industry practices and policies, particularly those related to the marketing function." Results of faculty and company evaluation questionnaires of faculty visitation are presented. Most of the faculty were interested in participating…

  12. A Pilot Common Reading Experience to Integrate Basic and Clinical Sciences in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Policastri, Anne; Garces, Helen; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Romanelli, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To use a common reading experience that engages students in academic discourse both before and during a PharmD degree program and introduces students to basic science and ethical foundations in health care. Design. First-year (P1) pharmacy students were assigned a nonfiction text to read during the summer prior to admission to be followed by facilitated discussions. Activities using the text were integrated into the first-year curriculum. Pre-experience and post-experience student and faculty survey instruments were administered. Assessment. Students and faculty members reported that 3 first-year courses used the text. Students noted that the text's historical perspective enhanced their understanding of both healthcare delivery and clinical research. Most students (78%) recommended continuation of the common reading experience activity. Conclusion. Students and participating faculty members found the common reading experience, which provided a hub for discussion around issues such as health literacy and ethical treatment of patients, to be a positive addition to the curriculum. Future intentions for this project include expansion across all healthcare colleges at the university. PMID:22438597

  13. [Stays in Paris of professors and students from the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela (Spain), 1900-1936].

    PubMed

    Beatriz Arias, Brasa; Landín Pérez, Mariana

    2011-10-01

    In the early twentieth century, if there were an European Capital of biomedical research, it was definitely Paris. It was in this city where microbiology was born in the 19th century due to the crucial influence of Louis Pasteur. In 1888 he founded the Pasteur Institute in Paris where the rabies vaccine, that Pasteur himself had discovered in 1885, was administrated. This institution was also a place to continue his research on infectious diseases and to disseminate its findings. It is a private non-profit state-approved foundation that has attracted along the years many scientists from France and abroad who have been traditionally called "pasteuriens". So it was a world reference centre which has produced important scientific discoveries at a rapid pace and where resources both material and human, were abundant. The Pasteur institute therefore became one of the favourite research facilities of teachers and students from Spanish universities during the first third of the twentieth century, thanks to new regulations that encouraged training abroad. Scholarship policy promoted by the Spanish Government by an organization called Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas (Council for Higher Studies and Scientific Research from, 1907 to 1936) formed scientists abroad. The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela sent some of its members to the French capital between 1905 and 1933. We found that the vast majority chose the Pasteur Institute to conduct the studies of biological chemistry and drug synthesis, but always dependent of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris. Our study focuses on teachers and students who went to Paris, the dates, the course of their scientific stay and how these studies influenced their later work, once they returned to the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela.

  14. Clinical Faculty in Educational Leadership Programs: A Growing Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackmann, Donald G.; McCarthy, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a demographic profile of full-time educational leadership clinical faculty, to identify their professional responsibilities, and to compare their job satisfaction and perceptions of the educational leadership field with those of tenure-line faculty. Utilizing an online questionnaire, 140 clinical faculty and 755…

  15. Current status and future prospects of the development of clinical Pharmacy in China: A SWOT analysis.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yuefeng; Zhao, Qingwei; Zhang, Xiangyi; Yang, Hongyu; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Xingguo

    2016-03-01

    In many industrialized countries, clinical pharmacy has developed into a separate discipline and become a vital part of inpatient care in hospitals. However, as compared to many established branches of medicine, clinical pharmacy is still in its infancy, with much room for growth, improvement, and recognition by both the medical community and patients. In this study, a widely-recognized development strategy analysis tool, Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT), was used to systematically address several key issues to the development of clinical pharmacy in China. This analysis aims to provide feasible recommendations for the development of clinical pharmacy in China by identifying current problems and growth opportunities. Full development of clinical pharmacy as a mature clinical discipline will help promote the rational use of drugs by both clinicians and patients and lead to enhanced drug efficacy and safety. PMID:27087089

  16. Current status and future prospects of the development of clinical Pharmacy in China: A SWOT analysis.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yuefeng; Zhao, Qingwei; Zhang, Xiangyi; Yang, Hongyu; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Xingguo

    2016-03-01

    In many industrialized countries, clinical pharmacy has developed into a separate discipline and become a vital part of inpatient care in hospitals. However, as compared to many established branches of medicine, clinical pharmacy is still in its infancy, with much room for growth, improvement, and recognition by both the medical community and patients. In this study, a widely-recognized development strategy analysis tool, Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT), was used to systematically address several key issues to the development of clinical pharmacy in China. This analysis aims to provide feasible recommendations for the development of clinical pharmacy in China by identifying current problems and growth opportunities. Full development of clinical pharmacy as a mature clinical discipline will help promote the rational use of drugs by both clinicians and patients and lead to enhanced drug efficacy and safety.

  17. Role Model Ambulatory Care Clinical Training Site in a Community-Based Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magarian, Edward O.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    An interdisciplinary project provided ambulatory care clinical training for pharmacy and nursing students in community-based pharmacies, promoting early detection and medical follow-up of common health problems within the community. Students learned new clinical skills in patient health assessment, new diagnostic technologies, patient education…

  18. Ways of spending leisure time by the third year-students of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lublin.

    PubMed

    Czabak-Garbacz, Róza; Skibniewska, Agnieszka; Mazurkiewicz, Piotr; Gdula, Agnieszka

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was the assessment of leisure time among third-year students from the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Lublin. It analysed quantity of time devoted to school activity and ways of spending free time. The study involved 114 students (82 women and 32 men). The study revealed that women had less free time than men, who, most probably did not attend some lectures. The most popular activities among the questioned students were: sleeping (average 6.8 hours a day), studying (average 3.6 hours a day), listening to the radio (average 2.9 hours a day), talking with friends (average 1.9 hours a day), personal hygiene (average 1.1 hours a day), watching TV (average 1.1 hours a day), housework. Students devoted the least of their free time on active rest, for example walking (women did it more often than men) or practising sport (more popular among men). Cultural life of the students consisted only of meetings with friends and going to the cinema (women did it more often). The least popular way of spending free time was going to the theatre, opera, concerts and exhibitions. Few students spent their time working. Their number increased significantly during holidays. The way of spending free time by third-year students from the Faculty of Pharmacy (both men and women) during the day was similar, differences related only to the amount of time devoted to each activity.

  19. Predictors of job satisfaction among Academic Faculty: Do instructional and clinical faculty differ?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kevin C.; Song, Jae W.; Kim, H. Myra; Woolliscroft, James O.; Quint, Elisabeth H.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Gyetko, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify and compare predictors of job satisfaction between the instructional and clinical faculty tracks. Method A 61-item faculty job satisfaction survey was distributed to 1,898 academic faculty at the University of Michigan Medical School. The anonymous survey was web-based. Questions covered topics on departmental organization, research, clinical and teaching support, compensation, mentorship, and promotion. Levels of satisfaction were contrasted between the two tracks, and predictors of job satisfaction were identified using linear regression models. Results The response rates for the instructional and clinical tracks were 43.1% and 41.3%, respectively. Clinical faculty reported being less satisfied with how they are mentored, and fewer reported understanding the process for promotion. There was no significant difference in overall job satisfaction between faculty tracks. Surprisingly, clinical faculty with mentors were significantly less satisfied with how they were being mentored, with career advancement and overall job satisfaction, compared to instructional faculty mentees. Additionally, senior-level clinical faculty were significantly less satisfied with their opportunities to mentor junior faculty compared to senior-level instructional faculty. Significant predictors of job satisfaction for both tracks included areas of autonomy, meeting career expectations, work-life balance, and departmental leadership. Unique to the clinical track, compensation and career advancement variables also emerged as significant predictors. Conclusion Greater effort must be placed in the continued attention to faculty well-being both at the institutional level and at the level of departmental leadership. Success in enhancing job satisfaction is more likely if directed by locally designed assessments involving department chairs, specifically in fostering more effective mentoring relationships focused on making available career advancement activities such as

  20. Management seminar miniseries for training pharmacy residents.

    PubMed

    Gallina, J N; Jeffrey, L P; Temkin, L A; Cardi, V

    1985-02-01

    A management seminar miniseries for training hospital pharmacy residents is described. A series of lectures and workshops on the administrative aspects of hospital pharmacy practice are an integral part of a 2400-hour residency training program. Hospital pharmacy practice, clinical pharmacy practice, communication skills, and pharmacy administration and personnel management are the four major areas covered by the program. The section on pharmacy administration and personnel management is initiated in the middle of program after the residents have gained an appreciation of the intricacies of the department. The management workshops emphasize role playing and actual case-study analyses. The program's faculty members are members of the professional staff who have received formal training in the topics they teach. Twenty-two of this program's 53 graduates have assumed management positions. The management miniseries described can provide residents with the managerial skills they need to become effective pharmacy leaders.

  1. Research fellowship programs as a pathway for training independent clinical pharmacy scientists.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Eric W; Bishop, Jeffrey R; Kanaan, Abir O; Kiser, Tyree H; Phan, Hanna; Yang, Katherine Y

    2015-03-01

    The American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Research Affairs Committee published a commentary in 2013 on training clinical pharmacy scientists in the context of changes in economic, professional, political, and research environments. The commentary centered on the opportunities for pharmacists in clinical/translational research including strategies for ACCP, colleges of pharmacy, and the profession to increase the number and impact of clinical pharmacy scientists. A postdoctoral fellowship is cited as a current training pathway, capable of producing independent and productive pharmacy researchers. However, a decline in the number of programs, decreased funding availability, and variability in fellowship program activities and research focus have brought into question the relevance of this research training pathway to meet demand and opportunities. In response to these points, this commentary examines the state of research fellowship training including the current ACCP research fellowship review process, the need for standardization of research fellowship programs, and strategies to strengthen and promote research fellowships as relevant researcher training pathways.

  2. [The evolution of the vocational training of apothecaries and the pharmacists through the < Salle des Actes> of the faculty of pharmacy of Paris].

    PubMed

    Bzoura, Elie

    2005-01-01

    The visit of la of the faculty of pharmacy of Paris brings important knowledge on the evolution of the vocational training of the apothecaries and the pharmacists during nearly five centuries. The characters represented on the portraits played a major role in the formation and dissemination of knowledge.

  3. Proceedings of the International Congress on Clinical Pharmacy Education. (1st, Minneapolis, Minnesota, July 13-16, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Bethesda, MD.

    The proceedings of the First International Congress on Clinical Pharmacy Education, which introduced pharmacy educators from outside of North America to the U.S. clinical pharmacy component of education and practice are presented in more than 20 separate papers. The program's objectives were: (1) to provide a historical overview of the development…

  4. Towards an Operational Definition of Clinical Competency in Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To estimate the inter-rater reliability and accuracy of ratings of competence in student pharmacist/patient clinical interactions as depicted in videotaped simulations and to compare expert panelist and typical preceptor ratings of those interactions. Methods. This study used a multifactorial experimental design to estimate inter-rater reliability and accuracy of preceptors’ assessment of student performance in clinical simulations. The study protocol used nine 5-10 minute video vignettes portraying different levels of competency in student performance in simulated clinical interactions. Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) was used to calculate inter-rater reliability and Fisher exact test was used to compare differences in distribution of scores between expert and nonexpert assessments. Results. Preceptors (n=42) across 5 states assessed the simulated performances. Intra-Class Correlation estimates were higher for 3 nonrandomized video simulations compared to the 6 randomized simulations. Preceptors more readily identified high and low student performances compared to satisfactory performances. In nearly two-thirds of the rating opportunities, a higher proportion of expert panelists than preceptors rated the student performance correctly (18 of 27 scenarios). Conclusion. Valid and reliable assessments are critically important because they affect student grades and formative student feedback. Study results indicate the need for pharmacy preceptor training in performance assessment. The process demonstrated in this study can be used to establish minimum preceptor benchmarks for future national training programs. PMID:26089563

  5. Organizational climate, communication, and role strain in clinical nursing faculty.

    PubMed

    Piscopo, B

    1994-01-01

    This study examined factors contributing to role strain experienced by clinical nursing faculty while they oversaw the clinical experiences of nursing students. Specifically, the study focused on differences between clinical nursing faculty's perceptions of organizational climate and communication within affiliating agencies and perceptions of these factors held by their respective nursing unit managers in the affiliating agencies. Perceptions of organizational climate and communication were related to role strain reported by clinical nursing faculty, and predictors of role strain in clinical nursing faculty were identified. The instruments used for data collection were the Organizational Climate Questionnaire, Communication Within Organizations Questionnaire, and Role Strain Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using independent Student's t Tests, Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Significant differences in perceptions of organizational climate were not found; however, clinical nursing faculty and nursing unit managers differed significantly in their perception of communication. There was a significant positive correlation between organizational climate, communication, and reported role strain in clinical nursing faculty, and a linear relationship was demonstrated between reported role strain in clinical nursing faculty, perceptions of communication, and length of time on the nursing unit in the affiliating agency.

  6. [Charles-Henri Fialon (1846-1933), creator of the Museum of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris. His family and professional life].

    PubMed

    Flahaut, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Henri Fialon was pharmacist in 1871, and worked in the family apothecary, at Rueil near Paris. At 46 years, he stopped his pharmaceutical activity, and livre quietly, being specially interested by the ancient pharmaceutical pots. He realized a very important collection, which he gave to the French Society of Pharmaceutical History. A museum was installed at the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris which is presently in the Guillaume Valette Gallery and contains more than 500 pieces. PMID:15981391

  7. Perceptions of Novice Clinical Adjunct Nursing Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmelberg, Layna

    2011-01-01

    The anticipated nursing shortage in the United States is well documented and continues to be a topic of discussion. A nationwide solution has been for nursing programs to increase their enrollment of nursing students. This could be difficult for many nursing schools; as many have a shortage of qualified nursing faculty with which to instruct…

  8. [Review of legislation regarding clinical research in the Spanish health care system and hospital pharmacy services].

    PubMed

    Laguna-Goya, Noa; Serrano, M Antonia; Gómez-Chacón, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    The call for public funding for the Spanish Health Care System clinical research with drugs for human use projects Subprogramme highlights the need for hospital pharmacy services to include the manufacture of investigational drugs which are the subject of a clinical trial, developed by either a researcher or a group of researchers, within its activities. This article discusses the legislation concerning the manufacture of investigational drugs and the requirements that the pharmacy services must meet in order to develop, distribute, or conceal an investigational drug in a clinical trial sponsored by a professional from the SHS.

  9. [Satisfaction of pharmacists in Lebanon and the prospect for clinical pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Antoun, R Bou; Salameh, P

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey among community and pharmaceutical company pharmacists in Lebanon to evaluate their satisfaction with their professional status and their willingness to work as clinical pharmacists. The majority of community pharmacists were satisfied with their professional situation (> 50%), except for the financial aspect (40%). For pharmaceutical company pharmacists, only 33% thought that their profession had a positive image. However, > 65% were satisfied with social and financial standing. About 25% of pharmacists in pharmaceutical companies were ready to switch to clinical pharmacy with less income. Over 75% of the community pharmacists were prepared to apply clinical pharmacy in their practice and would be ready to attend courses for this purpose.

  10. Development and Implementation of Critical Thinking Assignments Throughout a Pharmacy Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Marilyn F.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    In a summer faculty development workshop, seven faculty in different pharmacy disciplines (biochemistry, therapeutics, pharmacy management, pharmaceutics, pathophysiology, pharmaceutical analysis, pharmacy administration) clarified critical thinking objectives for their courses, practiced this approach in a faculty workshop, and piloted the…

  11. [Construction and thinking of data element standard directory of traditional Chinese medicine clinical pharmacy information].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Xia; Jin, Zhong-Zheng; Guo, Gui-Ming; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Jin, Shi-Yuan

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the data element standard directory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical pharmacy information, to provide application standards and models of TCM clinical pharmacy for the electronic medical record (EMR). The developed line of work is as follows: initially establish research through four forms: literature analysis, questionnaires, discussion groups, expert advice. The research range from the Chinese herbal medicine research, herbal origin, harvesting, processing, identification of traits, physical and chemical identification, modern research, character, taste, Indications, clinical application, processing, dispensing medicine, Chinese medicine specifications, usage, dosage, caution, efficacy indications to small packaging applications, drug research, management and other related issues, including traditional Chinese medicine theory, application and hospital management information; according to the general and part 16 content of the national "Health Information Data Element Standards", and the basic method of extracting data element to study and develop the data element of TCM clinical pharmacy information from the defining content. Correspondingly propose the ideas and methods of construction of the "Data Element Standard Directory of TCM Clinical Pharmacy Information", sort out medicine clinical information data element standard catalog, divided into basic categories, clinical application class, management class three parts, and set norms and standards of identifying data elements, definitions, allowable value of traditional Chinese medicine clinical information, and discuss the sources and standards of information collection, leaving the interface, standardized and scientific terminology, docking with the existing standards, maintenance and management program and oter issues.

  12. Impact of Facilitated Asynchronous Distance Education on Clinical Skills Development of International Pharmacy Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Zubin; Dean, Marie Rocchi

    2006-01-01

    The use of distance education for clinical skills development in the health professions has not been extensively described, due in part to the intensive nature of the relationship between the patient and practitioner. In the context of pharmacy practice, there are specific needs to develop new vehicles for clinical skills education due to growing…

  13. An Academic Multihealth System PGY2 Pediatric Pharmacy Residency Program.

    PubMed

    Klosterman, Theresa; Meyers, Rachel; Siu, Anita; Shah, Pooja; Kimler, Katelin; Sturgill, Marc; Robinson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel multihealth system pediatric pharmacy residency program through the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers University. Pediatric clinical pharmacy is a growing field that has seen an increase in demand for practitioners. Practice sites include freestanding children's hospitals, children's hospitals within adult hospitals, and pediatric units within adult hospitals. To accommodate a residency program in a region with no freestanding children's hospital, the pediatric faculty members at the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers University developed a multihealth system postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pediatric pharmacy residency program with 6 pediatric faculty members functioning as preceptors at their 5 respective practice sites. The multihealth system setup of the program provides the resident exposure to a multitude of patient populations, pediatric specialties, and pediatric pharmacy practices. In addition, the affiliation with Rutgers University allows an emphasis on academia with opportunities for the resident to lecture in small and large classrooms, facilitate discussion periods, assist with clinical laboratory classes, and precept pharmacy students. The resident has the unique opportunity to develop a research project with a large and diverse patient population owing to the multihealth system rotation sites. A multihealth system PGY2 residency in pediatric pharmacy provides the resident a well-rounded experience in pediatric clinical practice, research, and academia that will enhance the resident's ability to build his or her own pediatric pharmacy practice. PMID:26766936

  14. Evaluation of Clinical and Communication Skills of Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists with an Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    PubMed

    Urteaga, Elizabeth M; Attridge, Rebecca L; Tovar, John M; Witte, Amy P

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To evaluate how effectively pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists communicate and apply knowledge to simulations of commonly encountered patient scenarios using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Design. Second-, third-, and fourth-year pharmacy students completed an OSCE as part of their required courses in 2012 and 2013. All students in both years completed identical OSCE cases. Licensed pharmacists were recruited to complete the OSCE and serve as controls in 2012. A survey assessed student perception and acceptance of the OSCE as well as student confidence in performance. Assessment. Licensed pharmacists had significantly higher clinical and communication skills scores than did pharmacy students. Student progression in communication and clinical skills improved significantly over time. Survey results indicated that students felt the OSCE was well-structured and assessed clinical skills taught in pharmacy school; 86% of students felt confident they could provide these skills. Conclusion. Objective structured clinical examinations can evaluate clinical competence and communication skills among professional students. Implementation of OSCEs may be an effective tool for assessment of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education domains.

  15. Evaluation of Clinical and Communication Skills of Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists with an Objective Structured Clinical Examination

    PubMed Central

    Attridge, Rebecca L.; Tovar, John M.; Witte, Amy P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate how effectively pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists communicate and apply knowledge to simulations of commonly encountered patient scenarios using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Design. Second-, third-, and fourth-year pharmacy students completed an OSCE as part of their required courses in 2012 and 2013. All students in both years completed identical OSCE cases. Licensed pharmacists were recruited to complete the OSCE and serve as controls in 2012. A survey assessed student perception and acceptance of the OSCE as well as student confidence in performance. Assessment. Licensed pharmacists had significantly higher clinical and communication skills scores than did pharmacy students. Student progression in communication and clinical skills improved significantly over time. Survey results indicated that students felt the OSCE was well-structured and assessed clinical skills taught in pharmacy school; 86% of students felt confident they could provide these skills. Conclusion. Objective structured clinical examinations can evaluate clinical competence and communication skills among professional students. Implementation of OSCEs may be an effective tool for assessment of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education domains. PMID:26690286

  16. [Features of Clinical Register of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy Based on ClinicalTrials.gov. (USA)].

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng-fei; Liao, Xing; Xie, Yan-ming; Wang, Zhi-guo

    2015-11-01

    In recent 10 years, clinical trials of Chinese medicine and pharmacy (cMP) at clinicalTrials.gov.(USA) are gradually increasing. In order to analyze features of CMP clinical register, ClinicalTrials.gov register database were comprehensively retrieved in this study. Included clinical trials were input one item after another using EXCEL. A final of 348 CMP clinical trials were included. Results showed that China occupied the first place in CMP clinical register, followed by USA. CMP clinical trials, sponsored mainly by colleges/universities and hospitals, mostly covered interventional studies on evaluating safety/effectiveness of CMP. The proportions of studies, sponsored by mainland China and companies, recruitment trials and multi-center clinical trials in interventional trials were increasing. The proportions of studies sponsored by Hong Kong and Taiwan, research completed trials, unclear research status, phase III clinical trials, and published research trials in interventional trials were decreasing. Published ratios of CMP clinical trials were quite low. There were more missing types and higher proportions in trial register information.

  17. Acute care clinical pharmacy practice: unit- versus service-based models.

    PubMed

    Haas, Curtis E; Eckel, Stephen; Arif, Sally; Beringer, Paul M; Blake, Elizabeth W; Lardieri, Allison B; Lobo, Bob L; Mercer, Jessica M; Moye, Pamela; Orlando, Patricia L; Wargo, Kurt

    2012-02-01

    This commentary from the 2010 Task Force on Acute Care Practice Model of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy was developed to compare and contrast the "unit-based" and "service-based" orientation of the clinical pharmacist within an acute care pharmacy practice model and to offer an informed opinion concerning which should be preferred. The clinical pharmacy practice model must facilitate patient-centered care and therefore must position the pharmacist to be an active member of the interprofessional team focused on providing high-quality pharmaceutical care to the patient. Although both models may have advantages and disadvantages, the most important distinction pertains to the patient care role of the clinical pharmacist. The unit-based pharmacist is often in a position of reacting to an established order or decision and frequently is focused on task-oriented clinical services. By definition, the service-based clinical pharmacist functions as a member of the interprofessional team. As a team member, the pharmacist proactively contributes to the decision-making process and the development of patient-centered care plans. The service-based orientation of the pharmacist is consistent with both the practice vision embraced by ACCP and its definition of clinical pharmacy. The task force strongly recommends that institutions pursue a service-based pharmacy practice model to optimally deploy their clinical pharmacists. Those who elect to adopt this recommendation will face challenges in overcoming several resource, technologic, regulatory, and accreditation barriers. However, such challenges must be confronted if clinical pharmacists are to contribute fully to achieving optimal patient outcomes.

  18. Primary health-care services with a functional ambulatory care clinical pharmacy in a low-income housing project clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Oke, T. O.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the establishment of clinical pharmacy services at a primary health-care clinic in a low-income housing area in New Orleans. The St Thomas Health Care Services Outpatient Clinic was established in 1987 by the Catholic Sisters of Charity. The clinic provides care for 4500 ambulatory patients who otherwise have inadequate health care. Xavier University College of Pharmacy established pharmacy services in the clinic as a site for its ambulatory clerkship students. The pharmacy provides training for students on the principles and practice standards of ambulatory care pharmacy services, which include taking medication history and performing drug therapy review. A computer-generated medical record was developed to provide access to patients' demographic and drug profiles. The system was designed to help the pharmacist preceptor and students detect, resolve, and prevent drug-related problems, and to aid in learning to monitor the progression of disease(s) and whether the patient is experiencing the desired therapeutic outcome. Direct contact with patients allows the pharmacist and the students to become familiar with patient compliance problems, adverse drug reaction monitoring, patient counseling techniques, and providing patient education. PMID:8078084

  19. Innovation in clinical pharmacy practice and opportunities for academic--practice partnership.

    PubMed

    Gubbins, Paul O; Micek, Scott T; Badowski, Melissa; Cheng, Judy; Gallagher, Jason; Johnson, Samuel G; Karnes, Jason H; Lyons, Kayley; Moore, Katherine G; Strnad, Kyle

    2014-05-01

    Clinical pharmacy has a rich history of advancing practice through innovation. These innovations helped to mold clinical pharmacy into a patient-centered discipline recognized for its contributions to improving medication therapy outcomes. However, innovations in clinical pharmacy practice have now waned. In our view, the growth of academic–practice partnerships could reverse this trend and stimulate innovation among the next generation of pioneering clinical pharmacists. Although collaboration facilitates innovation,academic institutions and health care systems/organizations are not taking full advantage of this opportunity. The academic–practice partnership can be optimized by making both partners accountable for the desired outcomes of their collaboration, fostering symbiotic relationships that promote value-added clinical pharmacy services and emphasizing continuous quality improvement in the delivery of these services. Optimizing academic–practice collaboration on a broader scale requires both partners to adopt a culture that provides for dedicated time to pursue innovation, establishes mechanisms to incubate ideas, recognizes where motivation and vision align, and supports the purpose of the partnership. With appropriate leadership and support, a shift in current professional education and training practices, and a commitment to cultivate future innovators, the academic–practice partnership can develop new and innovative practice advancements that will improve patient outcomes.

  20. An Endocrine Pharmacology Course for the Clinically-Oriented Pharmacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahwan, Ralf G.

    1976-01-01

    In view of trends in clinical pharmacy education, the role of the traditional basic sciences has to be reassessed. An endocrine pharmacology course comprised of 49 clock-hours and open for professional undergraduate and graduate credit is described that blends basic and applied pharmacology. (LBH)

  1. Clinical pharmacy should adopt a consistent process of direct patient care.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ila M; Phillips, Beth; Boyce, Eric; Griesbach, Sara; Hope, Charlene; Sanoski, Cynthia; Sokos, Denise; Wargo, Kurt

    2014-08-01

    Although the application of a consistent process of care serves as a foundational principle for most health care professions, this is not true for the discipline of clinical pharmacy. Without an explicit, reproducible process of care, it is not possible to demonstrate to patients, caregivers, or health professionals the ways in which the clinical pharmacist can reliably contribute to improved medication-related outcomes. A consistent patient care process should describe the key steps that all clinical pharmacists will follow when they encounter a patient, regardless of the type of practice, the clinical setting, or the medical conditions or medications involved. Four essential elements serve as the cornerstones of the clinical pharmacist's patient care process: assess the patient and his or her medication therapy, develop a plan of care, implement the plan, and evaluate the outcomes of the plan. Despite the fact that several processes of care have been advocated for clinical pharmacists, none has been adopted by the clinical pharmacy discipline. In addition, numerous publications evaluate outcomes related to clinical pharmacy services, but it is difficult to determine what process of patient care was used in most of these studies. In our view, a consistent process of direct patient care that includes the four essential elements should be adopted by the clinical pharmacy discipline. This process should be clear, straightforward and intuitive, readily documentable, and applicable to all practice settings. Once adopted, the process should be implemented across practice settings, taught in professional degree programs, integrated into students' clinical rotations, refined during residency training, and used as a foundation for future large-scale studies to rigorously study the effects of the clinical pharmacist on patients' medication-related outcomes.

  2. Use of anecdotal notes by clinical nursing faculty: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mellisa A; Daly, Barbara J; Madigan, Elizabeth A

    2010-03-01

    Although the use of anecdotal notes by faculty to document clinical performance is thought to be a common practice, no empirical study of this evaluation tool has been conducted. To investigate the frequency and pattern of use, a faculty questionnaire was developed using the Context, Input, Process, Product (CIPP) evaluation model as a framework. The model was adapted to focus on clinical nursing education. Sixty-four nursing faculty from six schools participated in the regional study. A descriptive design was used to collect quantitative data from clinical faculty. Findings indicated that 97% of clinical faculty use anecdotal notes during the student evaluation process, and the majority of faculty do so on a weekly basis. Based on faculty feedback and the CIPP evaluation model, a clinical nursing faculty tool was developed after study completion to support clinical faculty in note use.

  3. Evolution, current structure, and role of a primary care clinical pharmacy service in an integrated managed care organization.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Rachel M F; Campbell, Stephanie M; Kroner, Beverly A; Proksel, Jenel R; Billups, Sarah J; Witt, Daniel M; Helling, Dennis K

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the declining number of primary care physicians is exacerbated by a growing elderly population in need of chronic disease management. Primary care clinical pharmacy specialists, with their unique knowledge and skill set, are well suited to address this gap. At Kaiser Permanente of Colorado (KPCO), primary care clinical pharmacy specialists have a long history of integration with medical practices and are located in close proximity to physicians, nurses, and other members of the health care team. Since 1992, Primary Care Clinical Pharmacy Services (PCCPS) has expanded from 4 to 30 full-time equivalents (FTEs) to provide services in all KPCO medical office buildings. With this growth in size, PCCPS has evolved to play a vital role in working with primary care medical teams to ensure that drug therapy is effective, safe, and affordable. In addition, PCCPS specialists provide ambulatory teaching sites for pharmacy students and pharmacy residents. There is approximately 1 specialist FTE for every 13,000 adult KPCO members and every 9 clinical FTEs of internal medicine and family medicine physicians. All clinical pharmacy specialists in the pharmacy department are required to have a PharmD degree, to complete postgraduate year 2 residencies, and, as a condition of employment, to become board certified in an applicable specialty. The evolution, current structure, and role of PCCPS at KPCO, including factors facilitating successful integration within the medical team, are highlighted. Patient and nonpatient care responsibilities are described.

  4. Pharmacy education in France.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine; Brion, Françoise

    2008-12-15

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a "diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie" This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice.

  5. A Required Course in the Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Clinical Pharmacy Services

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Khalid M.; Berdine, Hildegarde J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To develop, implement, and assess a required pharmacy practice course to prepare pharmacy students to develop, implement, and evaluate clinical pharmacy services using a business plan model. Design Course content centered around the process of business planning and pharmacoeconomic evaluations. Selected business planning topics included literature evaluation, mission statement development, market evaluation, policy and procedure development, and marketing strategy. Selected pharmacoeconomic topics included cost-minimization analysis, cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Assessment methods included objective examinations, student participation, performance on a group project, and peer evaluation. Assessment One hundred fifty-three students were enrolled in the course. The mean scores on the objective examinations (100 points per examination) ranged from 82 to 85 points, with 25%-35% of students in the class scoring over 90, and 40%-50% of students scoring from 80 to 89. The mean scores on the group project (200 points) and classroom participation (50 points) were 183.5 and 46.1, respectively. The mean score on the peer evaluation was 30.8, with scores ranging from 27.5 to 31.7. Conclusion The course provided pharmacy students with the framework necessary to develop and implement evidence-based disease management programs and to assure efficient, cost-effective utilization of pertinent resources in the provision of patient care. PMID:19214263

  6. The Vision and Challenges of Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University's Affiliated Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Norose, Takahiko; Manabe, Tomohiro; Furuta, Seiichi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University (HPU), according to its educational mission, seeks to "develop medical professionals who contribute to community medicine", and it has produced more than 6300 graduates since 1974. With recent medical advancements and a progressively aging society, the role of the pharmacist in community medicine has diversified and is increasing in importance. Therefore, in April 2012, the Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University Affiliated Pharmacy was established as a for-profit business of the Educational Foundation of the Hokkaido University of Science, the parent body of HPU. The pharmacy is located near the Sapporo station; it is operated by six pharmacists and four clerks, and supported by three faculty members who are engaged in providing HPU student education such as on-site clinical training, in addition to their pharmacy duties such as home care pharmaceutics. For the first two years it was open, the pharmacy focused on the establishment of pharmacy administration and fiscal consolidation. In April 2015, the Pharmacy Management Committee set the pharmacy's future vision, as well as its mid-term strategy, which consists of the four main components of pharmacy practices, education, research, and social contribution, in order for the pharmacy to serve as a model of community pharmacy.

  7. Active-Learning Processes Used in US Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stacy D.; Clavier, Cheri W.; Wyatt, Jarrett

    2011-01-01

    Objective To document the type and extent of active-learning techniques used in US colleges and schools of pharmacy as well as factors associated with use of these techniques. Methods A survey instrument was developed to assess whether and to what extent active learning was used by faculty members of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. This survey instrument was distributed via the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) mailing list. Results Ninety-five percent (114) of all US colleges and schools of pharmacy were represented with at least 1 survey among the 1179 responses received. Eighty-seven percent of respondents used active-learning techniques in their classroom activities. The heavier the teaching workload the more active-learning strategies were used. Other factors correlated with higher use of active-learning strategies included younger faculty member age (inverse relationship), lower faculty member rank (inverse relationship), and departments that focused on practice, clinical and social, behavioral, and/or administrative sciences. Conclusions Active learning has been embraced by pharmacy educators and is used to some extent by the majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Future research should focus on how active-learning methods can be used most effectively within pharmacy education, how it can gain even broader acceptance throughout the academy, and how the effect of active learning on programmatic outcomes can be better documented. PMID:21769144

  8. Evaluation of clinical pharmacy services offered for palliative care patients in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Wilby, Kyle John; Mohamad, Alaa Adil; AlYafei, Sumaya AlSaadi

    2014-09-01

    Palliative care is an emerging concept in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, a political and economic union of Arab states bordering the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Clinical pharmacy services have not yet been evaluated in this region. The objectives of this study were to create a baseline inventory of clinical pharmacy interventions in palliative care and to assess the perceived importance of interventions made. This was a prospective, single-center characterization study. Interventions were documented from September 30 to December 1, 2013. They were characterized into predetermined categories and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Physician acceptance rate and intervention rate per patient were calculated. Classification categories were sent to 10 practicing pharmacists in each of Qatar and Canada, who ranked the categories on the basis of perceived importance. A total of 96 interventions were documented, giving 3 interventions per patient and an acceptance rate of 81%. Discontinuing therapy (29%), initiating therapy (25%), and provision of education/counseling (13.5%) were most common. No differences were found between rankings from pharmacists in Qatar or Canada. Clinical pharmacy interventions are frequent, and those relating to alterations in drug therapy are most common. Interventions align with the perceived importance from pharmacists in both Qatar and Canada.

  9. Sequencing of Simulation and Clinic Experiences in an Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Hajjar, Emily; DeSevo Bellottie, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine how the intrasemester sequencing of a simulation component, delivered during an ambulatory care introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE), affects student performance on a series of 3 assessments delivered during the second professional (P2) year. Design. At the Jefferson College of Pharmacy (JCP), P2 student pharmacists were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of simulation activities, followed by 6 weeks on site at an ambulatory care clinic or vice versa during either the fall or spring semesters. At the end of each semester, these students completed 3 skills-based assessments: answering a series of drug information (DI) questions; conducting medication adherence counseling; and conducting a medication history. The 2 groups’ raw scores on assessment rubrics were compared. Assessment. During academic years 2011-2012 and 2012-2013, 180 P2 student pharmacists participated in the required ambulatory care IPPE. Ninety experienced simulation first, while the other 90 experienced the clinic first. Students assessed over a 2-year time span performed similarly on each of 3 skills-based assessments, regardless of how simulation experiences were sequenced within the IPPE. Conclusion. The lack of significant difference in student performance suggests that schools of pharmacy may have flexibility with regard to how they choose to incorporate simulation into clinical ambulatory care IPPEs. PMID:26688585

  10. Clinical and Business Intelligence: Why It's Important to Your Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Brian; Fox, Brent I

    2016-07-01

    According to the Healthcare Information Management and Systems Society, "Clinical & Business Intelligence (C&BI) is the use and analysis of data captured in the healthcare setting to directly inform decision-making" (http://www.himss.org/library/clinical-business-intelligence). Some say that it is the right information given to the right person at the right time in the right way. No matter how you define it, the fact remains that timely access, synthesis, and visualization of clinical data have become key to how health professionals make patient care decisions and improve care delivery.

  11. Clinical and Business Intelligence: Why It's Important to Your Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Brian; Fox, Brent I

    2016-07-01

    According to the Healthcare Information Management and Systems Society, "Clinical & Business Intelligence (C&BI) is the use and analysis of data captured in the healthcare setting to directly inform decision-making" (http://www.himss.org/library/clinical-business-intelligence). Some say that it is the right information given to the right person at the right time in the right way. No matter how you define it, the fact remains that timely access, synthesis, and visualization of clinical data have become key to how health professionals make patient care decisions and improve care delivery. PMID:27559195

  12. Expansion of clinical pharmacy services through staff development.

    PubMed

    Greene, S A; Powell, C W

    1991-08-01

    A program that trains and uses staff pharmacists for clinical services is described. A position was created that is filled by staff pharmacists on six-week rotations. All full-time pharmacists may participate; they work under the direction and supervision of clinical pharmacists. Basic responsibilities in the rotation include responding to drug information requests, assisting with drug-use evaluation and adverse drug experience programs, assisting with research, writing and editing for newsletters, participating in staff development programs, and reviewing and clarifying drug orders for the skilled-nursing facility. About 60% of eligible pharmacists have participated in this program. The pharmacists have gained new practice skills, greater opportunity for career enhancement, and improved attitudes toward work and colleagues, and the department has been able to provide more clinical services. The focus of the rotation is now being changed from performing clinical tasks to assuming more responsibility for patient outcomes related to drug therapy. A rotating clinical position has enabled staff pharmacists to gain additional nondispensing skills and contribute to the development and maintenance of clinical services.

  13. Development of Clinical Pharmacy in Switzerland: Involvement of Community Pharmacists in Care for Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Hersberger, Kurt E; Messerli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    The role of the community pharmacist in primary care has been undergoing change in Switzerland in parallel to international developments: it has become more clinically and patient oriented. Special services of community pharmacists to older patients taking long-term or multiple medications, discharged from hospitals or experiencing cognitive impairment or disability have been developed. These services require more clinical knowledge and skills from community pharmacists and are based on, for example, 'simple or intermediate medication reviews' focused primarily to improve medication adherence and rational drug use by a patient. Reflecting the new role of community pharmacies, this article describes the current services provided by community pharmacies in Switzerland, e.g., 'polymedication check', 'weekly pill organizer', and 'services for chronic patients', as well as new Swiss educational and reimbursement systems supporting development of these services. In the international context, involvement of community pharmacists in patient-oriented care is growing. This review summarizes positive and negative experiences from implementation of community pharmacy services in Switzerland and provides examples for the development of such services in other countries.

  14. Do Student Evaluations Influence the Teaching Skills of Clerkship Clinical Faculty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasekhar, Arcot J.; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Hoyt, Amy; McNulty, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Web-based student evaluations of clinical faculty were collected over an 8-year period. There were 19,881 medical student evaluations over the 8-year period for all clinical clerkships, representing a total of 952 faculty. Students used a 5-point Likert scale to rate the teaching effectiveness of faculty. Criterion-based methods and standard…

  15. Pharmacy Education in France

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a “diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie” This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice. PMID:19325952

  16. Medical Oncology Pharmacy: A New Role for the Clinical Pharmacist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carl R.; Hickman, Mary Johne

    1977-01-01

    The University of Tennessee has established a training program for clinical pharmacists dealing with cancer chemotherapy patients. Health-care settings are described in which these individuals can contribute as unique health-care team members in oncology. (Author/LBH)

  17. Guiding Principles for Student Leadership Development in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program to Assist Administrators and Faculty Members in Implementing or Refining Curricula

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Cynthia J.; Janke, Kristin K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assist administrators and faculty members in colleges and schools of pharmacy by gathering expert opinion to frame, direct, and support investments in student leadership development. Methods. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) student leadership instruction. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes to begin the generation of student leadership development guiding principles and competencies. Statements were identified as guiding principles when they were perceived as foundational to the instructional approach. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Group consensus with a statement as a guiding principle was set prospectively at 80%. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on guidelines, modified from feedback in round 2, that did not meet consensus. The principles were verified by identifying common contemporary leadership development approaches in the literature. Results. Twelve guiding principles, related to concepts of leadership and educational philosophy, were defined and could be linked to contemporary leadership development thought. These guiding principles describe the motivation for teaching leadership, the fundamental precepts of student leadership development, and the core tenets for leadership instruction. Conclusions. Expert opinion gathered using a Delphi process resulted in guiding principles that help to address many of the fundamental questions that arise when implementing or refining leadership curricula. The principles identified are supported by common contemporary leadership development thought. PMID:24371345

  18. Objective structured clinical examination for pharmacy students in Qatar: cultural and contextual barriers to assessment.

    PubMed

    Wilby, K J; Black, E K; Austin, Z; Mukhalalati, B; Aboulsoud, S; Khalifa, S I

    2016-07-10

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and psychometric defensibility of implementing a comprehensive objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) on the complete pharmacy programme for pharmacy students in a Middle Eastern context, and to identify facilitators and barriers to implementation within new settings. Eight cases were developed, validated, and had standards set according to a blueprint, and were assessed with graduating pharmacy students. Assessor reliability was evaluated using inter-class coefficients (ICCs). Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing OSCE results to professional skills course grades. Field notes were maintained to generate recommendations for implementation in other contexts. The examination pass mark was 424 points out of 700 (60.6%). All 23 participants passed. Mean performance was 74.6%. Low to moderate inter-rater reliability was obtained for analytical and global components (average ICC 0.77 and 0.48, respectively). In conclusion, OSCE was feasible in Qatar but context-related validity and reliability concerns must be addressed prior to future iterations in Qatar and elsewhere.

  19. Development of Clinical Pharmacy services at King Khalid University Hospital and its impact on the quality of healthcare provided.

    PubMed

    Saddique, Abdulaziz A

    2012-07-01

    Clinical Pharmacy is a unique service provided by the leading pharmacy departments in the United States. The concept of Clinical Pharmacy evolved after the significant increase in number of pharmaceuticals in the market and the increasing potential of drug interactions. However, the Clinical Pharmacist is not merely an individual who advises on drug interactions. There are a number of functions which include but are not limited to; the design of appropriate drug therapy, such as Pharmacokinetic assessment and evaluation to optimize drug therapy, drug information dissemination to the physicians and other healthcare providers and participation as a toxicology consultant in Poison management. At the King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) the first Clinical Pharmacy services program began in 1983. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of our Clinical Pharmacy program on the patients' care as well as its perception by the Medical staff that came from different parts of the world. Our Clinical Pharmacists were asked to record any suggestions or interventions in the form. The forms were all collected at the end of each day and entered into a database for analysis. Each intervention was analyzed in order to assess the merit of the action in terms of the therapeutic, financial and direct cost impact. The study showed a positive impact on the patients' care as well as on the economy of the drugs prescribed. Meanwhile, the service was very much appreciated by the Medical staff as well as other healthcare providers. PMID:23960800

  20. Branding a college of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Michael T

    2012-11-12

    In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture.

  1. Pharmacists' Perceptions of the Barriers and Facilitators to the Implementation of Clinical Pharmacy Key Performance Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Minard, Laura V; Deal, Heidi; Harrison, Megan E; Toombs, Kent; Neville, Heather; Meade, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background In hospitals around the world, there has been no consensus regarding which clinical activities a pharmacist should focus on until recently. In 2011, a Canadian clinical pharmacy key performance indicator (cpKPI) collaborative was formed. The goal of the collaborative was to advance pharmacy practice in order to improve patient outcomes and enhance the quality of care provided to patients by hospital pharmacists. Following a literature review, which indicated that pharmacists can improve patient outcomes by carrying out specific activities, and an evidence-informed consensus process, a final set of eight cpKPIs were established. Canadian hospitals leading the cpKPI initiative are currently in the early stages of implementing these indicators. Objective To explore pharmacists' perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of cpKPIs. Methods Clinical pharmacists employed by the Nova Scotia Health Authority were invited to participate in focus groups. Focus group discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed, and data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings Three focus groups, including 26 pharmacists, were conducted in February 2015. Three major themes were identified. Resisting the change was comprised of documentation challenges, increased workload, practice environment constraints, and competing priorities. Embracing cpKPIs was composed of seeing the benefit, demonstrating value, and existing supports. Navigating the unknown was made up of quality versus quantity battle, and insights into the future. Conclusions Although pharmacists were challenged by documentation and other changes associated with the implementation of cpKPIs, they demonstrated significant support for cpKPIs and were able to see benefits of the implementation. Pharmacists came up with suggestions for overcoming resistance associated with the implementation of cpKPIs and provided insights into the future of pharmacy practice. The identification of barriers

  2. A Survey of Pharmacy Education in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Low, Bee Yean; Wongpoowarak, Payom; Moolasarn, Summana; Anderson, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To explore the current status of pharmacy education in Thailand. Methods. The International Pharmaceutical Federation of the World Health Organization’s (FIP-WHO) Global Survey of Pharmacy Schools was used for this study. The survey instrument was distributed to the deans of the 19 faculties (colleges) of pharmacy in Thailand. Results. More than half the colleges have been in existence less than 20 years, and the government owns 80% of them. There were 2 paths of admission to study pharmacy: direct admission and central admission system. The doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs can be divided into 4 types. Approximately 60% of all teaching staff holds a doctoral degree. Regarding the work balance among teaching staff, around 60% focus on teaching activities, 20% focus on research, and less than 20% focus on patient care services concurrent with real practice teaching. The proportion of student time dedicated to theory, practice, and research in PharmD programs is 51.5%, 46.7%, and 1.8%, respectively. Sites owned by the colleges or by others were used for student training. Colleges followed the Office of the National Education Standards’ Internal Quality Assurance (IQA) and External Quality Assurance (EQA), and the Pharmacy Council’s Quality Assessment (ONESQA) . Conclusion. This study provides a picture of the current status of curriculum, teaching staff, and students in pharmacy education in Thailand. The curriculum was adapted from the US PharmD program with the aim of meeting the country’s needs and includes industrial pharmacy and public health tracks as well as clinical tracks. However, this transition in pharmacy education in Thailand needs to be monitored and evaluated. PMID:26056400

  3. Clinical pharmacy services in heart failure: an opinion paper from the Heart Failure Society of America and American College of Clinical Pharmacy Cardiology Practice and Research Network.

    PubMed

    Milfred-LaForest, Sherry K; Chow, Sheryl L; DiDomenico, Robert J; Dracup, Kathleen; Ensor, Christopher R; Gattis-Stough, Wendy; Heywood, J Thomas; Lindenfeld, JoAnn; Page, Robert L; Patterson, J Herbert; Vardeny, Orly; Massie, Barry M

    2013-05-01

    Heart failure (HF) care takes place in multiple settings, with a variety of providers, and generally involves patients who have multiple comorbidities. This situation is a "perfect storm" of factors that predispose patients to medication errors. The goals of this paper are to outline potential roles for clinical pharmacists in a multidisciplinary HF team, to document outcomes associated with interventions by clinical pharmacists, to recommend minimum training for clinical pharmacists engaged in HF care, and to suggest financial strategies to support clinical pharmacy services within a multidisciplinary team. As patients transition from inpatient to outpatient settings and between multiple caregivers, pharmacists can positively affect medication reconciliation and education, assure consistency in management that results in improvements in patient satisfaction and medication adherence, and reduce medication errors. For mechanical circulatory support and heart transplant teams, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services considers the participation of a transplant pharmacology expert (e.g., clinical pharmacist) to be a requirement for accreditation, given the highly specialized and complex drug regimens used. Although reports of outcomes from pharmacist interventions have been mixed owing to differences in study design, benefits such as increased use of evidence-based therapies, decreases in HF hospitalizations and emergency department visits, and decreases in all-cause readmissions have been demonstrated. Clinical pharmacists participating in HF or heart transplant teams should have completed specialized postdoctoral training in the form of residencies and/or fellowships in cardiovascular and/or transplant pharmacotherapy, and board certification is recommended. Financial mechanisms to support pharmacist participation in the HF teams are variable. Positive outcomes associated with clinical pharmacist activities support the value of making this resource available

  4. M. D. Faculty Salaries in Psychiatry and All Clinical Science Departments, 1980-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Mark G.; Dial, Thomas H.; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors compare trends in the salaries of physician faculty in academic departments of psychiatry with those of physician faculty in all academic clinical science departments from 1980-2006. Methods: The authors compared trend lines for psychiatry and all faculty by academic rank, including those for department chairs, by graphing…

  5. A real options approach to clinical faculty salary structure.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Marc J; Long, Hugh W

    2012-01-01

    One can use the option theory model originally developed to price financial opportunities in security markets to analyze many other economic arrangements such as the salary structures of clinical faculty in an academic medical center practice plan. If one views the underlying asset to be the portion (labeled "salary") of the economic value of the collections made for the care provided patients by the physician, then a salary guarantee can be considered a put option provided the physician, the guarantee having value to the physician only when the actual salary earned is less than the salary guarantee. Similarly, within an incentive plan, a salary cap can be thought of as a call option provided to the practice plan since a salary cap only has value to the practice plan when a physician's earnings exceed the cap. Further, based on analysis of prior earnings, the Black-Scholes options pricing model can be used both to price each option and to determine a financially neutral balance between a salary guarantee and a salary cap by equating the prices of the implied put and call options. We suggest that such analysis is superior to empirical methods for setting clinical faculty salary structure in the academic practice plan setting. PMID:23155746

  6. [Contribution of the faculty of pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela to the development of the Spanish scientific research in the first third of the 20th century (1900-1936)].

    PubMed

    Arias, Beatriz Brasa; Míguez, Santiago Sanmartín; Landín, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela was founded in 1857, but research activities did not start until the beginning of the 20th century. The new Spanish regulations promoting the experimentation at universities and the stages of professors and recently graduated students outside Spain contributed to generate a remarkable research group in a provincial university. The excessive university centralism at that time in Spain and the characteristics of the headquarters of the faculty -- a 16th century Renaissance palace -- hindered, in general, the research development. However, the scientific spirit of professors and students, and their work were imposed and they achieved an estimable status in pharmacy research in Galicia. The facilities were the staff's highest priority and it raised more than a protest. A remarkable investment in apparatuses and laboratory materials was carried out and researchers started to publish original research papers in local journals, such as the "Revista de farmacia," published by their own University. In the previous years to the Spanish Civil War (1936) the research status in drug development and the background of the staff and students were important, allowing them to join the military laboratory that Franco's army created at the faculty of pharmacy. The research work continued in a small scale and was specially focused on the production of "copy drugs" coping European specific drugs which were scarce at that time. The first third of the 20th century was the germ of the great research prestige that the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela enjoys at present. PMID:21188884

  7. Evaluation of preceptors and skills achievement by clinical pharmacy clerkship students during their clinical rotations at University of Gondar, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Abegaz, Tadesse Melaku; Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Getachew, Henok; Tefera, Yonas Getaye

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate the overall experiences of clinical pharmacy students during their clinical attachments and to understand the breadth and depth of clinical skills provided by their preceptors. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire containing 34 items to obtain feedback from the clerkship students from June to July 2015. Data analysis was performed to calculate mean, standard deviation, percentages, and multiple logistic regression using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software Version 22. Statistical significance was set at P<0.01. Results All 58 clerkship students actively participated in the study, yielding a response rate of 100%. While students ranked their clerkship experience as moderate, >15% remarked that they did not receive enough opportunities to hone their pharmaceutical care documentation skills. A relatively high percentage of students (32.8%) strongly agreed that their preceptors had provided ample opportunity to discuss the patient problems at the bedside and encouraged them to express their opinions regarding patients’ drug therapeutic issues. This study also revealed that students’ continuity in developing their therapeutic and disease process knowledge was significantly associated with the preceptor’s ability to provide adequate training and orientation (P =0.01), engagement in clinical pharmacy activities (P =0.01), regular review of students’ work (P =0.01), and instruction to students before entering clinical sites (P =0.00). Conclusion The findings of this study reveal that a majority of the students were moderately satisfied with the clinical training program and preceptors need to demonstrate effective pharmaceutical care processes in their clinical sites. PMID:27099540

  8. HIV testing in community pharmacies and retail clinics: A model to expand access to screening for HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Weidle, Paul J.; Lecher, Shirley; Botts, Linda W.; Jones, LaDawna; Spach, David H.; Alvarez, Jorge; Jones, Rhondette; Thomas, Vasavi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the feasibility of offering rapid, point-of-care human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing at community pharmacies and retail clinics. Design Pilot program to determine how to implement confidential HIV testing services in community pharmacies and retail clinics. Setting 21 community pharmacies and retail clinics serving urban and rural patients in the United States, from August 2011 to July 2013. Participants 106 community pharmacy and retail clinic staff members. Intervention A model was developed to implement confidential HIV counseling and testing services using community pharmacy and retail clinic staff as certified testing providers, or through collaborations with organizations that provide HIV testing. Training materials were developed and sites selected that serve patients from urban and rural areas to pilot test the model. Each site established a relationship with its local health department for HIV testing policies, developed referral lists for confirmatory HIV testing/care, secured a CLIA Certificate of Waiver, and advertised the service. Staff were trained to perform a rapid point-of-care HIV test on oral fluid, and provide patients with confidential test results and information on HIV. Patients with a preliminary positive result were referred to a physician or health department for confirmatory testing and, if needed, HIV clinical care. Main outcome measures Number of HIV tests completed and amount of time required to conduct testing. Results The 21 participating sites administered 1,540 HIV tests, with 1,087 conducted onsite by staff during regular working hours and 453 conducted at 37 different HIV testing events (e.g., local health fairs). The median amount of time required for pretest counseling/consent, waiting for test results, and posttest counseling was 4, 23, and 3 minutes, respectively. A majority of the sites (17) said they planned to continue HIV testing after the project period ended and would seek assistance or support

  9. Transforming the Academic Faculty Perspective in Graduate Medical Education to Better Align Educational and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Brian M; Holmboe, Eric S

    2016-04-01

    The current health care delivery model continues to fall short in achieving the desired patient safety and quality-of-care outcomes for patients. And, until recently, an explicit acknowledgment of the role and influence of the clinical learning environment on professional development had been missing from physician-based competency frameworks. In this Perspective, the authors explore the implications of the insufficient integration of education about patient safety and quality improvement by academic faculty into the clinical learning environment in many graduate medical education (GME) programs, and the important role that academic faculty need to play to better align the educational and clinical contexts to improve both learner and patient outcomes. The authors propose a framework that closely aligns the educational and clinical contexts, such that both educational and clinical outcomes are centered around the patient. This will require a reorganization of academic faculty perspective and educational design of GME training programs that recognizes that (1) the dynamic interplay between the faculty, learner, training program, and clinical microsystem ultimately influences the quality of physician that emerges from the training program and environment, and (2) patient outcomes relate to the quality of education and the success of clinical microsystems. To enable this evolution, there is a need to revisit the core competencies expected of academic faculty, implement innovative faculty development strategies, examine closely faculty's current clinical super vision practices, and establish a training environment that supports bridging from clinician to educator, training program to clinical microsystem, and educational outcomes to clinical outcomes that benefit patients.

  10. The Ethics of Pharmacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Francis X.

    1985-01-01

    An address to the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy focuses on the pharmacy school and faculty's role in providing an ethical foundation for practicing pharmacists. The issues of professional socialization, burnout, the influence of pharmaceutical advertising, and regulation of health care are noted. (MSE)

  11. Stakeholder Perspectives on Outcome Expectations of Pharmacy Graduates From a Caribbean School of Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Bidyadhar; Ignacio, Diane N.; Extavour, Rian M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To explore stakeholders’ views regarding the performance of pharmacy graduates upon entering the workforce and to identify curricular deficiencies and possible solutions. Methods. Practicing pharmacists, many of whom were members of government and pharmacy organizations, were asked to complete a 40-item questionnaire to determine their views regarding the educational outcomes of pharmacy graduates from a Caribbean pharmacy school. In addition, the stakeholders participated in focus group discussions to capture feedback not gathered on the questionnaire. Results. Ten stakeholders completed the questionnaire and 11 participated in the focus group discussions. Stakeholders rated graduates higher than average in 13 educational outcomes: application of knowledge and skills, patient care, communication skills, confidentiality, ethics, problem solving, and innovation. However, responses to open-ended questions and comments made during the focus group discussions identified deficiencies, which included a lack of clinical faculty members and qualified preceptors to teach pharmacy students, and the need to revise basic sciences courses. Conclusion. Feedback from key stakeholders suggests that the quality of pharmacy graduates is above average for the most part; however, additional work is needed to address the deficiencies identified. PMID:23788810

  12. Automated mapping of pharmacy orders from two electronic health record systems to RxNorm within the STRIDE clinical data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Penni; Podchiyska, Tanya; Weber, Susan; Ferris, Todd; Lowe, Henry

    2009-11-14

    The Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) clinical data warehouse integrates medication information from two Stanford hospitals that use different drug representation systems. To merge this pharmacy data into a single, standards-based model supporting research we developed an algorithm to map HL7 pharmacy orders to RxNorm concepts. A formal evaluation of this algorithm on 1.5 million pharmacy orders showed that the system could accurately assign pharmacy orders in over 96% of cases. This paper describes the algorithm and discusses some of the causes of failures in mapping to RxNorm.

  13. The Effect of Active Learning Methodologies on the Teaching of Pharmaceutical Care in a Brazilian Pharmacy Faculty

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent years, pharmacists have been involved in expanded patient care responsibilities, for example patient counseling in self-medication, medication review and pharmaceutical care, which require graduates to develop the necessary competences. Consequently, reorientation of pharmacy education has become necessary. As such, active learning strategies have been introduced into classrooms to increase problem-solving and critical thinking skills of students. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and perceptions of competency of students in a new pharmaceutical care course that uses active learning methodologies. Methods This pharmaceutical care course was conducted in the first semester of 2014, in the Federal University of Sergipe. In the pharmaceutical care course, active learning methods were used, consisting of dialogic classroom expository, simulation and case studies. Student learning was evaluated using classroom tests and instruments that evaluated the perception of competency in pharmaceutical care practice. Furthermore, students' satisfaction with the course was evaluated. Results Thirty-three students completed the four evaluations used in the course (i.e., a discursive written exam, seminars, OSCE, and virtual patient); 25 were female (75.75%), and the median age was 23.43 (SD 2.82) years. The overall mean of student scores, in all evaluation methods was 7.97 (SD 0.59) on a scale of 0 to 10 points, and student performance on the virtual patient method was statistically superior to other methods. With respect to the perception of competency in pharmaceutical care practice, a comparison of pre- and post-test scores revealed statistically significant improvement for all evaluated competences. At the end of the semester, the students presented positive opinions of the pharmaceutical care course. Conclusions The results suggest that an active learning course can enhance the learning of pharmaceutical care competences. In

  14. Student and faculty perceptions of effective clinical instructors in ADN programs.

    PubMed

    Gignac-Caille, A M; Oermann, M H

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of associate degree nursing (ADN) students and faculty of characteristics of effective clinical teachers and determine whether there were differences between these two groups. A survey was conducted of 292 students in various levels of their ADN programs and 59 faculty members from the same five programs, which were randomly selected from across Michigan. Data were collected using the Nursing Clinical Effectiveness Inventory, which includes 48 characteristics of effective clinical instructors arranged in five subscales. Students identified "demonstrates clinical skills and judgment" as the most important characteristic of effective clinical instructors, while faculty identified "explains clearly" as the most important characteristic. There was agreement on 6 of the top 10 characteristics identified by both groups. Both groups rated "directs student to useful literature in nursing" as the least important characteristic of effective clinical instructors. The students' and faculty's perceptions of effective clinical instructors differed by subscales, with students identifying evaluation characteristics as most important (mean = 4.73, SD = .42) and faculty identifying interpersonal relationships as most important (mean = 4.72, SD = .31). A t test indicated a significant difference between student and faculty means for the interpersonal relationships subscales, with faculty rating this group of characteristics as more important than students did (t = 2.49, p = .0 14).

  15. Action research methodology in clinical pharmacy: how to involve and change.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh

    2016-06-01

    Introduction The focus in clinical pharmacy practice is and has for the last 30-35 years been on changing the role of pharmacy staff into service orientation and patient counselling. One way of doing this is by involving staff in change process and as a researcher to take part in the change process by establishing partnerships with staff. On the background of the authors' widespread action research (AR)-based experiences, recommendations and comments for how to conduct an AR-study is described, and one of their AR-based studies illustrate the methodology and the research methods used. Methodology AR is defined as an approach to research which is based on a problem-solving relationship between researchers and clients, which aims at both solving a problem and at collaboratively generating new knowledge. Research questions relevant in AR-studies are: what was the working process in this change oriented study? What learning and/or changes took place? What challenges/pitfalls had to be overcome? What were the influence/consequences for the involved parts? When to use If you want to implement new services and want to involve staff and others in the process, an AR methodology is very suitable. The basic advantages of doing AR-based studies are grounded in their participatory and democratic basis and their starting point in problems experienced in practice. Limitations Some of the limitations in AR-studies are that neither of the participants in a project steering group are the only ones to decide. Furthermore, the collective process makes the decision-making procedures relatively complex.

  16. Development of a Community Pharmacy Management Elective Rotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zgarrick, David P.; Talluto, Beverly A.

    1997-01-01

    Midwestern University-Chicago College of Pharmacy has developed a five-week elective community pharmacy management rotation in partnership with local pharmacies. Students work directly with district and pharmacy managers, covering a list of topics developed by faculty and preceptors and performing one major project and several smaller ones.…

  17. Evaluating Faculty Development and Clinical Training Programs in Substance Abuse: A Guide Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitzner, Michael; Stewart, Kathryn

    Intended to provide an overview of program evaluation as it applies to the evaluation of faculty development and clinical training programs in substance abuse for health and mental health professional schools, this guide enables program developers and other faculty to work as partners with evaluators in the development of evaluation designs that…

  18. Clinical veterinary education: insights from faculty and strategies for professional development in clinical teaching.

    PubMed

    Lane, India F; Strand, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Missing in the recent calls for accountability and assurance of veterinary students' clinical competence are similar calls for competence in clinical teaching. Most clinician educators have no formal training in teaching theory or method. At the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM), we have initiated multiple strategies to enhance the quality of teaching in our curriculum and in clinical settings. An interview study of veterinary faculty was completed to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of clinical education; findings were used in part to prepare a professional development program in clinical teaching. Centered on principles of effective feedback, the program prepares participants to organize clinical rotation structure and orientation, maximize teaching moments, improve teaching and participation during formal rounds, and provide clearer summative feedback to students at the end of a rotation. The program benefits from being situated within a larger college-wide focus on teaching improvement. We expect the program's audience and scope to continue to expand.

  19. Pharmacy Students’ Preference for Using Mobile Devices in a Clinical Setting for Practice-Related Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Justine F.; Bryant, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine pharmacy students’ ownership of, use of, and preference for using a mobile device in a practice setting. Methods. Eighty-one pharmacy students were recruited and completed a pretest that collected information about their demographics and mobile devices and also had them rank the iPhone, iPad mini, and iPad for preferred use in a pharmacy practice setting. Students used the 3 devices to perform pharmacy practice-related tasks and then completed a posttest to again rank the devices for preferred use in a pharmacy practice setting. Results. The iPhone was the most commonly owned mobile device (59.3% of students), and the iPad mini was the least commonly owned (18.5%). About 70% of the students used their mobile devices at least once a week in a pharmacy practice setting. The iPhone was the most commonly used device in a practice setting (46.9% of students), and the iPod Touch was the least commonly used device (1.2%). The iPad mini was the most preferred device for use in a pharmacy practice setting prior to performing pharmacy practice-related tasks (49.4% of students), and was preferred by significantly more students after performing the tasks (70.4%). Conclusion. Pharmacy students commonly use their mobile devices in pharmacy practice settings and most selected the iPad mini as the preferred device for use in a practice setting even though it was the device owned by the fewest students. PMID:25861103

  20. A systematic review of strategies to address the clinical nursing faculty shortage.

    PubMed

    Wyte-Lake, Tamar; Tran, Kim; Bowman, Candice C; Needleman, Jack; Dobalian, Aram

    2013-05-01

    This systematic review provides a comprehensive assessment of models used to expand the ranks of clinical nursing faculty. Nursing faculty shortages constrict the pipeline for educating nurses and make addressing the projected nursing shortage more difficult. Schools of nursing have denied admission to qualified applicants, citing insufficient numbers of nursing faculty as one major reason. Using key search terms in PubMed(®) and CINAHL(®), we identified 14 peer-reviewed articles published between 1980 and 2010 about models for expanding clinical faculty. Partnership models (n = 11) and expanded use of faculty resources (n = 9) were the most common strategies. Few (n = 8) studies assessed program efficacy. A need was identified for studies to assess the effect of alternative models on educational capacity and student performance and to examine the subcomponents of academic-practice partnerships and other innovative approaches to understand the essential factors necessary to implement successful programs.

  1. Comparison of student self-assessment with faculty assessment of clinical competence.

    PubMed

    Root Kustritz, Margaret V; Molgaard, Laura K; Rendahl, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    At the University of Minnesota, fourth-year veterinary students assessed their clinical competence after completion of a small-animal, internal-medicine clinical rotation using the same rotation assessment form used by supervising faculty. Grades were compared between the two groups. Students identified by faculty as low-performing were more likely to overestimate their competence in the areas of knowledge, clinical skill, and professionalism than were students identified by faculty as higher performing. This finding mirrors research results in human health professional training. Self-assessment should not be used as the primary or sole measure of clinical competence in veterinary medical training without the introduction of measures to ensure the accuracy of student self-assessment, measures that include active faculty mentoring of student self-assessment, student goal-setting and reflection, and availability of subsequent opportunities to practice additional self-assessment.

  2. The full-time clinical faculty: what goes around, comes around.

    PubMed

    Barzansky, Barbara; Kenagy, Gretchen

    2010-02-01

    In his 1910 report entitled Medical Education in the United States and Canada, Abraham Flexner advanced an ideal model of medical education that included a university-based, full-time, salaried faculty whose time was devoted to teaching and research. This article traces the evolution of the "full-time" concept for clinical faculty and describes factors that have affected its implementation. Between 1910 and the 1930s, the full-time system for clinical faculty was implemented at a limited number of medical schools, but lack of financing made the system generally unworkable. The implementation of the "geographic" full-time concept during the 1940s to 1960s allowed faculty to be considered full-time while earning much of their income from clinical practice. Even then, there were concerns that medical schools would bring pressure on such faculty to increase their clinical activity for the purpose of supporting the institution. After the rise of private and public payers, clinical practice income came to be an explicit and increasingly important source of medical school revenue. This stimulated a significant expansion in the number of full-time clinical faculty over the next 40 years. In the 100 years following the Flexner Report, clinical faculty became "full-time" and "salaried," but not in the way Flexner imagined. Instead of deriving their salaries from the resources of the medical school, they are significantly contributing to institutional financing through their practice. Flexner's concern about the "distraction" of clinical practice interfering with faculty participation in education has come full circle, remaining a primary issue in medical education today.

  3. Essential elements for a pharmacy practice mentoring program.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Anne H; Hardy, Yolanda M; Jarvis, Courtney; Stoner, Steven C; Pitlick, Matthew; Hilaire, Michelle L; Hanes, Scott; Burke, Jack; Lodise, Nicole M

    2013-03-12

    Formal guidelines for mentoring faculty members in pharmacy practice divisions of colleges and schools of pharmacy do not exist in the literature. This paper addresses the background literature on mentoring programs, explores the current state of mentoring programs used in pharmacy practice departments, and provides guidelines for colleges and schools instituting formal mentoring programs. As the number of pharmacy colleges and schools has grown, the demand for quality pharmacy faculty members has dramatically increased. While some faculty members gain teaching experience during postgraduate residency training, new pharmacy practice faculty members often need professional development to meet the demands of their academic responsibilities. A mentoring program can be 1 means of improving faculty success and retention. Many US colleges and schools of pharmacy have developed formal mentoring programs, whereas several others have informal processes in place. This paper discusses those programs and the literature available, and makes recommendations on the structure of mentoring programs.

  4. Process indicators of quality clinical pharmacy services during transitions of care.

    PubMed

    Kirwin, Jennifer; Canales, Ann E; Bentley, Michael L; Bungay, Kathy; Chan, Tammy; Dobson, Erica; Holder, Renee M; Johnson, Daniel; Lilliston, Andrea; Mohammad, Rima A; Spinler, Sarah A

    2012-11-01

    The American College of Clinical Pharmacy charged the Public and Professional Relations Committee to develop a short white paper describing quality measures of clinical pharmacists' patient care services in transitional care settings. Transitional care describes patient movement from one health care setting or service to another. Care transitions are associated with an increased risk of adverse events for patients. Pharmacists play an important role in ensuring that medication errors and adverse events are minimized during these transitions, largely through the reconciliation of medications and assurance of continuity of care. Quality measures are often divided into three domains: structure, process, and outcome. Given the typical nature of the pharmacist's role, process indicators are best suited to evaluate quality clinical pharmacist services. However, process indicators relevant to pharmacists' activities are not yet fully described in the literature. The committee searched available literature describing quality measures that are directly influenced by the pharmacist during care transitions. This white paper describes these process indicators as quality measures of clinical pharmacists' services, identifies the transitional settings and activities to which they are most applicable, and provides the published sources from which indicators were derived. For process indicators that could not be found in published sources, we propose relevant measures that can be adapted for use in a given setting. As pharmacists become more involved in diverse and emerging patient care areas such as transitional care, it will be critical that they use these types of measures to document the quality of new services and reinforce the need for pharmacist participation during transitions of care.

  5. Transforming the Academic Faculty Perspective in Graduate Medical Education to Better Align Educational and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Brian M; Holmboe, Eric S

    2016-04-01

    The current health care delivery model continues to fall short in achieving the desired patient safety and quality-of-care outcomes for patients. And, until recently, an explicit acknowledgment of the role and influence of the clinical learning environment on professional development had been missing from physician-based competency frameworks. In this Perspective, the authors explore the implications of the insufficient integration of education about patient safety and quality improvement by academic faculty into the clinical learning environment in many graduate medical education (GME) programs, and the important role that academic faculty need to play to better align the educational and clinical contexts to improve both learner and patient outcomes. The authors propose a framework that closely aligns the educational and clinical contexts, such that both educational and clinical outcomes are centered around the patient. This will require a reorganization of academic faculty perspective and educational design of GME training programs that recognizes that (1) the dynamic interplay between the faculty, learner, training program, and clinical microsystem ultimately influences the quality of physician that emerges from the training program and environment, and (2) patient outcomes relate to the quality of education and the success of clinical microsystems. To enable this evolution, there is a need to revisit the core competencies expected of academic faculty, implement innovative faculty development strategies, examine closely faculty's current clinical super vision practices, and establish a training environment that supports bridging from clinician to educator, training program to clinical microsystem, and educational outcomes to clinical outcomes that benefit patients. PMID:26703412

  6. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Continuing Education Programs on Providing Clinical Community Pharmacy Services.

    PubMed

    Obreli-Neto, Paulo Roque; Marques Dos Reis, Tiago; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; Girotto, Edmarlon; Guerra, Marisabelle Lima; de Oliveira Baldoni, André; Leira Pereira, Leonardo Régis

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To summarize the effects of media methods used in continuing education (CE) programs on providing clinical community pharmacy services and the methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. Methods. A systematic review was performed using Medline, SciELO, and Scopus databases. The timeline of the search was 1990 to 2013. Searches were conducted in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results. Nineteen articles of 3990 were included. Fourteen studies used only one media method, and the live method (n=11) was the most frequent (alone or in combination). Only two studies found that the CE program was ineffective or partially effective; these studies used only the live method. Most studies used nonrobust, nonvalidated, and nonstandardized methods to measure effectiveness. The majority of studies focused on the effect of the CE program on modifying the knowledge and skills of the pharmacists. One study assessed the CE program's benefits to patients or clients. Conclusion. No evidence was obtained regarding which media methods are the most effective. Robust and validated methods, as well as assessment standardization, are required to clearly determine whether a particular media method is effective. PMID:27402991

  7. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Continuing Education Programs on Providing Clinical Community Pharmacy Services

    PubMed Central

    Marques dos Reis, Tiago; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; Girotto, Edmarlon; Guerra, Marisabelle Lima; de Oliveira Baldoni, André; Leira Pereira, Leonardo Régis

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To summarize the effects of media methods used in continuing education (CE) programs on providing clinical community pharmacy services and the methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. Methods. A systematic review was performed using Medline, SciELO, and Scopus databases. The timeline of the search was 1990 to 2013. Searches were conducted in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results. Nineteen articles of 3990 were included. Fourteen studies used only one media method, and the live method (n=11) was the most frequent (alone or in combination). Only two studies found that the CE program was ineffective or partially effective; these studies used only the live method. Most studies used nonrobust, nonvalidated, and nonstandardized methods to measure effectiveness. The majority of studies focused on the effect of the CE program on modifying the knowledge and skills of the pharmacists. One study assessed the CE program’s benefits to patients or clients. Conclusion. No evidence was obtained regarding which media methods are the most effective. Robust and validated methods, as well as assessment standardization, are required to clearly determine whether a particular media method is effective. PMID:27402991

  8. Improved Knowledge Retention Among Clinical Pharmacy Students Using an Anthropology Classroom Assessment Technique

    PubMed Central

    Parton, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To adapt a classroom assessment technique (CAT) from an anthropology course to a diabetes module in a clinical pharmacy skills laboratory and to determine student knowledge retention from baseline. Design. Diabetes item stems, focused on module objectives, replaced anthropology terms. Answer choices, coded to Bloom’s Taxonomy, were expanded to include higher-order thinking. Students completed the online 5-item probe 4 times: prelaboratory lecture, postlaboratory, and at 6 months and 12 months after laboratory. Statistical analyses utilized a single factor, repeated measures design using rank transformations of means with a Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. Assessment. The CAT revealed a significant increase in knowledge from prelaboratory compared to all postlaboratory measurements (p<0.0001). Significant knowledge retention was maintained with basic terms, but declined with complex terms between 6 and 12 months. Conclusion. The anthropology assessment tool was effectively adapted using Bloom’s Taxonomy as a guide and, when used repeatedly, demonstrated knowledge retention. Minimal time was devoted to application of the probe making it an easily adaptable CAT. PMID:25258445

  9. Cross-sectional survey of treatment practices for urethritis at pharmacies, private clinics and government health facilities in coastal Kenya: many missed opportunities for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Mugo, Peter M; Duncan, Sarah; Mwaniki, Samuel W; Thiong'o, Alexander N; Gichuru, Evanson; Okuku, Haile Selassie; van der Elst, Elise M; Smith, Adrian D; Graham, Susan M; Sanders, Eduard J

    2013-01-01

    Background While bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important cofactors for HIV transmission, STI control has received little attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to assess STI treatment and HIV testing referral practices among health providers in Kenya. Methods In 2011 we assessed quality of case management for male urethritis at pharmacies, private clinics and government health facilities in coastal Kenya using simulated visits at pharmacies and interviews at pharmacies and health facilities. Quality was assessed using Ministry of Health guidelines. Results Twenty (77%) of 26 pharmacies, 20 (91%) of 22 private clinics and all four government facilities in the study area took part. The median (IQR) number of adult urethritis cases per week was 5 (2–10) at pharmacies, 3 (1–3) at private clinics and 5 (2–17) at government facilities. During simulated visits, 10% of pharmacies prescribed recommended antibiotics at recommended dosages and durations and, during interviews, 28% of pharmacies and 27% of health facilities prescribed recommended antibiotics at recommended dosages and durations. Most regimens were quinolone-based. HIV testing was recommended during 10% of simulated visits, 20% of pharmacy interviews and 25% of health facility interviews. Conclusions In an area of high STI burden, most men with urethritis seek care at pharmacies and private clinics. Most providers do not comply with national guidelines and very few recommend HIV testing. In order to reduce the STI burden and mitigate HIV transmission, there is an urgent need for innovative dissemination of up-to-date guidelines and inclusion of all health providers in HIV/STI programmes. PMID:23698510

  10. Tailoring Clinical Faculty Development to Meet Departmental Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Karen Hughes; Ostapchuk, Michael; Patel, Pradip; Roberts, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Because different medical specialties accredit their residency programs in different ways, departmental needs for faculty development in essentially the same content may vary. This training team realized that using a consultant model allowed them to meet departmental needs while keeping content validity intact. By combining best practice from…

  11. Scholarship and Dental Education: New Perspectives for Clinical Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albino, Judith E.

    1984-01-01

    Career advancement in academic dentistry appears to demand success in teaching, scholarship, and service, but foremost in research or scholarship. As a result, many dental faculty believe they are forced to choose between providing excellent professional preparation for their students or ensuring their academic careers. (MLW)

  12. Recruiting faculty with clinical responsibilities: factors that influence a decision to accept an academic position.

    PubMed

    Grauer, Gregory F

    2005-01-01

    The current opportunities for veterinary clinical specialists in private practice and industry have made recruiting and retaining faculty a major focus for most clinical academic departments. To gain a better understanding of the importance of the various factors considered in accepting an academic position, an electronic survey was distributed to newly hired veterinary faculty with clinical responsibilities. The results suggest that the perceived climate and collegiality within the prospective hiring department is the most important factor influencing the decision to accept an academic position. Salary is the second most important factor. Institutional support for the newly hired faculty member and the reputation and quality of the prospective institution rank as more important than the perceived quality of the local community and the geographic location of the institution. The search process and administrative support are the least important factors. There were no differences between the responses of faculty hired into tenure-track positions and those of faculty hired into clinical-track positions. Focusing on the advantages of a collegial environment, enhancing compensation packages, and using creative and flexible appointments may improve faculty recruitment and retention in clinical academic departments.

  13. Final Report on a Faculty Workshop on Clinical Instruction for Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lee W.; And Others

    Report of a four-day workshop on optometric clinical education for clinical administration and faculty is presented. The workshop addressed the following four issues: (1) the objectives of present and future clinical education in the light of public needs and professional responsibilities; (2) the nature, types, setting, and extent of clinical…

  14. Clinical Evaluation of Baccalaureate Nursing Students Using SBAR Format: Faculty versus Self Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saied, Hala; James, Joemol; Singh, Evangelin Jeya; Al Humaied, Lulawah

    2016-01-01

    Clinical training is of paramount importance in nursing education and clinical evaluation is one of the most challenging responsibilities of nursing faculty. The use of objective tools and criteria and involvement of the students in the evaluation process are some techniques to facilitate quality learning in the clinical setting. Aim: The aim of…

  15. A two-decades-long study of scholarship by clinical laboratory science faculty.

    PubMed

    Karni, Karen R; Waller, Kathy V

    2011-01-01

    To compete successfully in academia, clinical laboratory science (CLS) faculty members must actively engage in research and scholarly activities. Without research, some CLS educators may experience difficulty in the promotion and tenure process or even find their educational programs threatened with closure. Thus began a national study, spanning the years 1985, 1996, and 2008: to compare CLS faculty demographics, their scholarship, and their perceptions of the research environment. Since 1985, faculty members with doctorates have increased from 26% to 52% and senior faculty at the rank of associate and full professors have improved from 38% to 54%. Over time, the data show CLS faculty are providing more refereed publications (in the 2008 study, 19% had 11 or more publications) and more presentations (in the 2008 study, 34% had 11 or more presentations). Grant monies garnered included $62 million in the latest study. On the other hand, there are more faculty in non-tenured track positions. In addition, in both the 1996 and 2008 studies, the average number of faculty per program remained the same (4), as did hours spent each week in teaching (22). For all three studies, faculty perceived the top two research environment characteristics the same: i.e., 1) research is important for promotion and tenure and 2) computer accessibility is present. The lowest ranked characteristic of the research environment for all these studies-time available for research.

  16. Clinical pharmacy to meet the health needs of Tanzanians: education reform through partnership across continents (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Youmans, Sharon; Ngassapa, Olipa; Chambuso, Mhina

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) School of Pharmacy began to revise its BPharm curriculum for students entering in 2011. Its goal was to assure these pioneer students and their successors would be prepared to lead pharmacy practice to improve patient care and health outcomes in Tanzania. Building on its own experience and recommendations from other parts of the world, MUHAS actively engaged counterparts from the University of California San Francisco School of Pharmacy. MUHAS's vision was to create a curriculum to educate students to become 'clinical pharmacists' with a more direct patient-care focus. This means a major expansion in activities undertaken by newly graduating pharmacists - beyond preparing and dispensing medications. With the transformation from a traditional curriculum (knowledge-based) and teaching (lectures), the new approach emphasizes interprofessional team care, clinical science content (treatment and prevention of diseases), and experiential learning opportunities from classrooms to patient-care settings. Assessments of strengths and weaknesses of previous graduates' performance in their early employment informed curricular revision; evaluation of the competence of students and of new graduates will guide further revisions to assure preparation of effective pharmacists to lead practice in Tanzania.

  17. Preparing clinical pharmacy scientists for careers in clinical/translational research: can we meet the challenge?: ACCP Research Affairs Committee Commentary.

    PubMed

    Parker, Robert B; Ellingrod, Vicki; DiPiro, Joseph T; Bauman, Jerry L; Blouin, Robert A; Welage, Lynda S

    2013-12-01

    Developing clinical pharmacists' research skills and their ability to compete for extramural funding is an important component of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy's (ACCP) vision for pharmacists to play a prominent role in generating the new knowledge used to guide patient pharmacotherapy. Given the recent emphasis on clinical/translational research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the key role of drug therapy in the management of many diseases, there is an unprecedented opportunity for the profession to contribute to this enterprise. A crucial question facing the profession is whether we can generate enough appropriately trained scientists to take advantage of these opportunities to generate the new knowledge to advance drug therapy. Since the 2009 publication of the ACCP Research Affairs Committee editorial recommending the Ph.D. degree (as opposed to fellowship training) as the optimal method for preparing pharmacists as clinical/translational scientists, significant changes have occurred in the economic, professional, political, and research environments. As a result, the 2012 ACCP Research Affairs Committee was charged with reexamining the college's position on training clinical pharmacy scientists in the context of these substantial environmental changes. In this commentary, the potential impact of these changes on opportunities for pharmacists in clinical/translational research are discussed as are strategies for ACCP, colleges of pharmacy, and the profession to increase the number and impact of clinical pharmacy scientists. Failure of our profession to take advantage of these opportunities risks our ability to contribute substantively to the biomedical research enterprise and ultimately improve the pharmacotherapy of our patients.

  18. Development and Implementation of an Electronic Clinical Formative Assessment: Dental Faculty and Student Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kirkup, Michele L; Adams, Brooke N; Meadows, Melinda L; Jackson, Richard

    2016-06-01

    A traditional summative grading structure, used at Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) for more than 30 years, was identified by faculty as outdated for assessing students' clinical performance. In an effort to change the status quo, a feedback-driven assessment was implemented in 2012 to provide a constructive assessment tool acceptable to both faculty and students. Building on the successful non-graded clinical evaluation employed at Baylor College of Dentistry, IUSD implemented a streamlined electronic formative feedback model (FFM) to assess students' daily clinical performance. An important addition to this evaluation tool was the inclusion of routine student self-assessment opportunities. The aim of this study was to determine faculty and student response to the new assessment instrument. Following training sessions, anonymous satisfaction surveys were examined for the three user groups: clinical faculty (60% response rate), third-year (D3) students (72% response rate), and fourth-year (D4) students (57% response rate). In the results, 70% of the responding faculty members preferred the FFM over the summative model; however, 61.8% of the D4 respondents preferred the summative model, reporting insufficient assessment time and low faculty participation. The two groups of students had different responses to the self-assessment component: 70.2% of the D4 respondents appreciated clinical self-assessment compared to 46% of the D3 respondents. Overall, while some components of the FFM assessment were well received, a phased approach to implementation may have facilitated a transition more acceptable to both faculty and students. Improvements are being made in an attempt to increase overall satisfaction.

  19. Student and Faculty Perceptions of Effective Clinical Instructors in ADN Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gignac-Caille; Anne Marie; Oermann, Marilyn H.

    2001-01-01

    Associate degree nursing students (n=292) and faculty (n=59) agreed on 6 of 10 characteristics of effective clinical instructors. Effective instructors are clinically competent, use effective evaluation strategies, explain clearly, are approachable, are well prepared to teach, and communicate clear expectations. (Contains 28 references.) (SK)

  20. Pharmacy Education and the Role of the Local Pharmacy at Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Teramachi, Hitomi

    2016-01-01

    Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy was established in front of Gifu University Hospital (GUH) as a pharmacy attached to the university, the first in Japan in 1998. When GUH moved in 2004, Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy was built in its current location. One of the priorities of the design of the new facility was easy access to those with disabilities. For example, ramps, wheelchair accessible restrooms, and handicap-friendly waiting-room chairs were installed. In cooperation with GUH, we introduced a two-dimensional bar code system for prescriptions. This promoted the efficiency of compounding medicines. In addition, starting in 2006, we introduced digital drug-history records at Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy. We also increased the staff of the affiliated pharmacy in 2006. We designed the system of the affiliated pharmacy for long-term pharmacy practice. Currently, we accept pharmacy students visiting pharmacy of early exposure and long-term pharmacy practice. Today, the pharmacy fills an average of 80 prescriptions a day, primarily from GUH. Our staff consists of six pharmacists, one full-time office manager, and three part-time office assistants. In keeping with our role as a community pharmacy, we hold regular lectures and an education forum for pharmacists. We also carry out clinical studies. PMID:27150929

  1. [Changes of medico-pharmaceutical profession and private practice from the late 19th century to the early 20th century: ebb and flow of western pharmacies and clinics attached to pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Lee, Heung-Ki

    2010-12-31

    This article examined i) how traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom from the late 19th century influenced such changes, ii) how medical laws of Daehan Empire and early colonial period influenced the differentiation of medico-pharmaceutical profession, and iii) what the responses of medico-pharmaceutical professionals were like, and arrived at following conclusions. First, in late Chosun, there was a nationwide spread of pharmacies (medicine room, medicine store) as general medical institutions in charge of prescription and medication as well as diagnosis. Therefore, Koreans' perception of Western medicine was not very different from that of traditional pharmacy. Second, Western pharmacies were established by various entities including oriental doctors, Western doctors and drug manufacturers.Their business ranged from medical consultation, prescription, medication and drug manufacture. This was in a way the extension of traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom, which did not draw a sharp line between medical and pharmaceutical practices. Also, regulations on medical and pharmaceutical business of Daehan Empire did not distinguish oriental and Western medicine. Third, clinics attached to pharmacy began to emerge after 1908, as some Western pharmacies that had grown their business based on selling medicine began to hire doctors trained in Western medicine. This trend resulted from Government General's control over medico-pharmaceutical business that began in 1908, following a large-scale dismissal of army surgeons trained in medical schools in 1907. Fourth, as specialization increased within medico-pharmaceutical business following the colonial medical law in early 1910s, such comprehensive business practices as Western pharmacy disappeared and existing businesses were differentiated into dealers of medical ingredients, drug manufacturer, patent medicine businessmen and herbalists. And private practice gradually became the general trend by establishment of medical

  2. Student-Creation of eCases for Clinical Reasoning in Pharmacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Mary Au; Lam, Paul; McNaught, Carmel

    2008-01-01

    Case-based activities are widely proclaimed to enable better learning through allowing students to practice application of concepts in real-life situations. This paper reports an investigation into the learning benefits derived from engaging students in the development of Pharmacy eCases. This is a small scale pilot study. Two student-developers…

  3. Branding a College of Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University’s College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture. PMID:23193330

  4. Branding a college of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Michael T

    2012-11-12

    In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture. PMID:23193330

  5. Success of a Faculty Development Program for Teachers at the Mayo Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Staci M.; Lee, Mark C.; Reed, Darcy A.; Halvorsen, Andrew J.; Berbari, Elie F.; McDonald, Furman S.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been limited research on the improvement of underperforming clinical teachers. Objective To determine whether a faculty development program could improve the evaluations of clinical teachers in an internal medicine residency program. Methods A total of 123 teachers completed faculty development at the Mayo Clinic from 2009 to 2012. The faculty enhancement and education development program (FEED) consists of 6 interactive, small group, 2-hour sessions taught by experienced Mayo Clinic faculty over 1 year. These sessions address the following competencies: asking questions, diagnosing learners, giving feedback, using teaching frameworks, recognizing learning styles, and providing clinical supervision. Resident-of-faculty Mayo teaching effectiveness (MTE) scores have previously demonstrated content, internal structure, and criterion validity. Teachers were grouped into the top 80% or the bottom 20%, according to baseline MTE scores. Mixed linear models were used to compare these groups regarding changes in MTE scores after completion of FEED. Results were adjusted for teacher age, sex, medical specialty, academic rank, and teaching awards. Results For all participants combined, the adjusted MTE scores (mean; standard error) improved from baseline (3.80; 0.04) to completion of FEED (3.93; 0.04; P < .001). However, the bottom 20% had a significantly greater improvement in scores than the top 80% (score-change difference  =  0.166, P < .001). Conclusions We describe a low-intensity faculty development intervention that benefited all clinical teachers, but was particularly effective for underperforming teachers in internal medicine. The approach may be suitable for adoption or adaptation in other graduate medical education programs. PMID:26140122

  6. Utilization of a Pharmacy Clinical Surveillance System for Pharmacist Alerting and Communication at a Tertiary Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Hohlfelder, Benjamin; Stashek, Chad; Anger, Kevin E; Szumita, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to describe the utilization metrics of a pharmacy clinical surveillance system (PCSS) at a tertiary, academic medical center.We performed a retrospective database analysis assessing rule-based alerts (RBA), interventions and pharmacist communication notes documented in the PCSS from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014. Reports were generated on 92 unique RBAs sent to clinicians for evaluation. Metrics assessed included the number of RBAs that were triggered, clinically evaluated, intervened on by pharmacists, and therapeutic category of interventions. Pharmacy communication notes were also evaluated.A total of 399,979 RBAs were triggered through the PCSS. During that time, pharmacists documented a total of 17,733 interventions. The most common RBAs were related to lab abnormalities (132,487; 33 %) and anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy (126,425; 32.1 %). Interventions were most frequently related to RBAs regarding anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy (6412; 36 %) and antimicrobial therapy (3320; 19 %). Pharmacist communication was most commonly related to clarification of medication and lab orders, and therapeutic drug monitoring.Based on utilization metrics presented, the implementation of a PCSS has successfully generated RBAs to aid pharmacists in clinical practice and improved departmental documentation and communication. Further analysis is warranted to assess the impact of the RBAs, interventions, and communication notes on outcomes such as hospital cost and adverse drug events.

  7. Do Family Responsibilities and a Clinical Versus Research Faculty Position Affect Satisfaction with Career and Work–Life Balance for Medical School Faculty?

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, Laurel; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Howell, Lydia Pleotis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Balancing career and family obligations poses challenges to medical school faculty and contributes to dissatisfaction and attrition from academics. We examined the relationship between family setting and responsibilities, rank, and career and work–life satisfaction for faculty in a large U.S. medical school. Methods: Baseline faculty surveys were analyzed from the first year of a 4-year National Institutes of Health–funded study to evaluate awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and use of family friendly policies and career satisfaction. The study focus was on the impact of family responsibilities and characteristics of the faculty position (rank, clinical vs. nonclinical, and academic series) in multivariate comparisons between primary predictors and outcomes of interest. Results: Both clinical and family responsibilities for children under 18 play a major and interacting role in satisfaction with career and work–life balance. Clinical faculty respondents without children at home reported significantly greater career satisfaction and better work–life balance than their nonclinical counterparts. Nonclinical faculty respondents with children reported greater satisfaction and better balance than counterparts without family responsibilities. However, the advantage in career satisfaction and work–life balance for clinical faculty respondents disappeared for those with responsibility for young children. No gender-based differences were noted in the results or across faculty rank for respondents; however, for women, reaching associate professor resulted in greater career satisfaction. Conclusion: This study suggests that both work-related factors and family responsibilities influence satisfaction with career and work–life balance, but the predictors appear to interact in complex and nuanced ways. Further research is needed to delineate more clearly these interactions and to explore other factors that may play important additional roles. PMID

  8. The 2011 PHARMINE report on pharmacy and pharmacy education in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; Rombaut, Bart

    The PHARMINE consortium consists of 50 universities from European Union member states or other European countries that are members of the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy (EAFP). EU partner associations representing community (PGEU), hospital (EAHP) and industrial pharmacy (EIPG), together with the European Pharmacy Students’ Association (EPSA) are also part of the consortium. The consortium surveyed pharmacies and pharmacists in different settings: community, hospital, industry and other sectors. The consortium also looked at how European Union higher education institutions and courses are organised. The PHARMINE survey of pharmacy and pharmacy education in Europe produced country profiles with extensive information for EU member states and several other European countries. These data are available at: http://www.pharmine.org/losse_paginas/Country_Profiles/. This 2011 PHARMINE report presents the project and data, and some preliminary analysis on the basic question of how pharmacy education is adapted to pharmacy practice in the EU. PMID:24198854

  9. It Takes a Village: Investigating the Critical Role Clinical Faculty Play in Mathematics Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Damon L.

    2013-01-01

    The dispositions of preservice elementary education teachers toward reform-oriented mathematics education were surveyed before and after an extended pre-student teaching practicum. During the practicum, university and school-based personnel served as 'clinical faculty' as they supported the preservice teachers' practicum…

  10. A Meeting of the Minds, So To Speak. The Organizational Socialization of Clinical Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ann Weaver; Naylor, Kerrie

    A study was done of the social processes accompanying the integration of a program in educational administration into the clinical faculty of an education department at the University of Utah. The study examined the conflict and ambiguity that accompany change as well as the clash of professional culture between educational practice and the…

  11. Experience of Adjunct Novice Clinical Nursing Faculty: An Interpretive Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive case study was to describe the experience of adjunct novice clinical nursing faculty who has less than three years teaching experience or feels novice in this setting. The nursing shortage in the United States is well documented and is forecasted to have significant impacts on the health care delivery…

  12. Learning Clinical Procedures Through Internet Digital Objects: Experience of Undergraduate Students Across Clinical Faculties

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tse Yan; Wong, Kin; Tse, Christine Shuk Kwan; Chan, Ying Yee

    2015-01-01

    across clinical faculties as an important supplement to their formal learning in the planned curriculum. This trend calls for a transformation of the educator’s role from dispensing knowledge to guidance and support. PMID:27731303

  13. Pharmacy Technologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of pharmacy technologist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of pharmacy technologist. The following skill areas…

  14. Resident and faculty perceptions of effective clinical teaching in family practice.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, C L; Coble, R J

    1982-02-01

    Increasing interest in clinical teaching has led to the realization that the unique subset of skills which characterizes effective clinical teaching needs to be identified. Such identification will lead to development of these skills and improvement in the quality of clinical teaching. Family practice faculty are vitally concerned with improving their clinical teaching skills, since clinical teaching is the core of education in family medicine and since many family physicians who become preceptors have had no formal training as teachers. In this investigation of effective clinical teaching behaviors, faculty and residents generally agree in their perceptions of the helpfulness of 58 clinical teaching behaviors. Neither group felt that emphasis on references and research is as important a factor in effective clinical teaching as are residents' active participation in the learning situation and positive preceptor attitudes toward teaching and residents. It was perceived that the ineffective clinical teacher has a negative attitude toward residents, is inaccessible, and lacks skills in providing feedback, while the effective clinical teacher has skills in two-way communication, creates an educational environment that facilitates learning, and provides constructive feedback to residents.

  15. The Effect of Nursing Faculty Presence on Students' Level of Anxiety, Self-Confidence, and Clinical Performance during a Clinical Simulation Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsley, Trisha Leann

    2012-01-01

    Nursing schools design their clinical simulation labs based upon faculty's perception of the optimal environment to meet the students' learning needs, other programs' success with integrating high-tech clinical simulation, and the funds available. No research has been conducted on nursing faculty presence during a summative…

  16. Impact of Duty Hour Regulations on Medical Students’ Education: Views of Key Clinical Faculty

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Rachel B.; Miller, Redonda G.; Ashar, Bimal H.; Bass, Eric B.; Rice, Tasha; Cofrancesco, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Teaching faculty have valuable perspectives on the impact of residency duty hour regulations on medical students. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to elicit faculty views on the impact of residency duty hour regulations on medical students’ educational experience on inpatient medicine rotations. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a National Survey of Key Clinical Faculty (KCF) at 40 internal medicine residency programs affiliated with U.S. medical schools using a random sample stratified by National Institutes of Health funding and program size. MEASUREMENTS This study measures KCF opinions on the effect of duty hour regulations on students’ education. RESULTS Of 154 KCF targeted, 111 responded (72%). Fifty-two percent of KCF reported worsening in the overall quality of students’ education compared to just 2.7% reporting improvement (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis adjusted for gender, academic rank, specialty, and years of teaching experience, faculty who spent ≥15 hours per week teaching were more likely to report worsening in medical students’ level of responsibility on inpatient teams [odds ratio (OR) 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–7.6], ability to follow patients throughout hospitalization (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.3–7.9), ability to develop working relationships with residents (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.0–5.2), and the overall quality of students’ education (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.4–8.1) compared to faculty who spent less time teaching. CONCLUSION Key clincal faculty report concerns about the impact of duty hour regulations on aspects of medical students’ education in internal medicine. Medical schools and residency programs should identify ways to ensure optimal educational experiences for students within duty hour requirements. PMID:18612749

  17. Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015: suggestions for pharmacy strategic planning.

    PubMed

    Weber, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department's goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services.

  18. Issues Facing Pharmacy Leaders in 2015: Suggestions for Pharmacy Strategic Planning

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department’s goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25717212

  19. Exploration of Nursing Faculty Members' Lived Experiences of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Undergraduate Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obizoba, Cordelia O.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain an understanding of nursing faculty members' lived experiences of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in undergraduate nursing education. As owners of their programs' curriculum, nursing faculties are charged with the responsibility of providing needed knowledge, skills, and…

  20. Development of an interprofessional and interdisciplinary collaborative research practice for clinical faculty.

    PubMed

    Hager, Keri; St Hill, Catherine; Prunuske, Jacob; Swanoski, Michael; Anderson, Grant; Lutfiyya, May Nawal

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an interprofessional collaborative research practice fellowship designed to foster the research skills of clinical faculty. The year-long fellowship was grounded in big data analysis and the triangle of informatics--knowledge, information, and data. Fellows were selected to include diverse perspectives, training, and knowledge but had limited experience in team science or being a member of an interprofessional research team. The underlying philosophy of the fellowship was experiential learning. Protected time and formal mentorship were necessary factors for developing the interprofessional research practice and the skills to participate in an interprofessional research team. We believe that this innovative interprofessional faculty research fellowship is a viable option for supporting scholarly activity and research collaboration. The findings could inform interprofessional clinical practice and be implemented for patient care. Engagement in interprofessional collaborative research and incorporation of the perspectives, knowledge and expertise of multiple professions, is a model to de silo knowledge creation. PMID:26934068

  1. Perceptions of pharmacy clerkship students and clinical preceptors regarding preceptors' teaching behaviors at Gondar University in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Melaku, Tadesse; Srikanth, Akshaya; Getaye, Yonas; Admasu, Sewunet; Alkalmi, Ramadan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the perceptions of pharmacy clerkship students and clinical preceptors of preceptors' teaching behaviors at Gondar University. A cross-sectional study was conducted among pharmacy clerkship students and preceptors during June 2014 and December 2015. A 52-item structured questionnaire was self-administered to 126 students and 23 preceptors. The responses are presented using descriptive statistics. The Mann-Whitney U test was applied to test the significance of differences between students and preceptors. The response rate was 89.4% for students and 95.6% for preceptors. Statistically significant differences were observed in the responses regarding two of the five communication skills that were examined, six of the 26 clinical skills, and five of the 21 parameters involving feedback. The mean scores of preceptors (2.6/3) and students (1.9/3) regarding instructors' ability to answer questions were found to be significantly different (P= 0.01). Students and preceptors gave mean scores of 1.9 and 2.8, respectively, to a question regarding preceptors' application of appropriate up-to-date knowledge to individual patients (P= 0.00). Significant differences were also noted between students and instructors regarding the degree to which preceptors encouraged students to evaluate their own performance (P= 0.01). Discrepancies were noted between students and preceptors regarding preceptors' teaching behaviors. Preceptors rated their teaching behaviors more highly than students did. Short-term training is warranted for preceptors to improve some aspects of their teaching skills. PMID:26971864

  2. Prevention of cisplatin nephrotoxicity: state of the art and recommendations from the European Society of Clinical Pharmacy Special Interest Group on Cancer Care.

    PubMed

    Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Rey, Jean-Baptiste; Isnard-Bagnis, Corinne; Deray, Gilbert; Daouphars, Mikael

    2008-05-01

    Antineoplastic drugs used in the treatment of cancers present with variable renal tolerance profiles. Among drugs with a potential for renal toxicity, platinum salts, and especially cisplatin is a well-known agent that may induce acute and chronic renal failure. The mechanisms of its renal toxicity and the means of its prevention are presented in this article which represent the Clinical Recommendation from the Special Interest Group on Cancer Care of the European Society of Clinical Pharmacy (ESCP).

  3. Pharmacy alternatives (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... common source for obtaining prescriptions is the local pharmacy. Usually the pharmacy is located in a drug or grocery store. ... some insurance companies have chosen is mail-order pharmacy. Once a pharmacy has been chosen it is ...

  4. Rufus A. Lyman: Pharmacy's Lamplighter

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Rufus Ashley Lyman, a physician, was one of the most prominent leaders in US pharmacy education during the first half of the 20th century. He remains the only individual to be the founding dean at colleges of pharmacy at 2 state universities. His role in the creation and sustenance of the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education provided a platform for a national community and a sounding board for faculty members and others interested in professional education. His efforts to increase pharmacy educational standards were instrumental in the abandonment of the 2-year graduate in pharmacy (PhG) degree and the universal acceptance of the 4-year bachelor of science (BS) degree. Lyman's simple approach and fierce championship of his beliefs led to his recognition as a lamplighter for the profession. Curt P. Wimmer, chair of the New York Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association (now the American Pharmacists Association (APhA), introduced the 1947 Remington Honor Medalist, Rufus Ashley Lyman. Wimmer mentioned that Lyman worked as a lamplighter in Omaha, Nebraska, during medical school. Continuing the lamplighter analogy, Wimmer cited Lyman's work as a pharmacy educator and editor: “in the councils of your colleagues, your lamp became a torch emitting red hot sparks that often burnt and seared and scorched—but always made for progress.”1 This description provides an evocative image of one of the most prominent pharmacy educators and leaders of the first half of the 20th century. PMID:19777099

  5. A Model of Small-Group Problem-Based Learning in Pharmacy Education: Teaching in the Clinical Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khumsikiew, Jeerisuda; Donsamak, Sisira; Saeteaw, Manit

    2015-01-01

    Problem-based Learning (PBL) is an alternate method of instruction that incorporates basic elements of cognitive learning theory. Colleges of pharmacy use PBL to aid anticipated learning outcomes and practice competencies for pharmacy student. The purpose of this study were to implement and evaluate a model of small group PBL for 5th year pharmacy…

  6. Reinforcing Cultural Competency Concepts During Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Caligiuri, Frank J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To incorporate cultural competency concepts into various introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPE) at the University of Missouri - Kansas City, School of Pharmacy. Design A 6-week series, titled “Becoming a Culturally Competent Provider” was developed to provide IPPE students with the opportunity to apply theory regarding cultural competency in a clinical context. Assessment Pre- and post-intervention attitude survey instruments were administered to 25 students in the spring semester of 2009. Several activities within the series were associated with reflection exercises. Student presentations were evaluated and formal feedback was provided by faculty members. A course evaluation was administered to evaluate the series and determine areas of improvement. Conclusion A special series on cultural competency resulted in positive changes in students' attitudes, highlighting the importance of reinforcing cultural competency concepts during IPPEs. PMID:21088735

  7. A roadmap for educational research in pharmacy.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Dean, Meredith J; Mumper, Russell J; Blouin, Robert A; Roth, Mary T

    2013-12-16

    Educational research must play a critical role in informing practice and policy within pharmacy education. Understanding the educational environment and its impact on students, faculty members, and other stakeholders is imperative for improving outcomes and preparing pharmacy students to meet the needs of 21st century health care. To aid in the design and implementation of meaningful educational research within colleges and schools of pharmacy, this roadmap addresses philosophy and educational language; guidelines for the conduct of educational research; research design, including 4 approaches to defining, collecting, and analyzing educational data; measurement issues; ethical considerations; resources and tools; and the value of educational research in guiding curricular transformation.

  8. Pharmacy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    New York State education laws, rules, and regulations concerning the practice of pharmacy are presented. Provisions relating to the manufacture, sale, distribution, purity, potency, and labeling of drugs are included. State statutory provisions cover: licensing; duration and registration of a license; practice and regulation of the profession;…

  9. Pharmacy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Cultural Education Center.

    New York State education law, rules, and regulations concerning the practice of pharmacy are presented. Provisions relating to the manufacture, sale, distribution, purity, potency, and labeling of drugs are included. State statutory provisions cover: licensing, duration and registration of a license, practice and regulation of the profession,…

  10. On the Status of Medical School Faculty and Clinical Research Manpower, 1968-1990. National Institutes of Health Program Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, C. R.; And Others

    The results of six studies concerning medical school faculty and clinical research personnel are presented. The studies concern: (1) career research productivity of physician faculty; (2) accession and attrition of medical school faculty who are recent physician graduates; (3) comparison of training programs for physician scientists; (4) the…

  11. Teaching and Learning about Ethical Dilemmas in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Werner

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of ethics instruction in pharmacy practice argues that, because pharmacy students are still rapidly developing cognitively, faculty has an opportunity to help students mature and become socially conscious critical thinkers. The problem-solving process, dealing with alternative solutions, ambiguity, and flexible curriculum construction…

  12. Faculty Participation in and Needs around Community Engagement within a Large Multiinstitutional Clinical and Translational Science Awardee.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bowen; Norris, Keith; Mangione, Carol; Del Pino, Homero E; Jones, Loretta; Castro, Daniel; Wang, Christina; Bell, Douglas; Vangala, Sitaram; Kahn, Katherine; Brown, Arleen F

    2015-10-01

    Community engagement is recommended to ensure the public health impact of NIH-funded science. To understand the prevalence of community-engaged research and faculty interest in and needs around this, from 2012 to 2013, an online survey (n = 3,022) was sent to UCLA Clinical and Translational Science Institute faculty. Among respondents, 45% reported community-engaged project participation in the last year and 64% an interest in learning about community-engaged research. Over 50% indicated career development and pilot grants would increase participation in community-engaged research. A greater percentage of pretenure than tenured faculty (pretenure 54.9%, tenured 42.2%, p = 0008) noted faculty promotion criteria incentivizing community-engaged research would increase participation. In adjusted analyses, African American (OR 4.06, CI 1.68-9.82, p = 0.002) and Latino (OR 1.91, CI 1.10-3.33, p = 0.022) faculty had higher odds of prior participation in community-engaged projects than Whites. Female faculty had greater odds of interest (OR 1.40, CI 1.02-1.93, p = 0.038) in learning about community-engaged research than males. African American (OR 4.31, CI 1.42-13.08, p = 0.010) and Asian/Pacific Islander (OR 2.24, CI 1.52-3.28, p < 0.001) faculty had greater interest in learning about community-engaged research than Whites. To build community-engaged faculty research capacity, CTSAs' may need to focus resources on female and minority faculty development. PMID:26332679

  13. Using Bourdieu’s Theoretical Framework to Examine How the Pharmacy Educator Views Pharmacy Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. Methods. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. Results. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu’s description of field, species of capital, and habitus. Conclusion. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs. PMID:26889065

  14. Facts Transmission to Reflective Action: Pharmacy Education as an Experiential Dialect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Calvin H.

    1991-01-01

    It is proposed that, in pharmaceutical education, less emphasis be placed on scientific research among pharmacy faculty and more be placed on linking education with community pharmacy practice needs. The praxis approach, in which theory and practice are integrated and faculty and practitioners work together, is recommended. (MSE)

  15. A Training Program Using an Audience Response System to Calibrate Dental Faculty Members Assessing Student Clinical Competence.

    PubMed

    Metz, Michael J; Metz, Cynthia J; Durski, Marcelo T; Aiken, Sean A; Mayfield, Theresa G; Lin, Wei-Shao

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of calibration training of departmental faculty and competency graders using an audience response system on operative dentistry concepts across 12 months. The training sessions were designed to further solidify the process and equilibration of clinical opinions among faculty members and provide a more calibrated grading assessment during patient care for student performance feedback. Four (quarterly) calibration sessions occurred over 12 months in 2015. The first session was considered the baseline (control value) for this study. Pre- and post-calibration interrater agreement was assessed. Additionally, a pre and post assessment with ten Likert-scale questions was used to measure students' perceptions of instructional consistency. The results showed that a statistically significant increase in conceptual knowledge scores occurred for both departmental faculty members and competency graders across each of the four sessions (one-factor ANOVA; p<0.05). Interrater reliability agreement also significantly improved for both department faculty members and competency graders' clinical assessments over 12 months of implementation (Cohen's Kappa; p<0.05). There was a statistically significant increase in positive student perceptions on all ten questions (dependent t-test; p<0.05). Implementation of an audience response system for departmental and competency graders was found to be effective in facilitating a discussion forum, calibrating clinical assessments, and improving student perceptions. The positive results from this study support the value of dental schools' introducing faculty development programs to ensure consistent instruction for assessing dental student competence. PMID:27587578

  16. Provision of clinical pharmacist services for individuals with chronic hepatitis C viral infection: Joint Opinion of the GI/Liver/Nutrition and Infectious Diseases Practice and Research Networks of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Rima A; Bulloch, Marilyn N; Chan, Juliana; Deming, Paulina; Love, Bryan; Smith, Lisa; Dong, Betty J; GI Liver Nutrition and Infectious Diseases Practice and Research Networks of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this opinion paper was to identify and describe potential clinical pharmacists' services for the prevention and management of patients infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The goals of this paper are to guide the establishment and development of pharmacy services for patients infected with HCV and to highlight HCV research and educational opportunities. Recommendations were based on the following: a review of published data on clinical pharmacist involvement in the treatment and management of HCV-infected patients; a consensus of clinical pharmacists who provide direct patient care to HCV-infected patients and practice in different pharmacy models, including community-based and academic settings; and a review of published guidelines and literature focusing on the treatment and management of HCV infections. The recommendations provided in this opinion paper define the areas of clinical pharmacist involvement and clinical pharmacy practice in the treatment and management of patients with HCV. Clinical pharmacists can promote preventive measures and education about reducing HCV transmission, improve medication adherence, assist in monitoring clinical and adverse effects, recommend treatment strategies to minimize adverse effects and drug interactions, and facilitate medication acquisition and logistics that positively improve patient outcomes and reduce the health care system costs. PMID:25359244

  17. An Observational Case Study of Near-peer Teaching in Medical and Pharmacy Experiential Training

    PubMed Central

    Sharif-Chan, Bayan; Tankala, Dipti; Leong, Christine; Austin, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare peer teaching in a medical and a pharmacy clinical teaching unit and to provide suggestions for future research in pharmacy near-peer teaching. Methods. This exploratory observational study used principles of ethnographic methodology for data collection and analysis. Observations were collected in a large downtown teaching hospital. An average of 4-6 hours per day were spent observing a team of medical trainees from the Faculty (School) of Medicine in the general internal medicine (unit for two weeks, followed by a team of pharmacy trainees in an ambulatory hemodialysis (HD) unit for two weeks. Data was collected through field notes and informal interviews that were audiotaped and subsequently transcribed. Data was interpreted by the observer and reviewed weekly by two impartial pharmacists. Results. Five major themes emerged: (1) influence of peer teaching hierarchy; (2) educational distance between peer learners and teachers; (3) effect of the clinical teaching unit size on peer learning; (4) trainees’ perception of their teaching role in the clinical teaching unit; and (5) influence of daily schedule and workload on peer teaching. As opposed to pharmacy, a hierarchy and pyramidal structure of peer teaching was observed in medical experiential training. There appeared to be no effect of educational distance on near peer teaching; however, perception of teaching role and influence of daily schedule affected near-peer teaching. Conclusion. Through initial comparisons of medical and pharmacy clinical teaching units, this study provides a reflection of elements that may be necessary to successfully implement near-peer teaching in pharmacy experiential training. Future studies in this area should assess learning outcomes and participant satisfaction, preceptor workload, and impact on patient care. PMID:27756922

  18. SimPharm: How Pharmacy Students Made Meaning of a Clinical Case Differently in Paper- and Simulation-Based Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loke, Swee-Kin; Tordoff, June; Winikoff, Michael; McDonald, Jenny; Vlugter, Peter; Duffull, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Several scholars contend that learning with computer games and simulations results in students thinking more like professionals. Bearing this goal in mind, we investigated how a group of pharmacy students learnt with an in-house developed computer simulation, SimPharm. Adopting situated cognition as our theoretical lens, we conducted a case study…

  19. Activity and the Role of Keio University Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Keio University Faculty of Pharmacy opened an insurance pharmacy on its campus in 2001. This pharmacy was opened with the objectives of 1) educating pharmacists to serve the regional community; 2) heightening students' motivation; and 3) providing practical education geared to the needs of actual healthcare settings. Since my appointment as director in 2003, I have led various initiatives to determine an ideal business model for a university pharmacy. This paper reports these initiatives and discusses the mission and future prospects of university pharmacies. In terms of education, all 4th-year students provide medication guidance to simulated patients at our university pharmacy counters, and are briefed by pharmacists about pharmacy administration and dispensing activities. Over three periods each academic year, trainees from other universities have been accepted for long-term on-site training. Students also work at local facilities for elderly persons to learn how to effectively communicate with this demographic and to better understand their unique pharmacokinetic profiles, impaired QOL, etc. Students can also participate in health promotion and drug education courses for regional residents, and support their self-medication. Pharmacies are important points of contact with local communities where residents' lives can be medically monitored. It is important for pharmaceutical universities to operate their own pharmacies in order to determine and stay abreast of the evolving challenges society expects pharmaceutical science to address. University pharmacies need to become models for general community pharmacies.

  20. A seminar series in applied biostatistics for clinical research fellows, faculty and staff.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Reena

    2002-03-30

    Familiarity with experimental design and statistical analysis techniques is necessary for investigators to conduct state-of-the-art research in clinical medicine. A wide range of options for biostatistical training is available. These include formal academic courses for credit, one-on-one education offered under the guise of consultation, self-paced textbook or computer learning, intensive short courses, portions of extended courses spanning an assortment of other subjects, and a continuing series of seminars or lectures covering selected topics in statistics. The latter structure is described in this article. We offered an eight-week lecture series focusing on a new topic in biostatistics each week. The course targeted clinical faculty, postdoctoral fellows, residents, and other interested research staff at a large medical research institution. The series focused on interpretation of medical journal articles with regard to statistical issues. Another objective was to provide information to increase a participant's expertise in the design of research studies. Guidance was offered for effective communication with collaborating biostatisticians. The format and contents of the seminar series are described. Aspects of the course that proved to be successful are discussed.

  1. An Evaluation of the Education of Hospital Pharmacy Directors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Robert S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Hospital pharmacy directors ranked their academic needs as: personnel and financial management (greatest), computers, hospital organization, clinical pharmacy practice, traditional pharmacy practice, and statistics. Those with MBAs perceived themselves stronger in these areas than did those with other degrees. Only MBAs and MSs felt adequately…

  2. Pharmacy benefit management companies.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, R

    1995-09-01

    The principal services offered by pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs) are described. A PBM contracts with employers, insurers, and others to provide accessible and cost-effective benefits to those groups' members. PBMs vary in their organization and services because they originate from different types of businesses. Many PBMs have been formed by publicly traded companies that have combined traditional ways of controlling cost and use, such as formularies, with new elements to form organizations whose primary function is managing the pharmacy benefit. Often, the PBM is paid a fixed amount for which it must provide all contracted services. PBMs may provide pharmacy services themselves (e.g., mail order prescription service is offered by Medco, one of the largest PBMs); more often, they subcontract with others to provide certain services. Full-service PBMs have the following functions: establishing networks of pharmacies for use by plan members; processing claims electronically at the time a prescription is filled and thus maintaining a database on drug use and cost; using these data to generate various reports; encouraging the use of generic products; managing existing formularies, helping to establish customized formularies, or providing a national formulary; providing information to support formulary guidelines (counter-detailing); offering programs in which prescriptions for maintenance medications are filled less frequently with larger amounts, often by mail order; negotiating volume-based rebates from manufacturers; performing drug-use review; developing disease management programs based on clinical practice guidelines and measurements of patient outcome; and evaluating outcomes by combining data on drug therapy with information about other parts of the patient's care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. The Implementation and Development of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination in the Community Pharmacy Course of a Select Gulf-Region Academic Institution (Ras Al Khaimah College of Pharmaceutical Sciences): A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azzawi, Amad Mohammed Jamil; Nagavi, B.G.; Hachim, Mahmood Y.; Mossa, Omar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) were used to assess translational pharmacotherapeutic skills of a Gulf-region representative academic institution. Aim: The aim of the current study was to assess the clinical skills of students enrolled within the third year Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) programme within Ras Al…

  4. A Collaborative and Reflective Academic Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Limpach, Aimee L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To implement a co-precepted advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) focused on traditional pharmacy faculty and administrative responsibilities and reflection opportunities. Design. A multi-faceted, reflection-infused academic APPE was designed that exposed students to activities related to teaching, curriculum revision, scholarly writing, committee service, faculty role-modeling, mentorship and development, and school-level administrative decision-making. Assessment. Two students completed the APPE in the first 2 semesters it was offered (1 in spring 2010 and 1 in fall 2010). Formative and summative evaluations confirmed that the students achieved the APPE goals and viewed the experience as valuable, informative, and enjoyable as expressed both in reflective journal submissions and survey comments. Conclusion. Co-precepting by pharmacy faculty members primarily engaged in traditional faculty- and administration-related responsibilities can provide students with a robust learning experience that surpasses that which could be achieved by a single mentor. PMID:21931458

  5. Statewide Project to Include Aging Content in Colleges of Pharmacy. An Administration on Aging Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousch, Robert

    The project described in this report was designed to: (1) address the lack of adequately trained faculty members needed to introduce geriatrics within colleges of pharmacy, (2) facilitate the use of existing materials within the educational program provided pharmacy students, (3) teach a geriatric pharmacy course twice at each of Texas' three…

  6. Pharmacy in a New Frontier - The First Five Years at the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuse, Tina

    2008-01-01

    A poster entitled "Space Medicine - A New Role for Clinical Pharmacists" was presented in December 2001 highlighting an up-and-coming role for pharmacists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Since that time, the operational need for the pharmacy profession has expanded with the administration s decision to open a pharmacy on site at JSC to complement the care provided by the Flight Medicine and Occupational Medicine Clinics. The JSC Pharmacy is a hybrid of traditional retail and hospital pharmacy and is compliant with the ambulatory care standards set forth by the Joint Commission. The primary charge for the pharmacy is to provide medication management for JSC. In addition to providing ambulatory care for both clinics, the pharmacists also practice space medicine. A pharmacist had been involved in the packing of both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Medical Kits before the JSC Pharmacy was established; however, the role of the pharmacist in packing medical kits has grown. The pharmacists are now full members of the operations team providing consultation for new drug delivery systems, regulations, and patient safety issues. As the space crews become more international, so does the drug information provided by the pharmacists. This presentation will review the journey of the JSC Pharmacy as it celebrated its five year anniversary in April of 2008. The implementation of the pharmacy, challenges to the incorporation of the pharmacy into an existing health-care system, and the current responsibilities of a pharmacist at the Johnson Space Center will be discussed.

  7. JSC Pharmacy Services for Remote Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, Paul S.; Bayuse, Tina

    2005-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Pharmacy began operating in March of 2003. The pharmacy serves in two main capacities: to directly provide medications and services in support of the medical clinics at the Johnson Space Center, physician travel kits for NASA flight surgeon staff, and remote operations, such as the clinics in Devon Island, Star City and Moscow; and indirectly provide medications and services for the International Space Station and Space Shuttle medical kits. Process changes that occurred and continued to evolve in the advent of the installation of the new JSC Pharmacy, and the process of stocking medications for each of these aforementioned areas will be discussed. Methods: The incorporation of pharmacy involvement to provide services for remote operations and supplying medical kits was evaluated. The first step was to review the current processes and work the JSC Pharmacy into the existing system. The second step was to provide medications to these areas. Considerations for the timeline of expiring medications for shipment are reviewed with each request. The third step was the development of a process to provide accountability for the medications. Results: The JSC Pharmacy utilizes a pharmacy management system to document all medications leaving the pharmacy. Challenges inherent to providing medications to remote areas were encountered. A process has been designed to incorporate usage into the electronic medical record upon return of the information from these remote areas. This is an evolving program and several areas have been identified for further improvement.

  8. Significant Issues Raised by the Study Commission on Pharmacy Report--A View From the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francke, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    An opinion is offered of the Millis Commission report on pharmacy. Two major areas are considered: levels of pharmacy practice and roles for clinical pharmacy practice. It is concluded that the report failed to explore the issues facing pharmacy in the depth necessary to initiate meaningful change. (LBH)

  9. Partner for Promotion: An Innovative Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Legg, Julie E.; Casper, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To implement the Partner for Promotion (PFP) program which was designed to enhance the skills and confidence of students and community pharmacy preceptors to deliver and expand advanced patient care services in community pharmacies and also to assess the program's impact. Design A 10-month longitudinal community advanced pharmacy practice experience was implemented that included faculty mentoring of students and preceptors via formal orientation; face-to-face training sessions; online monthly meetings; feedback on service development materials; and a web site offering resources and a discussion board. Pre- and post-APPE surveys of students and preceptors were used to evaluate perceptions of knowledge and skills. Assessment The skills survey results for the first 2 years of the PFP program suggest positive changes occurring from pre- to post-APPE survey in most areas for both students and preceptors. Four of the 7 pharmacies in 2005-2006 and 8 of the 14 pharmacies in 2006-2007 were able to develop an advanced patient care service and begin seeing patients prior to the conclusion of the APPE. As a result of the PFP program from 2005-2007, 14 new experiential sites entered into affiliation agreements with The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy. Conclusion The PFP program offers an innovative method for community pharmacy faculty members to work with students and preceptors in community pharmacies in developing patient care services. PMID:19325954

  10. Clarifying Evidence-Based Medicine in Educational and Therapeutic Experiences of Clinical Faculty Members: A Qualitative Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although evidence-based medicine has been a significant part of recent research efforts to reform the health care system, it requires an assessment of real life community and patient. The present study strives to clarify the concept of evidence-based medicine in educational and therapeutic experiences of clinical faculty members of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (2014). Materials and Methods: It was a qualitative study of phenomenology. The population consists of 12 clinical faculty members of Kermanshah University Medical Sciences. Sampling was carried out using a purposeful method. Sample volume was determined using adequacy of samples’ law. Data gathering occurred through semi-structured interviews. Collaizzi pattern was employed for data interpretation concurrent with data gathering. Results: interpreting the data, three main themes were extracted. They include: 1. Unawareness and disuse (unaware of the concept, disuse, referral to colleagues, experiment prescription) 2. Conscious or unconscious use (using journals and scientific websites, aware of the process). 3. Beliefs (belief or disbelief in necessity). Conclusion: It sounds essential to change the behavior of clinical faculty members from passive to active with respect to employing evidence-based medicine as well as to alter negative attitudes into positive ones. In so doing, systematic training program aiming at behavior changing is necessary. Also, providing dissent facilities and infrastructures and removing barriers to the use of EBM can be effective. PMID:26153205

  11. The new frontier for pharmacy automation.

    PubMed

    Burke, M

    1994-11-01

    The retail pharmacy industry, long a leader in applying EDI, is preparing to use automation in several new areas. For example, pharmacists will be able to interact electronically with physicians' offices and access clinical information.

  12. Enhancing Pharmacy Practice Models Through Pharmacists’ Privileging

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Benjamin; Weber, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Director’s Forum is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. This article focuses on the concept of granting clinical privileges to pharmacists (acute and ambulatory care) to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of medication use. As the practice models change in hospital pharmacy practice to require the pharmacist to enter into pharmacy board-approved consult agreements, institutional privileging of pharmacists will be necessary. The pharmacy director must understand the steps of the credentialing and privileging process and should apply the process where appropriate in the department. Through hospital medical staff actively supporting pharmacists’ privileging, the national Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) can meet its goals of integrating pharmacists as effective members of the patient care team with tangible accountability for achieving optimal drug therapy outcomes. PMID:24421454

  13. Potential risks of pharmacy compounding.

    PubMed

    Gudeman, Jennifer; Jozwiakowski, Michael; Chollet, John; Randell, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacy compounding involves the preparation of customized medications that are not commercially available for individual patients with specialized medical needs. Traditional pharmacy compounding is appropriate when done on a small scale by pharmacists who prepare the medication based on an individual prescription. However, the regulatory oversight of pharmacy compounding is significantly less rigorous than that required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs; as such, compounded drugs may pose additional risks to patients. FDA-approved drugs are made and tested in accordance with good manufacturing practice regulations (GMPs), which are federal statutes that govern the production and testing of pharmaceutical products. In contrast, compounded drugs are exempt from GMPs, and testing to assess product quality is inconsistent. Unlike FDA-approved drugs, pharmacy-compounded products are not clinically evaluated for safety or efficacy. In addition, compounded preparations do not have standard product labeling or prescribing information with instructions for safe use. Compounding pharmacies are not required to report adverse events to the FDA, which is mandatory for manufacturers of FDA-regulated medications. Some pharmacies engage in activities that extend beyond the boundaries of traditional pharmacy compounding, such as large-scale production of compounded medications without individual patient prescriptions, compounding drugs that have not been approved for use in the US, and creating copies of FDA-approved drugs. Compounding drugs in the absence of GMPs increases the potential for preparation errors. When compounding is performed on a large scale, such errors may adversely affect many patients. Published reports of independent testing by the FDA, state agencies, and others consistently show that compounded drugs fail to meet specifications at a considerably higher rate than FDA-approved drugs. Compounded sterile preparations pose the additional risk

  14. [Attitudes of pharmacy and dentistry students of Poznan Medical University towards smoking].

    PubMed

    Korzeniowska, Katarzyna; Cieślewicz, Artur; Szałek, Edyta; Jabłecka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the attitude of students of the Faculty of Pharmacy and Division of Dentistry (Poznan University of Medical Sciences) towards smoking. Information was collected using a self-completion questionnaire for students. 114 students of the 5th year of Faculty of Pharmacy and 60 students of 4th year of Division of Dentistry took part in the survey. Most of the students were non-smokers (77% in the Faculty of Pharmacy and 72% in the Division of Dentistry). The main reason for abandoning smoking in both groups was knowledge on the dangers of addiction obtained in medical studies.

  15. A Critical Appraisal of and Recommendations for Faculty Development

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmo, B. Joseph; Edwards, David J.; Franks, Andrea S.; Naughton, Cynthia A.; Schonder, Kristine S.; Stamm, Pamela L.; Thornton, Phillip; Popovich, Nicholas G.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009-2010 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Council of Faculties Faculty Affairs Committee reviewed published literature assessing the scope and outcomes of faculty development for tenure and promotion. Relevant articles were identified via a PubMed search, review of pharmacy education journals, and identification of position papers from major healthcare professions academic organizations. While programs intended to enhance faculty development were described by some healthcare professions, relatively little specific to pharmacy has been published and none of the healthcare professions have adequately evaluated the impact of various faculty-development programs on associated outcomes. The paucity of published information strongly suggests a lack of outcomes-oriented faculty-development programs in colleges and schools of pharmacy. Substantial steps are required toward the development and scholarly evaluation of faculty-development programs. As these programs are developed and assessed, evaluations must encompass all faculty subgroups, including tenure- and nontenure track faculty members, volunteer faculty members, women, and underrepresented minorities. This paper proposes AACP, college and school, and department-level recommendations intended to ensure faculty success in achieving tenure and promotion. PMID:21931460

  16. Is a pharmacy student the customer or the product?

    PubMed

    Holdford, David A

    2014-02-12

    Academic entitlement and student consumerism have been described as a cause for unprofessional behavior in higher education. Colleges and schools of pharmacy may inadvertently encourage student consumerism and academic entitlement by misunderstanding who is the primary customer of pharmacy education. Pharmacy colleges and schools who view students as the primary customer can unintentionally pressure faculty members to relax expectations for professionalism and academic performance and thereby cause a general downward spiral in the quality of pharmacy graduates. In contrast, this paper argues that the primary customer of pharmacy education is the patient. Placing the patient at the center of the educational process is consistent with the concepts of pharmaceutical care, medication therapy management, the patient-centered home, and the oath of the pharmacist. Emphasizing the patient as the primary customer discourages academic entitlement and student consumerism and encourages an emphasis on learning how to serve the medication-related needs of the patient.

  17. Is a Pharmacy Student the Customer or the Product?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Academic entitlement and student consumerism have been described as a cause for unprofessional behavior in higher education. Colleges and schools of pharmacy may inadvertently encourage student consumerism and academic entitlement by misunderstanding who is the primary customer of pharmacy education. Pharmacy colleges and schools who view students as the primary customer can unintentionally pressure faculty members to relax expectations for professionalism and academic performance and thereby cause a general downward spiral in the quality of pharmacy graduates. In contrast, this paper argues that the primary customer of pharmacy education is the patient. Placing the patient at the center of the educational process is consistent with the concepts of pharmaceutical care, medication therapy management, the patient-centered home, and the oath of the pharmacist. Emphasizing the patient as the primary customer discourages academic entitlement and student consumerism and encourages an emphasis on learning how to serve the medication-related needs of the patient. PMID:24558271

  18. Is a pharmacy student the customer or the product?

    PubMed

    Holdford, David A

    2014-02-12

    Academic entitlement and student consumerism have been described as a cause for unprofessional behavior in higher education. Colleges and schools of pharmacy may inadvertently encourage student consumerism and academic entitlement by misunderstanding who is the primary customer of pharmacy education. Pharmacy colleges and schools who view students as the primary customer can unintentionally pressure faculty members to relax expectations for professionalism and academic performance and thereby cause a general downward spiral in the quality of pharmacy graduates. In contrast, this paper argues that the primary customer of pharmacy education is the patient. Placing the patient at the center of the educational process is consistent with the concepts of pharmaceutical care, medication therapy management, the patient-centered home, and the oath of the pharmacist. Emphasizing the patient as the primary customer discourages academic entitlement and student consumerism and encourages an emphasis on learning how to serve the medication-related needs of the patient. PMID:24558271

  19. Teaching Medication Adherence in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Linda Garrelts; Hess, Karl; Farmer, Kevin C.; Yurkon, Afton M.; Ha, Carolyn C.; Schwartzman, Emmanuelle; Law, Anandi V.; Milani, Paul A.; Trotta, Katie; Labella, Sara R.; Designor, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine and describe the nature and extent of medication adherence education in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Methods. A mixed-methods research study was conducted that included a national survey of pharmacy faculty members, a national survey of pharmacy students, and phone interviews of 3 faculty members and 6 preceptors. Results. The majority of faculty members and students agreed that background concepts in medication adherence are well covered in pharmacy curricula. Approximately 40% to 65% of the students sampled were not familiar with several adherence interventions. The 6 preceptors who were interviewed felt they were not well-informed on adherence interventions, unclear on what students knew about adherence, and challenged to provide adherence-related activities for students during practice experiences because of practice time constraints. Conclusions. Intermediate and advanced concepts in medication adherence, such as conducting interventions, are not adequately covered in pharmacy curriculums; therefore stakeholders in pharmacy education must develop national standards and tools to ensure consistent and adequate medication adherence education. PMID:22761520

  20. Women in pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Janzen, Donica; Fitzpatrick, Kerry; Suveges, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Women have historically been attracted to pharmacy because it is widely perceived as a profession that offers them an opportunity to combine a professional career with a family. Women now make up the majority of practising pharmacists in Canada, yet the literature demonstrates disparities such as gender segregation and underrepresentation of women in senior positions. This study was intended to identify the attitudes and beliefs of pharmacy students about women’s issues in pharmacy and raise awareness of these issues. Methods: First- and fourth-year University of Saskatchewan pharmacy students were invited to share their overall impressions of the status of female pharmacists and the impact of women on the pharmacy profession through an online questionnaire. Results: Of the 60 respondents, the majority disagreed that there is segregation of men and women in pharmacy. More fourth-year students than first-year students recognized the underrepresentation of women in pharmacy management. Many students believed the number of women in pharmacy would have no negative impact on the profession. Forty students (67.8%) agreed that it is important to maintain a significant proportion of men in pharmacy. Conclusion: Most pharmacy students in this study do not recognize gender disparities present in pharmacy or the impact the disproportionate number of women could have on the profession. Can Pharm J 2013;146:109-116. PMID:23795187

  1. Out from the Periphery: Engaging Nursing Clinical Adjunct Faculty in Their Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Debra Connolly

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) reported that 32,000 qualified nursing candidates were turned away from baccalaureate nursing programs, primarily due to the shortage of nursing faculty. This shortage limited the number of students permitted to enroll in nursing programs when the need for nurses continues to grow. An…

  2. [History of the University of Chile Faculty of Medicine and clinical hospital location].

    PubMed

    Osorio A, Carlos G

    2015-02-01

    The history of the location of the University of Chile Faculty of Medicine North Campus is derived from a farm of Pedro de Valdivia founder of the city of Santiago de la Nueva Extremadura and governor of the “Reyno de Chile”. This work narrates succinctly the history of this particular location from the Spanish Conquest period to present days.

  3. The Writing Retreat: A High-Yield Clinical Faculty Development Opportunity in Academic Writing

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Christian T.; Boyer, Debra; Colbert, Colleen Y.; Boyer, Edward W.

    2013-01-01

    Background The need for consistent academic productivity challenges junior clinician-scholars, who often lack the aptitude to ensure efficient production of manuscripts. Intervention To solve this problem, an academic division of a major medical center developed an off-site writing retreat. The purpose of the retreat was not to teach writing skills, but to offer senior mentor assistance with a focus on the elements of manuscript writing. Methods The retreat paired senior faculty members with junior staff. Senior faculty identified manuscript topics and provided real-time writing and editing supervision. Team-building exercises, midcourse corrections, and debriefing interviews were built into the retreat. The number of manuscripts and grant proposals generated during the 2008–2011 retreats was recorded, and the program was evaluated by using unstructured debriefing interviews. Results An average of 6 to 7 faculty members and fellows participated in each retreat. During the past 4 years, participants produced an average of 3 grant proposals and 7 manuscripts per retreat. After the writing retreat, each fellow and junior faculty member produced an average of 4 scholarly products per year, compared to fewer than 2 for prior years' retreats. Participant feedback indicated the success of the retreat resulted from protected time, direct mentorship by the scholars involved, and pairing of authors, which allows for rapid production of manuscripts and accelerated the editing process. More than 80% of mentors returned each year to participate. Conclusions The writing retreat is a feasible, effective strategy to increase scholarship among faculty, acceptable to mentees and mentors, and sustainable over time. PMID:24404277

  4. Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan, Bob, Ed.; McFerrin, Karen, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on faculty development and technology: "Involving Faculty in Faculty Development" (Kristine Blair and Dan Madigan); "Technology Use in Higher Education: A Faculty Development Model" (Jessica Kahn); "A Faculty of Education as a Community of Learners: Growing to Meet the Demands of Instruction and…

  5. Pharmacy Education in the Context of Australian Practice

    PubMed Central

    Nation, Roger L.; Roller, Louis; Costelloe, Marian; Galbraith, Kirstie; Stewart, Peter; Charman, William N

    2008-01-01

    Accredited pharmacy programs in Australia provide a high standard of pharmacy education, attracting quality students. The principal pharmacy degree remains the 4-year bachelor of pharmacy degree; however, some universities offer graduate-entry master of pharmacy degrees taught in 6 semesters over a 2-year period. Curricula include enabling and applied pharmaceutical science, pharmacy practice, and clinical and experiential teaching, guided by competency standards and an indicative curriculum (a list of topics that are required to be included in a pharmacy degree curriculum before the program must be accredited by the Australian Pharmacy Council). Graduate numbers have increased approximately 250% with a dramatic increase from 6 pharmacy degree programs in 1997 to 21 such programs in 2008. Graduates must complete approximately 12 months of internship in a practice setting after graduation and prior to the competency-based registration examinations. An overview of pharmacy education in Australia is provided in the context of the healthcare system, a national system for subsidizing the cost of prescription medicines, the Australian National Medicines Policy and the practice of pharmacy. Furthermore, the innovations in practice and technology that will influence education in the future are discussed. PMID:19325951

  6. Evolution of Preprofessional Pharmacy Curricula

    PubMed Central

    Siracuse, Mark V.; Moniri, Nader H.; Birnie, Christine R.; Okamoto, Curtis T.; Crouch, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To examine changes in preprofessional pharmacy curricular requirements and trends, and determine rationales for and implications of modifications. Methods. Prerequisite curricular requirements compiled between 2006 and 2011 from all doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs approved by the Accreditation Council of Pharmacy Education were reviewed to ascertain trends over the past 5 years. An online survey was conducted of 20 programs that required either 3 years of prerequisite courses or a bachelor’s degree, and a random sample of 20 programs that required 2 years of prerequisites. Standardized telephone interviews were then conducted with representatives of 9 programs. Results. In 2006, 4 programs required 3 years of prerequisite courses and none required a bachelor’s degree; by 2011, these increased to 18 programs and 7 programs, respectively. Of 40 programs surveyed, responses were received from 28 (70%), 9 (32%) of which reported having increased the number of prerequisite courses since 2006. Reasons given for changes included desire to raise the level of academic achievement of students entering the PharmD program, desire to increase incoming student maturity, and desire to add clinical sciences and experiential coursework to the pharmacy curriculum. Some colleges and schools experienced a temporary decrease in applicants. Conclusions. The preprofessional curriculum continues to evolve, with many programs increasing the number of course prerequisites. The implications of increasing prerequisites were variable and included a perceived increase in maturity and quality of applicants and, for some schools, a temporary decrease in the number of applicants. PMID:23788806

  7. [Introduction of a Clinical Research Experience Program in Hospital Practical Training for Pharmacy Students and Its Evaluation].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Suda, Yasuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasutaka; Kawabata, Shiho; Kawakami, Noriko; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Nagayama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Long-term clinical training based on a model core curriculum was conducted to nurture highly competent pharmacists in the clinical field. Pharmacists' responsibilities are expanding, and a system has been developed to help pharmacists gain accreditation, identify specialties, and improve their training. However, this system requires research competency. Therefore clinical research should be considered a part of clinical training to encourage high competency among pharmacists. Because the model core curriculum does not include a section on clinical research. Osaka City University Hospital introduced a hands-on clinical research experience program and evaluated its usefulness. A significant improvement in the level of knowledge and awareness of clinical research was seen among students who underwent the clinical research experience program. In addition, the level of student satisfaction was higher. These findings suggest that a clinical research experience program may be useful to nurture a greater awareness of clinical research and knowledge acquisition among pharmacists. PMID:26329554

  8. Community pharmacy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Benrimoj, Shalom I; Frommer, Michael S

    2004-11-01

    This article describes the evolution of community pharmacy in the Australian health system, and assesses its current and potential future contribution to health care. A central theme is the unique extent and accessibility of community pharmacy to the public, with a vast and dispersed infrastructure that is funded by private enterprise. The viability of community pharmacy as a retail trade depends on a diversification of its service roles and retention of its product-supply roles. Initiatives by the pharmacy profession, the pharmacy industry and the Australian Government are likely to give community pharmacy an increasingly prominent place in health promotion and primary, secondary and tertiary prevention, especially in relation to the management of chronic diseases.

  9. Social pharmacy as a field of study: the needs and challenges in global pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Al-Haddad, Mahmoud Sa'di; Abduelkarem, Abduelmula Rajab; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Palaian, Subish; Abrika, Omar Saad Saleh

    2011-12-01

    The practice of pharmacy and, consequently, pharmacy curricula have undergone significant changes over the past years in response to a rapidly changing economic, political, and social environment. Within this context, the pharmacist's role had expanded to include more direct interaction with the public in terms of the provision of health information and advice on the safe and rational use of medications. To carry out these roles effectively, pharmacists need to be well prepared on how to deal with patients' behavior and psychology. The understanding of patient sociobehavioral aspects in the medication use process is paramount to achieving optimal clinical and humanistic outcomes from therapy. The concept of behavioral sciences and health psychology are embedded as the fundamental concepts in the field of social pharmacy, and thus it is imperative that this should be taught and nurtured to future pharmacy practitioners. Based on the growing needs for future pharmacists to be exposed to issues in social pharmacy, many pharmacy schools around the world have adopted this subject to be part of their standard curriculum. In this commentary, a discussion of the needs of social pharmacy courses in pharmacy curriculum will be addressed in the context of both developed and developing countries.

  10. Obligations of a Pharmaceutical Scientist to Help Bridge the Gap Between Basic Research and Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benet, Leslie Z.

    1980-01-01

    A chairman of pharmacy in a state university outlines obligations in reducing tensions within the profession: making teaching relevant to the product of the school--clinical pharmacists; making one's own expertise available to faculty to develop research projects; and insuring highest scientific quality of services. (MSE)

  11. Engaging Pharmacy Students, Residents, and Fellows in Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    PubMed

    Chahine, Elias B; El-Lababidi, Rania M; Sourial, Mariette

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs are mainly established by infectious diseases physicians and infectious diseases-trained clinical pharmacists with the goal of optimizing patients' outcomes while halting antimicrobial resistance, decreasing adverse events, and controlling health care cost. The role of the infectious diseases-trained clinical pharmacist in antimicrobial stewardship is well established; however, there are not enough formally trained pharmacists to assume the challenging responsibilities of the steward coordinator. The purpose of this article was to review the available literature and resources and propose a model to engage introductory pharmacy practice experience students, advanced pharmacy practice experience students, postgraduate year (PGY) 1 pharmacy residents, PGY2 infectious diseases pharmacy residents, and PGY2 or PGY3 infectious diseases pharmacy fellows in antimicrobial stewardship. Further studies are needed to assess and document the impact of pharmacy students and postgraduate trainees on antimicrobial stewardship programs.

  12. Contractual Issues for Faculty Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, M. Dee; Gregg, Andrea C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses contractual issues surrounding nursing faculty's clinical practice, such as competent participants, offer, consideration, and acceptance. Addresses evaluation of faculty practice contracts and alternatives for problem resolution. (Contains 24 references.) (SK)

  13. The challenges of pharmacy education in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Worafi, Yaser Mohammed

    2014-10-15

    Pharmacy education in Yemen has faced many challenges since its introduction in the 1980s. Most Yemeni pharmacy schools, especially private ones, are experiencing difficulties in providing the right quality and quantity of clinical educational experiences. Most of these challenges are imbedded in a teaching style and curricula that have failed to respond to the needs of the community and country. The slow shift from traditional drug-dispensing to a patient-centered or focused approach in pharmacy practice requires a fundamental change in the roles and responsibilities of both policymakers and educators. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss the challenges facing the pharmacy education in Yemen; (2) to provided recommendations to overcome challenges.

  14. Qualifications for future hospital pharmacy directors as perceived by pharmacy directors and hospital administrators in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Vejraska, M T; Wiederholt, J B; Zilz, D A

    1987-07-01

    Hospital pharmacy directors and administrators in Wisconsin were surveyed to determine their perceptions of the responsibilities, skills, postgraduate education, training, and experience necessary for hospital pharmacy directors during the next 10 years. Packages containing two identical questionnaires were mailed in April 1985 to the pharmacy directors at all 159 hospitals in Wisconsin. The pharmacy director and his or her immediate supervisor were asked to use a 5-point Likert-type scale to rate the importance of various responsibilities and skills and also to rank the most important responsibilities, skills, and issues. In addition, respondents answered forced-choice questions about postgraduate education and training and an open-ended question about academic coursework. All responses were compared by respondent characteristics and hospital size. There was a response rate of 48.1% to the questionnaire, representing 60.7% of the pharmacy directors (n = 96) and 34.6% of the administrators (n = 55). Both groups agreed on which responsibilities and issues will be very important (mean importance rating of greater than 4) for future pharmacy directors. However, administrators rated clinical and technical skills as significantly more important than did pharmacy directors. Only 48% of pharmacy directors believed that a residency is essential and preferred either a general or administrative residency coupled with an advanced degree, whereas more than 50% of the responding administrators favored residencies not affiliated with a degree program. The majority of pharmacy directors and administrators believed that both general staff and administrative experience is necessary for future pharmacy directors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Fostering and managing diversity in schools of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Nkansah, Nancy T; Youmans, Sharon L; Agness, Chanel F; Assemi, Mitra

    2009-12-17

    Organizational benefits of diversity in the workplace have been well documented. In health professions, however, diversity-related research traditionally has focused on the effect of diversity on health care disparities. Few tools exist describing the benefits of diversity from an organizational standpoint to guide pharmacy administrators and faculty members in nurturing and developing a culture of diversity. Given the scarcity of pharmacy specific data, experience from other academic areas and national/international diversity reports were incorporated into this manuscript to supplement the available pharmacy evidence base. This review summarizes the benefits of diversity from an academic organizational standpoint, discusses the issues administrators and faculty members must consider when developing programs, and provides guidance on best practices in fostering and managing diversity.

  16. Fostering and managing diversity in schools of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Nkansah, Nancy T; Youmans, Sharon L; Agness, Chanel F; Assemi, Mitra

    2009-12-17

    Organizational benefits of diversity in the workplace have been well documented. In health professions, however, diversity-related research traditionally has focused on the effect of diversity on health care disparities. Few tools exist describing the benefits of diversity from an organizational standpoint to guide pharmacy administrators and faculty members in nurturing and developing a culture of diversity. Given the scarcity of pharmacy specific data, experience from other academic areas and national/international diversity reports were incorporated into this manuscript to supplement the available pharmacy evidence base. This review summarizes the benefits of diversity from an academic organizational standpoint, discusses the issues administrators and faculty members must consider when developing programs, and provides guidance on best practices in fostering and managing diversity. PMID:20221345

  17. Fostering and Managing Diversity in Schools of Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Youmans, Sharon L.; Agness, Chanel F.; Assemi, Mitra

    2009-01-01

    Organizational benefits of diversity in the workplace have been well documented. In health professions, however, diversity-related research traditionally has focused on the effect of diversity on health care disparities. Few tools exist describing the benefits of diversity from an organizational standpoint to guide pharmacy administrators and faculty members in nurturing and developing a culture of diversity. Given the scarcity of pharmacy specific data, experience from other academic areas and national/international diversity reports were incorporated into this manuscript to supplement the available pharmacy evidence base. This review summarizes the benefits of diversity from an academic organizational standpoint, discusses the issues administrators and faculty members must consider when developing programs, and provides guidance on best practices in fostering and managing diversity. PMID:20221345

  18. Pharmacy Technician Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Ray R.

    This Idaho state curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction designed to prepare entry-level pharmacy technicians or help already employed pharmacy technicians retain their jobs or advance in their field. Following a list of tasks and an introduction, the bulk of the document consists…

  19. Factors influencing pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmacy practice research and strategies for promoting research interest in pharmacy practice

    PubMed Central

    Kritikos, Vicky S.; Saini, Bandana; Carter, Stephen; Moles, Rebekah J.; Krass, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To (1) investigate the relationships between students’ characteristics and their (a) perceptions of research in general and (b) attitudes towards pharmacy practice research; (2) identify strategies that could be used by pharmacy educators to promote research interest in pharmacy practice; and (3) identify perceived barriers to the pursuit or completion of a pharmacy practice research degree. Methods: A survey was administered to all students enrolled in each year of the four-year pharmacy undergraduate program, University of Sydney, Australia. Perceptions of research in general were measured using 4 items on a five-point semantic-differential scale and attitudes towards pharmacy practice research were measured using 16 items on a five-point Likert scale. Student characteristics were also collected as were responses to open-ended questions which were analysed using content analysis. Results: In total 853 students participated and completed the survey (83% response rate). Participants’ characteristics were associated with some but not all aspects of research and pharmacy practice research. It appeared that positive attitudes and perspectives were influenced strongly by exposure to the ‘research’ process through projects, friends or mentors, previous degrees or having future intentions to pursue a research degree. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest positive attitudes and perceptions of research can be nurtured through the formal inclusion in research processes, particularly the utility of practice research in clinical practice across the four years of study. Participants indicated there was a lack of awareness of the needs, benefits and career opportunities associated with pharmacy practice research and voiced clear impediments in their career path with respect to the choice of practice research-related careers. Conclusions: Future research should investigate changes in perceptions and attitudes in a single cohort

  20. The Impact of Biotechnology upon Chemistry in Pharmacy Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, James G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Applications of biotechnology to the pharmaceutical industry are examined, and its impact on the research and practical domains of medicinal and natural products chemistry is discussed. Specific curricular implications for undergraduate and graduate study in pharmacy are outlined, and suggestions for faculty development in biotechnology are made.…

  1. Poster Project to Emphasize Public Health in the Pharmacy Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Werremeyer, Amy B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To implement and assess a required public health poster project in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Design Third-year PharmD students collaborated in pairs to research a public health topic relating to pharmacy practice. Each student group prepared an informational poster, while receiving feedback from a faculty mentor at each stage of the project. The students presented their completed posters at a statewide pharmacy conference. Assessment Faculty members evaluated the posters with a grading rubric, and students completed a survey instrument that assessed the overall experience. In general, faculty members rated the class highly across all domains of the grading rubric. The class generally agreed that the poster project increased their awareness of public health issues related to pharmacy practice, overall knowledge of public health, and presentation skills. Conclusion The implementation of a poster project was well received by students and faculty members as an effective method for enhancing public health instruction in the PharmD program at North Dakota State University. PMID:21451754

  2. Status and Recommendations for Self-Care Instruction in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Zierler-Brown, Seena L.; VanAmburgh, Jenny A.; Casper, Kristin A.; Krypel, Linda L.; Salcido, Amista Lone; Padron, Victor A.; Pray, W. Steven; Wall, Andrea L.; Sobotka, Jenelle L.; Engle, Janet P.

    2006-01-01

    Teachers of pharmacy self-care courses have met annually since 1998 at the Nonprescription Medicines Academy (NMA) held in Cincinnati, Ohio. During these meetings, self-care faculty members discuss methods of enhancing the teaching of self-care in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Self-care courses are taught using a variety of methods and content is woven into pharmacy curricula in many different ways. This manuscript sets forth the current state of self-care instruction in pharmacy curricula including the recommended core curriculum, instructional methodologies, course mechanics, existing standards, and assessment and curricular placement, and makes recommendations for the future. PMID:17332865

  3. Pharmacy Residents’ Pursuit of Academic Positions

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Tiffany R.; Mehta, Bella H.; Rodis, Jennifer L.; Pruchnicki, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe pharmacy residents’ interest in and pursuit of academic positions. Methods. An electronic presurvey and postsurvey were sent to pharmacy residents during the 2011-2012 residency year. The initial survey evaluated residents’ job preferences and interest in academia at the beginning of residency, and the follow-up survey focused on job selection and reasons for pursuing or not pursuing positions in academia. Results. Nine hundred thirty-six residents responded to the initial survey and 630 participated in both the initial and follow-up survey. Forty-eight percent of those responding to both surveys strongly considered a career in academia in the initial survey, 28% applied for an academic position, and 7% accepted a position. Second-year postgraduate residents were more likely than first-year postgraduate residents to apply for and be offered a faculty position. Conclusion. Pharmacy residents are interested in academia. While increasing interest among residents is encouraging for faculty recruitment, the academy should also encourage and develop adequate training experiences to prepare residents to succeed in these positions. PMID:25995513

  4. Canadian Educational Approaches for the Advancement of Pharmacy Practice

    PubMed Central

    Louizos, Christopher; Austin, Zubin

    2014-01-01

    Canadian faculties (schools) of pharmacy are actively engaged in the advancement and restructuring of their programs in response to the shift in pharmacy to pharmacists having/assuming an advanced practitioner role. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of evidence outlining optimal strategies for accomplishing this task. This review explores several educational changes proposed in the literature to aid in the advancement of pharmacy education such as program admission requirements, critical-thinking assessment and teaching methods, improvement of course content delivery, value of interprofessional education, advancement of practical experiential education, and mentorship strategies. Collectively, implementation of these improvements to pharmacy education will be crucial in determining the direction the profession will take. PMID:25258448

  5. [The history of the first pharmacy of Leskovac region].

    PubMed

    Milić, Petar; Milić, Slavica

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains the social and healthcare related conditions in the Leskovac region during 18th and 19th century, and the foundation of the first pharmacy in Serbia. Based on the available historical facts and private documents, the history of the origin and activities of the first pharmacy in the Leskovac region during the Turkish reign in 1862 is presented.The paper also mentions the founder, Dr. Alexiadis (Greek by origin), who was a doctor working in pharmaceutical industry, as well as his son Mgr.Ph. Djordje Aleksić, born in 1847 in Ioannina (Greece) and graduated from the Pharamacy Faculty in Constantinople in 1875, who later became the owner. After graduation, Mgr.Ph. Djordje Aleksić came in Leskovac and took over the "Hipokrat" pharmacy from his father, and started pharmacy business in Leskovac in the true meaning of that word. PMID:22070011

  6. University-based sports pharmacy program.

    PubMed

    Price, K O; Huff, P S; Isetts, B J; Goldwire, M A

    1995-02-01

    Ways for pharmacists to become involved in sports pharmacy are discussed, and a university-based sports pharmacy program is described. Sports pharmacy encompasses treating athletic injuries, distributing drugs and sports-related supplies, counseling patients, and monitoring therapeutic outcomes, along with educating athletes, trainers, and others about drug use and abuse. Pharmacists can contribute their expertise by presenting information at schools, health clubs, and other exercise-related organizations. They can serve on drug-testing crews at collegiate athletic events. Pharmacists can also provide supplies and services to schools or athletic facilities; ideally, this could be a contractual arrangement to provide comprehensive pharmaceutical care. A sports pharmacy program was implemented at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1980. Pharmacists provide drug therapy monitoring and patient education to all patients at the school; patients' level of athletic activity is taken into consideration. Pharmacists also ensure proper use, storage, and distribution of drugs kept in clinics, training rooms, and sports medicine travel bags, as well as identifying and providing drugs and supplies that might be needed at an off-campus event. They provide inservice education to athletic trainers and physicians. The program has improved patient outcomes and helped to ensure adequate drug supplies and minimum waste. There are numerous opportunities for practitioners to become involved in sports pharmacy. A university-based sports pharmacy program improved the care of student athletes and helped contain drug costs. PMID:7749959

  7. Pharmaceutical care education in Kuwait: pharmacy students’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Katoue, Maram G.; Awad, Abdelmoneim I.; Schwinghammer, Terry L.; Kombian, Samuel B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients’ quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. Objective To investigate pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance of the various pharmaceutical care activities, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students (n=126) was conducted at Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University. Data were collected via a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including percentages, medians and means Likert scale rating (SD) were calculated and compared using SPSS, version 19. Statistical significance was accepted at a p value of 0.05 or lower. Results The response rate was 99.2%. Pharmacy students expressed overall positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. They felt prepared to implement the various aspects of pharmaceutical care, with the least preparedness in the administrative/management aspects. Perceived pharmaceutical care competencies grew as students progressed through the curriculum. The students also appreciated the importance of the various pharmaceutical care competencies. They agreed/strongly agreed that the major barriers to the integration of pharmaceutical care into practice were lack of private counseling areas or inappropriate pharmacy layout (95.2%), lack of pharmacist time (83.3%), organizational obstacles (82.6%), and pharmacists’ physical separation from patient care areas (82.6%). Conclusion Pharmacy students’ attitudes and perceived preparedness can serve as needs assessment tools to guide curricular change and improvement. Student pharmacists at Kuwait University understand and

  8. Issues Facing Pharmacy Leaders in 2014: Suggestions for Pharmacy Strategic Planning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the Director’s Forum published our assessment of issues facing pharmacy leaders to assist pharmacy directors in planning for the year ahead. The issues include health care reform and the Affordable Care Act, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative, the health care workforce, patients’ perceptions of pharmacists, and the changing landscape of pharmacy education. Based on our environmental scan, the issues addressed in 2013 are pertinent to a department’s plan for 2014. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to each of these issues to help pharmacy directors focus their department’s goals for 2014 to support the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. This column will address (1) strategies to reduce medication costs and generate new pharmacy revenue streams, (2) innovative approaches to improving medication safety and quality, (3) steps to advance the clinical practice model, and (4) ways to create mutually beneficial student experiences. PMID:24715750

  9. Nursing Faculty Members' Perspectives of Faculty-to-Faculty Workplace Incivility among Nursing Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Kimberly S.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, nursing faculty incivility has been a searing topic of research. Nursing research included studies on incivility among nursing students, incivility between nursing students and nursing faculty, and incivility in the clinical setting. However, literature specifically on nursing faculty incivility was limited. This descriptive,…

  10. Technicians and the future of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W

    1987-07-01

    Ways in which pharmacists and pharmacy technicians can grow professionally to fulfill pharmacy's fundamental responsibility for appropriate drug use in patients are described. From the 1985 "Hilton Head Conference" on directions for clinical practice in pharmacy, the idea grew that pharmacists' traditional functions should be melded with a clinical orientation to provide pharmacy's maximum contribution to patient care. When the focus shifts from discrete activities of individual pharmacists to overall responsibilities of the department, each pharmacist and technician can see his or her contribution to the clinical endeavor; technicians assigned with a pharmacist to a specific group of patients are likely to take a more active interest in their jobs. Instead of ratios, patient outcome and job satisfaction should be the determinants of staffing patterns. Delineation of roles as judgmental or nonjudgmental should be replaced by clear job descriptions and procedures and an understanding of the complementary roles of pharmacists and technicians. Important elements in technician training include seminars presented by professional staff members and planned jointly by pharmacists and technicians, departmentwide seminars, policies that encourage technicians to join and participate in professional organizations, and liberal tuition-reimbursement policies. For career advancement, the pharmacy organizational structure might contain three levels: technician trainee, technician, and technician specialist. Pharmacists and technicians can overcome barriers between them by realizing the enormous growth potential and value of the services that both provide. PMID:3631089

  11. A Half Century in Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Science and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swintosky, Joseph V.

    1990-01-01

    A pharmacist chronicles his 50 years in the study and practice of pharmacy, recounting significant events of the undergraduate and graduate experiences and the evolution of a career in the emerging field of biopharmaceutical research, clinical practice, and academic pharmacy. A 68-item bibliography is included. (MSE)

  12. Minimum Requirements for Core Competency in Pediatric Pharmacy Practice.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Elizabeth A; Burke, Margaret M; Johnson, Peter N; Klein, Kristin C; Miller, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    Colleges of pharmacy provide varying amounts of didactic and clinical hours in pediatrics resulting in variability in the knowledge, skills, and perceptions of new graduates toward pediatric pharmaceutical care. The Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) endorses the application of a minimum set of core competencies for all pharmacists involved in the care of hospitalized children. PMID:26766938

  13. Minimum Requirements for Core Competency in Pediatric Pharmacy Practice.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Elizabeth A; Burke, Margaret M; Johnson, Peter N; Klein, Kristin C; Miller, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    Colleges of pharmacy provide varying amounts of didactic and clinical hours in pediatrics resulting in variability in the knowledge, skills, and perceptions of new graduates toward pediatric pharmaceutical care. The Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) endorses the application of a minimum set of core competencies for all pharmacists involved in the care of hospitalized children.

  14. Minimum Requirements for Core Competency in Pediatric Pharmacy Practice

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Elizabeth A.; Burke, Margaret M.; Johnson, Peter N.; Klein, Kristin C.; Miller, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    Colleges of pharmacy provide varying amounts of didactic and clinical hours in pediatrics resulting in variability in the knowledge, skills, and perceptions of new graduates toward pediatric pharmaceutical care. The Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) endorses the application of a minimum set of core competencies for all pharmacists involved in the care of hospitalized children. PMID:26766938

  15. The pharmacy gaze: bodies in pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Jamie, Kimberly

    2014-11-01

    The body is a central feature of pharmacy practice. Despite this and the increased sociological focus on bodies in health and social care practice, the nature of the body and the work undertaken upon it in pharmacy have not been explored. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with hospital and community pharmacists, this article explores the ways in which bodies are constructed and managed in these two practice contexts. It is argued that pharmacists see patients' bodies in particular ways given their expertise in medicines, which is conceptualised here as the pharmacy gaze. The notion of complexity, as a way of constructing the body, and the generation of algorithmic bodies, as a way of managing this complexity, are shown to be central to the pharmacy gaze in both hospital and community contexts. In hospitals, complexity was located in a singular body, that is, increasingly rationalised to reduce costs and toxicity. In community practice, complexity arose from the multiplicity of bodies with which pharmacists interact in their multifaceted role as retailers, dispensers and public health practitioners. The article concludes by reflecting on the ways in which current UK health policy may broaden the body work that English pharmacists undertake.

  16. Remote Library Access for Pharmacy Preceptors

    PubMed Central

    Soltis, Denise; Schott, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Objective To institute and evaluate the response to a program providing access to electronic library resources for pharmacy preceptors. Design The pharmacy experiential office and the library collaborated using existing programs and technology to provide and market secure remote access for preceptors. Assessment Preceptor participation was tracked in the experiential office, and response to the program was assessed using an online survey instrument that included questions about use of and preference for specific library resources. Three hundred thirty-four adjunct faculty members registered, representing 34% of all preceptors with active e-mail accounts. Conclusion Preceptor participation in the program exceeded expectations. Some minor flaws in the logistics of delivering the service were identified and remedied. PMID:21179247

  17. Can the Faculty Development Door Swing Both Ways? Science and Clinical Teaching in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, Lisa A.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between clinical teaching and research in the basic sciences is discussed. The same energy expended to enhance clinical research will also efficiently build new curricula; ease the strains associated with assigning a priority to teaching or research; and serve to further science, teaching, and technology transfer. (MLW)

  18. An Investigation of Teaching and Learning Programs in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Baia, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate published, peer-reviewed literature on pharmacy teaching and learning development programs and to synthesize existing data, examine reported efficacy and identify future areas for research. Methods. Medline and ERIC databases were searched for studies on teaching development programs published between 2001 and 2015. Results. Nineteen publications were included, representing 21 programs. Twenty programs were resident teaching programs, one program described faculty development. The majority of programs spanned one year and delivered instruction on teaching methodologies and assessment measures. All except one program included experiential components. Thirteen publications presented outcomes data; most measured satisfaction and self-perceived improvement. Conclusion. Published literature on teacher development in pharmacy is focused more on training residents than on developing faculty members. Although programs are considered important and highly valued by program directors and participants, little data substantiates that these programs improve teaching. Future research could focus on measurement of program outcomes and documentation of teaching development for existing faculty members. PMID:27293226

  19. An Investigation of Teaching and Learning Programs in Pharmacy Education.

    PubMed

    Strang, Aimee F; Baia, Patricia

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To investigate published, peer-reviewed literature on pharmacy teaching and learning development programs and to synthesize existing data, examine reported efficacy and identify future areas for research. Methods. Medline and ERIC databases were searched for studies on teaching development programs published between 2001 and 2015. Results. Nineteen publications were included, representing 21 programs. Twenty programs were resident teaching programs, one program described faculty development. The majority of programs spanned one year and delivered instruction on teaching methodologies and assessment measures. All except one program included experiential components. Thirteen publications presented outcomes data; most measured satisfaction and self-perceived improvement. Conclusion. Published literature on teacher development in pharmacy is focused more on training residents than on developing faculty members. Although programs are considered important and highly valued by program directors and participants, little data substantiates that these programs improve teaching. Future research could focus on measurement of program outcomes and documentation of teaching development for existing faculty members.

  20. [Evidence-based pharmacology in community and hospital pharmacies--a vision of the future?].

    PubMed

    Eisert, Albrecht; Günther, Judith

    2003-07-01

    Pharmacists are academically trained drug and medication specialists. Also in the eyes of the law, pharmacists are more than just specialised sales people for medication. As laid out in the regulations governing pharmacies, pharmacists see patients and experts in the fields of medicine, dentistry and veterinary science to whom they have to offer advice. The pharmacist's advisory activities, though, must not interfere with an existing doctor-patient relationship. All pharmaceutical activities in community and hospital pharmacies should therefore be based--similar to the medical faculty--on an evidence-based practice in the sense of an evidence-based pharmacy adopting all principles of Evidence-based Medicine. The challenge for pharmacists and doctors should therefore be to work together to increasingly develop common strategies in order to achieve optimal treatment for the benefit of the patient. Especially in the treatment of chronically ill patients, synergistic effects could be reached through open exchange and a closer linkage between medical and pharmaceutical activities. Such closer contacts between the two disciplines could be made at interdisciplinary colloquia or special subject-specific round table discussions. Pharmaceutical Care (PhC), i.e. the optimisation of medicational therapy of chronically ill patients through accompanying intensive pharmaceutical advice is desirable from the patient's point of view and could take some load off medical practitioners. Any questions as to the use of medication, potential side-effects or undesirable interaction with other medications, but also regarding additional preventive measures can be posed to qualified personnel by the patient collecting his/her medication in the pharmacy. Also, as community pharmacists see themselves as active medication specialists and valuable qualified advisors to the patient with regard of self-medication, increased investment in internal communication between colleagues and external

  1. Effective Communication Barriers in Clinical Teaching among Malaysian Medical Students in Zagazig Faculty of Medicine (Egypt)

    PubMed Central

    Abass, Marwa Ahmed; Said, Nagwa Samy; Zahed, Eman Salah EL; Hussein, Wafaa Fawzy; Hamid, Omaima Ibrahim Abdel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction effective communication in a clinical environment plays a vital role in patient assessment and treatment. The aim of this study was to understand the experiences of Malaysian medical students concerning communication barriers during clinical practice. The goal was to provide answers for three important research questions, i.e., 1) Are communication barriers an impediment to Malaysian students during clinical teaching? 2) What is the nature of the language barriers that the students encounter? and 3) What are the best ways of reducing these barriers during clinical teaching? Methods The qualitative method was used to conduct the research, and open-ended questionnaires were used to collect the data. The study was conducted on 95 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year students, 80% of whom completed the study. Results Medical students from Malaysia who have limited knowledge of the Arabic language experience some difficulties in communicating with staff members, patients, and nurses during their clinical practices. Conclusion Successful orientation of students to the language used in the clinical environment will help the students overcome the communication barriers they encounter during their clinical practices. PMID:26816591

  2. Clinical instructors' perception of a faculty development programme promoting postgraduate year-1 (PGY1) residents' ACGME six core competencies: a 2-year study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Fa-Yauh; Yang, Ying-Ying; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Lee, Wei-Shin; Chang, Ching-Chih; Huang, Chia-Chang; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Cheng, Hao-Min; Jap, Tjin-Shing

    2011-01-01

    Objective The six core competencies designated by Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) are essential for establishing a patient centre holistic medical system. The authors developed a faculty programme to promote the postgraduate year 1 (PGY(1)) resident, ACGME six core competencies. The study aims to assess the clinical instructors' perception, attitudes and subjective impression towards the various sessions of the 'faculty development programme for teaching ACGME competencies.' Methods During 2009 and 2010, 134 clinical instructors participated in the programme to establish their ability to teach and assess PGY(1) residents about ACGME competencies. Results The participants in the faculty development programme reported that the skills most often used while teaching were learnt during circuit and itinerant bedside, physical examination teaching, mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) evaluation demonstration, training workshop and videotapes of 'how to teach ACGME competencies.' Participants reported that circuit bedside teaching and mini-CEX evaluation demonstrations helped them in the interpersonal and communication skills domain, and that the itinerant teaching demonstrations helped them in the professionalism domain, while physical examination teaching and mini-CEX evaluation demonstrations helped them in the patients' care domain. Both the training workshop and videotape session increase familiarity with teaching and assessing skills. Participants who applied the skills learnt from the faculty development programme the most in their teaching and assessment came from internal medicine departments, were young attending physician and had experience as PGY(1) clinical instructors. Conclusions According to the clinical instructors' response, our faculty development programme effectively increased their familiarity with various teaching and assessment skills needed to teach PGY(1) residents and ACGME competencies, and these clinical

  3. Reporting of adverse events related to dietary supplements to a public health center by medical staff: a survey of clinics and pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Kazuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Yohei; Noguchi, Marika; Kitagawa, Mamoru; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki; Umegaki, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary supplements are used by >50% of the adult population in Japan, and adverse events related to these products have been reported with their increased use. Thus, an efficient system to gather and report data on these adverse events is essential. To date, however, reporting has been limited. The aim of this study was to address this deficiency by exploring the routine reporting practices of the medical staff employed at clinics or pharmacies in Japan. Methods We conducted a survey of the procedures used by the medical staff to report adverse events related to dietary supplement intake to public health centers in Japan. The survey was conducted in Japan between November 2015 and January 2016. Based on a sample size calculation, questionnaires were administered to 1,700 potential respondents (850 pharmacists and 850 physicians). The questionnaire inquired about the sociodemographic characteristics and dietary supplement-related adverse event-reporting practices. Results The response rate was 34.7%, including 286 pharmacists and 304 physicians. Although >30% of the pharmacists and physicians had prior experience dealing with such adverse events, <5% had reported these to a public health center. The survey identified several barriers to reporting, such as “difficulty judging the relationship between an adverse event and the dietary supplement” and “lack of clarity regarding the severity of an adverse event”. Conclusion This is the first study to explore the routine reporting practices of physicians and pharmacists in terms of adverse events related to dietary supplements. Further studies are required to elucidate the severity of these adverse events. Moreover, standard reporting criteria ought to be introduced to improve public health. PMID:27672326

  4. [The ideal of establishing an evaluation system about the combination program of Chinese medical pharmacy and western medical pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-song

    2013-08-01

    The necessity of establishing an evaluation system about the combination program of Chinese medical pharmacy and Western medical pharmacy was addressed in this paper. Besides, its contents were systematically clarified. Besides, existent problems and its future development trend were also explained. The author believed that it was necessary to perform researches on constructing the evaluation system on the basis of patients' needs and physicians' responsibilities. The ultimate goal of this system was to produce an optimal combination program of Chinese medical pharmacy and Western medical pharmacy for a specific disease. This optimal program was the results of comparing and analyzing the therapeutic efficacies of different combination programs. In this program, Chinese medical pharmacy and Western medical pharmacy combined together. On the one hand, it is safe; on the other hand, they do not produce adverse reaction. Their therapeutic effects were synergetic. Chinese medical pharmacy could not only advance the cure effects of Western medical pharmacy, but also supplement the insufficiency of Western medical pharmacy. Of course, the author put forward some assumptions only from the perspective of clinical application in this paper. The evaluation system will become perfect along with further deepening researches of basic sciences.

  5. Characteristics of Rural Communities with a Sole, Independently Owned Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Nattinger, Matthew; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J

    2015-04-01

    Prior RUPRI Center policy briefs have described the role of rural pharmacies in providing many essential clinical services (in addition to prescription and nonprescription medications), such as blood pressure monitoring, immunizations, and diabetes counseling, and the adverse effects of Medicare Part D negotiated networks on the financial viability of rural pharmacies.1 Because rural pharmacies play such a broad role in health care delivery, pharmacy closures can sharply reduce access to essential health care services in rural and underserved communities. These closures are of particular concern in rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy (i.e., a pharmacy unaffiliated with a chain or franchise). This policy brief characterizes the population of rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. Dependent on a sole pharmacy, these areas are at highest risk to lose access to many essential clinical services. Key Findings. (1) In 2014 over 2.7 million people lived in 663 rural communities served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. (2) More than one-quarter of these residents (27.9 percent) were living below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. (3) Based on estimates from 2012, a substantial portion of the residents of these areas were dependent on public insurance (i.e., Medicare and/or Medicaid, 20.5 percent) or were uninsured (15.0 percent). (4) If the sole, independent retail pharmacy in these communities were to close, the next closest retail pharmacy would be over 10 miles away for a majority of rural communities (69.7 percent). PMID:26793812

  6. Characteristics of Rural Communities with a Sole, Independently Owned Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Nattinger, Matthew; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J

    2015-04-01

    Prior RUPRI Center policy briefs have described the role of rural pharmacies in providing many essential clinical services (in addition to prescription and nonprescription medications), such as blood pressure monitoring, immunizations, and diabetes counseling, and the adverse effects of Medicare Part D negotiated networks on the financial viability of rural pharmacies.1 Because rural pharmacies play such a broad role in health care delivery, pharmacy closures can sharply reduce access to essential health care services in rural and underserved communities. These closures are of particular concern in rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy (i.e., a pharmacy unaffiliated with a chain or franchise). This policy brief characterizes the population of rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. Dependent on a sole pharmacy, these areas are at highest risk to lose access to many essential clinical services. Key Findings. (1) In 2014 over 2.7 million people lived in 663 rural communities served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. (2) More than one-quarter of these residents (27.9 percent) were living below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. (3) Based on estimates from 2012, a substantial portion of the residents of these areas were dependent on public insurance (i.e., Medicare and/or Medicaid, 20.5 percent) or were uninsured (15.0 percent). (4) If the sole, independent retail pharmacy in these communities were to close, the next closest retail pharmacy would be over 10 miles away for a majority of rural communities (69.7 percent).

  7. Using the Constructivist Tridimensional Design Model for Online Continuing Education for Health Care Clinical Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju; Engelhard, Chalee

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new paradigm for continuing education of Clinical Instructors (CIs): the Constructivist Tridimensional (CTD) model for the design of an online curriculum. Based on problem-based learning, self-regulated learning, and adult learning theory, the CTD model was designed to facilitate interactive, collaborative, and authentic…

  8. Second Year Associate Degree Nursing Students and Nursing Faculty Attitudes towards Clinical Educational Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFauci, Frances F.

    2009-01-01

    Professional registered nursing is an essential part of the health care system and student nurses need experimental learning with actual patients to learn to practice as a nurse. The health care system has changed dramatically and nursing schools have decreasing access to the health care agencies. The clinical educational experience develops…

  9. The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy Scripts

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Carolyn; Tokumaru, Sheri; Goo, Roy; Ciarleglio, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Residency training is designed to provide recent pharmacy school graduates who have the profession's terminal Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree with accelerated growth beyond entry-level professional competence. Placement into residency programs is highly competitive through an application and match process. These programs provide additional training in patient-centered care with advancement of skills in clinical judgment, pharmacy operations, clinical research, project management, and leadership. Approximately 20% of a pharmacy graduating class will apply for a residency. With increasing numbers of pharmacy schools across the country, the availability of residency programs is falling behind applicants. The establishment of the Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) has addressed the shortage of pharmacists within the state. In recent years, resident positions in Hawai‘i have doubled to a total of ten first year residency (PGY1) and two second year (PGY2) specialty residencies. Given the limited availability of positions in Hawai‘i, graduates continue to return to the continental US to seek positions, thus increasing the likelihood of them not returning to practice in Hawai‘i. Establishing residency programs is essential to elevate the level of pharmacy practice toward innovation and adherence to best practices, academia/teaching and scholarly research. This descriptive paper will detail the general components and types of pharmacy practice residency, the unique components of the Hawai‘i programs, the career placement of Hawai‘i's programs graduates and future challenges. PMID:26019990

  10. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Explain the Intention of Final-year Pharmacy Students to Undertake a Higher Degree in Pharmacy Practice Research

    PubMed Central

    Moles, Rebekah J.; Krass, Ines; Kritikos, Vicki S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesized student intention to undertake a higher degree in pharmacy practice research (PPR) would be increased by self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the social influence of faculty members. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 387 final-year pharmacy undergraduates enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to explore relationships between variables and intention. Results. Fit indices were good. The model explained 55% of the variation in intention. As hypothesized, faculty social influence increased self-efficacy and indirectly increased outcome expectancy and intention. Conclusion. To increase pharmacy students’ orientation towards a career in PPR, faculty members could use their social influence by highlighting PPR in their teaching.

  11. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Explain the Intention of Final-year Pharmacy Students to Undertake a Higher Degree in Pharmacy Practice Research.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stephen R; Moles, Rebekah J; Krass, Ines; Kritikos, Vicki S

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesized student intention to undertake a higher degree in pharmacy practice research (PPR) would be increased by self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the social influence of faculty members. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 387 final-year pharmacy undergraduates enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to explore relationships between variables and intention. Results. Fit indices were good. The model explained 55% of the variation in intention. As hypothesized, faculty social influence increased self-efficacy and indirectly increased outcome expectancy and intention. Conclusion. To increase pharmacy students' orientation towards a career in PPR, faculty members could use their social influence by highlighting PPR in their teaching. PMID:27667832

  12. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Explain the Intention of Final-year Pharmacy Students to Undertake a Higher Degree in Pharmacy Practice Research

    PubMed Central

    Moles, Rebekah J.; Krass, Ines; Kritikos, Vicki S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesized student intention to undertake a higher degree in pharmacy practice research (PPR) would be increased by self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the social influence of faculty members. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 387 final-year pharmacy undergraduates enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to explore relationships between variables and intention. Results. Fit indices were good. The model explained 55% of the variation in intention. As hypothesized, faculty social influence increased self-efficacy and indirectly increased outcome expectancy and intention. Conclusion. To increase pharmacy students’ orientation towards a career in PPR, faculty members could use their social influence by highlighting PPR in their teaching. PMID:27667832

  13. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Explain the Intention of Final-year Pharmacy Students to Undertake a Higher Degree in Pharmacy Practice Research.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stephen R; Moles, Rebekah J; Krass, Ines; Kritikos, Vicki S

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesized student intention to undertake a higher degree in pharmacy practice research (PPR) would be increased by self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the social influence of faculty members. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 387 final-year pharmacy undergraduates enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to explore relationships between variables and intention. Results. Fit indices were good. The model explained 55% of the variation in intention. As hypothesized, faculty social influence increased self-efficacy and indirectly increased outcome expectancy and intention. Conclusion. To increase pharmacy students' orientation towards a career in PPR, faculty members could use their social influence by highlighting PPR in their teaching.

  14. A Cluster-randomized Trial of a Centralized Clinical Pharmacy Cardiovascular Risk Service to Improve Guideline Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Barry L.; Coffey, Christopher S.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Ardery, Gail; Ecklund, Dixie; Gryzlak, Brian; Vander Weg, Mark W.; James, Paul A.; Christensen, Alan J.; Parker, Christopher P.; Gums, Tyler; Finkelstein, Rachel J; Uribe, Liz; Polgreen, Linnea A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have demonstrated the value of including pharmacists in team-based care to improve adherence to cardiovascular (CV) guidelines, medication adherence and risk factor control but there is limited information on whether these models can be successfully implemented more widely in diverse settings and populations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether a centralized, web-based CV risk service (CVRS) managed by clinical pharmacists will improve guideline adherence in multiple primary care medical offices with diverse geographic and patient characteristics. Methods This study is a prospective trial in 20 primary care offices stratified by the percent of under-represented minorities and then randomized to either the CVRS intervention or usual care. The intervention will last for 12 months and all subjects will have research visits at baseline and 12 months. The primary outcome is the difference in guideline adherence between groups. Data will also be abstracted from the medical record at 24 months to determine if the intervention effect is sustained after it is discontinued. Conclusions This study expects to enroll subjects through 2016 with results expected in 2019. This study will provide information on whether a distant, centralized CV risk service can be implemented in large numbers of medical offices, if it is effective in diverse populations, and if the effect can be sustained long-term. PMID:26111939

  15. Impact of Clinical Pharmacy Services on KAP and QOL in Cancer Patients: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Huimin; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the efficacy of pharmaceutical intervention (PI) on chemotherapy knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) and quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was carried out at Oncology Ward in a tertiary hospital affiliated to Southern Medical University, China. Eligible patient was randomly assigned to pharmaceutical intervention (PI) group or control group. Each patient in PI group was given information booklets and was given 30 min face-to-face medication education and psychological counseling by clinical pharmacists, 2 sessions per week for 2 months. Patients in control group only received conventional treatment. All participants were asked to complete a structured Chemotherapy KAP Questionnaire and QOL Questionnaire at pre- and poststudy time. A total of 149 cancer patients (77 in PI group and 72 in control group) completed the study. The baseline scores of KAP and QOL in 2 groups were similar. At the end of study, only knowledge score was significantly increased; meanwhile no difference existed for attitude, practice, and QOL scores in control group; both KAP scores and QOL score were significantly increased in PI group. As for the between-group comparison, both KAP scores and QOL score in PI group were significantly higher than those in control group. In conclusion, pharmaceutical intervention has a positive role in increasing chemotherapy-related knowledge, improving patients' positive emotions, dealing with chemotherapy adverse reactions, and improving the quality of life of patients. PMID:26697487

  16. Pharmacy practice in an operating room complex.

    PubMed

    Evans, D M; Guenther, A M; Keith, T D; Lazarus, H L

    1979-10-01

    The steps involved in establishing a comprehensive pharmaceutical service in an operating and recovery room complex is described. Objectives of the operating room pharmaceutical satellite were to: (1) improve control of distribution, storage and charging for all drugs, especially Schedule II controlled substances; (2) reduce inventory costs and loss of revenue; (3) improve compliance with the drug formulary; and (4) establish patient-oriented pharmaceutical services. The pharmacy satellite improved inventory control and patient charging, assured continual access to all drugs and appropriate security for controlled substances, and expanded the pharmacy department's clinical, drug information and research activities. PMID:507076

  17. Service preferences differences between community pharmacy and supermarket pharmacy patrons.

    PubMed

    Dominelli, Angela; Weck Marciniak, Macary; Jarvis, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Differences in service preferences between patrons of supermarket and chain pharmacies were determined. Subjects fell into two groups: patrons of a supermarket chain's pharmacies and patrons of the same supermarket chain who patronized other community chain pharmacies for prescription drug purchases. Subjects were asked to prioritize services in terms of convenience and impact on pharmacy selection. Differences in service preferences emerged. Community pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate easy navigation through a pharmacy and 24 X 7 hours of operation as key services. Supermarket pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate one-stop shopping and adequate hours of operation as priorities. Both groups rated basic services such as maintenance of prescription and insurance information as priorities. Pharmacies should stress the delivery of basic services when trying to attract customers.

  18. Entrepreneurs: leading the way to pharmacy's future.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caren McHenry

    2011-12-01

    Entrepreneurship has always been central to the practice of pharmacy. Whether opening a new retail store, setting up a unique clinic practice, or researching a novel therapy, pharmacists are continually looking forward and following their visions of how pharmacy can be part of a new direction in health care. In 2011, the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists (ASCP) Foundation--itself the product of entrepreneurship--awarded grants to three entrepreneurs who are seeking to establish a fee-for-service component of their senior care pharmacy practices in the community. The grant recipients, while differing in their approaches, share the common goal of providing safe, effective, and cost-justified medication therapy and education to ambulatory older adults. PMID:22155573

  19. Physician and Pharmacy Student Expectations of Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voris, John C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The attitudes of family practice residents toward ambulatory pharmacy services were compared with pharmacy students' predictions on what the residents' attitudes would be. The residents' perceptions of pharmacist behaviors rated significantly higher than how the pharmacy students thought they would respond. (Author/MLW)

  20. How accurately does the VIVO Harvester reflect actual Clinical and Translational Sciences Award–affiliated faculty member publications?*

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Jonathan D.; Kroth, Philip J.; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Hantak, Chad M.; Weagel, Edward F.; Hannigan, Gale G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The research tested the accuracy of the VIVO Harvester software in identifying publications authored by faculty members affiliated with a National Institutes of Health Clinical and Translational Sciences Award (CTSA) site. Methods: Health sciences librarians created “gold standard” lists of references for the years 2001 to 2011 from PubMed for twenty-five randomly selected investigators from one CTSA site. These gold standard lists were compared to the same twenty-five investigators' reference lists produced by VIVO Harvester. The authors subjected the discrepancies between the lists to sensitivity and specificity analyses. Results: The VIVO Harvester correctly identified only about 65% of the total eligible PubMed references for the years 2001–2011 for the CTSA-affiliated investigators. The identified references produced by VIVO Harvester were precise yet incomplete. The sensitivity rate was 0.65, and the specificity rate was 1.00. Conclusion: While the references produced by VIVO Harvester could be confirmed in PubMed, the VIVO Harvester retrieved only two-thirds of the required references from PubMed. National Institutes of Health CTSA sites will need to supplement VIVO Harvester–produced references with the expert searching skills of health sciences librarians. Implications: Health sciences librarians with searching skills need to alert their CTSA sites about these deficiencies and offer their skills to advance their sites' missions. PMID:25552940

  1. Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed The Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding Get Consumer Updates by E-mail Consumer ... page: A Troubling Trend What You Can Do Pharmacy compounding is a practice in which a licensed ...

  2. Succession Planning in US Pharmacy Schools

    PubMed Central

    Surratt, Christopher K.; Green, James S.; Gallucci, Randle M.; Colbert, James; Zatopek, Shara L.; Blouin, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    The deans, associate and assistant deans, and department chairs of a college or school of pharmacy retain historic memories of the institution and share the responsibility for day-to-day operation, sustainability, and future planning. Between the anticipated retirement of baby boomers who are senior administrative faculty members and the steady increase in number of colleges and schools of pharmacy, the academy is facing a shortage of qualified successors. Succession planning involves planning for the effective transition of personnel in leadership positions within an organization. This paper describes the subject of succession planning at a sample population of AACP institutions by obtaining perspectives on the subject from the deans of these institutions via standardized interview instruments. The instruments were utilized with 15 deans; all interview data were blinded and analyzed using analyst triangulation. The majority of deans responded that some level of succession planning was desirable and even necessary; however, none claimed to have a formal succession planning structure in place at his or her home institution. Although widely accepted and well-recognized in the corporate and military sectors, succession planning within pharmacy schools and colleges is neither universally documented nor implemented. Differences exist within the administrative structure of these non-academic and academic institutions that may preclude a uniform succession planning format. While the evidence presented suggests that succession planning is needed within the academy, a concerted effort must be made towards implementing its practice. PMID:20798799

  3. Succession planning in US pharmacy schools.

    PubMed

    Van Amburgh, Jenny; Surratt, Christopher K; Green, James S; Gallucci, Randle M; Colbert, James; Zatopek, Shara L; Blouin, Robert A

    2010-06-15

    The deans, associate and assistant deans, and department chairs of a college or school of pharmacy retain historic memories of the institution and share the responsibility for day-to-day operation, sustainability, and future planning. Between the anticipated retirement of baby boomers who are senior administrative faculty members and the steady increase in number of colleges and schools of pharmacy, the academy is facing a shortage of qualified successors. Succession planning involves planning for the effective transition of personnel in leadership positions within an organization. This paper describes the subject of succession planning at a sample population of AACP institutions by obtaining perspectives on the subject from the deans of these institutions via standardized interview instruments. The instruments were utilized with 15 deans; all interview data were blinded and analyzed using analyst triangulation. The majority of deans responded that some level of succession planning was desirable and even necessary; however, none claimed to have a formal succession planning structure in place at his or her home institution. Although widely accepted and well-recognized in the corporate and military sectors, succession planning within pharmacy schools and colleges is neither universally documented nor implemented. Differences exist within the administrative structure of these non-academic and academic institutions that may preclude a uniform succession planning format. While the evidence presented suggests that succession planning is needed within the academy, a concerted effort must be made towards implementing its practice.

  4. A demonstration study comparing “role-emergent” versus “role-established” pharmacy clinical placement experiences in long-term care facilities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing challenges to recruit hospital sites with full-time on-site pharmacy preceptors for institutional-based Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPE) has made it necessary to consider alternate experiential models. Sites with on-site discipline specific preceptors to supervise students have typically been referred to in the literature as “role-established” sites. In British Columbia, long-term care (LTC) facilities offered a unique opportunity to address placement capacity issues. However, since the majority of these facilities are serviced by off-site community pharmacists, this study was undertaken to explore the viability of supervising pharmacy students remotely – a model referred to in the literature as “role-emergent” placements. This paper’s objectives are to discuss pharmacy preceptors’ and LTC non-pharmacist staff experiences with this model. Methods The study consisted of three phases: (1) the development phase which included delivery of a training program to create a pool of potential LTC preceptors, (2) an evaluation phase to test the viability of the LTC role-emergent model with seven pharmacists (two role-established and five role-emergent) together with their LTC staff, and (3) expansion of LTC role-emergent sites to build capacity. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to obtain feedback from pharmacists and staff and t-tests and Mann–Whitney U tests were used to examine equivalency of survey outcomes from staff representing both models. Results The 76 pharmacists who completed the training program survey rated the modules as “largely” meeting their learning needs. All five role-emergent pharmacists and 29 LTC participating staff reported positive experiences with the pharmacy preceptor-student-staff collaboration. Preceptors reported that having students work side-by-side with facility staff promoted inter-professional collaboration. The staff viewed students’ presence as a mutually

  5. Mexican Pharmacies and Antibiotic Consumption at the US-Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study antibiotic dispensing to US and Mexican residents, at Mexican pharmacies at the US-Mexico border, and the pharmacy clerks’ capability to promote appropriate use. Methods: The site selected was Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (pop. 1.2 million) separated from El Paso, Texas (pop. 800,000) by the Rio Grande River. A convenience sample of 32 pharmacies located near the international bridges, major shopping centers, and interior neighborhoods was selected. Pharmacy clients were interviewed (n=230) and 152 interactions between clients and pharmacy clerks were observed. Information was obtained about education and pharmaceutical training of 113 clerks working in 25 pharmacies. A senior pharmacy clerk in each of the 25 pharmacies was interviewed and asked for their recommendations to clients presenting two clinical scenarios and seven diagnoses. Findings: Professionally trained pharmacists only spend a few hours a week in some pharmacies. Clerks’ education levels are very low; some have only completed primary education. There is no required pharmaceutical training and their knowledge about pharmaceuticals comes mostly from representatives of the pharmaceutical industry. Clerks’ knowledge of antibiotics, the most frequently sold class of medicines (65% without prescription), is very limited. Clients trust pharmacy clerks and tend to follow their advice. Conclusions: The findings raise concerns about dispensing of antibiotics at Mexican border pharmacies and antibiotic overuse due to lack of control. Because inappropriate antibiotic use contributes to increased resistance, pharmacy clerks should receive independent training to dispense antibiotics and promote their appropriate use. PMID:23532456

  6. Pharmacy Students' Facebook Activity and Opinions Regarding Accountability and E-Professionalism

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Doneka R.; Akers, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess pharmacy students' Facebook activity and opinions regarding accountability and e-professionalism and determine effects of an e-professionalism education session on pharmacy students' posting behavior. Methods A 21-item questionnaire was developed, pilot-tested, revised, and administered to 299 pharmacy students at 3 colleges of pharmacy. Following a presentation regarding potential e-professionalism issues with Facebook, pharmacy students with existing profiles answered an additional question concerning changes in online posting behavior. Results Incoming first-year pharmacy students' Facebook usage is consistent with that of the general college student population. Male students are opposed to authority figures' use of Facebook for character and professionalism judgments and are more likely to present information they would not want faculty members, future employers, or patients to see. More than half of the pharmacy students planned to make changes to their online posting behavior as a result of the e-professionalism presentation. Conclusions There is high social media usage among pharmacy students and many do not fully comprehend the issues that arise from being overly transparent in online settings. Attitudes toward accountability for information supplied via social networking emphasize the need for e-professionalism training of incoming pharmacy students. PMID:19885073

  7. Managing the pharmacy manager.

    PubMed

    White, S J

    1984-03-01

    Methods of self-assessment, self-development, and coping with stress in the role of hospital pharmacy manager are described. Personal development and career growth should be systematically appraised; goals and priorities should be continually re-evaluated; and time management, response to change, and impact on others should be examined. Questions for assessment in each of these areas are provided. Advice for reducing stress and avoiding burnout is given. Managers' attitudes affect employee productivity; positive attitudes and related actions that are applicable to hospital pharmacy management are described. Managers' personal and professional goals and priorities and their methods of using time and coping with stress affect management of their departments.

  8. Reputation strength as a determinant of faculty employment: a test of the step-down thesis among clinical psychology doctoral programs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael C; Ilardi, Stephen S; Johnson, Rebecca J

    2006-07-01

    This study tested the folkloristic belief that doctoral degree recipients who pursue academic careers typically wind up at institutions ranked lower in prestige than the institutions at which they trained (the step-down thesis). We used a database of faculty members in 150 clinical psychology doctoral programs accredited by the American Psychological Association, and compared each faculty member's training institution with the current employing institution on three distinct reputation ranking systems: The Center (University of Florida, Gainesville) for overall university reputation, the National Research Council (Washington, DC) for doctoral degree department reputation, and the news magazine, U.S. News and World Report ranking for clinical psychology training program reputation. Although support for the step-down thesis was found across all three ranking systems, a disproportionately large number of professors were also observed to move laterally in terms of their employing institution's reputation.

  9. Reputation strength as a determinant of faculty employment: a test of the step-down thesis among clinical psychology doctoral programs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael C; Ilardi, Stephen S; Johnson, Rebecca J

    2006-07-01

    This study tested the folkloristic belief that doctoral degree recipients who pursue academic careers typically wind up at institutions ranked lower in prestige than the institutions at which they trained (the step-down thesis). We used a database of faculty members in 150 clinical psychology doctoral programs accredited by the American Psychological Association, and compared each faculty member's training institution with the current employing institution on three distinct reputation ranking systems: The Center (University of Florida, Gainesville) for overall university reputation, the National Research Council (Washington, DC) for doctoral degree department reputation, and the news magazine, U.S. News and World Report ranking for clinical psychology training program reputation. Although support for the step-down thesis was found across all three ranking systems, a disproportionately large number of professors were also observed to move laterally in terms of their employing institution's reputation. PMID:16541384

  10. Faculty Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Martin

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing syllabi for courses on faculty issues are discussed, and four sample syllabi are presented. Few doctoral programs in higher education administration were identified that devote an entire course to the subject of American college and university faculty. For four courses that did devote an entire course to the…

  11. Faculty Inbreeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eells, Walter Crosby; Cleveland, Austin Carl

    1999-01-01

    A study of 16,837 faculty members at 219 colleges and universities in 42 states found great variation in the extent to which faculties were hiring their own institution's graduates as teachers. Six institutions showed no such "inbreeding," whereas seven had over 60% inbreeding. (Originally published in 1935) (MSE)

  12. Faculty Remarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Marvin

    A discussion is provided of the Fashion Institute of Technology's (FIT's) new faculty contract and its implications for the college. First, the paper traces the history of union-management negotiations. After looking at the bitter relationship that restricted faculty growth, development, and morale in the 1970s, the paper describes the "contract…

  13. Faculty Status in a Climate of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Schools of dentistry (=60) were surveyed to determine the status of full-time faculty and compared to responses made in 1980 to the identical survey. There has been a decrease in the number of full-time clinical faculty whereas the proportion of clinical faculty with tenure has increased. (Author/MLW)

  14. The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy Scripts

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy is the newest professional school to be established in the State of Hawai‘i. The College is based at the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo, but faculty and students are located and practice on every major island. The mission of the College is to serve the entire Pacific Region. Having reached a respectable level of maturity over the past few years, we are now pleased to announce a partnership that has been established with the Hawai‘i Journal of Medicine & Public Health. With Dr. Carolyn Ma serving as column editor and coordinator, our main objective is for faculty and affiliates of the College to provide communications of contemporary interest in the field of professional pharmacy. Since academic pharmacy is new to the State, this inaugural article (Part 1) describes a brief history of the profession leading up to the founding of the Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy. An article describing the mission, vision, and infrastructure of the College, as well as some objectives and accomplishments will follow this inaugural column. The pharmacist is an integral member of the health care team with unique expertise in pharmaceutical care. The topics we present should be of broad interest to the readership of this journal but, additionally, any suggestions for specialized topics in our realm of expertise are welcome. PMID:25628981

  15. Pharmacy cases in Second Life: an elective course

    PubMed Central

    Veronin, Michael A; Daniels, Lacy; Demps, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Interactive pharmacy case studies are an essential component of the pharmacy curriculum. We recently developed an elective course at the Rangel College of Pharmacy in pharmacy case studies for second- and third-year Doctor of Pharmacy students using Second Life® (SL), an interactive three-dimensional virtual environment that simulates the real world. This course explored the use of SL for education and training in pharmacy, emphasizing a case-based approach. Virtual worlds such as SL promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, and can potentially develop problem-solving skills in pharmacy students. Students were presented ten case scenarios that primarily focused on drug safety and effective communication with patients. Avatars, representing instructors and students, reviewed case scenarios during sessions in a virtual classroom. Individually and in teams, students participated in active-learning activities modeling both the pharmacist’s and patient’s roles. Student performance and learning were assessed based on SL class participation, activities, assignments, and two formal, essay-type online exams in Blackboard 9. Student course-evaluation results indicated favorable perceptions of content and delivery. Student comments included an enhanced appreciation of practical issues in pharmacy practice, flexibility of attendance, and an increased ability to focus on course content. Excellent student participation and performance in weekly active-learning activities translated into positive performance on subsequent formal assessments. Students were actively engaged and exposed to topics pertinent to pharmacy practice that were not covered in the required pharmacy curriculum. The multiple active-learning assignments were successful in increasing students’ knowledge, and provided additional practice in building the communication skills beneficial for students preparing for experiential clinical rotations. PMID:23762008

  16. Pharmacy practice in 2040.

    PubMed

    Knapp, D A

    1992-10-01

    Pharmacy practice 50 years in the future is discussed. The practice of pharmacy in 2040 will be influenced by many trends and issues, such as increasing cultural diversity, the aging population, evolving drug and information technology, rising drug costs, and increasing third-party coverage. Pharmacy may take one of two paths. In the first scenario, institutional and community practice would drift further apart, with community pharmacy becoming more involved with retailing than with health care. In the second scenario, all pharmacists would become a vital component of an integrated, patient-centered system of health care; pharmacists, like physicians, would be salaried professionals, paid for by health-care programs financed through health insurance. The difference between the two scenarios is the degree to which pharmacists actively participate in their creation: The first will happen if pharmacists do not take action; the second will require a considerable amount of work. If pharmacists wish to see an active system of patient-centered pharmaceutical care in 2040, they must begin to create it now, regardless of their practice setting. Pharmacists must work to create a future in which they are an integral part of the health-care system. PMID:1442821

  17. Ethical dilemmas in pharmacy.

    PubMed Central

    Lowenthal, W

    1988-01-01

    Results of surveys in which pharmacy students and pharmacists responded to ethical dilemmas are discussed. Respondents indicated a high level of concern about patient welfare and patient rights in dilemmas involving conflicts with socio-economic issues, and with peers and physicians. Conflicts that might arise as the roles of pharmacists change and the health-care systems evolve are also discussed. PMID:3351881

  18. Genomics Nursing Faculty Champion Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Jean; Calzone, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Nurse faculty are challenged to keep up with the emerging and fast-paced field of genomics and the mandate to prepare the nursing workforce to be able to translate genomic research advances into routine clinical care. Using Faculty Champions and other options, the initiative stimulated curriculum development and promoted genomics curriculum integration. The authors summarize this yearlong initiative for undergraduate and graduate nursing faculty. PMID:24300251

  19. Pharmacy students’ knowledge and attitudes about antibiotics in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Fejza, Albina; Kryeziu, Zeqir; Kadrija, Kushtrim; Musa, Malbora

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude among Pharmacy students of the University of Prishtina in regards to the antibiotics. Methods: 144 pharmacy students at the University of Prishtina were recruited in this study to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The total number of questions in this questionnaire was eight (8), covering two (2) major themes: self-report of the current and past antibiotic use and behavior; and anticipated prescription behavior of antibiotics upon graduation. The data was statistically analyzed through using SPSS for Windows. Descriptive analysis was employed, and the results were expressed in frequency and percentages. Results: The results showcased a good knowledge of antibiotic among students. The most common answer of students’ knowledge about antibiotics was good or moderate (82 %), while 63.2% of the subjects used antibiotics by self-decision, most of them (45 %) for sore throat. Upon graduation, 56.9 % of the students will not sell antibiotics without prescription and 85.4% think that module for rational use of antibiotics is very necessary to be inside the pharmacy syllabus. Conclusion: The study showed good and moderate knowledge of pharmacy students regarding the antibiotics. Half of them use antibiotics by self-decision but the majority of them stated that they will not serve the antibiotics without medical prescription. Specific modules and training for proper antibiotic use should be implemented within the Pharmacy program in The Faculty of Medicine. PMID:27011780

  20. The Role of Academic Pharmacy in Tobacco Cessation and Control

    PubMed Central

    McBane, Sarah E.; Corelli, Robin L.; Albano, Christian B.; Conry, John M.; Della Paolera, Mark A.; Kennedy, Amy K.; Jenkins, Antoine T.

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of public health initiatives, tobacco use remains the leading known preventable cause of death in the United States. Clinicians have a proven, positive effect on patients’ ability to quit, and pharmacists are strategically positioned to assist patients with quitting. The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy recognizes health promotion and disease prevention as a key educational outcome; as such, tobacco cessation education should be a required component of pharmacy curricula to ensure that all pharmacy graduates possess the requisite evidence-based knowledge and skills to intervene with patients who use tobacco. Faculty members teaching tobacco cessation-related content must be knowledgeable and proficient in providing comprehensive cessation counseling, and all preceptors and practicing pharmacists providing direct patient care should screen for tobacco use and provide at least minimal counseling as a routine component of care. Pharmacy organizations should establish policies and resolutions addressing the profession’s role in tobacco cessation and control, and the profession should work together to eliminate tobacco sales in all practice settings where pharmacy services are rendered. PMID:23788804

  1. Geriatric Pharmacy Curriculum in U.S. Pharmacy Schools: A Nationwide Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, William; Pratt, Clara Collette

    1982-01-01

    A survey of 72 pharmacy schools shows 22 percent of the schools had no geriatric coursework, 35 percent offered only courses in which the geriatric content averaged under 12 percent of course content, and 43 percent offered courses that focused primarily on geriatrics, most including a major clinical component. (Author/MSE)

  2. Faculty Development and Support Needs of Nurse Practitioner Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Teddy; Norton, Darlene

    1999-01-01

    A nationwide sample of 128 nurse practitioner faculty expressed a significant disparity between ideal and actual faculty support and development structures and processes in their current employment. The greatest hindrance was administrators' lack of knowledge of their clinical practice responsibilities. (JOW)

  3. Impact of utilizing pharmacy students as workforce for Hawai'i Asthma Friendly Pharmacy Project.

    PubMed

    Ma, Carolyn S; Nett, Blythe; Kishaba, Gregg; Gomez, Lara

    2015-02-01

    A partnership was formed between the University of Hawai'i at Hilo Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) and the Department of Health to carry out the Hawai'i Asthma Friendly Pharmacy Project (HAFPP), which utilizes pharmacy students as a workforce to administer Asthma Control Tests™ (ACT), and provide Asthma Action Plans (AAP) and inhaler technique education. Evaluation of data from a pilot project in 2008 with first and second year students prompted more intensive training in therapeutics, inhaler medication training, and communication techniques. Data collection began when two classes of students were first and second year students and continued until the students became fourth year students in their advanced experiential ambulatory care clinic and retail community pharmacy rotations. Patients seen included pediatric (32%) and adult (68%) aged individuals. Hawai'i County was the most common geographic site (50%) and most sites were retail pharmacies (72%). Administered ACT surveys (N=96) yielded a mean score of 19.64 (SD +/-3.89). In addition, 12% of patients had received previous ACT, and 47% had previous AAPs. Approximately 83% of patients received an additional intervention of AAP and inhaler education with 73% of these patients able to demonstrate back proper inhaler technique. Project challenges included timing of student training, revising curriculum and logistics of scheduling students to ensure consistent access to patients.

  4. Specialty Pharmacy Services: Preparing for a New Era in Health-System Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Shay, Blake; Louden, Les; Kirschenbaum, Bonnie

    2015-10-01

    To deal with the changing health care landscape and the expanding growth of specialty pharmaceuticals, it is imperative that health systems evaluate their current structure of providing hospitalbased specialty pharmacy services. Specialty pharmacy services have rapidly expanded over the last decade, and this has affected a wide variety of disease states and in many cases has dramatically enhanced clinical outcomes. However, these medications come at a substantial cost, and a clear plan must be established at each institution to sustain financial viability. By focusing on developing a plan for specialty pharmaceuticals, the pharmacy director can help ensure the institution has prepared a strategy that is conservative, financially viable, and patient-centered. PMID:26912924

  5. Assessing equity in the geographical distribution of community pharmacies in South Africa in preparation for a national health insurance scheme

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, David; Leng, Henry; Pollock, Allyson M

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate equity in the geographical distribution of community pharmacies in South Africa and assess whether regulatory reforms have furthered such equity. Methods Data on community pharmacies from the national department of health and the South African pharmacy council were used to analyse the change in community pharmacy ownership and density (number per 10 000 residents) between 1994 and 2012 in all nine provinces and 15 selected districts. In addition, the density of public clinics, alone and with community pharmacies, was calculated and compared with a national benchmark of one clinic per 10 000 residents. Interviews were conducted with nine national experts from the pharmacy sector. Findings Community pharmacies increased in number by 13% between 1994 and 2012 – less than the 25% population growth. In 2012, community pharmacy density was higher in urban provinces and was eight times higher in the least deprived districts than in the most deprived ones. Maldistribution persisted despite the growth of corporate community pharmacies. In 2012, only two provinces met the 1 per 10 000 benchmark, although all provinces achieved it when community pharmacies and clinics were combined. Experts expressed concerns that a lack of rural incentives, inappropriate licensing criteria and a shortage of pharmacy workers could undermine access to pharmaceutical services, especially in rural areas. Conclusion To reduce inequity in the distribution of pharmaceutical services, new policies and legislation are needed to increase the staffing and presence of pharmacies. PMID:25110373

  6. A Checklist for the Development of Faculty Mentorship Programs

    PubMed Central

    Bottenberg, Michelle M.; Brozick, Anna H.; Currie, Jay D.; DiVall, Margarita V.; Haines, Stuart T.; Jolowsky, Christene; Koh-Knox, Cynthia P.; Leonard, Golda Anne; Phelps, Stephanie J.; Rao, Deepa; Webster, Andrew; Yablonski, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Mentoring of junior faculty members continues to be a widespread need in academic pharmacy in both new programs and established schools. The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Joint Council Task Force on Mentoring was charged with gathering information from member colleges and schools and from the literature to determine best practices that could be shared with the academy. The task force summarized their findings regarding the needs and responsibilities for mentors and protégés at all faculty levels; what mentoring pieces are in existence, which need improvement, and which need to be created; and how effective mentoring is defined and could be measured. Based on these findings, the task force developed several recommendations as well as the PAIRS Faculty Mentorship Checklist. Academic institutions can benefit from the checklist whether they are planning to implement a faculty mentorship program or are interested in modifying existing programs. PMID:24954938

  7. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    PubMed

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  8. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    PubMed

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented. PMID:6465152

  9. Regulating compounding pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Noble, Ashley

    2015-06-01

    (1) The Pew Charitable Trusts identified 27 compounding incidents that resulted in 89 deaths since 2001. (2) Unlike drug manufacturers, compounding pharmacies are generally not required to report adverse events associated with their products to the FDA. (3) Federal law on drug compounding was updated in 2013 to create a new group of compounders called "outsourcing facilities." Over 50 facilities in 23 states are now registered with the FDA.

  10. Types of pharmacy/pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Williams, LaVonn A

    2013-01-01

    There are many career opportunities for pharmacists, as well as many environments in which to practice pharmacy. Although pharmacy has changed throughout the years and will continue to change, one aspect of pharmacy remains constant and that constant is that compounding has been a part of pharmacy since the beginning of time and will remain an integral part of pharmacy. This article discusses some of the environments in which pharmacists can choose to practice their profession and discusses some of the types of pharmacists. If you searched vigorously for information about each of the different types of pharmacy/ pharmacists, you will find that very few of them are not in some respect involved in the compounding/ preparation of pharmaceuticals. It is not uncommon for pharmacists to specialize in specific aspects of drug therapy.

  11. Types of pharmacy/pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Williams, LaVonn A

    2013-01-01

    There are many career opportunities for pharmacists, as well as many environments in which to practice pharmacy. Although pharmacy has changed throughout the years and will continue to change, one aspect of pharmacy remains constant and that constant is that compounding has been a part of pharmacy since the beginning of time and will remain an integral part of pharmacy. This article discusses some of the environments in which pharmacists can choose to practice their profession and discusses some of the types of pharmacists. If you searched vigorously for information about each of the different types of pharmacy/ pharmacists, you will find that very few of them are not in some respect involved in the compounding/ preparation of pharmaceuticals. It is not uncommon for pharmacists to specialize in specific aspects of drug therapy. PMID:24261144

  12. Rural Health in Pharmacy Curricula

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, Kim; O’Connor, Shanna K.

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act proposes strategies to address the workforce shortages of primary care practitioners in rural America. This review addresses the question, “What specialized education and training are colleges and schools of pharmacy providing for graduates who wish to enter pharmacy practice in rural health?” All colleges and schools accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education or those in precandidate status as of December 2011 were included in an Internet-based review of Web sites. A wide scope of curricular offerings were found, ranging from no description of courses or experiences in a rural setting to formally developed programs in rural pharmacy. Although the number of pharmacy colleges and schools providing either elective or required courses in rural health is encouraging, more education and training with this focus are needed to help overcome the unmet need for quality pharmacy care for rural populations. PMID:23193344

  13. Fundamentals of nuclear pharmacy, 3rd Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, G.B. )

    1992-01-01

    This book is a standard text/reference of nuclear pharmacy. New sections in the Third Edition include: instruments used for radiation detection and measurement; disposal of radioactive materials; clinical uses of all new and existing radiopharmaceuticals; 99m Tc and 123I-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, as well as radiolabeled leukocytes, platelets, and antibodies; and up-to-date descriptions of the latest FDA regulations.

  14. Faculty development.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Steven A

    2005-04-01

    As emergency medicine faculty, we are called upon to be skilled in a great number of different areas. Residency training prepares us to be knowledgeable clinicians, skillful at procedures, good communicators, and effective at multitasking. Rarely, however, does it prepare us as educators or in the nuances of career advancement in an academic environment. Faculty development is a term used to describe both our growth as clinician-educators and navigation of the tenure and promotion process. An important role of medical student educators is to assist in preparing themselves and the faculty to be good teachers. In addition, we all hope to have successful careers as clinician-educators. The goal of this report is 2-fold: to provide a guide for faculty to advance their skills as educators and to help teaching faculty to advance their academic career. The first section of this report presents an approach to becoming a skilled educator, and the second section focuses on career development as an educator in an academic setting.

  15. Developing Entrepreneurial Skills in Pharmacy Students.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Garry; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship.

  16. Developing Entrepreneurial Skills in Pharmacy Students.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Garry; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship. PMID:27168619

  17. Developing Entrepreneurial Skills in Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship. PMID:27168619

  18. "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures" - Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Nikendei, C; Ganschow, P; Groener, J B; Huwendiek, S; Köchel, A; Köhl-Hackert, N; Pjontek, R; Rodrian, J; Scheibe, F; Stadler, A-K; Steiner, T; Stiepak, J; Tabatabai, J; Utz, A; Kadmon, M

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures", which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties. PMID:27579354

  19. "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures" - Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Nikendei, C; Ganschow, P; Groener, J B; Huwendiek, S; Köchel, A; Köhl-Hackert, N; Pjontek, R; Rodrian, J; Scheibe, F; Stadler, A-K; Steiner, T; Stiepak, J; Tabatabai, J; Utz, A; Kadmon, M

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures", which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties.

  20. ASHP statement on the pharmacy technician's role in pharmacy informatics.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    The American Society of Health- System Pharmacists (ASHP) believes that specially trained pharmacy technicians can assume important supportive roles in pharmacy informatics. These roles include automation and technology systems management, management of projects, training and education, policy and governance, customer service, charge integrity, and reporting. Such roles require pharmacy technicians to gain expertise in information technology (IT) systems, including knowledge of interfaces, computer management techniques, problem resolution, and database maintenance. This knowledge could be acquired through specialized training or experience in a health science or allied scientific field (e.g., health informatics). With appropriate safeguards and supervision, pharmacy technician informaticists (PTIs) will manage IT processes in health-system pharmacy services, ensuring a safe and efficient medication-use process.

  1. Managing clinical pharmacists and clinical pharmacy services.

    PubMed

    Hurd, P D

    1990-02-01

    One of the ironies in the use of power in today's management setting is that the manager of workers at a high level of readiness is actually giving more power to subordinates as a leadership strategy. Indeed, the empowered manager may achieve goals by shifting responsibility from the manager to the employee, providing a vision for subordinates, providing resources when possible, and providing the freedom to accomplish organizational goals. The challenge for the manager is to determine employee level of readiness and to assess that readiness for different assignments and varying responsibilities. Given the proper situation, the manager may paradoxically gain power (influence over others) by giving others a high degree of responsibility for their actions.

  2. Pharmacy Program Review. Consultant's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Robert D.; And Others

    Site visits were made by a team of consultants to Florida A&M University (FAMU) and the University of Florida (UF), the two institutions providing pharmacy education in Florida, to review programs and assess issues relating to entry-level degrees, manpower needs, and delivery systems. After a brief history of academic programs in pharmacy, the…

  3. Individualizing Instruction in Pharmacy Jurisprudence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindall, William N.

    1978-01-01

    Students at Creighton University's School of Pharmacy were offered the option of taking a pharmacy jurisprudence course by a self-taught, self-paced mode or by the traditional lecture mode. Comparasions were made of students in each group. Topics of the learning module and NABPLEX propositions for examining competency are included. (SW)

  4. Status of Undergraduate Pharmacology Laboratories in Colleges of Pharmacy in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Norman L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    U.S. colleges of pharmacy were surveyed in 1976 to determine whether a trend exists in continuing, discontinuing, or restructuring laboratory time in pharmaceutical education. Data regarding core undergraduate pharmacology courses, undergraduate pharmacology laboratory status, and pharmacology faculty are presented. (LBH)

  5. Experience with an Independent Study Program in Pathophysiology for Doctor of Pharmacy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahata, Milap C.

    1986-01-01

    A pharmacy doctoral program's independent-study component in pathophysiology, supported by computer-assisted instruction and self-evaluation, has the advantages of self-pacing, reduced faculty time commitment, and increased ability to work effectively with physicians. Disadvantages include student feeling of isolation, imbalanced content, and…

  6. [Lorraine pharmacy historians].

    PubMed

    Labrude, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The most known historian was Paul Dorveaux, but precursors were Husson during the 19th century and Grélot at the beginning of the 20th century. The best period for historical researchs was the twenty years between 1920 and 1940, then the creation of the "diplôme d'Etat de docteur en pharmacie" at the end of the century. Two professors, André Meunier and Jean Martin, managed historical thesis. They leaved us useful thesis on the past of our profession.

  7. Faculty Appointments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, H. Edward

    1977-01-01

    The conditions surrounding appointments of full-time, tenure-tract, teaching faculty and administration produce one area in collective bargaining contracts that affects equally every employee of an institution. Several of these conditions are discussed: initial appointments; appointment authority; conflict of appointment authority; appointment…

  8. [Evaluation of Brazilian online pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Falcão, Cláudio Borges

    2007-04-01

    The growing number of Internet users brought forth an increase in the search for Brazilian online pharmacy services. Aiming at evaluating the validity of information disseminated in these websites, a descriptive study was carried out in 18 virtual pharmacies concerning legal aspects, accessibility, sources of information and drug advertising. It was found 15 pharmacies did not have authorization of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency; the manager pharmaceutical officer's name could not be found in 17 of them; 17 pharmacies marketed drugs with no registration, especially herbal medicines, and did not show either information on adverse drug reactions or this agency's alerts and health recommendations. Since health control and drug commerce in Brazilian online pharmacies have not been yet regulated by proper government agencies, these gaps found in the sites can pose risk to the users' health.

  9. Where should the pharmacy researcher look first? Comparing International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, D L; Stone, V L; DiPaula, B A

    1996-01-01

    This study compared the usefulness of various CD-ROM versions of International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) and MEDLINE for pharmacy research. Journal coverage as well as the strengths and weaknesses of database structure and contents were considered. The journals indexed in each database were compared to those identified in a survey of the research journals most important to University of Maryland at Baltimore pharmacy faculty and in a similar North Carolina study rating pharmacy journals. In addition, indexed journals were checked against the Institute for Scientific Information's most recent list of high-impact journals in pharmacology and pharmacy. Searches representing a variety of topics relevant to pharmacy were conducted in both databases, and the number and relevance of citations located were analyzed. Results showed that IPA indexed a greater number of pharmacy titles, but that MEDLINE indexed more pharmacy journals designated in studies as significant to the field. There was little overlap in coverage between the two databases. MEDLINE produced larger retrievals for the majority of questions, but many citations retrieved in IPA did not appear in MEDLINE. PMID:8883989

  10. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...

  11. Incorporating Health Information Technology and Pharmacy Informatics in a Pharmacy Professional Didactic Curriculum -with a Team-based Learning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Timothy W.; Fingado, Amanda R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students’ knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students’ perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants’ knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion.

  12. Incorporating Health Information Technology and Pharmacy Informatics in a Pharmacy Professional Didactic Curriculum -with a Team-based Learning Approach.

    PubMed

    Hincapie, Ana L; Cutler, Timothy W; Fingado, Amanda R

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students' knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students' perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants' knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion.

  13. Incorporating Health Information Technology and Pharmacy Informatics in a Pharmacy Professional Didactic Curriculum -with a Team-based Learning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Timothy W.; Fingado, Amanda R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students’ knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students’ perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants’ knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion. PMID:27667844

  14. Incorporating Health Information Technology and Pharmacy Informatics in a Pharmacy Professional Didactic Curriculum -with a Team-based Learning Approach.

    PubMed

    Hincapie, Ana L; Cutler, Timothy W; Fingado, Amanda R

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students' knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students' perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants' knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion. PMID:27667844

  15. 21 CFR 1311.200 - Pharmacy responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the pharmacy...

  16. A Pharmacogenetics Service Experience for Pharmacy Students, Residents, and Fellows

    PubMed Central

    Drozda, Katarzyna; Labinov, Yana; Jiang, Ruixuan; Thomas, Margaret R.; Wong, Shan S.; Patel, Shitalben; Nutescu, Edith A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To utilize a comprehensive, pharmacist-led warfarin pharmacogenetics service to provide pharmacy students, residents, and fellows with clinical and research experiences involving genotype-guided therapy. Design. First-year (P1) through fourth-year (P4) pharmacy students, pharmacy residents, and pharmacy fellows participated in a newly implemented warfarin pharmacogenetics service in a hospital setting. Students, residents, and fellows provided genotype-guided dosing recommendations as part of clinical care, or analyzed samples and data collected from patients on the service for research purposes. Assessment. Students’, residents’, and fellows’ achievement of learning objectives was assessed using a checklist based on established core competencies in pharmacogenetics. The mean competency score of the students, residents, and fellows who completed a clinical and/or research experience with the service was 97% ±3%. Conclusion. A comprehensive warfarin pharmacogenetics service provided unique experiential and research opportunities for pharmacy students, residents, and fellows and sufficiently addressed a number of core competencies in pharmacogenetics. PMID:24159216

  17. Congruence of Self-Reported Medications with Pharmacy Prescription Records in Low-Income Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskie, Grace I. L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the congruence of self-reported medications with computerized pharmacy records. Design and Methods: Pharmacy records and self-reported medications were obtained for 294 members of a state pharmaceutical assistance program who also participated in ACTIVE, a clinical trial on cognitive training in nondemented elderly…

  18. Fostering Interdisciplinary Communication between Pharmacy and Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Kiersma, Mary E.; Keib, Carrie N.; Cailor, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate pharmacy and nursing student self-perceptions of interdisciplinary communication skills, faculty member perceptions of interdisciplinary communication skills, and changes in those skills after increasing the interdisciplinary education content. Design. Two cohorts of pharmacy and nursing (bachelors of science in nursing, BSN) students in respective, semester-long research courses engaged in active learning on interdisciplinary communication, with the second cohort receiving additional content on the topic. At semester completion, students presented a research project at an interdisciplinary poster session. Assessment. Self-, peer-, and faculty evaluations (4 items; 5-point Likert-type) assessing self-confidence and actual interdisciplinary communication skills were completed during the poster session. Overall, students responded they were “very confident” or “extremely confident” regarding the skills, with greater confidence reported by the second cohort. Faculty members agreed that students exhibited effective interdisciplinary communication skills, with stronger agreement for the second cohort. Conclusion. Including interdisciplinary education and experiences in a curriculum increases students’ interdisciplinary communication skills. Using multiple interdisciplinary experiences may result in greater increases in these skills. PMID:26430270

  19. Understanding the Challenges of Integrating Scientists and Clinical Teachers in Psychiatry Education: Findings from an Innovative Faculty Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martimianakis, Maria Athina; Hodges, Brian D.; Wasylenki, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Medical schools and departments of psychiatry around the world face challenges in integrating science with clinical teaching. This project was designed to identify attitudes toward the integration of science in clinical teaching and address barriers to collaboration between scientists and clinical teachers. Methods: The authors explored…

  20. Plato's Pharmacy and Derrida's Drugstore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Chris

    2000-01-01

    In a long essay titled "Plato's Pharmacy, Jacques Derrida attacked Western metaphysics. This article undertakes to defend Western philosophy from Derrida's arguments. It is shown that Derrida's arguments are very unsatisfactory. (Author/VWL)

  1. Pharmacy experience with facsimile prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Paul E

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this mixed qualitative/quantitative study was to review the impact of a policy to accept facsimile (fax) prescriptions as standard operating procedure. Between February and April 2009 the pharmacy processed 4,792 new prescriptions of which 363 (7.6%) were received through fax. Of the fax prescriptions, 19 (5.2%) concerned clarification of information, which took approximately 30 minutes to resolve. The fax prescription process allowed the pharmacy to adjust the distribution of its workload, provided quicker service for new prescriptions, and allowed more time for medication consultation that resulted in a high level of customer satisfaction. It appeared the policy allowing fax prescriptions was a "win-win" situation for both the pharmacy and its customers. Military pharmacies should consider running trials of accepting fax prescriptions to see whether it improves their prescription filling process.

  2. Pharmacy experience with facsimile prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Paul E

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this mixed qualitative/quantitative study was to review the impact of a policy to accept facsimile (fax) prescriptions as standard operating procedure. Between February and April 2009 the pharmacy processed 4,792 new prescriptions of which 363 (7.6%) were received through fax. Of the fax prescriptions, 19 (5.2%) concerned clarification of information, which took approximately 30 minutes to resolve. The fax prescription process allowed the pharmacy to adjust the distribution of its workload, provided quicker service for new prescriptions, and allowed more time for medication consultation that resulted in a high level of customer satisfaction. It appeared the policy allowing fax prescriptions was a "win-win" situation for both the pharmacy and its customers. Military pharmacies should consider running trials of accepting fax prescriptions to see whether it improves their prescription filling process. PMID:21121504

  3. Diversification strategies for hospital pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Smith, J E; Phillips, D J; Meyer, G E

    1984-09-01

    Several ways used by the pharmacy department of a large university hospital to generate revenue through diversification are described. The department offers its facilities and staff as a resource in training medical service representatives for several pharmaceutical manufacturers, which is projected to provide $85,000 in net income for fiscal year (FY) 1983-84. The pharmacy department also conducts a six-month program for training pharmacy technicians, which yields a small net profit. The pharmacy department actively participates in educational programs such as college courses and clerkships earning extra income. An apothecary-style outpatient pharmacy was set up under a for-profit corporation. Services have been expanded to include the preparation of i.v. solutions that support home care. A durable medical equipment (DME) business is planned. The ambulatory and home-care programs are expected to generate approximately $165,000 in net profit next year. Contract pharmaceutical services are provided to another hospital. The net income generated through diversification in this pharmacy department will exceed $250,000 in FY 1983-84.

  4. Pharmacy utilization and the Medicare Modernization Act.

    PubMed

    Maio, Vittorio; Pizzi, Laura; Roumm, Adam R; Clarke, Janice; Goldfarb, Neil I; Nash, David B; Chess, David

    2005-01-01

    To control expenditures and use medications appropriately, the Medicare drug coverage program has established pharmacy utilization management (PUM) measures. This article assesses the effects of these strategies on the care of seniors. The literature suggests that although caps on drug benefits lower pharmaceutical costs, they may also increase the use of other health care services and hurt health outcomes. Our review raises concerns regarding the potential unintended effects of the Medicare drug program's PUM policies for beneficiaries. Therefore, the economic and clinical impact of PUM measures on seniors should be studied further to help policymakers design better drug benefit plans. PMID:15787955

  5. [Jacques Clarion (1776-1844), professor of l'Ecole de pharmacie de Paris].

    PubMed

    Trépardoux, Francis

    2006-11-01

    Engaged in military campaigns from 1793 to 1797, he then studied medicine in Paris, as well as pharmacy, specialised in chemistry and botany. Supported by Deyeux and Corvisart, he was nominated as pharmacist of the emperor. From 1819 to 1844, he taught botany at the School of pharmacy of Paris. In 1823, the authority gave him a second chair for the medical botany at the Faculty of medicine, but after the 1830 revolution, he was dismissed. He mainly worked in taxonomy, contributing to several publications with Palisot and de Candolle for Graminaceae. He was a member of the academy of medicine.

  6. Evaluation of a Pharmacy Resident Inpatient On-Call Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatoum, Hind T.

    1993-01-01

    The 440 interventions completed by pharmacy residents in an inpatient on-call program were analyzed for their source (self-initiated, solicited by physician or staff pharmacist), type (selection of dosage, schedule, drug level monitoring, route of administration), impact on quality of care, cost of care, and clinical significance. (Author/MSE)

  7. The Infancy of an International Paediatric Pharmacy Network

    PubMed Central

    Knoppert, David; Arenas-Lopez, Sara; McArtney, Rowena

    2008-01-01

    There are several pharmacy and clinical pharmacology organizations in which pediatrics is one of many special interest groups and a few whose focus is entirely pediatric drug therapy. Recently the foundation for the establishment of an International Network of Paediatric Pharmacists has been laid. This paper describes that network. PMID:23055865

  8. College and school of pharmacy characteristics associated with US News and World Report rankings.

    PubMed

    Schlesselman, Lauren; Coleman, Craig I

    2013-04-12

    OBJECTIVE. To determine the association between characteristics of colleges and schools of pharmacy and their rankings according to US News and World Report. METHODS. The 2008 US News and World Report, mean ranking scores (ranging from 2.0 to 5.0) for 78 US colleges and schools of pharmacy were compared with college and school characteristics, including academic program, students, faculty, and scholarship. The adjusted difference in mean ranking score associated with each characteristic was determined using a multivariate mixed linear regression model. RESULTS. The most powerful identified predictors of mean ranking score included the amount of grant funding (National Institutes of Health [NIH] and non-NIH funding) a college or school of pharmacy received and the yearly publication rates of its department of pharmacy (p≤0.001 for both). The adjusted mean ranking scores for colleges and schools receiving >$5 million and $1 million to $5 million in scholarly grant funding were respectively 0.77 and 0.26 points higher than those receiving none. Adjusted mean ranking scores for colleges and schools whose departments of pharmacy practice had publishing rates of >20 papers and 11 to 20 papers were respectively 0.40 and 0.17 points higher than those publishing ≤10 (p<0.05 for both). CONCLUSION. The characteristic of colleges and schools of pharmacy most associated with US News and World Report rankings appears to be their scholarly productivity.

  9. Automated decentralized pharmacy dispensing systems.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    Automated decentralized pharmacy dispensing systems (ADPDSs) are medication management systems that allow hospitals to store and dispense drugs near the point of use. These systems, which can be compared with the automated teller machines used by banks, provide nurses with ready access to medications while maintaining tight control of drug distribution. In this study, we evaluated three ADPDSs from two suppliers, focusing on whether these systems can store and dispense drugs in a safe, secure, and effective manner. When rating the systems, we considered their applicability to two different implementation schemes: The use of a system with a pharmacy profile interface. This feature broadens the capabilities of the system by allowing more information to be provided at the dispensing cabinet and by providing better integration of the information from this cabinet with the pharmacy's information system. Two of the evaluated systems have this feature and were rated Acceptable. The use of a system without a pharmacy profile interface. We rated all three of the evaluated systems Acceptable for such implementations. To decide which scheme is most appropriate for a particular hospital, the facility will need to determine both how it intends to use the ADPDS and what it hopes to achieve by implementing the system. By performing this type of analysis, the facility can then determine which ADPDS features and capabilities are needed to accomplish its goals. To help facilities make these decisions, we have provided an Equipment Management Guide, "Improving the Drug Distribution Process-Do You Need an Automated Decentralized Pharmacy Dispensing System?," which precedes this Evaluation. In addition, readers unfamiliar with the roles of both the pharmacy and the pharmacist within the hospital can refer to the Primer, "Functions of a Hospital Pharmacy," also published in this issue. PMID:8968721

  10. Management of chronic nonmalignant pain with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Joint opinion statement of the Ambulatory Care, Cardiology, and Pain and Palliative Care Practice and Research Networks of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Christopher M; Hutchison, Rob W; Berdine, Hildegarde J; Stacy, Zachary A; Chen, Judy T; Farnsworth, David D; Dang, Devra; Fermo, Joli D

    2008-06-01

    Chronic nonmalignant pain is a major burden on the health care system in the United States. Frequently, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to assist in the management of various chronic pain syndromes. Although evidence is accumulating on the potential toxicities associated with NSAIDs, clear recommendations are lacking to guide the appropriate use of these drugs. Equivocal data, especially with respect to cardiovascular risk, further confuse a clear treatment pathway when assessing pharmacotherapy. Originally, cyclooxygenase selectivity appeared to be a determining factor in choosing an agent because of the presumed lack of effect on the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal renal systems. This theory, however, was recently dispelled. To provide guidance on the selection of an NSAID for various chronic pain syndromes, members of the Ambulatory Care, Cardiology, and Pain and Palliative Care Practice and Research Networks of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy evaluated evidence-based use of NSAIDs for frequently encountered pain syndromes, with special focus on the adverse effects of this class of agents.

  11. Improvement in medication adherence and self-management of diabetes with a clinical pharmacy program: a randomized controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy at a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Cani, Catarina Gomes; da Silva Girão Lopes, Laura; Queiroz, Márcia; Nery, Márcia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a clinical pharmacy program on health outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy at a teaching hospital in Brazil. METHOD: A randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up period was performed in 70 adults, aged 45 years or older, with type 2 diabetes who were taking insulin and who had an HbA1c level ≥8%. Patients in the control group (CG) (n = 36) received standard care, patients in the intervention group (IG) (n = 34) received an individualized pharmacotherapeutic care plan and diabetes education. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA1c. Secondary outcomes included diabetes and medication knowledge, adherence to medication, insulin injection and home blood glucose monitoring techniques and diabetes-related quality of life. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 6 months using questionnaires. RESULTS: Diabetes knowledge, medication knowledge, adherence to medication and correct insulin injection and home blood glucose monitoring techniques significantly improved in the intervention group but remained unchanged in the control group. At the end of the study, mean HbA1c values in the control group remained unchanged but were significantly reduced in the intervention group. Diabetes-related quality of life significantly improved in the intervention group but worsened significantly in the control group. CONCLUSION: The program improved health outcomes and resulted in better glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy. PMID:25789518

  12. Work group design in pharmacy: the pharmacist-technician team.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, B P; Solomon, D K; Zarowitz, B J

    1987-05-01

    The contemporary pharmacy practice manager faces the challenge of designing pharmacy service programs that not only satisfy the needs of the patient, but at the same time satisfy and motivate the pharmacists and technicians who sustain the programs. This research examined the team design, which has been recommended but not fully described in the literature. This application did not explore the full potential of the team design in the hospital pharmacy setting. More study is needed in this area to assess the impact of work group design on the expansion of clinical programs, employee turnover rates, quality and quantity of work produced, and, most important, the impact on job satisfaction enjoyed by pharmacists and technicians. PMID:10314224

  13. Educational Games as a Teaching Tool in Pharmacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Aburahma, Mona Hassan; Mohamed, Heba Moustafa

    2015-05-25

    The shift in the pharmacist's role from simply dispensing medications to effective delivery of pharmaceutical care interventions and drug therapy management has influenced pharmacy education.(1-3) The educational focus has shifted from basic sciences to clinical and integrated courses that require incorporating active-learning strategies to provide pharmacy graduates with higher levels of competencies and specialized skills. As opposed to passive didactic lectures, active-learning strategies address the educational content in an interactive learning environment to develop interpersonal, communication, and problem-solving skills needed by pharmacists to function effectively in their new roles.(4-6) One such strategy is using educational games. The aim of this paper is to review educational games adopted in different pharmacy schools and to aid educators in replicating the successfully implemented games and overcoming deficiencies in educational games. This review also highlights the main pitfalls within this research area. PMID:26089568

  14. Educational Games as a Teaching Tool in Pharmacy Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Heba Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    The shift in the pharmacist’s role from simply dispensing medications to effective delivery of pharmaceutical care interventions and drug therapy management has influenced pharmacy education.1-3 The educational focus has shifted from basic sciences to clinical and integrated courses that require incorporating active-learning strategies to provide pharmacy graduates with higher levels of competencies and specialized skills. As opposed to passive didactic lectures, active-learning strategies address the educational content in an interactive learning environment to develop interpersonal, communication, and problem-solving skills needed by pharmacists to function effectively in their new roles.4-6 One such strategy is using educational games. The aim of this paper is to review educational games adopted in different pharmacy schools and to aid educators in replicating the successfully implemented games and overcoming deficiencies in educational games. This review also highlights the main pitfalls within this research area. PMID:26089568

  15. Educational Games as a Teaching Tool in Pharmacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Aburahma, Mona Hassan; Mohamed, Heba Moustafa

    2015-05-25

    The shift in the pharmacist's role from simply dispensing medications to effective delivery of pharmaceutical care interventions and drug therapy management has influenced pharmacy education.(1-3) The educational focus has shifted from basic sciences to clinical and integrated courses that require incorporating active-learning strategies to provide pharmacy graduates with higher levels of competencies and specialized skills. As opposed to passive didactic lectures, active-learning strategies address the educational content in an interactive learning environment to develop interpersonal, communication, and problem-solving skills needed by pharmacists to function effectively in their new roles.(4-6) One such strategy is using educational games. The aim of this paper is to review educational games adopted in different pharmacy schools and to aid educators in replicating the successfully implemented games and overcoming deficiencies in educational games. This review also highlights the main pitfalls within this research area.

  16. Measuring Empathy in Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Van Winkle, Lon J.; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To validate the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession Students version (JSE-HPS) in pharmacy students. Methods. The JSE-HPS (20 items), adapted from the original Jefferson Scale of Empathy for use among students in the healthcare professions, was completed by 187 first-year pharmacy students at Midwestern University Chicago College of Pharmacy. Results. Two factors, “perspective-taking” and “compassionate care,” emerged from factor analysis in this study, accounting for 31% and 8% of the variance, respectively. These factors are similar to the prominent ones reported in previous research involving physicians and medical students, supporting the construct validity of this instrument for pharmacy students. In the current study, mean JSE-HPS score was comparable to those reported for medical students, and consistent with previous findings with medical students and physicians. Women scored significantly higher than men. Conclusions. Findings support the construct validity and reliability of the JSE-HPS for measuring empathy in pharmacy students. PMID:21931447

  17. An Evaluation of the Pharmacy College Admissions Test as a Tool for Pharmacy College Admissions Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Katherine A.; Secnik, Kristina; Boye, Mark E.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the capacity of the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT) to predict success in pharmacy school. Found demographic differences in PCAT scores, and that the PCAT used in combination with pre-pharmacy grade point average is meaningful in assessing applicants to pharmacy school; applicants with PCAT composite percentile scores below 40…

  18. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all central fill pharmacies, including name, address and DEA... be made available upon request for inspection by DEA. (b) Every central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all retail pharmacies, including name, address and DEA number, for which it is authorized...

  19. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all central fill pharmacies, including name, address and DEA... be made available upon request for inspection by DEA. (b) Every central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all retail pharmacies, including name, address and DEA number, for which it is authorized...

  20. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all central fill pharmacies, including name, address and DEA... be made available upon request for inspection by DEA. (b) Every central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all retail pharmacies, including name, address and DEA number, for which it is authorized...

  1. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all central fill pharmacies, including name, address and DEA... be made available upon request for inspection by DEA. (b) Every central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all retail pharmacies, including name, address and DEA number, for which it is authorized...

  2. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal...

  3. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal...

  4. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal...

  5. Medical Literature Evaluation Education at US Schools of Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Jennifer; Demaris, Kendra

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine how medical literature evaluation (MLE) is being taught across the United States and to summarize methods for teaching and assessing MLE. Methods. An 18-question survey was administered to faculty members whose primary responsibility was teaching MLE at schools and colleges of pharmacy. Results. Responses were received from 90 (71%) US schools of pharmacy. The most common method of integrating MLE into the curriculum was as a stand-alone course (49%). The most common placement was during the second professional year (43%) or integrated throughout the curriculum (25%). The majority (77%) of schools used a team-based approach. The use of active-learning strategies was common as was the use of multiple methods of evaluation. Responses varied regarding what role the course director played in incorporating MLE into advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Conclusion. There is a trend toward incorporating MLE education components throughout the pre-APPE curriculum and placement of literature review/evaluation exercises into therapeutics practice skills laboratories to help students see how this skill integrates into other patient care skills. Several pre-APPE educational standards for MLE education exist, including journal club activities, a team-based approach to teaching and evaluation, and use of active-learning techniques. PMID:26941431

  6. The Economic Impact of a College of Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    White-Means, Shelley; Wallace, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the dollar value of economic returns to a community when a college of pharmacy attains its fourfold mission of research, service, patient care, and education. Methods United States Bureau of Economic Analyses (BEA) RIMS II input/output analysis and data from student and faculty surveys were used to quantify the economic impact of the University of Tennessee's College of Pharmacy (UTCOP). Results The UTCOP's revenue of $22.4 million resulted in an indirect output impact of over $29.2 million, for a total impact of nearly $51.6 million in output (production of goods and services), while supporting 617.4 jobs and total earnings of $18.5 million during the 2004-2005 school year. Conclusions Demonstrating the economic value of colleges of pharmacy is critical when seeking support from state legislators, foundations, government agencies, professional associations, and industry. Based on this study, UTCOP was able to report that every dollar the state invests in UTCOP yields an estimated net return on investment of $27.90. PMID:18322564

  7. Issues and Dilemmas of Developing a New Faculty Practice Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Shirley; Mossberg, Kurt A.; Rahr, Richard R.

    2001-01-01

    There are benefits to allied health faculty's participation in clinical practice, but faculty practice plans should include philosophy and bylaws that safeguard the quality of teaching. Plans should address fees, income distribution, incentives, and other administrative issues. (SK)

  8. 21 CFR 1306.15 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances... between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled... provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a retail pharmacy for dispensing purposes. The...

  9. 21 CFR 1306.27 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and refill prescriptions of Schedule III, IV... Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and... provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a retail pharmacy for dispensing purposes. The...

  10. An Innovative Approach to Pharmacy Law Education Utilizing a Mock Board of Pharmacy Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Bess, D. Todd; Taylor, Jade; Schwab, Carol A.; Wang, Junling; Carter, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of pharmacy law by students is important in the molding of future pharmacy practitioners but a standardized template for the best way to educate students in this area has not been created. A mock Board of Pharmacy meeting was designed and incorporated into the Pharmacy Law course to meet the ACPE accreditation standards at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. Students acted as Board of Pharmacy members and utilized technology to decide outcomes of cases and requests addressed in a typical 2 day Tennessee Board of Pharmacy meeting. The actual responses to those cases, as well as similar cases and requests addressed over a 5 year period, were revealed to students after they made motions on mock scenarios. Student participation in this interactive learning experience resulted in good understanding of the rules and regulations of pharmacy practice and the consequences associated with violating regulations. Such mock Board of Pharmacy meeting is recommended for future pharmacy law education. PMID:27347433

  11. Faculty Development Needs

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Thomas K; Ferenchick, Gary S; Clark, Jeanne M; Bowen, Judith L; Branch, William T; Alguire, Patrick; Esham, Richard H; Clayton, Charles P; Kern, David E

    2004-01-01

    We compared prior training in 4 areas (general teaching skills, teaching specific content areas, teaching by specific methods and in specific settings, and general professional skills) among community-based teachers based in private practices (N = 61) compared with those in community sites operated by teaching institutions (N = 64) and hospital-based faculty (N = 291), all of whom attended one of three national faculty development conferences. The prevalence of prior training was low. Hospital-based faculty reported the most prior training in all 4 categories, teaching hospital affiliated community-based teachers an intermediate amount, and private practice community-based teachers the least (all P < .05). This association remained after multivariable adjustment for age, gender, and amount of time spent in teaching and clinical activities. Preferences for future training reported frequently by the private practice community-based teachers included: time management (48%); teaching evidence-based medicine (46%); evaluation of learners (38%); giving feedback (39%); outpatient precepting (38%); and “teaching in the presence of the patient” (39%). PMID:15061747

  12. Faculty development needs.

    PubMed

    Houston, Thomas K; Ferenchick, Gary S; Clark, Jeanne M; Bowen, Judith L; Branch, William T; Alguire, Patrick; Esham, Richard H; Clayton, Charles P; Kern, David E

    2004-04-01

    We compared prior training in 4 areas (general teaching skills, teaching specific content areas, teaching by specific methods and in specific settings, and general professional skills) among community-based teachers based in private practices (N = 61) compared with those in community sites operated by teaching institutions (N = 64) and hospital-based faculty (N = 291), all of whom attended one of three national faculty development conferences. The prevalence of prior training was low. Hospital-based faculty reported the most prior training in all 4 categories, teaching hospital affiliated community-based teachers an intermediate amount, and private practice community-based teachers the least (all P <.05). This association remained after multivariable adjustment for age, gender, and amount of time spent in teaching and clinical activities. Preferences for future training reported frequently by the private practice community-based teachers included: time management (48%); teaching evidence-based medicine (46%); evaluation of learners (38%); giving feedback (39%); outpatient precepting (38%); and "teaching in the presence of the patient" (39%).

  13. Evaluation of a Tabletop Emergency Preparedness Exercise for Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Bratberg, Jeffrey P.; Robertson, Courtney; Smith, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the implementation and effect of an emergency preparedness laboratory activity on student knowledge, willingness to participate in emergency preparedness training, current level of preparedness, and the importance of a pharmacist’s role in disaster response. Design. Second-year pharmacy students in the infectious disease module participated in a laboratory activity based on a basic disaster response tabletop exercise format. Three case-based scenarios involving infectious diseases were created by participating faculty members. Assessment. Surveys before and after the laboratory were used to assess the activity’s effect on student knowledge, willingness to participate in emergency preparedness training, current level of preparedness, and the importance of a pharmacist’s role in disaster response. In addition, the postsurvey assessed student perceptions of the activity’s success at accomplishing faculty-specified outcomes from Appendix B of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s (ACPE) Standards. Conclusion. Implementation of an emergency response laboratory activity may improve overall students’ knowledge of, confidence in, and understanding of their role as pharmacists in an emergency response, while incorporating a variety of skills and knowledge outcomes. PMID:27170821

  14. 42 CFR 483.60 - Pharmacy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy services. 483.60 Section 483.60 Public... Care Facilities § 483.60 Pharmacy services. The facility must provide routine and emergency drugs and... the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of receipt...

  15. Thinking About Ethical Dilemmas in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Werner; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Pharmacy students and pharmacists surveyed on ethical dilemmas in pharmacy practice indicated a high degree of concern over patient welfare. The major area of disagreements was on economic concerns. The ethical dilemmas in pharmacy practice survey is appended. (Author/MLW)

  16. Motivational interviewing and specialty pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Berger, Bruce A; Bertram, Carl T

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented in substance abuse and health care literature that motivational interviewing is an evidenced-based and effective intervention for influencing patient behaviors and associated positive health outcomes. The introduction of motivational interviewing training in specialty pharmacy has great potential to increase patient and pharmacist satisfaction, maximize adherence rates, and improve health outcomes. This commentary examines the need for effective approaches for improving patient adherence and outcomes and briefly describes the history and efficacy of motivational interviewing. Case studies using traditional approaches to patient care and motivational interviewing are analysed, and real-world experience using motivational interviewing is presented in the form of a specialty pharmacy case study.

  17. Physicians as Executives: Opportunities and Strategies for Health-System Pharmacy Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Harvin, Andre; Griffith, Niesha; Weber, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    To deal with the pressures in health care that stress clinical excellence and profitability, health systems are increasingly recruiting physician executives or physicians in leadership and management positions. Physicians occupy less than 5% of all hospital leadership positions, but there is an apparent increase in the recruitment of physician executives. With the growth in the number of physician executives, pharmacy leaders must capitalize on their existing clinical relationship and apply it to health care leadership and management. By focusing on developing an executive presence, by clearly describing a patient-centered strategy and vision for pharmacy, and by nurturing the existing clinical relationships, the pharmacy director can work with physician executives to promote patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25477571

  18. Pharmacy Education in India: Strategies for a Better Future

    PubMed Central

    Jishnu, V; Gilhotra, RM; Mishra, DN

    2011-01-01

    In this world of specialization and globalization the pharmacy education in India is suffering from serious backdrops and flaws. There is an urgent need to initiate an academic exercise aimed at attaining revamping of curriculum, keeping in pace with current and emerging trends in the field of pharmacy. Unfortunately all these years, enough emphasis was not laid on strengthening the components of Community Pharmacy, Hospital and Clinical pharmacy, while designing curriculum at diploma and degree levels of teaching. The curriculum followed by almost all universities in India are no were up to the world standards and students are still getting the 20-30 yrs older compounding practical exposure in labs during the graduation level. The article emphasises the concept of innovation ecosystems and quality management. Application of TQM to the educational system improves the present situation. The counseling system which serves to be the gateway of the students for entry into the profession should be brought under the scanner. Introducing specializations at the graduation level will result in professional expertise and excellence. Education is a customer focused industry and every student should be capable of evaluating themselves for continuously improving their quality and professionalism. Teacher focused mastery learning should give away to student focused smart learning. An educational institution should provide the student with a stress-free atmosphere for learning and developing his intellectual capabilities. Every college should have a counseling centre to address the problems of students in their academic and personal life. An emphasis on the concept of quality teacher is included. Revival of the pharmacy education in India is the need of the hour which in turn will pave the way for the up gradation of the pharmacy profession in the country. PMID:22224042

  19. Pharmacy education in India: strategies for a better future.

    PubMed

    Jishnu, V; Gilhotra, Rm; Mishra, Dn

    2011-10-01

    In this world of specialization and globalization the pharmacy education in India is suffering from serious backdrops and flaws. There is an urgent need to initiate an academic exercise aimed at attaining revamping of curriculum, keeping in pace with current and emerging trends in the field of pharmacy. Unfortunately all these years, enough emphasis was not laid on strengthening the components of Community Pharmacy, Hospital and Clinical pharmacy, while designing curriculum at diploma and degree levels of teaching. The curriculum followed by almost all universities in India are no were up to the world standards and students are still getting the 20-30 yrs older compounding practical exposure in labs during the graduation level. The article emphasises the concept of innovation ecosystems and quality management. Application of TQM to the educational system improves the present situation. The counseling system which serves to be the gateway of the students for entry into the profession should be brought under the scanner. Introducing specializations at the graduation level will result in professional expertise and excellence. Education is a customer focused industry and every student should be capable of evaluating themselves for continuously improving their quality and professionalism. Teacher focused mastery learning should give away to student focused smart learning. An educational institution should provide the student with a stress-free atmosphere for learning and developing his intellectual capabilities. Every college should have a counseling centre to address the problems of students in their academic and personal life. An emphasis on the concept of quality teacher is included. Revival of the pharmacy education in India is the need of the hour which in turn will pave the way for the up gradation of the pharmacy profession in the country.

  20. Impact of a Faculty Orientation and Development Committee

    PubMed Central

    Jackevicius, Cynthia; Murray, Wallace I.; Hess, Karl; Pham, David Q.; Min, David I.; Le, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the faculty enrichment activities and outcomes of a faculty orientation and development committee at a college of pharmacy. The committee used a continuous quality improvement (CQI) framework that included needs assessment, planning and implementation of programs and workshops, assessment of activities, and evaluation of feedback to improve future programming. Some of the programs established by the committee include a 3-month orientation process for new hires and development workshops on a broad range of topics including scholarship (eg, research methods), teaching (eg, test-item writing), and general development (mentorship). Evidence of the committee's success is reflected by high levels of faculty attendance at workshops, positive feedback on workshop evaluations, and overall high levels of satisfaction with activities. The committee has served as a role model for improving faculty orientation and retention. PMID:22412202

  1. Faculty Retention Study, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Texas Community Coll., McAllen. Office of Institutional Research and Effectiveness.

    This survey attempted to study factors important to making faculty decide to continue or terminate employment at South Texas Community College (STCC). Surveys were e-mailed to 276 full time, regular faculty and 170 adjunct faculty with valid STCC e-mail addresses. Although 54% (150) of the full time faculty responded to the survey, it remains a…

  2. What Do Faculty Want?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chizmar, John F.; Williams, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Uses classroom experience and data from a faculty survey to explore what faculty want from instructional technology. Presents several assertions, such as "faculty want instructional technology driven by pedagogical goals" and "faculty desire Web-based tools designed for a specific pedagogical task as opposed to a Swiss-Army-knife Web tool designed…

  3. Identifying Psychological Contract Breaches to Guide Improvements in Faculty Recruitment, Retention, and Development

    PubMed Central

    Desselle, Shane P.; Draugalis, JoLaine R.; Spies, Alan R.; Davis, Tamra S.; Bolino, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To identify pharmacy faculty members’ perceptions of psychological contract breaches that can be used to guide improvements in faculty recruitment, retention, and development. Methods. A list of psychological contract breaches was developed using a Delphi procedure involving a panel of experts assembled through purposive sampling. The Delphi consisted of 4 rounds, the first of which elicited examples of psychological contract breaches in an open-ended format. The ensuing 3 rounds consisting of a survey and anonymous feedback on aggregated group responses. Results. Usable responses were obtained from 11 of 12 faculty members who completed the Delphi procedure. The final list of psychological contract breaches included 27 items, after modifications based on participant feedback in subsequent rounds. Conclusion. The psychological contract breach items generated in this study provide guidance for colleges and schools of pharmacy regarding important aspects of faculty recruitment, retention, and development. PMID:22919084

  4. Organizing a Community Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Koenigsfeld, Carrie Foust; Tice, Angela L

    2006-01-01

    Setting up a community advanced pharmacy practice experience can be an overwhelming task for many pharmacy preceptors. This article provides guidance to pharmacist preceptors in developing a complete and effective community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). When preparing for the APPE, initial discussions with the college or school of pharmacy are key. Benefits, training, and requirements should be addressed. Site preparation, including staff education, will assist in the development process. The preceptor should plan orientation day activities and determine appropriate evaluation and feedback methods. With thorough preparation, the APPE will be rewarding for both the student and the pharmacy site. PMID:17136163

  5. Pharm. D. pathways to biomedical research: the National Institutes of Health special conference on pharmacy research.

    PubMed

    Figg, William D; Chau, Cindy H; Okita, Richard; Preusch, Peter; Tracy, Timothy S; McLeod, Howard; Reed, Michael; Pieper, John; Knoell, Daren; Miller, Ken; Speedie, Marilyn; Blouin, Robert; Kroboth, Patricia; Koda-Kimble, Mary Anne; Taylor, Palmer; Cohen, Jordan; Giacomini, Kathy

    2008-07-01

    To address the shortage of research-trained pharmaceutical scientists (or doctor of pharmacy [Pharm.D.] scientists), a 2-day pharmacy research conference titled "Pharm.D. Pathways to Biomedical Research" was convened on December 13-14, 2006, at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) campus (Bethesda, MD). The workshop included invited speakers and participants from academia, industry, and government. Forty-two pharmacy schools were represented, including deans and clinical pharmaceutical scientists with current NIH funding. In addition, several pharmacy professional organizations were represented--American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, American College of Clinical Pharmacy, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, and the Accreditation Council on Pharmaceutical Education. The workshop was divided into three sessions followed by breakout discussion groups: the first session focused on presentations by leading pharmaceutical scientists who described their path to success; the second session examined the NIH grant system, particularly as it relates to training opportunities in biomedical research and funding mechanisms; and the third session addressed biomedical research education and training from the perspective of scientific societies and academia. We summarize the discussions and findings from the workshop and highlight some important considerations for the future of research in the pharmacy community. This report also puts forth recommendations for educating future pharmaceutical scientists.

  6. Comparing Pharmacy Benefit Managers: Moving Well Beyond the Simple Spreadsheet Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, David

    2008-01-01

    Unabated increases in prescription drug demands, advancing technology, and rising drug inflation rates combined with a sagging economy, continue to intensify budget pressures for payors responsible for delivering pharmacy benefits to plan members. At the same time, high levels of complexity and resource requirements in drug benefit administration have led to a state in which plan sponsors remain heavily dependent on pharmacy benefit managers to assist in these efforts. With pharmacy representing such a critical component of healthcare delivery from clinical and economic perspectives, it is essential that sponsors exercise high levels of due diligence in pharmacy benefit manager review and appraisal to ensure proper balance of quality clinical care, sufficient access, and optimal cost-efficiency in the delivery of such benefits. This review is designed to provide a comprehensive understanding of current pharmacy benefit management business practices and help equip plan sponsors with the knowledge, strategies, and safeguards to drive a well-informed pharmacy benefit selection process and, inevitably, a better-aligned pharmacy benefit management–payor relationship. PMID:25126235

  7. E-Prescribing Errors in Community Pharmacies: Exploring Consequences and Contributing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore types of e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies and their potential consequences, as well as the factors that contribute to e-prescribing errors. Methods Data collection involved performing 45 total hours of direct observations in five pharmacies. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 20 study participants. Transcripts from observations and interviews were subjected to content analysis using NVivo 10. Results Pharmacy staff detected 75 e-prescription errors during the 45 hour observation in pharmacies. The most common e-prescribing errors were wrong drug quantity, wrong dosing directions, wrong duration of therapy, and wrong dosage formulation. Participants estimated that 5 in 100 e-prescriptions have errors. Drug classes that were implicated in e-prescribing errors were antiinfectives, inhalers, ophthalmic, and topical agents. The potential consequences of e-prescribing errors included increased likelihood of the patient receiving incorrect drug therapy, poor disease management for patients, additional work for pharmacy personnel, increased cost for pharmacies and patients, and frustrations for patients and pharmacy staff. Factors that contribute to errors included: technology incompatibility between pharmacy and clinic systems, technology design issues such as use of auto-populate features and dropdown menus, and inadvertently entering incorrect information. Conclusion Study findings suggest that a wide range of e-prescribing errors are encountered in community pharmacies. Pharmacists and technicians perceive that causes of e-prescribing errors are multidisciplinary and multifactorial, that is to say e-prescribing errors can originate from technology used in prescriber offices and pharmacies. PMID:24657055

  8. Do online pharmacies fit European internal markets?

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Mia Maria; Rautava, Päivi Tuire; Forsström, Jari Johannes

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the suitability of online pharmacies into European internal market area. This required considering the models of present online pharmacies in respect to the existing legislation. Data on online pharmacy settings was collected by looking some online pharmacies, which were found by using Goggle search machine with term "online pharmacy" and by studying websites of some well-known online pharmacies. European legislation and policy were studied from European Union's official website. Online drug markets seem to be increasing in popularity for reasons related to their ready availability and cost benefits. Few online pharmacies are based in Europe, yet online markets are worldwide. Community legislation does not stipulate on the legality of online pharmacies on European internal markets. Instead Community legislation offers framework for electronic commerce that could also include online pharmacy practise. National legislation, however, may rule them out either directly or indirectly. Regardless of European internal markets online pharmacies' cross-border operations are particularly complicated. Preliminary ruling from the European Court of Justice concerning one European online pharmacy's cross-border practise is awaited 2003-2004 and will offer some aspects for future. PMID:15802158

  9. Do online pharmacies fit European internal markets?

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Mia Maria; Rautava, Päivi Tuire; Forsström, Jari Johannes

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the suitability of online pharmacies into European internal market area. This required considering the models of present online pharmacies in respect to the existing legislation. Data on online pharmacy settings was collected by looking some online pharmacies, which were found by using Goggle search machine with term "online pharmacy" and by studying websites of some well-known online pharmacies. European legislation and policy were studied from European Union's official website. Online drug markets seem to be increasing in popularity for reasons related to their ready availability and cost benefits. Few online pharmacies are based in Europe, yet online markets are worldwide. Community legislation does not stipulate on the legality of online pharmacies on European internal markets. Instead Community legislation offers framework for electronic commerce that could also include online pharmacy practise. National legislation, however, may rule them out either directly or indirectly. Regardless of European internal markets online pharmacies' cross-border operations are particularly complicated. Preliminary ruling from the European Court of Justice concerning one European online pharmacy's cross-border practise is awaited 2003-2004 and will offer some aspects for future.

  10. Promoting residencies to pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Knapp, K K

    1991-08-01

    A program for promoting pharmacy residency training to pharmacy students at the University of the Pacific (UOP) is described. A residency club was started in 1982 to increase UOP students' interest in residency training and to provide them with relevant information. Some students needed to be convinced that residencies were primarily educational rather than staffing experiences. Students were made aware of pharmacists' practice in specialty areas, for which residency training is needed, and were taught how to prepare themselves for selection for residencies. The club was formed to encourage mutual support among the students, which would be less likely to occur if residencies were promoted only through work with individual students. Club meetings provide information about available residencies, the application process, and the value of residency training to a career in pharmacy. Students are taught how to prepare curricula vitae, how to interview, and how to select programs to which to apply. Applications for residencies increased. Although the rate of acceptance was low at first, it was expected to increase as more UOP students demonstrated their interest in and qualification for residency training. The promotion of residencies as part of a balanced career planning and placement program for pharmacy students is encouraged.

  11. Pharmacy Technician. Technical Committee Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This report contains the task list for the pharmacy technician program in the state of Idaho. The task list reflects the current trends and skills necessary for an employee to obtain a job in this industry in Idaho, retain a job once hired, and advance in the occupational field. Technical information provided includes program area, program title,…

  12. Working in Pharmacies. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driever, Carl W.; McClaugherty, Larry

    This publication, one of a series of self-contained instructional materials for students enrolled in training within the allied health field, includes competencies that are associated with the performance of skills by students beginning the study of pharmacy assistance. It is intended to be used for individualized instruction under the supervision…

  13. [Internet pharmacies and counterfeit drugs].

    PubMed

    Schweim, Janna K; Schweim, Harald G

    2009-02-15

    Counterfeit drugs are mainly distributed via the internet. On statement of the World Health Organization (WHO), one medicine out of ten ordered on the internet is counterfeit. Fighting against counterfeits needs close and international cooperation among manufacturers, wholesalers, pharmacies and agencies.

  14. Assertiveness Training for Pharmacy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimberlin, Carole L.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of assertiveness is defined, some of the theorized reasons for nonassertiveness problems are examined, and some methods used in assertiveness training are described, with special attention to their application with pharmacy students. Assertiveness training is recommended for pharmacists to assume a leadership role in health care.…

  15. A Pharmacy Political Advocacy Elective Course

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Patricia H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To develop and implement an elective course to increase pharmacy students’ awareness of legislation that might affect the pharmacy profession and to promote advocacy for the profession. Design. Students participated in class discussions regarding current legislative issues and methods to advocate for the pharmacy profession. Assignments included a student-led presentation of the advocacy agendas for various pharmacy organizations, a take-home examination, participation in class debates, and a legislative presentation. Assessment. Forty-eight students enrolled in the elective course over 3 years. Assignments and class participation were assessed using grading rubrics. At the end of the semester, students completed a questionnaire to assess the overall benefit of the course. Conclusions. Participation in an elective course devoted to pharmacy political advocacy increased awareness of legislation and the desire to become involved in pharmacy organizations to promote the pharmacy profession. PMID:21969723

  16. A mentoring program to help junior faculty members achieve scholarship success.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Harold

    2014-03-12

    The University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy launched the Bill and Karen Campbell Faculty Mentoring Program (CMP) in 2006 to support scholarship-intensive junior faculty members. This report describes the origin, expectations, principles, and best practices that led to the introduction of the program, reviews the operational methods chosen for its implementation, provides information about its successes, and analyzes its strengths and limitations.

  17. Polling places, pharmacies, and public health: Vote & Vax 2012.

    PubMed

    Shenson, Douglas; Moore, Ryan T; Benson, William; Anderson, Lynda A

    2015-06-01

    US national elections, which draw sizable numbers of older voters, take place during flu-shot season and represent an untapped opportunity for large-scale delivery of vaccinations. In 2012, Vote & Vax deployed a total of 1585 clinics in 48 states; Washington, DC; Guam; Puerto Rico; and the US Virgin Islands. Approximately 934 clinics were located in pharmacies, and 651 were near polling places. Polling place clinics delivered significantly more vaccines than did pharmacies (5710 vs 3669). The delivery of vaccines was estimated at 9379, and approximately 45% of the recipients identified their race/ethnicity as African American or Hispanic. More than half of the White Vote & Vax recipients and more than two thirds of the non-White recipients were not regular flu shot recipients. PMID:25879150

  18. Polling places, pharmacies, and public health: Vote & Vax 2012.

    PubMed

    Shenson, Douglas; Moore, Ryan T; Benson, William; Anderson, Lynda A

    2015-06-01

    US national elections, which draw sizable numbers of older voters, take place during flu-shot season and represent an untapped opportunity for large-scale delivery of vaccinations. In 2012, Vote & Vax deployed a total of 1585 clinics in 48 states; Washington, DC; Guam; Puerto Rico; and the US Virgin Islands. Approximately 934 clinics were located in pharmacies, and 651 were near polling places. Polling place clinics delivered significantly more vaccines than did pharmacies (5710 vs 3669). The delivery of vaccines was estimated at 9379, and approximately 45% of the recipients identified their race/ethnicity as African American or Hispanic. More than half of the White Vote & Vax recipients and more than two thirds of the non-White recipients were not regular flu shot recipients.

  19. Polling Places, Pharmacies, and Public Health: Vote & Vax 2012

    PubMed Central

    Shenson, Douglas; Moore, Ryan T.; Benson, William; Anderson, Lynda A.

    2015-01-01

    US national elections, which draw sizable numbers of older voters, take place during flu-shot season and represent an untapped opportunity for large-scale delivery of vaccinations. In 2012, Vote & Vax deployed a total of 1585 clinics in 48 states; Washington, DC; Guam; Puerto Rico; and the US Virgin Islands. Approximately 934 clinics were located in pharmacies, and 651 were near polling places. Polling place clinics delivered significantly more vaccines than did pharmacies (5710 vs 3669). The delivery of vaccines was estimated at 9379, and approximately 45% of the recipients identified their race/ethnicity as African American or Hispanic. More than half of the White Vote & Vax recipients and more than two thirds of the non-White recipients were not regular flu shot recipients. PMID:25879150

  20. The Effect of Reflective Activities on Reflective Thinking Ability in an Undergraduate Pharmacy Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R.; Smith, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al1 Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice. PMID:27293232

  1. The Effect of Reflective Activities on Reflective Thinking Ability in an Undergraduate Pharmacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Tsingos-Lucas, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R; Smith, Lorraine

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al(1) Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice. PMID:27293232

  2. A Pharmacy Blueprint for Electronic Medical Record Implementation Success

    PubMed Central

    Bach, David S.; Risko, Kenneth R.; Farber, Margo S.; Polk, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Implementation of an integrated, electronic medical record (EMR) has been promoted as a means of improving patient safety and quality. While there are a few reports of such processes that incorporate computerized prescriber order entry, pharmacy verification, an electronic medication administration record (eMAR), point-of-care barcode scanning, and clinical decision support, there are no published reports on how a pharmacy department can best participate in implementing such a process across a multihospital health care system. Method: This article relates the experience of the design, build, deployment, and maintenance of an integrated EMR solution from the pharmacy perspective. It describes a 9-month planning and build phase and the subsequent rollout at 8 hospitals over the following 13 months. Results: Key components to success are identified, as well as a set of guiding principles that proved invaluable in decision making and dispute resolution. Labor/personnel requirements for the various stages of the process are discussed, as are issues involving medication workflow analysis, drug database considerations, the development of clinical order sets, and incorporation of bar-code scanning of medications. Recommended implementation and maintenance strategies are presented, and the impact of EMR implementation on the pharmacy practice model and revenue analysis are examined. Conclusion: Adherence to the principles and practices outlined in this article can assist pharmacy administrators and clinicians during all medication-related phases of the development, implementation, and maintenance of an EMR solution. Furthermore, review and incorporation of some or all of practices presented may help ease the process and ensure its success. PMID:26405340

  3. Family Medicine Educators' Perceptions of the Future of Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quirk, Mark; Lasser, Daniel; Domino, Frank; Chuman, Alan; Devaney-O'Neil, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Family medicine faculty participated in focus groups to gather their perceptions about faculty development. They emphasized that faculty development methods must be proven effective, woven into the fabric of clinical practice, and deal with increasing time and financial pressures. Much discussion was related to the need for national and regional…

  4. An alternative path to improving university Earth science teaching and developing the geoscience workforce: Postdoctoral research faculty involvement in clinical teacher preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirakparvar, N. A.; Sessa, J.; Ustunisik, G. K.; Nadeau, P. A.; Flores, K. E.; Ebel, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2020 relative to 2009, there will be 28% more Earth Science jobs paying ≥ $75,000/year1 in the U.S.A. These jobs will require advanced degrees, but compared to all arts and science advanced degrees, the number of physical science M.S. and Ph.D. awarded per year decreased from 2.5% in 1980 to 1.5% in 20092. This decline is reflected on a smaller scale and at a younger age: in the New York City school system only 36% of all 8th graders have basic proficiency in science 3. These figures indicate that the lack achievement in science starts at a young age and then extends into higher education. Research has shown that students in grades 7 - 12 4,5 and in university level courses 6 both respond positively to high quality science teaching. However, much attention is focused on improving science teaching in grades 7- 12, whereas at many universities lower level science courses are taught by junior research and contingent faculty who typically lack formal training, and sometimes interest, in effective teaching. The danger here is that students might enter university intending to pursue geoscience degrees, but then encounter ineffective instructors, causing them to lose interest in geoscience and thus pursue other disciplines. The crux of the matter becomes how to improve the quality of university-level geoscience teaching, without losing sight of the major benchmark of success for research faculty - scholarly publications reporting innovative research results. In most cases, it would not be feasible to sidetrack the research goals of early career scientists by placing them into a formal teacher preparation program. But what happens when postdoctoral research scientists take an active role in clinical teacher preparation as part of their research appointments? The American Museum of Natural History's Masters of Arts in Teaching (AMNH-MAT) urban residency pilot program utilizes a unique approach to grade 7 - 12 Earth Science teacher

  5. Communications training in pharmacy education, 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    Wallman, Andy; Vaudan, Cristina; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2013-03-12

    The role of the pharmacist as a "communicator" of information and advice between patients, other healthcare practitioners, and the community is recognized as a vital component of the responsibilities of a practicing pharmacist. Pharmacy education is changing to reflect this, although the difficulty is in designing a curriculum that is capable of equipping students with the necessary knowledge and skills, using activities that are effective in promoting communication competency. The objective of this review was to identify published, peer-reviewed articles concerning communication training in pharmacy education programs, and describe which communication skills the structured learning activities aimed to improve and how these learning activities were assessed. A systematic literature search was conducted and the articles found were analyzed and divided into categories based on specific communication skills taught and type of learning activity used. Oral interpersonal communication skills targeted at patients were the most common skill-type described, followed by clinical writing skills. Common teaching methods included simulated and standardized patient interactions and pharmacy practice experience courses. Most educational interventions were assessed by subjective measures. Many interventions were described as fragments, in isolation of other learning activities that took place in a course, which impedes complete analysis of study results. To succeed in communication training, integration between different learning activities and progression within pharmacy educations are important.

  6. Communications Training in Pharmacy Education, 1995-2010

    PubMed Central

    Vaudan, Cristina; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2013-01-01

    The role of the pharmacist as a “communicator” of information and advice between patients, other healthcare practitioners, and the community is recognized as a vital component of the responsibilities of a practicing pharmacist. Pharmacy education is changing to reflect this, although the difficulty is in designing a curriculum that is capable of equipping students with the necessary knowledge and skills, using activities that are effective in promoting communication competency. The objective of this review was to identify published, peer-reviewed articles concerning communication training in pharmacy education programs, and describe which communication skills the structured learning activities aimed to improve and how these learning activities were assessed. A systematic literature search was conducted and the articles found were analyzed and divided into categories based on specific communication skills taught and type of learning activity used. Oral interpersonal communication skills targeted at patients were the most common skill-type described, followed by clinical writing skills. Common teaching methods included simulated and standardized patient interactions and pharmacy practice experience courses. Most educational interventions were assessed by subjective measures. Many interventions were described as fragments, in isolation of other learning activities that took place in a course, which impedes complete analysis of study results. To succeed in communication training, integration between different learning activities and progression within pharmacy educations are important. PMID:23519011

  7. Social Pharmacy: Its Performance and Promise.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Among private Universities of Pharmacy in Japan, Kyoritsu University of Pharmacy was the first to introduce courses in social pharmacy in 1991. Social pharmacy is a discipline driven by social needs. By studying the relationship between pharmacy and society, particularly through case studies, the impact of drugs and changes in societal expectation of them, as well as through historical background studies and surveys of current trends, this discipline acts to determine the roles of pharmacists and pharmacies expected by society. Social pharmacy requires a basic knowledge of pharmaceutical science, but an understanding from economic viewpoints of the current systems and structures in which healthcare functions is important as well. Once these are understood, the goal is to identify social problems, and to create and apply models for their resolution which connect pharmacy and society. So far, social pharmacy has played an important role in training programs for community-based pharmacists essential for a hyper-aged society, for community pharmacies' health management programs aimed at promoting the health of residents, and educational programs for elementary and middle school children.

  8. 21 CFR 1304.55 - Reports by online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports by online pharmacies. 1304.55 Section 1304... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.55 Reports by online pharmacies. (a) Each online pharmacy shall report to... dosage units dispensed of all controlled substances combined. (b) Each online pharmacy shall report...

  9. Challenges to counseling customers at the pharmacy counter--why do they exist?

    PubMed

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2012-01-01

    Challenges to engage pharmacy customers in medicine dialogues at the counter have been identified comprising a new and extended clinical role for pharmacists in the health care system. This article seeks to expand understanding of factors involved in successful interaction at the pharmacy counter between customers and pharmacy staff to develop their relationship further. Practical challenges to customer encounters experienced by community pharmacists are discussed using theory from the field of mainly inter-relational communication and particular studies on pharmacy communication. Preconceived expectation of customers, the type of question asked by pharmacy staff, and differences in perception of illness and medicines between staff and customers are discussed. Both staff and customer influence the outcome of attempts by pharmacy staff to engage customers in dialogue about their medicine use through a complex mechanism of interaction. It is recommended that practitioners and researchers begin to distinguish, both theoretically and practically, between the content of a conversation and the underlying relationship when exploring and further developing the therapeutic relationship between pharmacy personnel and customers. PMID:21955809

  10. Congruence of Self-Reported Medications With Pharmacy Prescription Records In Low-Income Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Caskie, Grace I. L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the congruence of self-reported medications with computerized pharmacy records. Design and Methods Pharmacy records and self-reported medications were obtained for 294 members of a state pharmaceutical assistance program who also participated in ACTIVE, a clinical trial on cognitive training in nondemented elderly persons. The average age of the sample participants was 74.5 years (range = 65–91); 87.8% were females. Results Congruence between self-report and pharmacy data was generally high. Self-reports omitted drug classes in the pharmacy records less often than the pharmacy records did not include self-reported drug classes. The percentage of individuals with perfect agreement between self-reports and pharmacy records varied from 49% for major drug classes to 81 % for specific cardiovascular and central nervous system drugs. Within a drug class, agreement tended to be higher for individuals without a prescription in that class. Poorer health was consistently related to poorer self-report of medications. Implications Self-reported medications are most likely to be congruent with pharmacy records for drugs prescribed for more serious conditions, for more specific classes of drugs, and for healthier individuals. PMID:15075414

  11. The effects of shifting tasks from pharmacy to non-pharmacy personnel for providing antiretroviral therapy to people living with HIV: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mbeye, Nyanyiwe M; Kredo, Tamara; Wiysonge, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Shifting selected antiretroviral therapy (ART) tasks from specialised healthcare workers to those with shorter or less formal training has been implemented in resource-limited settings to alleviate critical shortages of human resources for health. However, the specifics of shifting ART dispensing from pharmacy to non-pharmacy personnel have not been addressed in a systematic review, although this can potentially increase access to ART. We will assess the effects of shifting dispensing and distribution of ART and adherence assessment from pharmacy to non-pharmacy personnel in low and middle-income countries. Methods and analysis We will search PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE, WHO Global Health Library and relevant grey literature for eligible controlled trials. Two authors will screen the search output, select eligible studies, assess risk of bias and extract data from included studies, resolving discrepancies by discussion and consensus. We will perform meta-analysis using both fixed and random effects models, investigate clinical and statistical heterogeneity, and assess our confidence in the overall evidence using standard Cochrane methods, including GRADE. Ethics and dissemination Only secondary data will be included in this review and ethics approval is not required. We will disseminate the review findings in various scientific fora, including peer-reviewed journals. The findings may help to inform policy makers in defining the scope of work of healthcare workers, and global recommendations for shifting the dispensing and distribution of ART from pharmacy to non-pharmacy personnel. Trial registration number CRD42015017034. PMID:26969641

  12. Specialty Pharmacy at a Crossroad

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, KATHERINE T.

    2005-01-01

    Consolidation of the specialty pharmacy business indicates a repositioning to buy new market channels, reduce costs, and compete in a burgeoning market. The challenge for SP is to prove its value to payers. Some companies are doing that on the basis of price or by offering care management services. Here’s a look at a business in transition as it redefines itself for the biologics era. PMID:23424307

  13. International Practice Experiences in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Jawaid, Sarah Parnapy; Kendall, Debra A.; McPherson, Charles E.; Mu, Keli; Weston, Grady Scott; Roberts, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To identify reasons for inclusion of international practice experiences in pharmacy curricula and to understand the related structure, benefits, and challenges related to the programs. Methods. A convenience sample of 20 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States with international pharmacy education programs was used. Telephone interviews were conducted by 2 study investigators. Results. University values and strategic planning were among key driving forces in the development of programs. Global awareness and cultural competency requirements added impetus to program development. Participants’ advice for creating an international practice experience program included an emphasis on the value of working with university health professions programs and established travel programs. Conclusion. Despite challenges, colleges and schools of pharmacy value the importance of international pharmacy education for pharmacy students as it increases global awareness of health needs and cultural competencies. PMID:24249850

  14. Quality indicators to compare accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Arkaravichien, Wiwat; Wongpratat, Apichaya; Lertsinudom, Sunee

    2016-08-01

    Background Quality indicators determine the quality of actual practice in reference to standard criteria. The Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand), with technical support from the International Pharmaceutical Federation, developed a tool for quality assessment and quality improvement at community pharmacies. This tool has passed validity and reliability tests, but has not yet had feasibility testing. Objective (1) To test whether this quality tool could be used in routine settings. (2) To compare quality scores between accredited independent and accredited chain pharmacies. Setting Accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in the north eastern region of Thailand. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies. Quality scores were assessed by observation and by interviewing the responsible pharmacists. Data were collected and analyzed by independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate. Results were plotted by histogram and spider chart. Main outcome measure Domain's assessable scores, possible maximum scores, mean and median of measured scores. Results Domain's assessable scores were close to domain's possible maximum scores. This meant that most indicators could be assessed in most pharmacies. The spider chart revealed that measured scores in the personnel, drug inventory and stocking, and patient satisfaction and health promotion domains of chain pharmacies were significantly higher than those of independent pharmacies (p < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between independent pharmacies and chain pharmacies in the premise and facility or dispensing and patient care domains. Conclusion Quality indicators developed by the Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand) could be used to assess quality of practice in pharmacies in routine settings. It is revealed that the quality scores of chain pharmacies were higher than those of independent pharmacies.

  15. Knowledge and attitudes of doctor of pharmacy students regarding the appropriate use of antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Justo, Julie Ann; Gauthier, Timothy P; Scheetz, Marc H; Chahine, Elias B; Bookstaver, P Brandon; Gallagher, Jason C; Hermsen, Elizabeth D; DePestel, Daryl D; Ernst, Erika J; Jacobs, David M; Esterly, John S; Suda, Katie J; Olsen, Keith M; Abbo, Lilian M; MacDougall, Conan

    2014-10-15

    Pharmacists are key partners in antimicrobial stewardship efforts, yet their degree of education on and attitudes toward this topic during training are not well documented. An electronic survey measuring knowledge and attitudes regarding antimicrobial use and resistance was administered to graduating pharmacy students at 12 US schools of pharmacy. Of 1445 pharmacy students, 579 (40%) completed the survey. The vast majority (94%) believed that strong knowledge of antimicrobials was important for their pharmacy careers, and 89% desired more education on appropriate antimicrobial use. Most students (84%) considered their pharmacy education regarding antimicrobials useful or very useful, but there was significant variability on perceptions of preparation for most antimicrobial stewardship activities according to the students' school. The mean number of correct answers on a section of 11 knowledge questions was 5.8 (standard deviation 2.0; P value for score between schools <.001). On multivariable linear regression analysis, significant predictors of a higher knowledge score were pharmacy school attended, planned postgraduate training, completion of a clinical rotation in infectious diseases, perception of pharmacy school education as useful, use of resources to answer the knowledge questions, and use of Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines and smartphone applications as frequent resources for learning about antimicrobials. Pharmacy students perceive antimicrobial stewardship to be an important healthcare issue and desire more education on the subject. Student perceptions of antimicrobial coursework and actual antimicrobial knowledge scores significantly varied by the school of pharmacy attended. Sharing of best practices among institutions may enhance the preparation of future pharmacists to contribute to effective antimicrobial stewardship. PMID:25261543

  16. Taking the pulse of Internet pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Peterson, R T; Huang, L

    2001-01-01

    Like most businesses, online pharmacy companies will only be successful if they make sure customers are satisfied with the service they receive. But what attributes of service quality lead to satisfaction and dissatisfaction? This study identified 19 Internet pharmacy service quality dimensions in three categories: (1) product cost and availability, (2) customer service, and (3) the online information system. Our analysis uncovered attributes that tend to determine consumer satisfaction and points out ways to improve overall service quality in the Internet pharmacy arena.

  17. Exploring pharmacy and home-based sexually transmissible infection testing

    PubMed Central

    Habel, Melissa A.; Scheinmann, Roberta; Verdesoto, Elizabeth; Gaydos, Charlotte; Bertisch, Maggie; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of pharmacy and home-based sexually transmissible infection (STI) screening as alternate testing venues among emergency contraception (EC) users. Methods The study included two phases in February 2011–July 2012. In Phase I, customers purchasing EC from eight pharmacies in Manhattan received vouchers for free STI testing at onsite medical clinics. In Phase II, three Facebook ads targeted EC users to connect them with free home-based STI test kits ordered online. Participants completed a self-administered survey. Results Only 38 participants enrolled in Phase I: 90% female, ≤29 years (74%), 45% White non-Hispanic and 75% college graduates; 71% were not tested for STIs in the past year and 68% reported a new partner in the past 3 months. None tested positive for STIs. In Phase II, ads led to >45 000 click-throughs, 382 completed the survey and 290 requested kits; 28% were returned. Phase II participants were younger and less educated than Phase I participants; six tested positive for STIs. Challenges included recruitment, pharmacy staff participation, advertising with discretion and cost. Conclusions This study found low uptake of pharmacy and home-based testing among EC users; however, STI testing in these settings is feasible and the acceptability findings indicate an appeal among younger women for testing in non-traditional settings. Collaborating with and training pharmacy and medical staff are key elements of service provision. Future research should explore how different permutations of expanding screening in non-traditional settings could improve testing uptake and detect additional STI cases. PMID:26409484

  18. Faculty development for underrepresented minority dental faculty and residents.

    PubMed

    Gates, Paul; Ubu, Ngozi; Smithey, Leslie; Rogers, Jennifer; Haden, N Karl; Rodriguez, Tobias; Albino, Judith E N; Evans, Clyde; Zarkowski, Pamela; Weinstein, George; Hendricson, William D

    2013-03-01

    This report describes the implementation and evaluation of the Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center Dental Faculty Development Program (DFDP) for fifteen participants: five advanced dental education faculty members and ten residents. The 100-hour DFDP, designed in the longitudinal immersion model for faculty development, was conducted in four phases at the Bronx-Lebanon Department of Dentistry in the Bronx, New York, in 2010-11. The DFDP was implemented to help underrepresented minority (URM) dental residents and clinical faculty members develop skills necessary for academic careers and enhanced teaching effectiveness. The program's curriculum had four themes: teaching and learning, scholarship, academic leadership, and career planning. For each phase, the participants completed pre- and post-training assessments of their knowledge, attitudes, and confidence, as well as qualitative evaluation of DFDP organization, content, activities, and value. The participants' pre-instruction mean knowledge score for all phases combined was 48.3 percent, and the post-test score was 81.1 percent (p=0.01). The participants showed minimal change in their attitudes about educational issues, but they reported enhanced confidence for twenty-five skills addressed in the DFDP. The total confidence score was 77.5 (25 skills × 3.1 group mean) on all pre-tests combined and 100.2 (25 × 4.0 group mean) on the post-tests (p=0.01). The participant ratings for overall DFDP implementation and for twenty-four topical sessions were uniformly positive. The faculty and resident participants in this year-long faculty development initiative at an advanced dental education program with a high URM representation demonstrated enhanced knowledge and confidence and provided positive program evaluations. This report also describes curricular and assessment enhancements for subsequent years of the DFDP based on the first-year outcomes. PMID:23486892

  19. Pharmacy layout: What are consumers' perceptions?.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Dennis; Paul, David P; Chandra, Ashish; Barrett, Hilton

    2006-01-01

    The physical layout of a retail pharmacy can play a significant role in the development of the customers' perceptions which can have a positive (or negative) impact on its sales potential. Compared to most general merchandise stores, pharmacies are more concerned about safety and security issues due to the nature of their products. This paper will discuss these aspects as well as the physical and professional environments of retail pharmacies that influence the perceptions of customers and how these vary whether chain, independent, or hospital pharmacies.

  20. Pharmacy layout: What are consumers' perceptions?.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Dennis; Paul, David P; Chandra, Ashish; Barrett, Hilton

    2006-01-01

    The physical layout of a retail pharmacy can play a significant role in the development of the customers' perceptions which can have a positive (or negative) impact on its sales potential. Compared to most general merchandise stores, pharmacies are more concerned about safety and security issues due to the nature of their products. This paper will discuss these aspects as well as the physical and professional environments of retail pharmacies that influence the perceptions of customers and how these vary whether chain, independent, or hospital pharmacies. PMID:17062535

  1. Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Approaches in Pharmacy Education.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lindsay C; Donohoe, Krista L; Holdford, David A

    2016-04-25

    Domain 3 of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) 2013 Educational Outcomes recommends that pharmacy school curricula prepare students to be better problem solvers, but are silent on the type of problems they should be prepared to solve. We identified five basic approaches to problem solving in the curriculum at a pharmacy school: clinical, ethical, managerial, economic, and legal. These approaches were compared to determine a generic process that could be applied to all pharmacy decisions. Although there were similarities in the approaches, generic problem solving processes may not work for all problems. Successful problem solving requires identification of the problems faced and application of the right approach to the situation. We also advocate that the CAPE Outcomes make explicit the importance of different approaches to problem solving. Future pharmacists will need multiple approaches to problem solving to adapt to the complexity of health care.

  2. Journal Clubs During Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences to Teach Literature-Evaluation Skills

    PubMed Central

    Gim, Suzanna; Nogid, Anna; Shah, Bupendra

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ attitudes and academic performance related to journal club during 2 advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Design. Fourth-year pharmacy students were required to complete 3 journal club assignments during drug information and internal medicine APPEs. Assessment. A majority (91.3%) of the 105 students who responded to a 21-item survey instrument indicated that journal club assignments during the drug-information APPE were valuable to their understanding of research design and statistics. Students who completed the drug-information APPE before the internal medicine APPE scored higher on their understanding of the strengths and weaknesses and the clinical relevance of studies and had a higher learning slope (p = 0.01) than did students who completed the internal medicine APPE first. Conclusion. Incorporating journal clubs into APPEs is an effective means of teaching literature-evaluation skills to pharmacy students. PMID:22761529

  3. Faculty tenure in American medical schools.

    PubMed

    Spellman, M W; Meiklejohn, G

    1977-08-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of academic tenure for clinical faculties, including an appraisal of its financial burdens, the utility of modified or alternative systems, and the issue of abolition of tenure, were examined through a questionnaire to which deans and faculty representatives of 106 American medical schools responded during 1975-76. Tenure is valued by most deans and faculty members. A flexible tenure policy permitting appointment of some faculty members to senior academic posts without tenure was endorsed by the deans of 10 selected medical schools who were interviewed. Growth of medical faculties is decelerating; a steady state has not been attained but is imminent. Financial pressures and demands for change will increasingly challenge the tenure system. PMID:886568

  4. A patient-centered pharmacy services model of HIV patient care in community pharmacy settings: a theoretical and empirical framework.

    PubMed

    Kibicho, Jennifer; Owczarzak, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Reflecting trends in health care delivery, pharmacy practice has shifted from a drug-specific to a patient-centered model of care, aimed at improving the quality of patient care and reducing health care costs. In this article, we outline a theoretical model of patient-centered pharmacy services (PCPS), based on in-depth, qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of 28 pharmacists providing care to HIV-infected patients in specialty, semispecialty, and nonspecialty pharmacy settings. Data analysis was an interactive process informed by pharmacists' interviews and a review of the general literature on patient centered care, including Medication Therapy Management (MTM) services. Our main finding was that the current models of pharmacy services, including MTM, do not capture the range of pharmacy services in excess of mandated drug dispensing services. In this article, we propose a theoretical PCPS model that reflects the actual services pharmacists provide. The model includes five elements: (1) addressing patients as whole, contextualized persons; (2) customizing interventions to unique patient circumstances; (3) empowering patients to take responsibility for their own health care; (4) collaborating with clinical and nonclinical providers to address patient needs; and (5) developing sustained relationships with patients. The overarching goal of PCPS is to empower patients' to take responsibility for their own health care and self-manage their HIV-infection. Our findings provide the foundation for future studies regarding how widespread these practices are in diverse community settings, the validity of the proposed PCPS model, the potential for standardizing pharmacist practices, and the feasibility of a PCPS framework to reimburse pharmacists services.

  5. A Comparison of Patient-Centered Care in Pharmacy Curricula in the United States and Europe.

    PubMed

    Nunes-da-Cunha, Ines; Arguello, Blanca; Martinez, Fernando Martinez; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To compare United States and European Higher Education Area (EHEA) undergraduate pharmacy curricula in terms of patient-centered care courses. Methods. Websites from all pharmacy colleges or schools in the United States and the 41 countries in the EHEA were retrieved from the FIP Official World List of Pharmacy Schools and investigated. A random sample of schools was selected and, based on analyses of course descriptions from syllabi, each course was classified into the following categories: social/behavioral/administrative pharmacy sciences, clinical sciences, experiential, or other/basic sciences. Results. Of 147 schools of pharmacy, 59 were included (23 in US and 36 in the EHEA). Differences existed in the percentages of credits/hours in all of the four subject area categories. Conclusion. Institutions in EHEA countries maintain a greater focus on basic sciences and a lower load of clinical sciences in pharmacy curricula compared to the United States. These differences may not be in accordance with international recommendations to educate future pharmacists focused on patient care.

  6. A Comparison of Patient-Centered Care in Pharmacy Curricula in the United States and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Nunes-da-Cunha, Ines; Arguello, Blanca; Martinez, Fernando Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare United States and European Higher Education Area (EHEA) undergraduate pharmacy curricula in terms of patient-centered care courses. Methods. Websites from all pharmacy colleges or schools in the United States and the 41 countries in the EHEA were retrieved from the FIP Official World List of Pharmacy Schools and investigated. A random sample of schools was selected and, based on analyses of course descriptions from syllabi, each course was classified into the following categories: social/behavioral/administrative pharmacy sciences, clinical sciences, experiential, or other/basic sciences. Results. Of 147 schools of pharmacy, 59 were included (23 in US and 36 in the EHEA). Differences existed in the percentages of credits/hours in all of the four subject area categories. Conclusion. Institutions in EHEA countries maintain a greater focus on basic sciences and a lower load of clinical sciences in pharmacy curricula compared to the United States. These differences may not be in accordance with international recommendations to educate future pharmacists focused on patient care. PMID:27402986

  7. University cardiology clinic.

    PubMed

    Borozanov, V

    2013-01-01

    In distant 1972, within framework of the Internal Clinic, a cardiologic department was organized which was soon, on 29.XII.1974, transformed into the Cardiology Clinic, later the Institute for Heart Diseases, and in 2008 was renamed the University Cardiology Clinic. The greater part of its foundation was possible owing to Prof. Dimitar Arsov and Prof. Radovan Percinkovski, who was the clinic's first director in the period from 1974 to 1984. In 1985, the Clinic moved into its own new building, and in that way was physically detached from the Internal Clinics. Until its move to the new building, the Clinic functioned in the Internal Clinics building, organized as an outpatient polyclinic and inpatient infirmary department with clinical beds, a coronary intensive care unit and a haemodynamics laboratory equipped with the most modern equipment of that time. Today the Clinic functions through two integral divisions: an inpatient infirmary department which comprises an intensive coronary care unit and fourteen wards which altogether have 139 clinical beds, and the diagnostic centre which comprises an emergency clinic and day hospital, a communal and consultative outpatients' clinic functioning on a daily basis, through which some 300-350 patients pass every day, and diagnostic laboratories with a capacity of nearly 100 non-invasive and 20-30 invasive diagnostic procedures daily. The Clinic is a teaching base, and its doctors are educators of students at the Medical, Dental and Pharmacy Faculties, and also of students at the High School for Nurses and X-ray technicians, but also for those in Internal Medicine and especially Cardiology. The Clinic is also a base for scientific Masters' and post-doctoral studies, and such higher degrees are achieved not only by doctors who work here, but also by doctors from Medical Centres both in the country and abroad. Doctors working in this institution publish widely, not only a great number of books and monographs, but also original

  8. University cardiology clinic.

    PubMed

    Borozanov, V

    2013-01-01

    In distant 1972, within framework of the Internal Clinic, a cardiologic department was organized which was soon, on 29.XII.1974, transformed into the Cardiology Clinic, later the Institute for Heart Diseases, and in 2008 was renamed the University Cardiology Clinic. The greater part of its foundation was possible owing to Prof. Dimitar Arsov and Prof. Radovan Percinkovski, who was the clinic's first director in the period from 1974 to 1984. In 1985, the Clinic moved into its own new building, and in that way was physically detached from the Internal Clinics. Until its move to the new building, the Clinic functioned in the Internal Clinics building, organized as an outpatient polyclinic and inpatient infirmary department with clinical beds, a coronary intensive care unit and a haemodynamics laboratory equipped with the most modern equipment of that time. Today the Clinic functions through two integral divisions: an inpatient infirmary department which comprises an intensive coronary care unit and fourteen wards which altogether have 139 clinical beds, and the diagnostic centre which comprises an emergency clinic and day hospital, a communal and consultative outpatients' clinic functioning on a daily basis, through which some 300-350 patients pass every day, and diagnostic laboratories with a capacity of nearly 100 non-invasive and 20-30 invasive diagnostic procedures daily. The Clinic is a teaching base, and its doctors are educators of students at the Medical, Dental and Pharmacy Faculties, and also of students at the High School for Nurses and X-ray technicians, but also for those in Internal Medicine and especially Cardiology. The Clinic is also a base for scientific Masters' and post-doctoral studies, and such higher degrees are achieved not only by doctors who work here, but also by doctors from Medical Centres both in the country and abroad. Doctors working in this institution publish widely, not only a great number of books and monographs, but also original

  9. Knowledge, Skills, and Resources for Pharmacy Informatics Education

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Brent I.; Flynn, Allen J.; Fortier, Christopher R.; Clauson, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacy has an established history of technology use to support business processes. Pharmacy informatics education within doctor of pharmacy programs, however, is inconsistent, despite its inclusion as a requirement in the 2007 Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards and Guidelines. This manuscript describes pharmacy informatics knowledge and skills that all graduating pharmacy students should possess, conceptualized within the framework of the medication use process. Additionally, we suggest core source materials and specific learning activities to support pharmacy informatics education. We conclude with a brief discussion of emerging changes in the practice model. These changes are facilitated by pharmacy informatics and will inevitably become commonplace in our graduates’ practice environment. PMID:21829267

  10. The changing face of pharmacy practice and the need for a new model of pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Toklu, Hale Zerrin; Hussain, Azhar

    2013-06-01

    Pharmacy profession has evolved from its conventional and traditional drug focused basis to an advanced patient focused basis over the years. In the past century the pharmacists were more involved in compounding and manufacturing of medicines, but this role has significantly reduced over time. This advancement in the role of pharmacist calls for them to be the part of the broader health care team working for providing better health care for the patients, thus contributing in achieving the global millennium development goals. To match up, the role of today's pharmacists needs to be expanded to include pharmaceutical care concepts, making the pharmacist a health care professional rather than a drug seller in a commercial enterprise. Therefore, pharmacy schools should prepare a program that has competence with the changing role of the pharmacist. The education should provide ability for critical thinking, improve problem-solving skills and decision making during pharmacotherapy. The student should be trained to create, transmit, and apply new knowledge based on cutting-edge research in the pharmaceutical, social, and clinical sciences; collaborate with other health professionals and learn to enhance the quality of life through improved health for the people of local society and as well as the global community.

  11. The changing face of pharmacy practice and the need for a new model of pharmacy education

    PubMed Central

    Toklu, Hale Zerrin; Hussain, Azhar

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacy profession has evolved from its conventional and traditional drug focused basis to an advanced patient focused basis over the years. In the past century the pharmacists were more involved in compounding and manufacturing of medicines, but this role has significantly reduced over time. This advancement in the role of pharmacist calls for them to be the part of the broader health care team working for providing better health care for the patients, thus contributing in achieving the global millennium development goals. To match up, the role of today's pharmacists needs to be expanded to include pharmaceutical care concepts, making the pharmacist a health care professional rather than a drug seller in a commercial enterprise. Therefore, pharmacy schools should prepare a program that has competence with the changing role of the pharmacist. The education should provide ability for critical thinking, improve problem-solving skills and decision making during pharmacotherapy. The student should be trained to create, transmit, and apply new knowledge based on cutting-edge research in the pharmaceutical, social, and clinical sciences; collaborate with other health professionals and learn to enhance the quality of life through improved health for the people of local society and as well as the global community. PMID:24023452

  12. The changing face of pharmacy practice and the need for a new model of pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Toklu, Hale Zerrin; Hussain, Azhar

    2013-06-01

    Pharmacy profession has evolved from its conventional and traditional drug focused basis to an advanced patient focused basis over the years. In the past century the pharmacists were more involved in compounding and manufacturing of medicines, but this role has significantly reduced over time. This advancement in the role of pharmacist calls for them to be the part of the broader health care team working for providing better health care for the patients, thus contributing in achieving the global millennium development goals. To match up, the role of today's pharmacists needs to be expanded to include pharmaceutical care concepts, making the pharmacist a health care professional rather than a drug seller in a commercial enterprise. Therefore, pharmacy schools should prepare a program that has competence with the changing role of the pharmacist. The education should provide ability for critical thinking, improve problem-solving skills and decision making during pharmacotherapy. The student should be trained to create, transmit, and apply new knowledge based on cutting-edge research in the pharmaceutical, social, and clinical sciences; collaborate with other health professionals and learn to enhance the quality of life through improved health for the people of local society and as well as the global community. PMID:24023452

  13. Significant Publications for Pharmacy Nutrition Support Practice in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Kumpf, Vanessa J.; Rollins, Carol J.; Frankel, Eric H.; Kraft, Michael D.; Canada, Todd W.; Crill, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To assist the pharmacy clinician engaged in nutrition support in staying current with the most pertinent literature. Methods: Several experienced board-certified clinical pharmacists in nutrition support compiled a list of publications published in 2013 that they considered to be important to their practice. The citation list was compiled into a Web-based survey whereby pharmacist members of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.), GI-Liver-Nutrition Practice Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy, and the Pharmacy and Pharmacology Section of the Society of Critical Care Medicine were asked to rank each article according to level of importance in their practice. Results: A total of 30 articles were identified by the author group. Thirty-six participants responded to the survey. The top-ranked papers by participants from the Web-based survey were reviewed by the authors. Due to its high level of importance, the parenteral nutrition safety consensus recommendations article, to be published in 2014 by A.S.P.E.N., was also reviewed. Conclusion: It is recommended that the informed pharmacist, who is engaged in nutrition support therapy, be familiar with the majority of these publications. PMID:25477597

  14. A Computer Simulation of Community Pharmacy Practice for Educational Use

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Tristan; Bereznicki, Luke; Westbury, Juanita; Chalmers, Leanne; Peterson, Gregory; Ollington, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To provide a computer-based learning method for pharmacy practice that is as effective as paper-based scenarios, but more engaging and less labor-intensive. Design. We developed a flexible and customizable computer simulation of community pharmacy. Using it, the students would be able to work through scenarios which encapsulate the entirety of a patient presentation. We compared the traditional paper-based teaching method to our computer-based approach using equivalent scenarios. The paper-based group had 2 tutors while the computer group had none. Both groups were given a prescenario and postscenario clinical knowledge quiz and survey. Assessment. Students in the computer-based group had generally greater improvements in their clinical knowledge score, and third-year students using the computer-based method also showed more improvements in history taking and counseling competencies. Third-year students also found the simulation fun and engaging. Conclusion. Our simulation of community pharmacy provided an educational experience as effective as the paper-based alternative, despite the lack of a human tutor. PMID:26056406

  15. Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions of Natural Science and Mathematics Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah Ellen; Wan, Kai-Wai

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the level of importance pharmacy students placed on science and mathematics subjects for pursuing a career in pharmacy. Method. Two hundred fifty-four students completed a survey instrument developed to investigate students’ perceptions of the relevance of science and mathematics subjects to a career in pharmacy. Pharmacy students in all 4 years of a master of pharmacy (MPharm) degree program were invited to complete the survey instrument. Results. Students viewed chemistry-based and biology-based subjects as relevant to a pharmacy career, whereas mathematics subjects such as physics, logarithms, statistics, and algebra were not viewed important to a career in pharmacy. Conclusion. Students’ experience in pharmacy and year of study influenced their perceptions of subjects relevant to a pharmacy career. Pharmacy educators need to consider how they can help students recognize the importance of scientific knowledge earlier in the pharmacy curriculum. PMID:25147390

  16. A Model for Continuing Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Newlon, Carey; Dickerhofe, Jeannine

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop and implement a continuing pharmacy education (CPE) program at Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO) Design To address the continuing education needs of its diverse pharmacy staff, an internal continuing pharmacy education (CPE) program was developed. The pharmacy department became an accredited provider by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE). Live, interactive, and evidence-based CPE programs, presented by highly qualified internal staff members, utilized videoconferencing and a Web-based learning management system. Cross-accreditation of medical and pharmacy educational programs was offered to KPCO staff members. Assessment Annual needs assessments were conducted to ensure the provision of relevant educational topics and to assess learning needs. To demonstrate outcomes of the CPE programs, 2 methods were utilized: objective effectiveness assessment and knowledge acquisition assessment. This program met the objectives for CPE activities a large majority of the time (usually over 90%), demonstrated statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvement in knowledge from before to after the CPE activity in 11 of 13 questions asked, and minimized the cost to acquire CPE credit for both the pharmacy department and its staff members. Conclusion The KPCO continuing pharmacy education program has developed a high quality and cost-favorable system that has resulted in significant improvements in attendee knowledge. PMID:19777102

  17. Pharmacy Aide. Student Manual [and] Instructor Key.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Kelly

    The first component of this three-part package is a student manual designed to be used independently in secondary health occupations programs or on-the-job training programs for pharmacy aides. The manual contains six units that cover the following topics: introduction to pharmacy, communication skills, pharmaceuticals, prescription processing,…

  18. Audiovisual Instruction in Pediatric Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchie, Kelly D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A pharmacy practice program added to the core baccalaureate curriculum at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy which includes a practice in pediatrics is described. An audiovisual program in pediatric diseases and drug therapy was developed. This program allows the presentation of more material without reducing clerkship time. (Author/MLW)

  19. Teaching about Confidentiality in Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Evelyn S.

    1989-01-01

    The recent shift in pharmacy practice from product to information orientation, patients' desires to know more about medications, computerized access to records, and increased third-party payments may result in serious ethical dilemmas for pharmacists. Pharmacy schools must provide background in the responsibilities of health care professionals to…

  20. Current and future pharmacy initiatives in institutional and corporate practice.

    PubMed

    Oddis, J A

    1984-02-01

    The future of pharmacy in organized health-care settings is discussed in light of changes in the health-care industry. The shift of health-care financing from cost-based reimbursement to prospective pricing provides pharmacists with the challenge of providing high-quality, cost-effective pharmaceutical services. Implementation of clinical pharmacy services will be a key factor in containing costs and improving patient care. The consolidation and corporate restructuring of hospitals will permit diversified services to develop in a highly competitive market. The formulary system, within which the medical staff may authorize and place conditions on the use of therapeutic equivalent drug products, will continue to play an important role in hospitals. Changes in the health-care industry will offer institutional pharmacists opportunities to enhance their roles as health professionals and as providers of economical quality care. PMID:6702832

  1. Incorporating Pharmacy Scholarship to Management Responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    Practice advancement demands innovation. Amidst professional change, pharmacy leaders have the opportunity to collaborate with colleagues to develop transformational ideas, implement these solutions, and share those successes with professionals around the state, country, and world. Scholarship, defined as contributing to the literature through publications, presentations, and other writings, is an ideal way to advance innovation within the profession. It is critical for pharmacy leaders to build scholarship into their professional workflow. Ensuring that successful projects are published or presented may translate into shared best practices. Many pharmacy leaders may find it difficult to participate in scholarship activities because of their busy schedules. This column serves to outline recommendations on how to effectively incorporate writing for publications, making presentations, and other scholarly work into the role of pharmacy leaders and managers. To reduce the barriers to scholarship, pharmacy leaders role can apply project management principles to their work and identify projects that otherwise would not be published and support their development.

  2. Quality safeguards and regulation of online pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Arruñada, Benito

    2004-04-01

    Using econometric evidence, this article confirms that distribution of medicines online is split into two market segments of very diverse quality, and identifies the factors that drive quality and quality assurance in this activity. Unlike fraudulent, 'rogue,' websites, which offer scant guarantees and usually sell just a few medicines without prescription, online pharmacies offering insurance coverage and linked to conventional pharmacies typically sell a whole range of drugs, require third-party medical prescriptions and provide abundant information to patients. It is shown that, where online pharmacies are allowed to act legally, market forces enhance quality, as private insurers require professional standards, and specialized third parties make a business of certifying them. Furthermore, older online pharmacies and those running conventional operations offer higher quality, probably because of reputational investments. Overall, this evidence supports licensing online pharmacies, especially considering that prohibiting them is ineffective against fraudulent sites.

  3. Incorporating Pharmacy Scholarship to Management Responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    Practice advancement demands innovation. Amidst professional change, pharmacy leaders have the opportunity to collaborate with colleagues to develop transformational ideas, implement these solutions, and share those successes with professionals around the state, country, and world. Scholarship, defined as contributing to the literature through publications, presentations, and other writings, is an ideal way to advance innovation within the profession. It is critical for pharmacy leaders to build scholarship into their professional workflow. Ensuring that successful projects are published or presented may translate into shared best practices. Many pharmacy leaders may find it difficult to participate in scholarship activities because of their busy schedules. This column serves to outline recommendations on how to effectively incorporate writing for publications, making presentations, and other scholarly work into the role of pharmacy leaders and managers. To reduce the barriers to scholarship, pharmacy leaders role can apply project management principles to their work and identify projects that otherwise would not be published and support their development. PMID:26823623

  4. Incorporating Pharmacy Scholarship to Management Responsibilities

    PubMed Central

    Hertig, John B.; Weber, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Practice advancement demands innovation. Amidst professional change, pharmacy leaders have the opportunity to collaborate with colleagues to develop transformational ideas, implement these solutions, and share those successes with professionals around the state, country, and world. Scholarship, defined as contributing to the literature through publications, presentations, and other writings, is an ideal way to advance innovation within the profession. It is critical for pharmacy leaders to build scholarship into their professional workflow. Ensuring that successful projects are published or presented may translate into shared best practices. Many pharmacy leaders may find it difficult to participate in scholarship activities because of their busy schedules. This column serves to outline recommendations on how to effectively incorporate writing for publications, making presentations, and other scholarly work into the role of pharmacy leaders and managers. To reduce the barriers to scholarship, pharmacy leaders role can apply project management principles to their work and identify projects that otherwise would not be published and support their development. PMID:26823623

  5. Pharmacy student expectations for professional practice.

    PubMed

    Baran, R W; Shaw, J; Crumlish, K

    1998-08-01

    The professional employment market for pharmacists has changed radically in recent years. Additionally, data regarding perception of future practice among pharmacy students are limited. The purpose of this study was to characterize expectations for professional practice among pharmacy students and to identify curriculum support at a college of pharmacy. A survey examining student educational experiences, career preferences, and demographic variables was distributed to 1,297 students enrolled in the first to sixth year. Six hundred thirty responses were evaluated. Doctor of Pharmacy students indicated that their education better prepared them for their expected career than did Bachelor of Science students (P < .03). The former also had a more positive outlook regarding future career opportunities than the latter (P < .01) and indicated to a greater extent that HMOs and pharmacy benefit management companies are growing sources of employment for pharmacists (P < .001).

  6. Using the Humanities to Strengthen the Concept of Professionalism Among First-professional Year Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Spies, Alan R.; Asbill, C. Scott; Prince, Valerie T.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To engage pharmacy students at the McWhorter School of Pharmacy in an authentic discussion of professionalism early in their education. Methods A booklet was prepared that included several classic short stories and essays that dealt with professionalism. This booklet was sent to all entering students in the class of 2008 and 2009 during the summer prior to their first-professional year of the PharmD program. The stories and essays were discussed in small groups with faculty facilitation during orientation when the students first arrived on campus. A survey instrument was created and administered to assess the impact of this innovative approach to enhancing professionalism. Results The program was well received and engaged our pharmacy students in a productive discussion on professionalism. Both classes' mean scores on survey items related that the students were engaged in the discussion of professionalism. Survey results pertaining to professional behavior also indicated increased awareness of the importance of professionalism. Conclusion Enhancing professionalism requires a culture change that necessitates addressing professionalism at its core, a calling to serve, in a persistent and continual manner. Requiring students to read and think about professionalism in a novel way, before they even begin their first-professional year of pharmacy school, appears to be an effective approach to nurturing/encouraging professionalism. PMID:17533437

  7. The Team Education and Adherence Monitoring (TEAM) trial: pharmacy interventions to improve hypertension control in blacks.

    PubMed

    Svarstad, Bonnie L; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Shireman, Theresa I; Crawford, Stephanie Y; Palmer, Pamela A; Vivian, Eva M; Brown, Roger L

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that involving pharmacists is an effective strategy for improving patient adherence and blood pressure (BP) control. To date, few controlled studies have tested the cost-effectiveness of specific models for improving patient adherence and BP control in community pharmacies, where most Americans obtain prescriptions. We hypothesized that a team model of adherence monitoring and intervention in corporately owned community pharmacies can improve patient adherence, prescribing, and BP control among hypertensive black patients. The Team Education and Adherence Monitoring (TEAM) Trial is a randomized controlled trial testing a multistep intervention for improving adherence monitoring and intervention in 28 corporately owned community pharmacies. Patients in the 14 control pharmacies received "usual care," and patients in the 14 intervention pharmacies received TEAM Care by trained pharmacists and pharmacy technicians working with patients and physicians. Data collectors screened 1250 patients and enrolled 597 hypertensive black patients. The primary end points were the proportion of patients achieving BP control and reductions in systolic and diastolic BP measured after 6 and 12 months. Secondary end points were changes in adherence monitoring and intervention, patient adherence and barriers to adherence, prescribing, and cost-effectiveness. Researchers also will examine potential covariates and barriers to change. Involving pharmacists is a potentially powerful means of improving BP control in blacks. Pharmacists are in an excellent position to monitor patients between clinic visits and to provide useful information to patients and physicians. PMID:20031847

  8. [Pierre Famel, his pharmacy, laboratories and pharmaceutical products].

    PubMed

    Patard, Louis

    2010-04-01

    After difficult beginnings as a farm boy in Brittany, and then as a dish-washer at a chemist's in Paris, Pierre Famel (1855-1934) obtained his grammar certificate in 1879 and then his 2nd class chemist diploma from the Ecole de pharmacie de Paris in 1885. He was employed by the Laboratoire municipal de la Ville de Paris as an expert chemist. In 1886 he set himself up in a pharmacy at 86, rue de la Réunion, in Paris, known as the Pharmacie Famel. In 1912 he created the Laboratoires Famel for the manufacture of pharmaceutical products with sales representation in several European, North and South American as well as Canadian cities. He marketed among other things Famel Syrup, Famel suppositories, Langlebert glycophosphated wine, Sulfogène Famel and Optraex. The Famel firm obtained several awards at Exhibitions in France and elsewhere. On the death of Pierre Famel, the dispensary was sold, while his daughter and his granddaughter formed a partnership to manage the Laboratories. They still exist today as a finance company, the main activity of which is the management of its heritage. Pierre Famel was a foreign trade adviser, a vice-president of the Franco-Czechoslovakian and Franco-Iranian Chambers of Commerce. He created a prize for commercial attachés, as well as annual fellowships for students from foreign medical faculties. He was a sponsor of several youth clubs and charitable organizations, as well as a member of several Breton associations. He was the President of the Society of the Friends of the Pharmacology Faculty in Paris as well as the founder of the Museum devoted to Henri Moissan, the first French winner of the Nobel Price in Chemistry, who was for him a guide and a teacher in his early life and studies. He was a Commander of the Legion of Honour (1925) and was awarded the Gold Medal of foreign trade (1933). Also briefly mentioned are his wife, Marie Famel, an enamel painter, his daughter Yvonne Famel, and his son-in-law, Sylvain Rosengart, with whom

  9. [Pierre Famel, his pharmacy, laboratories and pharmaceutical products].

    PubMed

    Patard, Louis

    2010-04-01

    After difficult beginnings as a farm boy in Brittany, and then as a dish-washer at a chemist's in Paris, Pierre Famel (1855-1934) obtained his grammar certificate in 1879 and then his 2nd class chemist diploma from the Ecole de pharmacie de Paris in 1885. He was employed by the Laboratoire municipal de la Ville de Paris as an expert chemist. In 1886 he set himself up in a pharmacy at 86, rue de la Réunion, in Paris, known as the Pharmacie Famel. In 1912 he created the Laboratoires Famel for the manufacture of pharmaceutical products with sales representation in several European, North and South American as well as Canadian cities. He marketed among other things Famel Syrup, Famel suppositories, Langlebert glycophosphated wine, Sulfogène Famel and Optraex. The Famel firm obtained several awards at Exhibitions in France and elsewhere. On the death of Pierre Famel, the dispensary was sold, while his daughter and his granddaughter formed a partnership to manage the Laboratories. They still exist today as a finance company, the main activity of which is the management of its heritage. Pierre Famel was a foreign trade adviser, a vice-president of the Franco-Czechoslovakian and Franco-Iranian Chambers of Commerce. He created a prize for commercial attachés, as well as annual fellowships for students from foreign medical faculties. He was a sponsor of several youth clubs and charitable organizations, as well as a member of several Breton associations. He was the President of the Society of the Friends of the Pharmacology Faculty in Paris as well as the founder of the Museum devoted to Henri Moissan, the first French winner of the Nobel Price in Chemistry, who was for him a guide and a teacher in his early life and studies. He was a Commander of the Legion of Honour (1925) and was awarded the Gold Medal of foreign trade (1933). Also briefly mentioned are his wife, Marie Famel, an enamel painter, his daughter Yvonne Famel, and his son-in-law, Sylvain Rosengart, with whom

  10. Performance of retail pharmacies in low- and middle-income Asian settings: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Rosalind; Goodman, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in Asia, pharmacies are often patients’ first point of contact with the health care system and their preferred channel for purchasing medicines. Unfortunately, pharmacy practice in these settings has been characterized by deficient knowledge and inappropriate treatment. This paper systematically reviews both the performance of all types of pharmacies and drug stores across Asia’s LMIC, and the determinants of poor practice, in order to reflect on how this could best be addressed. Poor pharmacy practice in Asia appears to have persisted over the past 30 years. We identify a set of inadequacies that occur at key moments throughout the pharmacy encounter, including: insufficient history taking; lack of referral of patients who require medical attention; illegal sale of a wide range of prescription only medicines without a prescription; sale of medicines that are either clinically inappropriate and/or in doses that are outside of the therapeutic range; sale of incomplete courses of antibiotics; and limited provision of information and counselling. In terms of determinants of poor practice, first knowledge was found to be necessary but not sufficient to ensure correct management of patients presenting at the pharmacy. This is evidenced by large discrepancies between stated and actual practice; little difference in the treatment behaviour of less and more qualified personnel and the failure of training programmes to improve practice to a satisfactory level. Second, we identified a number of profit maximizing strategies employed by pharmacy staff that can be linked to poor practices. Finally, whilst the research is relatively sparse, the regulatory environment appears to play an important role in shaping behaviour. Future efforts to improve the situation may yield more success than historical attempts, which have tended to concentrate on education, if they address the profit incentives faced by pharmacy personnel and the

  11. The Lived Experience of Novice Nursing Faculty in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Shirley S.

    2013-01-01

    To relieve the nursing faculty shortage, notable numbers of master's prepared clinical nurse experts are entering the ranks of nursing faculty to teach the prelicensure nursing student. The transition from clinical practice to the academia raises concern about the adequacy of preparation for the complex specialization role of nurse educator. In…

  12. Impact of Faculty Development on Physical Therapy Professors' Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Zafar, Mueen A.; Roberts, Kellie W.

    2012-01-01

    Physical therapy faculty share similarities with faculty across allied health fields, such as nursing, and other clinical disciplines that educate students in licensing and board certification programs. Most have clinical experience and discipline-based expertise, however they may not have had the benefit of continuous learning aimed at enhancing…

  13. The Relationship between Student Engagement and Professionalism in Pharmacy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Anne Guerin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…

  14. 45 CFR 162.1901 - Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is...

  15. 21 CFR 1301.19 - Special requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by means of the Internet as an online pharmacy (but continue its business activity as a non-online... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration...

  16. A Formal Mentorship Program for Faculty Development

    PubMed Central

    Le, Jennifer; Nazer, Lama; Hess, Karl; Wang, Jeffrey; Law, Anandi V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a formal mentorship program at a college of pharmacy. Methods. After extensive review of the mentorship literature within the health sciences, a formal mentorship program was developed between 2006 and 2008 to support and facilitate faculty development. The voluntary program was implemented after mentors received training, and mentors and protégés were matched and received an orientation. Evaluation consisted of conducting annual surveys and focus groups with mentors and protégés. Results. Fifty-one mentor-protégé pairs were formed from 2009 to 2012. A large majority of the mentors (82.8%-96.9%) were satisfied with the mentorship program and its procedures. The majority of the protégés (≥70%) were satisfied with the mentorship program, mentor-protégé relationship, and program logistics. Both mentors and protégés reported that the protégés most needed guidance on time management, prioritization, and work-life balance. While there were no significant improvements in the proteges’ number of grant submissions, retention rates, or success in promotion/tenure, the total number of peer-reviewed publications by junior faculty members was significantly higher after program implementation (mean of 7 per year vs 21 per year, p=0.03) in the college’s pharmacy practice and administration department. Conclusions. A formal mentorship program was successful as measured by self-reported assessments of mentors and protégés. PMID:24954940

  17. “Heidelberg standard examination” and “Heidelberg standard procedures” – Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education

    PubMed Central

    Nikendei, C.; Ganschow, P.; Groener, J. B.; Huwendiek, S.; Köchel, A.; Köhl-Hackert, N.; Pjontek, R.; Rodrian, J.; Scheibe, F.; Stadler, A.-K.; Steiner, T.; Stiepak, J.; Tabatabai, J.; Utz, A.; Kadmon, M.

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects “Heidelberg standard examination” and “Heidelberg standard procedures”, which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties. PMID:27579354

  18. Variables Affecting Pharmacy Students’ Patient Care Interventions during Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Brandon J.; Sen, Sanchita; Bingham, Angela L.; Bowen, Jane F.; Ereshefsky, Benjamin; Siemianowski, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify the temporal effect and factors associated with student pharmacist self-initiation of interventions during acute patient care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE). Methods. During the APPE, student pharmacists at an academic medical center recorded their therapeutic interventions and who initiated the intervention throughout clinical rotations. At the end of the APPE student pharmacists completed a demographic survey. Results. Sixty-two student pharmacists were included. Factors associated with lower rates of self-initiated interventions were infectious diseases and pediatrics APPEs and an intention to pursue a postgraduate residency. Timing of the APPE, previous specialty elective course completion, and previous hospital experience did not result in any significant difference in self-initiated recommendations. Conclusion. Preceptors should not base practice experience expectations for self-initiated interventions on previous student experience or future intentions. Additionally, factors leading to lower rates of self-initiated interventions on infectious diseases or pediatrics APPEs should be explored. PMID:27756924

  19. Geographical access to community pharmacies in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Norris, Pauline; Horsburgh, Simon; Sides, Gerald; Ram, Sanya; Fraser, John

    2014-09-01

    Geographic access to community pharmacies is an important aspect of access to appropriate medicines. This study aimed to explore changes in the number and location of pharmacies in New Zealand and determine whether some populations have poor geographical access to pharmacies. Pharmacy numbers in New Zealand have been declining since the mid-1980s, and, adjusted for population growth, there are now only half the number there was in 1965. While the urbanisation of pharmacies has been matched by loss of population in rural areas, the loss of pharmacies from smaller rural towns leaves many people with poor access to pharmacy services.

  20. Impact of Instruction and Feedback on Reflective Responses during an Ambulatory Care Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, Mikayla; Klug, Laura; Tilleman, Jennifer; Coover, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether instruction and feedback on reflective responses are beneficial in developing pharmacy students to become more reflective practitioners. Methods. Students on an advanced pharmacy practice experience answered weekly reflection questions and were randomly assigned to either an intervention (received instruction and feedback on reflection) or control group. The final week’s responses were de-identified and two blinded faculty members independently categorized them as reflective or nonreflective. The primary outcome measure was comparing the number of “reflective” responses in each group. Results. The responses were classified as reflective in 83.3% of students in the intervention group (n=18) compared to 37.5% of the control group (n=16). The odds that the response was categorized as reflective were 8.3 times higher in the intervention group. Conclusion. Providing instruction and feedback to students improved the likelihood that their work was reflective. PMID:27402984

  1. A Graduate Program in Institutional Pharmacy Management Leading to an MS in Hospital Pharmacy, MBA and Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Jan N.; Lipman, Arthur G.

    1981-01-01

    A combined program leading to the MS in Hospital Pharmacy, MBA, and Certificate of Residency in Hospital Pharmacy established at the University of Utah in 1978 is described. The program provides coursework in both hospital pharmacy and management plus practical experience in hospital pharmacy practice management. (Author/MLW)

  2. The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy Scripts

    PubMed Central

    Pezzuto, John M; Ma, Carolyn SJ; Ma, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    In partnership with the Hawai‘i Journal of Medicine & Public Health, the Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) is pleased to provide Scripts on a regular basis. In the inaugural “Script,” a brief history of the profession in Hawai‘i was presented up to the founding of the DKICP, Hawai‘i's only academic pharmacy program. In this second part of the inaugural article, we describe some key accomplishments to date. The mission of the College is to educate pharmacy practitioners and leaders to serve as a catalyst for innovations and discoveries in pharmaceutical sciences and practice for promoting health and well-being, and to provide community service, including quality patient care. Examples are given to support the stated goals of the mission. With 341 graduates to date, and a 96% pass rate on the national licensing board exams, the college has played a significant role in improving healthcare in Hawai‘i and throughout the Pacific Region. Additionally, a PhD program with substantial research programs in both pharmacy practice and the pharmaceutical science has been launched. Considerable extramural funding has been garnered from organizations such as the National Institutes of Health and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The economic impact of the College is estimated to be over $50 million each year. With over 200 signed clinical affiliation agreements within the state as well as nationally and internationally, the DKICP has helped to ameliorate the shortage of pharmacists in the state, and has enhanced the profile and practice standard of the pharmacist's role on interprofessional health care teams. PMID:25821655

  3. Can Faculty Afford Honors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzy, Annmarie

    2012-01-01

    In "Costs and Benefits in the Economy of Honors," Richard Badenhausen identifies several pressing issues regarding the economic status of honors in the current financial climate of higher education, including the role of faculty in addressing those issues. In her response to Badenhausen's essay, Annmarie Guzy, a faculty member at the…

  4. Engendering Faculty Professional Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Terosky, Aimee LaPointe

    2010-01-01

    During the last 20 years, faculty have faced rising workloads, increasing amounts of top-down accountability and oversight, mounting publication demands, decreasing numbers of tenure-track positions, and an increasingly dismal job market. The current recession has exacerbated the pressure by requiring departmental budget cuts, faculty layoffs,…

  5. Vassar College Faculty Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassar Coll., Poughkeepsie, NY.

    This handbook, published in 1975, is designed to meet two needs: (1) to provide a general introduction to the college and its organization, procedures, and services for new members of the faculty; and (2) to serve as a reference book containing precise and detailed information of importance to all faculty members. On matters relating to college…

  6. Defining Faculty Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter J.; Diamond, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    A process of planned change is proposed for redefining college faculty work. Legitimate faculty work is defined in broad terms, and information sources and methods for collecting information to support redefinition are identified. The final step in the redefinition process is the development of new mission statements for the institution and its…

  7. Faculty Retirement Transitions Revitalized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ummersen, Claire; Duranleau, Lauren; McLaughlin, Jean

    2013-01-01

    It has been almost ten years since the American Council on Education (ACE) began to raise awareness of the importance of workplace flexibility in faculty careers and to encourage colleges and universities to support faculty in better integrating their professional and personal lives. With the generous support of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, ACE…

  8. Faculty Workload Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Board policy provides that in the fall of every even-numbered year, the Chancellor's Office shall compile a System report on faculty workloads at NSHE (Nevada System of Higher Education) institutions. Faculty workload is collected from the institutions in two parts: (1) in-class instructional data originating from workload databases and validated…

  9. Learner and Faculty Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Sharon; Stanford, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This chapter identifies effective ways to address learner and faculty support. It introduces methods for building a successful learner support system by providing sufficient resources and proactively addressing learner motivation. It also addresses effective faculty support through institutional policies, resources, training, and course…

  10. Faculty Workload Report, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Board policy provides that in the fall of every even-numbered year, the Chancellor's Office shall compile a System report on faculty workloads at the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) institutions. Faculty workload is collected from the campuses in two parts: (1) in-class instructional data originating from workload databases and validated…

  11. Supporting Faculty Grassroots Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Lester, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Various factors are making faculty leadership challenging including the rise in part-time and non-tenure-track faculty, the increasing pressure to publish and teach more courses and adopt new technologies and pedagogies, increasing standards for tenure and promotion, ascension of academic capitalism, and heavy service roles for women and people of…

  12. Faculty Productivity and Demographics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Alison M.

    1991-01-01

    A study compared productivity for five groups of college faculty: white men (n=3,182), white women (n=1,221), and faculty of African (n=79), Asian (n=120), and Hispanic (n=67) origin. Variables examined include research productivity, contact hours, administrative service, consulting, promotion/tenure standards, job satisfaction, and affirmative…

  13. Faculty and Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the role of faculty and issues that need to be addressed early on if large-scale distance education is going to be successful. Discusses academic freedom; intellectual property; training; compensation; and royalties and revenue sharing. Notes the importance of active involvement by faculty in shaping the university of the future. (AEF)

  14. An Educational Program for Underserved Middle School Students to Encourage Pursuit of Pharmacy and Other Health Science Careers

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thao T.; Tran, Linh

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To develop and implement an active, hands-on program for underrepresented minority (URM) seventh grade students and to determine if participation in the program increased interest in health care careers and understanding of pharmacy and physician assistant (PA) professions. Design. A hands-on educational program was developed in conjunction with local middle school administrators and staff for URM 7th grade students. The program was designed to be hands-on and focus on pharmacy and PA laboratory skills. A discussion component was included, allowing participants to interact personally with pharmacy and PA students and faculty members. Assessment. Students’ responses to survey questions about interest in health care careers and knowledge about health professions were compared before and after 2 separate offerings of the program. After the program, significant increases were seen in participants’ understanding of the pharmacy and PA professions. An increased percentage of participants reported interest in health care careers after the program than before the program. Conclusion. Introducing middle school-aged URM students to the pharmacy and PA professions through a hands-on educational program increased interest in, and knowledge of, these professions. PMID:26056405

  15. Advances in Navy pharmacy information technology: accessing Micromedex via the Composite Healthcare Computer System and local area networks.

    PubMed

    Koerner, S D; Becker, F

    1999-07-01

    The pharmacy profession has long used technology to more effectively bring health care to the patient. Navy pharmacy has embraced technology advances in its daily operations, from computers to dispensing robots. Evolving from the traditional role of compounding and dispensing specialists, pharmacists are establishing themselves as vital team members in direct patient care: on the ward, in ambulatory clinics, in specialty clinics, and in other specialty patient care programs (e.g., smoking cessation). An important part of the evolution is the timely access to the most up-to-date information available. Micromedex, Inc. (Denver, Colorado), has developed a number of computer CD-ROM-based full-text pharmacy, toxicology, emergency medicine, and patient education products. Micromedex is a recognized leader with regard to total pharmaceutical information availability. This article discusses the implementation of Micromedex products within the established Composite Healthcare Computer System and the subsequent use by and effect on the international Navy pharmacy community.

  16. Automation and the future practice of pharmacy--changing the focus of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Lee, M P

    1995-10-01

    Automation technology offers great potential in pharmacy practice. To realize the full benefits of the potential inherent in automation systems, it is necessary to understand basic concepts of automation and to realize that automation is simply a tool to help achieve the goals of practice. The goal of pharmacy practice is pharmaceutical care. Through using the techniques of reengineering, pharmacies can be redesigned with the help of automation to facilitate the accomplishment of that goal. Essential to achieving that goal is the necessity to change the focus of pharmacy from distribution to pharmaceutical care. Reengineering and automation are the tools to help make that change in focus.

  17. Academic entitlement in pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Cain, Jeff; Romanelli, Frank; Smith, Kelly M

    2012-12-12

    The constructs of academic entitlement and student consumerism refer to students' attitudes toward education as a commodity and the underlying belief that as consumers, they should be catered to and given the opportunity to participate in the education process according to their preferences. Most discussions regarding these attitudes are anecdotal, but the pervasiveness of these accounts and the troubling effects that ensue warrant attention. Grade inflation, student incivility, altered classroom practices, and decreased faculty morale are all potential aftereffects of teaching students who hold academic entitlement beliefs. Numerous factors are posited as attributing to academic entitlement including personal issues, societal pressures, and broad academic practices. This paper discusses these factors and offers faculty members and administrators recommendations regarding practices that may curb or alleviate issues associated with academically entitled students. PMID:23275654

  18. Academic Entitlement in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Romanelli, Frank; Smith, Kelly M.

    2012-01-01

    The constructs of academic entitlement and student consumerism refer to students’ attitudes toward education as a commodity and the underlying belief that as consumers, they should be catered to and given the opportunity to participate in the education process according to their preferences. Most discussions regarding these attitudes are anecdotal, but the pervasiveness of these accounts and the troubling effects that ensue warrant attention. Grade inflation, student incivility, altered classroom practices, and decreased faculty morale are all potential aftereffects of teaching students who hold academic entitlement beliefs. Numerous factors are posited as attributing to academic entitlement including personal issues, societal pressures, and broad academic practices. This paper discusses these factors and offers faculty members and administrators recommendations regarding practices that may curb or alleviate issues associated with academically entitled students. PMID:23275654

  19. A Spanish Language and Culture Initiative for a Doctor of Pharmacy Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Gala; Vance, Michael A.; Hancock, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Objective To implement a Spanish language and culture initiative in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum that would improve students' Spanish language skills and cultural competence so that graduates could provide competent pharmaceutical care to Spanish-speaking patients. Design Five elective courses were created and introduced to the curriculum including 2 medical Spanish courses; a medical Spanish service-learning course; a 2-week Spanish language and cultural immersion trip to Mexico; and an advanced practice pharmacy experience (APPE) at a medical care clinic serving a high percentage of Spanish-speaking patients. Advisors placed increased emphasis on encouraging pharmacy students to complete a major or minor in Spanish. Assessment Enrollment in the Spanish language courses and the cultural immersion trip has been strong. Twenty-three students have completed the APPE at a Spanish-speaking clinic. Eleven percent of 2010 Butler University pharmacy graduates completed a major or minor in Spanish compared to approximately 1% in 2004 when the initiative began. Conclusion A Spanish language and culture initiative started in 2004 has resulted in increased Spanish language and cultural competence among pharmacy students and recent graduates. PMID:21451756

  20. The 340B Discount Program: Outpatient Prescription Dispensing Patterns Through Contract Pharmacies In 2012

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Bobby L.; Hou, John; Chou, Chia-Hung; Huang, Elbert S.; Conti, Rena

    2015-01-01

    Section 340B of the Public Health Service Act provides qualified organizations serving vulnerable populations with deep discounts for some outpatient medications. A 2010 regulatory change widely expanded the 340B program’s reach, allowing these organizations to contract with retail pharmacies to dispense medications for eligible patients. Little is known about which medications are dispensed by contract pharmacies under the expanded program. We provide the first comparison of 340B prescriptions and all prescriptions dispensed in contract pharmacies. We used 2012 data from Walgreens, the national leader in 340B contract pharmacies. Medications used to treat chronic conditions such as diabetes, high cholesterol levels, asthma, hypertension, and depression accounted for an overwhelming majority of all prescriptions dispensed at Walgreens as part of the 340B program. A higher percentage of antiretrovirals used to treat HIV/AIDS were dispensed through 340B prescriptions than through all prescriptions dispensed at Walgreens. The majority of 340B prescriptions dispensed at Walgreens originated at tuberculosis clinics, consolidated health centers, disproportionate-share hospitals, and Ryan White clinics. Our results suggest that 340B contract pharmacies dispense medications used to treat Americans’ chronic disease burden and disproportionately dispense medications used by key vulnerable populations targeted by the program. PMID:25367997

  1. The 340B discount program: outpatient prescription dispensing patterns through contract pharmacies in 2012.

    PubMed

    Clark, Bobby L; Hou, John; Chou, Chia-Hung; Huang, Elbert S; Conti, Rena

    2014-11-01

    Section 340B of the Public Health Service Act provides qualified organizations serving vulnerable populations with deep discounts for some outpatient medications. A 2010 regulatory change widely expanded the 340B program's reach, allowing these organizations to contract with retail pharmacies to dispense medications for eligible patients. Little is known about which medications are dispensed by contract pharmacies under the expanded program. We provide the first comparison of 340B prescriptions and all prescriptions dispensed in contract pharmacies. We used 2012 data from Walgreens, the national leader in 340B contract pharmacies. Medications used to treat chronic conditions such as diabetes, high cholesterol levels, asthma, and depression accounted for an overwhelming majority of all prescriptions dispensed at Walgreens as part of the 340B program. A higher percentage of antiretrovirals used to treat HIV/AIDS were dispensed through 340B prescriptions than through all prescriptions dispensed at Walgreens. The majority of 340B prescriptions dispensed at Walgreens originated at tuberculosis clinics, consolidated health centers, disproportionate-share hospitals, and Ryan White clinics. Our results suggest that 340B contract pharmacies dispense medications used to treat Americans' chronic disease burden and disproportionately dispense medications used by key vulnerable populations targeted by the program. PMID:25367997

  2. A multistate trial of pharmacy syringe purchase.

    PubMed

    Compton, Wilson M; Horton, Joe C; Cottler, Linda B; Booth, Robert; Leukefeld, Carl G; Singer, Merrill; Cunningham-Williams, Renee; Reich, Wendy; Fortuin Corsi, Karen; Staton, Michele; Fink, Joseph L; Stopka, Thomas J; Spitznagel, Edward L

    2004-12-01

    Pharmacies are a potential site for access to sterile syringes as a means for preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the type and extent of their utility is uncertain. To examine pharmacy syringe purchase, we conducted a standardized, multistate study in urban and rural areas of four states in which attempts to purchase syringes were documented. Of 1,600 overall purchase attempts, 35% were refused. Colorado (25%) and Connecticut (28%) had significantly lower rates of refusal than Kentucky (41%) and Missouri (47%). Furthermore, urban settings had higher rates of refusal (40%) than rural settings (31%, P < .01). Race and gender did not have a consistent impact on rates of refusal. Despite potential advantages of pharmacies as sites for access to sterile syringes, pharmacy purchase of syringes faces significant obstacles in terms of the practices in different jurisdictions. PMID:15466847

  3. Communication Capacity Building through Pharmacy Practice Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Michelle; Hills, Ruth; Priddle, Alannah

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effectiveness of simulated learning modules (SLMs) encompassing EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) core competencies in enhancing pharmacy students’ professional communication skills. Methods. Students completed three hours of preparatory lectures and eight hours of workshops comprising six SLMs themed around pharmacy practice and pharmacy placements. Each SLM comprised role-plays with actors, facilitation using EXCELL Social Interaction Maps (SIMs), and debriefing. Evaluations of SLMs included quantitative and qualitative survey responses collected before, during and after workshops, and after placements. Facilitators reflected on SLMs as a pedagogic modality. Results. Student feedback was positive about SLMs as an effective learning tool. The majority indicated areas of new learning and found SLMs enhanced their professional skills and confidence. Facilitator feedback was positive, and suggested SLM optimization strategies. Conclusion. Student and teaching team recommendations will inform future curriculum development including the optimization of SLMs in pharmacy education. PMID:27073281

  4. Communication Capacity Building through Pharmacy Practice Simulation.

    PubMed

    Fejzic, Jasmina; Barker, Michelle; Hills, Ruth; Priddle, Alannah

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To examine the effectiveness of simulated learning modules (SLMs) encompassing EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) core competencies in enhancing pharmacy students' professional communication skills. Methods. Students completed three hours of preparatory lectures and eight hours of workshops comprising six SLMs themed around pharmacy practice and pharmacy placements. Each SLM comprised role-plays with actors, facilitation using EXCELL Social Interaction Maps (SIMs), and debriefing. Evaluations of SLMs included quantitative and qualitative survey responses collected before, during and after workshops, and after placements. Facilitators reflected on SLMs as a pedagogic modality. Results. Student feedback was positive about SLMs as an effective learning tool. The majority indicated areas of new learning and found SLMs enhanced their professional skills and confidence. Facilitator feedback was positive, and suggested SLM optimization strategies. Conclusion. Student and teaching team recommendations will inform future curriculum development including the optimization of SLMs in pharmacy education. PMID:27073281

  5. Accreditation status of hospital pharmacies and their challenges of medication management: A case of south Iranian largest university.

    PubMed

    Barati, Omid; Dorosti, Hesam; Talebzadeh, Alireza; Bastani, Peivand

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of accreditation for hospital pharmacies, this study was to determine the challenges of medication management in hospital pharmacies affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The study was a mix-method research conducted in two qualitative and quantitative phases during the years 2014-2015 in Shiraz, Iran. National Accreditation Standard checklist for hospitals was used for data collection in the first phase, and Delphi method was applied in three rounds to achieve the most challenges of medication management and the related solutions. Results indicated a medium status of accreditation for all three dimensions in the above hospital pharmacies (3.53, 42.15 and 7, respectively). Lack of clinical pharmacists, nonparticipation of the pharmacy director in annual budgeting, lack of access to patient information, discontinuity of pharmaceutical care for patients discharged, defects in pharmacy staff training, lack of legislation in support of pharmacists and lack of adequate access to physicians' prescriptions, shortages in reporting medication errors, and lack of evidence related to microbial contamination are the most challenges extracted from the second phase. It seems that the studied hospital pharmacies encounter numerous problems regarding accreditation, pharmaceutical care as well as appropriate medication management and supply chain. Attempts to solve these problems can play an important role in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of pharmacies in Iran. PMID:27429924

  6. Accreditation status of hospital pharmacies and their challenges of medication management: A case of south Iranian largest university

    PubMed Central

    Barati, Omid; Dorosti, Hesam; Talebzadeh, Alireza; Bastani, Peivand

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of accreditation for hospital pharmacies, this study was to determine the challenges of medication management in hospital pharmacies affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The study was a mix-method research conducted in two qualitative and quantitative phases during the years 2014–2015 in Shiraz, Iran. National Accreditation Standard checklist for hospitals was used for data collection in the first phase, and Delphi method was applied in three rounds to achieve the most challenges of medication management and the related solutions. Results indicated a medium status of accreditation for all three dimensions in the above hospital pharmacies (3.53, 42.15 and 7, respectively). Lack of clinical pharmacists, nonparticipation of the pharmacy director in annual budgeting, lack of access to patient information, discontinuity of pharmaceutical care for patients discharged, defects in pharmacy staff training, lack of legislation in support of pharmacists and lack of adequate access to physicians' prescriptions, shortages in reporting medication errors, and lack of evidence related to microbial contamination are the most challenges extracted from the second phase. It seems that the studied hospital pharmacies encounter numerous problems regarding accreditation, pharmaceutical care as well as appropriate medication management and supply chain. Attempts to solve these problems can play an important role in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of pharmacies in Iran. PMID:27429924

  7. The Need for an Aerospace Pharmacy Residency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuse, T.; Schuyler, C.; Bayuse, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph poster presentation reviews the rationale for a call for a new program in residency for aerospace pharmacy. Aerospace medicine provides a unique twist on traditional medicine, and a specialty has evolved to meet the training for physicians, and it is becoming important to develop such a program for training in pharmacy designed for aerospace. The reasons for this specialist training are outlined and the challenges of developing a program are reviewed.

  8. Pharmacy Student Focus Groups for Formative Evaluation of the Learning Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Victoria Mundy; Anderson, Heidi M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop a student focus group process for formative evaluation of the learning environment in a college of pharmacy. Design Student focus groups were formed and met from fall 2002 to spring 2006. During spring 2005, student cohorts (first- through third-professional years) were surveyed and anecdotal evidence about the process was gathered from faculty members. Assessment Student opinions about the effectiveness of the focus groups were fairly positive, with 59% to 87% agreeing that the process allowed students to communicate effectively with faculty members. The main problems identified were lack of communication between focus group members and the student body, and the lack of response by some faculty members to student concerns. Based on anecdotal evidence, faculty members agreed that the process encouraged student development but was less useful for pedagogical issues. Conclusion Focus groups can be an effective way of providing feedback to faculty members and students about the classroom learning environment if students are trained to give appropriate feedback and professors are supported in responding to student input. PMID:17533431

  9. When procedures meet practice in community pharmacies: qualitative insights from pharmacists and pharmacy support staff

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, Darren M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to explore how members of community pharmacy staff perceive and experience the role of procedures within the workplace in community pharmacies. Setting Community pharmacies in England and Wales. Participants 24 community pharmacy staff including pharmacists and pharmacy support staff were interviewed regarding their view of procedures in community pharmacy. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Results 3 main themes were identified. According to the ‘dissemination and creation of standard operating procedures’ theme, community pharmacy staff were required to follow a large amount of procedures as part of their work. At times, complying with all procedures was not possible. According to the ‘complying with procedures’ theme, there are several factors that influenced compliance with procedures, including work demands, the high workload and the social norm within the pharmacy. Lack of staff, pressure to hit targets and poor communication also affected how able staff felt to follow procedures. The third theme ‘procedural compliance versus using professional judgement’ highlighted tensions between the standardisation of practice and the professional autonomy of pharmacists. Pharmacists feared being unsupported by their employer for working outside of procedures, even when acting for patient benefit. Some support staff believed that strictly following procedures would keep patients and themselves safe. Dispensers described following the guidance of the pharmacist which sometimes meant working outside of procedures, but occasionally felt unable to voice concerns about not working to rule. Conclusions Organisational resilience in community pharmacy was apparent and findings from this study should help to inform policymakers and practitioners regarding factors likely to influence the implementation of procedures in community pharmacy settings. Future research should focus on exploring community pharmacy employees' intentions

  10. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  11. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:27559194

  12. Mixing Metaphors in Pharmacy Education is a Bad Solution for Students

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Scholarly discussion has recently been directed toward the negative effects of consumerism in pharmacy education. Frequently in these discussions, the metaphor of student-as-customer is cited as an indicator of such consumer mentality. However, the customer metaphor is more deeply entangled in the thinking on this matter than has been acknowledged, even for those who roundly criticize its use. A richer understanding of the power of metaphor and of the fiducial obligations that underlie professionalism can help to create educational paradigms more likely to meet the best interests of students, faculty members, and the general public. PMID:25657362

  13. Mixing metaphors in pharmacy education is a bad solution for students.

    PubMed

    Zlatic, Thomas D

    2014-12-15

    Scholarly discussion has recently been directed toward the negative effects of consumerism in pharmacy education. Frequently in these discussions, the metaphor of student-as-customer is cited as an indicator of such consumer mentality. However, the customer metaphor is more deeply entangled in the thinking on this matter than has been acknowledged, even for those who roundly criticize its use. A richer understanding of the power of metaphor and of the fiducial obligations that underlie professionalism can help to create educational paradigms more likely to meet the best interests of students, faculty members, and the general public. PMID:25657362

  14. A qualitative study of pharmacy nurse providers of community based post-birth care in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reduced length of hospital stay following childbirth has placed increasing demands on community-based post-birth care services in Australia. Queensland is one of several states in Australia in which nurses are employed privately by pharmacies to provide maternal and child health care, yet little is known about their prevalence, attributes or role. The aims of this paper are to (1) explore the experiences and perspectives of a sample of pharmacy nurses and GPs who provide maternal and child health services in Queensland, Australia (2) describe the professional qualifications of the sample of pharmacy nurses, and (3) describe and analyze the location of pharmacy nurse clinics in relation to publicly provided services. Methods As part of a state-wide evaluation of post-birth care in Queensland, Australia, case studies were conducted in six regional and metropolitan areas which included interviews with 47 key informants involved in postnatal care provision. We report on the prevalence of pharmacy nurses in the case study sites, and on the key informant interviews with 19 pharmacy nurses and six General Practitioners (GPs). The interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. Results The prevalence of pharmacy nurses appears to be highest where public services are least well integrated, coordinated and/or accessible. Pharmacy nurses report high levels of demand for their services, which they argue fill a number of gaps in the public provision of maternal and child health care including accessibility, continuity of carer, flexibility and convenient location. The concerns of pharmacy nurses include lack of privacy for consultations, limited capacity for client record keeping and follow up, and little opportunity for professional development, while GPs expressed concerns about inadequate public care and about the lack of regulation of pharmacy based care. Conclusions Pharmacy based clinics are a market-driven response to gaps in the public provision of

  15. [Experience with an automated dispensing system in department of pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Labrosse, H; Duchamp, F; Vantard, N; Darlay, A L; Kohler, A; Sebert, P; Mégard, R

    2010-03-01

    Nominative drug dispensation significantly reduces the incidence of medication errors. Computerized automated unit dose drug distribution system could be a safest hospital drug distribution system and allows an improvement of drug distribution in clinical ward. In 2005, at the Vinatier Hospital, an automated ward dispensing device was acquired. This report describes the implementation of this system and the experience of the pharmacy department. The implementation of an automated unit dose system includes expanding computerized order entry system, physicians' training and nurses to use the software, pharmaceutic staff's training to use the new dispensing system and setting under quality assurance the dispensation process. PMID:20434599

  16. The Economic, Social and Administrative Pharmacy (ESAP) Discipline in US Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M.; Latif, David A.; Adkins, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States have struggled over the past several decades with identifying a consistent title for the broad body of knowledge related to the social, economic, behavioral, and administrative aspects of pharmacy. This paper examines the educational background and professional experience of those teaching…

  17. Pharmacy Student Learning During Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences in Relation to the CAPE 2013 Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    May, Dianne W.; Kanmaz, Tina J.; Reidt, Shannon L.; Serres, Michelle L.; Edwards, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes from The Center for Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) are intended to represent the terminal knowledge, skills, and attitudes pharmacy students should possess and have guided delivery of pharmacy education for more than two decades. Advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) are the endpoint of pharmacy curricula where demonstration and assessment of terminal learning occurs. This review examines published literature in relation to the most recent CAPE outcomes to determine the extent to which they have been addressed during APPEs since 1996. Details related to the APPE focus, intervention(s)/learning setting(s), and assessments are summarized according to the 15 CAPE outcomes. Further, the assessments are categorized according to the level of learning achieved using an available method. Common CAPE outcomes are highlighted, as well as those for which published reports are lacking for APPEs. The range and quality of assessments are discussed and emphasize the need for continuous improvement of scholarly design and assessment. PMID:27756935

  18. Which Fringes for Faculty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, R. Jerry; Cooper, Lloyd G.

    1972-01-01

    This survey of 464 junior college teachers from 60 institutions was designed to determine the relative importance to faculty members of four categories of employee benefits--security, teaching, research, and income supplement. (NF)

  19. Sharing a Faculty Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Kane, Patricia K.; Meyer, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Describes the experience of two nursing faculty members who shared an assistant professor of nursing position. Discusses positive and negative aspects of the experience and notes that a unified and creative approach must be taken for it to succeed. (JOW)

  20. Evaluation of University Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parramore, Barbara M.

    1979-01-01

    Faculty evaluation guidelines, which have been in effect for five years at North Carolina State University's School of Education, are described. Outcomes of this system are summarized, as well as some of the problems associated with it. (GDC)