Jungnickel, Paul W.; Creswell, John W.
This study sought to develop a correlate model of 3-year scholarly performance of 296 clinical pharmacy faculty. Participants were surveyed concerning refereed research, grants/books research, and nonresearch scholarship. Eight correlates, including two related to the departmental workplace, emerged as significant factors in scholarly performance.…
Wanat, Matthew A; Garey, Kevin W
With the increase of new pharmacy colleges and schools throughout the country, the number of open clinical academic pharmacy positions continues to grow. Considering the abundance of clinical faculty positions available nationwide and the increased likelihood of current pharmacy residents transitioning from residency directly into academia, pharmacy residents must be prepared to succeed in the role of new clinical faculty member. However, no blueprint or recommendations have yet been provided to facilitate this transition. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate the literature regarding transitioning pharmacy students and/or residents into faculty roles. The literature reviewed represents nursing, medical, graduate school, and engineering disciplines because no literature on this topic was available from the pharmacy profession. Based on the recommendations provided in the literature and on the authors' experience at their college, they created a blueprint consisting of 7 components to help residents transition directly into their roles as faculty members.
Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others
A panel of pharmacy faculty ranked a broad inventory of basic pharmaceutical science topics in terms of their applicability to clinical pharmacy practice. The panel concluded that basic pharmaceutical sciences are essentially applications of foundation areas in biological, physical, and social sciences. (Author/MLW)
Schumock, G T; Crawford, S Y; Giusto, D A; Hutchinson, R A
The responsibilities of clinical faculty members are often multifaceted and may include direct patient care, didactic and experiential teaching, research, and administrative duties. Specialization, poorly defined standards of care, and lack of direct supervision have traditionally made performance evaluation difficult. We implemented a method to evaluate clinical faculty as they carried out patient care activities using a revised template for the evaluation of a clinical pharmacist developed by the American College of Clinical Pharmacy Clinical Practice Affairs Committee. In addition, it allows individuals to report and evaluate their own performance in the areas of patient care, instructional activity, university and public service, research and scholarly activities, and administrative duties. Teaching evaluations from clerkship students and residents are also submitted and assessed during the annual interview. To determine the usefulness of the evaluation, including the template, we surveyed the opinions of clinical faculty (nontenured) at four primary practice sites (response rate 92%). Mean scores for responses suggested agreement with statements as to the merits of the evaluation system; however, there was some variation among practice sites. Incorporating the template into a broad evaluation system was effective in facilitating improved job performance and career development. Adaptation of the template may be practice site dependent and should be coordinated by a participative approach. Additional assessment may be facilitated by physician, nurse, or peer evaluation.
Jungnickel, Paul W.; Creswell, John W.
This study examined workplace correlates (departmental and college) of scholarly performance in 296 college faculty members from 67 schools of pharmacy in the United States. The study estimated a model of 3-year scholarly performance through the exploration of six sets of correlates: demographic; affiliation; collaboration; research experiences…
By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.
Crawford, Stephanie Y.; Alhreish, Suhail K.
Objectives. To compare dominant learning styles of pharmacy students and faculty members and between faculty members in different tracks. Methods. Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD) and Zubin’s Pharmacists’ Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS) were administered to students and faculty members at an urban, Midwestern college of pharmacy. Results. Based on responses from 299 students (classes of 2008, 2009, and 2010) and 59 faculty members, GSD styles were concrete sequential (48%), abstract sequential (18%), abstract random (13%), concrete random (13%), and multimodal (8%). With PILS, dominant styles were assimilator (47%) and converger (30%). There were no significant differences between faculty members and student learning styles nor across pharmacy student class years (p>0.05). Learning styles differed between men and women across both instruments (p<0.01), and between faculty members in tenure and clinical tracks for the GSD styles (p=0.01). Conclusion. Learning styles differed among respondents based on gender and faculty track. PMID:23275657
Parkin, Derral; And Others
This document is a self-paced training packet developed for a pilot project at the University of Houston-University Park to teach pharmacy faculty members to do their own online searching. The training begins with general topics such as the kinds of searches that can be done effectively online, the selection of appropriate databases to search, and…
Wanat, Matthew A; Fleming, Marc L; Fernandez, Julianna M; Garey, Kevin W
Objective. To describe the education, training, and academic experiences of newly hired faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy during the 2012-2013 academic year. Methods. A survey regarding education, training, and academic experiences was conducted of all first-time faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy hired during the 2012-2013 academic year. Results. Pharmacy practice faculty members accounted for the majority (68.2%) of new hires. Ambulatory care was the most common pharmacy specialty position (29.8%). Most new faculty members had a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) as their terminal degree (74.8%), and 88.3% of pharmacy practice faculty members completed a residency. Of new faculty members who responded to the survey, 102 (67.5%) had at least 3 prior academic teaching, precepting, or research experiences. Conclusion. New faculty members were hired most frequently for clinical faculty positions at the assistant professor level and most frequently in the specialty of ambulatory care. Prior academic experience included precepting pharmacy students, facilitating small discussions, and guest lecturing.
Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others
The areas of basic science pharmacy instruction and clinical pharmacy practice and their interrelationships were identified in order to help develop didactic and clinical experience alternatives. A 10-member advisory committee ranked basic pharmaceutical science topical areas in terms of their applicability to clinical practice utilizing a Delphi…
Wolfgang, Alan P.
A study of 538 full-time pharmacy faculty investigated stress associated with 31 job situations and relationships to faculty demographics. Highest stress was associated with "professional identity;""departmental influence" and "student interaction" job dimensions were least stressful. Implications of the findings for developing faculty coping…
Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Murawski, Matthew M; Popovich, Nicholas G
OBJECTIVE. To assess junior faculty members' perceptions regarding the impact of past faculty-mentoring relationships in their career decisions, including the decision to pursue postgraduate training and ultimately an academic career. METHODS. A mixed-mode survey instrument was developed and an invitation to participate in the survey was sent to 2,634 pharmacy faculty members designated as assistant professors in the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) directory data. RESULTS. Usable responses were received from 1,059 pharmacy faculty members. Approximately 59% of respondents indicated that they had received encouragement from 1 or more faculty mentors that was very or extremely influential in their decision to pursue postgraduate training. Mentor and mentee pharmacy training characteristics and postgraduate training paths tended to be similar. US pharmacy degree earners rated the likelihood that they would have pursued an academic career without mentor encouragement significantly lower than did their foreign pharmacy and nonpharmacy degree colleagues (p = 0.006, p = 0.021, respectively). CONCLUSIONS. For the majority of junior pharmacy faculty members, faculty mentoring received prior to completing their doctor of pharmacy degree or nonpharmacy undergraduate degree influenced their subsequent career decisions.
Ryan, Melody; Yang, Li; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Zhai, Suo-Di; Shi, Lu-Wen; Lubawy, William C.
Pharmacy education in China focuses on pharmaceutical sciences, with the bachelor of science (BS) of pharmacy as the entry-level degree. Pharmacy practice curricula in these programs are centered on compounding, dispensing, pharmacy administration, and laboratory experiences, which are the traditional responsibilities for pharmacists. Additional graduate-level training is available at the master of science (MS) and the doctor of philosophy (PhD) levels, most of which concentrate on drug discovery and drug development research. Presently, the emphasis in practice is beginning to shift to clinical pharmacy. With this change, additional degree offerings are being developed to meet the growing demand for clinical pharmacists. There is also interest in developing more clinical skills in practicing pharmacists through additional non-degree training. The Ministry of Education is considering a proposal for an entry-level professional degree of master and/or doctor in clinical pharmacy similar to the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree in the United States. PMID:19325949
Jarfaut, A; Nivoix, Y; Vigouroux, D; Kehrli, P; Gaudias, J; Kempf, J-F; Levêque, D; Gourieux, B
Clinical pharmacy has been developed and evaluated in various medical hospital activities. Reviews conducted in this area reported a higher value of this discipline. In surgical services, evenly adverse drug events may occur, so clinical pharmacy activities must also help to optimize the management of drug's patient. The objectives of this literature review is to determine the profile of clinical pharmacy activities developed in surgical services and identify indicators. The research was conducted on Pubmed(®) database with the following keywords (2000-2013), "surgery", "pharmacy", "pharmacist", "pharmaceutical care", "impact" and limited to French or English papers. Studies dealing on simultaneously medical and surgical areas were excluded. Twenty-one papers were selected. The most frequently developed clinical pharmacy activities were history and therapeutic drug monitoring (antibiotics or anticoagulants). Two types of indicators were identified: activity indicators with the number of pharmaceutical interventions, their description and clinical signification, the acceptance rate and workload. Impact indicators were mostly clinical and economic impacts. The development of clinical pharmacy related to surgical patients is documented and appears to have, as for medical patients, a clinical and economical value.
This paper reports on a case study of organised support for students who experience problems with language or academic study skills at a pharmacy faculty of an Australian university. Employing the Language Management Theory (LMT), this study exemplifies organised management and explores the various processes involved, such as the noting of…
Speedie, Marilyn K.
Biotechnology is defined, and its impact on pharmacy practice, the professional curriculum (clinical pharmacy, pharmacy administration, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, basic sciences, and continuing education), research in pharmacy schools, and graduate education are discussed. Resulting faculty, library, and research resource…
Csaky, T. Z.
Two recent trends in the field of health education-the declining emphasis on basic sciences in medical instruction and the heavy emphasis on pharmacology, therapeutics, and clinical pharmacy in colleges of pharmacy-are compared. (Editor)
Bosso, John A; Hastings, Jan K; Speedie, Marilyn K; Rodriguez de Bittner, Magaly
Scholarship has long been a basic expectation of faculty members at institutions of higher learning in the United States and elsewhere. This expectation is no less assumed in academic pharmacy. A number of organizations have verbalized and enforced this precept over the years.(1-3) For example, this expectation is spoken to directly in the American Council for Pharmacy Education's Accreditation Standards and Guidelines.(4) This expectation is further emphasized in the draft document of the accreditation standards to be implemented in 2016, in Standard 20. Specifically, Element 20.2 states: "The college or school must create an environment that both requires and promotes scholarship, and must also develop mechanisms to assess both the quantity and quality of faculty scholarly productivity."(5) The successful pursuit of scholarship by clinical faculty members (those engaged in both clinical practice and teaching, without regard to tenure or clinical track status) is challenging. (6-10) Thus, faculty member job descriptions or models should be designed so clinical faculty members can successfully meet all academic job expectations, including productive and meaningful scholarship. In 2012, an AACP Section of Teachers of Pharmacy Practice task force was charged with examining this issue and providing recommendations for models for clinical faculty members that would allow the successful pursuit of scholarship. The task force gathered information relating to the current state of affairs at a number of colleges and reviewed relevant literature. This information, along with personal experiences and much discussion and contemplation, led to some general observations as well as specific recommendations. This paper reiterates the task force's observations and recommendations and provides further detail regarding our interpretation of the findings and basis for the eventual recommendations to the section.
Assemi, Mitra; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Sowinski, Kevin M; Corelli, Robin L
Objective. To characterize the educational background and academic rank of faculty members in US schools of pharmacy, estimate the extent to which they are employed by institutions where they received previous training, and determine whether differences in degree origin and rank exist between faculty members in established (≤1995) vs newer programs. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty database and demographic information from the public domain. Results. Among 5516 faculty members, 50.3% held two or more types of degrees. Established schools had a higher median number of faculty members and a higher mean faculty rank than did newer schools. Conclusion. The difference in mean faculty rank highlights the shortage of experienced faculty members in newer schools. Future research efforts should investigate educational attainment in correlation to other faculty and school characteristics and prospectively track and report trends related to pharmacy faculty members composition.
Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Sowinski, Kevin M.; Corelli, Robin L.
Objective. To characterize the educational background and academic rank of faculty members in US schools of pharmacy, estimate the extent to which they are employed by institutions where they received previous training, and determine whether differences in degree origin and rank exist between faculty members in established (≤1995) vs newer programs. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty database and demographic information from the public domain. Results. Among 5516 faculty members, 50.3% held two or more types of degrees. Established schools had a higher median number of faculty members and a higher mean faculty rank than did newer schools. Conclusion. The difference in mean faculty rank highlights the shortage of experienced faculty members in newer schools. Future research efforts should investigate educational attainment in correlation to other faculty and school characteristics and prospectively track and report trends related to pharmacy faculty members composition. PMID:27293228
Toussaint, Kimberly A; Watson, Kristin; Marrs, Joel C; Sturpe, Deborah A; Anderson, Sarah L; Haines, Stuart T
Board certification is a means of demonstrating expertise above the minimum licensing standards. For many health care professionals, this credential is a necessity. As pharmacists become involved in more advanced patient care services, board certification becomes an essential component to ensuring quality care. The prevalence of United States pharmacy practice faculty members who are board certified, however, is unknown. In addition, to our knowledge, factors that serve to motivate or discourage faculty from obtaining board certification have not been previously described; thus, 900 pharmacy practice faculty members listed in the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) online directory were invited to complete an online survey regarding motivators and barriers for board certification. In addition, a list of board-certified pharmacists, obtained from the Board of Pharmacy Specialties, was used to check the board certification status of all pharmacy practice faculty members listed in the AACP directory. In 2011, the prevalence of board certification among the 2867 pharmacy practice faculty members was 37% (1063 pharmacists), with the highest prevalence found among assistant professors (39.4%). A total of 322 faculty members (36% response rate) completed the survey; of these, 308 self-identified as pharmacy practice faculty, and their responses were included in the analysis. Current board certification in pharmacy specialties was reported by 163 respondents (52.9%); 14 (4.5%) were previously certified. Among the 308 respondents, the most common perceived reason why pharmacy practice faculty become board certified was the desire to be recognized as an expert in the field (71.5%). Those who were currently board certified indicated personal growth as the most important reason (60.1%). Those previously certified indicated no perceived benefit as the most common reason for not recertifying (71.4%). Among those never certified, no perceived need (52.0%) or
Hepler, Charles D.
Research needs for pharmacy administration and clinical pharmacy include study of the relationship of pharmacists and society, management methods for providing health care services, pharmacist training and socialization, competence evaluation, formative and summative research on drug use control, and organizational decision making. (MSE)
Bacci, Jennifer L; Akinwale, Tolu P; Adams, Alex J; McGivney, Melissa Somma
Objective. To identify community pharmacy shared faculty members across the United States and to describe their roles and responsibilities in terms of teaching, service, and scholarship. Methods. This study was a mixed-methods analysis using surveys and key informant interviews. Results. Twenty-two faculty members completed the survey; nine were interviewed. Their major roles and responsibilities included teaching in community-based and experiential learning courses, precepting students and/or residents, being actively involved in professional organizations, providing patient care while leading innovation, and disseminating findings through scholarship. Conclusion. Community pharmacy shared faculty members contribute to their academic institutions and community pharmacy organizations by educating learners, providing direct patient care, and advancing community practice through innovation and service to the profession. Findings of this study can be used as a guide for academic institutions and community pharmacy organizations interested in partnering to develop a community pharmacy shared faculty position.
Akinwale, Tolu P.; Adams, Alex J.; McGivney, Melissa Somma
Objective. To identify community pharmacy shared faculty members across the United States and to describe their roles and responsibilities in terms of teaching, service, and scholarship. Methods. This study was a mixed-methods analysis using surveys and key informant interviews. Results. Twenty-two faculty members completed the survey; nine were interviewed. Their major roles and responsibilities included teaching in community-based and experiential learning courses, precepting students and/or residents, being actively involved in professional organizations, providing patient care while leading innovation, and disseminating findings through scholarship. Conclusion. Community pharmacy shared faculty members contribute to their academic institutions and community pharmacy organizations by educating learners, providing direct patient care, and advancing community practice through innovation and service to the profession. Findings of this study can be used as a guide for academic institutions and community pharmacy organizations interested in partnering to develop a community pharmacy shared faculty position. PMID:27756923
Tregunno, Deborah; Ginsburg, Liane; Clarke, Beth; Norton, Peter
Background As efforts to integrate patient safety into health professional curricula increase, there is growing recognition that the rate of curricular change is very slow, and there is a shortage of research that addresses critical perspectives of faculty who are on the ‘front-lines’ of curricular innovation. This study reports on medical, nursing and pharmacy teaching faculty perspectives about factors that influence curricular integration and the preparation of safe practitioners. Methods Qualitative methods were used to collect data from 20 faculty members (n=6 medical from three universities; n=6 pharmacy from two universities; n=8 nursing from four universities) engaged in medical, nursing and pharmacy education. Thematic analysis generated a comprehensive account of faculty perspectives. Results Faculty perspectives on key challenges to safe practice vary across the three disciplines, and these different perspectives lead to different priorities for curricular innovation. Additionally, accreditation and regulatory requirements are driving curricular change in medicine and pharmacy. Key challenges exist for health professional students in clinical teaching environments where the culture of patient safety may thwart the preparation of safe practitioners. Conclusions Patient safety curricular innovation depends on the interests of individual faculty members and the leveraging of accreditation and regulatory requirements. Building on existing curricular frameworks, opportunities now need to be created for faculty members to act as champions of curricular change, and patient safety educational opportunities need to be harmonises across all health professional training programmes. Faculty champions and practice setting leaders can collaborate to improve the culture of patient safety in clinical teaching and learning settings. PMID:24299734
Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E
Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path.
Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A.; Dickey, Susan E.
Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path. PMID:27756925
Hagan, Angela M; Campbell, Hope E; Gaither, Caroline A
Objective. To describe the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among faculty members (faculty) in schools and colleges of pharmacy (COP) compared to US Census Bureau data; to evaluate the representation of racial and ethnic minorities in historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), newer doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs, and PharmD programs with a religious affiliation compared with all pharmacy programs; and to compare racial and ethnic pharmacy faculty data to trends in medical and dental schools, and all higher education. Methods. Information was obtained from national databases and published reports; data was comparatively evaluated. Results. Compared to the general population, Asians are overrepresented in pharmacy, while all other minority groups are underrepresented. The HBCUs, newer schools, and religious-affiliated institutions have greater numbers of African American/Black faculty. Newer schools also have better representation of Hispanic faculty. Pharmacy has been more successful than medicine and dentistry in recruiting African American/Black faculty, but lag behind dental schools in their representation of Hispanic faculty. Conclusion. To meet the health care needs of the population, we recommend the implementation of short-term and long-term diversity and inclusion strategies that address minority representation in COP.
Campbell, Hope E.; Gaither, Caroline A.
Objective. To describe the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among faculty members (faculty) in schools and colleges of pharmacy (COP) compared to US Census Bureau data; to evaluate the representation of racial and ethnic minorities in historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), newer doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs, and PharmD programs with a religious affiliation compared with all pharmacy programs; and to compare racial and ethnic pharmacy faculty data to trends in medical and dental schools, and all higher education. Methods. Information was obtained from national databases and published reports; data was comparatively evaluated. Results. Compared to the general population, Asians are overrepresented in pharmacy, while all other minority groups are underrepresented. The HBCUs, newer schools, and religious-affiliated institutions have greater numbers of African American/Black faculty. Newer schools also have better representation of Hispanic faculty. Pharmacy has been more successful than medicine and dentistry in recruiting African American/Black faculty, but lag behind dental schools in their representation of Hispanic faculty. Conclusion. To meet the health care needs of the population, we recommend the implementation of short-term and long-term diversity and inclusion strategies that address minority representation in COP. PMID:27667845
Griffin, Brooke; Vest, Kathleen; Pohl, Shaunte; Mazan, Jennifer; Winkler, Susan
Part-time and job-share policies may allow pharmacy practice faculty members to achieve work/life balance while pursuing their professional goals. Precedent for alternative work schedules within the health professions community can be found throughout the literature; however, little is known about part-time roles in academic pharmacy. The design and implementation of 3 different alternative faculty appointments are described and department chair and faculty perspectives are shared. Teaching, service, and scholarship responsibilities, as well as outcomes before and after changes in appointment, are described. Advantages and disadvantages, including advice for other colleges of pharmacy, are presented. Alternate appointments may be a key factor in retaining highly qualified faculty members who continue to bring their expertise to teaching, precepting, and scholarship within a college or school of pharmacy.
Kramer, Sandra S; Martin, Jennifer R; Schlimgen, Joan B; Slack, Marion K; Martin, Jim
This article describes the creation and implementation of focus groups to evaluate the effectiveness of a health sciences library's liaison program of the College of Pharmacy faculty and to better understand the faculty's information needs in order to design new and improved library services. The liaison services support the teaching and research needs of faculty and students through literature research, classroom teaching, and an extensive library collection of pharmacy literature. Focus group results demonstrated a high level of satisfaction with library liaison services and collections. Opportunities exist for expanded interaction with graduate students and greater marketing of library services to increase faculty awareness of specific library programs.
Peirce, Gretchen L.; Crabtree, Brian L.; Acosta, Daniel; Early, Johnnie L.; Kishi, Donald T.; Nobles-Knight, Dolores; Webster, Andrew A.
Many factors contribute to the vitality of an individual faculty member, a department, and an entire academic organization. Some of the relationships among these factors are well understood, but many questions remain unanswered. The Joint Task Force on Faculty Workforce examined the literature on faculty workforce issues, including the work of previous task forces charged by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP). We identified and focused on 4 unique but interrelated concepts: organizational culture/climate, role of the department chair, faculty recruitment and retention, and mentoring. Among all 4 resides the need to consider issues of intergenerational, intercultural, and gender dynamics. This paper reports the findings of the task force and proffers specific recommendations to AACP and to colleges and schools of pharmacy. PMID:21769139
Maniscalco-Feichtl, Maria; Droege, Marcus
The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) has identified faculty retention as a top concern since 76 colleges of pharmacy reported a total of 406 vacant and/or lost positions in the 2004-2005 academic year. Since today's junior faculty members are tomorrow's leaders in pharmacy education, retention of quality faculty members is critical to our future. Mentoring is one effective method of retaining faculty members and decreasing workplace stress, especially in the area of scholarship. However, in the last decade, the disproportionate increase of junior faculty members to the number of senior faculty members employed has resulted in a major limitation of the dyad (mentor and protégé) mentoring process. One effective method of overcoming this limitation is the use of the triad mentoring model (organization, mentor, and protégé). Colleges of pharmacy that consider adopting this triad model will likely promote an environment that nurtures relationships, resulting in job satisfaction, and thereby leading to retention of junior faculty members. PMID:18496925
Hanrahan, Conor T.; Cole, Sabrina W.
A 39-item survey instrument was distributed to faculty and students at Wingate University School of Pharmacy to assess student and faculty drug information (DI) resource use and access preferences. The response rate was 81% (n = 289). Faculty and professional year 2 to 4 students preferred access on laptop or desktop computers (67% and 75%, respectively), followed by smartphones (27% and 22%, respectively). Most faculty and students preferred using Lexicomp Online for drug information (53% and 74%, respectively). Results indicate that DI resources use is similar between students and faculty; laptop or desktop computers are the preferred platforms for accessing drug information. PMID:24860270
Hanrahan, Conor T; Cole, Sabrina W
A 39-item survey instrument was distributed to faculty and students at Wingate University School of Pharmacy to assess student and faculty drug information (DI) resource use and access preferences. The response rate was 81% (n = 289). Faculty and professional year 2 to 4 students preferred access on laptop or desktop computers (67% and 75%, respectively), followed by smartphones (27% and 22%, respectively). Most faculty and students preferred using Lexicomp Online for drug information (53% and 74%, respectively). Results indicate that DI resources use is similar between students and faculty; laptop or desktop computers are the preferred platforms for accessing drug information.
Objective. To characterize and compare learning styles of pharmacy practice residents and their faculty preceptors, and identify teaching perspectives of faculty preceptors. Methods. Twenty-nine pharmacy residents and 306 pharmacy faculty members in British Columbia were invited to complete the Pharmacists’ Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS). Faculty preceptors also were asked to complete the Teaching Perspectives Inventory (TPI). Results. One hundred percent of residents and 61% of faculty members completed the PILS, and 31% of faculty members completed the TPI. The most common dominant learning style among residents and faculty preceptors was assimilator, and 93% were assimilators, convergers, or both. The distribution of dominant learning styles between residents and faculty members was not different (p=0.77). The most common dominant teaching perspective among faculty members was apprenticeship. Conclusion. Residents and preceptors mostly exhibited learning styles associated with abstract over concrete thinking or watching over doing. Residency programs should steer residents more toward active learning and doing, and maximize interactions with patients and other caregivers. PMID:24159204
Zgarrick, David P.
Objectives. To explore the potential of tablet technology to address the specific workload challenges of pharmacy practice faculty members and to evaluate tablet usage after a department-wide iPad initiative. Methods. After conducting a needs assessment to determine pharmacy faculty attitudes towards tablet technology and to identify potential usage scenarios, all faculty members in a department of pharmacy practice received an iPad. After iPad distribution, training sessions and virtual tutorials were provided. An anonymous survey was administered to evaluate the pilot. Results. The needs assessment survey revealed positive attitudes towards iPad technology, identified use scenarios, and led to a department-wide iPad pilot program. Most faculty members used iPads for connectivity with students (86%), paper/project annotation (68%), assessment (57%), and demonstration of tools used in practice (36%). For teaching, 61% of faculty members used iPads in seminars/laboratories, 57% used iPads in the experiential setting, and 43% used iPads in the classroom. Use of iPads for patient-care activities varied and depended on site support for mobile technology. The 23 faculty members with external practice sites used iPads to a greater extent and had more positive attitudes towards this technology compared with campus-based faculty members. Conclusion. Integration of tablet technology into the pharmacy education setting resulted in faculty-reported increased productivity and decreased paper waste. It also allowed faculty members to experiment with new teaching strategies in the classroom and experiential setting. Administrators at institutions exploring the use of tablet technology should allocate resources based on faculty needs and usage patterns. PMID:24761013
Sicat, Brigitte L.; Haines, Seena L.; MacLaughlin, Eric J.; Van Amburgh, Jenny A.
Objective. To determine what processes and metrics are employed to measure and evaluate pharmacy practice faculty members at colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States. Methods. A 23-item web-based questionnaire was distributed to pharmacy practice department chairs at schools of pharmacy fully accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) (n=114). Results. Ninety-three pharmacy practice chairs or designees from 92 institutions responded. Seventy-six percent reported that more than 60% of the department’s faculty members were engaged in practice-related activities at least eight hours per week. Fewer than half (47%) had written policies and procedures for conducting practice evaluations. Institutions commonly collected data regarding committee service at practice sites, community service events, educational programs, and number of hours engaged in practice-related activities; however, only 24% used a tool to longitudinally collect practice-related data. Publicly funded institutions were more likely than private schools to have written procedures. Conclusion. Data collection tools and best practice recommendations for conducting faculty practice evaluations are needed. PMID:27293227
THE DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY: The first 50 pharmacy students were enrolled at the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad in the academic year 2000/2001. The Institute of Pharmacy was established on July 10, 2001. The Department of Pharmacy was established on December 18, 2001, with more than 150 faculty members. Since then, 82 students have graduated with honours. Visiting professors from Athens, Skopje, Reading (Great Britain) and Banja Luka, and professors of the Faculty of Science and Mathematics and the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, together with the professors and associates of the the Faculty of Medicine, are members of the Faculty of the Department of Pharmacy. ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY: The Department offers a 5-year undergraduate program in pharmacy, practical courses in pharmacy, takes part in higher education reform in accordance with the Bologna objectives, organizes visits to Europen centers of the pharmaceutical industry, and provides mentoring activities in relation to writing a graduation paper. The First Balkan Congress of Phramacy Students was held March 7-12, 2006 in Novi Sad. The Department of Pharmacy of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad has achieved the objectives set for it when it was established.
Barone, Joseph; And Others
A postdoctoral pharmacy fellowship is described that provides training in industrial clinical pharmacy practice and related tasks associated with the development of new pharmaceuticals, through experience in industrial and hospital settings and in research projects. (MSE) PUBTYPE[141
Objective. To provide benchmarking data for faculty productivity by determining publication rates for pharmaceutical sciences faculty members at nonresearch-intensive schools and colleges of pharmacy between January 2010 and December 2013. Methods. Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched using faculty names from the AACP faculty and professional staff roster. Annual publication rates were calculated and compared for various demographic subcategories. Results. The average annual publication rate for the 4-year period was 0.82 per faculty member, and 10.95 per institution. Publication rates were significantly higher in departments offering a PhD program or with NIH funding. Conclusion. Because institutional missions are diverse, it can be useful to evaluate faculty scholarly productivity in relation to similar organizations. Pharmaceutical science faculty members at nonresearch-intensive institutions contribute to the literature despite institutional missions less focused on research. PMID:26839426
DiVall, Margarita V.; Hayney, Mary S; Marsh, Wallace; Neville, Michael W.; O’Barr, Stephen; Sheets, Erin D.; Calhoun, Larry D.
Objectives. To gather and evaluate the perceptions of students, faculty members, and administrators regarding the frequency and appropriateness of classroom technology use. Methods. Third-year pharmacy students and faculty members at 6 colleges and schools of pharmacy were surveyed to assess their perceptions about the type, frequency, and appropriateness of using technology in the classroom. Upper-level administrators and information technology professionals were also interviewed to ascertain overall technology goals and identify criteria used to adopt new classroom technologies. Results. Four hundred sixty-six students, 124 faculty members, and 12 administrators participated in the survey. The most frequently used and valued types of classroom technology were course management systems, audience response systems, and lecture capture. Faculty members and students agreed that faculty members appropriately used course management systems and audience response systems. Compared with their counterparts, tech-savvy, and male students reported significantly greater preference for increased use of classroom technology. Eighty-six percent of faculty members reported having changed their teaching methodologies to meet student needs, and 91% of the students agreed that the use of technology met their needs. Conclusions. Pharmacy colleges and schools use a variety of technologies in their teaching methods, which have evolved to meet the needs of the current generation of students. Students are satisfied with the appropriateness of technology, but many exhibit preferences for even greater use of technology in the classroom. PMID:23716743
Farias, Tatiane Fernandes; Aguiar, Karina da Silva; Rotta, Inajara; Belletti, Klezia Morais da Silva; Carlotto, Juliane
ABSTRACT Objective: To implement a clinical pharmacy service focused on the comprehensive review of antineoplastic drugs used in therapy of hematological diseases. Methods: An interventional study was conducted in a Brazilian tertiary teaching hospital in two different periods, with and without a clinical pharmacy service, respectively. This service consisted of an antineoplastic prescription validation (analysis of patients' characteristics, laboratory tests, compliance with the therapeutic protocol and with pharmacotechnical parameters). When problems were detected, the pharmacist intervened with the physician or another health professional responsible for the patient. Inpatients and outpatients with hematological diseases were included. Results: We found an increased detection of drug-related problem by 106.5% after implementing the service. Comparing the two periods, an increase in patients' age (26.7 years versus 17.6 years), a predominance of outpatients (54% versus 38%), and an increase in multiple myeloma (13% versus 4%) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (16% versus 3%) was noted. The most commonly found problems were related to dose (33% versus 25%) and cycle day (14% versus 30%). With regard to clinical impact, the majority had a significant impact (71% versus 58%), and in one patient from the second period could have been fatal. The main pharmaceutical interventions were dose adjustment (35% versus 25%) and drug withdrawal (33% versus 40%). Conclusion: The pharmacy service contributed to increase the detection and resolution of drug-related problems, and it was an effective method to promote the safe and rational use of antineoplastic drugs. PMID:27759828
Debue-Barazer, Christine; Baudouin, Geneviève; Tillequin, François
The collection of the museum of Materia Medica of the Faculty of Pharmacy, consists of some 400 samples, including poppy capsules and opiums of various geographical origins (indigenous, Turkish, Persian, Egyptian, Indian and Chinese) and numerous tools related to the production of these drugs. Most samples were collected during the XIXth and XXth centuries.
Semsick, Gretchen R.
Objective. Identify behaviors that can compose a measure of organizational citizenship by pharmacy faculty. Methods. A four-round, modified Delphi procedure using open-ended questions (Round 1) was conducted with 13 panelists from pharmacy academia. The items generated were evaluated and refined for inclusion in subsequent rounds. A consensus was reached after completing four rounds. Results. The panel produced a set of 26 items indicative of extra-role behaviors by faculty colleagues considered to compose a measure of citizenship, which is an expressed manifestation of collegiality. Conclusions. The items generated require testing for validation and reliability in a large sample to create a measure of organizational citizenship. Even prior to doing so, the list of items can serve as a resource for mentorship of junior and senior faculty alike. PMID:28179717
DiVall, Margarita V; Alston, Greg L; Bird, Eleanora; Buring, Shauna M; Kelley, Katherine A; Murphy, Nanci L; Schlesselman, Lauren S; Stowe, Cindy D; Szilagyi, Julianna E
This paper aims to increase understanding and appreciation of formative assessment and its role in improving student outcomes and the instructional process, while educating faculty on formative techniques readily adaptable to various educational settings. Included are a definition of formative assessment and the distinction between formative and summative assessment. Various formative assessment strategies to evaluate student learning in classroom, laboratory, experiential, and interprofessional education settings are discussed. The role of reflective writing and portfolios, as well as the role of technology in formative assessment, are described. The paper also offers advice for formative assessment of faculty teaching. In conclusion, the authors emphasize the importance of creating a culture of assessment that embraces the concept of 360-degree assessment in both the development of a student's ability to demonstrate achievement of educational outcomes and a faculty member's ability to become an effective educator.
Alston, Greg L.; Bird, Eleanora; Buring, Shauna M.; Kelley, Katherine A.; Murphy, Nanci L.; Schlesselman, Lauren S.; Stowe, Cindy D.; Szilagyi, Julianna E.
This paper aims to increase understanding and appreciation of formative assessment and its role in improving student outcomes and the instructional process, while educating faculty on formative techniques readily adaptable to various educational settings. Included are a definition of formative assessment and the distinction between formative and summative assessment. Various formative assessment strategies to evaluate student learning in classroom, laboratory, experiential, and interprofessional education settings are discussed. The role of reflective writing and portfolios, as well as the role of technology in formative assessment, are described. The paper also offers advice for formative assessment of faculty teaching. In conclusion, the authors emphasize the importance of creating a culture of assessment that embraces the concept of 360-degree assessment in both the development of a student’s ability to demonstrate achievement of educational outcomes and a faculty member’s ability to become an effective educator. PMID:26056399
Schlict, John R.; Livengood, Bruce; Shepherd, John
Computer simulations in clinical pharmacy education help expose students to clinical patient management earlier and enable training of large numbers of students outside conventional clinical practice sites. Multimedia instruction and its application to pharmacy training are described, the general process for developing multimedia presentations is…
Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni
Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency.
Ross, Leigh Ann; Janke, Kristin K; Boyle, Cynthia J; Gianutsos, Gerald; Lindsey, Cameron C; Moczygemba, Leticia R; Whalen, Karen
To identify characteristics and quality indicators of best practices for leadership and advocacy development in pharmacy education, a national task force on leadership development in pharmacy invited colleges and schools to complete a phone survey to characterize the courses, processes, and noteworthy practices for leadership and advocacy development at their institution. The literature was consulted to corroborate survey findings and identify additional best practices. Recommendations were derived from the survey results and literature review, as well as from the experience and expertise of task force members. Fifty-four institutions provided information about lecture-based and experiential curricular and noncurricular components of leadership and advocacy development. Successful programs have a supportive institutional culture, faculty and alumni role models, administrative and/or financial support, and a cocurricular thread of activities. Leadership and advocacy development for student pharmacists is increasingly important. The recommendations and suggestions provided can facilitate leadership and advocacy development at other colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Doluisio, James T.
Issues in the conflict between clinical practice and basic research in pharmacy are reviewed: professional associations' role, curriculum needs and traditions, internal strains and diversity in the profession, computer use, scholarly work of faculty, using the medical profession as a model, and misperceptions of what clinical and basic sciences…
Jacobi, Judith; Ray, Shaunta'; Danelich, Ilya; Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth; Eckel, Stephen; Guharoy, Roy; Militello, Michael; O'Donnell, Paul; Sam, Teena; Crist, Stephanie M; Smidt, Danielle
This paper describes the goals of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) and its recommendations for health-system pharmacy practice transformation to meet future patient care needs and elevate the role of pharmacists as patient care providers. PPMI envisions a future in which pharmacists have greater responsibility for medication-related outcomes and technicians assume greater responsibility for product-related activities. Although the PPMI recommendations have elevated the level of practice in many settings, they also potentially affect existing clinical pharmacists, in general, and clinical pharmacy specialists, in particular. Moreover, although more consistent patient care can be achieved with an expanded team of pharmacist providers, the role of clinical pharmacy specialists must not be diminished, especially in the care of complex patients and populations. Specialist practitioners with advanced training and credentials must be available to model and train pharmacists in generalist positions, residents, and students. Indeed, specialist practitioners are often the innovators and practice leaders. Negotiation between hospitals and pharmacy schools is needed to ensure a continuing role for academic clinical pharmacists and their contributions as educators and researchers. Lessons can be applied from disciplines such as nursing and medicine, which have developed new models of care involving effective collaboration between generalists and specialists. Several different pharmacy practice models have been described to meet the PPMI goals, based on available personnel and local goals. Studies measuring the impact of these new practice models are needed.
Suplee, Patricia Dunphy; Gardner, Marcia; Jerome-D'Emilia, Bonnie
Nursing faculty who teach in clinical settings face complex situations requiring evidence-based educational and evaluative strategies, yet many have had limited preparation for these tasks. A convenience sample of 74 nursing faculty participated in a survey about clinical teaching in prelicensure nursing programs. Most faculty developed teaching skills through conferences (57%), orientation at their educational institution (53%), or exposure in graduate school (38%). Thirty-one percent reported having no preparation for clinical teaching. Faculty felt least prepared to manage students with learning, physical, or emotional disabilities and incivility. Twenty-six percent had no preparation for evaluating students in the clinical setting, and only 17% had worked with a faculty mentor. Few evidence-based teaching strategies were used by the faculty. These findings indicate gaps exist in the preparation of clinical faculty. Graduate education, comprehensive orientation programs, and continuing professional development may help to ensure faculty are effective in managing and evaluating student learning.
Matuszak, Alice Jean; Sarnoff, Darwin
An American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy survey of medicinal/pharmaceutical chemistry faculty is reported. Data, including academic and experience backgrounds of faculty and their teaching load, are presented. Differences in training are noted in comparing the average chemistry professor to the average assistant professor. (Author/MLW)
Latif, David A.; Berger, Bruce A.
A study explored the notion that moral reasoning skills are important to the provision of pharmaceutical care. It compared the moral reasoning skills of two classes of pharmacy students with those of practitioners who scored high on measures of pharmaceutical care and clinical decision making. Implications for pharmacy school admissions and…
Burelle, Timothy N.
A clinical pharmacy certificate program, the most popular among Alabama pharmacists, is described, including statistics concerning enrollment, participant characteristics, factors important in pharmacists' entering and leaving the program, and pharmacists' views of the program's strengths and weaknesses. (MSE)
Having highly competent clinical faculty in an institution of higher learning is a prerequisite for graduating safe nurses in the future. The purpose of this project was to increase each clinical nurse's knowledge and skills for the new role of clinical adjunct nursing faculty. Successful implementation of this program will help promote consistency in effective job performance of clinical adjunct faculty and facilitate achievement of the projected goals and outcomes. This orientation program was presented in a one day face-to-face encounter with twelve (12) adjunct faculty members, tenured and others on the tenured track. These faculty members were hired by City Colleges of Chicago (CCC) School of Nursing Program at the Malcolm X College. Presentations were given by attendees with a lesson plan. Pre-test, post-test and evaluation forms were presented and it was agreed that an orientation program should be developed and presented to all newly hired clinical adjunct nursing faculty at CCC.
Cabral, Célia; Lígia Salgueiro; Pita, João Rui
In this article the authors present a brief history of the Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Portugal (1902-1980). The authors refer the importance of pharmacognosy in the study plans, the scientific research and the scientific collection of pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra. This heritage consists of collection of drugs prepared in the laboratory of pharmacognosy, a collection Drogen-Lehrsammlung purchased to E. Merck and a collection of botanic-didactic models of the XIXth century of the famous German manufacturer R. Brendel. The authors study the relationship between research and teaching, highlighting the importance of the collections of drugs.
Smith, Harry A.; Swintosky, Joseph V.
The origin, goals, and development of a clinical emphasis are reviewed, beginning with some fundamental developments in pharmacy practice and education brought about by economic, political, social, scientific, and technological forces. The challenge of fitting the desirable curriculum element into a limited program length is discussed. (MSE)
Shane, Patricia; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Yoshizuka, Keith; Chan, Paul; Vo, Thuy
Objective. To determine whether bullying is a significant factor in the clinical training of pharmacy students. Methods. The literature as well as the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards and American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) surveys were reviewed for mention and/or measurement of bullying behaviors in the clinical training of pharmacy students. The authors used a Delphi process to define bullying behavior. The consensus definition was used to analyze 2,087 in-house student evaluations of preceptors for evidence of bullying behaviors. The authors mapped strings of text from in-house student comments to different, established categories of bullying behaviors. Results. The ACPE Standards and AACP surveys contained no mention or measures of bullying. The 2013 AACP survey data reported overwhelmingly positive preceptor ratings. Of the 2,087 student evaluations of preceptors, 119 (5.7%) had at least 1 low rating. Within those 119 survey instruments, 34 comments were found describing bullying behaviors. Students’ responses to the AACP survey were similar to data from the national cohort. Conclusions. Given the evidence that bullying behaviors occur in pharmacy education and that bullying has long-term and short-term damaging effects, more attention should be focused on this problem. Efforts should include addressing bullying in ACPE Standards and AACP survey tools developing a consensus definition for bullying and conducting more research into bullying in the clinical training of pharmacy students. PMID:25147389
Engle, Janet P.
The trends toward more women than men entering pharmacy, clinical practice, and attaining pharmacy doctorates have implications for the professional socialization of future pharmacy faculty. Further inquiry into women's careers in the social system of academe is needed, especially for female clinical faculty whose academic role is unique. (MSE)
Ilersich, A. Lane; And Others
Original research articles from three major pharmacy journals were reviewed to determine the quality of reporting research. Articles were evaluated for method of recruitment and/or randomization; statistical analysis; inclusion/exclusion criteria; subject blinding; objective assessment; treatment complications; loss to followup; number of…
Douglas, Charles Allen
The scope of pharmacy practice and the training of future pharmacists have undergone a strategic shift over the last few decades. The pharmacy profession recognizes greater pharmacist involvement in patient care activities. Towards this strategic objective, pharmacy schools are training future pharmacists to meet these new clinical demands. Pharmacy students have clerkships called Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs), and these clerkships account for 30% of the professional curriculum. APPEs provide the only opportunity for students to refine clinical skills under the guidance of an experienced pharmacist. Nationwide, schools of pharmacy need to evaluate whether students have successfully completed APPEs and are ready treat patients. Schools are left to their own devices to develop assessment programs that demonstrate to the public and regulatory agencies, students are clinically competent prior to graduation. There is no widely accepted method to evaluate whether these assessment programs actually discriminate between the competent and non-competent students. The central purpose of this study is to demonstrate a rigorous method to evaluate the validity and reliability of APPE assessment programs. The method introduced in this study is applicable to a wide variety of assessment programs. To illustrate this method, the study evaluated new performance criteria with a novel rating scale. The study had two main phases. In the first phase, a Delphi panel was created to bring together expert opinions. Pharmacy schools nominated exceptional preceptors to join a Delphi panel. Delphi is a method to achieve agreement of complex issues among experts. The principal researcher recruited preceptors representing a variety of practice settings and geographical regions. The Delphi panel evaluated and refined the new performance criteria. In the second phase, the study produced a novel set of video vignettes that portrayed student performances based on recommendations of
Bootman, J. Lyle; Johnson, C. Anderson
Comparisons for Minnesota's class of 1977 supported the hypothesis that clinical pharmacy students become more receptive to pharmacy administrations skills and services as they gain clinical experience, especially in consultation services. Comparisons with the class of 1976 failed to support the hypothesis, however. (LBH)
Pharmacy education has undergone a radical change as it evolves towards becoming a more patient oriented profession. With a greater emphasis on problem based teaching and competency, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), supported by its reliability and validity became the gold standard for the evaluation of clinical skills of undergraduate students of medicine and pharmacy worldwide. Core competency evaluation has become a mandatory and critical norm for accountability of educational objectives as the traditional testing tools cannot evaluate clinical competence. Interpersonal and communication skills, professional judgment, skills of resolution etc., may be best assessed through a well- structured OSCE in comparison to oral examinations, multiple choice tests and other methods of assessment. Though OSCEs as an objective method of evaluation offer several advantages to both students and teachers, it also has disadvantages and pitfalls in implementation. This article reviews the OSCE as a trend in pharmacy education. PMID:26759616
Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; José Closs, S
The use of qualitative research methodology is well established for data generation within healthcare research generally and clinical pharmacy research specifically. In the past, qualitative research methodology has been criticized for lacking rigour, transparency, justification of data collection and analysis methods being used, and hence the integrity of findings. Demonstrating rigour in qualitative studies is essential so that the research findings have the "integrity" to make an impact on practice, policy or both. Unlike other healthcare disciplines, the issue of "quality" of qualitative research has not been discussed much in the clinical pharmacy discipline. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of rigour in qualitative research, present different philosophical standpoints on the issue of quality in qualitative research and to discuss briefly strategies to ensure rigour in qualitative research. Finally, a mini review of recent research is presented to illustrate the strategies reported by clinical pharmacy researchers to ensure rigour in their qualitative research studies.
Polo, Isabel; And Others
A clinical geriatric pharmacy clerkship containing three separate practice areas (long-term, acute, and ambulatory care) is described. The program follows the medical education clerkship protocol, with a clinical pharmacy specialist, pharmacy practice resident, and student. Participation in medical rounds, interdisciplinary conferences, and…
Chamoun, Nibal R; Zeenny, Rony; Mansour, Hanine
Background Pharmacists' involvement in patient care has improved the quality of care and reduced medication errors. However, this has required a lot of work that could not have been accomplished without documentation of interventions. Several means of documenting errors have been proposed in the literature but without a consistent comprehensive process. Recently, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) recognized that pharmacy practice lacks a consistent process for direct patient care and discussed several options for a pharmaceutical care plan, essentially encompassing medication therapy assessment, development and implementation of a pharmaceutical care plan and finally evaluation of the outcome. Therefore, as per the recommendations of ACCP, we sought to retrospectively analyze interventions by grouping them according to medication related problems (MRP) and their nodes such as prescribing; administering; monitoring; documenting and dispensing. Objective The aim of this study is to report interventions according to medication error (ME) nodes and show the impact of pharmacy interventions in reducing MRPs. Setting The study was conducted at the cardiology and infectious diseases services at a teaching hospital located in Beirut, Lebanon. Methods Intervention documentation was completed by pharmacy students on infectious diseases and cardiology rotations then reviewed by clinical pharmacists with respective specialties. Before data analysis, a new pharmacy reporting sheet was developed in order to link interventions according to MRP. Then, MRPs were grouped in the five ME nodes. During the documentation process, whether MRP had reached the patient or not may have not been reported which prevented the classification to the corresponding medication error nodes as ME. Main outcome Reduction in medication related problems across all ME nodes. Results A total of n = 1174 interventions were documented. N = 1091 interventions were classified as MRPs
Adams, Anthony J.
A discussion of basic and clinical science teaching in optometry in the next decade looks at the changing role of primary care and specialist optometrists, the training needs of current and future faculty, recommended curriculum changes, and decision making about delivery of this training. The roles of graduate training, residencies, and…
Haines, Seena L; Popovich, Nicholas G
A small nonprofit private college with limited resources and a high proportion of junior faculty developed a nontraditional external faculty mentor program in the summer of 2011 in response to the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty survey data regarding the professional development needs of pharmacy faculty members. Experienced faculty members with national reputations from other colleges and schools of pharmacy were hired as consultants to serve as mentors for assigned faculty members. Program goals were to provide directed, individual mentorship for pharmacy practice and basic science faculty members, expand peer review of faculty teaching prowess, and enhance monthly faculty development programming. The latter was based upon the specific needs assessment of the faculty. Program outcomes reported will include faculty satisfaction (AACP faculty survey data) changes over time, achievement of board certification for clinical faculty members and other credentialing, and other benchmarks, eg, publications, grant funding, service engagement (site development, professional organizations), after the implementation of the nontraditional faculty-mentoring program.
Kelly, Edward T.; Herman, Colman M.
The Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association sponsored a program in 1976 to acquaint faculty with "pharmaceutical industry practices and policies, particularly those related to the marketing function." Results of faculty and company evaluation questionnaires of faculty visitation are presented. Most of the faculty were interested in…
Beatriz Arias, Brasa; Landín Pérez, Mariana
In the early twentieth century, if there were an European Capital of biomedical research, it was definitely Paris. It was in this city where microbiology was born in the 19th century due to the crucial influence of Louis Pasteur. In 1888 he founded the Pasteur Institute in Paris where the rabies vaccine, that Pasteur himself had discovered in 1885, was administrated. This institution was also a place to continue his research on infectious diseases and to disseminate its findings. It is a private non-profit state-approved foundation that has attracted along the years many scientists from France and abroad who have been traditionally called "pasteuriens". So it was a world reference centre which has produced important scientific discoveries at a rapid pace and where resources both material and human, were abundant. The Pasteur institute therefore became one of the favourite research facilities of teachers and students from Spanish universities during the first third of the twentieth century, thanks to new regulations that encouraged training abroad. Scholarship policy promoted by the Spanish Government by an organization called Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas (Council for Higher Studies and Scientific Research from, 1907 to 1936) formed scientists abroad. The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela sent some of its members to the French capital between 1905 and 1933. We found that the vast majority chose the Pasteur Institute to conduct the studies of biological chemistry and drug synthesis, but always dependent of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris. Our study focuses on teachers and students who went to Paris, the dates, the course of their scientific stay and how these studies influenced their later work, once they returned to the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela.
Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) play a major role in pharmacy education. Students learn to locate, retrieve, and apply CPGs in didactic coursework and practice experiences. However, they often memorize and quote recommendations without critical analysis, which tends to undermine their clinical growth. Students should become genuine drug experts, based on strong critical-thinking skills and the ability to assimilate extensive clinical and scientific knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines improve health care, and students should be familiar with them, but there are legitimate criticisms of CPGs, stemming largely from potential conflicts of interest and limitations in the quality and scope of available evidence. Despite such flaws, CPGs can be used to facilitate the clinical growth of students if the emphasis is placed on critically analyzing and evaluating CPG recommendations, as opposed to blindly accepting them. From that perspective, the role that CPGs have come to play in education may need to be reconsidered. PMID:26889060
Dreischulte, Tobias; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando
Background The definitions that are being used for the terms 'clinical pharmacy' and 'pharmaceutical care' seem to have a certain overlap. Responsibility for therapy outcomes seems to be especially linked to the latter term. Both terms need clarification before a proper definition of clinical pharmacy can be drafted. Objective To identify current disagreements regarding the term 'Clinical Pharmacy' and its relationship to 'Pharmaceutical Care' and to assess to which extent pharmacists with an interest in Clinical Pharmacy are willing to accept responsibility for drug therapy outcomes. Setting The membership of the European Society of Clinical Pharmacy. Methods A total of 1,285 individuals affiliated with the European Society of Clinical Pharmacy were invited by email to participate in an online survey asking participants to state whether certain professional activities, providers, settings, aims and general descriptors constituted (a) 'Clinical Pharmacy only', (b) 'Pharmaceutical Care only', (c) 'both' or (d) 'neither'. Further questions examined pharmacists' willingness to accept ethical or legal responsibility for drug therapy outcomes, under current and ideal working conditions. Main outcome measures Level of agreement with a number of statements. Results There was disagreement (<80% agreement among all participants) regarding 'Clinical Pharmacy' activities, whether non-pharmacists could provide 'Clinical Pharmacy' services, and whether such services could be provided in non-hospital settings. There was disagreement (<80% agreement among those linking items to Clinical Pharmacy) as to whether Pharmaceutical care also encompassed certain professional activities, constituted a scientific discipline and targeted cost effectiveness. The proportions of participants willing to accept legal responsibility under current/ideal working conditions were: safety (32.7%/64.3%), effectiveness (17.9%/49.2%), patient-centeredness (17.1%/46.2%), cost-effectiveness (20
Robles, J. R.; Youmans, Sharon L.; Byrd, Debbie C.
Objectives To identify problems that pharmacy practice faculty members face in pursuing scholarship and to develop and recommend solutions. Methods Department chairs were asked to forward a Web-based survey instrument to their faculty members. Global responses and responses stratified by demographics were summarized and analyzed. Results Between 312 and 340 faculty members answered questions that identified barriers to scholarship and recommended corrective strategies to these barriers. The most common barrier was insufficient time (57%), and the most common recommendation was for help to “identify a research question and how to answer it.” Sixty percent reported that scholarship was required for advancement but only 32% thought scholarship should be required. Forty-one percent reported that the importance of scholarship is overemphasized. Conclusions These survey results provide guidance to improve the quantity and quality of scholarship for faculty members who wish to pursue scholarship, although many of the survey respondents indicated they did not regard scholarship as a priority. PMID:19513155
Wallack, Madeline Carpinelli; Loafman, Mark; Sorensen, Todd D
The Patient Safety and Clinical Pharmacy Services Collaborative (PSPC) is demonstrating improvements in the quality of care delivered by safety-net organizations through integration of clinical pharmacy services. This article describes how the PSPC is leading meaningful change in the arena of medication use in management of chronic disease.
Magarian, Edward O.; And Others
An interdisciplinary project provided ambulatory care clinical training for pharmacy and nursing students in community-based pharmacies, promoting early detection and medical follow-up of common health problems within the community. Students learned new clinical skills in patient health assessment, new diagnostic technologies, patient education…
Survey of the levels of satisfaction with pharmacy practice among third-year students in the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido--influence of experience in voluntary training at a community pharmacy and plans after graduation.
Kobayashi, Michiya; Oda, Masako; Saitoh, Hiroshi
Pharmacy practice, which is executed in the taught of pharmaceutical sciences in Japan, has been assessed and improved student questionnaires. The levels of student satisfaction with the practice are expected to be influenced by their plans after graduation and their experience of training in pharmacies. However, there are few reports analyzing the information in the questionnaires from these viewpoints. In this report, we surveyed the levels of satisfaction of 148 third-year students in the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the Health Sciences University of Hokkaido using questionnaires and analyzed the influence of the students' background on the levels of satisfaction with pharmacy practice. Almost half of the students had received voluntary training in hospital and/or community pharmacies. Concerning plans after graduation, 36.5%, 27.7%, and 21.6% wanted to become community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and graduate students, respectively. More than 70% of the students were well satisfied with all the programs of practice. The levels of satisfaction with the overall practice and prescription analysis were significantly higher among students who had experienced training in pharmacies than among those who had not. Students who planned to become hospital pharmacists were more satisfied with manners seminars, one-dose package practice, and practice in a simulated pharmacy than the students who planned to enter the other field. Such surveys are useful for finding points for improvement and the development of new curricula when the assessment of pharmacy practice takes student background into consideration.
Mueller, Eric W; Bishop, Jeffrey R; Kanaan, Abir O; Kiser, Tyree H; Phan, Hanna; Yang, Katherine Y
The American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Research Affairs Committee published a commentary in 2013 on training clinical pharmacy scientists in the context of changes in economic, professional, political, and research environments. The commentary centered on the opportunities for pharmacists in clinical/translational research including strategies for ACCP, colleges of pharmacy, and the profession to increase the number and impact of clinical pharmacy scientists. A postdoctoral fellowship is cited as a current training pathway, capable of producing independent and productive pharmacy researchers. However, a decline in the number of programs, decreased funding availability, and variability in fellowship program activities and research focus have brought into question the relevance of this research training pathway to meet demand and opportunities. In response to these points, this commentary examines the state of research fellowship training including the current ACCP research fellowship review process, the need for standardization of research fellowship programs, and strategies to strengthen and promote research fellowships as relevant researcher training pathways.
Dosea, Aline S; Brito, Giselle C; Santos, Lincoln M C; Marques, Tatiane C; Balisa-Rocha, Blície; Pimentel, Deborah; Bueno, Denise; Lyra, Divaldo P
When pharmacists incorporate clinical practice into their routine, barriers and facilitators influence the implementation of patient care services. Three focus groups were conducted with 11 pharmacists who were working for the Farmácia Popular do Brasil program on the establishment, implementation, and consolidation of clinical pharmacy services. The perception of the pharmacists in Brazil about the program was that it facilitated access to health care and medication. The distance between neighboring cities made it difficult for patients to return for services. Lack of staff training created a lack of communication skills and knowledge. The pharmacists wanted to have increased technical support, skill development opportunities, and monitoring of researchers who assessed progress of the service. Pharmacists overcame many of their insecurities and felt more proactive and committed to quality service. Positive experiences in service implementations have shown that it is possible to develop a model of clinical services in community pharmacies.
Skeff, K M; Stratos, G A; Mygdal, W K; DeWitt, T G; Manfred, L M; Quirk, M E; Roberts, K B; Greenberg, L W
Faculty development programs have focused on the improvement of clinical teaching for several decades, resulting in a wide variety of programs for clinical teachers. With the current constraints on medical education, faculty developers must reexamine prior work and decide on future directions. This article discusses 1) the rationale for providing faculty development for clinical teachers, 2) the competencies needed by clinical teachers, 3) the available programs to assist faculty to master those competencies, and 4) the evaluation methods that have been used to assess these programs. Given this background, we discuss possible future directions to advance the field.
American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Bethesda, MD.
The proceedings of the First International Congress on Clinical Pharmacy Education, which introduced pharmacy educators from outside of North America to the U.S. clinical pharmacy component of education and practice are presented in more than 20 separate papers. The program's objectives were: (1) to provide a historical overview of the development…
Liu, Yang; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Xiang, Jia-Mei; Wang, Jing-Juan; Zhao, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Gang; Dong, Hong-Huan; Ouyang, Guo-Qing
With the kernel of efficacy, "Xiaohe Silian" was a pattern and method for new drug discovery which was constituted with "metabolism-efficacy, toxicity-efficacy, quality-efficacy and structure-efficacy". Its connotation was in keeping with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical pharmacy. This paper systematically summarized the research method of new drug discovery practice process for TCM. To avoid western drug like in TCM new drug discovery, we carried out combination analysis with TCM clinical pharmacy. The correlation analysis between basic elements of "Xiaohe Silian(n) and TCM clinical pharmacy was studied to guarantee this method could integrate closely with TCM clinic from all angles. Hence, this method aimed to provide a new method for TCM new drug discovery on the basis of TCM clinical pharmacy with insisting on holistic view of multicomponent study, kinetic view of metabolic process when the curative effect occurred and molecular material view of quality control and structure-activity exposition.
In Japanese hospitals or pharmacies, crude drugs and natural products are used as the components of kampo medicine and dietary supplements. Clinical pharmacy can provide information such as the efficacy, adverse action, or interactions of crude drugs or natural products as well as chemical drugs. However, it is very difficult for a clinical pharmacist without a knowledge of pharmacognosy to offer full information, because crude drugs and natural products have very different pharmaceutical characteristics from chemical drugs containing a single compound. Drug information provided by such a pharmacist is sometimes ridiculous and may be misleading by suggesting the unusefulness of crude drugs. Therefore, in order to use crude drugs and kampo medicine effectively and safely, it is necessary to integrate the clinical pharmacy and pharmacognosy as "clinical pharmacognosy". Clinical pharmacognosy would also be capable of handling kampo medicine, a Japanese traditional medicine. Since basic pharmacognosy is a modern pharmaceutical science, pharmacognosists are limited in their understanding of a kampo formula and its clinical usefulness solely with a knowledge of that field. I suggest here that clinical pharmacognosy would better adopt the knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine that includes a theory of traditional pharmacology of the crude drugs used in kampo medicine.
Bond, C A; Raehl, Cynthia L; Patry, Roland
Development of a national plan to implement a core set of clinical pharmacy services in United States hospitals by 2020 requires assertive leadership from pharmacy organizations and state boards of pharmacy, and a commitment from the profession. Factors that may affect the development are grouped into three areas: manpower, marketplace variables, and pharmacy leadership. Although the number of pharmacy school graduates (7000) was about the same in 1990 and 2000, a greater number of pharmacy schools and high student enrollment, coupled with the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's acceptance of foreign-trained pharmacists, suggest that the number of pharmacists will increase substantially in the near future. We estimate that the net increase in pharmacists (new pharmacy graduates less pharmacists who retire or die) in the United States will be 139,929 from 2000-2020, for a total of 335,040 pharmacists (71% increase). The number of pharmacy technicians increased substantially (66%), from 150,000 in 1996 to 250,000 in 2002. The number of residents in programs accredited by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists increased 148%, from 435 in 1990 to 1080 in 2002. We conservatively project an increase of 33,000 pharmacists who complete residencies from 2000-2020. The pharmacy marketplace has changed dramatically over the last 12 years, with 10,754 independent community pharmacies closing (2.46 pharmacies/day) and 8459 chain outlets opening (1.93 chains/day). In recent years, mail-order pharmacies have expanded faster than other retail outlets and now process over 18% of U.S. prescriptions. Increased use of robotic systems (some can process 5000 prescriptions/hr) and technicians will diminish the demand for dispensing pharmacists. In addition, up to 10% of U.S. retail prescriptions may be filled outside the country's borders. These data indicate that there will be a sufficient supply of pharmacists and technicians in the future. Thus, it is feasible
Campbell, Austin R.; Elliott, Ellie; Hieber, Robin; Sommi, Roger W.
Objective To analyze the cost avoidance resulting from clinical interventions made by pharmacy students completing an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) at a psychiatric hospital. Methods A retrospective database review of documented clinical interventions by pharmacy students was conducted to classify interventions by type and significance. Interventions were assigned a cost avoidance value determined by an evaluation of the literature. Results Three hundred-twenty interventions were documented by 15 pharmacy students during the 1-year study period. The majority of interventions were related to psychiatric medication classes and most (n = 197; 61.6%) were classified as being of moderate significance. The most common interventions included patient education (13.1%), order clarification (11.6%), therapeutic dosing adjustments (10.9%), and laboratory order monitoring (8.8%). The estimated cost avoidance from all interventions made by pharmacy students was approximately $23,000. Conclusions Pharmacy students completing APPEs at a psychiatric hospital contributed to a variety of significant clinical interventions and provided considerable cost avoidance value to the institution. PMID:21451760
Harris, Marilyn F.; And Others
In a summer faculty development workshop, seven faculty in different pharmacy disciplines (biochemistry, therapeutics, pharmacy management, pharmaceutics, pathophysiology, pharmaceutical analysis, pharmacy administration) clarified critical thinking objectives for their courses, practiced this approach in a faculty workshop, and piloted the…
Barnum, Darold T; Shields, Karen L; Walton, Surrey M; Schumock, Glen T
Three problems impede the assessment of hospital pharmacy efficiency. First, although multiple efficiency indicators are utilized to measure a large variety of activities, it has not been possible to validly measure overall efficiency. Second, there have been no widely-used clinical activity indicators, so key outputs often have not been accounted for. Third, there has been no effective methodology for identifying when declines in efficiency are normal random variations and when they represent true decreases in performance. This paper presents a procedure that simultaneously addresses these three problems. It analyzes data from a group of U.S. hospital pharmacies that collect an inclusive set of clinical and distributional indicators. It employs Data Envelopment Analysis to develop comprehensive efficiency measures from the numerous outputs and inputs. It applies statistical Panel Data Analysis to estimate confidence intervals within which each pharmacy's true efficiency resides, and to develop control charts for signaling when a pharmacy's efficiency has declined by more than can be attributed to random variation. This integrated efficiency evaluation system is transferable to other hospital pharmacy systems, thereby offering decision makers a better way of measuring, controlling and improving hospital pharmacy efficiency.
Rotta, Inajara; Souza, Thais Teles; Salgado, Teresa M; Correr, Cassyano J; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando
A critical analysis of the research on clinical pharmacy services with regards to study characteristics has not been undertaken since 1998. However, several meta-analyses have been conducted to demonstrate the impact of pharmacists' interventions in specific medical conditions. These meta-analyses present high heterogeneity in part because the interventions are poorly and inconsistently described in primary studies. The aim of this article is to present the characteristics of randomized control trials (RCTs) that assess clinical pharmacy services to identify areas of improvement in future pharmacy practice research studies. Different emphasis of research across geographic regions of the world were also examined. During these 40 years, 520 articles reporting 439 RCTs assessing clinical pharmacy services were published. Of the 439 studies, 77.7% (n = 341) were published in the year 2000 or thereafter, 41.46% (n = 182) were conducted in the US, 27.56% (n = 121) in Europe, and 30.98% (n = 136) in the rest of the world. Studies in pharmacy practice have improved in terms of design, with an increase in the number of published RCTs after 2000. However, the small sample size of RCTs is still an issue. After 2000, a significantly higher proportion of studies were conducted in community pharmacy, targeting specific medical conditions, and with a higher number of patients randomized to the intervention group. Conversely, a significantly smaller proportion of studies were conducted in the hospital and targeted a single recipient after 2000. Studies conducted in the US had significantly more intervention arms, focused mostly on a specific medical condition, and were performed in primary care. Different health care systems' organization and policies may influence clinical pharmacy services research across countries.
Chapman, Scott A.; Frail, Caitlin K.; Moon, Jean Y.; Undeberg, Megan R.; Orzoff, Jordan H.
The profession of pharmacy is facing a shifting health system context that holds both opportunity and risk. If the profession of pharmacy is to advance, pharmacists must be recognized as a consistent member of the health care team in all clinical settings, contributing at the fullest extent of licensure and education. One part of achieving this broad goal is to implement a new way of defining and assessing pharmacy practice skills, such as entrustable professional activities (EPA). Assessment of professional tasks and practice activities with EPAs has been successfully implemented in medical education for assessing trainee preparation for practice. This EPA model is being applied to pharmacy education to develop an assessment framework across the advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) curriculum. The APPE course directors, practice faculty members, and the Office of Experiential Education collaboratively defined a set of universal EPAs critical for pharmacists in any practice setting and would be assessed in all practice experience types. PMID:27293224
Klosterman, Theresa; Siu, Anita; Shah, Pooja; Kimler, Katelin; Sturgill, Marc; Robinson, Christine
We describe a novel multihealth system pediatric pharmacy residency program through the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers University. Pediatric clinical pharmacy is a growing field that has seen an increase in demand for practitioners. Practice sites include freestanding children's hospitals, children's hospitals within adult hospitals, and pediatric units within adult hospitals. To accommodate a residency program in a region with no freestanding children's hospital, the pediatric faculty members at the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers University developed a multihealth system postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pediatric pharmacy residency program with 6 pediatric faculty members functioning as preceptors at their 5 respective practice sites. The multihealth system setup of the program provides the resident exposure to a multitude of patient populations, pediatric specialties, and pediatric pharmacy practices. In addition, the affiliation with Rutgers University allows an emphasis on academia with opportunities for the resident to lecture in small and large classrooms, facilitate discussion periods, assist with clinical laboratory classes, and precept pharmacy students. The resident has the unique opportunity to develop a research project with a large and diverse patient population owing to the multihealth system rotation sites. A multihealth system PGY2 residency in pediatric pharmacy provides the resident a well-rounded experience in pediatric clinical practice, research, and academia that will enhance the resident's ability to build his or her own pediatric pharmacy practice. PMID:26766936
The anticipated nursing shortage in the United States is well documented and continues to be a topic of discussion. A nationwide solution has been for nursing programs to increase their enrollment of nursing students. This could be difficult for many nursing schools; as many have a shortage of qualified nursing faculty with which to instruct…
Wang, Xiao-Xia; Jin, Zhong-Zheng; Guo, Gui-Ming; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Jin, Shi-Yuan
The aim of this study was to develop the data element standard directory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical pharmacy information, to provide application standards and models of TCM clinical pharmacy for the electronic medical record (EMR). The developed line of work is as follows: initially establish research through four forms: literature analysis, questionnaires, discussion groups, expert advice. The research range from the Chinese herbal medicine research, herbal origin, harvesting, processing, identification of traits, physical and chemical identification, modern research, character, taste, Indications, clinical application, processing, dispensing medicine, Chinese medicine specifications, usage, dosage, caution, efficacy indications to small packaging applications, drug research, management and other related issues, including traditional Chinese medicine theory, application and hospital management information; according to the general and part 16 content of the national "Health Information Data Element Standards", and the basic method of extracting data element to study and develop the data element of TCM clinical pharmacy information from the defining content. Correspondingly propose the ideas and methods of construction of the "Data Element Standard Directory of TCM Clinical Pharmacy Information", sort out medicine clinical information data element standard catalog, divided into basic categories, clinical application class, management class three parts, and set norms and standards of identifying data elements, definitions, allowable value of traditional Chinese medicine clinical information, and discuss the sources and standards of information collection, leaving the interface, standardized and scientific terminology, docking with the existing standards, maintenance and management program and oter issues.
Austin, Zubin; Dean, Marie Rocchi
The use of distance education for clinical skills development in the health professions has not been extensively described, due in part to the intensive nature of the relationship between the patient and practitioner. In the context of pharmacy practice, there are specific needs to develop new vehicles for clinical skills education due to growing…
Nakada, Akiko; Akagawa, Keiko; Yamamoto, Hitomi; Kato, Yasuhisa; Yamamoto, Toshinori
A questionnaire survey was performed to obtain pharmacy students' impressions of pharmacists' behavior, to classify these based on professionalism, and to analyze the relationship between these experiences and students' satisfaction with their clinical practice in Japan. The questionnaire was answered by 327 5th-year pharmacy school students upon completing clinical practice at community pharmacies from 2011 to 2012. They rated their satisfaction with their clinical practice using a 6-point Likert scale, and provided descriptions of their experience such as, "This health provider is professional", or "What a great person he/she is as a health provider". We counted the words and then categorized the responses into 10 traits, as defined by the American Pharmaceutical Association Academy of Students of Pharmacy-American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Council of Deans Task Force on Professionalism 1999, using text mining. We analyzed the relationship between their experiences with respectful persons, and satisfaction, using the Mann-Whitney U-test (significance level<0.05). Most students (337 of 364, 92.6%) reported experiences with respectful health providers. These students experienced significantly more satisfaction than did other students (p<0.001). We analyzed 343 sentences written by 261 students, using text mining analysis after excluding unsuitable responses. The word most used was "patient" (121 times). Many students noted their impression that the pharmacists had answered patients' questions. Of the 10 trait categories, "professional knowledge and skills" was mentioned most often (151 students).
Attridge, Rebecca L.; Tovar, John M.; Witte, Amy P.
Objective. To evaluate how effectively pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists communicate and apply knowledge to simulations of commonly encountered patient scenarios using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Design. Second-, third-, and fourth-year pharmacy students completed an OSCE as part of their required courses in 2012 and 2013. All students in both years completed identical OSCE cases. Licensed pharmacists were recruited to complete the OSCE and serve as controls in 2012. A survey assessed student perception and acceptance of the OSCE as well as student confidence in performance. Assessment. Licensed pharmacists had significantly higher clinical and communication skills scores than did pharmacy students. Student progression in communication and clinical skills improved significantly over time. Survey results indicated that students felt the OSCE was well-structured and assessed clinical skills taught in pharmacy school; 86% of students felt confident they could provide these skills. Conclusion. Objective structured clinical examinations can evaluate clinical competence and communication skills among professional students. Implementation of OSCEs may be an effective tool for assessment of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education domains. PMID:26690286
Urteaga, Elizabeth M; Attridge, Rebecca L; Tovar, John M; Witte, Amy P
Objective. To evaluate how effectively pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists communicate and apply knowledge to simulations of commonly encountered patient scenarios using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Design. Second-, third-, and fourth-year pharmacy students completed an OSCE as part of their required courses in 2012 and 2013. All students in both years completed identical OSCE cases. Licensed pharmacists were recruited to complete the OSCE and serve as controls in 2012. A survey assessed student perception and acceptance of the OSCE as well as student confidence in performance. Assessment. Licensed pharmacists had significantly higher clinical and communication skills scores than did pharmacy students. Student progression in communication and clinical skills improved significantly over time. Survey results indicated that students felt the OSCE was well-structured and assessed clinical skills taught in pharmacy school; 86% of students felt confident they could provide these skills. Conclusion. Objective structured clinical examinations can evaluate clinical competence and communication skills among professional students. Implementation of OSCEs may be an effective tool for assessment of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education domains.
Haas, Curtis E; Eckel, Stephen; Arif, Sally; Beringer, Paul M; Blake, Elizabeth W; Lardieri, Allison B; Lobo, Bob L; Mercer, Jessica M; Moye, Pamela; Orlando, Patricia L; Wargo, Kurt
This commentary from the 2010 Task Force on Acute Care Practice Model of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy was developed to compare and contrast the "unit-based" and "service-based" orientation of the clinical pharmacist within an acute care pharmacy practice model and to offer an informed opinion concerning which should be preferred. The clinical pharmacy practice model must facilitate patient-centered care and therefore must position the pharmacist to be an active member of the interprofessional team focused on providing high-quality pharmaceutical care to the patient. Although both models may have advantages and disadvantages, the most important distinction pertains to the patient care role of the clinical pharmacist. The unit-based pharmacist is often in a position of reacting to an established order or decision and frequently is focused on task-oriented clinical services. By definition, the service-based clinical pharmacist functions as a member of the interprofessional team. As a team member, the pharmacist proactively contributes to the decision-making process and the development of patient-centered care plans. The service-based orientation of the pharmacist is consistent with both the practice vision embraced by ACCP and its definition of clinical pharmacy. The task force strongly recommends that institutions pursue a service-based pharmacy practice model to optimally deploy their clinical pharmacists. Those who elect to adopt this recommendation will face challenges in overcoming several resource, technologic, regulatory, and accreditation barriers. However, such challenges must be confronted if clinical pharmacists are to contribute fully to achieving optimal patient outcomes.
Strasbourg occupied during the 19th century a privileged place in chemistry, as well in education as in research, and that in particular in three institutions created after the dissolution of the old University during the French Revolution: the Faculty of Sciences, the School then Faculty of Medicine created in 1794, and the School of Pharmacy created in 1804. In 1871, Alsace was annexed by Germany. The chair of medical chemistry in the Faculty of Medicine was successively occupied by: Pierre François Nicolas (1743-1816) in 1794-1795, Frédéric Louis Ehrmann (1741-1801) from 1796 to 1798, Gabriel Masuyer (1761-1849) from 1798 to 1838, and Amédée Cailliot (1805-1884) from 1838 to 1871. The chair of chemistry in the School of Pharmacy was successively occupied by: Louis Hecht (1771-1857)from 1804 to 1835, Jean François Persoz (1805-1868) from 1835 to 1852, Adrien Loir (1816-1899) from 1852 to 1855, Charles Frédéric Gerhardt and Eugène Théodore Jacquemin (1828-1909) from 1856 to 1871.
Lu, Peng-fei; Liao, Xing; Xie, Yan-ming; Wang, Zhi-guo
In recent 10 years, clinical trials of Chinese medicine and pharmacy (cMP) at clinicalTrials.gov.(USA) are gradually increasing. In order to analyze features of CMP clinical register, ClinicalTrials.gov register database were comprehensively retrieved in this study. Included clinical trials were input one item after another using EXCEL. A final of 348 CMP clinical trials were included. Results showed that China occupied the first place in CMP clinical register, followed by USA. CMP clinical trials, sponsored mainly by colleges/universities and hospitals, mostly covered interventional studies on evaluating safety/effectiveness of CMP. The proportions of studies, sponsored by mainland China and companies, recruitment trials and multi-center clinical trials in interventional trials were increasing. The proportions of studies sponsored by Hong Kong and Taiwan, research completed trials, unclear research status, phase III clinical trials, and published research trials in interventional trials were decreasing. Published ratios of CMP clinical trials were quite low. There were more missing types and higher proportions in trial register information.
Gubbins, Paul O; Micek, Scott T; Badowski, Melissa; Cheng, Judy; Gallagher, Jason; Johnson, Samuel G; Karnes, Jason H; Lyons, Kayley; Moore, Katherine G; Strnad, Kyle
Clinical pharmacy has a rich history of advancing practice through innovation. These innovations helped to mold clinical pharmacy into a patient-centered discipline recognized for its contributions to improving medication therapy outcomes. However, innovations in clinical pharmacy practice have now waned. In our view, the growth of academic–practice partnerships could reverse this trend and stimulate innovation among the next generation of pioneering clinical pharmacists. Although collaboration facilitates innovation,academic institutions and health care systems/organizations are not taking full advantage of this opportunity. The academic–practice partnership can be optimized by making both partners accountable for the desired outcomes of their collaboration, fostering symbiotic relationships that promote value-added clinical pharmacy services and emphasizing continuous quality improvement in the delivery of these services. Optimizing academic–practice collaboration on a broader scale requires both partners to adopt a culture that provides for dedicated time to pursue innovation, establishes mechanisms to incubate ideas, recognizes where motivation and vision align, and supports the purpose of the partnership. With appropriate leadership and support, a shift in current professional education and training practices, and a commitment to cultivate future innovators, the academic–practice partnership can develop new and innovative practice advancements that will improve patient outcomes.
Rahwan, Ralf G.
In view of trends in clinical pharmacy education, the role of the traditional basic sciences has to be reassessed. An endocrine pharmacology course comprised of 49 clock-hours and open for professional undergraduate and graduate credit is described that blends basic and applied pharmacology. (LBH)
Talasaz, Azita Hajhossein
Clinical pharmacy is deemed an integral component of a health care system. The presence of clinical pharmacists in medical rounds could assist physicians in optimizing patients' pharmacotherapy. Moreover, clinical pharmacists may reduce adverse effects and medication errors insofar as they contribute significantly to the detection and management of drug-related problems, not least in patients with cardiovascular diseases, who have the highest rank in the frequency of medication errors. Clinical pharmacists can also collaborate with physicians in the management of cardiovascular risk factors as well as anticoagulation therapy based on patients' specific situations.In summary, the practice of clinical pharmacy is considered a crucial part of a health care team to improve the level of patients' care by increasing the quality of therapy with the least expense for a health care system.
Butrimiene, Edita; Stankeviciene, Nida
Both traditional and new educational environments, the latter enriched with information and communication technologies, coexist in today's university. The goal of this article is to present the concept of educational environment enriched with information and communication technologies, to reveal the main features of such environment, and to present the results of certain investigation on the application of information technologies in teaching/learning processes at the Faculty of Pharmacy of Kaunas University of Medicine. The discussion object of this paper is the educational environment enriched with information and communication technologies. In designing the environments of this type, positive aspects of traditional teaching models are being developed by integrating them into the new educational environment. The concept of educational environment enriched with information and communication technologies is reviewed in the first part of this paper. The structure and main features of educational environments enriched with information and communication technologies are highlighted in the second part. The results of the study on the application of information technologies in teaching/learning processes at the Faculty of Pharmacy of Kaunas University of Medicine are presented in the third part.
Heilmann, Rachel M F; Campbell, Stephanie M; Kroner, Beverly A; Proksel, Jenel R; Billups, Sarah J; Witt, Daniel M; Helling, Dennis K
The impact of the declining number of primary care physicians is exacerbated by a growing elderly population in need of chronic disease management. Primary care clinical pharmacy specialists, with their unique knowledge and skill set, are well suited to address this gap. At Kaiser Permanente of Colorado (KPCO), primary care clinical pharmacy specialists have a long history of integration with medical practices and are located in close proximity to physicians, nurses, and other members of the health care team. Since 1992, Primary Care Clinical Pharmacy Services (PCCPS) has expanded from 4 to 30 full-time equivalents (FTEs) to provide services in all KPCO medical office buildings. With this growth in size, PCCPS has evolved to play a vital role in working with primary care medical teams to ensure that drug therapy is effective, safe, and affordable. In addition, PCCPS specialists provide ambulatory teaching sites for pharmacy students and pharmacy residents. There is approximately 1 specialist FTE for every 13,000 adult KPCO members and every 9 clinical FTEs of internal medicine and family medicine physicians. All clinical pharmacy specialists in the pharmacy department are required to have a PharmD degree, to complete postgraduate year 2 residencies, and, as a condition of employment, to become board certified in an applicable specialty. The evolution, current structure, and role of PCCPS at KPCO, including factors facilitating successful integration within the medical team, are highlighted. Patient and nonpatient care responsibilities are described.
Norose, Takahiko; Manabe, Tomohiro; Furuta, Seiichi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro
Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University (HPU), according to its educational mission, seeks to "develop medical professionals who contribute to community medicine", and it has produced more than 6300 graduates since 1974. With recent medical advancements and a progressively aging society, the role of the pharmacist in community medicine has diversified and is increasing in importance. Therefore, in April 2012, the Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University Affiliated Pharmacy was established as a for-profit business of the Educational Foundation of the Hokkaido University of Science, the parent body of HPU. The pharmacy is located near the Sapporo station; it is operated by six pharmacists and four clerks, and supported by three faculty members who are engaged in providing HPU student education such as on-site clinical training, in addition to their pharmacy duties such as home care pharmaceutics. For the first two years it was open, the pharmacy focused on the establishment of pharmacy administration and fiscal consolidation. In April 2015, the Pharmacy Management Committee set the pharmacy's future vision, as well as its mid-term strategy, which consists of the four main components of pharmacy practices, education, research, and social contribution, in order for the pharmacy to serve as a model of community pharmacy.
Guttman, Minerva S; Parietti, Elizabeth S; Reineke, Patricia R; Mahoney, Janet
To increase nursing education capacity in New Jersey, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) New Jersey Nursing Initiative (NJNI) awarded grants to prepare graduate nursing students to become clinically expert faculty. The purpose of this article was to describe the experiences of a collaborative partnership in preparing 14 scholars for the faculty role. The partnership developed two innovative models of preparing faculty with clinical expertise. The curriculum of the Fairleigh Dickinson University Adult Nurse Practitioner program was enhanced with education courses and intensive teaching practicum. The curriculum of the Monmouth University Nursing Education program was enhanced with more intensive clinical immersion in a selected concentration. Both models were based on the National League for Nursing nurse educator competencies (J. A. Halstead, 2007). The RWJF scholars were socialized into the faculty role from the start of the program through curricular and extracurricular activities. To date, all components of the enhanced curriculum were implemented with plans for sustaining the programs and partnership. Of 14 scholars, 4 graduated, and 10 are on track to graduate as projected. The curriculum enhancements improved two successful master's programs preparing graduates for not one, but two advanced practice roles.
Smith, Judith A
Recently at the University of Houston College of Pharmacy, a new course was introduced to provide an overview of each phase of drug development research, from the initial chemistry assays and cell biologystudies to animal experiments and finally clinical trials for drug approval. The course, entitled "Clinical Research and Drug Development," is a three-credit elective introduced this past yearfor the entry-level Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students and graduate students during the summer session at the college. Overall, the intent of this course is to develop students' interest in the topic of clinical research and drug development and provide a foundation of knowledge of basic research skills used in the drug development process. The approach for this course was to break the topics into three general modules: laboratory techniques, both analytical and cell biology/molecular, used in the drug development process; aspects of clinical research process; and writing grants and protocols. Throughout the course, students were strongly encouraged to consider pursuing independent research projects to help continue to develop their research skills in preparation for postgraduate training. As a result, on completion of the course, four students requested an opportunity to complete an independent research project. This course has introduced the various components of drug development and of conducting clinical research to students in the PharmD and graduate programs at the University of Houston College of Pharmacy.
Brown, Stacy D.; Clavier, Cheri W.; Wyatt, Jarrett
Objective To document the type and extent of active-learning techniques used in US colleges and schools of pharmacy as well as factors associated with use of these techniques. Methods A survey instrument was developed to assess whether and to what extent active learning was used by faculty members of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. This survey instrument was distributed via the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) mailing list. Results Ninety-five percent (114) of all US colleges and schools of pharmacy were represented with at least 1 survey among the 1179 responses received. Eighty-seven percent of respondents used active-learning techniques in their classroom activities. The heavier the teaching workload the more active-learning strategies were used. Other factors correlated with higher use of active-learning strategies included younger faculty member age (inverse relationship), lower faculty member rank (inverse relationship), and departments that focused on practice, clinical and social, behavioral, and/or administrative sciences. Conclusions Active learning has been embraced by pharmacy educators and is used to some extent by the majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Future research should focus on how active-learning methods can be used most effectively within pharmacy education, how it can gain even broader acceptance throughout the academy, and how the effect of active learning on programmatic outcomes can be better documented. PMID:21769144
Hall, Mellisa A; Daly, Barbara J; Madigan, Elizabeth A
Although the use of anecdotal notes by faculty to document clinical performance is thought to be a common practice, no empirical study of this evaluation tool has been conducted. To investigate the frequency and pattern of use, a faculty questionnaire was developed using the Context, Input, Process, Product (CIPP) evaluation model as a framework. The model was adapted to focus on clinical nursing education. Sixty-four nursing faculty from six schools participated in the regional study. A descriptive design was used to collect quantitative data from clinical faculty. Findings indicated that 97% of clinical faculty use anecdotal notes during the student evaluation process, and the majority of faculty do so on a weekly basis. Based on faculty feedback and the CIPP evaluation model, a clinical nursing faculty tool was developed after study completion to support clinical faculty in note use.
Kamal, Khalid M.; Berdine, Hildegarde J.
Objective To develop, implement, and assess a required pharmacy practice course to prepare pharmacy students to develop, implement, and evaluate clinical pharmacy services using a business plan model. Design Course content centered around the process of business planning and pharmacoeconomic evaluations. Selected business planning topics included literature evaluation, mission statement development, market evaluation, policy and procedure development, and marketing strategy. Selected pharmacoeconomic topics included cost-minimization analysis, cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Assessment methods included objective examinations, student participation, performance on a group project, and peer evaluation. Assessment One hundred fifty-three students were enrolled in the course. The mean scores on the objective examinations (100 points per examination) ranged from 82 to 85 points, with 25%-35% of students in the class scoring over 90, and 40%-50% of students scoring from 80 to 89. The mean scores on the group project (200 points) and classroom participation (50 points) were 183.5 and 46.1, respectively. The mean score on the peer evaluation was 30.8, with scores ranging from 27.5 to 31.7. Conclusion The course provided pharmacy students with the framework necessary to develop and implement evidence-based disease management programs and to assure efficient, cost-effective utilization of pertinent resources in the provision of patient care. PMID:19214263
Smith, R V
The education and training of clinical scientists has served society in several ways. For academic pharmacy, the emergence of clinical science has provided research and scholarship opportunities for clinical faculty development. Clinical scientists have also begun to play important roles in industrial drug research and development. For all faculty and students, clinical science research reinforces a "research mindset" that will become increasingly important as our society moves from a production/extraction to an information-based economy. Pharmacy will best evolve by increasing its commitment to clinical science research. In the process, academic pharmacy must continue to improve and support excellent education and training programs for clinical scientists.
Recommendations for meeting the pediatric patient's need for a clinical pharmacist: a joint opinion of the Pediatrics Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy and the Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group.
Bhatt-Mehta, Varsha; Buck, Marcia L; Chung, Allison M; Farrington, Elizabeth A; Hagemann, Tracy M; Hoff, David S; LaRochelle, Joseph M; Pettit, Rebecca S; Phan, Hanna; Potts, Amy L; Smith, Katherine P; Parrish, Richard H
Children warrant access to care from clinical pharmacists trained in pediatrics. The American College of Clinical Pharmacy Pediatrics Practice and Research Network (ACCP Pediatrics PRN) released an opinion paper in 2005 with recommendations for improving the quality and quantity of pediatric pharmacy education in colleges of pharmacy, residency programs, and fellowships. Although progress has been made in increasing the availability of pediatric residencies, there is still much to be done to meet the direct care needs of pediatric patients. The purpose of this joint opinion paper is to outline strategies and recommendations for expanding the quality and capacity of pediatric clinical pharmacy practitioners by elevating the minimum expectations for pharmacists entering pediatric practice, standardizing pediatric pharmacy education, expanding the current number of pediatric clinical pharmacists, and creating an infrastructure for development of pediatric clinical pharmacists and clinical scientists. These recommendations may be used to provide both a conceptual framework and action items for schools of pharmacy, health care systems, and policymakers to work together to increase the quality and quantity of pediatric training, practice, and research initiatives.
Arias, Beatriz Brasa; Míguez, Santiago Sanmartín; Landín, Mariana
The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela was founded in 1857, but research activities did not start until the beginning of the 20th century. The new Spanish regulations promoting the experimentation at universities and the stages of professors and recently graduated students outside Spain contributed to generate a remarkable research group in a provincial university. The excessive university centralism at that time in Spain and the characteristics of the headquarters of the faculty -- a 16th century Renaissance palace -- hindered, in general, the research development. However, the scientific spirit of professors and students, and their work were imposed and they achieved an estimable status in pharmacy research in Galicia. The facilities were the staff's highest priority and it raised more than a protest. A remarkable investment in apparatuses and laboratory materials was carried out and researchers started to publish original research papers in local journals, such as the "Revista de farmacia," published by their own University. In the previous years to the Spanish Civil War (1936) the research status in drug development and the background of the staff and students were important, allowing them to join the military laboratory that Franco's army created at the faculty of pharmacy. The research work continued in a small scale and was specially focused on the production of "copy drugs" coping European specific drugs which were scarce at that time. The first third of the 20th century was the germ of the great research prestige that the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela enjoys at present.
Pinto, Brian; Fox, Brent I
According to the Healthcare Information Management and Systems Society, "Clinical & Business Intelligence (C&BI) is the use and analysis of data captured in the healthcare setting to directly inform decision-making" (http://www.himss.org/library/clinical-business-intelligence). Some say that it is the right information given to the right person at the right time in the right way. No matter how you define it, the fact remains that timely access, synthesis, and visualization of clinical data have become key to how health professionals make patient care decisions and improve care delivery.
Hersberger, Kurt E; Messerli, Markus
The role of the community pharmacist in primary care has been undergoing change in Switzerland in parallel to international developments: it has become more clinically and patient oriented. Special services of community pharmacists to older patients taking long-term or multiple medications, discharged from hospitals or experiencing cognitive impairment or disability have been developed. These services require more clinical knowledge and skills from community pharmacists and are based on, for example, 'simple or intermediate medication reviews' focused primarily to improve medication adherence and rational drug use by a patient. Reflecting the new role of community pharmacies, this article describes the current services provided by community pharmacies in Switzerland, e.g., 'polymedication check', 'weekly pill organizer', and 'services for chronic patients', as well as new Swiss educational and reimbursement systems supporting development of these services. In the international context, involvement of community pharmacists in patient-oriented care is growing. This review summarizes positive and negative experiences from implementation of community pharmacy services in Switzerland and provides examples for the development of such services in other countries.
Boyle, Cynthia J.; Janke, Kristin K.
Objective. To assist administrators and faculty members in colleges and schools of pharmacy by gathering expert opinion to frame, direct, and support investments in student leadership development. Methods. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) student leadership instruction. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes to begin the generation of student leadership development guiding principles and competencies. Statements were identified as guiding principles when they were perceived as foundational to the instructional approach. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Group consensus with a statement as a guiding principle was set prospectively at 80%. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on guidelines, modified from feedback in round 2, that did not meet consensus. The principles were verified by identifying common contemporary leadership development approaches in the literature. Results. Twelve guiding principles, related to concepts of leadership and educational philosophy, were defined and could be linked to contemporary leadership development thought. These guiding principles describe the motivation for teaching leadership, the fundamental precepts of student leadership development, and the core tenets for leadership instruction. Conclusions. Expert opinion gathered using a Delphi process resulted in guiding principles that help to address many of the fundamental questions that arise when implementing or refining leadership curricula. The principles identified are supported by common contemporary leadership development thought. PMID:24371345
Guy, Wendell A.; Piltz, George W.
A computer-assisted exercise consisting of a case history of an asthmatic patient and a series of multiple-choice questions that forced the student to reanswer until reaching the correct response enable students to practice using clinical information, follow treatment steps, and have feedback on their treatment choices. (Author/MSE)
Morris, Carl R.; Hickman, Mary Johne
The University of Tennessee has established a training program for clinical pharmacists dealing with cancer chemotherapy patients. Health-care settings are described in which these individuals can contribute as unique health-care team members in oncology. (Author/LBH)
Bzoura, Elie; Flahaut, Jean
Charles-Henri Fialon stopped his pharmaceutical activities in 1892 and he devoted his time to artistic and historic works. He achieved an important collection of pharmaceutical pots and objects which he gave to the school of Pharmacy of Paris. These gifts were collected in a room named "Musée Fialon ". This museum was enlarged twice and presently is in the "Guillaume Valette" gallery. His content is described in this paper.
Rupp, Michael T
In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture.
Wilby, K J; Black, E K; Austin, Z; Mukhalalati, B; Aboulsoud, S; Khalifa, S I
This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and psychometric defensibility of implementing a comprehensive objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) on the complete pharmacy programme for pharmacy students in a Middle Eastern context, and to identify facilitators and barriers to implementation within new settings. Eight cases were developed, validated, and had standards set according to a blueprint, and were assessed with graduating pharmacy students. Assessor reliability was evaluated using inter-class coefficients (ICCs). Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing OSCE results to professional skills course grades. Field notes were maintained to generate recommendations for implementation in other contexts. The examination pass mark was 424 points out of 700 (60.6%). All 23 participants passed. Mean performance was 74.6%. Low to moderate inter-rater reliability was obtained for analytical and global components (average ICC 0.77 and 0.48, respectively). In conclusion, OSCE was feasible in Qatar but context-related validity and reliability concerns must be addressed prior to future iterations in Qatar and elsewhere.
Low, Bee Yean; Wongpoowarak, Payom; Moolasarn, Summana; Anderson, Claire
Objective. To explore the current status of pharmacy education in Thailand. Methods. The International Pharmaceutical Federation of the World Health Organization’s (FIP-WHO) Global Survey of Pharmacy Schools was used for this study. The survey instrument was distributed to the deans of the 19 faculties (colleges) of pharmacy in Thailand. Results. More than half the colleges have been in existence less than 20 years, and the government owns 80% of them. There were 2 paths of admission to study pharmacy: direct admission and central admission system. The doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs can be divided into 4 types. Approximately 60% of all teaching staff holds a doctoral degree. Regarding the work balance among teaching staff, around 60% focus on teaching activities, 20% focus on research, and less than 20% focus on patient care services concurrent with real practice teaching. The proportion of student time dedicated to theory, practice, and research in PharmD programs is 51.5%, 46.7%, and 1.8%, respectively. Sites owned by the colleges or by others were used for student training. Colleges followed the Office of the National Education Standards’ Internal Quality Assurance (IQA) and External Quality Assurance (EQA), and the Pharmacy Council’s Quality Assessment (ONESQA) . Conclusion. This study provides a picture of the current status of curriculum, teaching staff, and students in pharmacy education in Thailand. The curriculum was adapted from the US PharmD program with the aim of meeting the country’s needs and includes industrial pharmacy and public health tracks as well as clinical tracks. However, this transition in pharmacy education in Thailand needs to be monitored and evaluated. PMID:26056400
Abrogoua, Danho Pascal; Békégnran, César Pacôme; Gro, Bi Marius; Doffou, Elisée; Folquet, Madeleine Amorissani
Background: Clinical pharmacy activities in a pediatric inpatient department help to improve the management of patients clinically and economically. Objective: To assess the relevance of pharmaceutical interventions (PIs) in a pediatric inpatient department in Abidjan (Cote d’Ivoire). Materials and Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional, descriptive study from February to September 2014. The information collected was classified according to the classification of drug-related problems (DRPs) and PIs of the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy. The score assigned to each PI varied from PI0 (without direct clinical impact) to PI3 (vital clinical impact) as the importance of the potential clinical impact of the DRP was correlated to the severity of clinical consequences avoided by the PI. The relevance of PIs was assessed by their rate of acceptance by physicians and by the analysis of their clinical impact. Results: A total of 116 PIs were performed with 31% performed during medical rounds, 68.1% during patients’ records analysis, and 0.1% on patient's admission. The main DRPs were related to noncompliance with recommendations (24.1%), overdose (21.1%), and underdosing (13.8%). The most important PIs were dose adjustment (31.8%), accuracy of drugs administration modalities (29.3%), and proposals of therapeutic choice (27.6%). The acceptance rate of PIs was highly significant (94.8%). The majority of PIs (67.3%) was assessed as having a significant clinical impact (PI1) and 16.4% of PIs as very significant clinical impact (PI2). A single PI (0.9%) was found with vital clinical impact. Conclusion: PIs performed were relevant and contributed to the therapeutic optimization and the prevention of iatrogenic events in pediatric inpatients. PMID:28104969
Bao, L; Wang, Y; Shang, T; Ren, X; Ma, R
Hospital information system is widely used to improve work efficiency of hospitals in China. However, it is lack of the function providing pharmaceutical information service for clinical pharmacists. A novel clinical pharmacy management system developed by our hospital was introduced to improve the work efficiency of clinical pharmacists in our hospital and to carry out large sample statistical analyzes by providing pharmacy information services and promoting rational drug use. Clinical pharmacy management system was developed according to the actual situation. Taking prescription review in the department of general surgery as the example, work efficiency of clinical pharmacists, quality and qualified rates of prescriptions before and after utilizing clinical pharmacy management system were compared. Statistics of 48,562 outpatient and 5776 inpatient prescriptions of the general surgical department were analyzed. Qualified rates of both the inpatient and outpatient prescriptions of the general surgery department increased, and the use of antibiotics decreased. This system apparently improved work efficiency, standardized the level and accuracy of drug use, which will improve the rational drug use and pharmacy information service in our hospital. Meanwhile, utilization of prophylactic antibiotics for the aseptic operations also reduced.
Objective. To evaluate whether a relationship exists between the degree of student state-anxiety and pass rates on moderate-to-high stakes objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Methods. Third-professional year (P3) students were assessed using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) three weeks prior to their first moderate-to-high stakes OSCEs. Students’ OSCE station pass rates, individual station analytical scores, and the overall pass rate for the class were compared with student responses on STAI surveys to measure their association. Results. Seventy-three students (100%) provided consent to participate in the research; 64 (87%) sufficiently completed the STAI survey. Degree of student state-anxiety or train-anxiety was not associated with any of the outcomes assessed in this study. Overall pass rate, individual station pass rates, and station analytical checklist scores were not inversely correlated with state- or trait-anxiety scores. Conclusions. Efforts to assist students in OSCE performance should focus on means other than reducing associated anxiety. Future research in this area should focus on what interventions beyond instruction could be put in place to help students be more successful during OSCEs. PMID:28289297
Longyhore, Daniel S
Objective. To evaluate whether a relationship exists between the degree of student state-anxiety and pass rates on moderate-to-high stakes objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Methods. Third-professional year (P3) students were assessed using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) three weeks prior to their first moderate-to-high stakes OSCEs. Students' OSCE station pass rates, individual station analytical scores, and the overall pass rate for the class were compared with student responses on STAI surveys to measure their association. Results. Seventy-three students (100%) provided consent to participate in the research; 64 (87%) sufficiently completed the STAI survey. Degree of student state-anxiety or train-anxiety was not associated with any of the outcomes assessed in this study. Overall pass rate, individual station pass rates, and station analytical checklist scores were not inversely correlated with state- or trait-anxiety scores. Conclusions. Efforts to assist students in OSCE performance should focus on means other than reducing associated anxiety. Future research in this area should focus on what interventions beyond instruction could be put in place to help students be more successful during OSCEs.
Minard, Laura V; Deal, Heidi; Harrison, Megan E; Toombs, Kent; Neville, Heather; Meade, Andrea
Background In hospitals around the world, there has been no consensus regarding which clinical activities a pharmacist should focus on until recently. In 2011, a Canadian clinical pharmacy key performance indicator (cpKPI) collaborative was formed. The goal of the collaborative was to advance pharmacy practice in order to improve patient outcomes and enhance the quality of care provided to patients by hospital pharmacists. Following a literature review, which indicated that pharmacists can improve patient outcomes by carrying out specific activities, and an evidence-informed consensus process, a final set of eight cpKPIs were established. Canadian hospitals leading the cpKPI initiative are currently in the early stages of implementing these indicators. Objective To explore pharmacists' perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of cpKPIs. Methods Clinical pharmacists employed by the Nova Scotia Health Authority were invited to participate in focus groups. Focus group discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed, and data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings Three focus groups, including 26 pharmacists, were conducted in February 2015. Three major themes were identified. Resisting the change was comprised of documentation challenges, increased workload, practice environment constraints, and competing priorities. Embracing cpKPIs was composed of seeing the benefit, demonstrating value, and existing supports. Navigating the unknown was made up of quality versus quantity battle, and insights into the future. Conclusions Although pharmacists were challenged by documentation and other changes associated with the implementation of cpKPIs, they demonstrated significant support for cpKPIs and were able to see benefits of the implementation. Pharmacists came up with suggestions for overcoming resistance associated with the implementation of cpKPIs and provided insights into the future of pharmacy practice. The identification of barriers
Haviland, Mark G.; Dial, Thomas H.; Pincus, Harold Alan
Objective: The authors compare trends in the salaries of physician faculty in academic departments of psychiatry with those of physician faculty in all academic clinical science departments from 1980-2006. Methods: The authors compared trend lines for psychiatry and all faculty by academic rank, including those for department chairs, by graphing…
Kahn, Marc J; Long, Hugh W
One can use the option theory model originally developed to price financial opportunities in security markets to analyze many other economic arrangements such as the salary structures of clinical faculty in an academic medical center practice plan. If one views the underlying asset to be the portion (labeled "salary") of the economic value of the collections made for the care provided patients by the physician, then a salary guarantee can be considered a put option provided the physician, the guarantee having value to the physician only when the actual salary earned is less than the salary guarantee. Similarly, within an incentive plan, a salary cap can be thought of as a call option provided to the practice plan since a salary cap only has value to the practice plan when a physician's earnings exceed the cap. Further, based on analysis of prior earnings, the Black-Scholes options pricing model can be used both to price each option and to determine a financially neutral balance between a salary guarantee and a salary cap by equating the prices of the implied put and call options. We suggest that such analysis is superior to empirical methods for setting clinical faculty salary structure in the academic practice plan setting.
Okumura, Lucas Miyake; da Silva, Daniella Matsubara; Comarella, Larissa
Abstract Objective: Clinical Pharmacy Services (CPS) are considered standard of care and is endorsed by the Joint Commission International, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American College of Clinical Pharmacy. In Brazil, single experiences have been discreetly arising and the importance of these services to children and adolescents care has led to interesting results, but certainly are under reported. This short report aims to discuss the effect of implementing a bedside CPS at a Brazilian Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in a 12 bed PICU community hospital, from Campo Largo/Brazil. Subjects with<18 years old admitted to PICU were included for descriptive analysis if received a CPS intervention. Results: Of 53 patients accompanied, we detected 141 preventable drug-related problems (DRPs) which were solved within clinicians (89% acceptance of all interventions). The most common interventions performed to improve drug therapy included: preventing incompatible intravenous solutions (21%) and a composite of inadequate doses (17% due to low, high and non-optimized doses). Among the top ten medications associated with DRPs, five were antimicrobials. By analyzing the correlation between DRPs and PICU length of stay, we found that 74% of all variations on length of stay were associated with the number of DRPs. Conclusions: Adverse drug reactions due to avoidable DRPs can be prevented by CPS in a multifaceted collaboration with other health care professionals, who should attempt to use active and evidence-based strategies to reduce morbidity related to medications. PMID:27578187
Pollock, L L; Levine, M
As pharmacists increase their involvement in patients' drug therapy, the lack of opportunity for advanced clinical and administrative training becomes more critical, particularly for community pharmacists. To assist in the postgraduate development of community pharmacists, the faculty of pharmaceutical sciences at the University of British Columbia began a residency program in community pharmacy practice in June 1981. Modeled on the successful hospital pharmacy residencies, the program goals are to provide advanced clinical training in ambulatory patient care, and detailed and practical management training, and to develop pharmacists with skill in clinical teaching who will participate in the undergraduate programs of the faculty. The 12-month residency includes guided self-study and a series of practica in areas of therapeutics, management, drug information, clinical and teaching skill, professional service, and continuing education. These practica are served mainly in clinical practice settings such as community pharmacies, clinics, physicians' offices, and teaching hospitals. The residency has demonstrated its value and viability. Growing interest in such programs, and the success of this program in particular, should encourage the development of similar programs in Canada.
Pereira, Chrystian R.; Harris, Ila M.; Moon, Jean Y.; Westberg, Sarah M.; Kolar, Claire
Objective. To determine if the amount of exposure to patient encounters and clinical skills correlates to student clinical competency on ambulatory care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Design. Students in ambulatory care APPEs tracked the number of patients encountered by medical condition and the number of patient care skills performed. At the end of the APPE, preceptors evaluated students’ competency for each medical condition and skill, referencing the Dreyfus model for skill acquisition. Assessment. Data was collected from September 2012 through August 2014. Forty-six responses from a student tracking tool were matched to preceptor ratings. Students rated as competent saw more patients and performed more skills overall. Preceptors noted minimal impact on workload. Conclusions. Increased exposure to patient encounters and skills performed had a positive association with higher Dreyfus stage, which may represent a starting point in the conversation for more thoughtful design of ambulatory care APPEs. PMID:26941440
Quinn, Francis X.
An address to the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy focuses on the pharmacy school and faculty's role in providing an ethical foundation for practicing pharmacists. The issues of professional socialization, burnout, the influence of pharmaceutical advertising, and regulation of health care are noted. (MSE)
Matson, Johnny L; Malone, Carrie J; González, Melissa L; McClure, David R; Laud, Rinita B; Minshawi, Noha F
Program rankings and their visibility have taken on greater and greater significance. Rarely is the accuracy of these rankings, which are typically based on a small subset of university faculty impressions, questioned. This paper presents a more comprehensive survey method based on quantifiable measures of faculty publications and citations. The most frequently published core clinical faculty across 157 APA-approved clinical programs are listed. The implications of these data are discussed.
Vo, Thi-Ha; Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît
Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels.
Richardson, Hila; Gilmartin, Mattia J; Fulmer, Terry
To address the faculty shortage problem, schools of nursing are reexamining how they provide clinical education to undergraduate students to find ways to use faculty resources more efficiently and to maintain student enrollment. We describe a unique clinical teaching model implemented at the New York University College of Nursing. The new model currently being evaluated shifts from the traditional clinical education model, in which all clinical education is in a hospital or agency setting, to a model that substitutes high-fidelity human patient simulation for up to half of the clinical education experience. This article describes the clinical teaching model and its effects on nurse faculty capacity.
Weidle, Paul J.; Lecher, Shirley; Botts, Linda W.; Jones, LaDawna; Spach, David H.; Alvarez, Jorge; Jones, Rhondette; Thomas, Vasavi
Objective To test the feasibility of offering rapid, point-of-care human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing at community pharmacies and retail clinics. Design Pilot program to determine how to implement confidential HIV testing services in community pharmacies and retail clinics. Setting 21 community pharmacies and retail clinics serving urban and rural patients in the United States, from August 2011 to July 2013. Participants 106 community pharmacy and retail clinic staff members. Intervention A model was developed to implement confidential HIV counseling and testing services using community pharmacy and retail clinic staff as certified testing providers, or through collaborations with organizations that provide HIV testing. Training materials were developed and sites selected that serve patients from urban and rural areas to pilot test the model. Each site established a relationship with its local health department for HIV testing policies, developed referral lists for confirmatory HIV testing/care, secured a CLIA Certificate of Waiver, and advertised the service. Staff were trained to perform a rapid point-of-care HIV test on oral fluid, and provide patients with confidential test results and information on HIV. Patients with a preliminary positive result were referred to a physician or health department for confirmatory testing and, if needed, HIV clinical care. Main outcome measures Number of HIV tests completed and amount of time required to conduct testing. Results The 21 participating sites administered 1,540 HIV tests, with 1,087 conducted onsite by staff during regular working hours and 453 conducted at 37 different HIV testing events (e.g., local health fairs). The median amount of time required for pretest counseling/consent, waiting for test results, and posttest counseling was 4, 23, and 3 minutes, respectively. A majority of the sites (17) said they planned to continue HIV testing after the project period ended and would seek assistance or support
Takamura, Norito; Ogata, Kenji; Setoguchi, Nao; Utsumi, Miho; Kourogi, Yasuyuki; Osaki, Takashi; Ozaki, Mineo; Sato, Keizo; Arimori, Kazuhiko
Objective. To implement an advanced objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the curriculum and to evaluate Japanese pharmacy students’ skills in physical assessment such as measuring pulse and blood pressure, and assessing heart, lung, and intestinal sounds. Design. An advanced OSCE was implemented in a hospital pharmacy seminar as a compulsory subject. We programmed patient simulators with 21 different patient cases in which normal and abnormal physiological conditions were produced. The virtual patients were then used to evaluate the physical assessment skills of fifth-year pharmacy students. Assessment. Significant differences were observed between the average of all the detailed evaluations and the mean results for the following skills: pulse measurement, blood pressure measurement, deflating the cuff at a rate of 2-3 mmHg/sec, listening to heart sounds, and listening to lung sounds. Conclusion. Administering an advanced OSCE using virtual patients was an effective way of assessing pharmacy students’ skills in a realistic setting. Several areas in which pharmacy students require further training were identified. PMID:25657371
Background In recent years, pharmacists have been involved in expanded patient care responsibilities, for example patient counseling in self-medication, medication review and pharmaceutical care, which require graduates to develop the necessary competences. Consequently, reorientation of pharmacy education has become necessary. As such, active learning strategies have been introduced into classrooms to increase problem-solving and critical thinking skills of students. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and perceptions of competency of students in a new pharmaceutical care course that uses active learning methodologies. Methods This pharmaceutical care course was conducted in the first semester of 2014, in the Federal University of Sergipe. In the pharmaceutical care course, active learning methods were used, consisting of dialogic classroom expository, simulation and case studies. Student learning was evaluated using classroom tests and instruments that evaluated the perception of competency in pharmaceutical care practice. Furthermore, students' satisfaction with the course was evaluated. Results Thirty-three students completed the four evaluations used in the course (i.e., a discursive written exam, seminars, OSCE, and virtual patient); 25 were female (75.75%), and the median age was 23.43 (SD 2.82) years. The overall mean of student scores, in all evaluation methods was 7.97 (SD 0.59) on a scale of 0 to 10 points, and student performance on the virtual patient method was statistically superior to other methods. With respect to the perception of competency in pharmaceutical care practice, a comparison of pre- and post-test scores revealed statistically significant improvement for all evaluated competences. At the end of the semester, the students presented positive opinions of the pharmaceutical care course. Conclusions The results suggest that an active learning course can enhance the learning of pharmaceutical care competences. In
Hernandez, Penni; Podchiyska, Tanya; Weber, Susan; Ferris, Todd; Lowe, Henry
The Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) clinical data warehouse integrates medication information from two Stanford hospitals that use different drug representation systems. To merge this pharmacy data into a single, standards-based model supporting research we developed an algorithm to map HL7 pharmacy orders to RxNorm concepts. A formal evaluation of this algorithm on 1.5 million pharmacy orders showed that the system could accurately assign pharmacy orders in over 96% of cases. This paper describes the algorithm and discusses some of the causes of failures in mapping to RxNorm.
Patterson, Brandon J; Bakken, Brianne K; Doucette, William R; Urmie, Julie M; McDonough, Randal P
The evolving health care system necessitates pharmacy organizations' adjustments by delivering new services and establishing inter-organizational relationships. One approach supporting pharmacy organizations in making changes may be informal learning by technicians, pharmacists, and pharmacy owners. Informal learning is characterized by a four-step cycle including intent to learn, action, feedback, and reflection. This framework helps explain individual and organizational factors that influence learning processes within an organization as well as the individual and organizational outcomes of those learning processes. A case study of an Iowa independent community pharmacy with years of experience in offering patient care services was made. Nine semi-structured interviews with pharmacy personnel revealed initial evidence in support of the informal learning model in practice. Future research could investigate more fully the informal learning model in delivery of patient care services in community pharmacies.
Nightingale, Ginah; Saunders, Ila M; Comeau, Jill M; Fancher, Karen; Miller, Tim; O'Bryant, Cindy; Yeh, Jason
As more disease states have an increasing number of therapeutic options, pharmacy schools are continuously challenged to provide pharmacy students with a comprehensive education in a finite amount of time. It is particularly challenging to determine which diseases and associated therapeutic options should be included in the curriculum. The 2016 ACCP Pharmacotherapy Didactic Curriculum Toolkit seeks to provide clarity and guidance to schools and colleges of pharmacy to assist with curricular development.(1) Oncologic disorders are a vital part of the pharmacy curricula and are taught in the majority of colleges of pharmacy in the United States in the didactic and experiential setting.(2) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Wong, Brian M; Holmboe, Eric S
The current health care delivery model continues to fall short in achieving the desired patient safety and quality-of-care outcomes for patients. And, until recently, an explicit acknowledgment of the role and influence of the clinical learning environment on professional development had been missing from physician-based competency frameworks. In this Perspective, the authors explore the implications of the insufficient integration of education about patient safety and quality improvement by academic faculty into the clinical learning environment in many graduate medical education (GME) programs, and the important role that academic faculty need to play to better align the educational and clinical contexts to improve both learner and patient outcomes. The authors propose a framework that closely aligns the educational and clinical contexts, such that both educational and clinical outcomes are centered around the patient. This will require a reorganization of academic faculty perspective and educational design of GME training programs that recognizes that (1) the dynamic interplay between the faculty, learner, training program, and clinical microsystem ultimately influences the quality of physician that emerges from the training program and environment, and (2) patient outcomes relate to the quality of education and the success of clinical microsystems. To enable this evolution, there is a need to revisit the core competencies expected of academic faculty, implement innovative faculty development strategies, examine closely faculty's current clinical super vision practices, and establish a training environment that supports bridging from clinician to educator, training program to clinical microsystem, and educational outcomes to clinical outcomes that benefit patients.
Neville, Heather; Broadfield, Larry; Harding, Claudia; Heukshorst, Shelley; Sweetapple, Jennifer; Rolle, Megan
Background: Pharmacy technicians are expanding their scope of practice, often in partnership with pharmacists. In oncology, such a shift in responsibilities may lead to workflow efficiencies, but may also cause concerns about patient risk and medication errors. Objectives: The primary objective was to compare the time spent on order entry and order-entry checking before and after training of a clinical support pharmacy technician (CSPT) to perform chemotherapy order entry. The secondary objectives were to document workflow interruptions and to assess medication errors. Methods: This before-and-after observational study investigated chemotherapy order entry for ambulatory oncology patients. Order entry was performed by pharmacists before the process change (phase 1) and by 1 CSPT after the change (phase 2); order-entry checking was performed by a pharmacist during both phases. The tasks were timed by an independent observer using a personal digital assistant. A convenience sample of 125 orders was targeted for each phase. Data were exported to Microsoft Excel software, and timing differences for each task were tested with an unpaired t test. Results: Totals of 143 and 128 individual orders were timed for order entry during phase 1 (pharmacist) and phase 2 (CSPT), respectively. The mean total time to perform order entry was greater during phase 1 (1:37 min versus 1:20 min; p = 0.044). Totals of 144 and 122 individual orders were timed for order-entry checking (by a pharmacist) in phases 1 and 2, respectively, and there was no difference in mean total time for order-entry checking (1:21 min versus 1:20 min; p = 0.69). There were 33 interruptions not related to order entry (totalling 39:38 min) during phase 1 and 25 interruptions (totalling 30:08 min) during phase 2. Three errors were observed during order entry in phase 1 and one error during order-entry checking in phase 2; the errors were rated as having no effect on patient care. Conclusions: Chemotherapy order
Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh
Introduction The focus in clinical pharmacy practice is and has for the last 30-35 years been on changing the role of pharmacy staff into service orientation and patient counselling. One way of doing this is by involving staff in change process and as a researcher to take part in the change process by establishing partnerships with staff. On the background of the authors' widespread action research (AR)-based experiences, recommendations and comments for how to conduct an AR-study is described, and one of their AR-based studies illustrate the methodology and the research methods used. Methodology AR is defined as an approach to research which is based on a problem-solving relationship between researchers and clients, which aims at both solving a problem and at collaboratively generating new knowledge. Research questions relevant in AR-studies are: what was the working process in this change oriented study? What learning and/or changes took place? What challenges/pitfalls had to be overcome? What were the influence/consequences for the involved parts? When to use If you want to implement new services and want to involve staff and others in the process, an AR methodology is very suitable. The basic advantages of doing AR-based studies are grounded in their participatory and democratic basis and their starting point in problems experienced in practice. Limitations Some of the limitations in AR-studies are that neither of the participants in a project steering group are the only ones to decide. Furthermore, the collective process makes the decision-making procedures relatively complex.
Gignac-Caille, A M; Oermann, M H
The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of associate degree nursing (ADN) students and faculty of characteristics of effective clinical teachers and determine whether there were differences between these two groups. A survey was conducted of 292 students in various levels of their ADN programs and 59 faculty members from the same five programs, which were randomly selected from across Michigan. Data were collected using the Nursing Clinical Effectiveness Inventory, which includes 48 characteristics of effective clinical instructors arranged in five subscales. Students identified "demonstrates clinical skills and judgment" as the most important characteristic of effective clinical instructors, while faculty identified "explains clearly" as the most important characteristic. There was agreement on 6 of the top 10 characteristics identified by both groups. Both groups rated "directs student to useful literature in nursing" as the least important characteristic of effective clinical instructors. The students' and faculty's perceptions of effective clinical instructors differed by subscales, with students identifying evaluation characteristics as most important (mean = 4.73, SD = .42) and faculty identifying interpersonal relationships as most important (mean = 4.72, SD = .31). A t test indicated a significant difference between student and faculty means for the interpersonal relationships subscales, with faculty rating this group of characteristics as more important than students did (t = 2.49, p = .0 14).
Hastings, Justine F.; Bryant, Jennifer E.
Objective. To examine pharmacy students’ ownership of, use of, and preference for using a mobile device in a practice setting. Methods. Eighty-one pharmacy students were recruited and completed a pretest that collected information about their demographics and mobile devices and also had them rank the iPhone, iPad mini, and iPad for preferred use in a pharmacy practice setting. Students used the 3 devices to perform pharmacy practice-related tasks and then completed a posttest to again rank the devices for preferred use in a pharmacy practice setting. Results. The iPhone was the most commonly owned mobile device (59.3% of students), and the iPad mini was the least commonly owned (18.5%). About 70% of the students used their mobile devices at least once a week in a pharmacy practice setting. The iPhone was the most commonly used device in a practice setting (46.9% of students), and the iPod Touch was the least commonly used device (1.2%). The iPad mini was the most preferred device for use in a pharmacy practice setting prior to performing pharmacy practice-related tasks (49.4% of students), and was preferred by significantly more students after performing the tasks (70.4%). Conclusion. Pharmacy students commonly use their mobile devices in pharmacy practice settings and most selected the iPad mini as the preferred device for use in a practice setting even though it was the device owned by the fewest students. PMID:25861103
Klitzner, Michael; Stewart, Kathryn
Intended to provide an overview of program evaluation as it applies to the evaluation of faculty development and clinical training programs in substance abuse for health and mental health professional schools, this guide enables program developers and other faculty to work as partners with evaluators in the development of evaluation designs that…
Lane, India F; Strand, Elizabeth
Missing in the recent calls for accountability and assurance of veterinary students' clinical competence are similar calls for competence in clinical teaching. Most clinician educators have no formal training in teaching theory or method. At the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM), we have initiated multiple strategies to enhance the quality of teaching in our curriculum and in clinical settings. An interview study of veterinary faculty was completed to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of clinical education; findings were used in part to prepare a professional development program in clinical teaching. Centered on principles of effective feedback, the program prepares participants to organize clinical rotation structure and orientation, maximize teaching moments, improve teaching and participation during formal rounds, and provide clearer summative feedback to students at the end of a rotation. The program benefits from being situated within a larger college-wide focus on teaching improvement. We expect the program's audience and scope to continue to expand.
Wyte-Lake, Tamar; Tran, Kim; Bowman, Candice C; Needleman, Jack; Dobalian, Aram
This systematic review provides a comprehensive assessment of models used to expand the ranks of clinical nursing faculty. Nursing faculty shortages constrict the pipeline for educating nurses and make addressing the projected nursing shortage more difficult. Schools of nursing have denied admission to qualified applicants, citing insufficient numbers of nursing faculty as one major reason. Using key search terms in PubMed(®) and CINAHL(®), we identified 14 peer-reviewed articles published between 1980 and 2010 about models for expanding clinical faculty. Partnership models (n = 11) and expanded use of faculty resources (n = 9) were the most common strategies. Few (n = 8) studies assessed program efficacy. A need was identified for studies to assess the effect of alternative models on educational capacity and student performance and to examine the subcomponents of academic-practice partnerships and other innovative approaches to understand the essential factors necessary to implement successful programs.
Cohen, Leonard; And Others
Current attitudes of students and faculty toward incorporation of behavioral skills such as patient management, patient motivation, control of patient and dentist stress, and communication skills into clinical practice education are reported. (MSE)
Root Kustritz, Margaret V; Molgaard, Laura K; Rendahl, Aaron
At the University of Minnesota, fourth-year veterinary students assessed their clinical competence after completion of a small-animal, internal-medicine clinical rotation using the same rotation assessment form used by supervising faculty. Grades were compared between the two groups. Students identified by faculty as low-performing were more likely to overestimate their competence in the areas of knowledge, clinical skill, and professionalism than were students identified by faculty as higher performing. This finding mirrors research results in human health professional training. Self-assessment should not be used as the primary or sole measure of clinical competence in veterinary medical training without the introduction of measures to ensure the accuracy of student self-assessment, measures that include active faculty mentoring of student self-assessment, student goal-setting and reflection, and availability of subsequent opportunities to practice additional self-assessment.
Megel, Mary E; Nelson, Audrey E; Black, Joyce; Vogel, Jenilee; Uphoff, Megan
The purpose of this study was to repeat a study by Letizia and Jennrich that described and compared perceptions of the clinical post-conference learning environment of undergraduate baccalaureate student nurses (BSN) and faculty. The Clinical Post-Conference Learning Environment Survey (CPCLES) was sent electronically to all traditional and accelerated BSN students and faculty; 178 usable responses were returned. Both faculty and students perceived the environmental characteristics captured by the CPCLES were important, but were used less than expected (p<0.025). No differences were found between faculty and students in perceptions of importance and actual use of the post-conference learning environment. Results showed highest scores for the subscale Teacher Support for both faculty and students. Lowest scores were received for Innovation. The results suggest the important role faculty has in supporting students' efforts to understand and find meaning in clinical experiences. Post-conference learning experiences could be enriched by faculty efforts to increase active learning strategies and innovative experiences. Further research is needed to determine effectiveness of new approaches to the post-conference in facilitating clinical reasoning among student nurses, and promote students' ability to provide safe, high-quality care.
Marques dos Reis, Tiago; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; Girotto, Edmarlon; Guerra, Marisabelle Lima; de Oliveira Baldoni, André; Leira Pereira, Leonardo Régis
Objective. To summarize the effects of media methods used in continuing education (CE) programs on providing clinical community pharmacy services and the methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. Methods. A systematic review was performed using Medline, SciELO, and Scopus databases. The timeline of the search was 1990 to 2013. Searches were conducted in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results. Nineteen articles of 3990 were included. Fourteen studies used only one media method, and the live method (n=11) was the most frequent (alone or in combination). Only two studies found that the CE program was ineffective or partially effective; these studies used only the live method. Most studies used nonrobust, nonvalidated, and nonstandardized methods to measure effectiveness. The majority of studies focused on the effect of the CE program on modifying the knowledge and skills of the pharmacists. One study assessed the CE program’s benefits to patients or clients. Conclusion. No evidence was obtained regarding which media methods are the most effective. Robust and validated methods, as well as assessment standardization, are required to clearly determine whether a particular media method is effective. PMID:27402991
Abdallah, Bahia; Irani, Jihad; Sailian, Silva Dakessian; Gebran, Vicky George; Rizk, Ursula
Nursing faculty teaching medical students a module in clinical skills is a relatively new trend. Collaboration in education among medical and nursing professions can improve students’ performance in clinical skills and consequently positively impact the quality of care delivery. In 2011, the Faculty of Medicine in collaboration with the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon, launched a module in clinical skills as part of clinical skills teaching to first-year medical students. The module is prepared and delivered by nursing faculty in a laboratory setting. It consists of informative lectures as well as hands-on clinical practice. The clinical competencies taught are hand-washing, medication administration, intravenous initiation and removal, and nasogastric tube insertion and removal. Around sixty-five medical students attend this module every year. A Likert scale-based questionnaire is used to evaluate their experience. Medical students agree that the module provides adequate opportunities to enhance clinical skills and knowledge and favor cross-professional education between nursing and medical disciplines. Most of the respondents report that this experience prepares them better for clinical rotations while increasing their confidence and decreasing anxiety level. Medical students highly appreciate the nursing faculties’ expertise and perceive them as knowledgeable and resourceful. Nursing faculty participating in medical students’ skills teaching is well perceived, has a positive impact, and shows nurses are proficient teachers to medical students. Cross professional education is an attractive model when it comes to teaching clinical skills in medical school. PMID:25419165
Millette-Snodgrass, Carol; Atef, Eman
Objective. To develop a mathematical model for determining faculty workload at a college of pharmacy with a team-based learning curriculum. Methods. Using faculty provided data, our model calculated activity and weighted means in teaching, scholarship and service. Subsequently, these data were used to develop departmental and institutional workload models. Results. For the pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences department, percent faculty activity mean values were greatest for service followed by teaching and scholarship. These values in the clinical sciences department were greatest for teaching followed by service and scholarship. Overall, the institutional workload model had the largest maximum faculty activity value for teaching, followed by service and then scholarship. Conclusions. A novel faculty workload model proved to be effective in optimizing faculty workload within a college of pharmacy. Since the workload analysis, the faculty service commitment has been substantially changed, by reducing the number of committees at our institution. This type of workload analysis may particularly benefit colleges of pharmacy that employ a team based learning curriculum, with a large time commitment to teaching. PMID:28090101
Albino, Judith E.
Career advancement in academic dentistry appears to demand success in teaching, scholarship, and service, but foremost in research or scholarship. As a result, many dental faculty believe they are forced to choose between providing excellent professional preparation for their students or ensuring their academic careers. (MLW)
Miller, Karen Hughes; Ostapchuk, Michael; Patel, Pradip; Roberts, John L.
Because different medical specialties accredit their residency programs in different ways, departmental needs for faculty development in essentially the same content may vary. This training team realized that using a consultant model allowed them to meet departmental needs while keeping content validity intact. By combining best practice from…
Smith, Lee W.; And Others
Report of a four-day workshop on optometric clinical education for clinical administration and faculty is presented. The workshop addressed the following four issues: (1) the objectives of present and future clinical education in the light of public needs and professional responsibilities; (2) the nature, types, setting, and extent of clinical…
Saied, Hala; James, Joemol; Singh, Evangelin Jeya; Al Humaied, Lulawah
Clinical training is of paramount importance in nursing education and clinical evaluation is one of the most challenging responsibilities of nursing faculty. The use of objective tools and criteria and involvement of the students in the evaluation process are some techniques to facilitate quality learning in the clinical setting. Aim: The aim of…
Parker, Robert B; Ellingrod, Vicki; DiPiro, Joseph T; Bauman, Jerry L; Blouin, Robert A; Welage, Lynda S
Developing clinical pharmacists' research skills and their ability to compete for extramural funding is an important component of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy's (ACCP) vision for pharmacists to play a prominent role in generating the new knowledge used to guide patient pharmacotherapy. Given the recent emphasis on clinical/translational research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the key role of drug therapy in the management of many diseases, there is an unprecedented opportunity for the profession to contribute to this enterprise. A crucial question facing the profession is whether we can generate enough appropriately trained scientists to take advantage of these opportunities to generate the new knowledge to advance drug therapy. Since the 2009 publication of the ACCP Research Affairs Committee editorial recommending the Ph.D. degree (as opposed to fellowship training) as the optimal method for preparing pharmacists as clinical/translational scientists, significant changes have occurred in the economic, professional, political, and research environments. As a result, the 2012 ACCP Research Affairs Committee was charged with reexamining the college's position on training clinical pharmacy scientists in the context of these substantial environmental changes. In this commentary, the potential impact of these changes on opportunities for pharmacists in clinical/translational research are discussed as are strategies for ACCP, colleges of pharmacy, and the profession to increase the number and impact of clinical pharmacy scientists. Failure of our profession to take advantage of these opportunities risks our ability to contribute substantively to the biomedical research enterprise and ultimately improve the pharmacotherapy of our patients.
Khdour, Maher R; Kidney, Joseph C; Smyth, Bronagh M; McElnay, James C
AIM The aim was to investigate the impact of a disease and medicine management programme, focusing on self-management in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS One hundred and seventy-three patients (mean age 67 years; 54% female) were recruited; 86 patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group and 87 to a usual care (control) group. Intervention patients received education on disease state, medications and breathing techniques. Patients were given booklets and a customized action plan (antibiotic and oral steroid to be initiated promptly by patients for exacerbations). Patients were followed up at 6 and 12 months during a scheduled visit. The St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), COPD Knowledge and Morisky adherence questionnaires were administered to all patients at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Outcome measures included hospital admissions, emergency department (ED) visits, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and medication adherence. RESULTS Over the 12-month period in the intervention group, ED visits decreased by 50% (P= 0.02) and hospitalization by approximately 60% (P= 0.01). On the SGRQ, differences reached statistical significance on the symptom (−7.5; P= 0.04) and impact (−7.4; P= 0.03) subscales but not on the physical activity subscale. There was a significant difference between the intervention and usual care groups regarding knowledge scores (75.0 vs. 59.3; P= 0.001) and good adherence to medication (77.8% vs. 60.0%, P= 0.019). There was no significant difference regarding smoking between study groups. CONCLUSIONS The clinical pharmacy-led management programme can improve adherence, reduce the need for hospital care in patients with COPD and improve aspects of their HRQoL. PMID:19843062
This article examined i) how traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom from the late 19th century influenced such changes, ii) how medical laws of Daehan Empire and early colonial period influenced the differentiation of medico-pharmaceutical profession, and iii) what the responses of medico-pharmaceutical professionals were like, and arrived at following conclusions. First, in late Chosun, there was a nationwide spread of pharmacies (medicine room, medicine store) as general medical institutions in charge of prescription and medication as well as diagnosis. Therefore, Koreans' perception of Western medicine was not very different from that of traditional pharmacy. Second, Western pharmacies were established by various entities including oriental doctors, Western doctors and drug manufacturers.Their business ranged from medical consultation, prescription, medication and drug manufacture. This was in a way the extension of traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom, which did not draw a sharp line between medical and pharmaceutical practices. Also, regulations on medical and pharmaceutical business of Daehan Empire did not distinguish oriental and Western medicine. Third, clinics attached to pharmacy began to emerge after 1908, as some Western pharmacies that had grown their business based on selling medicine began to hire doctors trained in Western medicine. This trend resulted from Government General's control over medico-pharmaceutical business that began in 1908, following a large-scale dismissal of army surgeons trained in medical schools in 1907. Fourth, as specialization increased within medico-pharmaceutical business following the colonial medical law in early 1910s, such comprehensive business practices as Western pharmacy disappeared and existing businesses were differentiated into dealers of medical ingredients, drug manufacturer, patent medicine businessmen and herbalists. And private practice gradually became the general trend by establishment of medical
Webb, Sherry; McKeon, Leslie
Model C clinical nurse leader (CNL) programs are complex because they must meet the The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice and The Essentials of Master's Education in Nursing, as well as the graduate level competencies outlined in the white paper Competencies and Curricular Expectations for Clinical Nurse Leader Education and Practice. Faculty assigned to teach in these programs may be experts in education or areas of clinical specialty, but they may not have a clear understanding of the CNL role to teach and mentor CNL students. This article describes a faculty development model that includes an introduction to the CNL role, course mapping of the essentials, integration of CNL professional values into clinical evaluation, consultation with practicing model C graduates, and participation in a comprehensive CNL certification review course. The model was effective in preparing faculty to teach and mentor students in a model C CNL program.
Yeung, Mary Au; Lam, Paul; McNaught, Carmel
Case-based activities are widely proclaimed to enable better learning through allowing students to practice application of concepts in real-life situations. This paper reports an investigation into the learning benefits derived from engaging students in the development of Pharmacy eCases. This is a small scale pilot study. Two student-developers…
Kirkup, Michele L; Adams, Brooke N; Meadows, Melinda L; Jackson, Richard
A traditional summative grading structure, used at Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) for more than 30 years, was identified by faculty as outdated for assessing students' clinical performance. In an effort to change the status quo, a feedback-driven assessment was implemented in 2012 to provide a constructive assessment tool acceptable to both faculty and students. Building on the successful non-graded clinical evaluation employed at Baylor College of Dentistry, IUSD implemented a streamlined electronic formative feedback model (FFM) to assess students' daily clinical performance. An important addition to this evaluation tool was the inclusion of routine student self-assessment opportunities. The aim of this study was to determine faculty and student response to the new assessment instrument. Following training sessions, anonymous satisfaction surveys were examined for the three user groups: clinical faculty (60% response rate), third-year (D3) students (72% response rate), and fourth-year (D4) students (57% response rate). In the results, 70% of the responding faculty members preferred the FFM over the summative model; however, 61.8% of the D4 respondents preferred the summative model, reporting insufficient assessment time and low faculty participation. The two groups of students had different responses to the self-assessment component: 70.2% of the D4 respondents appreciated clinical self-assessment compared to 46% of the D3 respondents. Overall, while some components of the FFM assessment were well received, a phased approach to implementation may have facilitated a transition more acceptable to both faculty and students. Improvements are being made in an attempt to increase overall satisfaction.
Gignac-Caille; Anne Marie; Oermann, Marilyn H.
Associate degree nursing students (n=292) and faculty (n=59) agreed on 6 of 10 characteristics of effective clinical instructors. Effective instructors are clinically competent, use effective evaluation strategies, explain clearly, are approachable, are well prepared to teach, and communicate clear expectations. (Contains 28 references.) (SK)
Atkinson, Jeffrey; Rombaut, Bart
The PHARMINE consortium consists of 50 universities from European Union member states or other European countries that are members of the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy (EAFP). EU partner associations representing community (PGEU), hospital (EAHP) and industrial pharmacy (EIPG), together with the European Pharmacy Students' Association (EPSA) are also part of the consortium. THE CONSORTIUM SURVEYED PHARMACIES AND PHARMACISTS IN DIFFERENT SETTINGS: community, hospital, industry and other sectors. The consortium also looked at how European Union higher education institutions and courses are organised. The PHARMINE survey of pharmacy and pharmacy education in Europe produced country profiles with extensive information for EU member states and several other European countries. These data are available at: http://www.pharmine.org/losse_paginas/Country_Profiles/. This 2011 PHARMINE report presents the project and data, and some preliminary analysis on the basic question of how pharmacy education is adapted to pharmacy practice in the EU.
A lack of research exists regarding the impact of substantive curriculum reform on faculty teaching and attitudes. This report of an interpretive phenomenological study of one group of baccalaureate nursing faculty undergoing implementation of an innovative curriculum revealed that the curricular structure and program philosophy offered multiple new challenges. These included the integration of multiple concurrent learning activities, expansion of simulation, and a renewed focus on student assessment. The study design used Heideggerian hermeneutics, a reflexive approach to text analysis of interviews of seven full-time faculty who had worked in the school's traditional curriculum prior to the implementation of the clinical immersion model. The research offers insights into faculty adaptation to curriculum change and its effect on teaching and instruction. The results of this study may assist other schools contemplating or in the process of similar overarching program reforms.
Hohlfelder, Benjamin; Stashek, Chad; Anger, Kevin E; Szumita, Paul M
The objective of this analysis is to describe the utilization metrics of a pharmacy clinical surveillance system (PCSS) at a tertiary, academic medical center.We performed a retrospective database analysis assessing rule-based alerts (RBA), interventions and pharmacist communication notes documented in the PCSS from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014. Reports were generated on 92 unique RBAs sent to clinicians for evaluation. Metrics assessed included the number of RBAs that were triggered, clinically evaluated, intervened on by pharmacists, and therapeutic category of interventions. Pharmacy communication notes were also evaluated.A total of 399,979 RBAs were triggered through the PCSS. During that time, pharmacists documented a total of 17,733 interventions. The most common RBAs were related to lab abnormalities (132,487; 33 %) and anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy (126,425; 32.1 %). Interventions were most frequently related to RBAs regarding anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy (6412; 36 %) and antimicrobial therapy (3320; 19 %). Pharmacist communication was most commonly related to clarification of medication and lab orders, and therapeutic drug monitoring.Based on utilization metrics presented, the implementation of a PCSS has successfully generated RBAs to aid pharmacists in clinical practice and improved departmental documentation and communication. Further analysis is warranted to assess the impact of the RBAs, interventions, and communication notes on outcomes such as hospital cost and adverse drug events.
Smith, Sheila K; Hecker-Fernandes, Jill R; Zorn, CeCelia; Duffy, Linda
A descriptive survey was conducted to describe (a) perceptions of precepting and mentoring at early-, mid-, and late-career phases and (b) the organization's support of department members' precepting and mentoring needs. Participants were nursing faculty and clinical instructors at a midwestern public university. The Measure of Precepting and Mentoring was developed for this study. Findings indicate that clinical instructors experience greater precepting and mentoring satisfaction than faculty and distance-site department members experience a higher level of satisfaction than main-campus department members. Faculty expressed the most dissatisfaction for late-career mentoring and organizational culture and outcomes. From the qualitative data, three themes emerged: (a) a need for precepting and mentoring that changes with time, (b) a lack of an organizational precepting and mentoring philosophy and supporting mechanisms, and (c) the feeling of together but separate. A model of precepting and mentoring emerged from our study.
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.
This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of pharmacy technologist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of pharmacy technologist. The following skill areas…
Hankó, B; Takácsné, N K
The authors examine the utility and application of pharmaceutical chemistry is taught at the Faculty of Pharmacy, Semmelweis University, in the everyday pharmacy practice. Selected examples of the professional chemical knowledge necessary in different activities of pharmacists (as in drug quality control, storage of medicines, preparation of drugs in pharmacy and their issue (expenditure) to the patient etc.) are reviewed. Their experimental work on determination of expiry of an "ex tempore" prepared medicine demonstrates that it is possible to meet the principles of Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP). The paper is based on certain chapters of diploma work of H. B., tutor T. N. K.
Kujundzić, N; Inić, S
The first study of pharmacy on Croatian territory was founded in the early 19th century (1806-1813). Vicencio Dandolo (1758-1819), a pharmacist from Venice who was Napoleon's governor of Dalmatia, established a lyceum in Zadar in 1806. It included education for pharmacists. The Lyceum (later the Central School) was closed in 1811. The founding of the modern University of Zagreb (1874) and its Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences (1876) created the conditions for the development of university education for pharmacists. The study of pharmacy was introduced at the University of Zagreb in 1882 through the efforts of the Croatian-Slavonian Pharmaceutical Association and the professors of the Faculty of Philosophy. The study went through a series of reforms. The most significant one came with the introduction of the four-year study of pharmacy and the establishment of the Pharmacy Department of the Faculty of Philosophy (1928). The independent Faculty of Pharmacy (today's Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry) was founded at the University of Zagreb in 1942. Since 1989, it has had two separate studies (Pharmacy and Medical Biochemistry).
Poyas, Yael; Smith, Kari
The study discusses the professional identity and aspects of professional development of Clinical Faculty Teacher Educators (CFTEs) teaching methods courses in a College of Education during a time of change. The above aspects were revealed while analyzing data collected to evaluate an in-service professional development course for CFTEs. Data…
The purpose of this qualitative interpretive case study was to describe the experience of adjunct novice clinical nursing faculty who has less than three years teaching experience or feels novice in this setting. The nursing shortage in the United States is well documented and is forecasted to have significant impacts on the health care delivery…
Bahr, Damon L.
The dispositions of preservice elementary education teachers toward reform-oriented mathematics education were surveyed before and after an extended pre-student teaching practicum. During the practicum, university and school-based personnel served as 'clinical faculty' as they supported the preservice teachers' practicum…
Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Draper, Roni Jo; Erickson, Lynnette; Smith, Leigh; Young, Janet
Seeking to soften the gap between clinical and tenure-track teacher education faculty, a year-long action research seminar was conducted. Using data from observation notes, interviews and a taped seminar session, the authors explore the seminar from its very rocky beginning to its conclusion. Drawing on the concept of "communities of…
Lee, Mary W; Clay, Patrick G; Kennedy, W Klugh; Kennedy, Mary Jayne; Sifontis, Nicole M; Simonson, Dana; Sowinski, Kevin M; Taylor, William J; Teply, Robyn M; Vardeny, Orly; Welty, Timothy E
In 2008, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy appointed the Task Force on Research in the Professional Curriculum to review and make recommendations on the essential research curriculum that should be part of doctor of pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree programs. The essential research curriculum provides all students with critical and analytical thinking and lifelong learning skills, which will apply to current and future practice and stimulate some students to pursue a career in this field. Eight key curricular competencies are as follows: identifying relevant problems and gaps in pharmacotherapeutic knowledge; generating a research hypothesis; designing a study to test the hypothesis; analyzing data results using appropriate statistical tests; interpreting and applying the results of a research study to practice; effectively communicating research and clinical findings to pharmacy, medical, and basic science audiences; interpreting and effectively communicating research and clinical findings to patients and caregivers; and applying regulatory and ethical principles when conducting research or using research results. Faculty are encouraged to use research-related examples across the curriculum in nonresearch courses and to employ interactive teaching methods to promote student engagement. Examples of successful strategies used by Pharm.D. degree programs to integrate research content into the curriculum are provided. Current pharmacy school curricula allow variable amounts of time for instructional content in research, which may or may not include hands-on experiences for students to develop research-related skills. Therefore, an important opportunity exists for schools to incorporate the essential research curriculum. Despite the challenges of implementing these recommendations, the essential research curriculum will position pharmacy school graduates to understand the importance of research and its applications to practice. This perspective is provided as an aid
Bertch, K E; Hatoum, H T; Willett, M S; Witte, K W
We used a novel approach to cost-justify clinical pharmacy services on a general surgery team in nine diagnosis-related group cases. The clinical pharmacist monitored nine patients longitudinally on a general surgery team from admission to discharge and intervened in their therapeutic management. Each recommendation was analyzed for rationale, acceptance, perceived impact on quality and/or cost of patient care, whether self-initiated or solicited, and impact on patient outcome. Types of recommendations and outcomes were categorized by process and outcome measurement criteria. Total cost avoidance per patient was calculated using costs of drug therapy, laboratory tests, and length of stay. Accounting for cost of clinical pharmacy services, net cost avoidance per patient was calculated. The clinical pharmacist made 101 recommendations on nine patients. Physicians accepted 82 percent of the recommendations; 77 percent of the recommendations were self-initiated and 23 percent were solicited. Recommendations had a perceived impact on cost, quality, or both at 13, 31, and 56 percent, respectively. Most recommendations (79 percent) brought patient therapy to a level of conformance with current standards of practice as documented in the medical literature. Recommendations that potentially preserved a major organ function by preventing drug-induced toxicity or the exacerbation of existing problems constituted 16 percent of the total. None of the accepted recommendations adversely affected patient outcome and 23 percent directly resulted in a measurable positive outcome in patient care. A total of four hospital days was potentially saved for two cases. Based on objective outcome criteria, a 1.9-day increase in therapeutic control was documented per patient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Li, Tse Yan; Wong, Kin; Tse, Christine Shuk Kwan; Chan, Ying Yee
across clinical faculties as an important supplement to their formal learning in the planned curriculum. This trend calls for a transformation of the educator’s role from dispensing knowledge to guidance and support. PMID:27731303
Weber, Robert J.
Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department’s goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25717212
Weber, Robert J
Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department's goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services.
Lin, Jia-Ling; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Na, Paul J; Leff, Michelle; Contoreggi, Carlo
Pharmacies have become essential components in support of clinical research. Their operations become highly complex when preponderance of prescriptions is composed of controlled substances. Application of informatics will result in more efficient operations. We present the Pharmacy Information Management System (PIMS) that includes a set of decision support systems to address the pharmacy challenges and is integrated into our electronic health record system.
Angaran, David M.
A look at pharmaceutical care needs in the future is the basis for discussion of the educational needs of clinical pharmacists. Issues discussed include the appropriate degree (bachelor's vs. doctoral), costs of instruction, faculty/student ratios, the pharmacy practice faculty as role models, and computer-assisted instruction. (MSE)
This study aimed to compare the perceptions of pharmacy clerkship students and clinical preceptors of preceptors’ teaching behaviors at Gondar University. A cross-sectional study was conducted among pharmacy clerkship students and preceptors during June 2014 and December 2015. A 52-item structured questionnaire was self-administered to 126 students and 23 preceptors. The responses are presented using descriptive statistics. The Mann-Whitney U test was applied to test the significance of differences between students and preceptors. The response rate was 89.4% for students and 95.6% for preceptors. Statistically significant differences were observed in the responses regarding two of the five communication skills that were examined, six of the 26 clinical skills, and five of the 21 parameters involving feedback. The mean scores of preceptors (2.6/3) and students (1.9/3) regarding instructors’ ability to answer questions were found to be significantly different (P= 0.01). Students and preceptors gave mean scores of 1.9 and 2.8, respectively, to a question regarding preceptors’ application of appropriate up-to-date knowledge to individual patients (P= 0.00). Significant differences were also noted between students and instructors regarding the degree to which preceptors encouraged students to evaluate their own performance (P= 0.01). Discrepancies were noted between students and preceptors regarding preceptors’ teaching behaviors. Preceptors rated their teaching behaviors more highly than students did. Short-term training is warranted for preceptors to improve some aspects of their teaching skills. PMID:26971864
Horsley, Trisha Leann
Nursing schools design their clinical simulation labs based upon faculty's perception of the optimal environment to meet the students' learning needs, other programs' success with integrating high-tech clinical simulation, and the funds available. No research has been conducted on nursing faculty presence during a summative evaluation. The…
Vestergaard, Stense; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Kaae, Susanne
Objective. To determine pharmacy interns' perceptions of the roles of the pharmacist and pharmacy prior to and during the pharmacy internship and to compare their perceptions with those of their supervisors and the pharmacy customers. Methods. Questionnaires were completed and submitted by 395 interns prior to and during their internships. Interns interviewed their supervisors and two to four local customers. Results. Ninety-six supervisors and 285 customers were interviewed. Interns' perceptions were aligned with those of their supervisors in that both groups indicated that a pharmacist's most important role is that of a clinical leader. Furthermore, interns' perception of customers' expectations regarding the pharmacy were well aligned with customers' actual expectations with regard to service. Conclusion. The study illustrates that interns became more aligned in their perceptions due to the pharmacy internship. The study findings imply that the pharmacy internship influences interns' perception of the pharmacy and pharmacist's roles in society through complex individual and social learning processes. PMID:28289300
... common source for obtaining prescriptions is the local pharmacy. Usually the pharmacy is located in a drug or grocery store. ... some insurance companies have chosen is mail-order pharmacy. Once a pharmacy has been chosen it is ...
Obizoba, Cordelia O.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain an understanding of nursing faculty members' lived experiences of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in undergraduate nursing education. As owners of their programs' curriculum, nursing faculties are charged with the responsibility of providing needed knowledge, skills, and…
Roy, Kimberlee M; Roberts, Michael C; Stewart, Peter K
This study examined the research productivity of graduates of American Psychological Association accredited, clinical psychology doctoral programs who currently hold faculty positions. Normative averages of aggregated publications over the 2000-2004 five-year period were computed. Rankings based on the mean number of publications produced by graduates of each training program and the number of graduates were significantly correlated with U.S. News and World Report rankings, although some important differences were noted. Programs that have produced a larger number of faculty members were also more highly ranked but there was increased variability for the number of publications produced by the larger numbers of graduates. Objective outcome analyses such as graduates' publications may be preferable to more subjective reputation rankings of programs. Particularly for scientist-practitioner and clinical-scientist training programs, outcome data such as graduates' publications is an important aspect of the programs' continued self-study.
Hager, Keri; St Hill, Catherine; Prunuske, Jacob; Swanoski, Michael; Anderson, Grant; Lutfiyya, May Nawal
This article describes an interprofessional collaborative research practice fellowship designed to foster the research skills of clinical faculty. The year-long fellowship was grounded in big data analysis and the triangle of informatics--knowledge, information, and data. Fellows were selected to include diverse perspectives, training, and knowledge but had limited experience in team science or being a member of an interprofessional research team. The underlying philosophy of the fellowship was experiential learning. Protected time and formal mentorship were necessary factors for developing the interprofessional research practice and the skills to participate in an interprofessional research team. We believe that this innovative interprofessional faculty research fellowship is a viable option for supporting scholarly activity and research collaboration. The findings could inform interprofessional clinical practice and be implemented for patient care. Engagement in interprofessional collaborative research and incorporation of the perspectives, knowledge and expertise of multiple professions, is a model to de silo knowledge creation.
Khumsikiew, Jeerisuda; Donsamak, Sisira; Saeteaw, Manit
Problem-based Learning (PBL) is an alternate method of instruction that incorporates basic elements of cognitive learning theory. Colleges of pharmacy use PBL to aid anticipated learning outcomes and practice competencies for pharmacy student. The purpose of this study were to implement and evaluate a model of small group PBL for 5th year pharmacy…
Caligiuri, Frank J
Objectives To incorporate cultural competency concepts into various introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPE) at the University of Missouri - Kansas City, School of Pharmacy. Design A 6-week series, titled “Becoming a Culturally Competent Provider” was developed to provide IPPE students with the opportunity to apply theory regarding cultural competency in a clinical context. Assessment Pre- and post-intervention attitude survey instruments were administered to 25 students in the spring semester of 2009. Several activities within the series were associated with reflection exercises. Student presentations were evaluated and formal feedback was provided by faculty members. A course evaluation was administered to evaluate the series and determine areas of improvement. Conclusion A special series on cultural competency resulted in positive changes in students' attitudes, highlighting the importance of reinforcing cultural competency concepts during IPPEs. PMID:21088735
Hakkarainen, Katja; Kuosa, Tiina; Airaksinen, Marja; Hirvonen, Jouni; Holm, Yvonne
Objective To improve pharmacy education through integrating theory and practice, coherent constructively aligned course entities, and enhanced deep-level learning. Design The reform was conducted collaboratively with faculty and staff members, students, and stakeholders in pharmacy. The curriculum, syllabus, and teaching methods were assessed through evaluations and research, conducting core content analyses, and measuring the workload of pharmacy education courses. The new curriculum, launched in August 2005, consists of 6 strands, comprised of different courses which run through the entire program. Assessment Three years after the introduction of the reformed curriculum, the results of the reform are being evaluated. Ongoing assessments of teaching and learning will reveal how the education at the faculty level has developed since the reform. These assessment procedures are an integral part of the faculty's quality assurance program. Conclusion The integration of practical training and theoretical studies was improved with personal study plans introduced to enhance students’ learning. PMID:20221344
Dean, Meredith J.; Mumper, Russell J.; Blouin, Robert A.; Roth, Mary T.
Educational research must play a critical role in informing practice and policy within pharmacy education. Understanding the educational environment and its impact on students, faculty members, and other stakeholders is imperative for improving outcomes and preparing pharmacy students to meet the needs of 21st century health care. To aid in the design and implementation of meaningful educational research within colleges and schools of pharmacy, this roadmap addresses philosophy and educational language; guidelines for the conduct of educational research; research design, including 4 approaches to defining, collecting, and analyzing educational data; measurement issues; ethical considerations; resources and tools; and the value of educational research in guiding curricular transformation. PMID:24371342
McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Dean, Meredith J; Mumper, Russell J; Blouin, Robert A; Roth, Mary T
Educational research must play a critical role in informing practice and policy within pharmacy education. Understanding the educational environment and its impact on students, faculty members, and other stakeholders is imperative for improving outcomes and preparing pharmacy students to meet the needs of 21st century health care. To aid in the design and implementation of meaningful educational research within colleges and schools of pharmacy, this roadmap addresses philosophy and educational language; guidelines for the conduct of educational research; research design, including 4 approaches to defining, collecting, and analyzing educational data; measurement issues; ethical considerations; resources and tools; and the value of educational research in guiding curricular transformation.
New York State Education Dept., Albany.
New York State education laws, rules, and regulations concerning the practice of pharmacy are presented. Provisions relating to the manufacture, sale, distribution, purity, potency, and labeling of drugs are included. State statutory provisions cover: licensing; duration and registration of a license; practice and regulation of the profession;…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Cultural Education Center.
New York State education law, rules, and regulations concerning the practice of pharmacy are presented. Provisions relating to the manufacture, sale, distribution, purity, potency, and labeling of drugs are included. State statutory provisions cover: licensing, duration and registration of a license, practice and regulation of the profession,…
... pharmacists and doctors when taking prescription orders. When speaking with customers, technicians must listen carefully to understand customersâ€™ needs and determine if they need to speak with a pharmacist. Math skills. Pharmacy technicians need to have an understanding of ...
Johnson, Thomas J.; Hedge, Dennis D.
Objective To determine the impact of an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) on students' clinical skills during their initial advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Design A 4-week First Steps course that focused on students developing pharmacy practice skills, clinical communications skills, and effective use of reference materials was introduced in 2006 at the end of the third-year curriculum, prior to students beginning their APPEs. Assessment During the third week of the first APPE, faculty members rated students' demonstration of 9 clinical skills on a 5-point Likert scale (1 being always and 5 being never). The evaluation was performed in 2005 prior to implementation of the course (control group) and again in 2006 after implementation of the course. Students who completed the First Steps course scored better on all 9 skills and had a better average clinical skills value (2.3) compared to the control group (2.6, p < 0.01). Conclusion Completion of an IPPE course that focused on critical pharmacy practice aspects, clinical communication skills, and use of reference materials resulted in increased frequency of desired clinical behaviors on a subsequent APPE. PMID:20221362
O'Connor, Michael; Weber, Robert J
The Director's Forum provides directors of pharmacy practical ways to develop patient-centered pharmacy services. Pharmacy directors must understand the key issues facing their departments and incorporate strategies for these issues as part of their strategic planning process. Health care reform and the Affordable Care Act require that departments operate efficiently and closely monitor their drug expense. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative will serve as a valuable resource during 2013 to enhance the pharmacy practice model. By using their health care workforce, particularly pharmacy technicians, in an innovative way, pharmacy directors will allow the pharmacists to increase their clinical activity. By promoting the role of the hospital pharmacist to patients, directors will help to improve patients' understanding of their medications and increase their satisfaction with their care. Finally by changing the activities of pharmacy students in practice models, the patient care role of the pharmacist can be expanded. Through a greater understanding of the issues facing them and their effect on the operations of the pharmacy, pharmacy directors will learn effective ways to develop patient-centered pharmacy services.
Greer, Marianne L.; Kirk, Kenneth W.
A computerized, simulation-based instrument, consisting of four community practice clinical scenarios, collected information-searching data and the students' decisions. The appropriateness of the decisions, assessed by three clinical judges, and the focus of information search, based on the computer-collected process data, were the dependent…
Marnocha, R M
The application by an academic health center of business principles to the conduct of clinical research is described. Re-engineering of the infrastructure for clinical research at the University of Wisconsin and University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics began in 1990 with the creation of the Center for Clinical Trials (CCT) and the restructuring of the investigational drug services (IDS). Strategies to further improve the institution's clinical research activities have been continually assessed and most recently have centered on the adaptation of a business philosophy within the institution's multidisciplinary research infrastructure. Toward that end, the CCT and IDS have introduced basic business principles into operational activities. Four basic business concepts have been implemented: viewing the research protocol as a commodity, seeking payment for services rendered, tracking investments, and assessing performance. It is proposed that incorporation of these basic business concepts is not only compatible with the infrastructure for clinical research but beneficial to that infrastructure. The adaptation of a business mindset is likely to enable an academic health center to reach its clinical research goals.
Objective. To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. Methods. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. Results. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu’s description of field, species of capital, and habitus. Conclusion. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs. PMID:26889065
Bell, Heather D.; Walch, Kathleen A.; Katz, Steven B.
Analyzes the clinical protocol within the rhetorical framework of the drug development and approval process, identifying the constraints under which the protocol is written and the rhetorical form, argumentative strategies, and style needed to improve and teach the writing of this document. (SC)
Sharif-Chan, Bayan; Tankala, Dipti; Leong, Christine; Austin, Zubin; Battistella, Marisa
Objective. To compare peer teaching in a medical and a pharmacy clinical teaching unit and to provide suggestions for future research in pharmacy near-peer teaching. Methods. This exploratory observational study used principles of ethnographic methodology for data collection and analysis. Observations were collected in a large downtown teaching hospital. An average of 4-6 hours per day were spent observing a team of medical trainees from the Faculty (School) of Medicine in the general internal medicine (unit for two weeks, followed by a team of pharmacy trainees in an ambulatory hemodialysis (HD) unit for two weeks. Data was collected through field notes and informal interviews that were audiotaped and subsequently transcribed. Data was interpreted by the observer and reviewed weekly by two impartial pharmacists. Results. Five major themes emerged: (1) influence of peer teaching hierarchy; (2) educational distance between peer learners and teachers; (3) effect of the clinical teaching unit size on peer learning; (4) trainees' perception of their teaching role in the clinical teaching unit; and (5) influence of daily schedule and workload on peer teaching. As opposed to pharmacy, a hierarchy and pyramidal structure of peer teaching was observed in medical experiential training. There appeared to be no effect of educational distance on near peer teaching; however, perception of teaching role and influence of daily schedule affected near-peer teaching. Conclusion. Through initial comparisons of medical and pharmacy clinical teaching units, this study provides a reflection of elements that may be necessary to successfully implement near-peer teaching in pharmacy experiential training. Future studies in this area should assess learning outcomes and participant satisfaction, preceptor workload, and impact on patient care.
Chung, Bowen; Norris, Keith; Mangione, Carol; Del Pino, Homero E; Jones, Loretta; Castro, Daniel; Wang, Christina; Bell, Douglas; Vangala, Sitaram; Kahn, Katherine; Brown, Arleen F
Community engagement is recommended to ensure the public health impact of NIH-funded science. To understand the prevalence of community-engaged research and faculty interest in and needs around this, from 2012 to 2013, an online survey (n = 3,022) was sent to UCLA Clinical and Translational Science Institute faculty. Among respondents, 45% reported community-engaged project participation in the last year and 64% an interest in learning about community-engaged research. Over 50% indicated career development and pilot grants would increase participation in community-engaged research. A greater percentage of pretenure than tenured faculty (pretenure 54.9%, tenured 42.2%, p = 0008) noted faculty promotion criteria incentivizing community-engaged research would increase participation. In adjusted analyses, African American (OR 4.06, CI 1.68-9.82, p = 0.002) and Latino (OR 1.91, CI 1.10-3.33, p = 0.022) faculty had higher odds of prior participation in community-engaged projects than Whites. Female faculty had greater odds of interest (OR 1.40, CI 1.02-1.93, p = 0.038) in learning about community-engaged research than males. African American (OR 4.31, CI 1.42-13.08, p = 0.010) and Asian/Pacific Islander (OR 2.24, CI 1.52-3.28, p < 0.001) faculty had greater interest in learning about community-engaged research than Whites. To build community-engaged faculty research capacity, CTSAs' may need to focus resources on female and minority faculty development.
Lopez, Tina C; Trang, David D; Farrell, Nicole C; De Leon, Melissa A; Villarreal, Cynthia C; Maize, David F
The Feik School of Pharmacy collaborated with a commercial software development company to create a Web-based e-portfolio system to document student achievement of curricular outcomes and performance in pharmacy practice experiences. The multi-functional system also could be used for experiential site selection and assignment and continuing pharmacy education. The pharmacy school trained students, faculty members, and pharmacist preceptors to use the e-portfolio system. All pharmacy students uploaded the required number of documents and assessments to the program as evidence of achievement of each of the school's curricular outcomes and completion of pharmacy practice experiences.
Erstad, Brian L; Mann, Henry J; Weber, Robert J
Critical care medicine has grown from a small group of physicians participating in patient care rounds in surgical and medical intensive care units (ICUs) to a highly technical, interdisciplinary team. Pharmacy's growth in the area of critical care is as exponential. Today's ICU requires a comprehensive pharmaceutical service that includes both operational and clinical services to meet patient medication needs. This article provides the elements for a business plan to justify critical care pharmacy services by describing the pertinent background and benefit of ICU pharmacy services, detailing a current assessment of ICU pharmacy services, listing the essential ICU pharmacy services, describing service metrics, and delineating an appropriate timeline for implementing an ICU pharmacy service. The structure and approach of this business plan can be applied to a variety of pharmacy services. By following the format and information listed in this article, the pharmacy director can move closer to developing patient-centered pharmacy services for ICU patients.
Khandoobhai, Anand; Weber, Robert J
In 2013, the Director's Forum published our assessment of issues facing pharmacy leaders to assist pharmacy directors in planning for the year ahead. The issues include health care reform and the Affordable Care Act, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative, the health care workforce, patients' perceptions of pharmacists, and the changing landscape of pharmacy education. Based on our environmental scan, the issues addressed in 2013 are pertinent to a department's plan for 2014. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to each of these issues to help pharmacy directors focus their department's goals for 2014 to support the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. This column will address (1) strategies to reduce medication costs and generate new pharmacy revenue streams, (2) innovative approaches to improving medication safety and quality, (3) steps to advance the clinical practice model, and (4) ways to create mutually beneficial student experiences.
Doty, Randell E.; Nemire, Ruth E.
Objective. To assess the psychometric properties of the clinical competency framework known as the System of Universal Clinical Competency Evaluation in the Sunshine State (SUCCESS), including its internal consistency and content, construct, and criterion validity. Methods. Sub-competency items within each hypothesized competency pair were subjected to principal components factor analysis to demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. Varimax rotation was conducted for each competency pair (eg, competency 1 vs competency 2, competency 1 vs competency 3, competency 2 vs competency 3). Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach alpha. Results. Of the initial 78 pairings, 44 (56%) demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity. Five pairs of competencies were unidimensional. Of the 34 pairs where at least 1 competency was multidimensional, most (91%) were from competencies 7, 11, and 12, indicating modifications were warranted in those competencies. After reconfiguring the competencies, 76 (94%) of the 81 pairs resulted in 2 factors as required. A unidimensional factor emerged when all 13 of the competencies were entered into a factor analysis. The internal consistency of all of the competencies was satisfactory. Conclusion. Psychometric evaluation shows the SUCCESS framework demonstrates adequate reliability and validity for most competencies. However, it also provides guidance where improvements are needed as part of a continuous quality improvement program. PMID:25861100
Provision of clinical pharmacist services for individuals with chronic hepatitis C viral infection: Joint Opinion of the GI/Liver/Nutrition and Infectious Diseases Practice and Research Networks of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy.
Mohammad, Rima A; Bulloch, Marilyn N; Chan, Juliana; Deming, Paulina; Love, Bryan; Smith, Lisa; Dong, Betty J; GI Liver Nutrition and Infectious Diseases Practice and Research Networks of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy
The objective of this opinion paper was to identify and describe potential clinical pharmacists' services for the prevention and management of patients infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The goals of this paper are to guide the establishment and development of pharmacy services for patients infected with HCV and to highlight HCV research and educational opportunities. Recommendations were based on the following: a review of published data on clinical pharmacist involvement in the treatment and management of HCV-infected patients; a consensus of clinical pharmacists who provide direct patient care to HCV-infected patients and practice in different pharmacy models, including community-based and academic settings; and a review of published guidelines and literature focusing on the treatment and management of HCV infections. The recommendations provided in this opinion paper define the areas of clinical pharmacist involvement and clinical pharmacy practice in the treatment and management of patients with HCV. Clinical pharmacists can promote preventive measures and education about reducing HCV transmission, improve medication adherence, assist in monitoring clinical and adverse effects, recommend treatment strategies to minimize adverse effects and drug interactions, and facilitate medication acquisition and logistics that positively improve patient outcomes and reduce the health care system costs.
Metz, Michael J; Metz, Cynthia J; Durski, Marcelo T; Aiken, Sean A; Mayfield, Theresa G; Lin, Wei-Shao
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of calibration training of departmental faculty and competency graders using an audience response system on operative dentistry concepts across 12 months. The training sessions were designed to further solidify the process and equilibration of clinical opinions among faculty members and provide a more calibrated grading assessment during patient care for student performance feedback. Four (quarterly) calibration sessions occurred over 12 months in 2015. The first session was considered the baseline (control value) for this study. Pre- and post-calibration interrater agreement was assessed. Additionally, a pre and post assessment with ten Likert-scale questions was used to measure students' perceptions of instructional consistency. The results showed that a statistically significant increase in conceptual knowledge scores occurred for both departmental faculty members and competency graders across each of the four sessions (one-factor ANOVA; p<0.05). Interrater reliability agreement also significantly improved for both department faculty members and competency graders' clinical assessments over 12 months of implementation (Cohen's Kappa; p<0.05). There was a statistically significant increase in positive student perceptions on all ten questions (dependent t-test; p<0.05). Implementation of an audience response system for departmental and competency graders was found to be effective in facilitating a discussion forum, calibrating clinical assessments, and improving student perceptions. The positive results from this study support the value of dental schools' introducing faculty development programs to ensure consistent instruction for assessing dental student competence.
Loke, Swee-Kin; Tordoff, June; Winikoff, Michael; McDonald, Jenny; Vlugter, Peter; Duffull, Stephen
Several scholars contend that learning with computer games and simulations results in students thinking more like professionals. Bearing this goal in mind, we investigated how a group of pharmacy students learnt with an in-house developed computer simulation, SimPharm. Adopting situated cognition as our theoretical lens, we conducted a case study…
Kirchain, William R.
Creighton University (Nebraska) sends groups of pharmacy, medical, dental, nursing, and nonprofessional students to small Dominican Republic villages. They find pharmacy practice highly clinical in this situation. Participants consider the experience one of the most significant in their personal and professional lives. (Author/MSE)
Oakley, Robert S.; And Others
Hospital pharmacy directors ranked their academic needs as: personnel and financial management (greatest), computers, hospital organization, clinical pharmacy practice, traditional pharmacy practice, and statistics. Those with MBAs perceived themselves stronger in these areas than did those with other degrees. Only MBAs and MSs felt adequately…
Blake, Martin I.
The 4-year Korean pharmacy curriculum does not contain components regarded in the United States as preparatory for clinical pharmacy. Community pharmacists routinely compound and dispense drugs without prescription, and physicians generally dispense medications themselves without pharmacy prescription. There is little interaction between…
Carlson, Joanne S.
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which orientation, evaluation, and integration practices, along with other select job aspects and demographic characteristics, were correlated with and explained intent to stay among part-time clinical nursing faculty. A conceptual model was developed and tested. A researcher…
The project described in this report was designed to: (1) address the lack of adequately trained faculty members needed to introduce geriatrics within colleges of pharmacy, (2) facilitate the use of existing materials within the educational program provided pharmacy students, (3) teach a geriatric pharmacy course twice at each of Texas' three…
The Implementation and Development of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination in the Community Pharmacy Course of a Select Gulf-Region Academic Institution (Ras Al Khaimah College of Pharmaceutical Sciences): A Pilot Study
Al-Azzawi, Amad Mohammed Jamil; Nagavi, B.G.; Hachim, Mahmood Y.; Mossa, Omar H.
Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) were used to assess translational pharmacotherapeutic skills of a Gulf-region representative academic institution. Aim: The aim of the current study was to assess the clinical skills of students enrolled within the third year Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) programme within Ras Al…
A poster entitled "Space Medicine - A New Role for Clinical Pharmacists" was presented in December 2001 highlighting an up-and-coming role for pharmacists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Since that time, the operational need for the pharmacy profession has expanded with the administration s decision to open a pharmacy on site at JSC to complement the care provided by the Flight Medicine and Occupational Medicine Clinics. The JSC Pharmacy is a hybrid of traditional retail and hospital pharmacy and is compliant with the ambulatory care standards set forth by the Joint Commission. The primary charge for the pharmacy is to provide medication management for JSC. In addition to providing ambulatory care for both clinics, the pharmacists also practice space medicine. A pharmacist had been involved in the packing of both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Medical Kits before the JSC Pharmacy was established; however, the role of the pharmacist in packing medical kits has grown. The pharmacists are now full members of the operations team providing consultation for new drug delivery systems, regulations, and patient safety issues. As the space crews become more international, so does the drug information provided by the pharmacists. This presentation will review the journey of the JSC Pharmacy as it celebrated its five year anniversary in April of 2008. The implementation of the pharmacy, challenges to the incorporation of the pharmacy into an existing health-care system, and the current responsibilities of a pharmacist at the Johnson Space Center will be discussed.
information. Moreover, the Service may coordinate drug therapy seminars for physicians and nurses , pharmacy newsletters, drug reviews, and inservice ...between physicians, nurses and pharmacists may be en- hanced through decentralized unit dose programs, thus enabling the pharmacist closer contact with...physicians and nurses and greater clinical experience. i ii ~ .- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Our appreciation is expressed to Mrs. Cookie Gonzales for her support in
Topol, Eric J
Few would argue that the ability to match individual patients with the safest and most effective drugs and doses would be a major advance for clinical medicine. But while clinicians have been reluctant to routinely use pharmacogenomic analyses to guide their prescribing practices, pharmacy benefit managers and drugstores are proceeding with major pharmacogenetic initiatives.
McManigal, Shirley A.
This paper describes the faculty evaluation process at the Health Sciences Center at Texas Tech University. It covers the Center's five disciplines: allied health, dentistry, medicine, nursing, and pharmacy. Faculty members in these disciplines must usually have certification and/or licensure in the profession as well as typical academic…
Stoner, Paul S.; Bayuse, Tina
The Johnson Space Center Pharmacy began operating in March of 2003. The pharmacy serves in two main capacities: to directly provide medications and services in support of the medical clinics at the Johnson Space Center, physician travel kits for NASA flight surgeon staff, and remote operations, such as the clinics in Devon Island, Star City and Moscow; and indirectly provide medications and services for the International Space Station and Space Shuttle medical kits. Process changes that occurred and continued to evolve in the advent of the installation of the new JSC Pharmacy, and the process of stocking medications for each of these aforementioned areas will be discussed. Methods: The incorporation of pharmacy involvement to provide services for remote operations and supplying medical kits was evaluated. The first step was to review the current processes and work the JSC Pharmacy into the existing system. The second step was to provide medications to these areas. Considerations for the timeline of expiring medications for shipment are reviewed with each request. The third step was the development of a process to provide accountability for the medications. Results: The JSC Pharmacy utilizes a pharmacy management system to document all medications leaving the pharmacy. Challenges inherent to providing medications to remote areas were encountered. A process has been designed to incorporate usage into the electronic medical record upon return of the information from these remote areas. This is an evolving program and several areas have been identified for further improvement.
Francke, Donald E.
An opinion is offered of the Millis Commission report on pharmacy. Two major areas are considered: levels of pharmacy practice and roles for clinical pharmacy practice. It is concluded that the report failed to explore the issues facing pharmacy in the depth necessary to initiate meaningful change. (LBH)
Legg, Julie E.; Casper, Kristin A.
Objectives To implement the Partner for Promotion (PFP) program which was designed to enhance the skills and confidence of students and community pharmacy preceptors to deliver and expand advanced patient care services in community pharmacies and also to assess the program's impact. Design A 10-month longitudinal community advanced pharmacy practice experience was implemented that included faculty mentoring of students and preceptors via formal orientation; face-to-face training sessions; online monthly meetings; feedback on service development materials; and a web site offering resources and a discussion board. Pre- and post-APPE surveys of students and preceptors were used to evaluate perceptions of knowledge and skills. Assessment The skills survey results for the first 2 years of the PFP program suggest positive changes occurring from pre- to post-APPE survey in most areas for both students and preceptors. Four of the 7 pharmacies in 2005-2006 and 8 of the 14 pharmacies in 2006-2007 were able to develop an advanced patient care service and begin seeing patients prior to the conclusion of the APPE. As a result of the PFP program from 2005-2007, 14 new experiential sites entered into affiliation agreements with The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy. Conclusion The PFP program offers an innovative method for community pharmacy faculty members to work with students and preceptors in community pharmacies in developing patient care services. PMID:19325954
Whiting, Ellen; Wear, Delese; Aultman, Julie M.; Zupp, Laurie
A vast literature exists on teaching reflection and reflective practice to trainees in small groups, yet with few exceptions the literature does not address the benefits of these interactions to faculty. Like multiculturalism or cultural competency, the literature assumes that faculty have themselves "achieved" these propensities and…
Amos, Kimberly S.
In recent years, nursing faculty incivility has been a searing topic of research. Nursing research included studies on incivility among nursing students, incivility between nursing students and nursing faculty, and incivility in the clinical setting. However, literature specifically on nursing faculty incivility was limited. This descriptive,…
Bosso, John A; Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Nappi, Jean; Gubbins, Paul O; Ross, Leigh Ann
Benchmarking in academic pharmacy, and recommendations for the potential uses of benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments are discussed in this paper. Benchmarking is the process by which practices, procedures, and performance metrics are compared to an established standard or best practice. Many businesses and industries use benchmarking to compare processes and outcomes, and ultimately plan for improvement. Institutions of higher learning have embraced benchmarking practices to facilitate measuring the quality of their educational and research programs. Benchmarking is used internally as well to justify the allocation of institutional resources or to mediate among competing demands for additional program staff or space. Surveying all chairs of academic pharmacy departments to explore benchmarking issues such as department size and composition, as well as faculty teaching, scholarly, and service productivity, could provide valuable information. To date, attempts to gather this data have had limited success. We believe this information is potentially important, urge that efforts to gather it should be continued, and offer suggestions to achieve full participation.
Islam, Mohammed A; Khan, Seher A; Talukder, Rahmat M
The purpose of the present study was to assess the current status of physiology education in US Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) programs. A survey instrument was developed and distributed through SurveyMonkey to American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Biological Sciences section members of 132 PharmD programs. Survey items focused on soliciting qualitative and quantitative information on the delivery of physiology curricular contents and faculty perceptions of physiology education. A total of 114 programs responded to the survey, resulting in a response rate of 86%. Out of 114 schools/colleges, 61 programs (54%) offered standalone physiology courses, and 53 programs (46%) offered physiology integrated with other courses. When integrated, the average contact hours for physiology contents were significantly reduced compared with standalone courses (30 vs. 84 h, P < 0.0001). Survey respondents identified diverse strategies in the delivery and assessment of physiology contents. Eighty percent of the responding faculty (n = 204) agree/strongly agree that physiology is underemphasized in PharmD curriculum. Moreover, 67% of the respondents agree/strongly agree that physiology should be taught as a standalone foundational course. A wide variation in the depth and breadth of physiology course offerings in US PharmD programs remains. The reduction of physiology contents is evident when physiology is taught as a component of integrated courses. Given current trends that favor integrated curricula, these data suggest that additional collaboration among basic and clinical science faculty is required to ensure that physiology contents are balanced and not underemphasized in a PharmD curriculum.
DiBiaggio, John A.
Suggestions are made for reducing tension between clinical practice and basic research segments of pharmacy: develop mutual respect among all faculty segments, combine research efforts, modify the reward system for greater equity, increase physical proximity, share experiences through clinics and forums, and combine realism with tradition. (MSE)
Casey, Michelle M; Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira
Access to pharmacy services is an important rural health policy issue but limited research has been conducted on it. This article describes rural retail pharmacies in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, including their organizational characteristics, staffing, services provided, and planned future changes; examines the availability of pharmacy services and pharmacy closures in rural areas of these three states; and briefly discusses policy issues that affect the delivery of pharmacy services in rural areas. Study data came from a phone survey of 537 rural pharmacies, an analysis of pharmacy licensure data, and phone interviews with clinic, public health, and social services staff in rural communities with potential pharmacy access problems. Using a standard of 20 miles to the nearest pharmacy, most rural residents of these three states currently have adequate geographic access to pharmacy services. However, rural pharmacists and clinic, public health, and social services staff rate financial access to pharmacy services for the elderly and the uninsured as a major problem. Key policy issues that will affect future access to pharmacy services in rural areas include pharmacy staffing and relief coverage; alternative methods of providing pharmacy services; thefinancial viability of rural pharmacies; and the potential impact of a Medicare prescription benefit on rural consumers and rural pharmacies.
Academic entitlement and student consumerism have been described as a cause for unprofessional behavior in higher education. Colleges and schools of pharmacy may inadvertently encourage student consumerism and academic entitlement by misunderstanding who is the primary customer of pharmacy education. Pharmacy colleges and schools who view students as the primary customer can unintentionally pressure faculty members to relax expectations for professionalism and academic performance and thereby cause a general downward spiral in the quality of pharmacy graduates. In contrast, this paper argues that the primary customer of pharmacy education is the patient. Placing the patient at the center of the educational process is consistent with the concepts of pharmaceutical care, medication therapy management, the patient-centered home, and the oath of the pharmacist. Emphasizing the patient as the primary customer discourages academic entitlement and student consumerism and encourages an emphasis on learning how to serve the medication-related needs of the patient. PMID:24558271
Holdford, David A
Academic entitlement and student consumerism have been described as a cause for unprofessional behavior in higher education. Colleges and schools of pharmacy may inadvertently encourage student consumerism and academic entitlement by misunderstanding who is the primary customer of pharmacy education. Pharmacy colleges and schools who view students as the primary customer can unintentionally pressure faculty members to relax expectations for professionalism and academic performance and thereby cause a general downward spiral in the quality of pharmacy graduates. In contrast, this paper argues that the primary customer of pharmacy education is the patient. Placing the patient at the center of the educational process is consistent with the concepts of pharmaceutical care, medication therapy management, the patient-centered home, and the oath of the pharmacist. Emphasizing the patient as the primary customer discourages academic entitlement and student consumerism and encourages an emphasis on learning how to serve the medication-related needs of the patient.
Hester, Elizabeth Kelly; McBane, Sarah E; Bottorff, Michael B; Carnes, Tristan A; Dell, Kamila; Gonyeau, Michael J; Greco, Angelo J; McConnell, Karen J; Skaar, Debra J; Splinter, Michele Y; Trujillo, Toby C
It is the position of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) that formal postgraduate residency training, or equivalent experience, is required to enter direct patient care practice. Therefore, it is important to align professional degree educational outcomes with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to enter residency training. This position statement addresses the outcomes necessary in the professional degree program curriculum to ensure the ability of pharmacy graduates to transition effectively into postgraduate year one residency training. Five key outcome areas are identified: communication, direct patient care, professionalism, research, and practice management. The position statement examines how performance in each of the five outcome areas should be addressed by professional degree programs. The ACCP believes that for the student to achieve the clinical proficiency necessary to enter residency training, the professional degree program should emphasize, assess, and provide adequate opportunities for students to practice: communication with patients, caregivers, and members of the health care team in direct patient care environments; provision of direct patient care in a wide variety of practice settings, especially those involving patient-centered, team-based care; professionalism under the supervision and guidance of faculty and preceptors who model and teach the traits of a health care professional; application of principles of research that engender an appreciation for the role of research and scholarship in one's professional development; and application of practice management, including documentation of direct patient care activities that affect drug-related outcomes.
MacLean, Linda Garrelts; Hess, Karl; Farmer, Kevin C.; Yurkon, Afton M.; Ha, Carolyn C.; Schwartzman, Emmanuelle; Law, Anandi V.; Milani, Paul A.; Trotta, Katie; Labella, Sara R.; Designor, Rebecca J.
Objective. To determine and describe the nature and extent of medication adherence education in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Methods. A mixed-methods research study was conducted that included a national survey of pharmacy faculty members, a national survey of pharmacy students, and phone interviews of 3 faculty members and 6 preceptors. Results. The majority of faculty members and students agreed that background concepts in medication adherence are well covered in pharmacy curricula. Approximately 40% to 65% of the students sampled were not familiar with several adherence interventions. The 6 preceptors who were interviewed felt they were not well-informed on adherence interventions, unclear on what students knew about adherence, and challenged to provide adherence-related activities for students during practice experiences because of practice time constraints. Conclusions. Intermediate and advanced concepts in medication adherence, such as conducting interventions, are not adequately covered in pharmacy curriculums; therefore stakeholders in pharmacy education must develop national standards and tools to ensure consistent and adequate medication adherence education. PMID:22761520
Guglielmo, B. Joseph; Edwards, David J.; Franks, Andrea S.; Naughton, Cynthia A.; Schonder, Kristine S.; Stamm, Pamela L.; Thornton, Phillip; Popovich, Nicholas G.
The 2009-2010 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Council of Faculties Faculty Affairs Committee reviewed published literature assessing the scope and outcomes of faculty development for tenure and promotion. Relevant articles were identified via a PubMed search, review of pharmacy education journals, and identification of position papers from major healthcare professions academic organizations. While programs intended to enhance faculty development were described by some healthcare professions, relatively little specific to pharmacy has been published and none of the healthcare professions have adequately evaluated the impact of various faculty-development programs on associated outcomes. The paucity of published information strongly suggests a lack of outcomes-oriented faculty-development programs in colleges and schools of pharmacy. Substantial steps are required toward the development and scholarly evaluation of faculty-development programs. As these programs are developed and assessed, evaluations must encompass all faculty subgroups, including tenure- and nontenure track faculty members, volunteer faculty members, women, and underrepresented minorities. This paper proposes AACP, college and school, and department-level recommendations intended to ensure faculty success in achieving tenure and promotion. PMID:21931460
Faculty practice (a clinical practice based in the educational institution and staffed and directed by faculty who participate in that practice) is examined as it applies to nursing educators. Elements discussed include faculty responsibility and group functioning, director role, clinical secretary role, clinical setting, patient characteristics,…
Roche, Victoria F.; Davis, Patrick J.; Pankaskie, Marvin C.; Currie, Bruce L.; Roche, Edward B.; Sindelar, Robert D.; Wynn, James E.; Zito, S. William
A national survey conducted in 1997-1998 evaluated the current and anticipated future emphasis of chemistry-related content in the professional pharmacy curriculum, the credentials of the teaching faculty, and pedagogical methods used to deliver the content. Thirty-three schools or colleges of pharmacy participated. (Author)
Gillan, Bob, Ed.; McFerrin, Karen, Ed.
This document contains the following papers on faculty development and technology: "Involving Faculty in Faculty Development" (Kristine Blair and Dan Madigan); "Technology Use in Higher Education: A Faculty Development Model" (Jessica Kahn); "A Faculty of Education as a Community of Learners: Growing to Meet the Demands of…
Shearer, Debra Connolly
In 2005 the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) reported that 32,000 qualified nursing candidates were turned away from baccalaureate nursing programs, primarily due to the shortage of nursing faculty. This shortage limited the number of students permitted to enroll in nursing programs when the need for nurses continues to grow. An…
The purpose of this paper was to introduce The First International Clinical Prosthodontics Educators Workshop. That workshop aimed at reconciling best evidence analyses of clinical information on the efficacy and effectiveness of prosthodontic interventions with the management of selected and assigned clinical scenarios. The International Journal of Prosthodontics (IJP) and the Institute for Advanced Dental Studies in Karlsruhe Germany were co-sponsoring this workshop on October 30-November 1, 2006, in Karlsruhe. The 15 selected educators conducted a two and a half-day-day program for 36 participants selected from the international prosthodontic teaching community (22 countries). The form of case histories selected and organized as teaching packages (2 scenarios, reading lists and pictures) for the participants, was sent for pre-workshop distribution by e mail. Morning presentations comprised faculty reviews of background material specific to diverse aspects of the clinical case histories. At afternoon sessions, participants broke out into small tutor-led groups to explore and debated the various treatment options for the case histories in the context of the mornings' reviews. The Japan Prosthodontic Society should hold that kind of workshop in stead of classical lectures for faculty development.
Al-Worafi, Yaser Mohammed
Pharmacy education in Yemen has faced many challenges since its introduction in the 1980s. Most Yemeni pharmacy schools, especially private ones, are experiencing difficulties in providing the right quality and quantity of clinical educational experiences. Most of these challenges are imbedded in a teaching style and curricula that have failed to respond to the needs of the community and country. The slow shift from traditional drug-dispensing to a patient-centered or focused approach in pharmacy practice requires a fundamental change in the roles and responsibilities of both policymakers and educators. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss the challenges facing the pharmacy education in Yemen; (2) to provided recommendations to overcome challenges.
Benet, Leslie Z.
A chairman of pharmacy in a state university outlines obligations in reducing tensions within the profession: making teaching relevant to the product of the school--clinical pharmacists; making one's own expertise available to faculty to develop research projects; and insuring highest scientific quality of services. (MSE)
Williams, M. Dee; Gregg, Andrea C.
Discusses contractual issues surrounding nursing faculty's clinical practice, such as competent participants, offer, consideration, and acceptance. Addresses evaluation of faculty practice contracts and alternatives for problem resolution. (Contains 24 references.) (SK)
Pezzuto, John M; Pezzuto, Mimi F
The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy is the newest professional school to be established in the State of Hawai'i. The College is based at the University of Hawai'i at Hilo, but faculty and students are located and practice on every major island. The mission of the College is to serve the entire Pacific Region. Having reached a respectable level of maturity over the past few years, we are now pleased to announce a partnership that has been established with the Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health. With Dr. Carolyn Ma serving as column editor and coordinator, our main objective is for faculty and affiliates of the College to provide communications of contemporary interest in the field of professional pharmacy. Since academic pharmacy is new to the State, this inaugural article (Part 1) describes a brief history of the profession leading up to the founding of the Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy. An article describing the mission, vision, and infrastructure of the College, as well as some objectives and accomplishments will follow this inaugural column. The pharmacist is an integral member of the health care team with unique expertise in pharmaceutical care. The topics we present should be of broad interest to the readership of this journal but, additionally, any suggestions for specialized topics in our realm of expertise are welcome.
Lozano-Blázquez, Ana; Calvo-Pita, Cecilia; Carbajales-Álvarez, Mónica; Suárez-Gil, Patricio; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel Ángel
Background In Spain, hospital medicines are assessed and selected by local Pharmacy and Therapeutics committees (PTCs). Of all the drugs assessed, cancer drugs are particularly important because of their budgetary impact and the sometimes arguable added value with respect to existing alternatives. This study analyzed the PTC drug selection process and the main objective was to evaluate the degree of compliance of prescriptions for oncology drugs with their criteria for use. Methods This was a retrospective observational study (May 2007 to April 2010) of PTC-assessed drugs. The variables measured to describe the committee’s activity were number of drugs assessed per year and number of drugs included in any of these settings: without restrictions, with criteria for use, and not included in formulary. These drugs were also analyzed by therapeutic group. To assess the degree of compliance of prescriptions, a score was calculated to determine whether prescriptions for bevacizumab, cetuximab, trastuzumab, and bortezomib were issued in accordance with PTC drug use criteria. Results The PTC received requests for inclusion of 40 drugs, of which 32 were included in the hospital formulary (80.0%). Criteria for use were established for 28 (87.5%) of the drugs included. In total, 293 patients were treated with the four cancer drugs in eight different therapeutic indications. The average prescription compliance scores were as follows: bevacizumab, 83% for metastatic colorectal cancer, 100% for metastatic breast cancer, and 82.3% for non-small-cell lung cancer; cetuximab, 62.0% for colorectal cancer and 50% for head and neck cancer; trastuzumab, 95.1% for early breast cancer and 82.4% for metastatic breast cancer; and bortezomib, 63.7% for multiple myeloma. Conclusion The degree of compliance with criteria for use of cancer drugs was reasonably high. PTC functions need to be changed so that they can carry out more innovative tasks, such as monitoring conditions for drug use
Yanamadala, Mamata; Criscione-Schreiber, Lisa G; Hawley, Jeffrey; Heflin, Mitchell T; Shah, Bimal R
Interested faculty enrolled in this 6-month-long quality improvement (QI) course to facilitate independent QI project work. The course included monthly 1.5-hour sessions: 20-minute presentations covering key QI concepts, then small group activities to facilitate project work. Faculty were required to identify, construct, and implement an independent QI project. They met individually with mentors twice during the course, with additional guidance offered virtually via phone or e-mail, and completed pretests and posttests of QI knowledge (maximum score = 15) and self-assessed confidence. A statistically significant difference in knowledge (pre-course mean = 7.75, standard deviation [SD] = 3.06; post-course mean = 11.75, SD = 3.28; P = .02) and self-assessed confidence (pre mean = 3.08, SD = 0.65; post mean = 4.5, SD = 0.68; P < .0001) was found. Of 8 faculty, 5 were able to conduct small tests of change; 3 studied the current processes and planned to run tests of change. Positive responses to this course helped obtain buy-in from leadership to develop a leadership program in QI.
McBane, Sarah E; Borgelt, Laura M; Barnes, Kylie N; Westberg, Sarah M; Lodise, Nicole M; Stassinos, Martha
Menopausal symptoms affect a significant portion of women. Traditional treatment with manufactured hormone therapy can alleviate these symptoms, but many women and their health care providers are concerned about the risks, such as venous thromboembolism and certain types of cancer, demonstrated with manufactured hormone therapy. Compounded bioidentical hormone therapy has been proposed and is often used as a solution for these concerns. Despite this use, no data are currently available to support the claims that compounded bioidentical hormone therapy is a safer or more efficacious option compared with manufactured hormone therapy. A common misperception is that all manufactured products consist of synthetic hormones and all compounded medications consist of natural hormones; however, in fact, significant overlap exists. Several key stakeholder organizations have issued statements expressing concern about the lack of evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of compounded bioidentical hormone therapy, in addition to concerns regarding prescribing patterns. The Women's Health Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy recommends against the consistent use of compounded bioidentical hormones as a safer option compared with manufactured therapy and supports the statements of other key organizations, acknowledging the need for more robust clinical studies to evaluate the potential advantages and disadvantages of compounded bioidentical products compared with manufactured products.
Maddox, Ray R.
This Idaho state curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction designed to prepare entry-level pharmacy technicians or help already employed pharmacy technicians retain their jobs or advance in their field. Following a list of tasks and an introduction, the bulk of the document consists…
Youmans, Sharon L.; Agness, Chanel F.; Assemi, Mitra
Organizational benefits of diversity in the workplace have been well documented. In health professions, however, diversity-related research traditionally has focused on the effect of diversity on health care disparities. Few tools exist describing the benefits of diversity from an organizational standpoint to guide pharmacy administrators and faculty members in nurturing and developing a culture of diversity. Given the scarcity of pharmacy specific data, experience from other academic areas and national/international diversity reports were incorporated into this manuscript to supplement the available pharmacy evidence base. This review summarizes the benefits of diversity from an academic organizational standpoint, discusses the issues administrators and faculty members must consider when developing programs, and provides guidance on best practices in fostering and managing diversity. PMID:20221345
Henkel, James G.; And Others
Applications of biotechnology to the pharmaceutical industry are examined, and its impact on the research and practical domains of medicinal and natural products chemistry is discussed. Specific curricular implications for undergraduate and graduate study in pharmacy are outlined, and suggestions for faculty development in biotechnology are made.…
Dupuis, Sébastien; Martel, Alexis; Arfa, Taha; Valma, Joannah; Williamson, David R; Perreault, Marc M
Background: The Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists promotes the recruitment of residency-trained pharmacists for work in hospitals and related health care settings. However, Quebec hospitals are still hiring non–residency trained pharmacists, in part because of a severe shortage of hospital pharmacists. To date, no studies have examined the factors influencing the career choices of fourth-year pharmacy students in Canada. Objectives: To identify motivating factors and barriers influencing students’ decision to pursue a hospital pharmacy residency. Methods: All 186 fourth-year students in the Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal, were invited by e-mail to participate in a validated and institutionally approved survey that was available online between March and May 2014. Results: Of the 138 respondents who returned a completed survey (74% response rate), 36 (26%) planned to apply for a hospital pharmacy residency. Those planning to apply for a residency were older (p = 0.037) and had more hospital work experience (36% versus 3%, p < 0.001) than those not planning to apply. The most important motivators for pursuing a residency were potential gains in knowledge (reported by 88% of respondents, whether or not they were planning to pursue a residency), experience (80%), and self-confidence (62%). The most frequently reported barriers were recognition that a hospital pharmacy residency is a highly demanding program (65%), having work available upon graduation from the undergraduate program (43%), and financial obligations (34%). Hospital experiential rotations influenced, either positively or negatively, 23 (72%) of the 32 students who changed their decision to pursue or not pursue residency training over the course of their studies. Conclusions: The potential gain in knowledge and experience acquired through residency, the fact that it is considered a highly demanding program, and having work available upon graduation from undergraduate studies were
Kennerly, Julie; Weber, Robert J.
The Director’s Forum series is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. This article focuses on pharmacy academia’s (“Academy”) role in transforming an organization’s pharmacy practice model. Pharmacy students can assume an integrated and accountable role in the practice model by having defined responsibilities for patient care. This role will produce students who are best trained to meet the challenges of pharmacy practice and health care reform. To make the students successful in this role, the pharmacy director must have a specific plan for integrating pharmacy students into the model and establishing relationships with Academy leadership, most importantly with the dean of the school or college of pharmacy. If successfully executed, the relationship between the Academy and the pharmacy department will enhance the mission of developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:24421485
Sarikaya, Ozlem; Kalaca, Sibel; Yegen, Berrak C; Cali, Sanda
Self-assessment tools have previously been used to assess the impact of a faculty development program on the teaching skills of medical educators. In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of a faculty development program on the teaching performances of faculty members in relation to their medical disciplines and academic positions. A faculty-training program consisted of "training skills" and "student assessment instruments" courses. The impact of the program was evaluated by self-reporting of faculty members (a total of 225 reports) 1-2 yr after the program. Both courses were found to be beneficial by nearly all of the attendants. Clinicians benefited more from some topics in the student assessment course and could apply the structured learning and assessment guides, structured oral examination, and objective structured clinical examination more efficiently than their peers from preclinical departments. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the participants of the faculty development program modified their teaching activities according to the demands of their clinical practice. The correlations between the benefits and behavioral changes were statistically significant.
Ide, Naohito; Gotou, Seiichi; Mori, Masami
Clinical pharmacy practice needs quality safeguards and proper evaluation to ensure good performance of hospital pharmacists. We propose a method for evaluating performance using the indicator of whether pharmaceutical interventions conducted in clinical practice affect the treatment carried out by the physician. To illustrate the usefulness of this method, we report one example of the response of a physician to our clinical practice. We first designed a worksheet on which information related to pharmaceutical interventions would be recorded. The worksheet included sections for the details of the pharmaceutical intervention, whether decisions about interventions were active (pharmacists' decisions) or passive (requests from the physician), the timing of the intervention (before or after prescription), the grounds for the intervention, and whether it had any influence on the treatment, as well as a detailed record of the course of the intervention. These worksheets were used to record pharmaceutical interventions from July to December 2005. During that period, a total of 347 pharmaceutical interventions for 164 patients were recorded. Each intervention was examined from the different perspectives of type of intervention, timing (before or after prescription was issued), and reason for the intervention. Overall, it was found that 91.6% of all interventions had some influence on treatment. Because numerical results can be obtained with this method, it has the benefit of being an objective means of evaluating the contribution of pharmaceutical services. Furthermore, the validity of even those interventions that had no influence on treatment can be examined using medical and pharmaceutical findings and may improve the quality of pharmacists.
Cowen, D L
The development of pharmacy in Western civilization has been influenced by ideas of individual liberty; the impact of these ideas is traced. For a short time during the French Revolution, individuals without qualifications could practice pharmacy, but abuses prompted return of regulation; from 1803, pharmacy was closely regulated by the state. Liberal thinking in 19th-century Britain left control of pharmacy mainly within the profession; regulation was definitive rather than restrictive. With the influence of Jacksonian Democracy and freedom of trade in the United States, there were no effective pharmacy regulations until the late 19th century and few educational requirements for licensure until the 1920s. In Germany, the old system of concessions and privileges was upset after World War II when any qualified pharmacist was allowed to open a shop wherever desired in the American-occupied zone; the courts upheld this policy as the basis for establishment of pharmacies in West Germany. Liberty in dispensing drugs has been limited out of concern for the well-being of individuals and of society as a whole. In Great Britain and the U.S., restrictions on dispensing antedated laws establishing qualifications for pharmacists. The history of pharmacy demonstrates that there are moral and social barriers to realization of the ideals of liberty. History also suggests that if pharmacists assume responsibilities that use their specialized training, they can defend against inroads by nonpharmacists.
Swintosky, Joseph V.
A pharmacist chronicles his 50 years in the study and practice of pharmacy, recounting significant events of the undergraduate and graduate experiences and the evolution of a career in the emerging field of biopharmaceutical research, clinical practice, and academic pharmacy. A 68-item bibliography is included. (MSE)
Soltis, Denise; Schott, Kathy
Objective To institute and evaluate the response to a program providing access to electronic library resources for pharmacy preceptors. Design The pharmacy experiential office and the library collaborated using existing programs and technology to provide and market secure remote access for preceptors. Assessment Preceptor participation was tracked in the experiential office, and response to the program was assessed using an online survey instrument that included questions about use of and preference for specific library resources. Three hundred thirty-four adjunct faculty members registered, representing 34% of all preceptors with active e-mail accounts. Conclusion Preceptor participation in the program exceeded expectations. Some minor flaws in the logistics of delivering the service were identified and remedied. PMID:21179247
Strang, Aimee F; Baia, Patricia
Objective. To investigate published, peer-reviewed literature on pharmacy teaching and learning development programs and to synthesize existing data, examine reported efficacy and identify future areas for research. Methods. Medline and ERIC databases were searched for studies on teaching development programs published between 2001 and 2015. Results. Nineteen publications were included, representing 21 programs. Twenty programs were resident teaching programs, one program described faculty development. The majority of programs spanned one year and delivered instruction on teaching methodologies and assessment measures. All except one program included experiential components. Thirteen publications presented outcomes data; most measured satisfaction and self-perceived improvement. Conclusion. Published literature on teacher development in pharmacy is focused more on training residents than on developing faculty members. Although programs are considered important and highly valued by program directors and participants, little data substantiates that these programs improve teaching. Future research could focus on measurement of program outcomes and documentation of teaching development for existing faculty members.
Objective. To investigate published, peer-reviewed literature on pharmacy teaching and learning development programs and to synthesize existing data, examine reported efficacy and identify future areas for research. Methods. Medline and ERIC databases were searched for studies on teaching development programs published between 2001 and 2015. Results. Nineteen publications were included, representing 21 programs. Twenty programs were resident teaching programs, one program described faculty development. The majority of programs spanned one year and delivered instruction on teaching methodologies and assessment measures. All except one program included experiential components. Thirteen publications presented outcomes data; most measured satisfaction and self-perceived improvement. Conclusion. Published literature on teacher development in pharmacy is focused more on training residents than on developing faculty members. Although programs are considered important and highly valued by program directors and participants, little data substantiates that these programs improve teaching. Future research could focus on measurement of program outcomes and documentation of teaching development for existing faculty members. PMID:27293226
Bradley, Fay; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Willis, Sarah C; Noyce, Peter R
Pharmacists now offer increasing levels and ranges of clinical, diagnostic and public health services, which may require a pharmacist to be absent from the pharmacy premises. Currently, in the UK, many pharmacy activities legally require the direct supervision and physical presence of the pharmacist. This study aimed to explore the potential for changes to supervision, allowing pharmacist absence, and greater utilisation of pharmacy support staff. Four nominal group discussions were conducted in May 2012 with community pharmacists (CPs), community pharmacy support staff, hospital pharmacists and hospital pharmacy support staff, involving 21 participants. Participants were asked to generate pharmacy activities, which they felt could/could not be safely performed by support staff in the absence of a pharmacist, followed by a discussion of these items and voting using an agreement scale. A written record of the items generated and voting scores was made and the group discussion elements were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The selling of general sales list medicines, assembly of prescriptions and provision of public health services received a high level of agreement between groups, as activities that could be performed. There was greater disagreement about the safety of support staff selling pharmacy medicines and handing out checked and bagged prescription items to patients. Group discussion revealed some of the main challenges to supervision changes, including CPs' perceptions about their presence being critical to patient safety, reluctance to relinquish control, concerns about knowing and trusting the competencies of support staff, and reluctance by support staff to take greater professional responsibility. The findings of this study aim to inform a future consultation on changes to pharmacy supervision in the UK. The empowerment of pharmacy technicians as a professional group may be key to any future change; this may require
Galato, Dayani; Alano, Graziela M.; Trauthman, Silvana C.; França, Tainã F.
Objective A simulation process known as objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was applied to assess pharmacy practice performed by senior pharmacy students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted based on documentary analysis of performance evaluation records of pharmacy practice simulations that occurred between 2005 and 2009. These simulations were related to the process of self-medication and dispensing, and were performed with the use of patients simulated. The simulations were filmed to facilitate the evaluation process. It presents the OSCE educational experience performed by pharmacy trainees of the University of Southern Santa Catarina and experienced by two evaluators. The student general performance was analyzed, and the criteria for pharmacy practice assessment often identified trainees in difficulty. Results The results of 291 simulations showed that students have an average yield performance of 70.0%. Several difficulties were encountered, such as the lack of information about the selected/prescribed treatment regimen (65.1%); inadequate communication style (21.9%); lack of identification of patients’ needs (7.7%) and inappropriate drug selection for self-medication (5.3%). Conclusions These data show that there is a need for reorientation of clinical pharmacy students because they need to improve their communication skills, and have a deeper knowledge of medicines and health problems in order to properly orient their patients. PMID:24367467
Stolpe, Samuel F; Adams, Alex J; Bradley-Baker, Lynette R; Burns, Anne L; Owen, James A
Clinical pharmacy services necessitate appropriately trained pharmacists. Postgraduate year one (PGY1) community pharmacy residency programs (CPRPs) provide advanced training for pharmacists to provide multiple patient care services in the community setting. These programs provide an avenue to translate innovative ideas and services into clinical practice. In this paper, we describe the history and current status of PGY1 community pharmacy residency programs, including an analysis of the typical settings and services offered. Specific information on the trends of community programs compared with other PGY1 pharmacy residencies is also discussed. The information presented in this paper is intended to encourage discussion regarding the need for increasing the capacity of PGY1 community pharmacy residency programs.
Nattinger, Matthew; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J
Prior RUPRI Center policy briefs have described the role of rural pharmacies in providing many essential clinical services (in addition to prescription and nonprescription medications), such as blood pressure monitoring, immunizations, and diabetes counseling, and the adverse effects of Medicare Part D negotiated networks on the financial viability of rural pharmacies.1 Because rural pharmacies play such a broad role in health care delivery, pharmacy closures can sharply reduce access to essential health care services in rural and underserved communities. These closures are of particular concern in rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy (i.e., a pharmacy unaffiliated with a chain or franchise). This policy brief characterizes the population of rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. Dependent on a sole pharmacy, these areas are at highest risk to lose access to many essential clinical services. Key Findings. (1) In 2014 over 2.7 million people lived in 663 rural communities served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. (2) More than one-quarter of these residents (27.9 percent) were living below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. (3) Based on estimates from 2012, a substantial portion of the residents of these areas were dependent on public insurance (i.e., Medicare and/or Medicaid, 20.5 percent) or were uninsured (15.0 percent). (4) If the sole, independent retail pharmacy in these communities were to close, the next closest retail pharmacy would be over 10 miles away for a majority of rural communities (69.7 percent).
Clark, Colleen A.; Rodis, Jennifer L.; Pruchnicki, Maria C.; Pedersen, Craig A.
Objectives To determine the percentage of residents accepting faculty positions following completion of a community pharmacy residency program (CPRP) and identify influences to pursue/not pursue an academic career. Methods CPRP directors and preceptors across the United States were contacted and 53 community pharmacy residents were identified. The residents were invited to participate in surveys at the beginning and end of the 2005-2006 residency year. Results Forty-five residents (85%) completed the preliminary survey instrument and 40 (75%) completed the follow-up survey instrument. Of these, 36 completed both survey instruments. Initially, 28 (62%) respondents indicated a faculty position as one of their potential job preferences. After completing their residency program, 3 (8%) residents accepted faculty positions; and 3 (8%) others were awaiting offers at follow-up. Reasons for accepting a faculty position were positive teaching experiences and the influence of a mentor or preceptor. Reasons for not pursuing a faculty position included lack of interest, geographic location, disliked teaching experiences, lack of preparedness, and non-competitive salary. Conclusion Many community pharmacy residents consider faculty positions early in their residency but few pursue faculty positions. CPRPs and colleges of pharmacy should work together to enhance residents' experiences to foster interest in academia. PMID:18322566
Moles, Rebekah J.; Krass, Ines; Kritikos, Vicki S.
Objective. To develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesized student intention to undertake a higher degree in pharmacy practice research (PPR) would be increased by self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the social influence of faculty members. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 387 final-year pharmacy undergraduates enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to explore relationships between variables and intention. Results. Fit indices were good. The model explained 55% of the variation in intention. As hypothesized, faculty social influence increased self-efficacy and indirectly increased outcome expectancy and intention. Conclusion. To increase pharmacy students’ orientation towards a career in PPR, faculty members could use their social influence by highlighting PPR in their teaching. PMID:27667832
Carter, Stephen R; Moles, Rebekah J; Krass, Ines; Kritikos, Vicki S
Objective. To develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesized student intention to undertake a higher degree in pharmacy practice research (PPR) would be increased by self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the social influence of faculty members. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 387 final-year pharmacy undergraduates enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to explore relationships between variables and intention. Results. Fit indices were good. The model explained 55% of the variation in intention. As hypothesized, faculty social influence increased self-efficacy and indirectly increased outcome expectancy and intention. Conclusion. To increase pharmacy students' orientation towards a career in PPR, faculty members could use their social influence by highlighting PPR in their teaching.
He, Yuan; Yang, Fan; Mu, Dongqin; Xing, Yuan; Li, Xin
Objectives Main study aim was as follows: (1) to explore the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model in predicting Chinese hospital pharmacists' intention to provide clinical pharmacy services (CPSs), including auxiliary CPSs and core CPSs; (2) to identify the main factors affecting the Chinese hospital pharmacists' intention to provide core CPSs based on TPB quantitatively. Design Cross-sectional questionnaire study. Setting The study was conducted in 22 general hospitals in seven cities located in the eastern and western part of China. Participants 416 hospital pharmacists (292 (70.2%) female) entered and completed the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Quantitative responses with hospital pharmacists' intention, attitude, subjective norms (SNs) and perceived behavioural control (PBC) over provision of CPSs and their past behaviour (PB)-related CPSs. Results The structural equation model analysis found that attitude (p=0.0079, β=0.12), SN (p=0.038, β=0.10) and the pharmacists' intention to provide auxiliary CPSs (p=0.0001, β=0.63) significantly predicted of their intention to provide core CPSs, accounting for 54.0% of its variance. Attitude (p=0.0001, β=0.35), PBC (p=0.0182, β=0.12) and PB (p=0.0009, β=0.15) are significant predictors of pharmacists' intention, accounting for 21% of the variance in pharmacists' intention to provide auxiliary CPSs. Conclusions The TPB with the addition of PB is a useful framework for predicting pharmacists' intention to provide CPSs in Chinese hospital care context. Strategies to improve hospital pharmacists' intention to provide CPSs should focus on helping the individuals related medical care see the value of CPSs, altering their perception of social pressure towards core CPSs and the removal of obstacles that impede the translation of intentions into behaviour. PMID:27707835
Zanteva-Naumoska, Magdalena; Polenakovic, Momir
The Medical Faculty (M.F.) in Skopje was founded on 6th March 1947 by a Decree of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia. Over the past six decades, the Medical Faculty has been and still is a key institution where medical professionals, medical doctors and other medical-health personnel have been educated, as well as an institution where scientific research and applied health activities have been conducted. The first 153 students were enrolled at the Faculty in the autumn of 1947. More than 10000 medical doctors and 350 radiology technicians have graduated at the Medical Faculty. A total of 315 students have finished postgraduate studies and acquired a Master's degree in medical sciences and there are 160 active postgraduates at present. The degree of Doctor of Medical Sciences has been awarded to 463 candidates, while 93 are in the process of preparing their doctoral thesis. Currently the process of introducing three-year doctoral studies is underway. Since 1992, 2,380 have successsfully passed the specialist exam, while 700 specializations are ongoing. The teaching process is being conducted by 233 professors and 215 teaching assistants through 33 departments. The Medical Faculty consists of 12 institutes and 3 teaching bases in the pre-clinical segment. The clinical segment consists of 25 clinics, 3 institutes and 7 teaching bases. The Medical Faculty has published the journal Godishen zbornik na Medicinskiot fakultet, which has been renamed Makedonsko spisanie za medicina. More than 380 monographs and textbooks have been printed in the country or abroad. A total number of 350 scientific projects have been undertaken, 40 with international partners. The Medical Faculty in Skopje has been a founder and "mother" faculty to the Faculty of Dentistry and the Faculty of Pharmacy, also providing, at the same time, interdisciplinary studies at other faculties.
Lee, Fa-Yauh; Yang, Ying-Ying; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Lee, Wei-Shin; Chang, Ching-Chih; Huang, Chia-Chang; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Cheng, Hao-Min; Jap, Tjin-Shing
Objective The six core competencies designated by Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) are essential for establishing a patient centre holistic medical system. The authors developed a faculty programme to promote the postgraduate year 1 (PGY(1)) resident, ACGME six core competencies. The study aims to assess the clinical instructors' perception, attitudes and subjective impression towards the various sessions of the 'faculty development programme for teaching ACGME competencies.' Methods During 2009 and 2010, 134 clinical instructors participated in the programme to establish their ability to teach and assess PGY(1) residents about ACGME competencies. Results The participants in the faculty development programme reported that the skills most often used while teaching were learnt during circuit and itinerant bedside, physical examination teaching, mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) evaluation demonstration, training workshop and videotapes of 'how to teach ACGME competencies.' Participants reported that circuit bedside teaching and mini-CEX evaluation demonstrations helped them in the interpersonal and communication skills domain, and that the itinerant teaching demonstrations helped them in the professionalism domain, while physical examination teaching and mini-CEX evaluation demonstrations helped them in the patients' care domain. Both the training workshop and videotape session increase familiarity with teaching and assessing skills. Participants who applied the skills learnt from the faculty development programme the most in their teaching and assessment came from internal medicine departments, were young attending physician and had experience as PGY(1) clinical instructors. Conclusions According to the clinical instructors' response, our faculty development programme effectively increased their familiarity with various teaching and assessment skills needed to teach PGY(1) residents and ACGME competencies, and these clinical
Ma, Carolyn; Tokumaru, Sheri; Goo, Roy; Ciarleglio, Anita
Residency training is designed to provide recent pharmacy school graduates who have the profession's terminal Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree with accelerated growth beyond entry-level professional competence. Placement into residency programs is highly competitive through an application and match process. These programs provide additional training in patient-centered care with advancement of skills in clinical judgment, pharmacy operations, clinical research, project management, and leadership. Approximately 20% of a pharmacy graduating class will apply for a residency. With increasing numbers of pharmacy schools across the country, the availability of residency programs is falling behind applicants. The establishment of the Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) has addressed the shortage of pharmacists within the state. In recent years, resident positions in Hawai'i have doubled to a total of ten first year residency (PGY1) and two second year (PGY2) specialty residencies. Given the limited availability of positions in Hawai'i, graduates continue to return to the continental US to seek positions, thus increasing the likelihood of them not returning to practice in Hawai'i. Establishing residency programs is essential to elevate the level of pharmacy practice toward innovation and adherence to best practices, academia/teaching and scholarly research. This descriptive paper will detail the general components and types of pharmacy practice residency, the unique components of the Hawai'i programs, the career placement of Hawai'i's programs graduates and future challenges.
Martin, Caren McHenry
Entrepreneurship has always been central to the practice of pharmacy. Whether opening a new retail store, setting up a unique clinic practice, or researching a novel therapy, pharmacists are continually looking forward and following their visions of how pharmacy can be part of a new direction in health care. In 2011, the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists (ASCP) Foundation--itself the product of entrepreneurship--awarded grants to three entrepreneurs who are seeking to establish a fee-for-service component of their senior care pharmacy practices in the community. The grant recipients, while differing in their approaches, share the common goal of providing safe, effective, and cost-justified medication therapy and education to ambulatory older adults.
Wang, Yan; Wu, Huimin; Xu, Feng
This study was to evaluate the efficacy of pharmaceutical intervention (PI) on chemotherapy knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) and quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was carried out at Oncology Ward in a tertiary hospital affiliated to Southern Medical University, China. Eligible patient was randomly assigned to pharmaceutical intervention (PI) group or control group. Each patient in PI group was given information booklets and was given 30 min face-to-face medication education and psychological counseling by clinical pharmacists, 2 sessions per week for 2 months. Patients in control group only received conventional treatment. All participants were asked to complete a structured Chemotherapy KAP Questionnaire and QOL Questionnaire at pre- and poststudy time. A total of 149 cancer patients (77 in PI group and 72 in control group) completed the study. The baseline scores of KAP and QOL in 2 groups were similar. At the end of study, only knowledge score was significantly increased; meanwhile no difference existed for attitude, practice, and QOL scores in control group; both KAP scores and QOL score were significantly increased in PI group. As for the between-group comparison, both KAP scores and QOL score in PI group were significantly higher than those in control group. In conclusion, pharmaceutical intervention has a positive role in increasing chemotherapy-related knowledge, improving patients' positive emotions, dealing with chemotherapy adverse reactions, and improving the quality of life of patients. PMID:26697487
... Consumer Updates RSS Feed The Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding Get Consumer Updates by E-mail Consumer ... page: A Troubling Trend What You Can Do Pharmacy compounding is a practice in which a licensed ...
Surratt, Christopher K.; Green, James S.; Gallucci, Randle M.; Colbert, James; Zatopek, Shara L.; Blouin, Robert A.
The deans, associate and assistant deans, and department chairs of a college or school of pharmacy retain historic memories of the institution and share the responsibility for day-to-day operation, sustainability, and future planning. Between the anticipated retirement of baby boomers who are senior administrative faculty members and the steady increase in number of colleges and schools of pharmacy, the academy is facing a shortage of qualified successors. Succession planning involves planning for the effective transition of personnel in leadership positions within an organization. This paper describes the subject of succession planning at a sample population of AACP institutions by obtaining perspectives on the subject from the deans of these institutions via standardized interview instruments. The instruments were utilized with 15 deans; all interview data were blinded and analyzed using analyst triangulation. The majority of deans responded that some level of succession planning was desirable and even necessary; however, none claimed to have a formal succession planning structure in place at his or her home institution. Although widely accepted and well-recognized in the corporate and military sectors, succession planning within pharmacy schools and colleges is neither universally documented nor implemented. Differences exist within the administrative structure of these non-academic and academic institutions that may preclude a uniform succession planning format. While the evidence presented suggests that succession planning is needed within the academy, a concerted effort must be made towards implementing its practice. PMID:20798799
Van Amburgh, Jenny; Surratt, Christopher K; Green, James S; Gallucci, Randle M; Colbert, James; Zatopek, Shara L; Blouin, Robert A
The deans, associate and assistant deans, and department chairs of a college or school of pharmacy retain historic memories of the institution and share the responsibility for day-to-day operation, sustainability, and future planning. Between the anticipated retirement of baby boomers who are senior administrative faculty members and the steady increase in number of colleges and schools of pharmacy, the academy is facing a shortage of qualified successors. Succession planning involves planning for the effective transition of personnel in leadership positions within an organization. This paper describes the subject of succession planning at a sample population of AACP institutions by obtaining perspectives on the subject from the deans of these institutions via standardized interview instruments. The instruments were utilized with 15 deans; all interview data were blinded and analyzed using analyst triangulation. The majority of deans responded that some level of succession planning was desirable and even necessary; however, none claimed to have a formal succession planning structure in place at his or her home institution. Although widely accepted and well-recognized in the corporate and military sectors, succession planning within pharmacy schools and colleges is neither universally documented nor implemented. Differences exist within the administrative structure of these non-academic and academic institutions that may preclude a uniform succession planning format. While the evidence presented suggests that succession planning is needed within the academy, a concerted effort must be made towards implementing its practice.
Soliman, Ahmed M.; Hussein, Mustafa; Abdulhalim, Abdulla M.
Objective. To investigate the status of pharmacoeconomics education in Egyptian schools of pharmacy and compile and construct recommendations on how Egypt and similar countries could improve their educational infrastructure in pharmacoeconomics. Methods. A modified version of a published survey instrument was sent to all schools of pharmacy in Egypt (n= 24). The data were assessed to identify associations between offering pharmacoeconomics education and school characteristics. Results. Usable responses were obtained from 20 schools (response rate: 83%). Only 7 schools offered pharmacoeconomics education, with a median of 20 teaching hours per semester. Among respondents, 4 schools had instructors with some training in pharmacoeconomics and only 1 school had a faculty member with PhD-level training. Only 4 schools offered graduate-level courses in pharmacoeconomics. Eight additional schools expressed interest in teaching pharmacoeconomics in the near future. Having 1 or more faculty members with training in pharmacoeconomics was significantly associated with offering pharmacoeconomics education (p = 0.03). Conclusions. Pharmacoeconomics education in Egypt is still in its infancy and there exists a unique opportunity for well-trained instructors and researchers to fill this gap. Providing structured pharmacoeconomics education to student pharmacists, researchers, and stakeholders can help countries establish an integrated scientific community that can start applying pharmacoeconomic evidence to healthcare decision-making. PMID:23610475
Porter, W C; Ice, R D; Hetzel, K R
The University of Michigan Regional Nuclear Pharmacy is described. The scope of operation of the nuclear pharmacy includes radiopharmaceutical formulation and dispensing, quality control, inventory control, research and development of new radiopharmaceuticals, and consultation. Also discussed are program objectives, pharmacy location, organizational structure, budget and staff, economic considerations, facilities and equipment, and legal considerations.
LaFauci, Frances F.
Professional registered nursing is an essential part of the health care system and student nurses need experimental learning with actual patients to learn to practice as a nurse. The health care system has changed dramatically and nursing schools have decreasing access to the health care agencies. The clinical educational experience develops…
Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju; Engelhard, Chalee
This article presents a new paradigm for continuing education of Clinical Instructors (CIs): the Constructivist Tridimensional (CTD) model for the design of an online curriculum. Based on problem-based learning, self-regulated learning, and adult learning theory, the CTD model was designed to facilitate interactive, collaborative, and authentic…
Scott, Doneka R.; Akers, Paige
Objective To assess pharmacy students' Facebook activity and opinions regarding accountability and e-professionalism and determine effects of an e-professionalism education session on pharmacy students' posting behavior. Methods A 21-item questionnaire was developed, pilot-tested, revised, and administered to 299 pharmacy students at 3 colleges of pharmacy. Following a presentation regarding potential e-professionalism issues with Facebook, pharmacy students with existing profiles answered an additional question concerning changes in online posting behavior. Results Incoming first-year pharmacy students' Facebook usage is consistent with that of the general college student population. Male students are opposed to authority figures' use of Facebook for character and professionalism judgments and are more likely to present information they would not want faculty members, future employers, or patients to see. More than half of the pharmacy students planned to make changes to their online posting behavior as a result of the e-professionalism presentation. Conclusions There is high social media usage among pharmacy students and many do not fully comprehend the issues that arise from being overly transparent in online settings. Attitudes toward accountability for information supplied via social networking emphasize the need for e-professionalism training of incoming pharmacy students. PMID:19885073
Pay equity, the concept of equal pay for equal or comparable work, will continue to be of paramount importance to women as the 20th century draws to a close. While it might have been anticipated that women in academic settings would enjoy pay equity, clinical teaching in nursing education provides a model for gender discrimination as related to women's work. Elements of proposal development and a case study for contesting pay inequity are presented.
Campbell, Tom; Congdon, Heather Brennan; Hancock, Kim; Kaun, Megan; Lockman, Paul R.; Evans, R. Lee
Objective. To describe the current landscape within the profession of pharmacy regarding student tuition, indebtedness, salaries, and job potential. Methods. Pharmacy tuition and student debt data were obtained through the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Institutional Research website. Tuition was defined as average first-year tuition and fees for accredited schools. Debt was defined as the total average amount borrowed. Median salaries and numbers of jobs were obtained from the United States Department of Labor. Results. In-state tuition at public schools rose an average of $1,211 ± 31 (r2 = 0.996), whereas out-of-state tuition at public schools rose significantly faster at $1,838 ± 80 per year (r2 = 0.988). The average tuition cost for pharmacy school has increased 54% in the last 8 years. The average pharmacist salary has risen from $75,000 to over $112,000 since 2002. The increase in salary has been nearly linear (r2 = 0.988) rising $4,409 ± $170 dollars per year. However, average salary in 2011 was $3,064 below the predicted value based upon a linear regression of salaries over 10 years. The number of pharmacist jobs in the United States has risen from 215,000 jobs in 2003 to 275,000 in 2010. However, there were 3,000 fewer positions in 2012 than in 2011. In 2011, average indebtedness for pharmacy students ($114,422) was greater than average first-year salary ($112,160). Conclusion. Rising tuition and student indebtedness is a multifaceted problem requiring attention from a number of parties including students, faculty members, universities, and accreditation and government entities. PMID:24558273
The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy is the newest professional school to be established in the State of Hawai‘i. The College is based at the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo, but faculty and students are located and practice on every major island. The mission of the College is to serve the entire Pacific Region. Having reached a respectable level of maturity over the past few years, we are now pleased to announce a partnership that has been established with the Hawai‘i Journal of Medicine & Public Health. With Dr. Carolyn Ma serving as column editor and coordinator, our main objective is for faculty and affiliates of the College to provide communications of contemporary interest in the field of professional pharmacy. Since academic pharmacy is new to the State, this inaugural article (Part 1) describes a brief history of the profession leading up to the founding of the Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy. An article describing the mission, vision, and infrastructure of the College, as well as some objectives and accomplishments will follow this inaugural column. The pharmacist is an integral member of the health care team with unique expertise in pharmaceutical care. The topics we present should be of broad interest to the readership of this journal but, additionally, any suggestions for specialized topics in our realm of expertise are welcome. PMID:25628981
Castiglia, Mary; And Others
Pharmacy education at the University of Zimbabwe is somewhat like that in the United States; communication skill development and the pharmacist's role as drug expert are emphasized. Compounding is a major focus of study because bulk compounding is more economical for a developing country. The university's curriculum emphasizes rural practice, and…
Veronin, Michael A; Daniels, Lacy; Demps, Elaine
Interactive pharmacy case studies are an essential component of the pharmacy curriculum. We recently developed an elective course at the Rangel College of Pharmacy in pharmacy case studies for second- and third-year Doctor of Pharmacy students using Second Life® (SL), an interactive three-dimensional virtual environment that simulates the real world. This course explored the use of SL for education and training in pharmacy, emphasizing a case-based approach. Virtual worlds such as SL promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, and can potentially develop problem-solving skills in pharmacy students. Students were presented ten case scenarios that primarily focused on drug safety and effective communication with patients. Avatars, representing instructors and students, reviewed case scenarios during sessions in a virtual classroom. Individually and in teams, students participated in active-learning activities modeling both the pharmacist's and patient's roles. Student performance and learning were assessed based on SL class participation, activities, assignments, and two formal, essay-type online exams in Blackboard 9. Student course-evaluation results indicated favorable perceptions of content and delivery. Student comments included an enhanced appreciation of practical issues in pharmacy practice, flexibility of attendance, and an increased ability to focus on course content. Excellent student participation and performance in weekly active-learning activities translated into positive performance on subsequent formal assessments. Students were actively engaged and exposed to topics pertinent to pharmacy practice that were not covered in the required pharmacy curriculum. The multiple active-learning assignments were successful in increasing students' knowledge, and provided additional practice in building the communication skills beneficial for students preparing for experiential clinical rotations.
Geldenhuys, Werner J.; Cudnik, Michelle L.; Krinsky, Daniel L.
Objective. To develop, implement, and modify a required, second-year pharmacy course that provides an understanding of the scientific, therapeutic, and clinical principles, as well as the evidence-based medicine underlying the use of natural products. Design. A 28-hour, multi-faculty course was developed and offered in 2008. The course was modified over the years to enhance students’ practice skills in the use of natural products. A course evaluation and survey were administered to assess the students’ opinions. Assessment. Students performed well in the course and provided favorable evaluations, especially for the latest offering. Students reported significantly improved skills in providing advice to patients regarding the use of natural products. Conclusion. The course increased the students’ knowledge and application of information and counseling skills regarding natural products. PMID:26430269
Eells, Walter Crosby; Cleveland, Austin Carl
A study of 16,837 faculty members at 219 colleges and universities in 42 states found great variation in the extent to which faculties were hiring their own institution's graduates as teachers. Six institutions showed no such "inbreeding," whereas seven had over 60% inbreeding. (Originally published in 1935) (MSE)
Patterns that emerged from reviewing syllabi for courses on faculty issues are discussed, and four sample syllabi are presented. Few doctoral programs in higher education administration were identified that devote an entire course to the subject of American college and university faculty. For four courses that did devote an entire course to the…
Danielson, Jennifer; Hincapie, Ana; Baugh, Gina; Rice, Luke; Sy, Erin; Penm, Jonathan; Albano, Christian
Objective. To describe best practices, necessary resources, and success or lessons learned from established consortia in pharmacy education. Methods. Using semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis, interviews with members of established consortia in pharmacy education were conducted until saturation was reached. Themes were analyzed and meaningful descriptions of consortia characteristics were developed using systematic text condensation. Results. Thirteen interviews were conducted. The primary purpose for forming a consortium was identified as threefold: share ideas/best practices; facilitate collaboration; and perform shared problem-solving. For experiential education consortia, two additional purposes were found: share capacity for practice sites, and promote standardization across programs. When investigating best practices for established consortia, three main themes were identified. These included strategies for: (1) relationship building within consortia, (2) successful outcomes of consortia, and (3) sustainability. Successful outcomes included scholarship and, sometimes, program standardization. Sustainability was linked to structure/support and momentum. Respect was considered the foundation for collaborative relationships to flourish in these consortia. Conclusions. Pharmacy education consortia form through a process that involves relationship building to produce outcomes that promote sustainability, which benefits both pharmacy schools and individual faculty members. Consortium formation is a viable, productive, and often necessary institutional goal for pharmacy schools.
Hincapie, Ana; Baugh, Gina; Rice, Luke; Sy, Erin; Penm, Jonathan; Albano, Christian
Objective. To describe best practices, necessary resources, and success or lessons learned from established consortia in pharmacy education. Methods. Using semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis, interviews with members of established consortia in pharmacy education were conducted until saturation was reached. Themes were analyzed and meaningful descriptions of consortia characteristics were developed using systematic text condensation. Results. Thirteen interviews were conducted. The primary purpose for forming a consortium was identified as threefold: share ideas/best practices; facilitate collaboration; and perform shared problem-solving. For experiential education consortia, two additional purposes were found: share capacity for practice sites, and promote standardization across programs. When investigating best practices for established consortia, three main themes were identified. These included strategies for: (1) relationship building within consortia, (2) successful outcomes of consortia, and (3) sustainability. Successful outcomes included scholarship and, sometimes, program standardization. Sustainability was linked to structure/support and momentum. Respect was considered the foundation for collaborative relationships to flourish in these consortia. Conclusions. Pharmacy education consortia form through a process that involves relationship building to produce outcomes that promote sustainability, which benefits both pharmacy schools and individual faculty members. Consortium formation is a viable, productive, and often necessary institutional goal for pharmacy schools. PMID:28381887
Ma, Carolyn S; Nett, Blythe; Kishaba, Gregg; Gomez, Lara
A partnership was formed between the University of Hawai'i at Hilo Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) and the Department of Health to carry out the Hawai'i Asthma Friendly Pharmacy Project (HAFPP), which utilizes pharmacy students as a workforce to administer Asthma Control Tests™ (ACT), and provide Asthma Action Plans (AAP) and inhaler technique education. Evaluation of data from a pilot project in 2008 with first and second year students prompted more intensive training in therapeutics, inhaler medication training, and communication techniques. Data collection began when two classes of students were first and second year students and continued until the students became fourth year students in their advanced experiential ambulatory care clinic and retail community pharmacy rotations. Patients seen included pediatric (32%) and adult (68%) aged individuals. Hawai'i County was the most common geographic site (50%) and most sites were retail pharmacies (72%). Administered ACT surveys (N=96) yielded a mean score of 19.64 (SD +/-3.89). In addition, 12% of patients had received previous ACT, and 47% had previous AAPs. Approximately 83% of patients received an additional intervention of AAP and inhaler education with 73% of these patients able to demonstrate back proper inhaler technique. Project challenges included timing of student training, revising curriculum and logistics of scheduling students to ensure consistent access to patients.
Nett, Blythe; Kishaba, Gregg; Gomez, Lara
A partnership was formed between the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) and the Department of Health to carry out the Hawai‘i Asthma Friendly Pharmacy Project (HAFPP), which utilizes pharmacy students as a workforce to administer Asthma Control Tests™ (ACT), and provide Asthma Action Plans (AAP) and inhaler technique education. Evaluation of data from a pilot project in 2008 with first and second year students prompted more intensive training in therapeutics, inhaler medication training, and communication techniques. Data collection began when two classes of students were first and second year students and continued until the students became fourth year students in their advanced experiential ambulatory care clinic and retail community pharmacy rotations. Patients seen included pediatric (32%) and adult (68%) aged individuals. Hawai‘i County was the most common geographic site (50%) and most sites were retail pharmacies (72%). Administered ACT surveys (N=96) yielded a mean score of 19.64 (SD +/−3.89). In addition, 12% of patients had received previous ACT, and 47% had previous AAPs. Approximately 83% of patients received an additional intervention of AAP and inhaler education with 73% of these patients able to demonstrate back proper inhaler technique. Project challenges included timing of student training, revising curriculum and logistics of scheduling students to ensure consistent access to patients. PMID:25755914
Wiegers, Susan E; Houser, Steven R; Pearson, Helen E; Untalan, Ann; Cheung, Joseph Y; Fisher, Susan G; Kaiser, Larry R; Feldman, Arthur M
Academic medical centers are faced with increasing budgetary constraints due to a flat National Institutes of Health budget, lower reimbursements for clinical services, higher costs of technology including informatics and a changing competitive landscape. As such, institutional stakeholders are increasingly asking whether resources are allocated appropriately and whether there are objective methods for measuring faculty contributions and engagement. The complexities of translational research can be particularly challenging when trying to assess faculty contributions because of team science. For over a decade, we have used an objective scoring system called the Matrix to assess faculty productivity and engagement in four areas: research, education, scholarship, and administration or services. The Matrix was developed to be dynamic, quantitative, and able to insure that a fully engaged educator would have a Matrix score that was comparable to a fully engaged investigator. In this report, we present the Matrix in its current form in order to provide a well-tested objective system of performance evaluation for nonclinical faculty to help academic leaders in decision making.
Jenkins, Jean; Calzone, Kathleen A.
Nurse faculty are challenged to keep up with the emerging and fast-paced field of genomics and the mandate to prepare the nursing workforce to be able to translate genomic research advances into routine clinical care. Using Faculty Champions and other options, the initiative stimulated curriculum development and promoted genomics curriculum integration. The authors summarize this yearlong initiative for undergraduate and graduate nursing faculty. PMID:24300251
Shay, Blake; Louden, Les
To deal with the changing health care landscape and the expanding growth of specialty pharmaceuticals, it is imperative that health systems evaluate their current structure of providing hospitalbased specialty pharmacy services. Specialty pharmacy services have rapidly expanded over the last decade, and this has affected a wide variety of disease states and in many cases has dramatically enhanced clinical outcomes. However, these medications come at a substantial cost, and a clear plan must be established at each institution to sustain financial viability. By focusing on developing a plan for specialty pharmaceuticals, the pharmacy director can help ensure the institution has prepared a strategy that is conservative, financially viable, and patient-centered. PMID:26912924
White, S J; Generali, J A
Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.
Thrasher, Kim; O’Connor, Shanna K.
The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act proposes strategies to address the workforce shortages of primary care practitioners in rural America. This review addresses the question, “What specialized education and training are colleges and schools of pharmacy providing for graduates who wish to enter pharmacy practice in rural health?” All colleges and schools accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education or those in precandidate status as of December 2011 were included in an Internet-based review of Web sites. A wide scope of curricular offerings were found, ranging from no description of courses or experiences in a rural setting to formally developed programs in rural pharmacy. Although the number of pharmacy colleges and schools providing either elective or required courses in rural health is encouraging, more education and training with this focus are needed to help overcome the unmet need for quality pharmacy care for rural populations. PMID:23193344
Krajnović, Dušanka; Manojlović, Jelena; Ignjatović, Svetlana; Majkić Singh, Nada
Summary Introduction The pharmacists played an important role in the development of biochemistry as applied chemistry in Serbia. What is more, the first seven state chemists in Serbia were pharmacists. State chemists performed the chemical-toxicological analysis as well as some medical and biochemical ones. When it comes to the education of medical biochemists as health workers, the period after the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century should be taken into account because that is when the training of pharmaceutical staff of the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, begins on the territory of Serbia. This paper presents the development of medical biochemistry through the development of curriculum, personnel and literature since the foundation of the Faculty of Pharmacy in Serbia until today. Objective The aim of this paper is to present the historical development of biochemistry at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, through analysis of three indicators: undergraduate and postgraduate education of medical biochemists, teaching literature and professional associations and trade associations. Method The method of direct data was applied in this paper. Also, desktop analysis was used for analyzing of secondary data, regulations, curricula, documents and bibliographic material. Desktop research was conducted and based on the following sources: Archives of the University of Belgrade-Faculty of Pharmacy, Museum of the History of Pharmacy at the University of Belgrade-Faculty of Pharmacy, the Society of Medical Biochemists of Serbia and the Serbian Chamber of Biochemists. Results and conclusion The curricula, the Bologna process of improving education, the expansion of the range of subjects, the number of students, professional literature for teaching biochemistry, as well as professional associations and trade associations are presented through the results. PMID:28356867
Law, Anandi V; Bottenberg, Michelle M; Brozick, Anna H; Currie, Jay D; DiVall, Margarita V; Haines, Stuart T; Jolowsky, Christene; Koh-Knox, Cynthia P; Leonard, Golda Anne; Phelps, Stephanie J; Rao, Deepa; Webster, Andrew; Yablonski, Elizabeth
Mentoring of junior faculty members continues to be a widespread need in academic pharmacy in both new programs and established schools. The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Joint Council Task Force on Mentoring was charged with gathering information from member colleges and schools and from the literature to determine best practices that could be shared with the academy. The task force summarized their findings regarding the needs and responsibilities for mentors and protégés at all faculty levels; what mentoring pieces are in existence, which need improvement, and which need to be created; and how effective mentoring is defined and could be measured. Based on these findings, the task force developed several recommendations as well as the PAIRS Faculty Mentorship Checklist. Academic institutions can benefit from the checklist whether they are planning to implement a faculty mentorship program or are interested in modifying existing programs.
Bottenberg, Michelle M.; Brozick, Anna H.; Currie, Jay D.; DiVall, Margarita V.; Haines, Stuart T.; Jolowsky, Christene; Koh-Knox, Cynthia P.; Leonard, Golda Anne; Phelps, Stephanie J.; Rao, Deepa; Webster, Andrew; Yablonski, Elizabeth
Mentoring of junior faculty members continues to be a widespread need in academic pharmacy in both new programs and established schools. The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Joint Council Task Force on Mentoring was charged with gathering information from member colleges and schools and from the literature to determine best practices that could be shared with the academy. The task force summarized their findings regarding the needs and responsibilities for mentors and protégés at all faculty levels; what mentoring pieces are in existence, which need improvement, and which need to be created; and how effective mentoring is defined and could be measured. Based on these findings, the task force developed several recommendations as well as the PAIRS Faculty Mentorship Checklist. Academic institutions can benefit from the checklist whether they are planning to implement a faculty mentorship program or are interested in modifying existing programs. PMID:24954938
Del Vecchio-Feinberg, G J; Sheinman, C H
The development and implementation of product-line management (PLM) in a pharmacy department is reviewed. The PLM system of hospital organization shifts the emphasis from function to product. The pharmacy department at a 737-bed nonprofit hospital adopted PLM in an effort to reach more directly the physician and patient markets, enhance the image of pharmacy, and help meet requirements of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. The department surveyed physicians and administrators to identify their product and service needs and surveyed pharmacy staff members to identify the perceived benefits and risks of a PLM system. A strategic-planning session was held to decide how best to match the pharmacy department's product lines with market needs. The team leaders were renamed clinical supervisors and were no longer responsible for defined physical areas but rather for clinical matters relating to patients in the product line assigned. Pharmacy's chosen product lines were oncology services, neuropsychiatry, maternal and child care, cardiovascular, operating room-anesthesia-pain clinic, and general medical. The transition is being accomplished one product line at a time; interested team leaders transfer into clinical supervisor positions by achieving clinical expertise within the relevant product lines. Despite some initial confusion, PLM contributed to job satisfaction and morale and allowed the pharmacy department to provide increased clinical consultation and intervention services. PLM enhanced the clinical pharmacy program and focused clinical services on the physician and ultimately the patient.
Wilson, Woodrow J., Jr.
Discusses pharmacy as a career, including discussions of the following topics: the field of pharmacy, the services provided by pharmacists, the requirements to become a pharmacist, areas of pharmacy and the demand for them, advantages and disadvantages, and salary. (JM)
Siemianowski, Laura A.; Benedict, Neal
Objective. To expand the use of virtual patients at 2 schools of pharmacy through virtual patient case sharing. Design. Faculty members at two schools of pharmacy collaborated to expand the use of virtual patients. Two simulation programs, vpSim and DecisionSim (Decision Simulation, LLC, Chadsford, PA), were used to create interactive patient cases for a required course and an elective course at the different schools. Each school developed cases for their own use and then shared the cases with the other school. Assessment. The development, sharing, and subsequent modification of cases were examined using a standardized data collection form completed by both schools. Survey instruments were used to gather data regarding faculty perception and student satisfaction. Pre- and post-tests were administered to assess student learning. Five cases were developed and shared between the institutions. The time spent constructing new cases (22 hours/case) was significantly longer than the time spent modifying the shared cases (1.2 hours/case). Faculty members and students were largely satisfied with case sharing and the use of virtual patient cases, respectively. Virtual patients significantly enhanced student learning of material (mean score: 3.2 vs 3.6 on a 5-point scale). Conclusions. The sharing of virtual patient cases may allow institutions to overcome barriers to implementation of virtual patient programs, namely faculty resources, while improving student learning and satisfaction. PMID:28090102
Smith, Michael A; Siemianowski, Laura A; Benedict, Neal
Objective. To expand the use of virtual patients at 2 schools of pharmacy through virtual patient case sharing. Design. Faculty members at two schools of pharmacy collaborated to expand the use of virtual patients. Two simulation programs, vpSim and DecisionSim (Decision Simulation, LLC, Chadsford, PA), were used to create interactive patient cases for a required course and an elective course at the different schools. Each school developed cases for their own use and then shared the cases with the other school. Assessment. The development, sharing, and subsequent modification of cases were examined using a standardized data collection form completed by both schools. Survey instruments were used to gather data regarding faculty perception and student satisfaction. Pre- and post-tests were administered to assess student learning. Five cases were developed and shared between the institutions. The time spent constructing new cases (22 hours/case) was significantly longer than the time spent modifying the shared cases (1.2 hours/case). Faculty members and students were largely satisfied with case sharing and the use of virtual patient cases, respectively. Virtual patients significantly enhanced student learning of material (mean score: 3.2 vs 3.6 on a 5-point scale). Conclusions. The sharing of virtual patient cases may allow institutions to overcome barriers to implementation of virtual patient programs, namely faculty resources, while improving student learning and satisfaction.
Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel
Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship. PMID:27168619
... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances... between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances. Prescription information may be provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a...
The American Society of Health- System Pharmacists (ASHP) believes that specially trained pharmacy technicians can assume important supportive roles in pharmacy informatics. These roles include automation and technology systems management, management of projects, training and education, policy and governance, customer service, charge integrity, and reporting. Such roles require pharmacy technicians to gain expertise in information technology (IT) systems, including knowledge of interfaces, computer management techniques, problem resolution, and database maintenance. This knowledge could be acquired through specialized training or experience in a health science or allied scientific field (e.g., health informatics). With appropriate safeguards and supervision, pharmacy technician informaticists (PTIs) will manage IT processes in health-system pharmacy services, ensuring a safe and efficient medication-use process.
Gibson, Robert D.; And Others
Site visits were made by a team of consultants to Florida A&M University (FAMU) and the University of Florida (UF), the two institutions providing pharmacy education in Florida, to review programs and assess issues relating to entry-level degrees, manpower needs, and delivery systems. After a brief history of academic programs in pharmacy, the…
Katz, Norman L.; And Others
U.S. colleges of pharmacy were surveyed in 1976 to determine whether a trend exists in continuing, discontinuing, or restructuring laboratory time in pharmaceutical education. Data regarding core undergraduate pharmacology courses, undergraduate pharmacology laboratory status, and pharmacology faculty are presented. (LBH)
Sedghi, Shahram; Abdolahi, Nida; Azimi, Ali; Tahamtan, Iman; Abdollahi, Leila
Background: Personal Information Management (PIM) refers to the tools and activities to save and retrieve personal information for future uses. This study examined the PIM activities of faculty members of Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) regarding their preferred PIM tools and four aspects of acquiring, organizing, storing and retrieving personal information. Methods: The qualitative design was based on phenomenology approach and we carried out 37 interviews with clinical and basic sciences faculty members of IUMS in 2014. The participants were selected using a random sampling method. All interviews were recorded by a digital voice recorder, and then transcribed, codified and finally analyzed using NVivo 8 software. Results: The use of PIM electronic tools (e-tools) was below expectation among the studied sample and just 37% had reasonable knowledge of PIM e-tools such as, external hard drivers, flash memories etc. However, all participants used both paper and electronic devices to store and access information. Internal mass memories (in Laptops) and flash memories were the most used e-tools to save information. Most participants used "subject" (41.00%) and "file name" (33.7 %) to save, organize and retrieve their stored information. Most users preferred paper-based rather than electronic tools to keep their personal information. Conclusion: Faculty members had little knowledge about PIM techniques and tools. Those who organized personal information could easier retrieve the stored information for future uses. Enhancing familiarity with PIM tools and training courses of PIM tools and techniques are suggested. PMID:26793648
Duke, Lori J; Unterwagner, Whitney L; Byrd, Debbie C
In 2002, a regional consortium was created for schools and colleges of pharmacy in Georgia and Alabama to assist experiential education faculty and staff members in streamlining administrative processes, providing required preceptor development, establishing a professional network, and conducting scholarly endeavors. Five schools and colleges of pharmacy with many shared experiential practice sites formed a consortium to help experiential faculty and staff members identify, discuss, and solve common experience program issues and challenges. During its 5 years in existence, the Southeastern Pharmacy Experiential Education Consortium has coordinated experiential schedules, developed and implemented uniform evaluation tools, coordinated site and preceptor development activities, established a work group for educational research and scholarship, and provided opportunities for networking and professional development. Several consortium members have received national recognition for their individual experiential education accomplishments. Through the activities of a regional consortium, members have successfully developed programs and initiatives that have streamlined administrative processes and have the potential to improve overall quality of experiential education programs. Professionally, consortium activities have resulted in 5 national presentations.
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...
O'Hanlon, James; Sayre, Janette S.
Through professional development activities, physical education faculty members can meet important challenges in their field: (1) keep current in their subjects; (2) learn additional skills; (3) take on new tasks; (4) perform old tasks in different ways; (5) increase scholarship; and (6) increase instructional competence. (CJ)
Wilson, Teresa A.; And Others
A study by an undergraduate pharmacy student to gain experience in research methodology and to enhance individual clinical involvement is described. Results of psychological exams of 40 patients from a family practice clinic did not accurately predict patient compliance or noncompliance. (Author/MLW)
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the pharmacy...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the pharmacy...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the pharmacy...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the pharmacy...
"Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures" - Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education.
Nikendei, C; Ganschow, P; Groener, J B; Huwendiek, S; Köchel, A; Köhl-Hackert, N; Pjontek, R; Rodrian, J; Scheibe, F; Stadler, A-K; Steiner, T; Stiepak, J; Tabatabai, J; Utz, A; Kadmon, M
The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures", which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties.
Hincapie, Ana L; Cutler, Timothy W; Fingado, Amanda R
Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students' knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students' perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants' knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion.
Cutler, Timothy W.; Fingado, Amanda R.
Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students’ knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students’ perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants’ knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion. PMID:27667844
Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy. PMID:23908727
Muzzin, Linda J.; Hornosty, Roy W.
A survey of 302 pharmacy school graduates from the University of Toronto College of Pharmacists (Ontario) investigated perceptions of the adequacy of formal and clinical training for the practice of pharmacy. Assessments varied depending on time of training. All ratings suggest room for improvement and the need for special attention to the quality…
Thomas, Selby Greer; And Others
A two-year community pharmacy clinical experience using self-directed learning modules is described and evaluated. The modules were designed to stimulate interest in community pharmacy, motivate learning by demonstrating applicability of didactic work to contemporary practice, develop communication and psychosocial skills, and promote…
Caskie, Grace I. L.; Willis, Sherry L.
Purpose: This study examined the congruence of self-reported medications with computerized pharmacy records. Design and Methods: Pharmacy records and self-reported medications were obtained for 294 members of a state pharmaceutical assistance program who also participated in ACTIVE, a clinical trial on cognitive training in nondemented elderly…
Okubo, Masato; Takahashi, Yuka; Yamashita, Jun; Takahashi, Hideyo; Miyata, Okiko; Suzuki, Takaaki; Ishii, Itsuko
Pharmacy education comprises basic pharmacy (organic chemistry, biochemistry, and physical chemistry) and applied pharmacy (clinical pharmacy, pharm aceutics, and chemical hygiene). Students are expected to apply these subjects studied in pharmacy school during their practical pharmacy training. However, knowledge gained in university does not appear to be fully utilized in practice. We hypothesized that this is due to a lack of connection between pre-practical training education and actual practical training. Thus, we conducted a questionnaire study among pharmacy students to verify this hypothesis. We sent a questionnaire to 601 students in their sixth year of the pharmacy course at Chiba University, Teikyo University, or Kobe Pharmaceutical University who had undergone long-term practical training. The questionnaire asked about the utility of each subject of study and the reason for the judgement regarding the utility. Four hundred and forty-two students replied (response rate, 73.5%). A small proportion of students found the basic pharmacy subjects useful: physical chemistry, 5%; organic chemistry, 10%; and biochemistry, 24%. In contrast, more than half of the students found the clinical pharmacy subjects useful: pharmacology, 85%; pharmaceutics, 55%; pathophysiology, 75%; pharmacotherapeutics, 84%; and pharmaceutical regulations, 58%. Analysis of the comments left in the free-description section on the questionnaire revealed that most students did not have any opportunity to use their knowledge of the basic subjects during practical training, and furthermore, did not learn the processes involving the use of such subjects to solve clinical problems. Universities and pharmacists need to collaborate so that students can learn such processes.
Khalidi, Nabil; Alkatheri, Abdulmalik M; Althiab, Khalifa; Alharbi, Shmeylan; Aldekhael, Saleh; Qandil, Amjad M; Alknawy, Bandar
Objectives: The shortage of clinical pharmacists in Saudi Arabia has limited the full implementation of pharmaceutical care in most of its hospitals. The National Guard Health Affairs hospitals. This work discussed the Department of Pharmaceutical Care, and the King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences College of Pharmacy four initiatives that were planned in 2009–2010 to develop and recruit clinical pharmacists, practitioners, or faculty. Methods: The combined initiatives were aimed at (1) instituting a 4-year clinical skills development career ladder, (2) expanding the National Guard Health Affairs postgraduate residency program, (3) offering scholarships to qualified pharmacy graduates to pursue the PharmD degree and a PGY-1 residency training in the United States, and (4) recruiting non-Saudi clinical pharmacists educated and trained in the United States to ameliorate the current shortage of practitioner. Results: The current number of clinical pharmacists practicing at the National Guard Health Affairs at central region is 24, most of whom are Board Certified by the American Pharmacists Association Board of Pharmacy Specialties. Conclusions: The four initiatives, based on current trends, suggest that 60–65 positions will be added by 2017–2018, barring attrition. Saudi Arabia and many developing countries will continue to experience a shortage in clinical pharmacists due to the high demand for clinical pharmacy services. A multifaceted approach is recommended to address the problem. PMID:26770792
Busby, Leanne C.; And Others
In the nurse practitioner-managed primary health care clinic at Vanderbilt University School of Nursing, flexible faculty workloads have been established to facilitate faculty practice at the clinic. (Author/JOW)
Sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitors for the management of diabetes mellitus: an opinion paper from the Endocrine and Metabolism Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy.
Clements, Jennifer N; Whitley, Heather P; D'Souza, Jennifer J; Gross, Benjamin; Hess, Rick; Reece, Sara; Gentry, Chad; Shealy, Kayce
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) carries a high prevalence in the United States and worldwide. Therefore, the number of medication classes being developed and studied has grown. The individualized management of diabetes is accomplished by evaluating a medication's efficacy, safety, and cost, along with the patient's preference and tolerance to the medication. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors are a new therapeutic class indicated for the treatment of diabetes and have a unique mechanism of action, independent of beta-cell function. The first agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was canagliflozin in March 2013. Two agents - dapagliflozin and empagliflozin - were FDA-approved in January and July 2014, respectively. A clear understanding of the new class is needed to identify its appropriate use in clinical practice. Members of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy Endocrine and Metabolism Practice and Research Network reviewed available literature regarding this therapeutic class. The article addresses the advantages, disadvantages, emerging role, and patient education for sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors. Key limitations for this article include limited access to clinical trial data not published by the pharmaceutical company and limited data on products produced outside the United States.
Chui, Michelle A
Objective This paper explored pharmacy staff perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) design in retail pharmacies using the sociotechnical systems framework. This study examined how adoption of e-prescribing technology is affecting clinical practice and patient care. Materials and methods Direct observations and think aloud protocols were used to collect data from seven retail pharmacies. Results Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians reported strengths of e-prescribing design that facilitated pharmacy work which included: legibility, ease of archiving, quick access to prescriptions and consistency in the format of electronic prescriptions (e-prescriptions). Design weaknesses and potential hazards to patient care associated with e-prescribing systems were due to differences between pharmacy and prescriber computer systems which resulted in the selection of wrong patient or drug (name, directions, dose, strength, formulation, package sizes). There were unique strengths and weaknesses in the design of e-prescriptions peculiar to the three pharmacy computer systems examined in this study. Discussion Findings from this study can help inform policy on creating e-prescribing design standards for pharmacy. e-Prescribing system developers can use the results of this study to identify and apply the most usable features of the three main pharmacy computer systems to design systems that support dispensing efficiency and safety. Conclusions This is the first study to highlight design flaws with e-prescribing in retail pharmacies. The sociotechnical systems framework was useful in providing an indepth understanding of the pharmacist and pharmacy technician's interface with e-prescribing technology. This information can be used by policy makers to create e-prescribing standards for pharmacies. PMID:22753809
[Effectiveness and difficulty of education on nosocomial infection control for pre-clinical practice in the clinic, so-called inclusive clinical practice phase I, for students in the Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].
Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki
It has been planned to give pre-clinical practice in the clinic, so-called inclusive clinical practice phase I, for fifth-grade students in the School of Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, to give them the clinical training needed to perform dental practice and clinical practicum for comprehensive patient care, namely inclusive clinical practice phase II. This study analyzed the educative efficiency of the class on nosocomial infection control (NIC) by comparing achievements pre- and post-test, and discussed appropriate education planning on the NIC for dental students. Sixty-two fifth-grade students in the 2007 academic year sat the pre- and post-tests; the mean score and standard deviation of these tests were 5.30 +/- 1.26 (n = 56) and 8.59 +/- 1.18 (n = 59), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between them (paired t-test, p < 0.01). Another finding was that students with high scores in the post-test did not necessarily achieve high ratings in the pre-test. It is suggested that the introduction of pre- and post-tests and the clarification of main points in the class as a theme of NIC could be a useful tool for increasing the comprehension of students on the theme. Since students at lower grades will attend clinical practice in the university hospital, it is thought that students should be given NIC training early in the clinical course, and the current curriculum should be improved to increase the opportunity for students to study this important issue.
In a long essay titled "Plato's Pharmacy, Jacques Derrida attacked Western metaphysics. This article undertakes to defend Western philosophy from Derrida's arguments. It is shown that Derrida's arguments are very unsatisfactory. (Author/VWL)
Huntzinger, Paul E
The purpose of this mixed qualitative/quantitative study was to review the impact of a policy to accept facsimile (fax) prescriptions as standard operating procedure. Between February and April 2009 the pharmacy processed 4,792 new prescriptions of which 363 (7.6%) were received through fax. Of the fax prescriptions, 19 (5.2%) concerned clarification of information, which took approximately 30 minutes to resolve. The fax prescription process allowed the pharmacy to adjust the distribution of its workload, provided quicker service for new prescriptions, and allowed more time for medication consultation that resulted in a high level of customer satisfaction. It appeared the policy allowing fax prescriptions was a "win-win" situation for both the pharmacy and its customers. Military pharmacies should consider running trials of accepting fax prescriptions to see whether it improves their prescription filling process.
Dy-Boarman, Eliza A.; Clifford, Kalin M.; Summa, Maria A.; Willson, Megan N.; Boyle, Jaclyn A.; Peeters, Michael J.
Objective. To identify the methods used by US colleges and schools of pharmacy to prepare student pharmacists for academic careers. Method. An 18-item survey instrument was developed and distributed to US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Representatives were asked about faculty responsibilities, experiences in academia currently offered to student pharmacists, and representatives’ perception of their student pharmacists’ preparedness for careers in academia, including barriers in current programming. Results. Representatives from 96 colleges/schools responded. The vast majority (96%) provided academia-focused advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), 40% provided didactic coursework in academia, 28% offered a longitudinal research track, and 42% offered academia-focused independent studies. Teaching methods and creating learning objectives were the most common pedagogical content, while assessment activities were diverse. Time was the most prevalent barrier to providing training for academic careers; however, degree of student pharmacist interest, faculty inexperience, and lack of leadership support were also commonly reported. Conclusions: Colleges and schools of pharmacy vary in the extent to which they prepare student pharmacists for careers in academia. Advanced pharmacy practice experiences were the most common method of training offered. Standardization of training for academia may better promote this career path to student pharmacists. PMID:28289296
Teevan, Colleen J.; Li, Michael; Schlesselman, Lauren S.
Objective The goal of this study was to assess for a predominance of learning styles among pharmacy students at an accredited U.S. school of pharmacy. Methods Following approval by the Institutional Review Board, the Index of Learning Styles© was administered to 210 pharmacy students. The survey provides results within 4 domains: perception, input, processing, and understanding. Analyses were conducted to determine trends in student learning styles. Results Within the four domains, 84% of students showed a preference toward sensory perception, 66% toward visual input, and 74% toward sequential understanding. Students showed no significant preference for active or reflective processing. Preferences were of moderate strength for the sensing, visual, and sequential learning styles. Conclusions Students showed preferences for sensing, visual, and sequential learning styles with gender playing a role in learning style preferences. Faculty should be aware, despite some preferences, a mix of learning styles exists. To focus on the preferences found, instructors should focus teaching in a logical progression while adding visual aids. To account for other types of learning styles found, the instructors can offer other approaches and provide supplemental activities for those who would benefit from them. Further research is necessary to compare these learning styles to the teaching styles of pharmacy preceptors and faculty at schools of pharmacy. PMID:24688613
Islam, Mohammed A; Talukder, Rahmat M; Taheri, Reza; Blanchard, Nicholas
Objective. To determine the current status of and faculty perceptions regarding integration of basic and clinical science courses in US pharmacy programs. Methods. A 25-item survey instrument was developed and distributed to 132 doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs. Survey data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis test. Thematic analysis of text-based comments was performed using the constant comparison method. Results. One hundred twelve programs responded for a response rate of 85%. Seventy-eight (70%) offered integrated basic and clinical science courses. The types of integration included: full integration with merging disciplinary contents (n=25), coordinated delivery of disciplinary contents (n=50), and standalone courses with integrated laboratory (n=3). Faculty perceptions of course integration were positive. Themes that emerged from text-based comments included positive learning experiences as well as the challenges, opportunities, and skepticism associated with course integration. Conclusion. The results suggest wide variations in the design and implementation of integrated courses among US pharmacy programs. Faculty training and buy-in play a significant role in successful implementation of curricular integration.
Talukder, Rahmat M.; Taheri, Reza; Blanchard, Nicholas
Objective. To determine the current status of and faculty perceptions regarding integration of basic and clinical science courses in US pharmacy programs. Methods. A 25-item survey instrument was developed and distributed to 132 doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs. Survey data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis test. Thematic analysis of text-based comments was performed using the constant comparison method. Results. One hundred twelve programs responded for a response rate of 85%. Seventy-eight (70%) offered integrated basic and clinical science courses. The types of integration included: full integration with merging disciplinary contents (n=25), coordinated delivery of disciplinary contents (n=50), and standalone courses with integrated laboratory (n=3). Faculty perceptions of course integration were positive. Themes that emerged from text-based comments included positive learning experiences as well as the challenges, opportunities, and skepticism associated with course integration. Conclusion. The results suggest wide variations in the design and implementation of integrated courses among US pharmacy programs. Faculty training and buy-in play a significant role in successful implementation of curricular integration. PMID:28179715
Bell, J. Simon; Johns, Rachelle; Chen, Timothy F.
Objectives To compare the attitudes of third-year pharmacy students and pharmacy graduates towards people with schizophrenia and severe depression. Methods Third-year pharmacy students (n = 216) and pharmacy graduates (n = 232) completed a survey instrument with 21 common items. The third-year students had not yet received any mental health lectures or tutorials as part of their pharmacy course. The graduates had completed their university education, including mental health lectures and tutorials, plus 6 months of supervised clinical practice in the pharmacy workplace. Results There were no significant differences between the third-year students and pharmacy graduates in terms of social distance from people with schizophrenia. The rates of stigmatization of people with schizophrenia and severe depression were also similar between the groups. Conclusions Mental health lectures and tutorials delivered by pharmacists and supervised clinical practice in the pharmacy workplace may not decrease students' social distance or stigmatization of people with mental illness. The results of our study suggest that more comprehensive education and training programs are needed to improve the ability of pharmacists to meet the needs of people with mental illness. PMID:17136196
[Practical study for seminar program certified by Japanese Society of Hospital Pharmacists for Clinical Psychiatric Pharmacists organized by Chiba Society of Hospital Pharmacists, and investigation of participants' background and issues for taking board certified psychiatric pharmacy specialists and board certified pharmacists in psychiatric pharmacy certifications using questionnaires].
Tsukiji, Mariko; Furuyama, Hikaru; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Ishida, Keiko; Matsuda, Kimiko; Fukuda, Keiko; Shimizu, Hideyuki
Recently, certification systems for Board-Certified Psychiatric Pharmacy Specialists (BCPPS) and Board-Certified Pharmacists in Psychiatric Pharmacy (BCPPP) were established by the Japanese Society of Hospital Pharmacists (JSHP) in 2008, to meet the increasing needs for specialists in psychiatric pharmacy. However, there was no report on the background and opinion of pharmacists who have intention to take the BCPPS or BCPPP and/or seminar programs for BCPPS or BCPPP. The Chiba Society of Hospital Pharmacists has started to provide a seminar program certified by the JSHP to study psychiatry for pharmacists and also investigated the participants' background, demand for the program, and issues in taking the BCPPS or BCPPP using questionnaires. We found that many participants wanted lectures to obtain information on issues they face in routine work as well as for certification testing. For many participants, satisfying the requirements for applying for the BCPPS or BCPPP was one of the most important issues in receiving the qualifications. We found that over 40% of participants working at community pharmacies intended to take the BCPPS or BCPPP, although working experience at a community pharmacy does not entitle them to apply for the BCPPS or BCPPP. The intention of community pharmacists indicates that discussion of the requirements for BCPPS or BCPPP certification systems is necessary to improve psychiatric community care. We will plan a practical seminar program with feedback from this investigation.
Schlesselman, Lauren; Coleman, Craig I
OBJECTIVE. To determine the association between characteristics of colleges and schools of pharmacy and their rankings according to US News and World Report. METHODS. The 2008 US News and World Report, mean ranking scores (ranging from 2.0 to 5.0) for 78 US colleges and schools of pharmacy were compared with college and school characteristics, including academic program, students, faculty, and scholarship. The adjusted difference in mean ranking score associated with each characteristic was determined using a multivariate mixed linear regression model. RESULTS. The most powerful identified predictors of mean ranking score included the amount of grant funding (National Institutes of Health [NIH] and non-NIH funding) a college or school of pharmacy received and the yearly publication rates of its department of pharmacy (p≤0.001 for both). The adjusted mean ranking scores for colleges and schools receiving >$5 million and $1 million to $5 million in scholarly grant funding were respectively 0.77 and 0.26 points higher than those receiving none. Adjusted mean ranking scores for colleges and schools whose departments of pharmacy practice had publishing rates of >20 papers and 11 to 20 papers were respectively 0.40 and 0.17 points higher than those publishing ≤10 (p<0.05 for both). CONCLUSION. The characteristic of colleges and schools of pharmacy most associated with US News and World Report rankings appears to be their scholarly productivity.
Sarikaya, Ozlem; Kalaca, Sibel; Yeen, Berrak C.; Cali, Sanda
Self-assessment tools have previously been used to assess the impact of a faculty development program on the teaching skills of medical educators. In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of a faculty development program on the teaching performances of faculty members in relation to their medical disciplines and academic positions. A…
Walton, Charles A.; Doluisio, James T.
Proposes reorganization of professional pharmacy education to develop a group of practitioners at the contemporary practice level (baccalaureate degree) and a group at a level qualified to direct the profession's beginning states of advanced clinical service development (doctoral degree). Professional roles and teaching goals are outlined for…
Newton, Gail D.; And Others
The intent of an integrating laboratory was to help pharmacy students learn to solve problems, make decisions, and develop good communication skills. Educational units included exercises in guided design, patient profile review, patient inquiries, extemporaneous prescription compounding, clinical literature evaluation, and videotapes of simulated…
Lesshafft, Charles T., Jr.; And Others
Kentucky's AHES offers health care students part of their clinical instruction in practice situations and in regions of the state removed from the major academic health science centers. Pharmacy students may choose an off-campus semester in either the fall, spring or summer since the fall of 1973. (LBH)
Hatoum, Hind T.
The 440 interventions completed by pharmacy residents in an inpatient on-call program were analyzed for their source (self-initiated, solicited by physician or staff pharmacist), type (selection of dosage, schedule, drug level monitoring, route of administration), impact on quality of care, cost of care, and clinical significance. (Author/MSE)
Mohamed, Heba Moustafa
The shift in the pharmacist’s role from simply dispensing medications to effective delivery of pharmaceutical care interventions and drug therapy management has influenced pharmacy education.1-3 The educational focus has shifted from basic sciences to clinical and integrated courses that require incorporating active-learning strategies to provide pharmacy graduates with higher levels of competencies and specialized skills. As opposed to passive didactic lectures, active-learning strategies address the educational content in an interactive learning environment to develop interpersonal, communication, and problem-solving skills needed by pharmacists to function effectively in their new roles.4-6 One such strategy is using educational games. The aim of this paper is to review educational games adopted in different pharmacy schools and to aid educators in replicating the successfully implemented games and overcoming deficiencies in educational games. This review also highlights the main pitfalls within this research area. PMID:26089568
Aburahma, Mona Hassan; Mohamed, Heba Moustafa
The shift in the pharmacist's role from simply dispensing medications to effective delivery of pharmaceutical care interventions and drug therapy management has influenced pharmacy education.(1-3) The educational focus has shifted from basic sciences to clinical and integrated courses that require incorporating active-learning strategies to provide pharmacy graduates with higher levels of competencies and specialized skills. As opposed to passive didactic lectures, active-learning strategies address the educational content in an interactive learning environment to develop interpersonal, communication, and problem-solving skills needed by pharmacists to function effectively in their new roles.(4-6) One such strategy is using educational games. The aim of this paper is to review educational games adopted in different pharmacy schools and to aid educators in replicating the successfully implemented games and overcoming deficiencies in educational games. This review also highlights the main pitfalls within this research area.
Martimianakis, Maria Athina; Hodges, Brian D.; Wasylenki, Donald
Objective: Medical schools and departments of psychiatry around the world face challenges in integrating science with clinical teaching. This project was designed to identify attitudes toward the integration of science in clinical teaching and address barriers to collaboration between scientists and clinical teachers. Methods: The authors explored…
Gubbins, Paul O; Klepser, Michael E; Dering-Anderson, Allison M; Bauer, Karri A; Darin, Kristin M; Klepser, Stephanie; Matthias, Kathryn R; Scarsi, Kimberly
OBJECTIVES To identify opportunities to perform point-of-care (POC) testing and/or screening for infectious diseases in community pharmacies, provide an overview of such tests and how they are used in current practice, discuss how the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) affect pharmacists performing POC testing, and identify and discuss barriers and provide recommendations for those wanting to establish POC testing for infectious diseases services in community pharmacies. DATA SOURCES PubMed and Google Scholar were searched from November 2012 through May 2013 and encompassed the years 2000 and beyond for the narrative review section of this article using the search terms rapid diagnostic tests, POC testing and infectious diseases, pharmacy services, CLIA waiver, and collaborative drug therapy management. All state boards of pharmacy in the United States were contacted and their regulatory and legislative websites accessed in 2012 and January 2013 to review relevant pharmacy practice laws. DATA SYNTHESIS POC testing for infectious diseases represents a significant opportunity to expand services in community pharmacies. Pharmacist education and training are addressing knowledge deficits in good laboratory practices and test performance and interpretation. Federal regulations do not define the qualifications for those who perform CLIA-waived tests, yet few pharmacists perform such services. Fewer than 20% of states address POC testing in their statutes and regulations governing pharmacy. CONCLUSION POC testing for infectious diseases could benefit patients and society and represents an opportunity to expand pharmacy services in community pharmacies. Existing barriers to the implementation of such services in community pharmacies, including deficits in pharmacist training and education along with state regulatory and legislative variance and vagueness in statutes governing pharmacy, are not insurmountable.
Van Winkle, Lon J.; Hojat, Mohammadreza
Objective. To validate the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession Students version (JSE-HPS) in pharmacy students. Methods. The JSE-HPS (20 items), adapted from the original Jefferson Scale of Empathy for use among students in the healthcare professions, was completed by 187 first-year pharmacy students at Midwestern University Chicago College of Pharmacy. Results. Two factors, “perspective-taking” and “compassionate care,” emerged from factor analysis in this study, accounting for 31% and 8% of the variance, respectively. These factors are similar to the prominent ones reported in previous research involving physicians and medical students, supporting the construct validity of this instrument for pharmacy students. In the current study, mean JSE-HPS score was comparable to those reported for medical students, and consistent with previous findings with medical students and physicians. Women scored significantly higher than men. Conclusions. Findings support the construct validity and reliability of the JSE-HPS for measuring empathy in pharmacy students. PMID:21931447
Gregory, Paul A. M.; Austin, Zubin
Background: Intraprofessional conflict among pharmacists, regulated technicians and assistants may undermine attempts to advance patient care in community pharmacy. There is no available research examining this issue in light of the evolution of the profession and roles within the profession. Methods: A combination of interviews and focus groups involving pharmacists, technicians and assistants was undertaken. Each participant completed the Conflict Management Scale as a way of identifying conflict management style. Data were analyzed and coded using a constant-comparative, iterative method. Results: A total of 41 pharmacy team members participated in this research (14 pharmacists, 14 technicians and 13 assistants). Four key themes were identified that related to conflict within community pharmacy: role misunderstanding, threats to self-identity, differences in conflict management style and workplace demotivation. Interpretation: As exploratory research, this study highlighted the need for greater role clarity and additional conflict management skills training as supports for the pharmacy team. The impact of conflict in the workplace was described by participants as significant, adverse and multifactorial. Conclusions: To support practice change, there has been major evolution of roles and responsibilities of pharmacists, technicians and assistants. Conflict among pharmacy team members has the potential to adversely affect the quality of care provided to patients and is an issue for managers, owners, regulators and educators. PMID:28286591
Kelley, Katherine A.; Secnik, Kristina; Boye, Mark E.
Investigated the capacity of the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT) to predict success in pharmacy school. Found demographic differences in PCAT scores, and that the PCAT used in combination with pre-pharmacy grade point average is meaningful in assessing applicants to pharmacy school; applicants with PCAT composite percentile scores below 40…
... central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all central fill pharmacies, including name, address and DEA... be made available upon request for inspection by DEA. (b) Every central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all retail pharmacies, including name, address and DEA number, for which it is authorized...
... central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all central fill pharmacies, including name, address and DEA... be made available upon request for inspection by DEA. (b) Every central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all retail pharmacies, including name, address and DEA number, for which it is authorized...
... central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all central fill pharmacies, including name, address and DEA... be made available upon request for inspection by DEA. (b) Every central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all retail pharmacies, including name, address and DEA number, for which it is authorized...
Sauvageau, Chantal; Dubé, Eve; Bradet, Richard; Mondor, Myrto; Lavoie, France; Moisan, Jocelyne
Canadian Pharmacists are easy to reach. Although Québec pharmacists are not allowed to administer vaccines, they can: (1) promote vaccination, (2) counsel patients on vaccination, (3) sell vaccines and (4) provide vaccine administration by a nurse. Our objectives were to describe immunization services given in Québec pharmacies and assess the potential relation between, on one hand, pharmacy characteristics and difficulties perceived by pharmacists and, on the other hand, vaccine administration. In 2008-09, an anonymous questionnaire was mailed to all Québec pharmacy owners (n = 1663). Among the 1102 (66%) respondents, 90% stated that vaccines were sold, 27% that a nurse administered vaccines in their pharmacy and 44% were planning to offer vaccine administration in the next five years. Three out of four stated they were doing vaccine promotion and 65%, vaccine counselling. Half of respondents said they would be willing to administer vaccines themselves if legislative modifications were made. Recommendations for cold chain maintenance were followed in 23% of pharmacies selling vaccines. Presence of another health professional in the pharmacy, higher number of opening hours, not being located in the same building than a medical clinic and having an agreement to collaborate with a public health unit or a medical clinic for immunization were positively associated with vaccine administration in multivariate analysis. Higher perceived difficulties with lack of demand from patients were negatively associated with vaccine administration. Most pharmacists are willing to increase their involvement in immunization. Collaboration between public health professionals and pharmacists should be reinforced.
Phillips, Jennifer; Demaris, Kendra
Objective. To determine how medical literature evaluation (MLE) is being taught across the United States and to summarize methods for teaching and assessing MLE. Methods. An 18-question survey was administered to faculty members whose primary responsibility was teaching MLE at schools and colleges of pharmacy. Results. Responses were received from 90 (71%) US schools of pharmacy. The most common method of integrating MLE into the curriculum was as a stand-alone course (49%). The most common placement was during the second professional year (43%) or integrated throughout the curriculum (25%). The majority (77%) of schools used a team-based approach. The use of active-learning strategies was common as was the use of multiple methods of evaluation. Responses varied regarding what role the course director played in incorporating MLE into advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Conclusion. There is a trend toward incorporating MLE education components throughout the pre-APPE curriculum and placement of literature review/evaluation exercises into therapeutics practice skills laboratories to help students see how this skill integrates into other patient care skills. Several pre-APPE educational standards for MLE education exist, including journal club activities, a team-based approach to teaching and evaluation, and use of active-learning techniques. PMID:26941431
... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and refill prescriptions of Schedule III, IV... Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and... provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a retail pharmacy for dispensing purposes. The...
... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances... between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled... provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a retail pharmacy for dispensing purposes. The...
... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and refill prescriptions of Schedule III, IV... Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and... provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a retail pharmacy for dispensing purposes. The...
Improvement in medication adherence and self-management of diabetes with a clinical pharmacy program: a randomized controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy at a teaching hospital
Cani, Catarina Gomes; da Silva Girão Lopes, Laura; Queiroz, Márcia; Nery, Márcia
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a clinical pharmacy program on health outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy at a teaching hospital in Brazil. METHOD: A randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up period was performed in 70 adults, aged 45 years or older, with type 2 diabetes who were taking insulin and who had an HbA1c level ≥8%. Patients in the control group (CG) (n = 36) received standard care, patients in the intervention group (IG) (n = 34) received an individualized pharmacotherapeutic care plan and diabetes education. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA1c. Secondary outcomes included diabetes and medication knowledge, adherence to medication, insulin injection and home blood glucose monitoring techniques and diabetes-related quality of life. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 6 months using questionnaires. RESULTS: Diabetes knowledge, medication knowledge, adherence to medication and correct insulin injection and home blood glucose monitoring techniques significantly improved in the intervention group but remained unchanged in the control group. At the end of the study, mean HbA1c values in the control group remained unchanged but were significantly reduced in the intervention group. Diabetes-related quality of life significantly improved in the intervention group but worsened significantly in the control group. CONCLUSION: The program improved health outcomes and resulted in better glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy. PMID:25789518
Roles of the pharmacist in the use of safe and highly effective long-acting reversible contraception: an opinion of the women's health practice and research network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy.
Rafie, Sally; McIntosh, Jennifer; Shealy, Kayce M; Borgelt, Laura M; Forinash, Alicia; Shrader, Sarah P; Koepf, Erin R; McClendon, Katie S; Griffin, Brooke L; Horlen, Cheryl; Karaoui, Lamis R; Rowe, Emily L; Lodise, Nicole M; Wigle, Patricia R
The U.S. population continues to experience an alarmingly high rate of unintended pregnancies that have an impact on individual families and society alike. Lack of effective contraception accounts for most unintended pregnancies, along with incorrect use of contraceptives. The most common reversible contraceptive method used in the United States is the oral contraceptive pill, which has significant failure and discontinuation rates. Use of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods has been increasing in recent years after efforts to educate providers and patients. Women are more likely to use LARC methods when barriers such as access and cost are removed. An uptake in the use of LARC methods would allow for markedly reduced contraception failure rates and higher user satisfaction and thus higher continuation rates than those seen with current contraception use. Promoting the use of LARC methods is an important strategy in improving both individual and public health outcomes by reducing unintended pregnancies. The pharmacist's role in family planning is expanding and can contribute to these efforts. Although knowledge regarding LARC has not been studied among pharmacists, a knowledge deficit exists among health care professionals in general. Thus pharmacist education and training should include LARC methods along with other contraceptives. The American College of Clinical Pharmacy Women's Health Practice and Research Network advocates for the pharmacist's role in the use of safe and highly effective LARC methods. These roles include educating patients, informing providers, facilitating access by providing referrals, and modifying institutional procedures to encourage provision of LARC methods.
Bess, D. Todd; Taylor, Jade; Schwab, Carol A.; Wang, Junling; Carter, Jason A.
A thorough understanding of pharmacy law by students is important in the molding of future pharmacy practitioners but a standardized template for the best way to educate students in this area has not been created. A mock Board of Pharmacy meeting was designed and incorporated into the Pharmacy Law course to meet the ACPE accreditation standards at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. Students acted as Board of Pharmacy members and utilized technology to decide outcomes of cases and requests addressed in a typical 2 day Tennessee Board of Pharmacy meeting. The actual responses to those cases, as well as similar cases and requests addressed over a 5 year period, were revealed to students after they made motions on mock scenarios. Student participation in this interactive learning experience resulted in good understanding of the rules and regulations of pharmacy practice and the consequences associated with violating regulations. Such mock Board of Pharmacy meeting is recommended for future pharmacy law education. PMID:27347433
Bess, D Todd; Taylor, Jade; Schwab, Carol A; Wang, Junling; Carter, Jason A
A thorough understanding of pharmacy law by students is important in the molding of future pharmacy practitioners but a standardized template for the best way to educate students in this area has not been created. A mock Board of Pharmacy meeting was designed and incorporated into the Pharmacy Law course to meet the ACPE accreditation standards at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. Students acted as Board of Pharmacy members and utilized technology to decide outcomes of cases and requests addressed in a typical 2 day Tennessee Board of Pharmacy meeting. The actual responses to those cases, as well as similar cases and requests addressed over a 5 year period, were revealed to students after they made motions on mock scenarios. Student participation in this interactive learning experience resulted in good understanding of the rules and regulations of pharmacy practice and the consequences associated with violating regulations. Such mock Board of Pharmacy meeting is recommended for future pharmacy law education.
Bratberg, Jeffrey P.; Robertson, Courtney; Smith, Gregory
Objective. To describe the implementation and effect of an emergency preparedness laboratory activity on student knowledge, willingness to participate in emergency preparedness training, current level of preparedness, and the importance of a pharmacist’s role in disaster response. Design. Second-year pharmacy students in the infectious disease module participated in a laboratory activity based on a basic disaster response tabletop exercise format. Three case-based scenarios involving infectious diseases were created by participating faculty members. Assessment. Surveys before and after the laboratory were used to assess the activity’s effect on student knowledge, willingness to participate in emergency preparedness training, current level of preparedness, and the importance of a pharmacist’s role in disaster response. In addition, the postsurvey assessed student perceptions of the activity’s success at accomplishing faculty-specified outcomes from Appendix B of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education’s (ACPE) Standards. Conclusion. Implementation of an emergency response laboratory activity may improve overall students’ knowledge of, confidence in, and understanding of their role as pharmacists in an emergency response, while incorporating a variety of skills and knowledge outcomes. PMID:27170821
... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pharmacy services. 483.60 Section 483.60 Public... Care Facilities § 483.60 Pharmacy services. The facility must provide routine and emergency drugs and... the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of receipt...
... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the...
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal...
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy services. 483.60 Section 483.60 Public... Care Facilities § 483.60 Pharmacy services. The facility must provide routine and emergency drugs and... the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of receipt...
Slade, Julie D; Robb, Meigan; Sherrod, Brad; Hunker, Diane
Adjunct faculty are being used more frequently to meet the instructional and practice experience needs of growing nursing program cohorts. While most adjunct faculty tend to have clinical expertise, many lack formal training in online instruction. This article describes how faculty used technology to develop and implement a faculty support site to provide ongoing orientation and encourage informal mentoring relationships for online adjunct faculty.
Duffy, Michelle Moreau
This study investigated the perceptions of faculty regarding why they choose to attend basic skills faculty development; what they choose to implement in their classrooms; and how they determine the effectiveness of the strategies selected. A survey was completed by 173 full and part-time faculty from a large, suburban single-campus community…
Grussing, Paul G.; And Others
A seven-phase test development and validation process based on nuclear pharmacy practice standards is described, including: amplication of behaviors in the practice standards, development of examination specifications, item writing and review, a demonstration test, setting the cutting score, and final editing and assembly. (MSE)
Jishnu, V; Gilhotra, RM; Mishra, DN
In this world of specialization and globalization the pharmacy education in India is suffering from serious backdrops and flaws. There is an urgent need to initiate an academic exercise aimed at attaining revamping of curriculum, keeping in pace with current and emerging trends in the field of pharmacy. Unfortunately all these years, enough emphasis was not laid on strengthening the components of Community Pharmacy, Hospital and Clinical pharmacy, while designing curriculum at diploma and degree levels of teaching. The curriculum followed by almost all universities in India are no were up to the world standards and students are still getting the 20-30 yrs older compounding practical exposure in labs during the graduation level. The article emphasises the concept of innovation ecosystems and quality management. Application of TQM to the educational system improves the present situation. The counseling system which serves to be the gateway of the students for entry into the profession should be brought under the scanner. Introducing specializations at the graduation level will result in professional expertise and excellence. Education is a customer focused industry and every student should be capable of evaluating themselves for continuously improving their quality and professionalism. Teacher focused mastery learning should give away to student focused smart learning. An educational institution should provide the student with a stress-free atmosphere for learning and developing his intellectual capabilities. Every college should have a counseling centre to address the problems of students in their academic and personal life. An emphasis on the concept of quality teacher is included. Revival of the pharmacy education in India is the need of the hour which in turn will pave the way for the up gradation of the pharmacy profession in the country. PMID:22224042
Harvin, Andre; Griffith, Niesha; Weber, Robert J.
To deal with the pressures in health care that stress clinical excellence and profitability, health systems are increasingly recruiting physician executives or physicians in leadership and management positions. Physicians occupy less than 5% of all hospital leadership positions, but there is an apparent increase in the recruitment of physician executives. With the growth in the number of physician executives, pharmacy leaders must capitalize on their existing clinical relationship and apply it to health care leadership and management. By focusing on developing an executive presence, by clearly describing a patient-centered strategy and vision for pharmacy, and by nurturing the existing clinical relationships, the pharmacy director can work with physician executives to promote patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25477571
Roulet, Lucien; Asseray, Nathalie; Ballereau, Françoise
Overview of clinical pharmacy practice around the world shows that pharmaceutical services in emergency departments (EDs) are far less common in Europe than in North America. Reported experiences have shown the impact of a clinical pharmacy service on drug utilisation and safety issues. This commentary presents the implementation of a pharmacy presence in the ED of a French tertiary care hospital. Our experience helps to define the role of the clinical pharmacist in the ED, including patient interviewing, providing medication reconciliation, promoting drug safety, and supporting specific interventions to improve quality of care and patient safety. The role of ED pharmacists in the improvement of quality of care is not necessarily limited to drug therapy, e.g. by helping outpatients to access care and treatment facilities as best suits their needs. Challenges of implementing ED pharmacy services have been identified well, but still require developing strategies to be overcome.
El-Awaisi, Alla; Saffouh El Hajj, Maguy; Joseph, Sundari; Diack, Lesley
The current status of interprofessional education (IPE) in Arabic Middle Eastern countries is largely unexamined and there is a need to assess IPE and collaborative practice in these countries. As faculty attitudes towards IPE are believed to be one of the main factors that affect the successful integration of IPE into the different healthcare curricula, this article aims to explore the attitudes and views of pharmacy academics in Arabic-speaking Middle Eastern countries towards IPE and collaborative practice. The findings from this article are part of a larger study investigating pharmacy's perspectives of IPE and collaborative practice in Qatar and the Middle East. An online survey which included three validated scales was used to gather information from pharmacy academics at 89 pharmacy schools in 14 countries. The response rate was 107 out of 334 (32%) and the majority of the respondents were from Jordan, Qatar, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia. Statistical analysis was completed descriptively as well as inferentially using a series of independent t-tests. Overall pharmacy academics had positive attitudes towards IPE. The majority of the respondents, 90.8% (n = 99), perceived IPE to be important. Age, likelihood to engage in IPE, and years of IPE experience were the factors that were related to faculty members' attitudes towards IPE. Highly perceived barriers for implementing IPE included cultural challenges for each profession, scheduling common courses, and activities in addition to limited resources. The study findings indicated that pharmacy academics in the Middle East are ready to pursue IPE. These results can serve as impetus for implementing IPE in Middle Eastern countries.
Yodoshi, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Naomi; Satoh, Kaori; Nomura, Morihiro; Morishima, Yoshiyuki; Nakae, Kenichi; Yamazoe, Yuzuru
In team medicine, highly specialized pharmacists have recently been in demand. As one of the specialties, there is therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). It is important for the optimal dosing of a wide range of drugs. In our hospital, a TDM service was started in 1987 at the clinical laboratory. A clinical laboratory technologist with the license of a pharmacist has performed administration plans for anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) drugs, vancomycin, teicoplanin, and arbekacin. In particular, the pharmacist in charge of TDM services, a TDM-specialized pharmacist, plays a central role in administration plans for anti MRSA drugs. Furthermore, we examined the active use of the TDM service to expand pharmaceutical care. Therefore, at first, we have worked in partnership with the clinical laboratory, as it is called the "Cooperation Support System", since September 2010. As a result, after the introduction of this system, from August 2011 to July 2012, the rate that the doctor referred to the administration plan was markedly improved by approximately 90%. We have been able to enhance TDM in practical training for pharmacology as an extension of this system. We thought that drug therapy can be performed more appropriately by increasing the number of executions of TDM in the future. For drug therapy to be done more appropriately, efforts made through cooperation with the clinical laboratory are essential for an effective TDM system. Naturally, an effective TDM process requires a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach with input from doctors, nurses, and clinical pharmacists.
Woodward, Alan C; Henley, Patricia P; Wilson, Donald J
Bans on the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies allow pharmacies to provide health information and services without the conflict of interest posed by concurrent tobacco sales. As health care providers, pharmacies are trusted sources of information for patients. The existence of tobacco products in pharmacies is contrary to their mission as a health care entity. By May 2012, a full 27 Massachusetts municipalities had banned the sale of tobacco products in health care institutions, including pharmacies. These bans covered 30% of the state's population.
Unabated increases in prescription drug demands, advancing technology, and rising drug inflation rates combined with a sagging economy, continue to intensify budget pressures for payors responsible for delivering pharmacy benefits to plan members. At the same time, high levels of complexity and resource requirements in drug benefit administration have led to a state in which plan sponsors remain heavily dependent on pharmacy benefit managers to assist in these efforts. With pharmacy representing such a critical component of healthcare delivery from clinical and economic perspectives, it is essential that sponsors exercise high levels of due diligence in pharmacy benefit manager review and appraisal to ensure proper balance of quality clinical care, sufficient access, and optimal cost-efficiency in the delivery of such benefits. This review is designed to provide a comprehensive understanding of current pharmacy benefit management business practices and help equip plan sponsors with the knowledge, strategies, and safeguards to drive a well-informed pharmacy benefit selection process and, inevitably, a better-aligned pharmacy benefit management–payor relationship. PMID:25126235
Law, Anandi V; Jackevicius, Cynthia; Murray, Wallace I; Hess, Karl; Pham, David Q; Min, David I; Le, Jennifer
This paper describes the faculty enrichment activities and outcomes of a faculty orientation and development committee at a college of pharmacy. The committee used a continuous quality improvement (CQI) framework that included needs assessment, planning and implementation of programs and workshops, assessment of activities, and evaluation of feedback to improve future programming. Some of the programs established by the committee include a 3-month orientation process for new hires and development workshops on a broad range of topics including scholarship (eg, research methods), teaching (eg, test-item writing), and general development (mentorship). Evidence of the committee's success is reflected by high levels of faculty attendance at workshops, positive feedback on workshop evaluations, and overall high levels of satisfaction with activities. The committee has served as a role model for improving faculty orientation and retention.
Jackevicius, Cynthia; Murray, Wallace I.; Hess, Karl; Pham, David Q.; Min, David I.; Le, Jennifer
This paper describes the faculty enrichment activities and outcomes of a faculty orientation and development committee at a college of pharmacy. The committee used a continuous quality improvement (CQI) framework that included needs assessment, planning and implementation of programs and workshops, assessment of activities, and evaluation of feedback to improve future programming. Some of the programs established by the committee include a 3-month orientation process for new hires and development workshops on a broad range of topics including scholarship (eg, research methods), teaching (eg, test-item writing), and general development (mentorship). Evidence of the committee's success is reflected by high levels of faculty attendance at workshops, positive feedback on workshop evaluations, and overall high levels of satisfaction with activities. The committee has served as a role model for improving faculty orientation and retention. PMID:22412202
Lupien, Alfred E; Rosenkoetter, Marlene M
As university faculty, Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) are expected to meet the same obligations as other members of the academy. The purposes of this investigation were to describe the educational preparation and role expectations of nurse anesthesia faculty. Following institutional human assurance committee approval, an investigator-developed questionnaire was mailed to the directors of 85 nurse anesthesia programs recognized by the Council on Accreditation of Nurse Anesthesia Educational Programs. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Of the full-time faculty, 25% held doctoral degrees. CRNAs participated in all 3 traditional faculty roles of teaching, research, and service. Program administration and classroom teaching accounted for 66% of program directors' time. Assistant directors allocated 75% of their time to classroom teaching, clinical teaching, and program administration. Among all program faculty, limited time was reserved for research and scholarly activities. Increasing the percentage of doctorally prepared faculty and the amount of time allocated to research and scholarship are essential for full integration of nurse anesthetists into the university and to continue the development of nurse anesthesia's specialty knowledge.
In Celje, the first pharmacist is mentioned as early as 1578, among the first cities in Styria. In the 16th century, provincial classes hired and paid for the so-called provincial pharmacists and also monitored their work. Until the 19th century, pharmacists were considered tradesmen, then the public character of the profession changed: a court decree from 1820 required university education in pharmacy or chemistry. Since pharmacy trade was licensed and the number of pharmacies regulated, there was only one pharmacy in Celje for many years (pharmacy Pri orlu). The next two pharmacies were opened only after lengthy efforts: in the first half of the 17th century the second one (pharmacy Pri Mariji Pomagaj) and only in 1922 the third one (pharmacy Pri kriZu). After World War II, all private pharmacies were nationalized; in 1968 a public institute The pharmacies of Celje was established. In February 2009, the Museum of Recent Histoy Celje opened a museum pharmacy, which gives visitors an opportunity to experience the middle-class lifestyle from the time before World War II.
Kruse, Poul R; Kruse, Edith; Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik
The development of the pharmacy in the 19th and 20th centuries is illustrated by education and activity in the Dolphin Pharmacy in Copenhagen. The career within chemistry and pharmacy started with an apprenticeship of 4 year in the pharmacies. The Dolphin Pharmacy was responsible for part of the examination, i.e. the examination of the preparation of medicine. Passing the examination the chemist's assistant was free to prepare and to dispense medicine. Graduation as a pharmaceutical candidate was necessary to obtain license. Lectures in chemistry, physics, pharmacy, botany and pharmacognosy were obtained at the University of Copenhagen and the Polytechnic, but no curriculum was available. A rational education was obtained later on by the establishment of the School of Pharmacy in 1892. The proprietor pharmacists of the Dolphin Pharmacy were excellent scientists who contributed to the development of pharmacy. Pictures of the pharmacy from about the 1930s show the manufacture of medicines on the basis of a prescription and a pharmacopoeia. Ointments containing zinc white, sulphur and tar were used for various skin diseases and for the tiresome cough; cough mixtures containing codeine or extract of ipecacuanha root were used. In the 1930s the medicine for injection was sterilized and the tablet machine was the breakthrough for a rational production in the pharmacy. However, at the end of the 1900s it was no more possible to compete with the pharmaceutical industry and all the production of medicine was taken over by the industry.
Mäkinen, Mia Maria; Rautava, Päivi Tuire; Forsström, Jari Johannes
The aim of this article is to consider the suitability of online pharmacies into European internal market area. This required considering the models of present online pharmacies in respect to the existing legislation. Data on online pharmacy settings was collected by looking some online pharmacies, which were found by using Goggle search machine with term "online pharmacy" and by studying websites of some well-known online pharmacies. European legislation and policy were studied from European Union's official website. Online drug markets seem to be increasing in popularity for reasons related to their ready availability and cost benefits. Few online pharmacies are based in Europe, yet online markets are worldwide. Community legislation does not stipulate on the legality of online pharmacies on European internal markets. Instead Community legislation offers framework for electronic commerce that could also include online pharmacy practise. National legislation, however, may rule them out either directly or indirectly. Regardless of European internal markets online pharmacies' cross-border operations are particularly complicated. Preliminary ruling from the European Court of Justice concerning one European online pharmacy's cross-border practise is awaited 2003-2004 and will offer some aspects for future.
Jabbur-Lopes, Monique O.; Mesquita, Alessandra R.; Silva, Leila M. A.; De Almeida Neto, Abilio
A review of the literature relating to the use of virtual patients in teaching pharmaceutical care to pharmacy students was conducted. Only 7 articles met the inclusion criteria for the review and 4 of the studies were conducted in North America. Few articles identified by the review used virtual patient technology that was true-to-life and/or validated. PMID:22761533
de Valverde, C
In Guatemala, as is the case in many of the other Central American countries, the pharmacy is often the only health resource used outside the household. This paper analyzes knowledge, attitudes and practices of the personnel from seven pharmacies located in marginal-urban areas of Guatemala. It also studies their interaction with 3,277 users related to all diseases, specifically those related to diarrheal disease and its treatment. Findings revealed that the pharmacies' personnel handle diarrheal disease in an empirical way, using medicines to treat the cause of the diarrhea, instead of trying to prevent dehydration. There are limitations and deficiencies of knowledge and practices related to the use and abuse of non-indicative medicines, insofar as the pharmacies' personnel and users are concerned. Findings also revealed that the Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) are not used, and prepared oral serum is used in very small amounts, because these do not fit in popular expectations of a medicine that reduces diarrheic evacuations.
Driever, Carl W.; McClaugherty, Larry
This publication, one of a series of self-contained instructional materials for students enrolled in training within the allied health field, includes competencies that are associated with the performance of skills by students beginning the study of pharmacy assistance. It is intended to be used for individualized instruction under the supervision…
Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.
This report contains the task list for the pharmacy technician program in the state of Idaho. The task list reflects the current trends and skills necessary for an employee to obtain a job in this industry in Idaho, retain a job once hired, and advance in the occupational field. Technical information provided includes program area, program title,…
Desselle, Shane P.; Draugalis, JoLaine R.; Spies, Alan R.; Davis, Tamra S.; Bolino, Mark
Objective. To identify pharmacy faculty members’ perceptions of psychological contract breaches that can be used to guide improvements in faculty recruitment, retention, and development. Methods. A list of psychological contract breaches was developed using a Delphi procedure involving a panel of experts assembled through purposive sampling. The Delphi consisted of 4 rounds, the first of which elicited examples of psychological contract breaches in an open-ended format. The ensuing 3 rounds consisting of a survey and anonymous feedback on aggregated group responses. Results. Usable responses were obtained from 11 of 12 faculty members who completed the Delphi procedure. The final list of psychological contract breaches included 27 items, after modifications based on participant feedback in subsequent rounds. Conclusion. The psychological contract breach items generated in this study provide guidance for colleges and schools of pharmacy regarding important aspects of faculty recruitment, retention, and development. PMID:22919084
Hill, John W.; Gourley, Dick R.
The principles of behavior analysis and basic behavioral definitions were utilized by clinical pharmacy students within an interdisciplinary setting to recognize and reinforce the spontaneously occurring on-task desirable behaviors of an 8-year-old hyperactive, attention deficit disordered child. Data gathered by pharmacy students from a case…
Chizmar, John F.; Williams, David B.
Uses classroom experience and data from a faculty survey to explore what faculty want from instructional technology. Presents several assertions, such as "faculty want instructional technology driven by pedagogical goals" and "faculty desire Web-based tools designed for a specific pedagogical task as opposed to a Swiss-Army-knife Web tool designed…
South Texas Community Coll., McAllen. Office of Institutional Research and Effectiveness.
This survey attempted to study factors important to making faculty decide to continue or terminate employment at South Texas Community College (STCC). Surveys were e-mailed to 276 full time, regular faculty and 170 adjunct faculty with valid STCC e-mail addresses. Although 54% (150) of the full time faculty responded to the survey, it remains a…
Patient care in health institutions has become more intensive, with greater use of drugs. Pharmacy departments have not been able to keep abreast of the demands placed on them by advances in clinical medicine. Medication errors occur too frequently and place the patient at risk. Use of the unit dose system would reduce these errors. Patient safety should be used as a measure of the effectiveness of pharmacy programs. Greater patient participation in the therapeutic process would improve the effectiveness of pharmacy services, as would therapeutic drug monitoring.
Discusses research constraints cited for nursing faculty--lack of socialization for nurses to research, lack of academic background, and lack of research time--and suggests ways to incorporate research activities into nursing faculty regular workload using resources available in clinical and campus settings. (MF)
The University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy launched the Bill and Karen Campbell Faculty Mentoring Program (CMP) in 2006 to support scholarship-intensive junior faculty members. This report describes the origin, expectations, principles, and best practices that led to the introduction of the program, reviews the operational methods chosen for its implementation, provides information about its successes, and analyzes its strengths and limitations.
Background Continuing pharmacy education is becoming mandatory in most countries in order to keep the professional license valid. Increasing number of pharmacists are now using e-learning as part of their continuing education. Consequently, the increasing popularity of this method of education calls for standardization and validation practices. The conducted research explored validation aspects of e-learning in terms of knowledge increase and user acceptance. Methods Two e-courses were conducted as e-based continuing pharmacy education for graduated pharmacists. Knowledge increase and user acceptance were the two outcome measured. The change of knowledge in the first e-course was measured by a pre- and post-test and results analysed by the Wilcoxon signed–rank test. The acceptance of e-learning in the second e-course was investigated by a questionnaire and the results analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Results showed that knowledge increased significantly (p < 0.001) by 16 pp after participation in the first e-course. Among the participants who responded to the survey in the second course, 92% stated that e-courses were effective and 91% stated that they enjoyed the course. Conclusions The study shows that e-learning is a viable medium of conducting continuing pharmacy education; e-learning is effective in increasing knowledge and highly accepted by pharmacists from various working environments such as community and hospital pharmacies, faculties of pharmacy or wholesales. PMID:24528547
Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R.; Smith, Lorraine
Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al1 Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice. PMID:27293232
Tsingos-Lucas, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R; Smith, Lorraine
Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al(1) Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice.
Bach, David S.; Risko, Kenneth R.; Farber, Margo S.; Polk, Gregory J.
Objective: Implementation of an integrated, electronic medical record (EMR) has been promoted as a means of improving patient safety and quality. While there are a few reports of such processes that incorporate computerized prescriber order entry, pharmacy verification, an electronic medication administration record (eMAR), point-of-care barcode scanning, and clinical decision support, there are no published reports on how a pharmacy department can best participate in implementing such a process across a multihospital health care system. Method: This article relates the experience of the design, build, deployment, and maintenance of an integrated EMR solution from the pharmacy perspective. It describes a 9-month planning and build phase and the subsequent rollout at 8 hospitals over the following 13 months. Results: Key components to success are identified, as well as a set of guiding principles that proved invaluable in decision making and dispute resolution. Labor/personnel requirements for the various stages of the process are discussed, as are issues involving medication workflow analysis, drug database considerations, the development of clinical order sets, and incorporation of bar-code scanning of medications. Recommended implementation and maintenance strategies are presented, and the impact of EMR implementation on the pharmacy practice model and revenue analysis are examined. Conclusion: Adherence to the principles and practices outlined in this article can assist pharmacy administrators and clinicians during all medication-related phases of the development, implementation, and maintenance of an EMR solution. Furthermore, review and incorporation of some or all of practices presented may help ease the process and ensure its success. PMID:26405340
Among private Universities of Pharmacy in Japan, Kyoritsu University of Pharmacy was the first to introduce courses in social pharmacy in 1991. Social pharmacy is a discipline driven by social needs. By studying the relationship between pharmacy and society, particularly through case studies, the impact of drugs and changes in societal expectation of them, as well as through historical background studies and surveys of current trends, this discipline acts to determine the roles of pharmacists and pharmacies expected by society. Social pharmacy requires a basic knowledge of pharmaceutical science, but an understanding from economic viewpoints of the current systems and structures in which healthcare functions is important as well. Once these are understood, the goal is to identify social problems, and to create and apply models for their resolution which connect pharmacy and society. So far, social pharmacy has played an important role in training programs for community-based pharmacists essential for a hyper-aged society, for community pharmacies' health management programs aimed at promoting the health of residents, and educational programs for elementary and middle school children.
National League for Nursing, New York, NY. Research and Development.
This is the 1968 biennial census of nurse-faculty members teaching in nursing programs and in cooperating institutions providing clinical experiences for students in nursing. It is intended as an overview of current conditions and a basis for future estimates and planning. As of January 1968, 20,077 full-time and 3,554 part-time nurse-faculty…
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports by online pharmacies. 1304.55 Section 1304... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.55 Reports by online pharmacies. (a) Each online pharmacy shall report to the Administrator the total quantity of each controlled substance that the pharmacy has dispensed...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reports by online pharmacies. 1304.55 Section 1304... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.55 Reports by online pharmacies. (a) Each online pharmacy shall report to the Administrator the total quantity of each controlled substance that the pharmacy has dispensed...
Vaudan, Cristina; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
The role of the pharmacist as a “communicator” of information and advice between patients, other healthcare practitioners, and the community is recognized as a vital component of the responsibilities of a practicing pharmacist. Pharmacy education is changing to reflect this, although the difficulty is in designing a curriculum that is capable of equipping students with the necessary knowledge and skills, using activities that are effective in promoting communication competency. The objective of this review was to identify published, peer-reviewed articles concerning communication training in pharmacy education programs, and describe which communication skills the structured learning activities aimed to improve and how these learning activities were assessed. A systematic literature search was conducted and the articles found were analyzed and divided into categories based on specific communication skills taught and type of learning activity used. Oral interpersonal communication skills targeted at patients were the most common skill-type described, followed by clinical writing skills. Common teaching methods included simulated and standardized patient interactions and pharmacy practice experience courses. Most educational interventions were assessed by subjective measures. Many interventions were described as fragments, in isolation of other learning activities that took place in a course, which impedes complete analysis of study results. To succeed in communication training, integration between different learning activities and progression within pharmacy educations are important. PMID:23519011
Wallman, Andy; Vaudan, Cristina; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
The role of the pharmacist as a "communicator" of information and advice between patients, other healthcare practitioners, and the community is recognized as a vital component of the responsibilities of a practicing pharmacist. Pharmacy education is changing to reflect this, although the difficulty is in designing a curriculum that is capable of equipping students with the necessary knowledge and skills, using activities that are effective in promoting communication competency. The objective of this review was to identify published, peer-reviewed articles concerning communication training in pharmacy education programs, and describe which communication skills the structured learning activities aimed to improve and how these learning activities were assessed. A systematic literature search was conducted and the articles found were analyzed and divided into categories based on specific communication skills taught and type of learning activity used. Oral interpersonal communication skills targeted at patients were the most common skill-type described, followed by clinical writing skills. Common teaching methods included simulated and standardized patient interactions and pharmacy practice experience courses. Most educational interventions were assessed by subjective measures. Many interventions were described as fragments, in isolation of other learning activities that took place in a course, which impedes complete analysis of study results. To succeed in communication training, integration between different learning activities and progression within pharmacy educations are important.
This is a brief overview of principles, views and methods, of the Kanban System for the pharmacy of a general hospital. The main goal is the reduction of stores managed by the pharmacy, as well as improvement of the mode of operation. Solutions to problems, such as inadequate storage space, the delay in serving patients or clinics and the expiration of various pharmaceutical formulations, stored for so long time, are provided. The philosophy behind the Kanban procurement System and specifically its applicability to a pharmacy underperforming in terms of efficiency, in Greece, are described. Based on the analysis of stock requirement, item stock prices and demand, it is concluded that a significant percentage of the stocked drugs can be procured using the Kanban System. Significant cost savings and operational advantages following the Kanban System will take place. The challenging endeavor is the analysis, design and application of a system that supports the proposed procurement method. Hospital pharmacies in Greece and in other countries that face an economic crisis may largely benefit after using the Kanban System.
Metzger, Nicole; Paciullo, Christopher; Chesson, Melissa; Jann, Michael W; Glascock, Janice; Emamifar, Amir; Matthews, Hewitt W
Advanced experiential education represents the culmination of a pharmacy student's training, where students can apply the knowledge they have learned in the classroom to real patients. Unfortunately, opportunities for students to provide the direct patient care recommended by pharmacy organizations and accrediting bodies are lacking. Additionally, academic health systems that can provide these experiences for students are experiencing hardships that have stalled the expansion of postgraduate training programs and services. Formal cooperation between unaffiliated colleges of pharmacies and academic health systems has the potential to increase the number of experiential students completing rotations in an academic environment, expand postgraduate education training programs, enhance the development of resident educators, increase research and scholarly opportunities, and expand clinical pharmacy services. This article describes the formation of a unique joint initiative between a private academic health system without a college of pharmacy and a private college of pharmacy without a hospital. The successful cultivation of the relationship has resulted in professional growth at both institutions and can be implemented at other sites around the country to synergize the efforts of academic health systems and colleges of pharmacy.
Metzger, Nicole; Chesson, Melissa; Jann, Michael W.; Glascock, Janice; Emamifar, Amir; Matthews, Hewitt W.
Abstract Advanced experiential education represents the culmination of a pharmacy student’s training, where students can apply the knowledge they have learned in the classroom to real patients. Unfortunately, opportunities for students to provide the direct patient care recommended by pharmacy organizations and accrediting bodies are lacking. Additionally, academic health systems that can provide these experiences for students are experiencing hardships that have stalled the expansion of postgraduate training programs and services. Formal cooperation between unaffiliated colleges of pharmacies and academic health systems has the potential to increase the number of experiential students completing rotations in an academic environment, expand postgraduate education training programs, enhance the development of resident educators, increase research and scholarly opportunities, and expand clinical pharmacy services. This article describes the formation of a unique joint initiative between a private academic health system without a college of pharmacy and a private college of pharmacy without a hospital. The successful cultivation of the relationship has resulted in professional growth at both institutions and can be implemented at other sites around the country to synergize the efforts of academic health systems and colleges of pharmacy. PMID:25477582
... Enforcement Administration S & S Pharmacy, Inc., d/b/a Platinum Pharmacy & Compounding; Decision and Order On... Cause and Immediate Suspension of Registration to S & S Pharmacy, Inc., d/b/a Platinum Pharmacy... revocation of Registrant's Certificate of Registration as a retail pharmacy, which before it...
ADAMS, KATHERINE T.
Consolidation of the specialty pharmacy business indicates a repositioning to buy new market channels, reduce costs, and compete in a burgeoning market. The challenge for SP is to prove its value to payers. Some companies are doing that on the basis of price or by offering care management services. Here’s a look at a business in transition as it redefines itself for the biologics era. PMID:23424307
Arkaravichien, Wiwat; Wongpratat, Apichaya; Lertsinudom, Sunee
Background Quality indicators determine the quality of actual practice in reference to standard criteria. The Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand), with technical support from the International Pharmaceutical Federation, developed a tool for quality assessment and quality improvement at community pharmacies. This tool has passed validity and reliability tests, but has not yet had feasibility testing. Objective (1) To test whether this quality tool could be used in routine settings. (2) To compare quality scores between accredited independent and accredited chain pharmacies. Setting Accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in the north eastern region of Thailand. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies. Quality scores were assessed by observation and by interviewing the responsible pharmacists. Data were collected and analyzed by independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate. Results were plotted by histogram and spider chart. Main outcome measure Domain's assessable scores, possible maximum scores, mean and median of measured scores. Results Domain's assessable scores were close to domain's possible maximum scores. This meant that most indicators could be assessed in most pharmacies. The spider chart revealed that measured scores in the personnel, drug inventory and stocking, and patient satisfaction and health promotion domains of chain pharmacies were significantly higher than those of independent pharmacies (p < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between independent pharmacies and chain pharmacies in the premise and facility or dispensing and patient care domains. Conclusion Quality indicators developed by the Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand) could be used to assess quality of practice in pharmacies in routine settings. It is revealed that the quality scores of chain pharmacies were higher than those of independent pharmacies.
Lasiter, Sue; Marchiondo, Lisa; Marchiondo, Kathleen
Academic incivility remains a problem on college campuses. Nursing research has refocused from student impropriety to aberrant faculty behaviors. Our original study using the Nursing Education Environment Survey showed that 133 of 152 student participants experienced uncivil treatment. Latent, inductive content analysis was undertaken to analyze narratives about their "worst experience" of negative faculty behavior. Four categories were identified: "In front of someone," "Talked to others about me," "Made me feel stupid," and "I felt belittled." Incivility had a profound effect on students and is problematic because it increases already significant academic pressure; it interferes with learning and safe clinical performance; it is contrary to caring, a central nursing concept; and it decreases program satisfaction and retention. Few nursing schools have civility policies for faculty behavior. Formal procedures that promote professional interaction should be crafted and implemented. Equally important is creating ways for nursing students to document incivility without fear of retaliation.
Summerfield, M R; Gurwitch, K D; Scholz, R L; Bagby, L M
The process of planning and establishing a pharmacy department in a pediatric hospital is described, and lessons learned from the experience are summarized. Since its founding in 1954, Texas Children's Hospital (TCH) had shared pharmacy services with St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital. The decision to terminate the shared-services agreement in the mid-1980s made it necessary for TCH to establish an independent pharmacy department. A director of pharmacy was hired in March 1988, and November 30 of that year was set as the target for implementation of the TCH pharmacy. It was decided that six services--a decentralized unit dose distribution system, an i.v. admixture service, delivery services, ambulatory-care services, a formulatory system, and a drug information service--would be offered initially. Decisions concerning department organizational structure and staffing, space allocations, and a computer system were made. A multidisciplinary advisory committee was appointed; one of its responsibilities was to oversee inservice staff training. The pharmacy areas were to be opened on a staggered basis, beginning with the hematology-oncology clinic pharmacy. A number of problems arose immediately following the opening of the central pharmacy, including inaccurate computer profiles, lower-than-estimated productivity resulting from staff members' unfamiliarity with the new system, higher-than-estimated patient census, and orders for nonformulary drugs. Delays in drug delivery times were unacceptably high. A crisis-management plan was implemented to cover both short- and long-term problems, and within a few months operations had stabilized. The opening of the intensive-care and sixth-floor satellite pharmacies enhanced decentralized operations and had an important role in improving response times.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Schorr, S G; Eickhoff, C; Feldt, S; Hohmann, C; Schulz, M
Clinical pharmacists play an important role in improving drug safety on hospital wards. However, little is known about the impact of pharmacy interns. The objective of our study was, therefore, to investigate the impact of hospital ward-based pharmacy interns on drug safety. This study was conducted as part of the project "P-STAT 2: Pharmacy interns on the ward" on 14 surgical wards in seven hospitals in Germany and a total of 27 pharmacy interns participated. All patients admitted to the participating wards from 1st June 2008 until 31st October 2008 and from 1st December 2008 till 30th April 2009 were included. The pharmacy interns were involved in medication reconciliation, and identifying, resolving, and preventing drug-related problems (DRPs) using the classification system APS-Doc. A total of 6,551 patients were included. Patients received on average (+/- SD) 4.4 +/- 3.9 drugs. The pharmacy interns detected a total of 4,085 DRPs and on average 0.6 +/- 1.2 DRPs per patient. Most frequently detected DRPs were potential drug-drug interactions (n = 591, 14%), missing drug strength, when different strengths were available (n = 373, 9%), and incomplete medication record (n = 296, 7%). The pharmacy interns conducted an intervention for 98% (n = 4,011) of all DRPs. According to their documentation, 74% of the DRPs (n = 3,038) were solved. Drugs which were most often related with DRPs were simvastatin, diclofenac, and ibuprofen. This is the very first study exploring the potential impact of pharmacy interns on drug safety on surgical wards in Europe. Pharmacy interns can play an important role to improve drug safety on hospital wards.
Habel, Melissa A.; Scheinmann, Roberta; Verdesoto, Elizabeth; Gaydos, Charlotte; Bertisch, Maggie; Chiasson, Mary Ann
Background This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of pharmacy and home-based sexually transmissible infection (STI) screening as alternate testing venues among emergency contraception (EC) users. Methods The study included two phases in February 2011–July 2012. In Phase I, customers purchasing EC from eight pharmacies in Manhattan received vouchers for free STI testing at onsite medical clinics. In Phase II, three Facebook ads targeted EC users to connect them with free home-based STI test kits ordered online. Participants completed a self-administered survey. Results Only 38 participants enrolled in Phase I: 90% female, ≤29 years (74%), 45% White non-Hispanic and 75% college graduates; 71% were not tested for STIs in the past year and 68% reported a new partner in the past 3 months. None tested positive for STIs. In Phase II, ads led to >45 000 click-throughs, 382 completed the survey and 290 requested kits; 28% were returned. Phase II participants were younger and less educated than Phase I participants; six tested positive for STIs. Challenges included recruitment, pharmacy staff participation, advertising with discretion and cost. Conclusions This study found low uptake of pharmacy and home-based testing among EC users; however, STI testing in these settings is feasible and the acceptability findings indicate an appeal among younger women for testing in non-traditional settings. Collaborating with and training pharmacy and medical staff are key elements of service provision. Future research should explore how different permutations of expanding screening in non-traditional settings could improve testing uptake and detect additional STI cases. PMID:26409484
Emmett, Dennis; Paul, David P; Chandra, Ashish; Barrett, Hilton
The physical layout of a retail pharmacy can play a significant role in the development of the customers' perceptions which can have a positive (or negative) impact on its sales potential. Compared to most general merchandise stores, pharmacies are more concerned about safety and security issues due to the nature of their products. This paper will discuss these aspects as well as the physical and professional environments of retail pharmacies that influence the perceptions of customers and how these vary whether chain, independent, or hospital pharmacies.
Zirakparvar, N. A.; Sessa, J.; Ustunisik, G. K.; Nadeau, P. A.; Flores, K. E.; Ebel, D. S.
It is estimated that by the year 2020 relative to 2009, there will be 28% more Earth Science jobs paying ≥ $75,000/year1 in the U.S.A. These jobs will require advanced degrees, but compared to all arts and science advanced degrees, the number of physical science M.S. and Ph.D. awarded per year decreased from 2.5% in 1980 to 1.5% in 20092. This decline is reflected on a smaller scale and at a younger age: in the New York City school system only 36% of all 8th graders have basic proficiency in science 3. These figures indicate that the lack achievement in science starts at a young age and then extends into higher education. Research has shown that students in grades 7 - 12 4,5 and in university level courses 6 both respond positively to high quality science teaching. However, much attention is focused on improving science teaching in grades 7- 12, whereas at many universities lower level science courses are taught by junior research and contingent faculty who typically lack formal training, and sometimes interest, in effective teaching. The danger here is that students might enter university intending to pursue geoscience degrees, but then encounter ineffective instructors, causing them to lose interest in geoscience and thus pursue other disciplines. The crux of the matter becomes how to improve the quality of university-level geoscience teaching, without losing sight of the major benchmark of success for research faculty - scholarly publications reporting innovative research results. In most cases, it would not be feasible to sidetrack the research goals of early career scientists by placing them into a formal teacher preparation program. But what happens when postdoctoral research scientists take an active role in clinical teacher preparation as part of their research appointments? The American Museum of Natural History's Masters of Arts in Teaching (AMNH-MAT) urban residency pilot program utilizes a unique approach to grade 7 - 12 Earth Science teacher
Martin, Lindsay C; Donohoe, Krista L; Holdford, David A
Domain 3 of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) 2013 Educational Outcomes recommends that pharmacy school curricula prepare students to be better problem solvers, but are silent on the type of problems they should be prepared to solve. We identified five basic approaches to problem solving in the curriculum at a pharmacy school: clinical, ethical, managerial, economic, and legal. These approaches were compared to determine a generic process that could be applied to all pharmacy decisions. Although there were similarities in the approaches, generic problem solving processes may not work for all problems. Successful problem solving requires identification of the problems faced and application of the right approach to the situation. We also advocate that the CAPE Outcomes make explicit the importance of different approaches to problem solving. Future pharmacists will need multiple approaches to problem solving to adapt to the complexity of health care.
Richardson, Alan; Curtis, Anthony D M; Moss, Gary P; Pearson, Russell J; White, Simon; Rutten, Frank J M; Perumal, Dhaya; Maddock, Katie
OBJECTIVE. To implement and assess a task-based learning exercise that prompts pharmacy students to integrate their understanding of different disciplines. DESIGN. Master of pharmacy (MPharm degree) students were provided with simulated information from several preclinical science and from clinical trials and asked to synthesize this into a marketing authorization application for a new drug. Students made a link to pharmacy practice by creating an advice leaflet for pharmacists. ASSESSMENT. Students' ability to integrate information from different disciplines was evaluated by oral examination. In 2 successive academic years, 96% and 82% of students demonstrated an integrated understanding of their proposed new drug. Students indicated in a survey that their understanding of the links between different subjects improved. CONCLUSION. Simulated drug discovery provides a learning environment that emphasizes the connectivity of the preclinical sciences with each other and the practice of pharmacy.
Cotter, S M; McKee, M; Strong, P M
An interview survey of 129 UK National Health Service doctors, nurses, pharmacists and managers at eight acute care hospitals was conducted in 1994. The survey examined several topics including whether the introduction of the internal market had affected hospital pharmacy services and what those effects had been. An internal market has been introduced and it has had significant effects on the nature and structure of hospital pharmacy services. Directorate pharmacy services were available at six sites. Contracts for specific, usually novel, services had been implemented at one site and contracts had been introduced widely at another hospital. However, all the features of a market were not present at any site. Market orientation also has implications for the equity of service provision, primarily because decision-making regarding service provision is increasingly in the hands of the clinical directors, rather than pharmacy managers. The effects of this change are not yet clear.
Hohmann, Carina; Eickhoff, Christiane; Kaemmerer, Wolfgang; Schulz, Martin
Despite the existence of antithrombotic guidelines, there is low compliance with these guidelines in clinical practice. Until now pharmacy interns (PIs) have not been involved in this process. The objectives were to involve PIs to evaluate compliance with antithrombotic guidelines for VTE prophylaxis in surgery patients, and in cases of noncompliance to carry out pharmaceutical interventions. The study was conducted in 7 hospitals in Germany involving 27 PIs within the project "Pharmacy interns on the ward" (P-STAT 2). Pharmacy interns determined the thromboembolic risk, documented antithrombotic medication, and checked the compliance with current antithrombotic guidelines. A total of 6491 patients were enrolled; 5695 patients received antithrombotic prophylaxis. Antithrombotic guideline was followed in 77.5% patients. Many patients are not receiving appropriate VTE prophylaxis or heparin bridging regimen despite the fact that evidence-based antithrombotic guidelines are available. Pharmacy interns may play an important role in antithrombotic management.
Martin, Lindsay C.; Holdford, David A.
Domain 3 of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) 2013 Educational Outcomes recommends that pharmacy school curricula prepare students to be better problem solvers, but are silent on the type of problems they should be prepared to solve. We identified five basic approaches to problem solving in the curriculum at a pharmacy school: clinical, ethical, managerial, economic, and legal. These approaches were compared to determine a generic process that could be applied to all pharmacy decisions. Although there were similarities in the approaches, generic problem solving processes may not work for all problems. Successful problem solving requires identification of the problems faced and application of the right approach to the situation. We also advocate that the CAPE Outcomes make explicit the importance of different approaches to problem solving. Future pharmacists will need multiple approaches to problem solving to adapt to the complexity of health care. PMID:27170823
I introduce the current pharmaceutical education system in Japan, focusing on regulatory science. University schools or faculties of pharmaceutical science in Japan offer two courses: a six-year course for pharmacists and a four-year course for scientists and technicians. Students in the six-year pharmaceutical course receive training in hospitals and pharmacies during their fifth year, and those in the four-year life science course start research activities during their third year. The current model core curriculum for pharmaceutical education requires them to "explain the necessity and significance of regulatory science" as a specific behavior object. This means that pharmacists should understand the significance of "regulatory science", which will lead to the proper use of pharmaceuticals in clinical practice. Most regulatory science laboratories are in the university schools or faculties of pharmaceutical sciences; however, there are too few to conduct regulatory science education. There are many problems in regulatory science education, and I hope that those problems will be resolved not only by university-based regulatory science researchers but also by those from the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory authorities.
Fox, Brent I.; Flynn, Allen J.; Fortier, Christopher R.; Clauson, Kevin A.
Pharmacy has an established history of technology use to support business processes. Pharmacy informatics education within doctor of pharmacy programs, however, is inconsistent, despite its inclusion as a requirement in the 2007 Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards and Guidelines. This manuscript describes pharmacy informatics knowledge and skills that all graduating pharmacy students should possess, conceptualized within the framework of the medication use process. Additionally, we suggest core source materials and specific learning activities to support pharmacy informatics education. We conclude with a brief discussion of emerging changes in the practice model. These changes are facilitated by pharmacy informatics and will inevitably become commonplace in our graduates’ practice environment. PMID:21829267
Bhatt, Parloop Amit; Patel, Zarana
Objective: Publications in Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP) are the face of contemporary pharmacology practices followed in health-care profession - a knowledge-based profession. It depicts trends in terms of quantity (proportions), quality, type (preclinical/clinical), thrust areas, etc., of pharmacology followed by biomedical community professions both nationally and internationally. This article aims to establish temporal trends in pharmacology research by pharmacy institutes in light of its publications to IJP from 2010 to 2015. Methodology: The website of IJP was searched for publications year and issue wise for contributing authors from pharmacy institutions and analyzed for types of publications, their source and the categories of research documented in these publications. Results: A total of 1034 articles were published, of which 189 (18%) articles were published by pharmacy institutes, of which 90% (n = 170) were contributed from pharmacy institutes within India whereas 10% (n = 19) from international pharmacy institutes. 75% of these were research publication, the majority of which (65%) were related to preclinical screening of phytochemical constituents from plants. Conclusion: With multi and interdisciplinary collaborations in pharmacy profession the trend needs to improve toward molecular and cellular pharmacology and clinical studies. PMID:28031614
Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Izet
Pharmacy practice is an ever-changing science and profession. We are witnessing many advancement of pharmacy technology, drug-related information and applied clinical pharmacy literature, which influence our every day's life. Thus, new knowledge generated by research and clinical experience widen the knowledge; change the understanding of drugs and their application in therapeutics and every days life. Thus, policy makers, pharmacists, clinicians and researchers must evaluate and use the information existing in the literature to implement in their healthcare delivery. This paper is prepared for pharmacy researchers and pharmacy students and analyzes the major principles of ethical conduct in general science and also closely related topics on ghost authorship, conflict of interest, assigning co-authorship, redundant/repetitive and duplicate publication. Furthermore, the paper provides an insight into fabrication and falsification of data, as the most common form of scientific fraud. Scientific misconduct goes against everything that normal scientific method wants to reach for and pharmacy practitioners as one the first line available health care professionals all round the world should be enough aware of its importance and details when they want to evaluate the medical and pharmaceutical literature and deliver unbiased and ethically published knowledge of drugs both for the research or during consultations for patients care. PMID:25535618
Nunes-da-Cunha, Ines; Arguello, Blanca; Martinez, Fernando Martinez; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando
Objective. To compare United States and European Higher Education Area (EHEA) undergraduate pharmacy curricula in terms of patient-centered care courses. Methods. Websites from all pharmacy colleges or schools in the United States and the 41 countries in the EHEA were retrieved from the FIP Official World List of Pharmacy Schools and investigated. A random sample of schools was selected and, based on analyses of course descriptions from syllabi, each course was classified into the following categories: social/behavioral/administrative pharmacy sciences, clinical sciences, experiential, or other/basic sciences. Results. Of 147 schools of pharmacy, 59 were included (23 in US and 36 in the EHEA). Differences existed in the percentages of credits/hours in all of the four subject area categories. Conclusion. Institutions in EHEA countries maintain a greater focus on basic sciences and a lower load of clinical sciences in pharmacy curricula compared to the United States. These differences may not be in accordance with international recommendations to educate future pharmacists focused on patient care.
Thawabieh, Ahmad M.
This study aimed to investigate how students evaluate their faculty and the effect of gender, expected grade, and college on students' evaluation. The study sample consisted of 5291 students from Tafila Technical University Faculty evaluation scale was used to collect data. The results indicated that student evaluation of faculty was high (mean =…
Clery, Suzanne B.
This study relates information regarding the role part-time faculty members fill in colleges and universities. Data are from the U.S. Department of Education's National Survey of Postsecondary Faculty, 1999. In that year, 2 of every 5 faculty members taught on a part-time basis, and they taught nearly 40% of all classes and students that were…
Lippi, Giuseppe; Siest, Gérard; Plebani, Mario
Laboratory diagnostics has undergone relevant changes in organization and complexity, providing new opportunities and risks. Many laboratory tests are now available on compact, easy to operate and reliable instruments, making it possible for facilities other than the traditional clinical laboratories (e.g., pharmacies) to conduct on-site or mobile testing. Ideally, although there is nothing wrong with a rational decentralization, on-site laboratory testing must still be considered a knowledge service, and a core set of competency-quality-consultancy prerequisites should be fulfilled to ensure that results of tests performed outside the clinical laboratories can reach the highest degree of efficiency and clinical efficacy. Pharmacies were historically involved in clinical chemistry. At the European level, the existing pharmacy syllabus gives to students and postgraduates the physiopathological knowledge a good basis for such an evolution.
Mutchie, Kelly D.; And Others
A pharmacy practice program added to the core baccalaureate curriculum at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy which includes a practice in pediatrics is described. An audiovisual program in pediatric diseases and drug therapy was developed. This program allows the presentation of more material without reducing clerkship time. (Author/MLW)
Curtiss, Frederic R.; Shepherd, Marvin B.
A study of 1290 students in four New England colleges of pharmacy has demonstrated that the preferred practice (or nonpractice) setting of students is influenced by the college of pharmacy attended, year in school, grade point average, sex, and the nature and extent of internship and externship experience. (Author)
The first component of this three-part package is a student manual designed to be used independently in secondary health occupations programs or on-the-job training programs for pharmacy aides. The manual contains six units that cover the following topics: introduction to pharmacy, communication skills, pharmaceuticals, prescription processing,…
Kumpf, Vanessa J.; Rollins, Carol J.; Frankel, Eric H.; Kraft, Michael D.; Canada, Todd W.; Crill, Catherine M.
Abstract Purpose: To assist the pharmacy clinician engaged in nutrition support in staying current with the most pertinent literature. Methods: Several experienced board-certified clinical pharmacists in nutrition support compiled a list of publications published in 2013 that they considered to be important to their practice. The citation list was compiled into a Web-based survey whereby pharmacist members of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.), GI-Liver-Nutrition Practice Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy, and the Pharmacy and Pharmacology Section of the Society of Critical Care Medicine were asked to rank each article according to level of importance in their practice. Results: A total of 30 articles were identified by the author group. Thirty-six participants responded to the survey. The top-ranked papers by participants from the Web-based survey were reviewed by the authors. Due to its high level of importance, the parenteral nutrition safety consensus recommendations article, to be published in 2014 by A.S.P.E.N., was also reviewed. Conclusion: It is recommended that the informed pharmacist, who is engaged in nutrition support therapy, be familiar with the majority of these publications. PMID:25477597
Ling, Tristan; Bereznicki, Luke; Westbury, Juanita; Chalmers, Leanne; Peterson, Gregory; Ollington, Robert
Objective. To provide a computer-based learning method for pharmacy practice that is as effective as paper-based scenarios, but more engaging and less labor-intensive. Design. We developed a flexible and customizable computer simulation of community pharmacy. Using it, the students would be able to work through scenarios which encapsulate the entirety of a patient presentation. We compared the traditional paper-based teaching method to our computer-based approach using equivalent scenarios. The paper-based group had 2 tutors while the computer group had none. Both groups were given a prescenario and postscenario clinical knowledge quiz and survey. Assessment. Students in the computer-based group had generally greater improvements in their clinical knowledge score, and third-year students using the computer-based method also showed more improvements in history taking and counseling competencies. Third-year students also found the simulation fun and engaging. Conclusion. Our simulation of community pharmacy provided an educational experience as effective as the paper-based alternative, despite the lack of a human tutor. PMID:26056406
Roederer, Mary W; Kuo, Grace M; Kisor, David F; Frye, Reginald F; Hoffman, James M; Jenkins, Jean; Weitzel, Kristin Wiisanen
The emerging use of genomic data to inform medication therapy populates the medical literature and provides evidence for guidelines in the prescribing information for many medications. Despite the availability of pharmacogenomic studies, few pharmacists feel competent to use these new data in patient care. The first pharmacogenomics competency statement for pharmacists was published in 2002. In 2011, the Pharmacogenomics Special Interest Group of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy led a process to update this competency statement with the use of a consensus-based method that incorporated input from multiple key professional pharmacy organizations to reflect growth in genomic science as well as the need for pharmacist application of genomic data. Given the rapidly evolving science, educational needs, and practice models in this area, a standardized competency-based approach to pharmacist education and training in pharmacogenomics is needed to equip pharmacists for leadership roles as essential members of health care teams that implement clinical utilization strategies for genomic data.
Hertig, John B.; Weber, Robert J.
Practice advancement demands innovation. Amidst professional change, pharmacy leaders have the opportunity to collaborate with colleagues to develop transformational ideas, implement these solutions, and share those successes with professionals around the state, country, and world. Scholarship, defined as contributing to the literature through publications, presentations, and other writings, is an ideal way to advance innovation within the profession. It is critical for pharmacy leaders to build scholarship into their professional workflow. Ensuring that successful projects are published or presented may translate into shared best practices. Many pharmacy leaders may find it difficult to participate in scholarship activities because of their busy schedules. This column serves to outline recommendations on how to effectively incorporate writing for publications, making presentations, and other scholarly work into the role of pharmacy leaders and managers. To reduce the barriers to scholarship, pharmacy leaders role can apply project management principles to their work and identify projects that otherwise would not be published and support their development. PMID:26823623
Using econometric evidence, this article confirms that distribution of medicines online is split into two market segments of very diverse quality, and identifies the factors that drive quality and quality assurance in this activity. Unlike fraudulent, 'rogue,' websites, which offer scant guarantees and usually sell just a few medicines without prescription, online pharmacies offering insurance coverage and linked to conventional pharmacies typically sell a whole range of drugs, require third-party medical prescriptions and provide abundant information to patients. It is shown that, where online pharmacies are allowed to act legally, market forces enhance quality, as private insurers require professional standards, and specialized third parties make a business of certifying them. Furthermore, older online pharmacies and those running conventional operations offer higher quality, probably because of reputational investments. Overall, this evidence supports licensing online pharmacies, especially considering that prohibiting them is ineffective against fraudulent sites.
After difficult beginnings as a farm boy in Brittany, and then as a dish-washer at a chemist's in Paris, Pierre Famel (1855-1934) obtained his grammar certificate in 1879 and then his 2nd class chemist diploma from the Ecole de pharmacie de Paris in 1885. He was employed by the Laboratoire municipal de la Ville de Paris as an expert chemist. In 1886 he set himself up in a pharmacy at 86, rue de la Réunion, in Paris, known as the Pharmacie Famel. In 1912 he created the Laboratoires Famel for the manufacture of pharmaceutical products with sales representation in several European, North and South American as well as Canadian cities. He marketed among other things Famel Syrup, Famel suppositories, Langlebert glycophosphated wine, Sulfogène Famel and Optraex. The Famel firm obtained several awards at Exhibitions in France and elsewhere. On the death of Pierre Famel, the dispensary was sold, while his daughter and his granddaughter formed a partnership to manage the Laboratories. They still exist today as a finance company, the main activity of which is the management of its heritage. Pierre Famel was a foreign trade adviser, a vice-president of the Franco-Czechoslovakian and Franco-Iranian Chambers of Commerce. He created a prize for commercial attachés, as well as annual fellowships for students from foreign medical faculties. He was a sponsor of several youth clubs and charitable organizations, as well as a member of several Breton associations. He was the President of the Society of the Friends of the Pharmacology Faculty in Paris as well as the founder of the Museum devoted to Henri Moissan, the first French winner of the Nobel Price in Chemistry, who was for him a guide and a teacher in his early life and studies. He was a Commander of the Legion of Honour (1925) and was awarded the Gold Medal of foreign trade (1933). Also briefly mentioned are his wife, Marie Famel, an enamel painter, his daughter Yvonne Famel, and his son-in-law, Sylvain Rosengart, with whom
Askin, Fergal; Hall, Maurice
Objective. To investigate what factors influenced students to study pharmacy and determine in which sector they hoped to gain employment, both in the short and longer term. Methods. First-year pharmacy students (n=124) were invited to complete a paper-based, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 4 sections. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests were conducted. Results. One hundred (96.8% response rate) students completed the questionnaire (22.5% male; 77.5% female). Key influential factors for choosing pharmacy included: enjoyment of science at school, a desire to improve people’s health and wellbeing, and to work in health care. Career aspirations were to work in a hospital or in community practice rather than in industry or academia. Conclusions. Students choose pharmacy as a career primarily for altruistic and clinical reasons. This research provides information for pharmacy schools about the career aspirations of students and data from future pharmacists is potentially helpful to pharmacy professional organizations and potential employers. PMID:28090099
Miller, Rosalind; Goodman, Catherine
In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in Asia, pharmacies are often patients’ first point of contact with the health care system and their preferred channel for purchasing medicines. Unfortunately, pharmacy practice in these settings has been characterized by deficient knowledge and inappropriate treatment. This paper systematically reviews both the performance of all types of pharmacies and drug stores across Asia’s LMIC, and the determinants of poor practice, in order to reflect on how this could best be addressed. Poor pharmacy practice in Asia appears to have persisted over the past 30 years. We identify a set of inadequacies that occur at key moments throughout the pharmacy encounter, including: insufficient history taking; lack of referral of patients who require medical attention; illegal sale of a wide range of prescription only medicines without a prescription; sale of medicines that are either clinically inappropriate and/or in doses that are outside of the therapeutic range; sale of incomplete courses of antibiotics; and limited provision of information and counselling. In terms of determinants of poor practice, first knowledge was found to be necessary but not sufficient to ensure correct management of patients presenting at the pharmacy. This is evidenced by large discrepancies between stated and actual practice; little difference in the treatment behaviour of less and more qualified personnel and the failure of training programmes to improve practice to a satisfactory level. Second, we identified a number of profit maximizing strategies employed by pharmacy staff that can be linked to poor practices. Finally, whilst the research is relatively sparse, the regulatory environment appears to play an important role in shaping behaviour. Future efforts to improve the situation may yield more success than historical attempts, which have tended to concentrate on education, if they address the profit incentives faced by pharmacy personnel and the
In distant 1972, within framework of the Internal Clinic, a cardiologic department was organized which was soon, on 29.XII.1974, transformed into the Cardiology Clinic, later the Institute for Heart Diseases, and in 2008 was renamed the University Cardiology Clinic. The greater part of its foundation was possible owing to Prof. Dimitar Arsov and Prof. Radovan Percinkovski, who was the clinic's first director in the period from 1974 to 1984. In 1985, the Clinic moved into its own new building, and in that way was physically detached from the Internal Clinics. Until its move to the new building, the Clinic functioned in the Internal Clinics building, organized as an outpatient polyclinic and inpatient infirmary department with clinical beds, a coronary intensive care unit and a haemodynamics laboratory equipped with the most modern equipment of that time. Today the Clinic functions through two integral divisions: an inpatient infirmary department which comprises an intensive coronary care unit and fourteen wards which altogether have 139 clinical beds, and the diagnostic centre which comprises an emergency clinic and day hospital, a communal and consultative outpatients' clinic functioning on a daily basis, through which some 300-350 patients pass every day, and diagnostic laboratories with a capacity of nearly 100 non-invasive and 20-30 invasive diagnostic procedures daily. The Clinic is a teaching base, and its doctors are educators of students at the Medical, Dental and Pharmacy Faculties, and also of students at the High School for Nurses and X-ray technicians, but also for those in Internal Medicine and especially Cardiology. The Clinic is also a base for scientific Masters' and post-doctoral studies, and such higher degrees are achieved not only by doctors who work here, but also by doctors from Medical Centres both in the country and abroad. Doctors working in this institution publish widely, not only a great number of books and monographs, but also original
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration under § 1301.13 may request that the Administrator modify its registration to authorize the pharmacy...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration under § 1301.13 may request that the Administrator modify its registration to authorize the pharmacy...
Blake, Martin I.
Visits to colleges of pharmacy and to community and hospital pharmacies revealed that: pharmacy graduates seek employment in the pharmaceutical industry; pharmacy dispensers are PharmD graduates; physicians are the major drug dispensers to patients; little distinction is made between prescription and over-the-counter drugs; and drug laws are…
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notification by online pharmacies. 1304.40 Section... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.40 Notification by online pharmacies. (a) Thirty days prior to offering a... pharmacy shall: (1) Notify the Administrator of its intent to do so by submitting an application for...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification by online pharmacies. 1304.40 Section... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.40 Notification by online pharmacies. (a) Thirty days prior to offering a... pharmacy shall: (1) Notify the Administrator of its intent to do so by submitting an application for...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration under § 1301.13 may request that the Administrator modify its registration to authorize the pharmacy...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pharmacy application requirements. 1311.205... ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.205 Pharmacy application requirements. (a) The pharmacy may only use a pharmacy application that meets the requirements in paragraph (b) of...
Flaherty, Anne Guerin
This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pharmacy application requirements. 1311.205... ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.205 Pharmacy application requirements. (a) The pharmacy may only use a pharmacy application that meets the requirements in paragraph...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration under § 1301.13 may request that the Administrator modify its registration to authorize the pharmacy...
Norris, Pauline; Horsburgh, Simon; Sides, Gerald; Ram, Sanya; Fraser, John
Geographic access to community pharmacies is an important aspect of access to appropriate medicines. This study aimed to explore changes in the number and location of pharmacies in New Zealand and determine whether some populations have poor geographical access to pharmacies. Pharmacy numbers in New Zealand have been declining since the mid-1980s, and, adjusted for population growth, there are now only half the number there was in 1965. While the urbanisation of pharmacies has been matched by loss of population in rural areas, the loss of pharmacies from smaller rural towns leaves many people with poor access to pharmacy services.
Spangler, Mikayla; Klug, Laura; Tilleman, Jennifer; Coover, Kelli
Objective. To investigate whether instruction and feedback on reflective responses are beneficial in developing pharmacy students to become more reflective practitioners. Methods. Students on an advanced pharmacy practice experience answered weekly reflection questions and were randomly assigned to either an intervention (received instruction and feedback on reflection) or control group. The final week’s responses were de-identified and two blinded faculty members independently categorized them as reflective or nonreflective. The primary outcome measure was comparing the number of “reflective” responses in each group. Results. The responses were classified as reflective in 83.3% of students in the intervention group (n=18) compared to 37.5% of the control group (n=16). The odds that the response was categorized as reflective were 8.3 times higher in the intervention group. Conclusion. Providing instruction and feedback to students improved the likelihood that their work was reflective. PMID:27402984
Leal, Raymond R.
Mediation programs in higher education devoted to resolution of faculty conflicts are discussed. The nature of the faculty enterprise and faculty peer conflicts is examined, and three universities' efforts to incorporate faculty-to-faculty conflict resolution systems on campus are described. The organizational culture of each institution defined…
Patterson, Brandon J.; Sen, Sanchita; Bingham, Angela L.; Bowen, Jane F.; Ereshefsky, Benjamin; Siemianowski, Laura A.
Objective. To identify the temporal effect and factors associated with student pharmacist self-initiation of interventions during acute patient care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE). Methods. During the APPE, student pharmacists at an academic medical center recorded their therapeutic interventions and who initiated the intervention throughout clinical rotations. At the end of the APPE student pharmacists completed a demographic survey. Results. Sixty-two student pharmacists were included. Factors associated with lower rates of self-initiated interventions were infectious diseases and pediatrics APPEs and an intention to pursue a postgraduate residency. Timing of the APPE, previous specialty elective course completion, and previous hospital experience did not result in any significant difference in self-initiated recommendations. Conclusion. Preceptors should not base practice experience expectations for self-initiated interventions on previous student experience or future intentions. Additionally, factors leading to lower rates of self-initiated interventions on infectious diseases or pediatrics APPEs should be explored. PMID:27756924
Bio, Laura L; Patterson, Brandon J; Sen, Sanchita; Bingham, Angela L; Bowen, Jane F; Ereshefsky, Benjamin; Siemianowski, Laura A
Objective. To identify the temporal effect and factors associated with student pharmacist self-initiation of interventions during acute patient care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE). Methods. During the APPE, student pharmacists at an academic medical center recorded their therapeutic interventions and who initiated the intervention throughout clinical rotations. At the end of the APPE student pharmacists completed a demographic survey. Results. Sixty-two student pharmacists were included. Factors associated with lower rates of self-initiated interventions were infectious diseases and pediatrics APPEs and an intention to pursue a postgraduate residency. Timing of the APPE, previous specialty elective course completion, and previous hospital experience did not result in any significant difference in self-initiated recommendations. Conclusion. Preceptors should not base practice experience expectations for self-initiated interventions on previous student experience or future intentions. Additionally, factors leading to lower rates of self-initiated interventions on infectious diseases or pediatrics APPEs should be explored.
Blair, Jan N.; Lipman, Arthur G.
A combined program leading to the MS in Hospital Pharmacy, MBA, and Certificate of Residency in Hospital Pharmacy established at the University of Utah in 1978 is described. The program provides coursework in both hospital pharmacy and management plus practical experience in hospital pharmacy practice management. (Author/MLW)
and friends; I am truly blessed to have them all in my life . 71 Pharmacy Satisfaction 3 F7 Abstract F The primary objective of this study was to...the purpose of this project satisfaction was focused on patient’s expectations, and their perspective. Doucette (2003) would agree as well , stating...Tricare Extra 7 0.5 Tricare for Life 167 11.1 Tricare Plus 9 0.6 Medicare 154 10.3 Other 57 3.8 n = 1500 Pharmacy Satisfaction 31 1] Table 7. Pharmacy
Pezzuto, John M; Ma, Carolyn SJ; Ma, Carolyn
In partnership with the Hawai‘i Journal of Medicine & Public Health, the Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) is pleased to provide Scripts on a regular basis. In the inaugural “Script,” a brief history of the profession in Hawai‘i was presented up to the founding of the DKICP, Hawai‘i's only academic pharmacy program. In this second part of the inaugural article, we describe some key accomplishments to date. The mission of the College is to educate pharmacy practitioners and leaders to serve as a catalyst for innovations and discoveries in pharmaceutical sciences and practice for promoting health and well-being, and to provide community service, including quality patient care. Examples are given to support the stated goals of the mission. With 341 graduates to date, and a 96% pass rate on the national licensing board exams, the college has played a significant role in improving healthcare in Hawai‘i and throughout the Pacific Region. Additionally, a PhD program with substantial research programs in both pharmacy practice and the pharmaceutical science has been launched. Considerable extramural funding has been garnered from organizations such as the National Institutes of Health and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The economic impact of the College is estimated to be over $50 million each year. With over 200 signed clinical affiliation agreements within the state as well as nationally and internationally, the DKICP has helped to ameliorate the shortage of pharmacists in the state, and has enhanced the profile and practice standard of the pharmacist's role on interprofessional health care teams. PMID:25821655
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Zafar, Mueen A.; Roberts, Kellie W.
Physical therapy faculty share similarities with faculty across allied health fields, such as nursing, and other clinical disciplines that educate students in licensing and board certification programs. Most have clinical experience and discipline-based expertise, however they may not have had the benefit of continuous learning aimed at enhancing…
Beitz, Janice M.; Heinzer, Marjorie M.
Nursing faculty's joint appointments may involve clinical, research, or administrative roles. These dual responsibilities have many benefits but pose challenges in prioritizing work and dealing with workload increases and fatigue. Joint appointments give faculty the opportunity to provide staff development to clinical nurses. (SK)
Cooley, Shirley S.
To relieve the nursing faculty shortage, notable numbers of master's prepared clinical nurse experts are entering the ranks of nursing faculty to teach the prelicensure nursing student. The transition from clinical practice to the academia raises concern about the adequacy of preparation for the complex specialization role of nurse educator. In…
Romanelli, Frank; Smith, Kelly M.
The constructs of academic entitlement and student consumerism refer to students’ attitudes toward education as a commodity and the underlying belief that as consumers, they should be catered to and given the opportunity to participate in the education process according to their preferences. Most discussions regarding these attitudes are anecdotal, but the pervasiveness of these accounts and the troubling effects that ensue warrant attention. Grade inflation, student incivility, altered classroom practices, and decreased faculty morale are all potential aftereffects of teaching students who hold academic entitlement beliefs. Numerous factors are posited as attributing to academic entitlement including personal issues, societal pressures, and broad academic practices. This paper discusses these factors and offers faculty members and administrators recommendations regarding practices that may curb or alleviate issues associated with academically entitled students. PMID:23275654
Koerner, S D; Becker, F
The pharmacy profession has long used technology to more effectively bring health care to the patient. Navy pharmacy has embraced technology advances in its daily operations, from computers to dispensing robots. Evolving from the traditional role of compounding and dispensing specialists, pharmacists are establishing themselves as vital team members in direct patient care: on the ward, in ambulatory clinics, in specialty clinics, and in other specialty patient care programs (e.g., smoking cessation). An important part of the evolution is the timely access to the most up-to-date information available. Micromedex, Inc. (Denver, Colorado), has developed a number of computer CD-ROM-based full-text pharmacy, toxicology, emergency medicine, and patient education products. Micromedex is a recognized leader with regard to total pharmaceutical information availability. This article discusses the implementation of Micromedex products within the established Composite Healthcare Computer System and the subsequent use by and effect on the international Navy pharmacy community.
Wright, David; Kirkdale, Charlotte L.; Desborough, James A.; Thornley, Tracey
Introduction The UK government advocates person-centred healthcare which is ideal for supporting patients to make appropriate lifestyle choices and to address non-adherence. The Community Pharmacy Future group, a collaboration between community pharmacy companies and independents in the UK, introduced a person-centred service for patients with multiple long-term conditions in 50 pharmacies in Northern England. Objective Describe the initial findings from the set up and delivery of a novel community pharmacy-based person-centred service. Method Patients over fifty years of age prescribed more than one medicine including at least one for cardiovascular disease or diabetes were enrolled. Medication review and person-centred consultation resulted in agreed health goals and steps towards achieving them. Data were collated and analysed to determine appropriateness of patient recruitment process and quality of outcome data collection. A focus group of seven pharmacists was used to ascertain initial views on the service. Results Within 3 months of service initiation, 683 patients had baseline clinical data recorded, of which 86.9% were overweight or obese, 53.7% had hypertension and 80.8% had high cardiovascular risk. 544 (77.2%) patients set at least one goal during the first consultation with 120 (22.1%) setting multiple goals. A majority of patients identified their goals as improvement in condition, activity or quality of life. Pharmacists could see the potential patient benefit and the extended role opportunities the service provided. Allowing patients to set their own goals occasionally identified gaps to be addressed in pharmacist knowledge. Conclusion Pharmacists successfully recruited a large number of patients who were appropriate for such a service. Patients were willing to identify goals with the pharmacist, the majority of which, if met, may result in improvements in quality of life. While challenges in delivery were acknowledged, allowing patients to identify
Chowdhury, Fahmida; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Iuliano, A Danielle; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Ahmed, Makhdum; Haider, Sabbir; Rahman, Mahmudur; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo
Background Pharmacies in Bangladesh serve as an important source of health service. A survey in Dhaka reported that 48% of respondents with symptoms of acute respiratory illness (ARI) identified local pharmacies as their first point of care. This study explores the factors driving urban customers to seek health care from pharmacies for ARI, their treatment adherence, and outcome. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 selected pharmacies within Dhaka from June to December 2012. Study participants were patients or patients’ relatives aged >18 years seeking care for ARI from pharmacies without prescription. Structured interviews were conducted with customers after they sought health service from drug sellers and again over phone 5 days postinterview to discuss treatment adherence and outcome. Results We interviewed 302 customers patronizing 76 pharmacies; 186 (62%) sought care for themselves and 116 (38%) sought care for a sick relative. Most customers (215; 71%) were males. The majority (90%) of customers sought care from the study pharmacy as their first point of care, while 18 (6%) had previously sought care from another pharmacy and 11 (4%) from a physician for their illness episodes. The most frequently reported reasons for seeking care from pharmacies were ease of access to pharmacies (86%), lower cost (46%), availability of medicine (33%), knowing the drug seller (20%), and convenient hours of operation (19%). The most commonly recommended drugs were acetaminophen dispensed in 76% (228) of visits, antihistamine in 69% (208), and antibiotics in 42% (126). On follow-up, most (86%) of the customers had recovered and 12% had sought further treatment. Conclusion People with ARI preferred to seek care at pharmacies rather than clinics because these pharmacies were more accessible and provided prompt treatment and medicine with no service charge. We recommend raising awareness among drug sellers on proper dispensing practices and enforcement of
Clark, Bobby L.; Hou, John; Chou, Chia-Hung; Huang, Elbert S.; Conti, Rena
Section 340B of the Public Health Service Act provides qualified organizations serving vulnerable populations with deep discounts for some outpatient medications. A 2010 regulatory change widely expanded the 340B program’s reach, allowing these organizations to contract with retail pharmacies to dispense medications for eligible patients. Little is known about which medications are dispensed by contract pharmacies under the expanded program. We provide the first comparison of 340B prescriptions and all prescriptions dispensed in contract pharmacies. We used 2012 data from Walgreens, the national leader in 340B contract pharmacies. Medications used to treat chronic conditions such as diabetes, high cholesterol levels, asthma, hypertension, and depression accounted for an overwhelming majority of all prescriptions dispensed at Walgreens as part of the 340B program. A higher percentage of antiretrovirals used to treat HIV/AIDS were dispensed through 340B prescriptions than through all prescriptions dispensed at Walgreens. The majority of 340B prescriptions dispensed at Walgreens originated at tuberculosis clinics, consolidated health centers, disproportionate-share hospitals, and Ryan White clinics. Our results suggest that 340B contract pharmacies dispense medications used to treat Americans’ chronic disease burden and disproportionately dispense medications used by key vulnerable populations targeted by the program. PMID:25367997
Anderson, R.J.; Young, W. Wayne
The current generation of pharmacy students must be prepared to make educated decisions on the selection of hardware and software for both business and professional use. Over the next decade, these graduates will be major decision-makers for computerizing over 38,000 community pharmacies and approximately 80% of all hospital pharmacies. A survey of all U.S. colleges of pharmacy was completed to assess the role of microcomputers in the curriculum. The development of a computer applications course at the University of Nebraska utilizing “hands-on” experience in a microcomputer laboratory equipped with IBM and Apple micros is described. The major objective was to attain a degree of computer literacy among undergraduate professional students, and the course structure and organization are applicable to other health care disciplines.
Barker, Michelle; Hills, Ruth; Priddle, Alannah
Objective. To examine the effectiveness of simulated learning modules (SLMs) encompassing EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) core competencies in enhancing pharmacy students’ professional communication skills. Methods. Students completed three hours of preparatory lectures and eight hours of workshops comprising six SLMs themed around pharmacy practice and pharmacy placements. Each SLM comprised role-plays with actors, facilitation using EXCELL Social Interaction Maps (SIMs), and debriefing. Evaluations of SLMs included quantitative and qualitative survey responses collected before, during and after workshops, and after placements. Facilitators reflected on SLMs as a pedagogic modality. Results. Student feedback was positive about SLMs as an effective learning tool. The majority indicated areas of new learning and found SLMs enhanced their professional skills and confidence. Facilitator feedback was positive, and suggested SLM optimization strategies. Conclusion. Student and teaching team recommendations will inform future curriculum development including the optimization of SLMs in pharmacy education. PMID:27073281
Fejzic, Jasmina; Barker, Michelle; Hills, Ruth; Priddle, Alannah
Objective. To examine the effectiveness of simulated learning modules (SLMs) encompassing EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) core competencies in enhancing pharmacy students' professional communication skills. Methods. Students completed three hours of preparatory lectures and eight hours of workshops comprising six SLMs themed around pharmacy practice and pharmacy placements. Each SLM comprised role-plays with actors, facilitation using EXCELL Social Interaction Maps (SIMs), and debriefing. Evaluations of SLMs included quantitative and qualitative survey responses collected before, during and after workshops, and after placements. Facilitators reflected on SLMs as a pedagogic modality. Results. Student feedback was positive about SLMs as an effective learning tool. The majority indicated areas of new learning and found SLMs enhanced their professional skills and confidence. Facilitator feedback was positive, and suggested SLM optimization strategies. Conclusion. Student and teaching team recommendations will inform future curriculum development including the optimization of SLMs in pharmacy education.
Kolar, Claire; Nelson, Michael H.; Fierke, Kerry K.; Sucher, Brandon J.; Janke, Kristin K.
Objective. To determine the frequency distribution of pharmacy students across Emotionally Intelligent Leadership Inventory (EILI) measures. Methods. The EILI was administered to 235 pharmacy students at two schools. The instrument was systematically compared to the 2013 CAPE Outcomes and analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis. Results. The EILI has primary connections with pharmacy competencies related to interprofessional communication and leadership. The three facets of the EILI were verified for internal consistency (Context, α=.78; Self, α=.74; Others, α=.79). Student scores were the highest for the consciousness of self facet, with a mean score of 31.4 out of 40. Conclusion. The EILI shows promise as an instrument for use in assessing pharmacy students’ emotional intelligence and leadership skills. PMID:28381889
Bayuse, T.; Schuyler, C.; Bayuse, Tina M.
This viewgraph poster presentation reviews the rationale for a call for a new program in residency for aerospace pharmacy. Aerospace medicine provides a unique twist on traditional medicine, and a specialty has evolved to meet the training for physicians, and it is becoming important to develop such a program for training in pharmacy designed for aerospace. The reasons for this specialist training are outlined and the challenges of developing a program are reviewed.
Pharmacy in the event of catastrophe is a field which has so far been little worked on. A good grounding in the knowledge of catastrophe medicine is necessary. A list of the most important drugs, dressings and medical aids for use in the event of a catastrophe is given. Legal measures, appropriate literature and the need for constant information, advanced training and good organizational preparation of the pharmacist and pharmacies is referred to.
Van Ummersen, Claire; Duranleau, Lauren; McLaughlin, Jean
It has been almost ten years since the American Council on Education (ACE) began to raise awareness of the importance of workplace flexibility in faculty careers and to encourage colleges and universities to support faculty in better integrating their professional and personal lives. With the generous support of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, ACE…
Holliman, Juanita M.
Describes a step-by-step method for analyzing faculty workload which the author notes can determine exactly how a faculty member's time is spent and whether the hours available for teaching equal the hours required for teaching. Suggested uses for the method are noted, e.g., organizing the total work force based on desired curriculum changes. (SH)
Alm, Kent F.; And Others
A process for the management of reductions in the number of faculty positions available to a university is described. It considers staffing by projections, the evolution of personnel planning, and the balance of reductions in faculty and administration, along with coping strategies and advice growing out of five years of enrollment decline…
Cipriano, Robert E.; Buller, Jeffrey L.
Most position descriptions for college and university faculty include benchmarks that indicate assumptions about collegiality. Criticism about this practice has been voiced for years. But case law in the United States has upheld the use of collegiality as a factor in decisions regarding faculty employment, tenure, and promotion. Indeed, several…
Andrew, Lloyd D.
Firm planning objectives, clearly stated relationships to overall institutional objectives, faculty involvement, and active leadership are advocated for successful academic planning. Faculty involvement is dependent on the strength of the technical, marketing, and budgeting staffs, and involvement in the planning process may kindle faculty…
O'Meara, KerryAnn; Terosky, Aimee LaPointe
During the last 20 years, faculty have faced rising workloads, increasing amounts of top-down accountability and oversight, mounting publication demands, decreasing numbers of tenure-track positions, and an increasingly dismal job market. The current recession has exacerbated the pressure by requiring departmental budget cuts, faculty layoffs,…
In "Costs and Benefits in the Economy of Honors," Richard Badenhausen identifies several pressing issues regarding the economic status of honors in the current financial climate of higher education, including the role of faculty in addressing those issues. In her response to Badenhausen's essay, Annmarie Guzy, a faculty member at the…
Bataille, Gretchen M.
In this article, the author asserts that a one-size-fits-all approach to hiring and retaining faculty members is no longer acceptable. She argues that the key to successful economic recovery is adapting to the needs of a new generation of faculty while still addressing those of current professors. Universities have the means and creativity to find…
Kezar, Adrianna; Lester, Jaime
Various factors are making faculty leadership challenging including the rise in part-time and non-tenure-track faculty, the increasing pressure to publish and teach more courses and adopt new technologies and pedagogies, increasing standards for tenure and promotion, ascension of academic capitalism, and heavy service roles for women and people of…
Faculty compensation policy is seen as one means by which an institution influences the faculty to work toward institutional goals. Among the broad criteria for compensation are worth, equity, need, and market measures. Benefits and issues in compensation including differentials in compensation, merit, part-time instruction, etc. are discussed.…
Guan, Sharon; Stanford, Daniel
This chapter identifies effective ways to address learner and faculty support. It introduces methods for building a successful learner support system by providing sufficient resources and proactively addressing learner motivation. It also addresses effective faculty support through institutional policies, resources, training, and course…
Nevada System of Higher Education, 2011
Board policy provides that in the fall of every even-numbered year, the Chancellor's Office shall compile a System report on faculty workloads at the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) institutions. Faculty workload is collected from the campuses in two parts: (1) in-class instructional data originating from workload databases and validated…
Barati, Omid; Dorosti, Hesam; Talebzadeh, Alireza; Bastani, Peivand
Considering the importance of accreditation for hospital pharmacies, this study was to determine the challenges of medication management in hospital pharmacies affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The study was a mix-method research conducted in two qualitative and quantitative phases during the years 2014-2015 in Shiraz, Iran. National Accreditation Standard checklist for hospitals was used for data collection in the first phase, and Delphi method was applied in three rounds to achieve the most challenges of medication management and the related solutions. Results indicated a medium status of accreditation for all three dimensions in the above hospital pharmacies (3.53, 42.15 and 7, respectively). Lack of clinical pharmacists, nonparticipation of the pharmacy director in annual budgeting, lack of access to patient information, discontinuity of pharmaceutical care for patients discharged, defects in pharmacy staff training, lack of legislation in support of pharmacists and lack of adequate access to physicians' prescriptions, shortages in reporting medication errors, and lack of evidence related to microbial contamination are the most challenges extracted from the second phase. It seems that the studied hospital pharmacies encounter numerous problems regarding accreditation, pharmaceutical care as well as appropriate medication management and supply chain. Attempts to solve these problems can play an important role in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of pharmacies in Iran.