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Sample records for clinical prognostic factors

  1. Clinical and Histopathological Prognostic Factors in Chondrosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Myhre-Jensen, Olaf; Schiødt, Torben; Jurik, Anne G.; Keller, Johnny; Mouridsen, Henning T.; Lund, Bjarne

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. In an attempt to identify clinical and histopathological factors of prognostic importance in chondrosarcomas, 115 cases of malignant and borderline chondromatous tumours were reviewed. Patients/methods. Histopathological features tested for prognostic information as well as reproducibility included cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, multinucleated cells, mitotic activity and grade. Eleven patients had a biopsy only, and a short survival (median 2.0 years); these were excluded from further analysis. The remaining 104 patients who had received intended curative treatment had a median survival of 14.7 years. Results. In univariate analysis, tumour size, extra-compartmental growth, surgical margin and sex were significantly correlated to recurrence-free survival (RFS); sex was marginally significant while age, site and pathological parameters were not significant. Overall survival (OAS) was likewise found to be independent of pathological features as well as site, size and surgical margin; but age, sex and extra-compartmental growth were statistically significant. However, when the same parameters were entered into a stepwise Cox (multivariate) analysis, only surgical margin, cellularity and pleomorphism were significantly related to RFS; margin, grade, pleomorphism and age to OAS. Overall inter-observer agreement on grade was relatively low: 0.54, with a Kappa value of 0.32. It was not better for the other histological parameters, with the exception of the mitotic count. However, acceptable values were achieved when the material was divided into low-grade (grade I and below) vs high-grade (grade II and III) lesions: overall agreement 0.79, Kappa 0.56. Discussion. Although the grading of chondrosarcomas is in need of improvement, its replacement by semiquantitative evaluation of individual histopathological parameters as performed in this study offers no advantage. Among the clinical parameters, only the adequacy of the surgical treatment and the patient's age

  2. [Adulthood atopic dermatitis: epidemiology, clinical symptoms, provoking and prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Pónyai, Györgyi; Temesvári, Erzsébet; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of atopic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma bronchiale and atopic dermatitis is increasing both in children and adults at different parts of the world. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting mostly children, but the atopic trait continues, not only for later respiratory allergies, but also for skin symptoms in adulthood. In this form dry skin, flexural lichenification, head and neck dermatitis, hand dermatitis are typical. The exact etiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown, in the background interactions of genetical predisposition, skin barrier defects and immunological and environmental factors can be verified. In the complex approach of atopic dermatitis, a pivotal role is ascribed to the evaluation and possibly the elimination of provoking factors, like gender, family structure, clothing, aero-, alimentary and contact allergens, psychosocial stress, migration, infections, and personal home environment. Authors review clinical manifestations, triggering and prognostic factors of the adulthood atopic dermatitis. PMID:17344114

  3. Small Renal Masses: Incidental Diagnosis, Clinical Symptoms, and Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Martín, F. M.; Millán-Rodríguez, F.; Urdaneta-Pignalosa, G.; Rubio-Briones, J.; Villavicencio-Mavrich, H.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. The small renal masses (SRMs) have increased over the past two decades due to more liberal use of imaging techniques. SRMs have allowed discussions regarding their prognostic, diagnosis, and therapeutic approach. Materials and methods. Clinical presentation, incidental diagnosis, and prognosis factors of SRMs are discussed in this review. Results. SRMs are defined as lesions less than 4 cm in diameter. SRM could be benign, and most malignant SMRs are low stage and low grade. Clinical symptoms like hematuria are very rare, being diagnosed by chance (incidental) in most cases. Size, stage, and grade are still the most consistent prognosis factors in (RCC). An enhanced contrast SRM that grows during active surveillance is clearly malignant, and its aggressive potential increases in those greater than 3 cm. Clear cell carcinoma is the most frequent cellular type of malign SRM. Conclusions. Only some SRMs are benign. The great majority of malign SRMs have good prognosis (low stage and grade, no metastasis) with open or laparoscopic surgical treatment (nephron sparing techniques). Active surveillance is an accepted attitude in selected cases. PMID:19165347

  4. Prognostic factors for clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Pécora, José Otávio Reggi; Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Assunção, Jorge Henrique; Gracitelli, Mauro Emílio Conforto; Martins, João Paulo Sobreiro; Ferreira, Arnaldo Amado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify prognostic factors of postoperative functional outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective case series evaluating patients undergoing rotator cuff repair, analyzed by the UCLA score (pre and 12-month postoperative) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (preoperative). Patients' intrinsic variables related to the injury and intervention were evaluated. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to determine variables impact on postoperative functional assessment. RESULTS: 131 patients were included. The mean UCLA score increased from 13.17 ± 3.77 to 28.73 ± 6.09 (p<0,001). We obtained 65.7% of good and excellent results. Age (r= 0.232, p= 0.004) and reparability of posterosuperior injuries (r= 0.151, p= 0.043) correlated with the functional assessment at 12 months. After multivariate linear regression analysis, only age was associated (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The surgical treatment of rotator cuff tears lead to good and excellent results in 65.6% of patients. Age was an independent predictor factor with better clinical outcomes by UCLA score in older patients. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:26207092

  5. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of primary gastric lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Gao; Zhao, Lin-Yong; Liu, Chuan-Qi; Pan, Si-Cheng; Chen, Xiao-Long; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Wei-Han; Yang, Kun; Chen, Xin-Zu; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Chen, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) is the most common extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This retrospective study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and roles of different treatment modalities in patients with PGL. From January 2003 to November 2014, 165 patients who were diagnosed with PGL at West China Hospital were enrolled in this study. The clinical features, treatment, and follow-up information were analyzed. In this study, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (108, 65.5%) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (52, 31.5%) were two predominant histological subtypes. One-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of all patients were 95.2% and 79.5%, respectively; in whom 110 (66.7%) underwent surgery, 110 (66.7%) received chemotherapy, 12 (7.3%) received radiotherapy, and 10 (6.1%) received Helicobacter pylori eradication. And 75 patients (45.5%) were treated with at least 2 different types of therapies. Elevated lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, poor performance status (PS), advanced stage, International Prognostic Index (IPI) score ≥3, conservative treatment, and high-grade histological subtype were associated with worse prognosis in univariate analysis. Cox regression analysis showed that LDH levels, PS, staging, and histological subtype were independent predictors of survival outcomes. In the DLBCL type, 5-year OS was significantly better in the surgically treated group (80.1%) than that of patients conservatively treated (49.8%) (P = 0.001). Surgical treatment had almost no impact on OS in the MALT type than conservative treatment (P = 0.597). The proportion of patients received conservative treatment increased from 4.5% in period 1 to 51.7% in period 4. High LDH levels, poor PS, advanced staging, and malignant pathological type at diagnosis are significantly associated with poor OS. Our data suggest that surgery is superior in prognosis over conservative treatment in the DLBCL type, but not

  6. Clinical, pathological and molecular prognostic factors in prostate cancer decision-making process.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Dario; Palermo, Giuseppe; Totaro, Angelo; Bassi, Pier Francesco; Pinto, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common urologic neoplasm and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among men in many developed countries. Given the highly heterogeneous behaviour of the disease, there is a great need for prognostic factors, in order to stratify the clinical risk and give the best treatment options to the patient. Clinical factors, such as prostate-specific antigen value and derivatives, and pathological factors, such as stage and Gleason grading, are well kown prognostic factors. Nomograms can provide useful prediction in each clinical sceario. The field of molecular biomarkers is briskly evolving towards personalized medicine. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, deletion of PTEN ed and gene panels are some of the more extensively explored molecular features in prostate cancer outcome prediction. In the near future, circulating tumour cells, exosomes and microRNAs could give us further, not invasive important tools.

  7. Clinical manifestations and prognostic factors of Morganella morganii bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Lin, T-Y; Chan, M-C; Yang, Y-S; Lee, Y; Yeh, K-M; Lin, J-C; Chang, F-Y

    2015-02-01

    Although Morganella morganii causes a variety of clinical infections, there are limited studies on M. morganii bacteremia after the year 2000. A total of 109 patients with M. morganii bacteremia at a medical center in Taiwan from 2003 to 2012 were studied. Among them, 30.3 % had polymicrobial bacteremia and 75.2 % had community-acquired infection. The most common underlying diseases were hypertension (62.4 %) and diabetes mellitus (38.5 %). The urinary tract (41.3 %) was the major portal of entry, followed by the hepatobiliary tract (27.5 %), skin and soft tissue (21.1 %), and primary bacteremia (10.1 %). Susceptibility testing of M. morganii isolates showed ubiquitous resistance to first-generation cephalosporins and ampicillin-clavulanate; resistance rates to gentamicin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin were 30.3 %, 1.8 %, and 10.1 %, respectively. Overall, the 14-day mortality was 14.7 %. Univariate analysis revealed that elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) values [p = 0.0137, odds ratio (OR) 5.26], intensive care unit (ICU) admission (p = 0.011, OR 4.4), and higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores (p < 0.001, OR 1.62) were significantly associated with mortality. The APACHE II score remained the only significant risk factor for mortality in multivariate analysis (p = 0.0012, OR 1.55). In conclusion, M. morganii bacteremia patients were mostly elderly, with one or more comorbidities. Most of the patients had community-acquired infection via the urinary and hepatobiliary tracts. Furthermore, prognosis can be predicted according to disease severity measured by the APACHE II score.

  8. Tegmental pontine hemorrhages: clinical features and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Lancman, M; Norscini, J; Mesropian, H; Bardeci, C; Bauso, T; Granillo, R

    1992-05-01

    We report six patients with partial, predominantly paramedian, tegmental pontine hemorrhages. Constant clinical manifestations consisted of: ipsilateral miosis, horizontal gaze paresis, lower motor neuron facial paresis, contralateral hemisensory loss and mild and transitory hemiparesis, dysarthria and mild or no compromise of consciousness. Five out of six were hypertensive. All patients survived with mild sequelae, oculomotor disturbances being the most persistent deficit. We found in our patients that a transverse diameter of less than 17 mm, unilaterality of the injury and absence of coma were the major indicators of a favorable outcome.

  9. Prognostic Factors Toward Clinically Relevant Radiographic Progression in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Tomohiro; Okada, Akitomo; Fukuda, Takaaki; Hidaka, Toshihiko; Ishii, Tomonori; Ueki, Yukitaka; Kodera, Takao; Nakashima, Munetoshi; Takahashi, Yuichi; Honda, Seiyo; Horai, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Ryu; Okuno, Hiroshi; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Izumiyama, Tomomasa; Takai, Osamu; Miyashita, Taiichiro; Sato, Shuntaro; Kawashiri, Shin-ya; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Origuchi, Tomoki; Nakamura, Hideki; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Katsumi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine prognostic factors of clinically relevant radiographic progression (CRRP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical practice. We performed a multicenter prospective study in Japan of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD)-naive RA patients with moderate to high disease activity treated with conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs) at study entry. We longitudinally observed 408 patients for 1 year and assessed disease activity every 3 months. CRRP was defined as yearly progression of modified total Sharp score (mTSS) > 3.0 U. We also divided the cohort into 2 groups based on disease duration (<3 vs ≥3 years) and performed a subgroup analysis. CRRP was found in 10.3% of the patients. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent variables to predict the development of CRRP were: CRP at baseline (0.30 mg/dL increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.11), time-integrated Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) during the 1 year postbaseline (12.4-unit increase, 95%CI 1.17–2.59), RA typical erosion at baseline (95%CI 1.56–21.1), and the introduction of bDMARDs (95%CI 0.06–0.38). The subgroup analysis revealed that time-integrated DAS28-ESR is not a predictor whereas the introduction of bDMARDs is a significant protective factor for CRRP in RA patients with disease duration <3 years. We identified factors that could be used to predict the development of CRRP in RA patients treated with DMARDs. These variables appear to be different based on the RA patients’ disease durations. PMID:27124044

  10. Congenital Aniridia: Long-term Clinical Course, Visual Outcome, and Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ji Woong; Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, Seong-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical course of congenital aniridia and to evaluate prognostic factors for visual outcome after long-term follow-up. Methods The medical records of 120 eyes from 60 patients with congenital aniridia were retrospectively reviewed. The prevalence and clinical course of ophthalmic characteristics, systemic disease, refractive errors, and visual acuity were assessed. Prognostic factors for final visual outcomes were analyzed. Results Aniridic keratopathy developed in 82 (69%) of 119 eyes. Macular hypoplasia was observed in 70 eyes of 35 patients (91%). Cataract was observed in 63 of 120 eyes (53%). Nystagmus was present in 41 patients (68% of 60 patients) at the initial visit but decreased in five patients (8% of 60 patients). Ocular hypertension was detected in 19 eyes (20% of 93 eyes), six (32% of 19 eyes) of which developed secondarily after cataract surgery. The mean changes in spherical equivalent and astigmatism during the follow-up period were -1.10 and 1.53 diopter, respectively. The mean final visual acuity was 1.028 logarithm of minimal angle of resolution. Nystagmus and ocular hypertension were identified as prognostic factors for poor visual outcome. Conclusions Identification of nystagmus and ocular hypertension was important to predict final visual outcome. Based on the high rate of secondary ocular hypertension after cataract surgery, careful management is needed. PMID:25435751

  11. Clinical Outcome and Prognostic Factors of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for T4 Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yangkun; Gao, Yang; Yang, Guangquan; Lang, Jinyi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the clinical outcomes and prognostic factors of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for T4 stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods. Between March 2005 and March 2010, 110 patients with T4 stage NPC without distant metastases were treated. All patients received IMRT. Induction and/or concurrent chemotherapy were given. 47 (42.7%) patients received IMRT replanning. Results. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), regional recurrence-free survival (RRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were 90.1%, 97.0%, 67.5%, 63.9%, and 64.5%, respectively. Eleven patients experienced local-regional failure and total distant metastasis occurred in 34 patients. 45 patients died and 26 patients died of distant metastasis alone. The 5-year LRFS rates were 97.7% and 83.8% for the patients that received and did not receive IMRT replanning, respectively (P = 0.023). Metastasis to the retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN) was associated with inferior 5-year OS rate (61.0% versus 91.7%, P = 0.034). The gross tumor volume of the right/left lymph nodes (GTVln) was an independent prognostic factor for DMFS (P = 0.006) and PFS (P = 0.018). GTVln was with marginal significance as the prognostic factor for OS (P = 0.050). Conclusion. IMRT provides excellent local-regional control for T4 stage NPC. Benefit of IMRT replanning may be associated with improvement in local control. Incorporating GTVln into the N staging system may provide better prognostic information. PMID:27195286

  12. Clinical presentation and prognostic factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis according to the focus of infection

    PubMed Central

    Østergaard, Christian; Konradsen, Helle Bossen; Samuelsson, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    Background We conducted a nationwide study in Denmark to identify clinical features and prognostic factors in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae according to the focus of infection. Methods Based on a nationwide registration, clinical information's was prospectively collected from all reported cases of pneumococcal meningitis during a 2-year period (1999–2000). Clinical and laboratory findings at admission, clinical course and outcome of the disease including follow-up audiological examinations were collected retrospectively. The focus of infection was determined according to the clinical diagnosis made by the physicians and after review of the medical records. Results 187 consecutive cases with S. pneumoniae meningitis were included in the study. The most common focus was ear (30%), followed by lung (18%), sinus (8%), and other (2%). In 42% of cases a primary infection focus could not be determined. On admission, fever and an altered mental status were the most frequent findings (in 93% and 94% of cases, respectively), whereas back rigidity, headache and convulsion were found in 57%, 41% and 11% of cases, respectively. 21% of patients died during hospitalisation (adults: 27% vs. children: 2%, Fisher Exact Test, P < 0.001), and the causes of death were due to neurological – and systemic complications or the combination of both in 8%, 5% and 6% of cases, respectively. Other causes (e.g. gastrointestinal bleeding, incurable cancer) accounted for 2% of cases. 41% of survivors had neurological sequelae (hearing loss: 24%, focal neurological deficits: 16%, and the combination of both: 1%). The mortality varied with the focus of the infection (otogenic: 7%, sinusitic: 33%, pneumonic: 26%, other kind of focus: 50%, no primary infection focus: 21%, Log rank test: P = 0.0005). Prognostic factors associated with fatal outcome in univariate logistic regression analysis were advanced age, presence of an underlying disease, history of headache, presence of a lung focus

  13. Guillain-Barré syndrome in southern Taiwan: clinical features, prognostic factors and therapeutic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, B-C; Chang, W-N; Chang, C-S; Chee, C-Y; Huang, C-R; Chen, J-B; Chang, C-J; Hung, P-L; Wang, K-W; Chang, H-W; Lu, C-H

    2003-11-01

    To determine the clinical features, prognostic factors, and therapeutic results of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in order to improve the therapeutic strategy for this disease. We retrospectively reviewed the electrodiagnostic study and medical records of patients with GBS admitted to Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, between January 1986 and December 2000. Outcomes and prognosis were followed-up after 1 year. Ninety-six patients were enrolled in this study. According to the clinical and electrophysiological findings, 77 patients were acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, seven were Miller Fisher syndrome, and six were axonal forms, and six were unclassified. At a follow-up of 1 year, 61 patients (64%) recovered, 30 (31%) had residua and five (5%) died. Amongst these 30 had residua, including unassisted gait in 19, assisted gait in four, and wheel/bed bound in seven. According to the statistical analysis, disabilities at the nadir (P < 0.0001) and at admission (P = 0.014) were significant prognostic factors. Variables used for the stepwise logistic regression, and the results revealed that after analysis for all the above variables, only disability at the nadir (P < 0.0001) was independently associated with the treatment failure rate. Our study revealed 27% of cases in need of respiratory support during hospitalization, and 5% of hospital-treated patients die from the complications. Furthermore, 31% had residua at a follow-up of 1 year or more. If prognostic factors are considered, disability at the nadir during hospitalization demonstrates consistently poor therapeutic outcomes. Therefore, early diagnosis, choice of appropriate treatment, and preventing complications during acute stages are essential to maximize the potential for survival.

  14. Prognostic factors for important clinical outcomes in patients with a severe infection

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Maria; Luitse, Jan S.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients who are admitted with a suspicion of a severe infection usually enter the hospital through the emergency department (ED). The recognition of prognostic factors in an early stage affects further treatment and might improve clinical outcomes. Aims We examined possible prognostic factors for four important outcomes: intensive care unit (ICU) admission, positive blood cultures, mortality and re-admission. Methods All adult patients arriving at the ED with a suspected infection for whom admittance and intravenous (iv) antibiotics were indicated were included between March and December 2006. Possible prognostic variables were obtained from medical history, physical examination and laboratory results during the ED presentation. Data were analysed using logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 295 ED patients were evaluated, of whom 27 were referred to the ICU, 62 had a positive blood culture, 16 died and 48 were re-admitted. In multivariate analysis, patients with a respiration rate of >25/min were at higher risk for ICU admission. Patients with a positive blood culture had a higher heart rate and a higher percentage of segmented neutrophils. Patients who died during admission were more likely to be older, confused and had lower blood pressure. Patients who were re-admitted within 30 days were more likely to be male, younger and less likely to have a positive blood culture. Conclusions Routine clinical and biochemical information can be used to predict ICU admission, the presence of bacteraemia, mortality and re-admission (within 30 days) and should be taken into consideration for treatment decisions. PMID:21373295

  15. Evaluation of clinical, laboratory and morphologic prognostic factors in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Michele; Milito, Giovanni; Attinà, Grazia Maria; Cadeddu, Federica; Muzi, Marco Gallinella; Nigro, Casimiro; Rulli, Francesco; Farinon, Attilio Maria

    2008-01-01

    Background The long-term prognosis of patients with colon cancer is dependent on many factors. To investigate the influence of a series of clinical, laboratory and morphological variables on prognosis of colon carcinoma we conducted a retrospective analysis of our data. Methods Ninety-two patients with colon cancer, who underwent surgical resection between January 1999 and December 2001, were analyzed. On survival analysis, demographics, clinical, laboratory and pathomorphological parameters were tested for their potential prognostic value. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analysis of the above mentioned data were performed considering the depth of tumour invasion into the bowel wall as independent variable. Results On survival analysis we found that depth of tumour invasion (P < 0.001; F-ratio 2.11), type of operation (P < 0.001; F-ratio 3.51) and CT scanning (P < 0.001; F-ratio 5.21) were predictors of survival. Considering the degree of mural invasion as independent variable, on univariate analysis, we observed that mucorrhea, anismus, hematocrit, WBC count, fibrinogen value and CT scanning were significantly related to the degree of mural invasion of the cancer. On the multivariate analysis, fibrinogen value was the most statistically significant variable (P < 0.001) with the highest F-ratio (F-ratio 5.86). Finally, in the present study, the tumour site was significantly related neither to the survival nor to the mural invasion of the tumour. Conclusion The various clinical, laboratory and patho-morphological parameters showed different prognostic value for colon carcinoma. In the future, preoperative prognostic markers will probably gain relevance in order to make a proper choice between surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Nevertheless, current data do not provide sufficient evidence for preoperative stratification of high and low risk patients. Further assessments in prospective large studies are warranted. PMID:18778464

  16. Prognostic Factors of Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Spontaneous Thalamic Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Kyung-Jae; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Jung, Yong-Gu; Park, Jung-Yul; Park, Dong-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a well-known condition, but ICH restricted to the thalamus is less widely studied. We investigated the prognostic factors of thalamic ICHs. Material/Methods Seventy patients from January 2009 to November 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who demonstrated spontaneous ICH primarily affecting the thalamus on initial brain computed tomography (CT) were enrolled. Patients were categorized into 2 groups based on their Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores. Various presumptive prognostic factors were analyzed to investigate relationships between various clinical characteristics and outcomes. Results Of the enrolled patients, 39 showed a GOS of 4–5, and were categorized as the good outcome group, while another 31 patients showed a GOS of 1–3 and were categorized as the poor outcome group. Initial GCS score, calculated volume of hematoma, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), coexisting complications, hydrocephalus, performance of external ventricular drainage, and modified Graeb’s scores of patients with IVH were significantly different between the 2 groups. In multivariate analysis, among the factors above, initial GCS score (P=0.002, Odds ratio [OR]=1.761, Confidence interval [CI]=1.223–2.536) and the existence of systemic complications (P=0.015, OR=0.059, CI=0.006–0.573) were independently associated with clinical outcomes. Calculated hematoma volume showed a borderline relationship with outcomes (P=0.079, OR=0.920, CI=0.839–1.010). Conclusions Initial GCS score and the existence of systemic complications were strong predictive factors for prognosis of thalamic ICH. Calculated hematoma volume also had predictive value for clinical outcomes. PMID:26343784

  17. Postoperative radiotherapy in patients with salivary duct carcinoma: clinical outcomes and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Shinoto, Makoto; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Nakashima, Torahiko; Kunitake, Naonobu; Higaki, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Asai, Kaori; Hirata, Hideki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the clinical outcome and the role of postoperative radiotherapy for patients with salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) who had undergone surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. We performed a retrospective analysis of 25 SDC patients treated between 1998 and 2011 with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. The median prescribed dose was 60 Gy (range, 49.5–61.4 Gy). The clinical target volume (CTV) was defined as the tumor bed in four patients, the tumor bed and ipsilateral neck in 14 patients, and the tumor bed and bilateral neck in six patients. Local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic variables were analyzed with the log-rank test. The 5-year LC, DFS and OS were 67%, 45% and 47%, respectively. Disease recurrence was found in 12 patients: seven as local, four as regional and eight as distant failure. Perineural and lymphovascular invasion was a significant prognostic factor for LC (P = 0.03). Local failure was common, and the presence of local recurrence significantly affected the OS (P < 0.05). We conclude that surgery and postoperative radiotherapy is expected to decrease the risk of local failure and contribute to good prognoses for patients with SDC. It might be advisable to have the CTV include the cranial nerves involved and the corresponding parts of the skull base in cases of pathologically positive perineural invasion. PMID:23559598

  18. Prognostic clinical factors in pretreated colorectal cancer patients receiving regorafenib: Implications for clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Del Prete, Michela; Giampieri, Riccardo; Loupakis, Fotios; Prochilo, Tiziana; Salvatore, Lisa; Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Bittoni, Alessandro; Aprile, Giuseppe; Zaniboni, Alberto; Falcone, Alfredo; Scartozzi, Mario; Cascinu, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed the impact on survival of angiogenesis and inflammation-related factors, particularly LDH serum levels, platelet, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), in metastatic colorectal cancer patients receiving regorafenib monotherapy. Methods LDH serum levels, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts were collected at the start of regorafenib monotherapy. Cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve analysis. Survival analyses were performed by Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate analysis by Cox method. Results A total of 208 patients were eligible for analysis. Among factors who were related with worse overall survival and who maintained their role at the multivariate analysis, high platelet count (Exp(b):1.4963, 95% CI:1.0130–2.2103, p = 0.0439) and high neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (Exp(b):1.6963, 95% CI:1.0757–2.6751, p = 0.0237) were those who more deeply were related to worse overall survival. High lymphocyte count (Exp(b):0.4527, 95% CI:0.2801–0.7316, p = 0.0013) was correlated with improved overall survival. Conclusions High neutrophil, high platelet, low lymphocyte count and/or high NLR may represent negative prognostic factors in patients receiving regorafenib monotherapy. It is advisable that these factors are taken into account in the design of subsequent trials in colorectal cancer patients receiving this drug. PMID:26334693

  19. Prognostic factors in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, M L

    1998-06-01

    There is obvious merit in being able to accurately predict outcome and tailor treatment according to individual risk and potential for benefit. Epithelial ovarian cancers are characterized by a broad spectrum of biological behavior ranging from tumors that have an excellent prognosis and high likelihood of cure to those that progress rapidly and have a very poor prognosis. This wide clinical spectrum is partly reflected by a number of clinicopathological prognostic variables which include International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, histologic subtype and grade, volume of residual tumor remaining after surgical resection, performance status, and age. There has been increasing interest by many groups to incorporate the independent prognostic variables into multivariate models that could better predict outcome. This approach does appear to allow the identification of different prognostic subsets and requires confirmation in prospective studies. There has been, and there continues to be a lot of effort in identifying new prognostic factors that have a biologic rationale and these will be discussed. Most of these new prognostic factors have not been subjected to rigorous testing and this will be clearly necessary before they find clinical application. This is an area that is rapidly evolving with the increased understanding of the molecular basis for ovarian carcinogenesis and progression coupled with technological advances such as DNA arrays and automated polymerase chain reaction. We are at the threshold of developing a new and more objective as well as rational approach to predict prognosis and response to therapy.

  20. Gender Differences in Community-acquired Meningitis in Adults: Clinical Presentations and Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dharmarajan, Lavanya; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Community-acquired meningitis is a serious disease that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the gender differences involved with the clinical presentations of and prognostic factors for this disease. We conducted a retrospective study of 619 adults diagnosed with community-acquired meningitis in Houston, Texas, who were hospitalized between 2005 and 2010. Patients were categorized as male or female. Those who were evaluated to have a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of four or less were classified to have an adverse clinical outcome. Males consisted of 47.2% (292/619) of the total cohort, and more often presented with coexisting medical conditions, fever, abnormal microbiology results, and abnormalities on head computed tomography. Females more often presented with nuchal rigidity. On logistic regression, fever, CSF glucose <45 mg/dL, and an abnormal neurological examination were predictors of an adverse outcome in male patients, while age greater than 60 years and an abnormal neurological examination were associated with a poor prognosis in female patients. Thus, community-acquired meningitis in males differs significantly from females in regards to comorbidities, presenting symptoms and signs, abnormal laboratory and imaging analysis, and predictors of adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:27500284

  1. Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Prognostic Factors and Clinical Advances.

    PubMed

    Vrooman, Lynda M; Silverman, Lewis B

    2016-10-01

    While the majority of children and adolescents with newly diagnosed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) will be cured, as many as 20 % of patients will experience relapse. On current treatment regimens, the intensity of upfront treatment is stratified based upon prognostic factors with the aim of improving cure rates (for those at the highest risk of relapse) and minimizing treatment-related morbidity (for lower-risk patients). Here we review advances in the understanding of prognostic factors and their application. We also highlight novel treatment approaches aimed at improving outcomes in childhood ALL.

  2. Clinical and pathological characteristics, and prognostic factors for gastric cancer survival in 155 patients in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Angelov, Kostadin Georgiev; Vasileva, Mariela Borisova; Grozdev, Konstantin Savov; Sokolov, Manol Bonev; Todorov, Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Almost one million new cases of gastric cancer were estimated to have occurred in 2012, making it the fifth most common malignancy in the world. It is also the third leading cause of cancer death of people of both genders worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of some prognostic factors for gastric cancer survival in 155 patients treated at Aleksandrovska University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria. This retrospective study includes patients diagnosed and treated at Department of Surgery of Aleksandrovska University Hospital for the 9-years period of time between January 2005 and December 2013. We classified the prognostic factors as patient-related (age at diagnosis specification, gender, and blood type), tumor-related (N-stage, tumor differentiation, process localization), and treatment related (patients who had radical surgery and adjuvant therapy). We found that blood type is the only statistically significant prognostic factor for overall survival from the patients-related group of factors (p = 0.030). The only prognostic factor from the ones in the tumor related group remains the N-stage according to the TNM classification (p = 0.003). Adjuvant could not prove its value for overall survival (p = 0.675).

  3. Prognostic factors in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Braeckman, Johan; Michielsen, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    In the nineteenth century the main goal of medicine was predictive: diagnose the disease and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. Today the effort has shifted to cure the disease. Since the twentieth century, the word prognosis has also been used in nonmedical contexts, for example in corporate finance or elections. The most accurate form of prognosis is achieved statistically. Based on different prognostic factors it should be possible to tell patients how they are expected to do after prostate cancer has been diagnosed and how different treatments may change this outcome. A prognosis is a prediction. The word prognosis comes from the Greek word (see text) and means foreknowing. In the nineteenth century this was the main goal of medicine: diagnose the disease and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. Today the effort has shifted towards seeking a cure. Prognostic factors in (prostate) cancer are defined as "variables that can account for some of the heterogeneity associated with the expected course and outcome of a disease". Bailey defined prognosis as "a reasoned forecast concerning the course, pattern, progression, duration, and end of the disease. Prognostic factors are not only essential to understand the natural history and the course of the disease, but also to predict possible different outcomes of different treatments or perhaps no treatment at all. This is extremely important in a disease like prostate cancer where there is clear evidence that a substantial number of cases discovered by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing are unlikely ever to become clinically significant, not to mention mortal. Furthermore, prognostic factors are of paramount importance for correct interpretation of clinical trials and for the construction of future trials. Finally, according to WHO national screening committee criteria for implementing a national screening programme, widely accepted prognostic factors must be defined before

  4. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of primary gastric lymphoma: A retrospective study with 165 cases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Gao; Zhao, Lin-Yong; Liu, Chuan-Qi; Pan, Si-Cheng; Chen, Xiao-Long; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Wei-Han; Yang, Kun; Chen, Xin-Zu; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Chen, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2016-08-01

    Primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) is the most common extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This retrospective study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and roles of different treatment modalities in patients with PGL.From January 2003 to November 2014, 165 patients who were diagnosed with PGL at West China Hospital were enrolled in this study. The clinical features, treatment, and follow-up information were analyzed.In this study, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (108, 65.5%) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (52, 31.5%) were two predominant histological subtypes. One-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of all patients were 95.2% and 79.5%, respectively; in whom 110 (66.7%) underwent surgery, 110 (66.7%) received chemotherapy, 12 (7.3%) received radiotherapy, and 10 (6.1%) received Helicobacter pylori eradication. And 75 patients (45.5%) were treated with at least 2 different types of therapies. Elevated lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, poor performance status (PS), advanced stage, International Prognostic Index (IPI) score ≥3, conservative treatment, and high-grade histological subtype were associated with worse prognosis in univariate analysis. Cox regression analysis showed that LDH levels, PS, staging, and histological subtype were independent predictors of survival outcomes. In the DLBCL type, 5-year OS was significantly better in the surgically treated group (80.1%) than that of patients conservatively treated (49.8%) (P = 0.001). Surgical treatment had almost no impact on OS in the MALT type than conservative treatment (P = 0.597). The proportion of patients received conservative treatment increased from 4.5% in period 1 to 51.7% in period 4.High LDH levels, poor PS, advanced staging, and malignant pathological type at diagnosis are significantly associated with poor OS. Our data suggest that surgery is superior in prognosis over conservative treatment in the DLBCL type, but not in the MALT

  5. A Systematic Review of Clinical Outcomes and Prognostic Factors for Patients Undergoing Surgery for Spinal Metastases Secondary to Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sciubba, Daniel M.; Goodwin, C. Rory; Yurter, Alp; Ju, Derek; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Fisher, Charles; Rhines, Laurence D.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Fourney, Daryl R.; Mendel, Ehud; Laufer, Ilya; Bettegowda, Chetan; Patel, Shreyaskumar R.; Rampersaud, Y. Raja; Sahgal, Arjun; Reynolds, Jeremy; Chou, Dean; Weber, Michael H.; Clarke, Michelle J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design  Review of the literature. Objective  Surgery and cement augmentation procedures are effective palliative treatment of symptomatic spinal metastases. Our objective is to systematically review the literature to describe the survival, prognostic factors, and clinical outcomes of surgery and cement augmentation procedures for breast cancer metastases to the spine. Methods  We performed a literature review using PubMed to identify articles that reported outcomes and/or prognostic factors of the breast cancer patient population with spinal metastases treated with any surgical technique since 1990. Results  The median postoperative survival for metastatic breast cancer was 21.7 months (8.2 to 36 months), the mean rate of any pain improvement was 92.9% (76 to 100%), the mean rate of neurologic improvement was 63.8% (53 to 100%), the mean rate of neurologic decline was 4.1% (0 to 8%), and the local tumor control rate was 92.6% (89 to 100%). Kyphoplasty studies reported a high rate of pain control in selected patients. Negative prognostic variables included hormonal (estrogen and progesterone) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor refractory tumor status, high degree of axillary lymph node involvement, and short disease-free interval (DFI). All other clinical or prognostic parameters were of low or insufficient strength. Conclusion  With respect to clinical outcomes, surgery consistently yielded neurologic improvements in patients presenting with a deficit with a minimal risk of worsening; however, negative prognostic factors associated with shorter survival following surgery include estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor negativity, HER2 negativity, and a short DFI. PMID:27433433

  6. Clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and outcomes of adult patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Otrock, Zaher K; Eby, Charles S

    2015-03-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by the activation of the mononuclear phagocytic system. The diagnosis of HLH in adults is challenging not only because the majority of the reported data are from pediatric patients, but also because HLH occurs in many disease entities. This study reports the clinical and laboratory findings and prognostic factors of adult HLH in a large cohort managed at a single medical center from 2003 to 2014. Seventy-three patients met the HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria. The median age was 51 years (range, 18-82 years); 41 (56.2%) were male. Patients manifested fever, cytopenias, and elevated ferritin in >85% of cases. Likely causes of HLH were as follows: 30 (41.1%) infections, 21 (28.8%) malignancies, 5 (6.8%) attributed to autoimmune disorders, 1 (1.4%) primary immunodeficiency, 2 (2.7%) post solid organ transplantation, and 13 (17.8%) idiopathic. The median overall survival was 7.67 months. Patients with malignancy-associated HLH had a markedly worse survival compared with patients with non-malignancy-associated HLH (median overall survival 1.13 vs. 46.53 months, respectively; P < 0.0001). In a multivariable analysis, malignancy (hazard ratio = 12.22; 95% CI: 2.53-59.02; P = 0.002) correlated with poor survival. Ferritin >50,000 µg/L correlated with 30-day mortality. Survival after a diagnosis of HLH is dismal, especially among those with malignancy-associated HLH. The development of a registry for adults with HLH would improve our understanding of this syndrome, validate diagnostic criteria, and help develop effective treatment strategies. PMID:25469675

  7. Clinical importance of F-waves as a prognostic factor in Guillain-Barré syndrome in children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eung-Bin; Lee, Yun Young; Lee, Jae Min; Son, Su Min; Hwang, Su-Kyeong; Kwon, Soonhak

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A limited number of studies have examined the link between F-wave abnormalities and clinical presentation in pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Therefore, this study examined the importance of F-wave abnormalities as a prognostic factor in pediatric GBS patients. Methods The records and electrodiagnostic studies (EDS) of 70 GBS patients were retrospectively evaluated, and divided into 2 groups according to the results of EDS. Group A (n=33) presented with F-wave abnormalities, and group B (n=26) exhibited normal findings. We compared laboratory reports, clinical features, response to treatment, and prognosis between the 2 groups. Results Motor weakness was the most frequently observed symptom for either group. Clinically, the incidence of fever and upper respiratory symptoms differed between the 2 groups, while the prevalence of abnormal deep tendon reflex (DTR) was significantly higher in group A than B (P<0.05). Patients diagnosed with GBS had received intravenous immunoglobulin treatment: 94% in group A and 58% in group B. Furthermore, significantly greater numbers of patients in group A showed H-reflex abnormalities and poor prognosis compared with group B (P<0.05). Conclusion This study demonstrated that F-waves are a clinically important prognostic factor in GBS. F-wave abnormalities were associated with abnormal DTR and poor prognosis in patients. Limited studies have examined the link between F-wave abnormalities and clinical results; therefore, further randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm the clinical characteristics and efficacy of treatments. PMID:27462356

  8. Prognostic Factors Affecting Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer and Clinical Significance of Hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk Kuhn, Hildegard; Schultze, Juergen; Homann, Nils; Brandenburg, Bernd; Schulte, Rainer; Krull, Andreas; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate potential prognostic factors, including hemoglobin levels before and during radiotherapy, for associations with survival and local control in patients with unirradiated locally recurrent rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: Ten potential prognostic factors were investigated in 94 patients receiving radiotherapy for recurrent rectal cancer: age ({<=}68 vs. {>=}69 years), gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0-1 vs. 2-3), American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage ({<=}II vs. III vs. IV), grading (G1-2 vs. G3), surgery, administration of chemotherapy, radiation dose (equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions: {<=}50 vs. >50 Gy), and hemoglobin levels before (<12 vs. {>=}12 g/dL) and during (majority of levels: <12 vs. {>=}12 g/dL) radiotherapy. Multivariate analyses were performed, including hemoglobin levels, either before or during radiotherapy (not both) because these are confounding variables. Results: Improved survival was associated with better performance status (p < 0.001), lower AJCC stage (p = 0.023), surgery (p = 0.011), chemotherapy (p = 0.003), and hemoglobin levels {>=}12 g/dL both before (p = 0.031) and during (p < 0.001) radiotherapy. On multivariate analyses, performance status, AJCC stage, and hemoglobin levels during radiotherapy maintained significance. Improved local control was associated with better performance status (p = 0.040), lower AJCC stage (p = 0.010), lower grading (p = 0.012), surgery (p < 0.001), chemotherapy (p < 0.001), and hemoglobin levels {>=}12 g/dL before (p < 0.001) and during (p < 0.001) radiotherapy. On multivariate analyses, chemotherapy, grading, and hemoglobin levels before and during radiotherapy remained significant. Subgroup analyses of the patients having surgery demonstrated the extent of resection to be significantly associated with local control (p = 0.011) but not with survival (p = 0.45). Conclusion: Predictors for outcome in patients who received radiotherapy for

  9. Can historical controls be used in current clinical trials in osteosarcoma. Analysis of prognostic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Brostroem, L.A.; Aparisi, T.; Ingimarsson, S.; Lagergren, C.; Nilsonne, U.; Strander, H.; Soederberg, G.

    1980-12-01

    A comparison with respect to possible prognostic factors has been made between a contemporary group of 44 patients with osteosarcoma in Sweden, who received treatment since 1971, and a historical group of 35 such patients treated prior to 1972. Only patients with no evidence of metastases on admission were included in the material. The female/male ratio was lower, but not significantly so, for the contemporary group. The mean age was similar in the two groups. Pain was the most common symptom in both groups. The site patterns differed slightly, although not significantly so, in the two groups, there was a higher ratio of frequency of femoral and lower leg tumors for the historical group than for the contemporary group. The variability in tumor size was greater for the historical group, as was the tumor diameter. The historical group had a greater proportion of osteoblastic tumors and these tended to be more malignant. On the whole the prognosis would be expected to be less favorable for the historical group and there would seem to be a definite risk in using this group as a control group to the adjuvant interferon treated patients.

  10. Clinical course and prognostic factors in acute low back pain: an inception cohort study in primary care practice.

    PubMed Central

    Coste, J.; Delecoeuillerie, G.; Cohen de Lara, A.; Le Parc, J. M.; Paolaggi, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe the natural course of recent acute low back pain in terms of both morbidity (pain, disability) and absenteeism from work and to evaluate the prognostic factors for these outcomes. DESIGN--Inception cohort study. SETTING--Primary care. PATIENTS--103 patients with acute localised non-specific back pain lasting less than 72 hours. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Complete recovery (disappearance of both pain and disability) and return to work. RESULTS--90% of patients recovered within two weeks and only two developed chronic low back pain. Only 49 of 100 patients for whom data were available had bed rest and 40% of 75 employed patients lost no time from work. Proportional hazards regression analysis showed that previous chronic episodes of low back pain, initial disability level, initial pain worse when standing, initial pain worse when lying, and compensation status were significantly associated with delayed episode recovery. These factors were also related to absenteeism from work. Absenteeism from work was also influenced by job satisfaction and gender. CONCLUSIONS--The recovery rate from acute low back pain was much higher than reported in other studies. Those studies, however, did not investigate groups of patients enrolled shortly after the onset of symptoms and often mixed acute low back pain patients with patients with exacerbations of chronic pain or sciatica. Several sociodemographic and clinical factors were of prognostic value in acute low back pain. Factors which influenced the outcome in terms of episode recovery (mainly physical severity factors) were only partly predictive of absenteeism from work. Time off work and return to work depended more on sociodemographic and job related influences. PMID:8148683

  11. Toward comprehensive management tailored to prognostic factors of patients with clinical stages I and II in Hodgkin's disease. The EORTC Lymphoma Group controlled clinical trials: 1964-1987.

    PubMed

    Tubiana, M; Henry-Amar, M; Carde, P; Burgers, J M; Hayat, M; Van der Schueren, E; Noordijk, E M; Tanguy, A; Meerwaldt, J H; Thomas, J

    1989-01-01

    From 1964 to 1987, the EORTC Lymphoma Group conducted four consecutive controlled clinical trials on clinical stages I and II Hodgkin's disease in which 1,579 patients were entered. From the onset the main aim of these trials was to identify the subsets of patients who could be treated safely by regional radiotherapy (RT). Therefore, several prognostic indicators were prospectively registered and progressively used in the trial protocols for the delineation of the favorable and unfavorable subgroups as soon as they were recognized of high predictive value. In the H2 trial (1972 to 1976), the histologic subtype was the only variable taken into account for the therapeutic strategy and the staging laparotomy findings were found to be of prognostic value only in patients with favorable prognostic indicators. In the H5 trial (1977 to 1982), patients were subdivided into two subgroups according to six prognostic indicators. Patients with favorable features were submitted to a staging laparotomy (lap); lap negative patients were randomized between mantle field RT and mantle field plus paraaortic RT. Disease free survival (DFS) and total survival (S) were similar in the two arms. Among patients with unfavorable features, DFS and S were significantly higher in the arm treated by combination of mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone (MOPP) chemotherapy (CT) and RT than in the arm treated by total nodal irradiation. Nevertheless, in patients below the age of 40, the overall survival rates were equivalent in the two arms. In the H6 trial, the delineation of the favorable subgroup was based on (a) absence of systemic symptoms and elevated ESR, (b) no more than one or two lymph node areas involved. The aim of the study was to assess the impact on survival of a therapeutic strategy including staging laparotomy. At a 4-year follow-up, no difference in survival was evidenced. In patients with unfavorable prognostic indicators, 3 MOPP-RT-3 MOPP were compared with 3

  12. Clinical course and prognostic factors of childhood immune thrombocytopenia: single center experience of 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Yeob; O, A Rum; Kim, Je Keong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the clinical course of childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and to assess the risk factors for developing chronic ITP. Methods The records of 64 children diagnosed with ITP from November 2005 and December 2014 at single center were retrospectively analyzed. Results The median age at diagnosis and the median platelet count were 1 year (range, 1 month to 15 years) and 9×109/L (range, 0–84×109/L), respectively. No patient experienced severe bleeding. Nineteen children (29.7%) spontaneously recovered their platelet count to ≥100×109/L at a median of 10 days. In total 45 patients (70.3%) received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) as first-line therapy, and showed platelet recovery at 1 week. The final diagnosis of 55 (85.9%) and 9 patients (14.1%) was acute and chronic ITP, respectively. Older age, absence of prior infection and insidious onset of symptoms were significantly associated with the development of chronic ITP. Among the patients who received IVIG, those with platelet count <45×109/L at 1 month after IVIG showed a significantly higher incidence of chronic ITP compared to those with platelet count ≥45×109/L (88.8% vs. 44.4%, P<0.01). Conclusion In most patients, ITP runs a benign course and approximately 86% of them recover within 1 year of their initial diagnosis. The potential impact of the risk factors of chronic ITP on clinical practice needs to be explored and further studies are warranted to determine whether IVIG influences the course of ITP. PMID:27610182

  13. Clinical course and prognostic factors of childhood immune thrombocytopenia: single center experience of 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Yeob; O, A Rum; Kim, Je Keong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the clinical course of childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and to assess the risk factors for developing chronic ITP. Methods The records of 64 children diagnosed with ITP from November 2005 and December 2014 at single center were retrospectively analyzed. Results The median age at diagnosis and the median platelet count were 1 year (range, 1 month to 15 years) and 9×109/L (range, 0–84×109/L), respectively. No patient experienced severe bleeding. Nineteen children (29.7%) spontaneously recovered their platelet count to ≥100×109/L at a median of 10 days. In total 45 patients (70.3%) received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) as first-line therapy, and showed platelet recovery at 1 week. The final diagnosis of 55 (85.9%) and 9 patients (14.1%) was acute and chronic ITP, respectively. Older age, absence of prior infection and insidious onset of symptoms were significantly associated with the development of chronic ITP. Among the patients who received IVIG, those with platelet count <45×109/L at 1 month after IVIG showed a significantly higher incidence of chronic ITP compared to those with platelet count ≥45×109/L (88.8% vs. 44.4%, P<0.01). Conclusion In most patients, ITP runs a benign course and approximately 86% of them recover within 1 year of their initial diagnosis. The potential impact of the risk factors of chronic ITP on clinical practice needs to be explored and further studies are warranted to determine whether IVIG influences the course of ITP.

  14. Prognostic factors in anal squamous carcinoma: a multivariate analysis of clinical, pathological and flow cytometric parameters in 235 cases.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, N A; Scholefield, J H; Love, S B; England, J; Northover, J M

    1990-06-01

    Clinical, pathological and flow cytometric parameters have been analysed by univariate and multivariate analysis to define those parameters of important prognostic influence in 235 cases of surgically treated squamous carcinoma of the anus and perianal skin. Patients had been treated by anorectal excision (166 patients) or by local excision (69). Analyses were carried out on five data sets--the two surgical subgroups, two groups distinguished by site of tumour and on all 235 patients. Univariate analysis showed many parameters to be of prognostic influence, although histological typing of tumours into the more common histological subtypes was of no prognostic value. Parameters of independent prognostic significance in multivariate analysis were those indicating depth of spread, inguinal lymph node involvement and DNA-ploidy. In this study the subdivision of the rarer types of anal canal tumour, such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, microcystic squamous carcinoma and small cell anaplastic carcinoma, was relevant confirming that these tumours have a poor prognosis. It is now felt that surgery should not be employed as primary treatment in most cases of anal cancer and the results of this study have to be interpreted with caution when applied to patients treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that the most useful prognostic information can be gleaned from accurate clinical staging and an assessment of DNA-ploidy status. PMID:2376397

  15. Pseudomyxoma peritonei of 92 Chinese patients: Clinical characteristics, pathological classification and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ai-Tao; Li, Yan-Mi; Wei, Li-Xin

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the clinicopathologic features and its relationship with prognosis of pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) in Chinese patients. METHODS: The clinicopathologic features and follow-up data of 92 patients with PMP were reviewed and retrospectively analyzed. The cases were categorized into three groups: disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis (DPAM), peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis (PMCA), and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis with intermediate or discordant features (PMCA-I/D). The log-rank test was used to analyze survival for each group and various clinicopathological parameters. Multivariate Cox proportional-hazard models were constructed to determine the important factors associated with survival. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 51.9 years (range: 22-76 years). The median follow up was 124 mo. The 3-, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 74.0%, 67.4% and 49.1%, respectively. There were 49 (53.2%) patients with DPAM, 26 (28.3%) with PMCA-I and 17 (18.5%) with PMCA. Patients with DPAM, PMCA-I/D and PMCA exhibited statistically significant difference in survival (P = 0.001). The 3 year survival for DPAM, PMCAI/D and PMCA was 97.0%, 80.0% and 67.0%, respectively; the 5 year survival was 80.0%, 67.0% and 50.0%, respectively; and the 10 year survival was 65.0%, 28.0% and 14.0%, respectively. Survival rate was significantly lowest in patients < 40 age years of age (P = 0.011). Appendiceal tumor and extra-ovarian parenchymal organ involvement were significantly related to overall survival. Patients with appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MACA) showed the significantly poorer prognosis (P = 0.011). Multivariate analysis showed that pathological classification, age, appendiceal tumor were significant related to overall survival. CONCLUSION: The clinical process “PMP” should be pathologically classified into DPAM, PMCA and PMCA-I/D. Pathological classification, age, appendiceal MACA are survival independent predictors in Chinese patients with PMP. PMID

  16. Prognostic value of clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical factors in patients with bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Javier; Panizo, Angel; Sola, Iosu; Queipo, Francisco; Martinez-Peñuela, Ana; Carias, Rafael

    2013-05-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is an inflammatory and fibrosing disease involving the distal bronchioles, bronchiolar ducts, and alveoli. We studied 91 patients with BOOP. Univariate analysis was used to relate age, sex, smoking, morphology, and expression of immunohistochemical markers CD68, D2-40, CD31, CD34, collagen IV, collagen III, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with the response to corticosteroid therapy. Seventy-two patients had idiopathic BOOP and 19 secondary BOOP. The median age of the patients was 59.54 years. Most patients were current or former smokers. All cases had a patchy lesion consisting of small buds of fibromyxoid tissue in small bronchioles, bronchiolar ducts, and alveoli. The buds contained collagen and reticulin fibers, fibroblasts, macrophages, mononuclear inflammatory cells, and vessels in different proportions. We found no morphologic differences between primary and secondary BOOP. Patients younger than 38 years and nonsmokers had a significant good response to corticosteroid therapy. Favorable morphologic predictors were the presence of large bronchial plugs and mild inflammatory reaction (P = .093). By immunohistochemistry, the presence of collagen IV with the absence of collagen III, CD68-positive cells and positive VEGF were associated with a good response to corticosteroid therapy. We conclude that age, smoking, localization, and extension of proliferative intrabronchiolar plugs and positive immunostains for CD68, VEGF, and collagen IV with negative collagen III were useful to predict response to corticosteroid therapy and relapse.

  17. Clinical and prognostic significance of serum transforming growth factor-beta1 levels in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, J.; Liang, Y.; Yin, Q.; Liu, S.; Wang, Q.; Tang, Y.; Cao, C.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a poor 5-year survival rate of 5%. Biomarkers for the early detection of pancreatic cancer are urgently needed. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) is elevated in the tissues and plasma of patients with PDAC. However, no studies systemically report prognostic significance of plasma TGF-β1 levels in PDAC. In the present study, we assessed the prognostic significance of serum TGF-β levels in patients with PDAC. TGF-β levels were determined in serum from 146 PDAC patients, and 58 patients with benign pancreatic conditions. Regression models were used to correlate TGF-β levels to gender, age, stage, class, and metastasis. Survival analyses were performed using multivariate Cox models. Serum levels of TGF-β1 distinguished PDAC from benign pancreatic conditions (P<0.001) and healthy control subjects (P<0.001). Serum levels of TGF-β also distinguished tumor stage (P=0.002) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.001). High serum levels of TGF-β1 were significantly correlated with reduced patient survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that TGF-β1, lymph node metastasis and tumor stage were independent factors for PDAC survival. Our results indicate that serum TGF-β1 may be used as a potential prognostic marker for PDAC. PMID:27464025

  18. Clinical and laboratory characterization of 114 cases of Castleman disease patients from a single centre: paraneoplastic pemphigus is an unfavourable prognostic factor.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yujun; Wang, Mingyue; Nong, Lin; Wang, Lihong; Cen, Xinan; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Sainan; Sun, Yuhua; Liang, Zeyin; Li, Yuan; Ou, Jinping; Qiu, Zhixiang; Ren, Hanyun

    2015-06-01

    This study retrospectively collected the clinical and laboratory data of 114 patients with Castleman disease (CD) from a single medical centre. Clinical classification identified 62 patients (54·4%) with unicentric Castleman disease and 52 (45·6%) with multi-centric Castleman disease. Pathological classification revealed 68 cases (59·6%) of hyaline vascular variant, 16 (14·1%) mixed cellular variant (Mix) and 30 (26·3%) plasmacytic variant. Clinical complications occurred in 69 CD patients, including 37 cases of paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) and 25 cases with renal complications. Haematological involvement, pleural effusion and/or ascites and POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes) were also found. Univariate analysis showed that presence of clinical complications and PNP were both risk factors relating to CD patient survival. Prognostic factors showing P < 0·15 in univariate analysis and those with clinical significance were subjected to multivariate analysis using a Cox regression model. PNP presence and age over 40 years both significantly adversely affected survival. Thus, only presence of PNP was identified as an independent unfavourable survival risk factor in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Overall, the present data provide a panoramic description of CD cases and emphasize that the presence of PNP is an adverse prognostic factor.

  19. Sun exposure and melanoma prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    GANDINI, SARA; MONTELLA, MAURIZIO; AYALA, FABRIZIO; BENEDETTO, LUCIA; ROSSI, CARLO RICCARDO; VECCHIATO, ANTONELLA; CORRADIN, MARIA TERESA; DE GIORGI, VINCENZO; QUEIROLO, PAOLA; ZANNETTI, GUIDO; GIUDICE, GIUSEPPE; BORRONI, GIOVANNI; FORCIGNANÒ, ROSACHIARA; PERIS, KETTY; TOSTI, GIULIO; TESTORI, ALESSANDRO; TREVISAN, GIUSTO; SPAGNOLO, FRANCESCO; ASCIERTO, PAOLO A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between sun exposure and the increased survival of patients with cutaneous melanoma (CM). The present study analyzed the association between ultraviolet (UV) light exposure and various prognostic factors in the Italian Clinical National Melanoma Registry. Clinical and sociodemographic features were collected, as well as information concerning sunbed exposure and holidays with sun exposure. Analyses were performed to investigate the association between exposure to UV and melanoma prognostic factors. Between December 2010 and December 2013, information was obtained on 2,738 melanoma patients from 38 geographically representative Italian sites. A total of 49% of the patients were >55 years old, 51% were men, 50% lived in the north of Italy and 57% possessed a high level of education (at least high school). A total of 8 patients had a family history of melanoma and 56% had a fair phenotype (Fitzpatrick skin type I or II). Of the total patients, 29% had been diagnosed with melanoma by a dermatologist; 29% of patients presented with a very thick melanoma (Breslow thickness, >2 mm) and 25% with an ulcerated melanoma. In total, 1% of patients had distant metastases and 13% exhibited lymph node involvement. Holidays with sun exposure 5 years prior to CM diagnosis were significantly associated with positive prognostic factors, including lower Breslow thickness (P<0.001) and absence of ulceration (P=0.009), following multiple adjustments for factors such as sociodemographic status, speciality of doctor performing the diagnosis and season of diagnosis. Sunbed exposure and sun exposure during peak hours of sunlight were not significantly associated with Breslow thickness and ulceration. Holidays with sun exposure were associated with favorable CM prognostic factors, whereas no association was identified between sunbed use and sun exposure during peak hours of sunlight with favorable CM prognostic factors. However, the results of the

  20. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of patients with mature T-cell lymphoid malignancies: a single-institution study of 225 cases.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wen; Sheng, Yan; Weng, Xiangqin; Zhu, Yongmei; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Pengpeng; Fei, Xiaochun; Chen, Xiaoyan; Wang, Li; Zhao, Weili

    2015-12-01

    Mature T-cell lymphoid malignancies comprise a group of heterogeneous diseases that vary in clinicopathological features, biological behavior, treatment response, and prognosis. Bone marrow (BM) infiltration is more commonly present in mature T-cell lymphoid malignancies compared with their B-cell counterparts and hence important for differential diagnosis. In this study, clinical characteristics and prognostic factors were analyzed in 225 patients with mature T-cell lymphoid malignancies treated in a single institution. These included 29 cases of T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (T-LPD, all with BM infiltration) and 196 cases of T-/natural-killer-cell lymphoma (T/NKCL, 56 with BM infiltration and 140 without BM infiltration). The estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of T-LPD and T/NKCL were 96.6% and 37.3%, respectively. T-LPD patients were less likely to exhibit poor performance status, advanced disease stage, presence of B symptoms, or abnormal level of serum β-2 microglobulin. With similar pathological characteristics, T/NKCL patients with BM infiltration showed significantly lower response rates and shorter OS than those without BM infiltration (P = 0.0264 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Multivariate analysis indicated that poor performance status, advanced disease stage, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level, and BM involvement were independent unfavorable prognostic factors. The Glasgow Prognostic Score may be more efficient than the International Prognostic Index in predicting disease outcome in T/NKCL. In conclusion, clinical characteristics may be useful in more effectively stratifying patients with mature T-cell lymphoid malignancies.

  1. Skull base chordomas: clinical outcome in a consecutive series of 45 patients with long-term follow-up and evaluation of clinical and biological prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Boari, Nicola; Gagliardi, Filippo; Cavalli, Andrea; Gemma, Marco; Ferrari, Luca; Riva, Paola; Mortini, Pietro

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Skull base chordomas (SBCs) are rare dysembryogenetic invasive tumors with a variable tendency for recurrence. According to previous studies, the recurrence rate seems to be affected by both clinical variables and tumor biological features. The authors present the results of treatment of SBCs in a large series of patients and investigate the role of 1p36 chromosomal region loss of heterozygosity (LOH) as a prognostic factor. METHODS Between 1990 and 2011, 45 patients were treated for SBCs. The mean follow-up was 76 months (range 1-240 months). An LOH analysis was performed in 27 cases. Survival analysis was performed to determine clinical and biological parameters correlating with clinical outcome. RESULTS The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 67% and 57%, respectively. Five- and 10-year progression-free survival rates were 58% and 44%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that extent of resection, adjuvant radiation therapy, and absence of rhinopharynx invasion were positive independent predictors of overall survival. The latter 2 variables and a younger patient age were positive independent predictors of progression-free survival. Twenty-one patients showed 1p36 LOH. All events of recurrence and death clustered in the group of patients with 1p36 LOH; however, this biological marker was not statistically significant on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS Resection is the treatment of choice in primary and recurrent SBC. Patient age, rhinopharynx invasion at diagnosis, extent of tumor removal, and postoperative radiation therapy influence SBC prognosis. Genetic analysis, even while showing interesting results, did not reveal 1p36 LOH as an independent predictor of clinical outcome.

  2. Prognostic Factors in Cholinesterase Inhibitor Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sun, In O; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Lee, Kwang Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Organophosphates and carbamates are insecticides that are associated with high human mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors affecting survival in patients with cholinesterase inhibitor (CI) poisoning. Material/Methods This study included 92 patients with CI poisoning in the period from January 2005 to August 2013. We divided these patients into 2 groups (survivors vs. non-survivors), compared their clinical characteristics, and analyzed the predictors of survival. Results The mean age of the included patients was 56 years (range, 16–88). The patients included 57 (62%) men and 35 (38%) women. When we compared clinical characteristics between the survivor group (n=81, 88%) and non-survivor group (n=11, 12%), there were no differences in renal function, pancreatic enzymes, or serum cholinesterase level, except for serum bicarbonate level and APACHE II score. The serum bicarbonate level was lower in non-survivors than in survivors (12.45±2.84 vs. 18.36±4.73, P<0.01). The serum APACHE II score was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (24.36±5.22 vs. 12.07±6.67, P<0.01). The development of pneumonia during hospitalization was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (n=9, 82% vs. n=31, 38%, P<0.01). In multiple logistic regression analysis, serum bicarbonate concentration, APACHE II score, and pneumonia during hospitalization were the important prognostic factors in patients with CI poisoning. Conclusions Serum bicarbonate and APACHE II score are useful prognostic factors in patients with CI poisoning. Furthermore, pneumonia during hospitalization was also important in predicting prognosis in patients with CI poisoning. Therefore, prevention and active treatment of pneumonia is important in the management of patients with CI poisoning. PMID:26411989

  3. [Prognostic factors of localised, locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Joly, Florence; Henry-Amar, Michel

    2007-07-01

    In prostate cancer, whatever the stage of the disease, the selection of a treatment strategy is based on prognostic factors. Clinical stage, serum PSA concentration and Gleason score are among the most recognised factors. A combination of these three parameters leads to a score used to define prognostic groups that are routinely used in daily practice. More recently, predictive statistical models have been developed that were associated with nomograms. The objective of nomograms is, for a given patient, to calculate his probability to develop disease extension or relapse based on clinical, biological, histological and therapeutic (radiotherapy, hormonotherapy) data. Such nomograms are not all validated and their application in daily practice is more difficult than that of classical prognostic classifications. Nowadays, the progress and accessibility to novel technologies applied to biology will make possible in the near future the assessment of new prognostic profiles based on genetic and/or proteomic tumour characteristics.

  4. Prognostic Factors in Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Atay, Gamze; Kayahan, Bahar; çınar, Betül çiçek; Saraç, Sarp; Sennaroğlu, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is still a complex and challenging process which requires clinical evidence regarding its etiology, treatment and prognostic factors. Therefore, determination of prognostic factors might aid in the selection of proper treatment modality. Aims: The aim of this study is to analyze whether there is correlation between SSNHL outcomes and (1) systemic steroid therapy, (2) time gap between onset of symptoms and initiation of therapy and (3) audiological pattern of hearing loss. Study Design: Retrospective chart review. Methods: Patients diagnosed at our clinic with SSNHL between May 2005 and December 2011 were reviewed. A detailed history of demographic features, side of hearing loss, previous SSNHL and/or ear surgery, recent upper respiratory tract infection, season of admission, duration of symptoms before admission and the presence of co-morbid diseases was obtained. Radiological and audiological evaluations were recorded and treatment protocol was assessed to determine whether systemic steroids were administered or not. Treatment started ≤5 days was regarded as “early” and >5 days as “delayed”. Initial audiological configurations were grouped as “upward sloping”, “downward sloping”, “flat” and “profound” hearing loss. Significant recovery was defined as thresholds improved to the same level with the unaffected ear or improved ≥30 dB on average. Slight recovery was hearing improvement between 10–30dB on average. Hearing recovery less than 10 dB was accepted as unchanged. Results: Among the 181 patients who met the inclusion criteria, systemic steroid was administered to 122 patients (67.4%), whereas 59 (32.6%) patients did not have steroids. It was found that steroid administration did not have any statistically significant effect in either recovered or unchanged hearing groups. Early treatment was achieved in 105 patients (58%) and 76 patients (42%) had delayed treatment. Recovery

  5. Integration of genetic and clinical risk factors improves prognostication in relapsed childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Julie A. E.; Enshaei, Amir; Parker, Catriona A.; Sutton, Rosemary; Kuiper, Roland P.; Erhorn, Amy; Minto, Lynne; Venn, Nicola C.; Law, Tamara; Yu, Jiangyan; Schwab, Claire; Davies, Rosanna; Matheson, Elizabeth; Davies, Alysia; Sonneveld, Edwin; den Boer, Monique L.; Love, Sharon B.; Harrison, Christine J.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Revesz, Tamas; Saha, Vaskar

    2016-01-01

    Somatic genetic abnormalities are initiators and drivers of disease and have proven clinical utility at initial diagnosis. However, the genetic landscape and its clinical utility at relapse are less well understood and have not been studied comprehensively. We analyzed cytogenetic data from 427 children with relapsed B-cell precursor ALL treated on the international trial, ALLR3. Also we screened 238 patients with a marrow relapse for selected copy number alterations (CNAs) and mutations. Cytogenetic risk groups were predictive of outcome postrelapse and survival rates at 5 years for patients with good, intermediate-, and high-risk cytogenetics were 68%, 47%, and 26%, respectively (P < .001). TP53 alterations and NR3C1/BTG1 deletions were associated with a higher risk of progression: hazard ratio 2.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.51-3.70, P < .001) and 2.15 (1.32-3.48, P = .002). NRAS mutations were associated with an increased risk of progression among standard-risk patients with high hyperdiploidy: 3.17 (1.15-8.71, P = .026). Patients classified clinically as standard and high risk had distinct genetic profiles. The outcome of clinical standard-risk patients with high-risk cytogenetics was equivalent to clinical high-risk patients. Screening patients at relapse for key genetic abnormalities will enable the integration of genetic and clinical risk factors to improve patient stratification and outcome. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.org as #ISCRTN45724312. PMID:27229005

  6. Integration of genetic and clinical risk factors improves prognostication in relapsed childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Irving, Julie A E; Enshaei, Amir; Parker, Catriona A; Sutton, Rosemary; Kuiper, Roland P; Erhorn, Amy; Minto, Lynne; Venn, Nicola C; Law, Tamara; Yu, Jiangyan; Schwab, Claire; Davies, Rosanna; Matheson, Elizabeth; Davies, Alysia; Sonneveld, Edwin; den Boer, Monique L; Love, Sharon B; Harrison, Christine J; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Revesz, Tamas; Saha, Vaskar; Moorman, Anthony V

    2016-08-18

    Somatic genetic abnormalities are initiators and drivers of disease and have proven clinical utility at initial diagnosis. However, the genetic landscape and its clinical utility at relapse are less well understood and have not been studied comprehensively. We analyzed cytogenetic data from 427 children with relapsed B-cell precursor ALL treated on the international trial, ALLR3. Also we screened 238 patients with a marrow relapse for selected copy number alterations (CNAs) and mutations. Cytogenetic risk groups were predictive of outcome postrelapse and survival rates at 5 years for patients with good, intermediate-, and high-risk cytogenetics were 68%, 47%, and 26%, respectively (P < .001). TP53 alterations and NR3C1/BTG1 deletions were associated with a higher risk of progression: hazard ratio 2.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.51-3.70, P < .001) and 2.15 (1.32-3.48, P = .002). NRAS mutations were associated with an increased risk of progression among standard-risk patients with high hyperdiploidy: 3.17 (1.15-8.71, P = .026). Patients classified clinically as standard and high risk had distinct genetic profiles. The outcome of clinical standard-risk patients with high-risk cytogenetics was equivalent to clinical high-risk patients. Screening patients at relapse for key genetic abnormalities will enable the integration of genetic and clinical risk factors to improve patient stratification and outcome. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.org as #ISCRTN45724312. PMID:27229005

  7. Prognostic factors in patients with jaw sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Rafael Morales; Contreras, Sonia Julia Sacsaquispe; Canales, Janet Ofelia Guevara

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the prognostic factors related to the survival of patients with sarcomas of the jaw treated in the Dr. Eduardo Caceres Graziani National Institute for Neoplastic Diseases, Lima, Peru. Age, gender, delay in consultation, diagnostic delay, therapeutic delay, tumor size, tumor location, facial asymmetry, pain, treatment type, and histopathological diagnosis were all evaluated as possible prognostic factors that would influence survival in those with jaw sarcomas. In the analysis, the following was used: mortality tables, Kaplan-Meier's product-limit method, log-rank, and Breslow and Tarone-Ware tests; for the prognostic factors, Cox's Regression Model was used. The overall survival rate, with the patient being free from disease at two years, was 55%, and that at five years was 45%. In the independent analysis of the prognostic factors, four variables were statistically significant in influencing survival: gender (p = 0.043), histopathologic diagnosis (p = 0.019), tumor location (p = 0.019), and treatment type (p = 0.030). According to Cox's Regression Model for the multivariate analysis, statistically significant prognostic factors were: gender (p = 0.086), tumor location (p = 0.020), and treatment type (p = 0.092). Thus, the variables of gender, tumor location, and treatment type were determined to be predictive factors for prognosis of survival.

  8. c-erbB-2 oncoprotein assay in ovarian carcinoma and its clinical correlation with prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y T; Kim, J W; Lee, J W

    1998-10-23

    Overexpression of the c-erbB-2 oncoprotein has been detected in human adenocarcinoma of the breast, cervix and salivary gland, in all of which an association between the overexpression of the c-erbB-2 and a poor prognosis of the disease has been reported. However, the prognostic role of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein in ovarian carcinoma remains controversial. We measured c-erbB-2 oncoprotein with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patients with invasive ovarian cancer were found to have significantly higher median c-erbB-2 oncoprotein expression than patients with either benign ovarian cyst (P = 0.002) or control groups (P = 0.001). Overexpression of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein was found in seven (21.9%) of 32 epithelial ovarian cancers. Our results suggest that quantitative analysis of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein may be used to define the prognostic significance of ovarian carcinoma.

  9. Long Term Clinical Prognostic Factors in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Insights from a 10-Year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Ehling, Rainer; Lutterotti, Andreas; Hegen, Harald; Di Pauli, Franziska; Auer, Michael; Deisenhammer, Florian; Reindl, Markus; Berger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a highly heterogenic course making prediction of long term outcome very difficult. Objective The objective was to evaluate current and identify additional clinical factors that are linked to long term outcome of relapsing-remitting MS assessed by disability status 10 years after disease onset. Methods This observational study included 793 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Clinical factors hypothesized to influence long term outcome measured by EDSS scores 10 years after disease onset were analysed by Kaplan-Meier-estimates. Multinomial logistic regression models regarding mild (EDSS ≤2.5), moderate (EDSS 3.0–5.5) or severe (EDSS ≥6.0) disability were calculated to correct for confounders. Results Secondary progression was the strongest predictor of severe disability (Hazard ratio [HR] 503.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 160.0–1580.1); p<0.001). Complete remission of neurological symptoms at onset reduced the risk of moderate disability (HR 0.42; CI 0.23–0.77; p = 0.005), while depression (HR 3.59; CI 1.14–11.24; p = 0.028) and cognitive dysfunction (HR 4.64; CI 1.11–19.50; p = 0.036) 10 years after disease onset were associated with severe disability. Oligoclonal bands and pregnancy were not correlated with disability. Conclusion We were able to identify clinically apparent chronic depression and cognitive dysfunction to be associated with adverse long term outcome in MS and to confirm that pregnancy has no negative impact. Additionally, we emphasize the positive predictive value of complete remission of initial symptoms. PMID:27391947

  10. Prognostic factors in patients with intracerebral haematoma.

    PubMed Central

    Franke, C L; van Swieten, J C; Algra, A; van Gijn, J

    1992-01-01

    In a prospective study, the prognostic value of clinical characteristics in 157 consecutive patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage were examined by means of multivariate analysis. Two days after the event 37 (24%) patients had died. Factors independently contributing to the prediction of two day mortality were pineal gland displacement on CT of 3 mm or more (p less than 0.001), blood glucose level on admission of 8.0 mmol/l or more (p = 0.01), eye and motor score on the Glasgow Coma Scale of eight out of 10 or less (p = 0.022) and haematoma volume of 40 cm3 or more (p = 0.037). Between the third day and one year after the event another 46 of the 120 two day survivors had died; the independent prognostic indicators for death during that period were: age 70 years or more (p less than 0.001) and severe handicap (Rankin grade five) on the third day (p less than 0.001). Functional independence (Rankin grade two or less) at one year was most common not only with the converse features of age less than 70 years (p less than 0.01) and Rankin grade four or less on the third day (p = 0.002), but also with an eye and motor score on the Glasgow Coma Scale of nine or 10 on the third day (p less than 0.001). The 120 patients with intracerebral haemorrhage who were still alive two days after the event were matched with 120 patients with cerebral infarction, according to age, level of consciousness on the third day after stroke (Glasgow Coma Scale) and handicap (Rankin grade). Survival and handicap after one year did not differ between these two groups. The conclusion drawn is that it is not the cause (intracerebral haemorrhage or cerebral infarction) but the extent of the brain lesion that determines the outcome in patients who survive the first two days. PMID:1527534

  11. Prognostic Factors in Childhood Leukemia (ALL or AML)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for childhood leukemias Prognostic factors in childhood leukemia (ALL or AML) Certain factors that can affect a ... myelogenous leukemia (AML). Prognostic factors for children with ALL Children with ALL are often divided into risk ...

  12. Clinical features, outcome and prognostic factors in dogs diagnosed with non-cortisol-secreting adrenal tumours without adrenalectomy: 20 cases (1994-2009).

    PubMed

    Arenas, C; Pérez-Alenza, D; Melián, C

    2013-11-23

    The aims of this study were to describe the clinical features, the outcome and the prognostic factors of dogs with non-cortisol-secreting adrenal masses without adrenalectomy, and also to provide clinical data that can be useful for making decisions when managing dogs with these types of neoplasms. Medical records from 1994 to 2009 were reviewed and 20 dogs were included in the study. The results showed that mean age at diagnosis for dogs with non-cortisol-secreting adrenal masses was 12 years with no sex predisposition. Most dogs were asymptomatic. The most frequent clinical signs, when present, were lethargy, weakness and hypertension. Radiological evidence of metastases at diagnosis was not frequent. The maximal dorso-ventral thickness of the adrenal mass ranged from 10.0 to 45.0 mm. Right adrenal gland masses were more frequent than left-sided. Hypertension was found to be related to tumour growth during follow-up. The median survival time of dogs with non-cortisol-secreting tumours was 17.8 months. Body weight at diagnosis, tumour size and the presence of metastases at diagnosis were inversely related to survival. In conclusion, survival of dogs with non-cortisol-secreting adrenal tumours without adrenalectomy is relatively high and comparable with that of dogs treated with adrenalectomy. Dogs with metastasis and large adrenal tumours have a poorer prognosis. Hypertension is related to tumour growth, and might be used as an additional tool to assess the potential growing capacity of the tumour.

  13. Gastrointestinal sarcomas. Analysis of prognostic factors.

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, P C; Neifeld, J P; Lawrence, W; Kay, S; Horsley, J S; Parker, G A

    1987-01-01

    Clinical and pathologic data from 51 patients with primary sarcomas of the gastrointestinal tract treated from 1951 through 1984 were reviewed to determine clinical presentation, histologic features, treatment, and prognostic factors. The most common signs and symptoms were abdominal pain (62%), gastrointestinal bleeding (40%), and/or abdominal mass (38%). The primary site was stomach in 50%, small bowel in 30%, colorectum in 15%, and esophagus in 5%. Virtually all the sarcomas were leiomyosarcomas. Distribution was uniform among the three histologic grades; although 88% of Grade 1 tumors could be completely excised, only 35% of Grade 3 tumors could be completely resected. The 5-year survival rate was 75% for Grade 1 tumors, 16% for Grade 2 tumors, and 28% for Grade 3 tumors (p = 0.0013, Grade 1 vs. 2 and 3). Thirty of the 51 patients (59%) had curative resection with an operative morbidity rate of 24% and an operative mortality rate of 12%; at 5 years the disease-free survival rate was 58% and the overall survival rate was 63% (48% at 10 years). Eleven patients (42%) had recurrent disease develop at a median interval of 2 years after complete tumor excision. Twenty-one patients (41%) had partial excision or biopsy only of their tumors with an operative morbidity rate of 28%, operative mortality rate of 8%, and median survival of only 9 months. Overall, patients whose tumors were confined to the site of origin had a 58% 5-year survival rate compared with 20% for those whose tumors had invaded adjacent organs (p less than 0.05). If the tumor was less than 10 cm in size, the 5-year survival rate was 78%, significantly better than the 38% for tumors greater than 10 cm (p = 0.03). These data suggest that histologic grade, local invasiveness, size, and extent of resection are the most important prognostic factors for patients with primary gastrointestinal sarcomas. Patients who have resection of all gross tumor, especially if it is well differentiated and localized

  14. [Prognostic factors of early breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Almagro, Elena; González, Cynthia S; Espinosa, Enrique

    2016-02-19

    Decision about the administration of adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer depends on the evaluation of prognostic factors. Lymph node status, tumor size and grade of differentiation are classical variables in this regard, and can be complemented by hormonal receptor status and HER2 expression. These factors can be combined into prognostic indexes to better estimate the risk of relapse or death. Other factors are less important. Gene profiles have emerged in recent years to identify low-risk patients who can forgo adjuvant chemotherapy. A number of profiles are available and can be used in selected cases. In the future, gene profiling will be used to select patients for treatment with new targeted therapies.

  15. [Prognostic factors of early breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Almagro, Elena; González, Cynthia S; Espinosa, Enrique

    2016-02-19

    Decision about the administration of adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer depends on the evaluation of prognostic factors. Lymph node status, tumor size and grade of differentiation are classical variables in this regard, and can be complemented by hormonal receptor status and HER2 expression. These factors can be combined into prognostic indexes to better estimate the risk of relapse or death. Other factors are less important. Gene profiles have emerged in recent years to identify low-risk patients who can forgo adjuvant chemotherapy. A number of profiles are available and can be used in selected cases. In the future, gene profiling will be used to select patients for treatment with new targeted therapies. PMID:25726309

  16. Clinical features and prognostic factors of patients with chordoma in the spine: a retrospective analysis of 153 patients in a single center

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Tong; Yin, Huabin; Li, Bo; Li, Zhenxi; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Wang; Cheng, Mo; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Lei; Yang, Xinghai; Liu, Tielong; Yan, Wangjun; Song, Dianwen; Xiao, Jianru

    2015-01-01

    Background Chordoma in the spine is relatively rare, and minimal information has been published in the literature regarding this subject. Moreover, there are controversies over prognostic factors of this disease. Methods A retrospective analysis of chordoma in the spine was performed by survival analysis. Local relapse-free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed from the date of surgery to the date of local recurrence and death. The LRFS and OS rates were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method to identify potential prognostic factors. Factors with P values ≤ .1 were subjected to multivariate analysis by Cox regression analysis. P values ≤ .05 were considered statistically significant. Results A total of 153 patients with spinal chordoma were included in the study. The mean follow-up period was 72.0 months (range, 1–279 months). Local recurrence was detected in 51 cases after initial surgery in our center, while death occurred in 42 cases. The statistical analysis suggested that tumor location of C3–L5, dedifferentiated chordoma, preoperative Frankel scores A–C, and total spondylectomy were independent prognostic factors for LRFS. In addition, total en bloc spondylectomy and Karnofsky' performance status (KPS) ≥ 80% were favorable factors for OS. Conclusions Total spondylectomy, by either en bloc or piecemeal method, could significantly reduce LRFS for spinal chordoma. Location of C3–L5 is a favorable factor for LRFS, while dedifferentiated subtype and preoperative Frankel scores A–C are adverse prognostic factors. In addition, total en bloc spondylectomy and KPS ≥ 80% significantly improve overall survival of patients with spinal chordoma. PMID:25488908

  17. Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy Using Concurrent S-1 and Irinotecan in Rectal Cancer: Impact on Long-Term Clinical Outcomes and Prognostic Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Takatoshi; Yamashita, Keishi; Sato, Takeo; Ema, Akira; Naito, Masanori; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the long-term outcomes of patients with rectal cancer who received neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NCRT) with concurrent S-1 and irinotecan (S-1/irinotecan) therapy. Methods and Materials: The study group consisted of 115 patients with clinical stage T3 or T4 rectal cancer. Patients received pelvic radiation therapy (45 Gy) plus concurrent oral S-1/irinotecan. The median follow-up was 60 months. Results: Grade 3 adverse effects occurred in 7 patients (6%), and the completion rate of NCRT was 87%. All 115 patients (100%) were able to undergo R0 surgical resection. Twenty-eight patients (24%) had a pathological complete response (ypCR). At 60 months, the local recurrence-free survival was 93%, disease-free survival (DFS) was 79%, and overall survival (OS) was 80%. On multivariate analysis with a proportional hazards model, ypN2 was the only independent prognostic factor for DFS (P=.0019) and OS (P=.0064) in the study group as a whole. Multivariate analysis was additionally performed for the subgroup of 106 patients with ypN0/1 disease, who had a DFS rate of 85.3%. Both ypT (P=.0065) and tumor location (P=.003) were independent predictors of DFS. A combination of these factors was very strongly related to high risk of recurrence (P<.0001), which occurred most commonly in the lung. Conclusions: NCRT with concurrent S-1/irinotecan produced high response rates and excellent long-term survival, with acceptable adverse effects in patients with rectal cancer. ypN2 is a strong predictor of dismal outcomes, and a combination of ypT and tumor location can identify high-risk patients among those with ypN0/1 disease.

  18. Prognostic factors of mid-term clinical outcome in congestive heart failure patients discharged after acute decompensation

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Enrico; Testa, Marzia; Avogadri, Enrico; Piccolo, Salvatore; Vado, Antonello

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Risk stratification in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients is based on a variety of clinical and laboratory variables. We analysed renal function, BNP, water composition, echocardiographic and functional determinations in predicting mid-term outcome in CHF patients discharged after decompensation. Material and methods All subjects with NYHA class II-IV were enrolled at hospital discharge. NYHA class, BNP, water body composition, non-invasive cardiac output and echocardiogram were analysed. Death, cardiac transplantation and hospital readmission for CHF were scheduled. Results Two-hundred and thirty-seven (64.5% males, age 71.1±10.1) patients were discharged after obtaining normal hydration; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 43.2±16.2%, cardiac output was 3.8±1.1 l/min and BNP at discharge resulted 401.3±501.7 pg/ml. During the 14-month follow-up 15 patients (6.3%) died, 1 (0.4%) underwent cardiac transplantation and 18 (7.6%) were readmitted for CHF (event group); in 203 (85.6%) no events were observed (no-event group). Higher NYHA class (2.1±0.7 vs. 1.9±0.4, p=0.01), BNP at discharge (750.2±527.3 pg/ml vs. 340.7±474.3 pg/ml, p=0.002) and impaired LVEF (33.7±15.7% vs. 44.5±15.8%, p=0.0001) and creatinine (1.7±0.6 vs. 1.2±0.8 mg/dl, p=0.004) were noticed in the event group. At multivariate Cox analysis LVEF (p=0.0009), plasma creatinine (p=0.006) and BNP at discharge (p=0.001) were associated with adverse mid-term outcome. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated that adding cut-off points for creatinine 1.5 mg/dl and discharged BNP of 250 pg/ml discriminated significantly prognosis (p=0.0001; log rank 21.09). Conclusions In predicting mid-term clinical prognosis in CHF patients discharged after acute decompensation, BNP at discharge ≥ 250 pg/ml added with plasma creatinine > 1.5 mg/dl are strong adverse predictors. PMID:22852001

  19. Prognostic factors and risk stratification in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Sameer A; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable heterogeneity in the clinical outcome of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). While some patients live for decades without any therapy, others die within years of diagnosis despite multiple treatments. To better counsel newly diagnosed CLL patients about their disease course, the Rai and Binet staging systems were developed four decades ago. A deeper understanding of the biologic and molecular aberrations contributing to the pathogenesis of CLL led to identification of novel prognostic markers such as immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene (IGHV) mutation status, leukemia-cell expression of CD38, ZAP-70, and CD49d, and cytogenetic abnormalities detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The advent of next-generation sequencing has provided unprecedented insights into the subclonal architecture of CLL and its impact on disease progression and survival. More recently, integrated prognostic scoring systems that incorporate clinical, biologic and genetic characteristics into a single risk score have been developed and appear to improve the accuracy of prognostication for individual patients. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art prognostic factors and will guide the practicing clinician in their care of patients with CLL. PMID:27040701

  20. Clinical prognostic values of vascular endothelial growth factor, microvessel density,and p53 expression in esophageal carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Myung-Ju; Jang, Se-Jin; Park, Yong-Wook; Choi, Jung-Hye; Oh, Ho-Suk; Lee, Chul-Burm; Paik, Hong-Kyu; Park, Chan-Kum

    2002-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to play a key role in tumor angiogenesis. The tumor-suppressor gene p53 has been thought to regulate VEGF. We investigated the effect of VEGF on esophageal carcinoma and the correlation between VEGF and p53. Tissue samples were taken from 81 patients with esophageal carcinoma after surgery. VEGF and p53 expressions were examined by immunohistochemical staining. Microvessels in the tumor stained for CD34 antigen were also counted. VEGF and p53 expressions were observed in 51.3% (41/80) and 51.9% (41/79), respectively. The microvessel density was 70.9+/-6.7 (mean+/-SE) in VEGF-positive group and 68.7+/-5.1 in VEGF-negative group. However, no correlation was noted between VEGF and p53 expression. Whereas the tumor size, nodal status, depth of invasions, and tumor stage were associated with poor overall survival, VEGF expression or p53 expression was not. These results indicate that VEGF and p53 are highly expressed in esophageal carcinomas. Since the VEGF expression is not correlated with the p53 expression, microvessel density or clinicopathological findings, further studies with other angiogenic molecules are needed to determine the role in esophageal carcinomas. PMID:11961303

  1. Molecular predictive and prognostic factors in ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Benson, Rony; Mallick, Supriya; Julka, Pramod K; Rath, Goura K

    2016-01-01

    An ependymoma is an uncommon glial tumor, which arises from different parts of the neuroaxis. Considerable variation in presentation and survival in tumors in different locations after an optimum treatment indicates inherent molecular and genetic differences in tumorigenesis between them. A number of genetic aberrations have been identified to distinctly characterize different subgroups of ependymomas that include a posterior fossa tumor, a supratentorial tumor, and a pediatric tumor. These different groups have substantial genetic alterations, and also distinct demography, clinical characteristics, and prognosis. This article is intended to review the diverse molecular and genetic aberrations that may be helpful in prognostication and prediction of survival in patients suffering from an ependymoma. PMID:26954807

  2. Prognostic Factors After Extraneural Metastasis of Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mazloom, Ali; Zangeneh, Azy H.; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To review the existing literature regarding the characteristics, prognostic factors, treatment, and survival of patients with medulloblastoma, who develop extraneural metastasis (ENM). Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English language articles from 1961 to 2007 was performed, yielding 47 articles reporting on 119 patients. Factors analyzed included age, time interval to development of ENM, ENM location, central nervous system (CNS) involvement, treatment, and outcome. Results: Sites of ENM included bone in 84% of patients, bone marrow in 27% of patients, lymph nodes in 15% of patients, lung in 6% of patients, and liver in 6% of patients. Median survival was 8 months after diagnosis of ENM. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates after diagnosis of ENM were 41.9%, 31.0%, and 26.0%, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates after diagnosis of ENM were 34.5%, 23.2%, and 13.4%, respectively. For patients without CNS involvement at the time of ENM diagnosis, the 1-, 2-, and 5-year OS rates for those treated with and without radiotherapy (RT) were 82.4%, 64.8%, and 64.8% vs. 51.0%, 36.6%, and 30.5%, respectively (p = 0.03, log-rank test). RT did not significantly improve OS or PFS rates for those with CNS involvement. Concurrent CNS involvement, ENM in the lung or liver, a time interval of <18 months to development of ENM, and a patient age of <16 years at ENM diagnosis were found to be negative prognostic factors for both OS and PFS. Conclusions: Several prognostic factors were identified for patients with ENM from medulloblastoma. Patients without concurrent CNS involvement, who received RT after ENM diagnosis had an OS and PFS benefit compared to those who did not receive RT.

  3. Clinical Features, Short-Term Mortality, and Prognostic Risk Factors of Septic Patients Admitted to Internal Medicine Units: Results of an Italian Multicenter Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, Antonino; Dentali, Francesco; La Regina, Micaela; Foglia, Emanuela; Gambacorta, Maurizia; Garagiola, Elisabetta; Bonardi, Giorgio; Clerici, Pierangelo; Concia, Ercole; Colombo, Fabrizio; Campanini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Only a few studies provided data on the clinical history of sepsis within internal Medicine units. The aim of the study was to assess the short-term mortality and to evaluate the prognostic risk factors in a large cohort of septic patients treated in internal medicine units. Thirty-one internal medicine units participated to the study. Within each participating unit, all admitted patients were screened for the presence of sepsis. A total of 533 patients were included; 78 patients (14.6%, 95%CI 11.9, 18.0%) died during hospitalization; mortality rate was 5.5% (95% CI 3.1, 9.6%) in patients with nonsevere sepsis and 20.1% (95%CI 16.2, 28.8%) in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Severe sepsis or septic shock (OR 4.41, 95%CI 1.93, 10.05), immune system weakening (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.12, 3.94), active solid cancer (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.16, 3.94), and age (OR 1.03 per year, 95% CI 1.01, 1.06) were significantly associated with an increased mortality risk, whereas blood culture positive for Escherichia coli was significantly associated with a reduced mortality risk (OR 0.46, 95%CI 0.24, 0.88). In-hospital mortality of septic patients treated in internal medicine units appeared similar to the mortality rate obtained in recent studies conducted in the ICU setting. PMID:26825876

  4. Clinical Features, Short-Term Mortality, and Prognostic Risk Factors of Septic Patients Admitted to Internal Medicine Units: Results of an Italian Multicenter Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, Antonino; Dentali, Francesco; La Regina, Micaela; Foglia, Emanuela; Gambacorta, Maurizia; Garagiola, Elisabetta; Bonardi, Giorgio; Clerici, Pierangelo; Concia, Ercole; Colombo, Fabrizio; Campanini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Only a few studies provided data on the clinical history of sepsis within internal Medicine units. The aim of the study was to assess the short-term mortality and to evaluate the prognostic risk factors in a large cohort of septic patients treated in internal medicine units. Thirty-one internal medicine units participated to the study. Within each participating unit, all admitted patients were screened for the presence of sepsis. A total of 533 patients were included; 78 patients (14.6%, 95%CI 11.9, 18.0%) died during hospitalization; mortality rate was 5.5% (95% CI 3.1, 9.6%) in patients with nonsevere sepsis and 20.1% (95%CI 16.2, 28.8%) in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Severe sepsis or septic shock (OR 4.41, 95%CI 1.93, 10.05), immune system weakening (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.12, 3.94), active solid cancer (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.16, 3.94), and age (OR 1.03 per year, 95% CI 1.01, 1.06) were significantly associated with an increased mortality risk, whereas blood culture positive for Escherichia coli was significantly associated with a reduced mortality risk (OR 0.46, 95%CI 0.24, 0.88). In-hospital mortality of septic patients treated in internal medicine units appeared similar to the mortality rate obtained in recent studies conducted in the ICU setting.

  5. Clinical significance of pre-operative neutrophil lymphocyte ratio and platelet lymphocyte ratio as prognostic factors for patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, ZHEN-YU; LIU, HAI-LIANG; NING, NING; LI, SONG-YAN; DU, XIAO-HUI; LI, RONG

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the independent prognostic values of the pre-operative neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study retrospectively analyzed the data of 216 patients with CRC from a single hospital. The clinicopathological characteristics of the patients were compared and prognostic factors were evaluated. NLR and PLR were associated with tumor differentiation status and the tumor diameter, respectively, and PLR was also associated with the primary tumor classification (T classification). Furthermore, NLR and PLR were positively associated with each other (R2=0.5368; P<0.0001). Univariate analyses indicated that stage II and III patients with a high NLR (≥4.98; P<0.001) or PLR (≥246.36; P<0.001) possessed a significantly poorer 5-year OS rate compared with those with a low NLR or PLR. Post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy improved the 5-year OS rate in patients with a high NLR or PLR. Multivariate analyses indicated that NLR and PLR were independent prognostic factors [NLR, relative risk (RR)=4.074 and P<0.001; PLR, RR=2.029 and P=0.029] in patients with CRC, and were associated with the T classification, lymph node metastasis and post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy response of patients. Additionally, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.748 for NLR (95% CI, 0.684–0.804; P<0.0001) and 0.690 for PLR (95% CI, 0.623–0.751; P<0.0001). The RR and AUC indicated that NLR was the superior predictive factor in patients with CRC. In conclusion, the pre-operative NLR and PLR were significant independent prognostic factors in patients with CRC, and NLR was more effective as a prognostic marker compared with PLR. Adjuvant chemotherapy appeared to be more effective in CRC patients with a higher NLR or PLR. PMID:26998156

  6. Survival and prognostic factors of early ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Villa, A.; Parazzini, F.; Acerboni, S.; Guarnerio, P.; Bolis, G.

    1998-01-01

    Survival and prognostic factors were analysed in 150 patients with histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer stage IA-IIA. The relapse-free and overall survival rates were, respectively, 81% and 88% after 3 and 74% and 84% after 5 years. The analysis of various prognostic factors indicates as the main factor the grade differentiation of the tumour. PMID:9459156

  7. Clinical and Histological Prognostic Factors in Axillary Node-Negative BreastCancer: Univariate and Multivariate Analysis with Relation to 5-Year Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Khanna; Tokuda; Shibuya; Tanaka; Sekine; Tajima; Osamura; Mitomi

    1995-04-30

    In the recent years several studies have shown that about 30% of cases with axillary node-nagative breast cancer suffer relapse of the disease. Our attempt was made to evaluate the most significant prognostic factors to predict this high risk group which may be benefited from adjuvant treatment. For this purpose, we selected 9 patients out of 80 cases of node-negative breast cancer who had been followed up at least for 5 years and had the recurrence of the disease. For comparison, 16 patients from the same group who did not have relapse were selected on a random basis. Histology, receptor status, AgNOR, DNA flow cytometry and various immunohistochemical parameters were compared between the groups with recurrence and that without recurrence. On univariate analysis, tumor size, immunohistochemical expressions of PCNA, MIB-1, c-erbB-2 and S-phase fraction were significantly different between the above two groups. By multivariate analysis, immunohistochemical c-erbB-2 expression (more than 50% of cancer cells) was an independent parameter. As a summary from our studies, c-erbB-2 immunohistochemical staining on paraffin sections might be the best independent prognostic factor in axillary node-negative breast cancers.

  8. Prognostic factors and classification in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed Central

    San Miguel, J. F.; Sànchez, J.; Gonzalez, M.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of prognostic factors have allowed the design of staging systems in different haematological disorders. In a series of 220 patients with multiple myeloma, univariate analysis showed that nine parameters had a significant adverse effect on survival; poor performance status (Karnowsky scaling system less than 70%), infections before diagnosis, renal impairment (assessed either by creatinine clearance greater than 2 mg dl-1 or urea greater than 40 mg dl-1), serum calcium (greater than 10 mg dl-1), severe anaemia (less than 8.5 g dl-1), the presence of Bence-Jones proteinuria, failure to achieve complete remission, more than 40% plasma cells in bone marrow and a low paraprotein index (monoclonal component/% plasma cells: P less than 0.09). In addition, this index correlated significantly with all the other prognostic factors except performance status. The best combination of disease characteristics selected by means of the Cox regression proportional hazards method were performance status and creatinine levels. Additionally, by factor analysis of principal components we obtained a regression equation that included creatinine levels, haemoglobin, performance status and paraprotein index. Using this it was possible to separate the series of patients into three risk categories: A (65 patients), B (69 patients) and C (65 patients) with a median survival of 41, 24 and 12 months, respectively. The model provided similar results to those of the British Medical Research Council, whereas the staging systems proposed by Durie and Salmon, Merlin et al. and Carbone et al. had a lower discriminant value in our series. PMID:2757917

  9. Prospective evaluation of prognostic factors in operable breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, R. A.; Tesdale, A. L.; Killen, M. E.; Jack, W. J.; Chetty, U.; Dixon, J. M.; Hulme, M. J.; Prescott, R. J.; McIntyre, M. A.; Miller, W. R.

    1996-01-01

    In 215 patients with operable breast cancer (T1-T3, N0-1, M0) and no other or previous cancer, presenting to a single breast unit, sufficient tumour was available for the prospective determination of four putative biochemical markers of prognosis: oestrogen receptor (ER) activity, cathepsin D (cath D), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity and cyclic AMP-binding proteins (c-AMP-b). There were significant inter-relationships between ER and EGFR (r = -0.26), c-AMP-b and cath D (r = +0.32) and ER and c-AMP-b (r = +0.14). After follow-up (median 36.2 months), a total of 55 recurrences (18 locoregional only) and 35 deaths were recorded. By univariate analysis, up to 10 of 18 biochemical, clinical and histopathological variables of potential prognostic value were significantly related to disease-free interval or death, but by multivariate analysis only oestrogen receptor concentration and node status contributed significantly to risk of both distant recurrence/death; in addition, tumour size made a small contribution to the risk for a distant recurrence only. Only two parameters, tumour grade and ER concentration, were significantly related to risk of locoregional recurrence by univariate analysis, but by multivariate analysis, only tumour grade was important. It is concluded that tumour ER concentration, axillary nodal status and tumour grade remain as the most important prognostic factors in the early years after presentation of operable breast cancer, with a minor influence of tumour size. At this time, the prognostic significance of quantitative measurements of ER concentration, carefully controlled for the quality of both assay and tumour specimen, is probably greater than is generally appreciated. We have yet to identify other factors, which add significantly to the short-term prognostic value of these key features. PMID:8912547

  10. Analytical approaches relating genetic evolutionary pathways to prognostic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Rohloff, A.C.; Sakach, J.M.; Shackney, S.E.

    1995-09-01

    Human solid tumors accumulate multiple genetic abnormalities as they progress to advanced stages. Multiparameter flow cytometry measurements of individual cells within each tumor may be useful in describing the genetic pathways taken by individual tumors during the course of their genetic evolution. In this paper, we analyzed correlated cell-by-cell measurements of cell DNA content, HER-2/neu protein content, and ras protein content obtained by multiparameter flow cytometry studies of primary breast cancers from 92 patients. These laboratory findings were correlated with established clinical prognostic factors for each patient at the time of diagnosis, using a stepwise multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA). The stepwise MANOVA successively splits a group of patients into two mutually exclusive dissimilar groups, selecting the clinical prognostic factor that is most effective in doing so. Using this criterion, formation of the first three groups that were judged most dissimilar on the cytometry parameters was based on the number of positive nodes at the time of diagnosis. We show that ploidy, HER-2/neu protein content, and ras protein content, as measured by multiple parameter flow cytometry, are correlated with nodal status and other known clinical prognostic factors. The cell-by-cell multiparameter data suggest that for some individual tumors there are multiple genetic evolutionary pathways. Multiple genetic evolutionary pathways are also suggested by the MANOVA analysis. Focusing on the identification and analysis of genetic evolutionary pathways within individual tumors and across patients appears to offer a promising approach for defining the prognosis of early cancers. 9 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Prognostic factors of sciatica in the Canon of Avicenna.

    PubMed

    Minaee, Bagher; Abbassian, Alireza; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Rostamian, Abdorrahman

    2013-12-01

    Prognosis studies are fast developing and very practical types of medical research. Sciatica is one of the common types of low back pain and identifying prognostic factors of the illness can help physicians and patients to choose best method of practice. The prognostic factors of sciatica are presented from the Canon of Avicenna, one of the most famous physicians in the history of medicine.

  12. Chitinase 3-like 1: prognostic biomarker in clinically isolated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Cantó, Ester; Tintoré, Mar; Villar, Luisa M; Costa, Carme; Nurtdinov, Ramil; Álvarez-Cermeño, José C; Arrambide, Georgina; Reverter, Ferran; Deisenhammer, Florian; Hegen, Harald; Khademi, Mohsen; Olsson, Tomas; Tumani, Hayrettin; Rodríguez-Martín, Eulalia; Piehl, Fredrik; Bartos, Ales; Zimova, Denisa; Kotoucova, Jolana; Kuhle, Jens; Kappos, Ludwig; García-Merino, Juan Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio José; Saiz, Albert; Blanco, Yolanda; Hintzen, Rogier; Jafari, Naghmeh; Brassat, David; Lauda, Florian; Roesler, Romy; Rejdak, Konrad; Papuc, Ewa; de Andrés, Clara; Rauch, Stefan; Khalil, Michael; Enzinger, Christian; Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Teunissen, Charlotte; Sánchez, Alex; Rovira, Alex; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) has been proposed as a biomarker associated with the conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis in patients with clinically isolated syndromes, based on the finding of increased cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels in clinically isolated syndrome patients who later converted to multiple sclerosis compared to those who remained as clinically isolated syndrome. Here, we aimed to validate CHI3L1 as a prognostic biomarker in a large cohort of patients with clinically isolated syndrome. This is a longitudinal cohort study of clinically isolated syndrome patients with clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid data prospectively acquired. A total of 813 cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with clinically isolated syndrome were recruited from 15 European multiple sclerosis centres. Cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to investigate the association between cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels and time to conversion to multiple sclerosis and time to reach Expanded Disability Status Scale 3.0. CHI3L1 levels were higher in patients who converted to clinically definite multiple sclerosis compared to patients who continued as clinically isolated syndrome (P = 8.1 × 10(-11)). In the Cox regression analysis, CHI3L1 levels were a risk factor for conversion to multiple sclerosis (hazard ratio = 1.7; P = 1.1 × 10(-5) using Poser criteria; hazard ratio = 1.6; P = 3.7 × 10(-6) for McDonald criteria) independent of other covariates such as brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities and presence of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands, and were the only significant independent risk factor associated with the development of disability (hazard ratio = 3.8; P = 2.5 × 10(-8)). High CHI3L1 levels were associated with shorter time to multiple sclerosis (P = 3.2 × 10(-9) using Poser criteria; P = 5.6 × 10(-11) for McDonald criteria

  13. Untreated hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt: outcome and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Zeeneldin, Ahmed Abdelmabood; Salem, Salem Eid; Darwish, Amira Diaa; El-Gammal, Mosaad Mahmoud; Hussein, Marwa Mahmoud; Saadeldin, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer worldwide as well as in Egypt with hepatitis C and B, alcohol and aflatoxins being the commonest risk factors. Aim The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS) of untreated HCC in Egypt. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Tanta Cancer Center, Egypt where 288 HCC cases who received no specific therapy and were followed-up until death were identified. The impact of possible prognostic factors on OS was assessed using the log-rank test (univariate analyses) and Cox regression method (multivariate analysis). Results The median OS of untreated HCC was 2.3 months (95% confidence interval: 1.9–2.6). The 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 months OS rates were 84%, 42%, 21%, 9%, and 3%, respectively. All cases had died by 46 months. Male sex, advanced Child-Pugh class, the clinical presentation of ascites, cough, fatigue, and the presence of metastases were associated with poor survival (P<0.05 for all). In multivariate analysis; cough, presence of ascites, and Child-Pugh class were independent predictors of poor survival. Conclusion OS in untreated HCC in Egypt is very short. Many factors interact to produce this dismal survival. PMID:27508189

  14. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS AND SURVIVAL ANALYSIS IN ESOPHAGEAL CARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    TUSTUMI, Francisco; KIMURA, Cintia Mayumi Sakurai; TAKEDA, Flavio Roberto; UEMA, Rodrigo Hideki; SALUM, Rubens Antônio Aissar; RIBEIRO-JUNIOR, Ulysses; CECCONELLO, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment, esophageal cancer still has high mortality. Prognostic factors associated with patient and with disease itself are multiple and poorly explored. Aim: Assess prognostic variables in esophageal cancer patients. Methods: Retrospective review of all patients with esophageal cancer in an oncology referral center. They were divided according to histological diagnosis (444 squamous cell carcinoma patients and 105 adenocarcinoma), and their demographic, pathological and clinical characteristics were analyzed and compared to clinical stage and overall survival. Results: No difference was noted between squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma overall survival curves. Squamous cell carcinoma presented 22.8% survival after five years against 20.2% for adenocarcinoma. When considering only patients treated with curative intent resection, after five years squamous cell carcinoma survival rate was 56.6 and adenocarcinoma, 58%. In patients with squamous cell carcinoma, poor differentiation histology and tumor size were associated with worse oncology stage, but this was not evidenced in adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: Weight loss (kg), BMI variation (kg/m²) and percentage of weight loss are factors that predict worse stage at diagnosis in the squamous cell carcinoma. In adenocarcinoma, these findings were not statistically significant. PMID:27759773

  15. Systematic review of prognostic factors predicting outcome in non-surgically treated patients with sciatica.

    PubMed

    Verwoerd, A J H; Luijsterburg, P A J; Lin, C W C; Jacobs, W C H; Koes, B W; Verhagen, A P

    2013-09-01

    Identification of prognostic factors for surgery in patients with sciatica is important to be able to predict surgery in an early stage. Identification of prognostic factors predicting persistent pain, disability and recovery are important for better understanding of the clinical course, to inform patient and physician and support decision making. Consequently, we aimed to systematically review prognostic factors predicting outcome in non-surgically treated patients with sciatica. A search of Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Cinahl, up to March 2012 was performed for prospective cohort studies on prognostic factors for non-surgically treated sciatica. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion and assessed the risk of bias. Outcomes were pain, disability, recovery and surgery. A best evidence synthesis was carried out in order to assess and summarize the data. The initial search yielded 4392 articles of which 23 articles reporting on 14 original cohorts met the inclusion criteria. High clinical, methodological and statistical heterogeneity among studies was found. Reported evidence regarding prognostic factors predicting the outcome in sciatica is limited. The majority of factors that have been evaluated, e.g., age, body mass index, smoking and sensory disturbance, showed no association with outcome. The only positive association with strong evidence was found for leg pain intensity at baseline as prognostic factor for subsequent surgery.

  16. Prognostic factors on periapical surgery: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Giménez, Mireia; Sánchez-Torres, Alba

    2015-01-01

    Background Analyze the most important prognostic factors when performing periapical surgery and compare the success rates of distinct authors. Introduction Periapical surgery is an approach to treat non-healing periapical lesions and it should be viewed as an extension of endodontic treatment and not as a separate entity. Material and Methods A search of articles published in Cochrane, PubMed (MEDLINE) and Scopus was conducted with the key words “prognostic factors”, “prognosis”, “periapical surgery”, “endodontic surgery” and “surgical endodontic treatment”. The inclusion criteria were articles including at least 10 patients, published in English, for the last 10 years. The exclusion criteria were nonhuman studies and case reports. Results 33 articles were selected from 321 initially found. Ten articles from 33 were excluded and finally the systematic review included 23 articles: 1 metaanalysis, 1 systematic review, 2 randomized clinical trials, 6 reviews, 12 prospective studies and 1 retrospective study. They were stratified according to their level of scientific evidence using the SORT criteria. Conclusions Factors associated with a better outcome of periapical surgery are patients ≤45 years old, upper anterior or premolar teeth, ≤10 sized lesions, non cystic lesions, absence of preoperative signs and symptoms, lesions without periodontal involvement, teeth with an adequate root-filling length, MTA as root-end filling material, uniradicular teeth, absence of perforating lesions, apical resection < 3 mm, teeth not associated to an oroantral fistula and teeth with only one periapical surgery. Key words:Prognostic factors, prognosis, periapical surgery, endodontic surgery and surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:26449431

  17. Prognostic and predictive factors in prostate cancer: historical perspectives and recent international consensus initiatives.

    PubMed

    Srigley, John R; Amin, Mahul; Boccon-Gibod, Liliane; Egevad, Lars; Epstein, Jonathan I; Humphrey, Peter A; Mikuz, Gregor; Newling, Don; Nilsson, Sten; Sakr, Wael; Wheeler, Thomas M; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2005-05-01

    An understanding of prognosis in cancer medicine is important for patient care, research and cancer control programs. In prostate cancer, prognostic (predictive) factors are particularly important given the marked heterogeneity of this disease at clinical, morphologic and biomolecular levels. Clinical stage and histologic grade have historically played major roles in defining heterogeneity in prostate cancer. More recently, serum prostate-specific antigen measurement has assumed a significant prognostic role. Over the last two decades there has been an explosion of research into biomarkers, many of which have been purported to have prognostic significance. In this paper we present an overview of the various consensus initiatives that have transpired over the last dozen years. Criteria for evaluating prognostic factors and classifications of predictive factors have emerged that have proven useful and advanced our understanding of the biology of prostate cancer. The results of these consensus initiatives form a foundation on which the current international consultation on prognosis (prediction) in prostate cancer is built. Advances in our understanding of the new and promising prognostic factors will require a more rigorous evidence-based approach to the analysis of published studies. Furthermore, appropriate mathematical models for the analysis of the multiple factors that influence a prognostic system will have to be employed.

  18. Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Kai; Vachtsevanos, George; Orchard, Marcos E.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge discovery, statistical learning, and more specifically an understanding of the system evolution in time when it undergoes undesirable fault conditions, are critical for an adequate implementation of successful prognostic systems. Prognosis may be understood as the generation of long-term predictions describing the evolution in time of a particular signal of interest or fault indicator, with the purpose of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a failing component/subsystem. Predictions are made using a thorough understanding of the underlying processes and factor in the anticipated future usage.

  19. Prognostic factors and risk classifications for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Nobuo; Abe, Takashige

    2015-10-01

    The introduction of molecular-targeted therapy has made dramatical changes to treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Currently, there are four vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors and two mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in Japan. For the appropriate clinical use of these molecular-targeted drugs, the identification of prognostic and/or predictive factors in patients who received these drugs is required. Although molecular biological and genetic factors that determine the prognosis of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma have been reported, most of these factors are problematic in that the number of patients analyzed was small. In contrast, clinicopathological prognostic factors, including the practice of cytoreductive nephrectomy, pathological findings, metastatic sites and metastasectomy, and abnormal inflammatory response, have been identified by analyzing a relatively large number of patients. Several prognostic classification models that were developed by combining these clinicopathological factors are widely used in not only clinical trials, but also routine clinical practice. However, the quality of these prognostic models is considered to be insufficient regarding prognostic prediction of metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients and, thus, requires further improvements. Recently, basic and clinical studies have been extensively carried out for the identification of promising informative markers and for understanding molecular mechanisms of resistance to molecular-targeted drugs in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients. The present review considers ongoing translational research efforts on clinicopathological, molecular biological, and genetic prognostic and/or predictive factors for metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients in the era of molecular-targeted therapy, and discusses the clinical implications of these findings.

  20. Retrospective Study of Metastatic Melanoma and Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Brain with Multivariate Analysis of Prognostic Pre-Treatment Clinical Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ferrel, Ethan A.; Roehrig, Andrew T.; Kaya, Erin A.; Carlson, Jonathan D.; Ling, Benjamin C.; Wagner, Aaron; MacKay, Alexander R.; Call, Jason A.; Demakas, John J.; Lamoreaux, Wayne T.; Fairbanks, Robert K.; Cooke, Barton S.; Peressini, Ben; Lee, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with brain metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) or melanoma have historically had very poor prognoses of less than one year. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) can be an effective treatment for patients with these tumors. This study analyzes the effect of pretreatment prognostic factors on overall survival (OS) for RCC and melanoma patients with metastasis to the brain treated with SRS. A total of 122 patients with brain metastases from either RCC or melanoma were grouped by age at brain metastasis diagnosis, whether they received whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in addition to SRS, or they underwent surgical resection, Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS), number of brain metastases, and primary tumor. Median survival times for melanoma patients and RCC patients were 8.20 ± 3.06 and 12.70 ± 2.63 months, respectively. Patients with >5 metastases had a significantly shorter median survival time (6.60 ± 2.45 months) than the reference group (1 metastasis, 10.70 ± 13.40 months, p = 0.024). Patients with KPS ≤ 60 experienced significantly shorter survival than the reference group (KPS = 90–100), with median survival times of 5.80 ± 2.46 months (p < 0.001) and 45.20 ± 43.52 months, respectively. We found a median overall survival time of 12.7 and 8.2 months for RCC and melanoma, respectively. Our study determined that a higher number of brain metastases (>5) and lower KPS were statistically significant predictors of a lower OS prognosis. PMID:26999120

  1. Expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fibroblast growth factor 2, phosphatidyl inositol 3 phosphate kinase and their clinical and prognostic significance in early and advanced stage of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Usul Afsar, Cigdem; Sahin, Berksoy; Gunaldi, Meral; Kılıc Bagir, Emine; Gumurdulu, Derya; Burgut, Refik; Erkisi, Melek; Kara, Ismail Oguz; Paydas, Semra; Karaca, Feryal; Ercolak, Vehbi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Non-small cell lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer related to death in the world. Squamous cell lung carcinoma (SqCLC) is the second most frequent histological subtype of lung carcinomas. Recently, growth factors, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction system-related gene amplifications and mutations are extensively under investigation to estimate the prognosis and to develop individualized therapies in SqCLC. In this study, besides the signal transduction molecule phosphatidyl inositol-3-phosphate kinase (IP3K) p110α, we explored the expressions of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and receptor-1 (FGFR1) in tumor tissue and also their clinical and prognostic significance in patients with early/advanced SqCLC. Materials and methods: From 2005 to 2013, 129 patients (23 early, 106 advanced disease) with a histopathological SqCLC diagnosis were selected from the hospital files of Cukurova University Medical Faculty for this study. Two independent pathologists evaluated FGFR1, FGF2, and PI3K (p110α) expressions in both tumor and stromal tissues from 99 of the patients with sufficient tissue samples, using immunohistochemistry. Considering survival analysis separately for patients with both early and advanced stage diseases, the relationship between the clinical features of the patients and expressions were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: FGFR1 expression was found to be low in 59 (60%) patients and high in 40 (40%) patients. For FGF2; 12 (12%) patients had high, 87 (88%) patients had low expression and for IP3K; 31 (32%) patients had high and 66 (68%) patients had low expressions. In univariate analysis, overall survival (OS) was significantly associated with stage of the disease and the performance status of the patient (P<0.0001 and P<0.001). There was no significant difference in OS of the patients with either low or high expressions of FGFR1, FGF2, and IP3K. When the patients with early or advanced stage

  2. Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Progression: Prognostic Factors and Basic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sirica, Alphonse E.; Dumur, Catherine I.; Campbell, Deanna J. W.; Almenara, Jorge A.; Ogunwobi, Olorunseun O.; Dewitt, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we will examine various molecular biomarkers for their potential to serve as independent prognostic factors for predicting survival outcome in postoperative patients with progressive intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Specific rodent models of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma that mimic relevant cellular, molecular, and clinical features of the human disease are also described, not only in terms of their usefulness in identifying molecular pathways and mechanisms linked to cholangiocarcinoma development and progression, but also for their potential value as preclinical platforms for suggesting and testing novel molecular strategies for cholangiocarcinoma therapy. Last, recent studies aimed at addressing the role of desmoplastic stroma in promoting intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma progression are highlighted in an effort to underline the potential value of targeting tumor stromal components together with that of cholangiocarcinoma cells as a novel therapeutic option for this devastating cancer. PMID:19896103

  3. Prognostic factors for survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: update 2008.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2009-05-15

    A variety of prognostic factor models to predict survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma have been developed. Diverse populations of patients with variable treatments have been used for these analyses. A variety of clinical, pathologic, and molecular factors have been studied, but current models use predominantly easily obtained clinical factors. These approaches are reviewed, and current approaches to further refine and develop these techniques are reviewed.

  4. Prognostic factors for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence.

    PubMed

    Colecchia, Antonio; Schiumerini, Ramona; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Cescon, Matteo; Taddia, Martina; Marasco, Giovanni; Festi, Davide

    2014-05-28

    The recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, the sixth most common neoplasm and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, represents an important clinical problem, since it may occur after both surgical and medical treatment. The recurrence rate involves 2 phases: an early phase and a late phase. The early phase usually occurs within 2 years after resection; it is mainly related to local invasion and intrahepatic metastases and, therefore, to the intrinsic biology of the tumor. On the other hand, the late phase occurs more than 2 years after surgery and is mainly related to de novo tumor formation as a consequence of the carcinogenic cirrhotic environment. Since recent studies have reported that early and late recurrences may have different risk factors, it is clinically important to recognize these factors in the individual patient as soon as possible. The aim of this review was, therefore, to identify predicting factors for the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, by means of invasive and non-invasive methods, according to the different therapeutic strategies available. In particular the role of emerging techniques (e.g., transient elastography) and biological features of hepatocellular carcinoma in predicting recurrence have been discussed. In particular, invasive methods were differentiated from non-invasive ones for research purposes, taking into consideration the emerging role of the genetic signature of hepatocellular carcinoma in order to better allocate treatment strategies and surveillance follow-up in patients with this type of tumor.

  5. [Prognostic factors in Guillain-Barré syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kaida, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is not as good as might be expected. Among GBS patients, 30% do not respond to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg) and 10% may worsen after initial treatment (treatment-related fluctuation). Recent prospective trials show that 16% of GBS patients are unable to walk independently a year after onset of the disease. The prognosis of GBS is influenced by clinical, electrophysiological and biological factors, of which the clinical factors are most important. The Erasmus GBS Respiratory Insufficiency Score (EGRIS) and the modified EGOS (Erasmus GBS Outcome Score) are very useful for prediction of mechanical ventilation or aided walking. A small increase in serum IgG (delta IgG) two weeks after IVIg treatment is useful as a biological prognostic marker that is significantly associated with slow recovery and aided walking at 6 months. Use of these factors makes it possible to predict the prognosis of GBS patients, and to identify patients with a poor prognosis in the early phase of the disease and provide these patients with intensive treatment. An accurate prediction of the level of disability is important for improvement of the prognosis of GBS.

  6. Update on prognostic factors in acromegaly: Is a risk score possible?

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rodriguez, E; Casanueva, F F; Bernabeu, I

    2015-06-01

    Certain clinical conditions and markers have recently been demonstrated to modify the natural history of acromegaly in affected patients. Thus, some clinical, histological, radiological and molecular factors are associated with more aggressive pituitary tumors that have higher biochemical activity, higher tumor volumes and decreased tumoral and biochemical responses to current therapies. However, these factors do not seem to have an equal influence on the prognosis of patients with acromegaly. We present a review of the factors that influence the clinical course of patients with acromegaly and propose a risk value for each factor that will allow prognostic scoring for affected patients by considering a combination of these factors.

  7. Endometrial adenocarcinoma, adjuvant radiotherapy tailored to prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, J H; Hoekstra, C J; van Putten, W L; Tjokrowardojo, A J; Koper, P C

    1990-02-01

    The optimal adjuvant radiotherapy for surgically treated endometrial cancer has not yet been defined. We report on 389 patients treated between 1970 and 1985 with adjuvant radiotherapy. The treatment was tailored to the known prognostic factors: myometrial invasion and grade of differentiation of the tumor. Ten-year overall survival was 67%, 10-year relapse-free survival 77%; 23% relapse, of which 21% distant and 6% locoregional relapse. In a multivariate analysis, stage (pT), grade, and myometrial invasion were prognostic factors. The number of locoregional failures was very small (n = 23). This small number, the fact that radiation treatment was tailored to prognostic factors, and the absence of a nontreated control group precluded an analysis of the effect of the adjuvant irradiation. Large randomized studies with a control (no treatment) arm should be performed to determine the value of adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:2303362

  8. [Prognostic factors in elderly patient meningioma].

    PubMed

    Villalpando-Navarrete, Edgar; Rosas-Peralta, Víctor Hugo; Sandoval-Balanzario, Miguel Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: frecuentemente debe tomarse una decisión terapéutica para el manejo del meningioma en el paciente geriátrico. El presente estudio analiza factores pronósticos, así como la escala Clinical- Radiological Grading Score (CRGS) como auxiliar para la decisión terapéutica. Métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo entre 2009 y 2010. La población estudiada fue de 28 pacientes mayores de 65 años de edad. Se analizaron factores clínicos, imagenológicos e histopatológicos. Se utilizó la prueba chi cuadrada y la exacta de Fisher para variables cuantitativas y U de Mann-Whitney para variables cualitativas. Resultados: la mortalidad global a los 3, 6 y 12 meses de seguimiento fue del 7.14, 10.71 y 14.28 %, respectivamente. El análisis reveló que el estado funcional con la escala de Karnofsky (p = 0.02), la localización de la lesión (p = 0.002), el grado de malignidad histopatológico (p = 0.038) y una puntuación menor de 10 en la escala CRGS (p = 0.003) se asocian con un mal pronóstico. Conclusión: el manejo neuroquirúrgico del paciente geriátrico es una posibilidad terapéutica con un pronóstico favorable en pacientes con una puntuación igual o mayor de 10 y en aquellos con un adecuado estado funcional.

  9. Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia: natural history and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Falloon, Judith; Bennett, John E.; Shaw, Pamela A.; Chaitt, Doreen; Baseler, Michael W.; Adelsberger, Joseph W.; Metcalf, Julia A.; Polis, Michael A.; Kovacs, Stephen J.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Davey, Richard T.; Lane, H. Clifford; Masur, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare non–HIV-related syndrome with unclear natural history and prognosis. This prospective natural history cohort study describes the clinical course, CD4 T lymphocyte kinetics, outcome, and prognostic factors of ICL. Thirty-nine patients (17 men, 22 women) 25 to 85 years old with ICL were evaluated between 1992 and 2006, and 36 were followed for a median of 49.5 months. Cryptococcal and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections were the major presenting opportunistic infections. Seven patients presented with no infection. In 32, CD4 T-cell counts remained less than 300/mm3 throughout the study period and in 7 normalized after an average of 31 months. Overall, 15 (41.6%) developed an opportunistic infection in follow-up, 5 (13.8%) of which were “AIDS-defining clinical conditions,” and 4 (11.1%) developed autoimmune diseases. Seven patients died, 4 from ICL-related opportunistic infections, within 42 months after diagnosis. Immunologic analyses revealed increased activation and turnover in CD4 but not CD8 T lymphocytes. CD8 T lymphocytopenia (< 180/mm3) and the degree of CD4 T cell activation (measured by HLA-DR expression) at presentation were associated with adverse outcome (opportunistic infection-related death; P = .003 and .02, respectively). This trial is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00001319. PMID:18456875

  10. Predictive and Prognostic Factors in Ovarian and Uterine Carcinosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Cicin, İrfan; Özatlı, Tahsin; Türkmen, Esma; Özturk, Türkan; Özçelik, Melike; Çabuk, Devrim; Gökdurnalı, Ayşe; Balvan, Özlem; Yıldız, Yaşar; Şeker, Metin; Özdemir, Nuriye; Yapar, Burcu; Tanrıverdi, Özgür; Günaydin, Yusuf; Menekşe, Serkan; Öksüzoğlu, Berna; Aksoy, Asude; Erdogan, Bülent; Bekir Hacıoglu, M.; Arpaci, Erkan; Sevinç, Alper

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prognostic factors and the standard treatment approach for gynaecological carcinosarcomas have not yet been clearly defined. Although carcinosarcomas are more aggressive than pure epithelial tumours, they are treated similarly. Serous/clear cell and endometrioid components may be predictive factors for the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) or radiotherapy (RT) or RT in patients with uterine and ovarian carcinosarcomas. Heterologous carcinosarcomas may benefit more from adjuvant CT. Aims: We aimed to define the prognostic and predictive factors associated with treatment options in ovarian (OCS) and uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS). Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with ovarian and uterine carcinosarcoma from 2000 to 2013, and 127 women were included in this study (24 ovarian and 103 uterine). Patients admitted to seventeen oncology centres in Turkey between 2000 and December 2013 with a histologically proven diagnosis of uterine carcinosarcoma with FIGO 2009 stage I–III and patients with sufficient data obtained from well-kept medical records were included in this study. Stage IV tumours were excluded. The patient records were retrospectively reviewed. Data from 104 patients were evaluated for this study. Results: Age (≥70 years) was a poor prognostic factor for UCS (p=0.036). Pelvic±para aortic lymph node dissection did not affect overall survival (OS) (p=0.35). Macroscopic residual disease was related with OS (p<0.01). The median OS was significantly longer in stage I–II patients than stage III patients (p=0.03). Adjuvant treatment improved OS (p=0.013). Adjuvant radiotherapy tended to increase the median OS (p=0.075). However, this tendency was observed in UCS (p=0.08) rather than OCS (p=0.6).Adjuvant chemotherapy had no effect on OS (p=0.15).Adjuvant radiotherapy significantly prolonged the median OS in patients with endometrioid component (p=0.034). A

  11. Severe acute pancreatitis: Pathogenetic aspects and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Mofleh, Ibrahim A Al

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 20% of patients with acute pancreatitis develop a severe disease associated with complications and high risk of mortality. The purpose of this study is to review pathogenesis and prognostic factors of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). An extensive medline search was undertaken with focusing on pathogenesis, complications and prognostic evaluation of SAP. Cytokines and other inflammatory markers play a major role in the pathogenesis and course of SAP and can be used as prognostic markers in its early phase. Other markers such as simple prognostic scores have been found to be as effective as multifactorial scoring systems (MFSS) at 48 h with the advantage of simplicity, efficacy, low cost, accuracy and early prediction of SAP. Recently, several laboratory markers including hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and serum amyloid A (SAA) have been used as early predictors of severity within the first 24 h. The last few years have witnessed a tremendous progress in understanding the pathogenesis and predicting the outcome of SAP. In this review we classified the prognostic markers into predictors of severity, pancreatic necrosis (PN), infected PN (IPN) and mortality. PMID:18205255

  12. Lupus thrombocytopenia: clinical implications and prognostic significance

    PubMed Central

    Ziakas, P; Giannouli, S; Zintzaras, E; Tzioufas, A; Voulgarelis, M

    2005-01-01

    Methods: 632 patients were reviewed retrospectively. Fifty patients with thrombocytopenia were included as cases and matched with 100 control patients. Clinical manifestations at first thrombocytopenic episode were recorded. Classification criteria at diagnosis, basic immunological profiles, disease activity (ECLAM), and end organ damage (SLICC) were recorded. Results: 29/50 (58%) had thrombocytopenia at diagnosis of lupus. Haemorrhagic manifestations were associated with the degree of thrombocytopenia (p<0.001). Anticardiolipin antibodies were not related to the degree of thrombocytopenia or the severity of haemorrhagic manifestations. Megakaryocytes were normal or increased in 26/28 (93%) bone marrow specimens, indicating peripheral platelet destruction. Patients with high disease activity were more thrombocytopenic than controls (OR = 2.61, 95% CI 1.13 to 5.96, p = 0.009). Patients with low C3 or CH50 were more likely to be thrombocytopenic (OR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.05 to 5.26, p = 0.029). Median SLICC for lupus patients with thrombocytopenia was 2 (range 0–11) compared with 1 (range 0–12) for controls (p<0.001). No deaths occurred during thrombocytopenic episodes. Conclusions: Thrombocytopenia is not directly associated with end organ damage and mortality, but defines a subgroup of patients with higher morbidity and is thus a major complication of systemic lupus erythematosus, affecting overall prognosis. PMID:16100344

  13. Prognostic factors in primary malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva: a clinicopathological study of 256 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Paridaens, A D; Minassian, D C; McCartney, A C; Hungerford, J L

    1994-01-01

    A series of 256 consecutive cases of invasive primary conjunctival malignant melanomas was examined to identify clinical and histopathological prognostic factors. The follow up period varied between 0.3 and 45.9 years (mean 9 years, median 6.3 years). The 5 year survival rate was estimated at 82.9%, the 10 year survival rate at 69.3%. Multiple regression analysis with the Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess sex, age, and a number of baseline features of conjunctival malignant melanoma as possible prognostic factors influencing melanoma related mortality. In assessing each potential prognostic factor, the effects of all other factors were taken into account in the modelling process. Tumours in unfavourable locations--that is, those involving the palpebral conjunctiva, fornices, plica, caruncle, and lid margins, were associated with 2.2 times higher mortality compared with (epi)bulbar melanomas. Patients with mixed cell type tumours had about three times higher mortality compared with those with pure spindle cell melanomas, and histological evidence of lymphatic invasion by tumour cells was also a prognostic feature, carrying a fourfold increase in the death rate. Multifocal tumours were associated with a fivefold increase in mortality among those with tumours in favourable (epi)bulbar locations, but were not prognostic in patients with melanomas in unfavourable sites. The death rate was significantly higher in those with initial tumour thickness of more than 4 mm, but only among patients with unfavourably located melanomas. Sex, age, and clinical origin of the tumour (primary acquired melanosis, pre-existing naevus, or de novo) were not useful prognostic indicators in this study. PMID:8199108

  14. A 10-year prognostic model for patients with suspected angina attending a chest pain clinic

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Neha; Perel, Pablo; Clayton, Tim; Feder, Gene S; Hemingway, Harry; Timmis, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Diagnostic models used in the management of suspected angina provide no explicit information about prognosis. We present a new prognostic model of 10-year coronary mortality in patients presenting for the first time with suspected angina to complement the Diamond-Forrester diagnostic model of disease probability. Methods and results A multicentre cohort of 8762 patients with suspected angina was followed up for a median of 10 years during which 233 coronary deaths were observed. Developmental (n=4412) and validation (n=4350) prognostic models based on clinical data available at first presentation showed good performance with close agreement and the final model utilised all 8762 patients to maximise power. The prognostic model showed strong associations with coronary mortality for age, sex, chest pain typicality, smoking status, diabetes, pulse rate, and ECG findings. Model discrimination was good (C statistic 0.83), patients in the highest risk quarter accounting for 173 coronary deaths (10-year risk of death: 8.7%) compared with a total of 60 deaths in the three lower risk quarters. When the model was simplified to incorporate only Diamond-Forrester factors (age, sex and character of symptoms) it underestimated coronary mortality risk, particularly in patients with reversible risk factors. Conclusions For the first time in patients with suspected angina, a prognostic model is presented based on simple clinical factors available at the initial cardiological assessment. The model discriminated powerfully between patients at high risk and lower risk of coronary death during 10-year follow-up. Clinical utility was reflected in the prognostic value it added to the updated Diamond-Forrester diagnostic model of disease probability. PMID:26928409

  15. Prognostic Factors for Surgically Resected N2 Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Keishi; Sato, Yasunori; Suzuki, Yoshio; Saito, Haruhisa; Nomura, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) with pathologically documented ipsilateral mediastinal lymph node (LN) metastases (pN2) are a broad spectrum of diseases. We retrospectively analyzed prognostic factors for cases of pN2 NSCLC treated by surgical resection. Methods: Clinicopathological data were reviewed for consecutive 121 patients who underwent anatomical pulmonary resection with mediastinal LN sampling or dissection for pN2 NSCLC over a 15-year period. Results: The 5-year survival rate for all patients was 29.9%. Clinical N status, curability, surgical procedure and adjuvant chemotherapy were favorable prognostic factors in univariate analysis, with 5-year survival rates of 35.0% for cN0/1 vs. 17.7% for cN2/3 cases; 33.1% for R0 vs. 14.7% for R1/2 resection; 31.5% for lobectomy vs. 25.0% for bilobectomy and 15.6% for pneumonectomy; and 72.7% with adjuvant chemotherapy vs. 23.8% without adjuvant chemotherapy. Survival did not differ significantly based on gender, age, smoking status, clinical T status, tumor location, histology, skip metastasis, subcarinal LN metastasis, or number of involved N2 levels. In multivariate analysis, adjuvant chemotherapy, R0 resection, and lobectomy emerged as independent favorable prognostic factors. Conclusion: Complete resection using lobectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy are favorable prognostic factors in cases of pN2 NSCLC. PMID:25641029

  16. Bile duct invasion can be an independent prognostic factor in early stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ye-Rang; Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Jeong-Moo; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), bile duct invasion occurs far more rarely than vascular invasion and is not well characterized. In addition, the pathologic finding of bile duct invasion is not considered an independent prognostic factor for HCC following surgery. In this study, we determined the characteristics of HCC with bile duct invasion, and assessed the clinical significance of bile duct invasion. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 363 patients who underwent hepatic resection for HCC at Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) from January 2009 to December 2011. Preoperative, operative, and pathological data were collected. The risk factors for recurrence and survival were analyzed. Subsequently, the patients were divided into 2 groups according to disease stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer 7th edition): early stage (T1 and 2) and advanced stage (T3 and 4) group; and risk factors in the sub-groups were analyzed. Results Among 363 patients, 13 showed bile duct invasion on pathology. Patients with bile duct invasion had higher preoperative total bilirubin levels, greater microvascular invasion, and a higher death rate than those without bile duct invasion. In multivariate analysis, bile duct invasion was not an independent prognostic factor for survival for the entire cohort, but, was an independent prognostic factor for early stage. Conclusions Bile duct invasion accompanied microvascular invasion in most cases, and could be used as an independent prognostic factor for survival especially in early stage HCC (T1 and T2). PMID:26693236

  17. Outcome and Prognostic Factors of Radiation Therapy for Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Stefan; Mohr, Angela; Habermehl, Daniel; Welzel, Thomas; Lindel, Katja; Witt, Olaf; Kulozik, Andreas E.; Wick, Wolfgang; Debus, Juergen; Combs, Stephanie E.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate treatment outcome and prognostic factors after radiation therapy in patients with medulloblastomas (MB). Methods and Materials: Sixty-six patients with histologically confirmed MB were treated at University Hospital of Heidelberg between 1985 and 2009. Forty-two patients (64%) were pediatric ({<=}18 years), and 24 patients (36%) were adults. Tumor resection was performed in all patients and was complete in 47%. All patients underwent postoperative craniospinal irradiation (CSI) delivering a median craniospinal dose of 35.5 Gy with additional boosts to the posterior fossa up to 54.0 Gy. Forty-seven patients received chemotherapy, including 21 in whom chemotherapy was administered before CSI. Statistical analysis was performed using the log-rank test and the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median follow-up was 93 months. Overall survival (OS) and local and distant progression-free survival (LPFS and DPFS) were 73%, 62%, and 77% at 60 months. Both local and distant recurrence predisposed for significantly reduced OS. Macroscopic complete tumor resection, desmoplastic histology and early initiation of postoperative radiation therapy within 28 days were associated with improved outcome. The addition of chemotherapy did not improve survival rates. Toxicity was moderate. Conclusions: Complete resection of MB followed by CSI yields long survival rates in both children and adults. Delayed initiation of CSI is associated with poor outcome. Desmoplastic histology is associated with improved survival. The role of chemotherapy, especially in the adult population, must be further investigated in clinical studies.

  18. Predictive factors of true bacteremia and the clinical utility of blood cultures as a prognostic tool in patients with community-onset pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Hoo; Kim, Yee Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although blood cultures (BCs) are an important component of diagnostic practice for antibiotic management in patients with pneumonia, several studies have questioned whether they should be performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive factors of bacteremia and the role of BCs in patients with community-onset pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia and healthcare-associated pneumonia). This study was retrospectively conducted in patients with community-onset pneumonia who were hospitalized at Jeju National University Hospital between January 2012 and December 2014. A true bacteremia (TB) group and a contaminants or negative bacteremia (CNB) group were classified according to the bacterial growth on the BC media and were investigated for the clinical relevance of the BCs. We enrolled 785 patients; the TB group and the CNB group contained 36 patients (4.5%) and 749 (95.4%) patients, respectively. Only 10 patients (1.2%) required a change in antibiotic therapy based on the BC results (3 patients with an escalation, 7 with a de-escalation). There was no significant difference between the community-acquired pneumonia and the healthcare-associated pneumonia groups with regard to the rate of antibiotic change due to the BC results (1.1% vs 1.4%; P = 0.751). Chronic liver disease (odds ratio [OR] 2.973, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.099–8.037), a confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure, age ≥65 (CURB-65) score of 4 to 5 points (OR 3.484, 95% CI 1.304–9.307), and Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) class V (OR 2.405, 95% CI 1.007–5.743) were independently associated with TB. In patients with PSI class V and a CURB-65 score of 4 to 5 points, the TB group tended to show a higher inhospital mortality rate than the CNB group (50.0% vs 29.4%; P = 0.060, 60.0% vs 42.5%; P = 0.480). The areas under the curve for PSI score and CURB-65 score for predicting TB revealed an increased tendency compared with that of C-reactive protein (0

  19. Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Goetze, Thorsten Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed ‘‘incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma’’ (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2

  20. Clinicopathological prognostic factors for upper tract urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Timev, Alexander; Dimitrov, Plamen; Vasilev, Vasil; Krastanov, Alexander; Georgiev, Marincho; Yanev, Krasimir; Simeonov, Peter; Panchev, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of clinicopathological factors including age, gender, tumor grade, tumor stage, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), tumor necrosis and previous history of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer on outcomes of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). Material and methods A total of 60 patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma at our institute between 2005 to 2012 were included in our study. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, log rank statistics, the chi-square test and Cox regression models. Results The mean length of follow-up time was 33.3 months. There were 27 (45%) patients alive with the disease, whereas 33 (55%) were dead. In 19 cases (31.7%) the tumor grade was low, while in 41 cases (68.3%) it was high. Lymphovascular invasion was observed in 28 (46.7%) cases. Tumor necrosis was registered in 14 patients (23.3%). From the patients with LVI, 3 (9.6%) were alive, whereas from the patients negative for LVI, 75% were alive. Significant relationship was found between gender and grading and between positive LVI and low grading. Conclusions Day case Variables such as gender, grading, tumor stage, LVI and tumor necrosis were all demonstrated to be significant independent prognostic factors for the overall survival. On the multivariate analysis only LVI remained statistically significant, which may explain the different clinical course in patients and could be considered as a part of pathological reporting and treatment planning for the future. PMID:27123328

  1. Prognostic factors in neonatal acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, R L; Campbell, F; Brenbridge, A N

    1984-08-01

    Sixteen infants, 2 to 35 days of age, had acute renal failure, a diagnosis based on serum creatinine concentrations greater than 1.5 mg/dL for at least 24 hours. Eight infants were oliguric (urine flow less than 1.0 mL/kg/h) whereas the remainder were nonoliguric. To determine clinical parameters useful in prognosis, urine flow rate, duration of anuria, peak serum creatinine, urea (BUN) concentration, and nuclide uptake by scintigraphy were correlated with recovery. Nine infants had acute renal failure secondary to perinatal asphyxia, three had acute renal failure as a result of congenital cardiovascular disease, and four had major renal anomalies. Four oliguric patients died: three of renal failure and one of heart failure. All nonoliguric infants survived with mean follow-up serum creatinine concentration of 0.8 +/- 0.5 (SD) mg/dL whereas that of oliguric survivors was 0.6 +/- 0.3 mg/dL. Peak serum creatinine concentration did not differ between those patients who were dying and those recovering. All infants who were dying remained anuric at least four days and revealed no renal uptake of nuclide. Eleven survivors were anuric three days or less, and renal perfusion was detectable by scintigraphy in each case. However, the remaining survivor (with bilateral renal vein thrombosis) recovered after 15 days of anuria despite nonvisualization of kidneys by scintigraphy. In neonates with ischemic acute renal failure, lack of oliguria and the presence of identifiable renal uptake of nuclide suggest a favorable prognosis. PMID:6462825

  2. Prognostic factors in extensive mesenteric ischaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Gorey, T. F.; O'Sullivan, M.

    1988-01-01

    The records of 65 patients with diagnoses of extensive intestinal ischaemia during the 10 years from December 1973 to January 1984 were retrieved from 18 hospitals in Ireland. There were 32 males and 33 females, ranging in age from 20 to 96 years (mean 69.8 years). Duration of symptoms ranged from 4 h to 8 days. Pain was the most common presenting feature. Gastrointestinal haemorrhage was apparent in 31%, hypotension in 28% and atrial fibrillation in 43%. Associated vascular disease was present in 43%. There were elevations of serum inorganic phosphate in 15%, leucoytosis in 65% and metabolic acidosis in 67%. The mean interval from hospital admission to operation in survivors was 14.5 h, whereas the mean delay in those who died was 44 h. The correct preoperative diagnosis was made in 23 (35%) and the aetiology of intestinal ischaemia was recorded as: thrombosis 25 (39%), embolism 12 (18%), adhesions/volvulus 4 (6%) and indeterminate in 24 (37%). Laparotomy was performed in 49: gangrenous bowel was resected in 29 and six had operations designed to revascularise the intestine. The remaining 14 patients either had laparotomy alone (12) or an inappropriate operation (2). In 46 patients (70.8%) who died, death was related to three factors: the mean age of survivors was 7 years less than that of patients who died, the interval to laparotomy was on average 30 h less, and the length of ischaemic bowel was on average 61% less. PMID:3415165

  3. Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma: Clinical features, prognostic factors and survival with RCHOP in Arab patients in the PET scan era

    PubMed Central

    Al Shemmari, Salem; Sankaranarayanan, Sreedharan P.; Krishnan, Yamini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: PMBCL is a distinct type of nonhodgkins lymphoma with specific clinicopathological features. To clarify clinical features, treatment alternatives and outcomes, we evaluated 28 Arab patients treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy between 2006 and 2011. Patients and Methods: PMBCL lymphoma patients identified according to WHO classification and treated at KCCC between 2006 and 2011 were included in this study. Demographic and clinical data are presented as means or medians. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Survival rates were compared using the log-rank test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The median age of the patients was 31 years and the male to female ratio was 2:1. Majority of the patients (75%) presented with stage I/II disease. Most had features of local extension like pleural effusion (18%) and SVCO (39%). Only 11% of the patients had bone marrow involvement at presentation. 96% of the patients required biopsy from the mediastinal mass either by image guided core biopsy (75%) or by surgical biopsy. Most patients were treated by RCHOP and involved field radiotherapy. Patients with positive PET scan after RCHOP chemotherapy received salvage chemotherapy and BEAM autologous marrow transplant. The five year OS for the entire group was 85% while the PFS was 73%. Patients who had PET scan for response evaluation had better OS [P = 0.013] and PFS [P = 0.039] when compared with those patients who received only radiotherapy based on CT scan evaluation. Conclusion: PMBCL is a specific lymphoma entity seen in the young with good survival. The role of PET scan for response evaluation and the type of consolidation therapy needs to be further clarified PMID:25125808

  4. Individual participant data meta-analysis of prognostic factor studies: state of the art?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prognostic factors are associated with the risk of a subsequent outcome in people with a given disease or health condition. Meta-analysis using individual participant data (IPD), where the raw data are synthesised from multiple studies, has been championed as the gold-standard for synthesising prognostic factor studies. We assessed the feasibility and conduct of this approach. Methods A systematic review to identify published IPD meta-analyses of prognostic factors studies, followed by detailed assessment of a random sample of 20 articles published from 2006. Six of these 20 articles were from the IMPACT (International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in traumatic brain injury) collaboration, for which additional information was also used from simultaneously published companion papers. Results Forty-eight published IPD meta-analyses of prognostic factors were identified up to March 2009. Only three were published before 2000 but thereafter a median of four articles exist per year, with traumatic brain injury the most active research field. Availability of IPD offered many advantages, such as checking modelling assumptions; analysing variables on their continuous scale with the possibility of assessing for non-linear relationships; and obtaining results adjusted for other variables. However, researchers also faced many challenges, such as large cost and time required to obtain and clean IPD; unavailable IPD for some studies; different sets of prognostic factors in each study; and variability in study methods of measurement. The IMPACT initiative is a leading example, and had generally strong design, methodological and statistical standards. Elsewhere, standards are not always as high and improvements in the conduct of IPD meta-analyses of prognostic factor studies are often needed; in particular, continuous variables are often categorised without reason; publication bias and availability bias are rarely examined; and important

  5. AEG-1 expression is an independent prognostic factor in rectal cancer patients with preoperative radiotherapy: a study in a Swedish clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Gnosa, S; Zhang, H; Brodin, V P; Carstensen, J; Adell, G; Sun, X-F

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) is widely used to downstage rectal tumours, but the rate of recurrence varies significantly. Therefore, new biomarkers are needed for better treatment and prognosis. It has been shown that astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is a key mediator of migration, invasion, and treatment resistance. Our aim was to analyse the AEG-1 expression in relation to RT in rectal cancer patients and to test its radiosensitising properties. Methods: The AEG-1 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 158 patients from the Swedish clinical trial of RT. Furthermore, we inhibited the AEG-1 expression by siRNA in five colon cancer cell lines and measured the survival after irradiation by colony-forming assay. Results: The AEG-1 expression was increased in the primary tumours compared with the normal mucosa independently of the RT (P<0.01). High AEG-1 expression in the primary tumour of the patients treated with RT correlated independently with higher risk of distant recurrence (P=0.009) and worse disease-free survival (P=0.007). Downregulation of AEG-1 revealed a decreased survival after radiation in radioresistant colon cancer cell lines. Conclusions: The AEG-1 expression was independently related to distant recurrence and disease-free survival in rectal cancer patients with RT and could therefore be a marker to discriminate patients for distant relapse. PMID:24874474

  6. Clinical and Prognostic Factors for Renal Parenchymal, Pelvis, and Ureter Cancers in SEER Registries: Collaborative Stage Data Collection System, Version 2

    PubMed Central

    Altekruse, Sean F.; Dickie, Lois; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Wu, Manxia; Lee, Richard; Delacroix, Scott

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The American Joint Committee on Cancer’s (AJCC) 7th edition cancer staging manual reflects recent changes in cancer care practices. This report assesses changes from the AJCC 6th to the AJCC 7th edition stage distributions and the quality of site-specific factors (SSFs). METHODS Incidence data for renal parenchyma and pelvis and ureter cancers from 18 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries were examined, including staging trends during 2004–2010, stage distribution changes between the AJCC 6th and 7th editions, and SSF completeness for cases diagnosed in 2010. RESULTS From 2004 to 2010, the percentage of stage I renal parenchyma cancers increased from 50% to 58%, whereas stage IV and unknown stage cases decreased (18% to 15%, and 10% to 6%, respectively). During this period, the percentage of stage 0a renal pelvis and ureter cancers increased from 21% to 25%, and stage IV and unknown stage tumors decreased (20% to 18%, and 7% to 5%, respectively). Stage distributions under the AJCC 6th and 7th editions were about the same. For renal parenchymal cancers, 71%–90% of cases had known values for 6 required SSFs. For renal pelvis and ureter cancers, 74% of cases were coded as known for SSF1 (WHO/ISUP grade) and 47% as known for SSF2 (depth of renal parenchymal invasion). SSF values were known for larger proportions of cases with reported resections. CONCLUSIONS Stage distributions between the AJCC 6th and 7th editions were similar. SSFs were known for more than two-thirds of cases, providing more detail in the SEER database relevant to prognosis. PMID:25412394

  7. Prognostic factors in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. (Gruppo Interregionale Cooperativo di Oncologia Ginecologica (GICOG)).

    PubMed

    Marsoni, S; Torri, V; Valsecchi, M G; Belloni, C; Bianchi, U; Bolis, G; Bonazzi, C; Colombo, N; Epis, A; Favalli, G

    1990-09-01

    The data on 914 patients enrolled in four randomised trials in advanced ovarian cancer, consecutively conducted by the same cooperative group between 1978 and 1986, were analysed with the aims of: (1) determining the impact of selected prognostic variables on survival; (2) finding, from the interaction of favourable prognostic factors and treatment, an approximate estimate of the magnitude of the survival advantage associated with the use of platinum-based combination chemotherapy. The overall 3-year survival in this series of patients is twice that reported historically (22%; 95% CL 18.7-25.4). The proportional hazard regression model was used to perform the analysis on survival. Residual tumour size, age, FIGO stage and cell type were all independent determinants of survival. Differences in survival from the various prognostic groups were impressive with 5-year survival rates ranging from 7 to 62%. However, these differences were not qualitative (i.e. the kinetics of survival were similar for the best and the worst groups) suggesting that current prognostic factors are of little use for selecting 'biologically' different sub-populations. Platinum-based regimens were associated to an overall prolonged median survival, but this benefit was not observable in the subgroup with most favourable prognosis (less than 2 cm residual tumour size). The implications of these observations for clinical research and ovarian cancer patients care are discussed.

  8. Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Development of diagnostic criteria and identification of prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Owen, R G; Barrans, S L; Richards, S J; O'Connor, S J; Child, J A; Parapia, L A; Morgan, G J; Jack, A S

    2001-09-01

    To establish whether a combination of morphologic and immunophenotypic criteria could be developed to more precisely define Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) and prognostic factors, we retrospectively assessed the clinical and laboratory features of 111 cases of WM. Bone marrow infiltration by small lymphocytes was documented in each case; and diffuse, interstitial, nodular, and paratrabecular patterns of infiltration were documented in 58%, 32%, 6%, and 4% of cases, respectively. Ninety percent were characterized by a surface immunoglobulin-positive, CD19+CD20+CD5-CD10-CD23- immunophenotype. The median overall survival from diagnosis was 60 months; univariate analysis revealed the following adverse prognostic factors: older than 60 years, performance status more than 1, platelet count less than 100 x 10(3)/microL (< 100 x 10(9)/L), pancytopenia, and diffuse bone marrow infiltration. Associated median survival was 40, 38, 46, 28, and 59 months, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed age, performance status, and platelet count as prognostically significant, but stratification of patients according to the International Prognostic Index had limited value. We suggest defining WM by the following criteria: IgM monoclonal gammopathy; bone marrow infiltration by small lymphocytes, plasmacytoid cells, and plasma cells in a diffuse, interstitial, or nodular pattern; and a surface immunoglobulin-positive, CD19+CD20+CD5-CD10-CD23- immunophenotype.

  9. Prognostic factors in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. (Gruppo Interregionale Cooperativo di Oncologia Ginecologica (GICOG)).

    PubMed Central

    Marsoni, S.; Torri, V.; Valsecchi, M. G.; Belloni, C.; Bianchi, U.; Bolis, G.; Bonazzi, C.; Colombo, N.; Epis, A.; Favalli, G.

    1990-01-01

    The data on 914 patients enrolled in four randomised trials in advanced ovarian cancer, consecutively conducted by the same cooperative group between 1978 and 1986, were analysed with the aims of: (1) determining the impact of selected prognostic variables on survival; (2) finding, from the interaction of favourable prognostic factors and treatment, an approximate estimate of the magnitude of the survival advantage associated with the use of platinum-based combination chemotherapy. The overall 3-year survival in this series of patients is twice that reported historically (22%; 95% CL 18.7-25.4). The proportional hazard regression model was used to perform the analysis on survival. Residual tumour size, age, FIGO stage and cell type were all independent determinants of survival. Differences in survival from the various prognostic groups were impressive with 5-year survival rates ranging from 7 to 62%. However, these differences were not qualitative (i.e. the kinetics of survival were similar for the best and the worst groups) suggesting that current prognostic factors are of little use for selecting 'biologically' different sub-populations. Platinum-based regimens were associated to an overall prolonged median survival, but this benefit was not observable in the subgroup with most favourable prognosis (less than 2 cm residual tumour size). The implications of these observations for clinical research and ovarian cancer patients care are discussed. PMID:2119684

  10. Presence of anemia and poor prognostic factors in patients with endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wilairat, Wanitchar; Benjapibal, Mongkol

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) and prognostic factors in Thai patients with endometrial cancer. Medical records of 228 patients who had undergone surgery between January 2005 and December 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Associations between clinicopathological variables and pretreatment Hb levels were described using Pearson's chi square test or two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Survival analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier estimates. Univariate and Cox-regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic impact of various factors, including Hb levels, in term of disease-free survival. The median duration of follow-up was 38.2 months. Eighty-nine patients (39%) had a preoperative Hb level of <12 g/dL, these having significantly higher rates of non-endometrioid histology, advanced FIGO stage, lymphovascular space invasion, cervical involvement, adnexal involvement, positive peritoneal cytology, and lymph node involvement than patients with Hb ≥12 g/dL. The 5-year disease-free and overall survival were significantly lower in patients with pretreatment Hb levels <12 g/dL compared with those with Hb ≥12 g/dL (79.3% vs. 89.2%, p=0.044 and 87.6% vs. 99.3%, p<0.001, respectively). In the multivariate analysis only histology, myometrial invasion, and lymphovascular invasion proved to be independent prognostic factors, whereas tumor grading, stage, cervical involvement, adnexal involvement, positive peritoneal cytology, lymph node involvement, and low Hb were not. In conclusion, presence of anemia before treatment may reflect poor prognostic factors in patients with endometrial cancer and low pretreatment hemoglobin level may have a prognostic impact on clinical outcome.

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is a prognostic factor for radiotherapy outcome in advanced carcinoma of the cervix

    PubMed Central

    Loncaster, J A; Cooper, R A; Logue, J P; Davidson, S E; Hunter, R D; West, C M L

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate VEGF expression in tumour biopsies as a prognostic factor for radiotherapy outcome in advanced carcinoma of the cervix. A retrospective study was carried out on 100 patients. Pre-treatment tumour VEGF expression was examined immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies using a widely available commercial antibody. A semi-quantitative analysis was made using a scoring system of 0, 1, 2, and 3, for increasing intensity of staining. High VEGF expression was associated with a poor prognosis. A univariate log rank analysis found a significant relationship with overall survival (P = 0.0008) and metastasis-free survival (P = 0.0062), but not local control (P = 0.23). There was no correlation between VEGF expression and disease stage, tumour differentiation, patient age, or tumour radiosensitivity (SF2). In a Cox multivariate analysis of survival VEGF expression was the most significant independent prognostic factor (P = 0.001). After allowing for VEGF only SF2 was a significant prognostic factor (P = 0.003). In conclusion, immunohistochemical analysis of VEGF expression is a highly significant and independent prognostic indicator of overall and metastasis-free survival for patients treated with radiotherapy for advanced carcinoma of the cervix. It is also a rapid and easy method that could be used in the clinical setting, to identify patients at high risk of failure with conventional radiotherapy who may benefit from novel approaches or chemoradiotherapy. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10944602

  12. Prognostic factors in non-surgically treated sciatica: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    factors alongside clinical and radiological findings are recommended to identify prognostic factors in this population. PMID:21943339

  13. Prognostic Factors for Visual Outcome in Traumatic Cataract Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan F.; Zhu, Yu; Wan, Ming G.; Du, Shan S.; Yue, Zhen Z.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the prognostic factors for visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients. Methods. The demographic features of traumatic cataract patients in Central China were studied. The factors that might influence the visual outcome were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of OTS (ocular trauma score) in predicting VA were calculated. Results. The study enrolled 480 cases. 65.5% of patients achieved VA at >20/60. The factors associated with the final VA were initial VA, injury type, wound location, the way of cataract removal, and IOL implantation. The sensitivities of OTS in predicting the VA at NLP (nonlight perception), LP/HM (light perception/hand motion), and ≥20/40 were 100%. The specificity of OTS to predict the final VA at 1/200-19/200 and 20/200-20/50 was 100%. Conclusion. The prognostic factors were initial VA, injury type, wound location, cataract removal procedure, and the way of IOL implantation. The OTS has good sensitivity and specificity in predicting visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients in long follow-up.

  14. Prognostic Factors for Visual Outcome in Traumatic Cataract Patients.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ying; Zhang, Yan F; Zhu, Yu; Wan, Ming G; Du, Shan S; Yue, Zhen Z

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the prognostic factors for visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients. Methods. The demographic features of traumatic cataract patients in Central China were studied. The factors that might influence the visual outcome were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of OTS (ocular trauma score) in predicting VA were calculated. Results. The study enrolled 480 cases. 65.5% of patients achieved VA at >20/60. The factors associated with the final VA were initial VA, injury type, wound location, the way of cataract removal, and IOL implantation. The sensitivities of OTS in predicting the VA at NLP (nonlight perception), LP/HM (light perception/hand motion), and ≥20/40 were 100%. The specificity of OTS to predict the final VA at 1/200-19/200 and 20/200-20/50 was 100%. Conclusion. The prognostic factors were initial VA, injury type, wound location, cataract removal procedure, and the way of IOL implantation. The OTS has good sensitivity and specificity in predicting visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients in long follow-up. PMID:27595014

  15. Prognostic Factors for Visual Outcome in Traumatic Cataract Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan F.; Zhu, Yu; Wan, Ming G.; Du, Shan S.; Yue, Zhen Z.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the prognostic factors for visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients. Methods. The demographic features of traumatic cataract patients in Central China were studied. The factors that might influence the visual outcome were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of OTS (ocular trauma score) in predicting VA were calculated. Results. The study enrolled 480 cases. 65.5% of patients achieved VA at >20/60. The factors associated with the final VA were initial VA, injury type, wound location, the way of cataract removal, and IOL implantation. The sensitivities of OTS in predicting the VA at NLP (nonlight perception), LP/HM (light perception/hand motion), and ≥20/40 were 100%. The specificity of OTS to predict the final VA at 1/200-19/200 and 20/200-20/50 was 100%. Conclusion. The prognostic factors were initial VA, injury type, wound location, cataract removal procedure, and the way of IOL implantation. The OTS has good sensitivity and specificity in predicting visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients in long follow-up. PMID:27595014

  16. Intra-Gene DNA Methylation Variability Is a Clinically Independent Prognostic Marker in Women’s Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Thomas E.; Jones, Allison; Goode, Ellen L.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Berns, Els M. J. J.; Wik, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B.; Davidson, Ben; Trope, Claes G.; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Widschwendter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel per-gene measure of intra-gene DNA methylation variability (IGV) based on the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 platform, which is prognostic independently of well-known predictors of clinical outcome. Using IGV, we derive a robust gene-panel prognostic signature for ovarian cancer (OC, n = 221), which validates in two independent data sets from Mayo Clinic (n = 198) and TCGA (n = 358), with significance of p = 0.004 in both sets. The OC prognostic signature gene-panel is comprised of four gene groups, which represent distinct biological processes. We show the IGV measurements of these gene groups are most likely a reflection of a mixture of intra-tumour heterogeneity and transcription factor (TF) binding/activity. IGV can be used to predict clinical outcome in patients individually, providing a surrogate read-out of hard-to-measure disease processes. PMID:26629914

  17. Primary spinal epidural lymphoma: Patients' profile, outcome, and prognostic factors: A multicenter Rare Cancer Network study

    SciTech Connect

    Monnard, Virginie; Sun, Alex; Epelbaum, Ron; Poortmans, Philip; Miller, Robert C.; Verschueren, Tom; Scandolaro, Luciano; Villa, Salvador; Majno, Sabine Balmer; Ostermann, Sandrine; Ozsahin, Mahmut; Mirimanoff, Rene-Olivier . E-mail: rene-olivier.mirimanoff@chuv.ch

    2006-07-01

    Purpose To assess the clinical profile, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors in primary spinal epidural lymphoma (PSEL). Methods and Materials Between 1982 and 2002, 52 consecutive patients with PSEL were treated in nine institutions of the Rare Cancer Network. Forty-eight patients had an Ann Arbor stage IE and four had a stage IIE. Forty-eight patients underwent decompressive laminectomy, all received radiotherapy (RT) with (n = 32) or without chemotherapy (n = 20). Median RT dose was 36 Gy (range, 6-50 Gy). Results Six (11%) patients progressed locally and 22 (42%) had a systemic relapse. At last follow-up, 28 patients were alive and 24 had died. The 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control were 69%, 57%, and 88%, respectively. In univariate analyses, favorable prognostic factors were younger age and complete neurologic response. Multivariate analysis showed that combined modality treatment, RT volume, total dose more than 36 Gy, tumor resection, and complete neurologic response were favorable prognostic factors. Conclusions Primary spinal epidural lymphoma has distinct clinical features and outcome, with a relatively good prognosis. After therapy, local control is excellent and systemic relapse occurs in less than half the cases. Combined modality treatment appears to be superior to RT alone.

  18. Cartilage ossiculoplasty in cholesteatoma surgery: hearing results and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, N; Taliente, S; Coppola, F; Salonna, I

    2015-10-01

    Cartilage tympanoplasty is an established procedure for tympanic membrane and attic reconstruction. Cartilage has been used as an ossiculoplasty material for many years. The aim of this study was to evaluate hearing results of costal cartilage prostheses in ossicular chain reconstruction procedures in subjects operated on for middle ear cholesteatoma and to determine the presence of prognostic factors. Candidates for this study were patients affected by middle ear cholesteatoma whose ossicular chain was reconstructed with a chondroprosthesis. 67 cases of ossiculoplasty with total (TORP) or partial (PORP) chondroprosthesis were performed between January 2011 and December 2013. Follow-up examination included micro-otoscopy and pure tone audiometry. The guidelines of the Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium of the American Academy of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery were followed and pure-tone average (PTA) was calculated as the mean of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz thresholds. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA tests and regression models. Average air-bone gap (ABG) significantly improved from 39.2 dB HL (SD 9.1 dB HL) to 25.4 dB HL (SD 11 dB HL) (p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis showed that the only prognostic factor was the type of operation (p = 0.02). In fact, patients submitted to ICWT presented better post-operative ABG compared to CWDT. None of the other variables influenced the results. The present study proposes costal cartilage as material of choice when autologous ossicles are not available. The maintenance of the posterior canal wall was the only prognostic factor identified. PMID:26824916

  19. Prognostic Factors for Distress After Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer.

    PubMed

    Voorwinden, Jan S; Jaspers, Jan P C

    2016-06-01

    The psychological impact of an unfavorable genetic test result for counselees at risk for hereditary cancer seems to be limited: only 10-20 % of counselees have psychological problems after testing positive for a known familial mutation. The objective of this study was to find prognostic factors that can predict which counselees are most likely to develop psychological problems after presymptomatic genetic testing. Counselees with a 50 % risk of BRCA1/2 or Lynch syndrome completed questionnaires at three time-points: after receiving a written invitation for a genetic counseling intake (T1), 2-3 days after receiving their DNA test result (T2), and 4-6 weeks later (T3). The psychological impact of the genetic test result was examined shortly and 4-6 weeks after learning their test result. Subsequently, the influence of various potentially prognostic factors on psychological impact were examined in the whole group. Data from 165 counselees were analyzed. Counselees with an unfavorable outcome did not have more emotional distress, but showed significantly more cancer worries 4-6 weeks after learning their test result. Prognostic factors for cancer worries after genetic testing were pre-existing cancer worries, being single, a high risk perception of getting cancer, and an unfavorable test result. Emotional distress was best predicted by pre-existing cancer worries and pre-existing emotional distress. The psychological impact of an unfavorable genetic test result appears considerable if it is measured as "worries about cancer." Genetic counselors should provide additional guidance to counselees with many cancer worries, emotional distress, a high risk perception or a weak social network.

  20. Cartilage ossiculoplasty in cholesteatoma surgery: hearing results and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, N; Taliente, S; Coppola, F; Salonna, I

    2015-10-01

    Cartilage tympanoplasty is an established procedure for tympanic membrane and attic reconstruction. Cartilage has been used as an ossiculoplasty material for many years. The aim of this study was to evaluate hearing results of costal cartilage prostheses in ossicular chain reconstruction procedures in subjects operated on for middle ear cholesteatoma and to determine the presence of prognostic factors. Candidates for this study were patients affected by middle ear cholesteatoma whose ossicular chain was reconstructed with a chondroprosthesis. 67 cases of ossiculoplasty with total (TORP) or partial (PORP) chondroprosthesis were performed between January 2011 and December 2013. Follow-up examination included micro-otoscopy and pure tone audiometry. The guidelines of the Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium of the American Academy of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery were followed and pure-tone average (PTA) was calculated as the mean of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz thresholds. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA tests and regression models. Average air-bone gap (ABG) significantly improved from 39.2 dB HL (SD 9.1 dB HL) to 25.4 dB HL (SD 11 dB HL) (p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis showed that the only prognostic factor was the type of operation (p = 0.02). In fact, patients submitted to ICWT presented better post-operative ABG compared to CWDT. None of the other variables influenced the results. The present study proposes costal cartilage as material of choice when autologous ossicles are not available. The maintenance of the posterior canal wall was the only prognostic factor identified.

  1. Prognostic factors for stereopsis in refractive accommodative esotropia

    PubMed Central

    Guclu, Hande; Gurlu, Vuslat Pelitli; Ozal, Sadik Altan; Ozkurt, Zeynep Gursel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prognostic factors affecting stereoacuity in patients with refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE) according to the results of long follow- up period. Methods: We reviewed the charts of 70 patients with RAE between the years 1985-2014. Patients were classified into three groups. G-1: Stereoacuity score 40 second/arc. G-2: Stereoacuity score >40 second/arc (50-3000). G-3: No binocular vision. Initiation age of RAE, duration of deviation, refractive error, amblyopia, amblyopia treatment, anisometropia, visual acuity, family history, angle of deviation for distance and near at each group and the prognostic factors affecting stereoacuity were analyzed. Results: The mean initiation age of RAE was 2.7±1.5 years, the mean age at first visit was 6.4±4.2 years. The mean follow up time was 7.3±4.4 years. Seven patients had 40 second/arc, 48 patients had 50 to 3000 second/arc stereoacuity, 15 patients had no binocular vision. Mean deviation for near was statistically higher in group 2 and 3. Visual acuity levels were higher in group 1 and 2 and was statistically significant. Low visual acuity (p=0.001, 0.008), higher angle of deviation at near (p=0.01), increased duration of deviation (p=0.01), presence of amblyopia (p=0.001) and irregularity of amblyopia treatment (p=0.01) were significantly related with poor stereoacuity. Conclusion: According to the prognostic factors low stereoacuity was mostly related with amblyopia as a result the late presentation of the patients in seeking care. Appropriate treatment as full refractive correction and amblyopia treatment during the RAE is important for development of good stereopsis. Also angle of deviation at near and duration of deviation can be a useful predictor for poor stereoacuity levels. PMID:26430408

  2. Short-term prognostic factors in lumbar disc surgery: the low back prognostic score is of predictive value.

    PubMed

    Woertgen, C; Gliese, M; Rothoerl, R D; Holzschuh, M; Schlaier, J; Ullrich, O W; Brawanski, A

    1998-01-01

    In order to determine prognostic factors of lumbar disc surgery, we examined 107 patients who were conventionally operated on in a prospective, consecutive study. We analysed general data, the case history, the neurological examination at admission and all data from imaging examinations and therapy. In addition, all patients received a questionnaire based on the Low Back Outcome Score [9, 10]. The patients were re-examined after 2-8 months (103 days mean). According to their ratings on a pain grading scale, the patients were divided into a group with favorable and another with unfavorable results. These groups were analysed in relation to the patients' initial condition. At follow up, 88% of the patients had either completely recovered or their complaints had been relieved. According to the Low Back Outcome Score (LBOS), 64.5% went well. Used to evaluate the initial condition of the patients on admission the LBOS was able to predict favorable outcome in 68% and unfavorable outcome in 50%. To improve the prognostic value, we combined significant questions of the LBOS with the pain grading scale and significant prognostic factors to form a new prognostic score (Low Back Prognostic Score). With this new score we were able to predict a favorable outcome in 84% of our patients, and an unfavorable outcome in 71%. The Low Back Prognostic score seems to provide a sensitive method for predicting a favorable or unfavorable outcome for patients scheduled to undergo lumbar disc surgery. PMID:9577926

  3. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the breast: prognostic factors and treatment outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yao; Joks, Monika; Xu, Li-Ming; Chen, Xiu-Li; Qian, Dong; You, Jin-Qiang; Yuan, Zhi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background The breast is a rare site of extranodal involvement of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We aimed to assess the clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and treatment outcomes of breast DLBCL. Patients and methods We retrospectively analyzed 113 patients (from our institution and the literature) between 1973 and 2014. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Kaplan–Meier OS curves were compared with the log-rank test. Cox regression analysis was applied to determine the prognostic factors for OS, progression-free survival (PFS), local control (LC), and cause-specific survival (CSS). Results A total of 113 patients were included in the study: 42 cases from our hospital and 71 cases from 12 publications. The median age at diagnosis was 58 years. With a median follow-up time of 39.2 months, the estimated 5-year OS, PFS, LC, and CSS were 71.4%, 58.8%, 75.6%, and 74.9%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, more than four cycles of chemotherapy, having localized cancer, lumpectomy with or without axillary lymph node (ALN) dissection, and low to low-to-intermediate International Prognostic Index were favorable factors for OS. For PFS, significant prognostic factors were rituximab use, B symptoms, and tumor size. As for the local group, lumpectomy with or without ALN dissection and more than four cycles of chemotherapy were favorable factors for OS. Tumor size >4 cm and nonuse of rituximab were adverse factors for PFS. Twenty-one patients (18.6%) developed local relapse and 33 (29.2%) developed systemic relapse. Eight patients had central nervous system relapse (7.3%). Conclusion Our results reveal that local and extended staging criteria can reflect the different prognosis and treatment outcomes of breast DLBCL. Rituximab use, lumpectomy, and more than four cycles of chemotherapy are recommended as a treatment regimen. However, further study is warranted to validate our data. PMID:27103833

  4. Prognostic factors in early-stage ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Germana; Carnazza, Mario; Ragnoli, Monica; Calza, Stefano; Ferrari, Federico; Gambino, Angela; Zizioli, Valentina; Notaro, Sara; Sostegni, Benedetta; Sartori, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the main prognostic factors in patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Data were extracted from 222 patients with initial stage (I–IIA) invasive epithelial ovarian cancer treated with primary surgery followed or not followed by adjuvant therapy, from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008, at the Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy; the median follow-up was 79 months (SD ± 35,945, range 20–250 months). The negative prognostic factors that were statistically significant (p<0.050) in univariate analysis were grade 2, 3, and X (clear cell in our study); stage IB, IC, IIA; positive peritoneal cytology, age equal to/greater than 54; dense adhesions; capsule rupture (pre-operative or intra-operative) and endometrioid histotype (only for disease-free survival (DFS)). Positive cytology was strongly associated with peritoneal relapses, while adhesions were associated with pelvic relapses. A positive prognosis was associated with the mucinous histotype. Conservative treatment had been carried out in 52% of patients under 40 years of age, and we detected only two relapses and three completions of surgery after a few weeks among 31 women in total. Our study indicated a possible execution in patients with patients with cancer stage IA G1–G2 (p=0.030) or IC G1 (p=0.050), provided well staged. Adjuvant chemotherapy improved the survival of cancers that were not IA G1. The positive prognostic role of taxanes must be emphasised, when used in combination with platino. PMID:23781280

  5. Prognostic factors of choroidal melanoma in Slovenia, 1986–2008

    PubMed Central

    Budihna, Marjan; Drnovsek-Olup, Brigita; Andrejcic, Katrina Novak; Zupancic, Irena Brovet; Pahor, Dusica

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary malignancy of the eye, which frequently metastasizes. The Cancer Registry of Slovenia reported the incidence of choroid melanoma from 1983 to 2009 as stable, at 7.8 cases/million for men and 7.4/million for women. The aim of the retrospective study was to determinate the prognostic factors of survival for choroidal melanoma patients in Slovenia. Patients and methods From January 1986 to December 2008 we treated 288 patients with malignant choroidal melanoma; 127 patients were treated by brachytherapy with beta rays emitting ruthenium-106 applicators; 161 patients were treated by enucleation. Results Patients with tumours thickness < 7.2 mm and base diameter < 16 mm were treated by brachytherapy and had 5- and 10-year overall mortality 13% and 32%, respectively. In enucleated patients, 5- and 10-year mortality was higher, 46% and 69%, respectively, because their tumours were larger. Thirty patients treated by brachytherapy developed local recurrence. Twenty five of 127 patients treated by brachytherapy and 86 of 161 enucleated patients developed distant metastases. Patients of age ≥ 60 years had significantly lower survival in both treatment modalities. For patients treated by brachytherapy the diameter of the tumour base and treatment time were independent prognostic factors for overall survival, for patients treated by enucleation age and histological type of tumour were independent prognosticators. In first few years after either of treatments, the melanoma specific annual mortality rate increased, especially in older patients, and then slowly decreased. Conclusions It seems that particularly younger patients with early tumours can be cured, whereby preference should be given to eyesight preserving brachytherapy over enucleation. PMID:27069456

  6. Biostatistics primer: what a clinician ought to know--prognostic and predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Simms, Lorinda; Barraclough, Helen; Govindan, Ramaswamy

    2013-06-01

    Several prognostic factors in oncology have been established over the years, such as performance status, tumor size, and disease stage. The identification of prognostic and predictive factors is becoming increasingly important in medical research, particularly as scientific discoveries have led to better understanding of diseases and genetics, resulting in tailored therapy. Advances in drug discovery and better understanding of the mechanism of action, may also identify factors that may be prognostic and/or predictive. Prognostic or predictive factors may include patient characteristics such as age, ethnicity, sex, or smoking status, disease characteristics such as disease stage or nodal status, and molecular markers such as HER2 amplification and K ras mutation.It can be challenging to distinguish whether a factor is prognostic or predictive, based on what is reported in the literature. This article is intended to help the reader assess whether a factor is prognostic and/or predictive.

  7. Prognostic factors for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the R(X)CHOP era

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, R.; Witzig, T. E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The introduction of rituximab (R) to conventional CHOP chemotherapy for newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) led to an unequivocal improvement in survival, establishing RCHOP as the standard of care. Still, nearly 40% of DLBCL patients will eventually die of relapsed disease. Efforts to improve outcomes by addition of new biologic agents (X) to the RCHOP backbone are underway. In this era of R(X)CHOP, it is imperative to develop prognostic and predictive markers, not only to identify patients who will suffer a particularly aggressive course, but also to accurately select patients for clinical trials from which they will most benefit. Design The following review was undertaken to describe prognostic factors in DLBCL, with emphasis on markers that are accurate, relatively available, and clinically applicable in 2014. Results The International Prognostic Index retains its validity in the era of RCHOP, although with limited ability to predict those with <50% chance of long-term survival. Gene expression profiling has provided novel insights into the biology of DLBCL and led to the development of immunohistochemistry (IHC) algorithms that are in routine practice. Identification of a ‘double-hit’ (DH) lymphoma by fluorescent in situ hybridization with aberrations involving MYC and/or BCL2 and BCL6 genes has important implications due to its extremely dismal prognosis with RCHOP. Other markers such as the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), serum immunoglobulin free light chains, vitamin D levels, serum cytokines/chemokines, and imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) have all shown promise as future predictive/prognostic tests. Conclusions The future for new treatment options in DLBCL is promising with current clinical trials testing novel targeted agents such as bortezomib, lenalidomide, and ibrutinib as the ‘X’ in R(X)CHOP. Predictive factors are required to select and randomize patients appropriately for these trials. We

  8. Association of Telomere Length with Breast Cancer Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Têtu, Bernard; Maunsell, Elizabeth; Poirier, Brigitte; Montoni, Alicia; Rochette, Patrick J.; Diorio, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Telomere length, a marker of cell aging, seems to be affected by the same factors thought to be associated with breast cancer prognosis. Objective To examine associations of peripheral blood cell-measured telomere length with traditional and potential prognostic factors in breast cancer patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data collected before surgery from 162 breast cancer patients recruited consecutively between 01/2011 and 05/2012, at a breast cancer reference center. Data on the main lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity) were collected using standardized questionnaires. Anthropometric factors were measured. Tumor biological characteristics were extracted from pathology reports. Telomere length was measured using a highly reproducible quantitative PCR method in peripheral white blood cells. Spearman partial rank-order correlations and multivariate general linear models were used to evaluate relationships between telomere length and prognostic factors. Results Telomere length was positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.17, P = 0.033; Ptrend = 0.069), occupational physical activity (rs = 0.15, P = 0.054; Ptrend = 0.054) and transportation-related physical activity (rs = 0.19, P = 0.019; P = 0.005). Among post-menopausal women, telomere length remained positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.27, P = 0.016; Ptrend = 0.054) and occupational physical activity (rs = 0.26, P = 0.021; Ptrend = 0.056) and was only associated with transportation-related physical activity among pre-menopausal women (rs = 0.27, P = 0.015; P = 0.004). No association was observed between telomere length and recreational or household activities, other lifestyle factors or traditional prognostic factors. Conclusions Telomeres are longer in more active breast cancer patients. Since white blood cells are involved in anticancer immune responses, these findings suggest that even regular low

  9. Prognostic factors for 1-week survival in dogs diagnosed with meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, I; Volk, H A; Van Ham, L; De Decker, S

    2016-08-01

    Although long-term outcomes of meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology (MUA) in dogs have been evaluated, little is known about short-term survival and initial response to therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible prognostic factors for 7-day survival after diagnosis of MUA in dogs. Medical records were reviewed for dogs diagnosed with MUA between 2006 and 2015. Previously described inclusion criteria were used, as well as 7-day survival data for all dogs. A poor outcome was defined as death within 1 week. Of 116 dogs that met inclusion criteria, 30 (26%) died within 7 days of diagnosis. Assessed variables included age, sex, bodyweight, duration of clinical signs and treatment prior to diagnosis, venous blood glucose and lactate levels, white blood cell count on complete blood count, total nucleated cell count/total protein concentration/white blood cell differentiation on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, presence of seizures and cluster seizures, mentation at presentation, neuroanatomical localisation, imaging findings and treatment after diagnosis. Multivariate analysis identified three variables significantly associated with poor outcome; decreased mentation at presentation, presence of seizures, and increased percentage of neutrophils on CSF analysis. Despite initiation of appropriate treatment, more than a quarter of dogs died within 1 week of diagnosis of MUA, emphasising the need for evaluation of short-term prognostic factors. Information from this study could aid clinical staff to provide owners of affected dogs with prognostic information. PMID:27387733

  10. Prognostic factors in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas: p53 expression is a significant indicator of prognosis.

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Jørgensen, K E; Bastholt, L; Clausen, P P; Hansen, T P; Hansen, O; Bentzen, S M

    1998-02-01

    To identify clinical and histologic prognostic factors and to investigate whether immunohistochemical detection of p53 expression might contain prognostic information, a retrospective study of patient and tumor characteristics was performed in 225 cases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas. The analyses were based on cause-specific and crude survival. In univariate analysis, age at diagnosis, tumor size, presence of distant metastases, histology (papillary contra follicular type), extrathyroidal invasion, necrosis in primary tumor, and p53 expression were significant prognostic indicators. For 211 patients (96%) all information was available and Cox's proportional hazard model was applied. The authors found that age, distant metastases, necrosis in primary tumor, extrathyroidal invasion, and p53 expression were significant prognostic factors. Analyses of cause-specific and crude survival gave similar results. The authors conclude that age at diagnosis, presence of distant metastases, necrosis in primary tumor, and extrathyroidal invasion are important prognostic factors, and that immunohistochemical detection of p53 protein in the primary tumor is a significant and independent prognostic indicator, which might be of value in the treatment planning in patients with papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas. PMID:9473076

  11. Prognostic factors, prognostic indices and staging in mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Scarisbrick, J J; Kim, Y H; Whittaker, S J; Wood, G S; Vermeer, M H; Prince, H M; Quaglino, P

    2014-06-01

    Mycosis fungoides is the most prevalent form of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Patients frequently present with early-stage disease typically associated with a favourable prognosis and survival of 10-35 years, but over 25% may progress to advanced disease with a median survival < 4 years, and just 13 months in those with nodal involvement. Sézary syndrome presents in advanced disease with erythroderma, blood involvement and lymphadenopathy. The Bunn and Lamberg staging system (1979) includes stages IA-IIA (early-stage disease) and IIB-IVB (advanced-stage disease) and provides prognostic information, but some patients with tumour-stage disease (IIB) have a worse prognosis than those with erythrodermic-stage (III). Conversely, patients with plaque-stage (IB) folliculotropic mycosis fungoides may have a worse outcome than those with tumour-stage (IIB). The more recent staging system of the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer/International Society for Cutaneous Lymphoma has been designed to reflect tumour burden at different sites. However, this staging system has not been validated prospectively for prognosis. Furthermore, this staging system does not include a detailed measurement of skin tumour burden, as indicated by the modified skin weighted severity assessment tool. This assessment measures body surface area of disease and is weighted to record patch, plaque and tumour to produce a numerical value from 0·5 to 400 and is an established endpoint for clinical studies. Nor does this staging include clinicopathological features associated with a poor prognosis such as folliculotropism. Here we review the clinical, haematological, pathological and genotypic parameters outside the staging system, which may affect survival in mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. Most studies are retrospective and single centre. The identification of poor prognostic factors may be used to develop a prognostic index to use alongside staging, which

  12. IRINI: random group allocation of multiple prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Kasturi, Jyotsna; Geisler, John G; Liu, Jianying; Kirchner, Thomas; Amaratunga, Dhammika; Lubomirski, Mariusz

    2011-05-01

    Statistically sound experimental design in pharmacology studies ensures that the known prognostic factors, if any, are equally represented across investigational groups to avoid bias and imbalance which could render the experiment invalid or lead to false conclusions. Complete randomization can be effective to reduce bias in the created groups especially in large sample size situations. However, in small studies which involve only few treatment subjects, as in preclinical trials, there is a high chance of imbalance. The effects of this imbalance may be removed through covariate analysis or prevented with stratified randomization, however small studies limit the number of covariates to be analyzed this way. The problem is accentuated when there are multiple baseline covariates with varying scales and magnitudes to be considered in the randomization, and creating a balanced solution becomes a combinatorial challenge. Our method, IRINI, uses an optimization technique to achieve treatment to subject group allocation across multiple prognostic factors concurrently. It ensures that the created groups are equal in size and statistically comparable in terms of mean and variance. This method is a novel application of genetic algorithms to solve the allocation problem and simultaneously ensure quality, speed of the results and randomness of the process. Results from preclinical trials demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  13. A Prospective Study of Prognostic Factors for Recurrence in Early Oral Tongue Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Prashant; Shah, S.V.; Taneja, Charu; Patel, Ashok M.; Patel, Mahesh D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tongue cancer is one of the common cancers in head and neck region. Cervical node metastasis is the strongest poor prognostic factor. Other prognostic factors were also said to be of significance. Our aim was to find out the significant prognostic factors of tumor aggressiveness in Indian perspective. Material and Methods: Sixty cases of early cancer of oral tongue with clinically non palpable neck nodes were managed by upfront surgery. Surgeries performed for the primary tumor were ‘wide excision’ or ‘hemiglossectomy’ along with neck dissection. Patients were then given post-operative radiotherapy according to standard guidelines. They were analyzed using a detailed proforma. Three patients were lost to follow-up rest all patients were followed. Results: Recurrence was seen in 11 out of 60 patients (18.3%), in an average follow-up period of about 28 months. Among those who recurred, one patient had both nodal and local recurrence, 2 patients had nodal only (regional) recurrence and rest 8 patients had local recurrence. The prognostic factors that significantly affected the recurrence were endo-phytic disease, depth of invasion, lymphatic invasion, muscle invasion, healthy margin and adjuvant radiotherapy. Conclusion: The risk factors for recurrence in early lesions of oral tongue are - Cervical nodal metastasis, Lymphatic permeation, Depth of disease - 6 mm or more, poorly differentiated tumor, Endophytic (infiltrative) disease, Young age at presentation and Muscle invasion. In early tongue lesions, that are node negative, selective node dissection (SND) including level 1, 2, 3 and 4, is a viable option for neck to decrease the morbidity of MND. PMID:24392400

  14. Prognostic factors for salvage endoscopic resection for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Shinya; Tajika, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kodaira, Takeshi; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hara, Kazuo; Hijioka, Susumu; Imaoka, Hiroshi; Goto, Hidemi; Yamao, Kenji; Niwa, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic resection is one treatment option for residual or locally recurrent esophageal cancer after definitive chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. However, little is known about the clinical benefit of salvage endoscopic resection for these lesions. Therefore, the effectiveness and prognostic factors of salvage endoscopic resection were investigated. Patients and methods: A total of 37 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) who underwent salvage endoscopic resection after definitive chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone were reviewed. The method of salvage endoscopic resection was endoscopic mucosal resection using a cap (EMR-C), strip biopsy, or endoscopic submucosal dissection. The effectiveness and prognostic factors of salvage endoscopic resection were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 37 patients with 49 lesions underwent salvage endoscopic resection. Baseline clinical stages were I in 23 patients, II in 3 patients, III in 9 patients, and IV in 2 patients. The number of locoregional recurrences and residual lesions were 35 and 14, respectively. The curative en bloc resection rate was 53.1 % (26/49). The total incidence of complications was 18.9 % (7/37); all were successfully managed conservatively. The 3-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 72.9 % and 53.3 %, respectively, with a median follow-up period of 54 months. Baseline clinical T1 – 2 and N0 were significant factors for good prognosis in terms of overall survival on univariate analysis. Conclusions: Salvage endoscopic resection, especially EMR-C, is a safe and feasible procedure to control residual or recurrent superficial esophageal SCC after definitive chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. The present results showed that baseline clinical T1 – 2 and N0 before chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy were significant prognostic factors. PMID:27540571

  15. Prognostic Factors in Patients Hospitalized with Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Avinash; Yadav, Ambuj; Consul, Shuchi; Kumar, Sukriti; Prakash, Ved; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Annesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is characterized by a biochemical triad of hyperglycemia, acidosis, and ketonemia. This condition is life-threatening despite improvements in diabetic care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and biochemical prognostic markers of DKA. We assessed correlations in prognostic markers with DKA-associated morbidity and mortality. Methods Two hundred and seventy patients that were hospitalized with DKA over a period of 2 years were evaluated clinically and by laboratory tests. Serial assays of serum electrolytes, glucose, and blood pH were performed, and clinical outcome was noted as either discharged to home or death. Results The analysis indicated that significant predictors included sex, history of type 1 diabetes mellitus or type 2 diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total leukocyte count, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, serum magnesium, serum phosphate, serum osmolality, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminases, serum albumin, which were further regressed and subjected to multivariate logistic regression (MLR) analysis. The MLR analysis indicated that males were 7.93 times more likely to have favorable outcome compared with female patients (odds ratio, 7.93; 95% confidence interval, 3.99 to 13.51), while decreases in mean APACHE II score (14.83) and serum phosphate (4.38) at presentation may lead to 2.86- and 2.71-fold better outcomes, respectively, compared with higher levels (APACHE II score, 25.00; serum phosphate, 6.04). Conclusion Sex, baseline biochemical parameters such as APACHE II score, and phosphate level were important predictors of the DKA-associated mortality. PMID:27586452

  16. [Prognostic factors in perforating diverticulitis of the large intestine].

    PubMed

    Hansen, O; Graupe, F; Stock, W

    1998-04-01

    Morbidity and mortality after emergency procedures in 105 patients with perforated colonic diverticulitis were evaluated in a retrospective study. In different stages of diverticulitis (Hinchey classification: I, 8.6%; II, 14.3%; III, 57.1%; IV, 20.0%) mortality was 12.4%. Preoperative sepsis syndrome with leucopenia and disturbed liver function, cardiac risk factors and obesity were independent prognostic factors in multiple logistic regression. Accompanied by immunosuppression the mortality rate remarkably increased to 33%. The stage of peritonitis showed no influence on the prognosis. In multivariate analysis, surgical procedure (primary resection 12.4%. Hartmann's procedure 61.9%, non-resection procedures 25.7%) showed influence only on increased general complications.

  17. There's risk, and then there's risk: The latest clinical prognostic risk stratification models in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, Amer M; Komrokji, Rami S

    2013-12-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) include a diverse group of clonal hematopoietic disorders characterized by progressive cytopenias and propensity for leukemic progression. The biologic heterogeneity that underlies MDS translates clinically in wide variations of clinical outcomes. Several prognostic schemes were developed to predict the natural course of MDS, counsel patients, and allow evidence-based, risk-adaptive implementation of therapeutic strategies. The prognostic schemes divide patients into subgroups with similar prognosis, but the extent to which the prognostic prediction applies to any individual patient is more variable. None of these instruments was designed to predict the clinical benefit in relation to any specific MDS therapy. The prognostic impact of molecular mutations is being more recognized and attempts at incorporating it into the current prognostic schemes are ongoing.

  18. Uni- and multivariate models for investigating potential prognostic factors in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lionello, Marco; Staffieri, Claudia; Breda, Stefano; Turato, Chiara; Giacomelli, Luciano; Magnavita, Paola; de Filippis, Cosimo; Staffieri, Alberto; Marioni, Gino

    2015-08-01

    With a worldwide incidence estimated at 8-15 per 100,000 population a year, idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is a common clinical finding for otologists. There is a shortage of information on the clinical factors capable of predicting hearing recovery and response to therapy. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the prognostic value of clinical variables in relation to hearing recovery, in a cohort of 117 consecutive patients with ISSHL. Clinical parameters (signs, symptoms, comorbidities and treatments) and audiometric data were analyzed with univariate and multivariate statistical approaches for prognostic purposes to identify any correlation with hearing recovery, also expressed according to the Wilson criteria. Univariate analysis showed that age and hypertension were significantly related to hearing outcome (p = 0.004 and p = 0.015, respectively). Elderly patients and those with hypertension were at higher risk of experiencing no hearing recovery (OR = 3.25 and OR = 2.89, respectively). Age was an independent prognostic factor on multivariate analysis (p = 0.007). Tinnitus as a presenting symptom showed a trend towards an association with hearing recovery (p = 0.07). The treatment regimen, the time elapsing between the onset of symptoms and the start of therapy (p = 0.34), and the duration of the treatment (p = 0.83) were unrelated to recovery on univariate analysis. Among the parameters considered, only age was significantly and independently related to hearing outcome. There is a need for well-designed, randomized clinical trials to enable an evidence-based protocol to be developed for the treatment of ISSHL.

  19. The evolution and clinical relevance of prognostic classification systems in myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bose, Prithviraj; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2016-03-01

    Primary myelofibrosis, the most aggressive of the classic Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), is a clonal disorder characterized by often debilitating constitutional symptoms and splenomegaly, bone marrow fibrosis and resultant cytopenias, extramedullary hematopoiesis, risk of leukemic transformation, and shortened survival. Post-polycythemia vera and post-essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis represent similar entities, although some differences are being recognized. Attempts to classify patients with myelofibrosis into prognostic categories have been made since the late 1980s, and these scoring systems continue to evolve as new information becomes available. Over the last decade, the molecular pathogenesis of MPNs has been elucidated considerably, and the Janus kinase (JAK) 1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib is the first drug specifically approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat patients with intermediate-risk and high-risk myelofibrosis. This article reviews the evolution of prognostic criteria in myelofibrosis, emphasizing the major systems widely in use today, as well as recently described, novel systems that incorporate emerging data regarding somatic mutations. Risk factors for thrombosis and conversion to MPN blast phase also are discussed. Finally, the practical usefulness of the current prognostic classification systems in terms of clinical decision making is discussed, particularly within the context of some of their inherent weaknesses. Cancer 2016;122:681-692. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26717494

  20. Clinical and prognostic role of annexin A2 in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Seckinger, Anja; Meissner, Tobias; Moreaux, Jérôme; Depeweg, Daniela; Hillengass, Jens; Hose, Katja; Rème, Thierry; Rösen-Wolff, Angela; Jauch, Anna; Schnettler, Reinhard; Ewerbeck, Volker; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard; Hose, Dirk

    2012-08-01

    Annexin A2 (ANXA2) promotes myeloma cell growth, reduces apoptosis in myeloma cell lines, and increases osteoclast formation. ANXA2 has been described in small cohorts of samples as expressed by myeloma cells and cells of the BM microenvironment. To investigate its clinical role, we assessed 1148 samples including independent cohorts of 332 and 701 CD138-purified myeloma cell samples from previously untreated patients together with clinical prognostic factors, chromosomal aberrations, and gene expression-based high-risk scores, along with expression of ANXA2 in whole BM samples, stromal cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and BM sera. ANXA2 is expressed in all normal and malignant plasma cell samples. Higher ANXA2 expression in myeloma cells is associated with significantly inferior event-free and overall survival independently of conventional prognostic factors and is associated with gene expression-determined high risk and high proliferation. Within the BM, all cell populations, including osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and stromal cells, express ANXA2. ANXA2 expression is increased significantly in myelomatous versus normal BM serum. ANXA2 exemplifies an interesting class of targetable bone-remodeling factors expressed by normal and malignant plasma cells and the BM microenvironment that have a significant impact on survival of myeloma patients.

  1. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and adolescents: prognostic factors and analysis of survival

    PubMed Central

    Lustosa de Sousa, Daniel Willian; de Almeida Ferreira, Francisco Valdeci; Cavalcante Félix, Francisco Helder; de Oliveira Lopes, Marcos Vinicios

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical and laboratory features of children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated at three referral centers in Ceará and evaluate prognostic factors for survival, including age, gender, presenting white blood cell count, immunophenotype, DNA index and early response to treatment. Methods Seventy-six under 19-year-old patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with the Grupo Brasileiro de Tratamento de Leucemia da Infância – acute lymphoblastic leukemia-93 and -99 protocols between September 2007 and December 2009 were analyzed. The diagnosis was based on cytological, immunophenotypic and cytogenetic criteria. Associations between variables, prognostic factors and response to treatment were analyzed using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Overall and event-free survival were estimated by Kaplan–Meier analysis and compared using the log-rank test. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent prognostic factors. Results The average age at diagnosis was 6.3 ± 0.5 years and males were predominant (65%). The most frequently observed clinical features were hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Central nervous system involvement and mediastinal enlargement occurred in 6.6% and 11.8%, respectively. B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia was more common (89.5%) than T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A DNA index >1.16 was found in 19% of patients and was associated with favorable prognosis. On Day 8 of induction therapy, 95% of the patients had lymphoblast counts <1000/μL and white blood cell counts <5.0 × 109/L. The remission induction rate was 95%, the induction mortality rate was 2.6% and overall survival was 72%. Conclusion The prognostic factors identified are compatible with the literature. The 5-year overall and event-free survival rates were lower than those reported for developed countries. As shown by the multivariate analysis, age and baseline white

  2. Correlation between molybdenum target mammography signs and pathological prognostic factors of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Ma, A D; Jia, H X

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the correlation between molybdenum target (mo-target) mammography signs and pathological prognostic factors of breast cancer. We selected 320 breast cancer patients who were treated between January 2014 and January 2016; using single-factor and multiple-factor logistic regression method, we made correlation analysis on their clinical features, pathological features and mo-target mammography signs. Among mo-target mammography signs, lumps accompanied with calcification and blurry edge were associated with high histologic grades; lumps accompanied with calcification and clear edge were associated with Ki-67 positive; compared with the patients who had lumps with non-stellate edges, positive rates of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were significantly higher for the patients who had lumps with stellate edges (p < 0.01), while positive rate of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) and tumor proliferative activity were significantly lower (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). According to the study, we can conclude that mo-target mammography signs mainly include lumps and calcification. Mo-target mammography can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and reduce misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis. Part of mo-target mammography signs are associated with clinical pathology prognostic factors; by grasping the relation, breast cancer patient conditions are expected to be relieved.

  3. Cytokines and Prognostic Factors in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jammal, Millena Prata; Martins-Filho, Agrimaldo; Silveira, Thales Parenti; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido; Nomelini, Rosekeila Simões

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ovarian cancer has a high mortality and delayed diagnosis. Inflammation is a risk factor for ovarian cancer, and the inflammatory response is involved in almost all stages of tumor development. Immunohistochemical staining in stroma and epithelium of a panel of cytokines in benign and malignant ovarian neoplasm was evaluated. In addition, immunostaining was related to prognostic factors in malignant tumors. METHOD The study group comprised 28 ovarian benign neoplasias and 28 ovarian malignant neoplasms. A panel of cytokines was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (Th1: IL-2 and IL-8; Th2: IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10; and TNFR1). Chi-square test with Yates’ correction was used, which was considered significant if less than 0.05. RESULTS TNFR1, IL-5, and IL-10 had more frequent immunostaining 2/3 in benign neoplasms compared with malignant tumors. Malignant tumors had more frequent immunostaining 2/3 for IL-2 in relation to benign tumors. The immunostaining 0/1 of IL 8 was more frequent in the stroma of benign neoplasms compared with malignant neoplasms. Evaluation of the ovarian cancer stroma showed that histological grade 3 was significantly correlated with staining 2/3 for IL-2 (P = 0.004). Women whose disease-free survival was less than 2.5 years had TNFR1 stromal staining 2/3 (P = 0.03) more frequently. CONCLUSION IL-2 and TNFR1 stromal immunostaining are related prognostic factors in ovarian cancer and can be the target of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:27512342

  4. Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults With Low-Grade Glioma: A Report Using Intergroup 86-72-51

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Thomas B.; Brown, Paul D.; Felten, Sara J.; Wu, Wenting; Buckner, Jan C.; Arusell, Robert M.; Curran, Walter J.; Abrams, Ross A.; Schiff, David; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-09-01

    histology and tumor size. Co-deletion of 1p19q is a prognostic factor. Future studies are needed to develop a more refined prognostic system that combines clinical prognostic features with more robust molecular and genetic data.

  5. Cancer of the glottis: prognostic factors in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mantravadi, R.V.P.; Liebner, E.J.; Haas, R.E.; Skolnik, E.M.; Applebaum, E.L.

    1983-10-01

    The authors conducted a multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors in 96 patients with early glottic cancer treated by radiation therapy. Of these, 73 had T/sub 1/ and 23 had T/sub 2/ tumor. The primary tumor was controlled in 82% of T/sub 1/ amd 74% for T/sub 2/. Carcinoma of the anterior commissure associated with bilateral vocal cord involvement, subglottic tumor extension, persistent or recurrent laryngeal edema, and impaired cord mobility was found to adversely influence the prognosis. The data suggest that irradiation is the treatment of choice for glottic cancer limited to the vocal cords or with minimal extension to the anterior commissure or gupraglottic larynx.

  6. Cancer of the glottis: prognostic factors in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mantravadi, R.V.; Liebner, E.J.; Haas, R.E.; Skolnik, E.M.; Applebaum, E.L.

    1983-10-01

    The authors conducted a multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors in 96 patients with early glottic cancer treated by radiation therapy. Of these, 73 had T1 and 23 had T2 tumor. The primary tumor was controlled in 82% of T1 and 74% of T2 lesions. Actuarial five-year survival rates were 87% for T1 and 74% for T2. Carcinoma of the anterior commissure associated with bilateral vocal cord involvement, subglottic tumor extension, persistent or recurrent laryngeal edema, and impaired cord mobility was found to adversely influence the prognosis. The data suggest that irradiation is the treatment of choice for glottic cancer limited to the vocal cords or with minimal extension to the anterior commissure or supraglottic larynx.

  7. Evaluation of prognostic factors following flow-cytometric DNA analysis after cytokeratin labelling: II. Cervical and endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Wimberger, Pauline; Hillemanns, Peter; Kapsner, Thomas; Hepp, Hermann; Kimmig, Rainer

    2002-01-01

    In gynecologic oncology valid prognostic factors are necessary to define biologically similar subgroups for analysis of therapeutic efficacy. This study is the first published prospective study concerning prognostic significance of DNA ploidy and S-phase fraction in cervical and endometrial cancer following enrichment of tumor cells by cytokeratin labelling. Epithelial cells were labeled by FITC-conjugated cytokeratin antibody (CK 5, 6, 8, and CK 17) prior to flow cytometric cell cycle analysis in 91 specimens of cervical cancer and 73 samples of endometrial cancer. In cervical cancer neither DNA-ploidy nor S-phase fraction were relevant prognostic parameters. But CV of the G(0)G(1)-peak showed prognostic relevance in cervical cancer cells, even in multivariate analysis. This interesting observation, however, seems to have no therapeutic consequence due to the small discrimination capacity of CV. In endometrial carcinoma, gross DNA-aneuploidy (DNA-index > 1.3) and a high percentage of proliferating cells (>75th percentile) were univariate and multivariate highly significant prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival. Especially DNA-aneuploidy (DI>1.3) is one of the most important independent molecular biological prognostic factors. While diagnostic curettage we could identify risk patients even preoperatively by determination of the prognostic factors like histologic tumor type, grading, cervical involvement and DNA-ploidy. Thereby these patients could be treated primarily in an oncologic center. In conclusion, our investigations showed that the determination of DNA-ploidy should be done in endometrial carcinoma. In cervical cancer no clinical significance for determination of DNA-parameters was found.

  8. Multicollinearity in prognostic factor analyses using the EORTC QLQ-C30: identification and impact on model selection.

    PubMed

    Van Steen, Kristel; Curran, Desmond; Kramer, Jocelyn; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Vreckem, Ann; Bottomley, Andrew; Sylvester, Richard

    2002-12-30

    Clinical and quality of life (QL) variables from an EORTC clinical trial of first line chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer were used in a prognostic factor analysis of survival and response to chemotherapy. For response, different final multivariate models were obtained from forward and backward selection methods, suggesting a disconcerting instability. Quality of life was measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire completed by patients. Subscales on the questionnaire are known to be highly correlated, and therefore it was hypothesized that multicollinearity contributed to model instability. A correlation matrix indicated that global QL was highly correlated with 7 out of 11 variables. In a first attempt to explore multicollinearity, we used global QL as dependent variable in a regression model with other QL subscales as predictors. Afterwards, standard diagnostic tests for multicollinearity were performed. An exploratory principal components analysis and factor analysis of the QL subscales identified at most three important components and indicated that inclusion of global QL made minimal difference to the loadings on each component, suggesting that it is redundant in the model. In a second approach, we advocate a bootstrap technique to assess the stability of the models. Based on these analyses and since global QL exacerbates problems of multicollinearity, we therefore recommend that global QL be excluded from prognostic factor analyses using the QLQ-C30. The prognostic factor analysis was rerun without global QL in the model, and selected the same significant prognostic factors as before.

  9. A prospective study on MRI findings and prognostic factors in athletes with MTSS.

    PubMed

    Moen, M H; Schmikli, S L; Weir, A; Steeneken, V; Stapper, G; de Slegte, R; Tol, J L; Backx, F J G

    2014-02-01

    In medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) bone marrow and periosteal edema of the tibia on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently reported. The relationship between these MRI findings and recovery has not been previously studied. This prospective study describes MRI findings of 52 athletes with MTSS. Baseline characteristics were recorded and recovery was related to these parameters and MRI findings to examine for prognostic factors. Results showed that 43.5% of the symptomatic legs showed bone marrow or periosteal edema. Absence of periosteal and bone marrow edema on MRI was associated with longer recovery (P = 0.033 and P = 0.013). A clinical scoring system for sports activity (SARS score) was significantly higher in the presence of bone marrow edema (P = 0.027). When clinical scoring systems (SARS score and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale) were combined in a model, time to recovery could be predicted substantially (explaining 54% of variance, P = 0.006). In conclusion, in athletes with MTSS, bone marrow or periosteal edema is seen on MRI in 43,5% of the symptomatic legs. Furthermore, periosteal and bone marrow edema on MRI and clinical scoring systems are prognostic factors. Future studies should focus on MRI findings in symptomatic MTSS and compare these with a matched control group.

  10. Coefficient of variation of nuclear diameters as a prognostic factor in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, T C; Kuo, S H; How, S W

    1991-12-01

    To determine whether the coefficient of variation (CV) of nuclear diameters can be used as a prognostic factor in papillary thyroid carcinoma, we reviewed fine needle aspiration smears with Riu's stain from 55 operated-on and pathologically verified cases with a median follow-up of 6.5 years. For each case we measured the nuclear diameters of 100 cancer cells by ocular micrometry and calculated the CV of the nuclear diameters. Then we correlated the CV with the clinical stage, recurrence and death. There was a positive correlation between the CV of the nuclear diameters and the clinical stage (r = .59, P less than .0001). Recurrent cases (n = 10) had a higher CV than did those without recurrence (n = 45) (18.04 +/- 4.1% [mean +/- SD] versus 13.2 +/- 2.7%, P less than .0005). All recurrent cases had a CV greater than 13%. The cases in which death occurred (n = 5) had a higher CV than did those with survival (n = 50) (20.1 +/- 4.9% versus 13.5 +/- 2.7%, P less than .0005). All cases in which death occurred had a CV greater than 15%. The extent of variation of nuclear diameters was one of the factors influencing prognosis in papillary thyroid carcinoma. It offers a prognostic adjunct to standard clinical and histologic analysis.

  11. Pre-morbid Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is not a prognostic factor in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Paganoni, Sabrina; Hyman, Theodore; Shui, Amy; Allred, Peggy; Harms, Matthew; Liu, Jingxia; Maragakis, Nicholas; Schoenfeld, David; Yu, Hong; Atassi, Nazem; Cudkowicz, Merit; Miller, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether history of pre-morbid type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a prognostic factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods The relationship between DM2 and survival was analyzed in a study population consisting of 1,322 participants from six clinical trials. Results Survival did not differ by diabetes status (Log-Rank Test, p=0.98), but did differ by body mass index (BMI) (Log-Rank Test, p=0.008). In multivariate analysis, there was no significant association between diabetes and survival (p=0.18), but the risk of reaching a survival endpoint decreased by 4% for each unit increase in baseline BMI (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94–0.99, p=0.001). DM2 was less prevalent among ALS clinical trial participants than predicted. Conclusions History of pre-morbid DM2 is not an independent prognostic factor in ALS clinical trial databases. The low DM2 prevalence rate should be examined in a large, prospective study to determine whether DM2 affects ALS risk. PMID:25900666

  12. Mycosis fungoides with large cell transformation: clinicopathological features and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Pulitzer, Melissa; Myskowski, Patricia L.; Horwitz, Steven M.; Querfeld, Christiane; Connolly, Brian; Li, Janet; Murali, Rajmohan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Large cell transformation of mycosis fungoides (MF-LCT) occurs in 20–50% of advanced MF, and is generally associated with poor prognosis, although some patients have indolent disease. We sought to identify clinicopathological prognostic factors in a large number of patients with MF-LCT. We identified patients with MF-LCT treated between 1991 and 2012 at a referral centre for cutaneous lymphoma. Clinical and pathological records, and histopathological slides were reviewed. Associations of clinicopathological variables with disease-specific survival were analysed. In 51 patients with MF-LCT, factors significantly associated with shorter survival were: age >60 years (25 versus 61 months, p = 0.01), stage III/IV (25 versus 44 months, p = 0.049), high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; 24 versus 53 months, p = 0.007), absent papillary dermal involvement (8 versus 30 months, p = 0.008); follicular mucin at transformation (24 versus 42 months, p = 0.007); and the absence of fibrosis at transformation (21 versus 42 months, p = 0.03). Patients presenting with transformation at diagnosis had better survival than those who started with a small cell phenotype (p = 0.02). Age >60 years was independently associated with poorer survival (HR 5.61, 95%CI 1.17–26.8, p = 0.03), and the presence of fibrosis at transformation was independently associated with improved survival (HR 0.30, 95%CI 0.09–0.97, p = 0.045). In patients with MF-LCT, clinical features (age, stage, serum LDH) are important in assessing prognosis. Additional clinical and pathological features identified in this study may also assist in prognostic stratification. Studies of larger cohorts should be performed to validate the prognostic significance of these features. PMID:25393251

  13. Unexpected gallbladder cancer: Surgical strategies and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Gennaro

    2016-08-27

    Gallbladder cancer is the most common tumor of the biliary tract and it is associated with a poor prognosis. Unexpected gallbladder cancer is a cancer incidentally discovered, as a surprise, at the histological examination after cholecystectomy for gallstones or other indications. It is a potentially curable disease, with an intermediate or good prognosis in most cases. An adequate surgical strategy is mandatory to improve the prognosis and an adjunctive radical resection may be required depending on the depth of invasion. If the cancer discovered after cholecystectomy is a pTis or a pT1a, a second surgical procedure is not mandatory. In the other cases (pT1b, pT2 and pT3 cancer) a re-resection (4b + 5 liver segmentectomy, lymphadenectomy and port-sites excision in some cases) is required to obtain a radical excision of the tumor and an accurate disease staging. The operative specimens of re-resection should be examined by the pathologist to find any "residual" tumor. The "residual disease" is the most important prognostic factor, significantly reducing median disease-free survival and disease-specific survival. The other factors include depth of parietal invasion, metastatic nodal disease, surgical margin status, cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis, histological differentiation, lymphatic, vascular and peri-neural invasion and overall TNM-stage. PMID:27648157

  14. Unexpected gallbladder cancer: Surgical strategies and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Gennaro

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is the most common tumor of the biliary tract and it is associated with a poor prognosis. Unexpected gallbladder cancer is a cancer incidentally discovered, as a surprise, at the histological examination after cholecystectomy for gallstones or other indications. It is a potentially curable disease, with an intermediate or good prognosis in most cases. An adequate surgical strategy is mandatory to improve the prognosis and an adjunctive radical resection may be required depending on the depth of invasion. If the cancer discovered after cholecystectomy is a pTis or a pT1a, a second surgical procedure is not mandatory. In the other cases (pT1b, pT2 and pT3 cancer) a re-resection (4b + 5 liver segmentectomy, lymphadenectomy and port-sites excision in some cases) is required to obtain a radical excision of the tumor and an accurate disease staging. The operative specimens of re-resection should be examined by the pathologist to find any “residual” tumor. The “residual disease” is the most important prognostic factor, significantly reducing median disease-free survival and disease-specific survival. The other factors include depth of parietal invasion, metastatic nodal disease, surgical margin status, cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis, histological differentiation, lymphatic, vascular and peri-neural invasion and overall TNM-stage.

  15. Clinical prognostic analysis of 116 patients with primary intestinal non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gou, Hong-Feng; Zang, Jian; Jiang, Ming; Yang, Yu; Cao, Dan; Chen, Xin-Chuan

    2012-03-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is the most common extranodal invasion site of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Primary gastrointestinal NHL is often discussed together in most survival analyses. Primary intestinal NHL is significantly different from primary gastric NHL with regard to clinical features, pathological subtype, treatment, and prognosis. In this article, we analyzed clinical and pathological characteristics of primary intestinal NHL, and we also explored prognostic factors for primary intestinal NHL. A retrospective analysis was carried out on clinical data from 116 cases of confirmed primary intestinal NHL. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for the survival analysis. A Cox model was used for a multivariate analysis. In 116 patients with primary intestinal NHL, 79 patients were men (68.1%) and 37 patients were women (31.9%). In the cases used in this study, 68 were B-cell NHL and 48 were T-cell NHL. The age, incidence of intestinal obstruction, B symptom and performance status (PS) were closely related with pathological subtype. One-year and two-year survival rates were 76.7 and 58.3%, respectively. The log-rank univariate analysis showed male patients, PS score greater than or equal to two, hypoproteinemia, intestinal perforation, T-cell type, late stage (III/IV), no radical surgery, and no chemotherapy had relatively poor prognoses. Cox multivariate analysis shown that gender (95.0% CI 0.218-0.721), pathological subtype (95.0% CI 1.484-4.179), and radical surgery (95.0% CI 0.110-0.394) were independent prognostic risk factor for primary intestinal NHL. Male patients, T-cell intestinal lymphoma, and no radical surgery had rapid clinical processes and poor prognoses. PMID:21193968

  16. Ki67 index is an independent prognostic factor in epithelioid but not in non-epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma: a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Ghanim, B; Klikovits, T; Hoda, M A; Lang, G; Szirtes, I; Setinek, U; Rozsas, A; Renyi-Vamos, F; Laszlo, V; Grusch, M; Filipits, M; Scheed, A; Jakopovic, M; Samarzija, M; Brcic, L; Stancic–Rokotov, D; Kern, I; Rozman, A; Dekan, G; Klepetko, W; Berger, W; Glasz, T; Dome, B; Hegedus, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Estimating the prognosis in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains challenging. Thus, the prognostic relevance of Ki67 was studied in MPM. Methods: Ki67 index was determined in a test cohort of 187 cases from three centres. The percentage of Ki67-positive tumour cells was correlated with clinical variables and overall survival (OS). The prognostic power of Ki67 index was compared with other prognostic factors and re-evaluated in an independent cohort (n=98). Results: Patients with Ki67 higher than median (>15%) had significantly (P<0.001) shorter median OS (7.5 months) than those with low Ki67 (19.1 months). After multivariate survival analyses, Ki67 proved to be—beside histology and treatment—an independent prognostic marker in MPM (hazard ratio (HR): 2.1, P<0.001). Interestingly, Ki67 was prognostic exclusively in epithelioid (P<0.001) but not in non-epithelioid subtype. Furthermore, Ki67 index was significantly lower in post-chemotherapy samples when compared with chemo-naive cases. The prognostic power was comparable to other recently published prognostic factors (CRP, fibrinogen, neutrophil-to-leukocyte ratio (NLR) and nuclear grading score) and was recapitulated in the validation cohort (P=0.048). Conclusion: This multicentre study demonstrates that Ki67 is an independent and reproducible prognostic factor in epithelioid but not in non-epithelioid MPM and suggests that induction chemotherapy decreases the proliferative capacity of MPM. PMID:25633038

  17. [Etiologic, clinical and prognostic correlations in abruptio placentae].

    PubMed

    Tica, V I; Serbănescu, L; Tica, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Placental abruption implies, still, a largely unknown causality and frequent unsatisfactory results. This study was designed to explore the possible correlations between some etiologic factors, the dependent clinical decisions and outcome. In a prospective cohort, we included 95 successive pregnant women (aged 15-42, 22-42 gestational weeks) with abruptio placentae necessitating cesarean section, during 2001-2005. Maternal blood pressure, premature rupture of membranes, infants' sex ratio, hematomas' volumes were correlated with the clinical outcome. There were 25 mortality cases (2 maternal and 23 fetal) and physicians performed 9 hysterectomies (2 with bilateral adnexectomy). Premature rupture of membranes was seen in 32% of the cases. Hypertension was an etiological and aggravating factor: it was reported in 70% of cases, in all the severe ones. The volume of placental hematomas was in direct concordance with the severity of the outcome. Interestingly, the majority of the patients were young and 63% of newborns were male.

  18. Prognostic Factors and Survival in Pediatric and Adolescent Liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Stanelle, Eric J.; Christison-Lagay, Emily R.; Sidebotham, Emma L.; Singer, Samuel; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Meyers, Paul A.; La Quaglia, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Liposarcoma is extremely rare in the pediatric population. To identify prognostic factors and determine treatment outcomes, we reviewed our institutional experience with pediatric liposarcoma. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed all pediatric patients (age <22 years) with confirmed liposarcoma treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Histologic subtype, tumor location, margin status, recurrence, and adjuvant therapy were analyzed and correlated with overall survival. Results. Thirty-four patients (56% male) with a median age of 18.1 years were identified. Twenty-two (65%) had peripheral tumors and 12 (35%) had centrally located tumors. Histologically, 29 (85%) tumors were low grade, and 5 (15%) were high grade pleomorphic. Eleven (32%) had recurrent disease, 9 patients with central tumors and 2 patients with peripheral lesions. Eight deaths occurred, all in patients with central disease. Five-year overall survival was 78%, with a median follow-up time of 5.4 years (range, 0.3–30.3 years). Tumor grade (P = .003), histologic subtype (P = .01), and primary location (P < .001) all correlated with survival, as did stage (P < .001) and margin status (P = .001). Conclusions. Central location of the primary tumor, high tumor grade, and positive surgical margins are strongly correlated with poor survival in pediatric patients with liposarcoma. PMID:22991488

  19. Prognostic factors and survival of patients with brain metastasis from breast cancer who underwent craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Leone, José Pablo; Lee, Adrian V; Brufsky, Adam M

    2015-07-01

    Brain metastasis (BM) in patients with breast cancer is a catastrophic event that results in poor prognosis. Identification of prognostic factors associated with breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) could help to identify patients at risk. The aim of this study was to assess clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and survival of patients with BCBM who had craniotomy and resection in a series of patients treated with modern multimodality therapy. We analyzed 42 patients with BCBM who underwent resection. Patients were diagnosed with breast cancer between April 1994 and May 2010. Cox proportional hazards regression was selected to describe factors associated with time to BM, survival from the date of first recurrence, and overall survival (OS). Median age was 51 years (range 24-74). Median follow-up was 4.2 years (range 0.6-18.5). The proportion of the biological subtypes of breast cancer was ER+/HER2- 25%, ER+/HER2+ 15%, ER-/HER2+ 30%, and ER-/HER2- 30%. Median OS from the date of primary diagnosis was 5.74 years. Median survival after diagnosis of BM was 1.33 years. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, stage was the only factor associated with shorter time to the development of BM (P = 0.033), whereas age was the only factor associated with survival from the date of recurrence (P = 0.027) and with OS (P = 0.037). Stage at primary diagnosis correlated with shorter time to the development of BM, while age at diagnosis was associated with shorter survival in BCBM. None of the other clinical factors had influence on survival.

  20. Defining high, medium and low impact prognostic factors for developing multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tintore, Mar; Rovira, Àlex; Río, Jordi; Otero-Romero, Susana; Arrambide, Georgina; Tur, Carmen; Comabella, Manuel; Nos, Carlos; Arévalo, María Jesús; Negrotto, Laura; Galán, Ingrid; Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Castilló, Joaquin; Palavra, Filipe; Simon, Eva; Mitjana, Raquel; Auger, Cristina; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Montalban, Xavier

    2015-07-01

    Natural history studies have identified factors that predict evolution to multiple sclerosis or risk of disability accumulation over time. Although these studies are based on large multicentre cohorts with long follow-ups, they have limitations such as lack of standardized protocols, a retrospective data collection or lack of a systematic magnetic resonance imaging acquisition and analysis protocol, often resulting in failure to take magnetic resonance and oligoclonal bands into account as joint covariates in the prediction models. To overcome some of these limitations, the aim of our study was to identify and stratify baseline demographic, clinical, radiological and biological characteristics that might predict multiple sclerosis development and disability accumulation using a multivariate approach based on a large prospective cohort of patients with clinically isolated syndromes. From 1995 to 2013, 1058 patients with clinically isolated syndromes were included. We evaluated the influence of baseline prognostic factors on the risk for developing clinically definite multiple sclerosis, McDonald multiple sclerosis, and disability accumulation (Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 3.0) based on univariate (hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals) and multivariate (adjusted hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals) Cox regression models. We ultimately included 1015 patients followed for a mean of 81 (standard deviation = 57) months. Female/male ratio was 2.1. Females exhibited a similar risk of conversion to multiple sclerosis and of disability accumulation compared to males. Each younger decade at onset was associated with a greater risk of conversion to multiple sclerosis and with a protective effect on disability. Patients with optic neuritis had a lower risk of clinically definite multiple sclerosis [hazard ratio 0.6 (0.5-0.8)] and disability progression [hazard ratio 0.5 (0.3-0.8)]; however, this protective effect remained marginal only for disability

  1. Prognosis and prognostic factors of retinal infarction: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Hankey, G J; Slattery, J M; Warlow, C P

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the prognosis and adverse prognostic factors in patients with retinal infarction due to presumed atheromatous thromboembolism or cardiogenic embolism. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study. SETTING--University hospital departments of clinical neurology. PATIENTS--99 patients with retinal infarction, without prior stroke, referred to a single neurologist between 1976 and 1986 and evaluated and followed up prospectively until death or the end of 1986 (mean follow up 4.2 years). INTERVENTIONS--Cerebral angiography (55 patients), aspirin treatment (37), oral anticoagulant treatment (eight), carotid endarterectomy (13), cardiac surgery (six), and peripheral vascular surgery (two). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Death, stroke, coronary events, contralateral retinal infarction; survival analysis confined to 98 patients with retinal infarction due to presumed artheromatous thromboembolism or cardiogenic embolism (one patient with giant cell arteries excluded), and Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis, including age as a prognostic factor. RESULTS--During follow up 29 patients died (21 of vascular causes and eight of non-vascular or unknown causes), 10 had a first ever stroke, 19 had a coronary event, and only one developed contralateral retinal infarction. A coronary event accounted for more than half (59%) of the deaths whereas stroke was the cause of only one death (3%). Over the first five years after retinal infarction the actuarial average absolute risk of death was 8% per year; of stroke 2.5% per year (7.4% in the first year); of coronary events 5.3% per year, exceeding that of stroke; and of stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death 7.4% per year. Prognostic factors associated with an increased risk of death were increasing age, peripheral vascular disease, cardiomegaly, and carotid bruit. Adverse prognostic factors for serious vascular events were increasing age and carotid bruit for stroke, and increasing age, cardiomegaly, and carotid

  2. Dyspnea as a Prognostic Factor in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Wooho; Lee, Jong Min; Ha, Jick Hwan; Yeo, Chang Dong; Kang, Hyeon Hui; Rhee, Chin Kook; Moon, Hwa Sik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate associations between dyspnea and clinical outcomes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods From 2001 to 2014, we retrospectively reviewed the prospective lung cancer database of St. Paul's Hospital at the Catholic University of Korea. We enrolled patients with NSCLC and evaluated symptoms of dyspnea using modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scores. Also, we estimated pulmonary functions and analyzed survival data. Results In total, 457 NSCLC patients were enrolled, and 259 (56.7%) had dyspnea. Among those with dyspnea and whose mMRC scores were available (109 patients had no mMRC score), 85 (56.6%) patients had an mMRC score <2, while 65 (43.3%) had an mMRC score ≥2. Significant decreased pulmonary functions were observed in patients with dyspnea. In multivariate analysis, aging, poor performance status, advanced stage, low forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%), and an mMRC score ≥2 were found to be significant prognostic factors for patient survival. Conclusion Dyspnea could be a significant prognostic factor in patients with NSCLC. PMID:27401635

  3. The metastasis suppressor SOX11 is an independent prognostic factor for improved survival in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    QU, YING; ZHOU, CHENFEI; ZHANG, JIANIAN; CAI, QU; LI, JIANFANG; DU, TAO; ZHU, ZHENGGANG; CUI, XIAOJIANG; LIU, BINGYA

    2014-01-01

    SOX11 is involved in gastrulation and in malignant diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of SOX11 in gastric cancer and its expression pattern and clinical significance. SOX11 overexpression cell model was used to examine in vitro and in vivo the role of SOX11 in cell growth and metastasis. Cell cycle analysis and Annexin V/PI double staining were used to investigate the effect of SOX11 on cell cycle progression and apoptosis. The expression of SOX11 in human gastric cancer was examined by immunohistochemistry. The correlation of SOX11 expression with clinicopathological characteristics and survival of patients was analyzed by Pearson’s χ2 and Kaplan-Meier analyses, respectively. Cox’s proportional hazard model was employed in multivariate analysis. SOX11 overexpression did not inhibit cell growth but strongly suppressed cell migration/invasion in vitro and in vivo. We found a significant correlation between high SOX11 protein levels and Lauren’s classification (intestinal type), differentiation status (high and medium), and early TNM stage. SOX11 is an independent prognostic factor for improved survival in gastric cancer patients. SOX11 was a potential tumor-suppressor and an independent positive prognostic factor in gastric cancer patients with less advanced clinicopathological features. PMID:24604109

  4. Prognostic factors of laryngeal solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yong; Qiu, Jun; Zhou, Min-Li; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Bao, Yang-Yang; Wang, Qin-Ying; Zheng, Zhou-Jun

    2015-01-01

    A paucity of data exists concerning the presentation, natural course and outcome of extramedullary plasmcytoma (EMP). It is difficult to determine the optimal treatment strategy and prognostic factors for EMP. We present an additional case of laryngeal EMP and systemic review relevant reports in the English and Chinese literature. We found, to our knowledge, 147 cases in larynx in the English-language literature and Chinese-literature. The most common treatment modality was radiotherapy alone. The mean survival duration was ~184 months, and the 5- and 10- year survival rates were 76.1% and 67.4%, respectively. The univariate analysis suggested that progression to multiple myeloma and amyloid deposits may be poor prognostic factors. The multivariate analysis suggested that only progression to multiple myeloma may be a poor prognostic factor. Laryngeal EMP is uncommon. Progression to multiple myeloma may be a poor prognostic factor. PMID:26045749

  5. Epidemiology and Prognostic Factors of Candidemia in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hung-Jen; Liu, Wei-Lun; Lin, Hsin-Lan; Lai, Chih-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Aim The study of candidemia in cancer patients has been limited. This retrospective study aims to investigate the epidemiologic characteristics and prognostic factors of candidemia among cancer patients. Materials and Methods From 2009 to 2012, cancer patients with candidemia were identified at a hospital in Taiwan. The medical records of all patients with bloodstream infections due to Candida species were retrospectively reviewed. Results During the four-year period, a total of 242 episodes of candidemia were identified among cancer patients. Half of these patients were classified as elderly (≥65 years old), and more than 95% of the candidemia episodes were classified as healthcare-associated infections. Among the 242 cancer patients with candidemia, head and neck cancer was the most common, followed by gastrointestinal tract and lung cancer. Additionally, most of the patients had variable underlying conditions, such as the presence of CVC (99%) or prior exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics (93%) and were receiving an immunosuppressant (86%). Overall, C. albicans (n = 132, 54.5%) was the most common pathogen, followed by C. tropicalis (n = 52, 21.5%), C. parapsilosis (n = 38, 15.7%), and C. glabrata (n = 29, 12.0%). Seventeen patients had polycandidal candidemia, and 77 patients had concomitant bacteremia. Approximately one-third of the patients required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) or mechanical ventilation, and the overall in-hospital mortality was 50.8%. Multivariable analysis showed that the in-hospital mortality was significantly associated with only the non-use of antifungal agents and acute respiratory failure (P<.001). Conclusions Candidemia can develop in patients with both solid cancer and hematological malignancy, especially for patients with underlying conditions. Overall, the associated morbidity and mortality due to Candidemia remain high. It was also determined that the non-use of antifungal agents and acute

  6. Family history in breast cancer is not a prognostic factor?

    PubMed

    Jobsen, J J; Meerwaldt, J H; van der Palen, J

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if breast conservative treatment is justified for patients with a positive family history of breast cancer and to investigate whether they have a worse prognosis. We performed a prospective cohort study of breast cancer patients, treated with breast conservative treatment with radiotherapy at the Radiotherapy Department of the Medisch Spectrum Twente. Between 1984 and 1996, 1204 patients with T1 and T2 < or =3 cm were treated. Family history (FH) was recorded according to first degree relative (FDR). Treatment consisted of lumpectomy with axillary dissection followed by radiotherapy to the whole breast with a boost to the primary area. Adjuvant systemic therapy was given to patients with positive nodes. A positive FH was noted in 243 (20.5%) patients, of whom 208 (17.6%) had one FDR, and 35 (3.0%) > or =2 FDRs. The local recurrence rate was 4.1%, with similar rates for all groups. In young patients, < or =40 years, a significant relation between local recurrence and FH was found. The distant metastasis rate was 15.5%, with the lowest rate (5.7%) among patients with > or =2 FDRs. Patients with a positive FH had significantly more contralateral tumours. The 5-year corrected survival was 91.3%. Among patients with a positive FH, a 5-year corrected survival of 91% was observed and the survival 100% among patients with one and > or =2 FDR. Family history is not a contraindication for breast conservative treatment and is not associated with a worse prognosis. Family history is not a prognostic factor for local recurrence rate in patients older than 40 years. PMID:14731704

  7. Family history in breast cancer is not a prognostic factor?

    PubMed

    Jobsen, J J; Meerwaldt, J H; van der Palen, J

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if breast conservative treatment is justified for patients with a positive family history of breast cancer and to investigate whether they have a worse prognosis. We performed a prospective cohort study of breast cancer patients, treated with breast conservative treatment with radiotherapy at the Radiotherapy Department of the Medisch Spectrum Twente. Between 1984 and 1996, 1204 patients with T1 and T2 < or =3 cm were treated. Family history (FH) was recorded according to first degree relative (FDR). Treatment consisted of lumpectomy with axillary dissection followed by radiotherapy to the whole breast with a boost to the primary area. Adjuvant systemic therapy was given to patients with positive nodes. A positive FH was noted in 243 (20.5%) patients, of whom 208 (17.6%) had one FDR, and 35 (3.0%) > or =2 FDRs. The local recurrence rate was 4.1%, with similar rates for all groups. In young patients, < or =40 years, a significant relation between local recurrence and FH was found. The distant metastasis rate was 15.5%, with the lowest rate (5.7%) among patients with > or =2 FDRs. Patients with a positive FH had significantly more contralateral tumours. The 5-year corrected survival was 91.3%. Among patients with a positive FH, a 5-year corrected survival of 91% was observed and the survival 100% among patients with one and > or =2 FDR. Family history is not a contraindication for breast conservative treatment and is not associated with a worse prognosis. Family history is not a prognostic factor for local recurrence rate in patients older than 40 years.

  8. Immunohistologic detection of estrogen receptor alpha in canine mammary tumors: clinical and pathologic associations and prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Nieto, A; Peña, L; Pérez-Alenza, M D; Sánchez, M A; Flores, J M; Castaño, M

    2000-05-01

    Eighty-nine canine mammary tumors and dysplasias of 66 bitches were investigated to determine the immunohistochemical expression of classical estrogen receptor (ER-alpha) and its clinical and pathologic associations and prognostic value. A complete clinical examination was performed and reproductive history was evaluated. After surgery, all animals were followed-up for 18 months, with clinical examinations every 3-4 months. ER-alpha expression was higher in tumors of genitally intact and young bitches (P < 0.01, P < 0.01) and in animals with regular estrous periods (P = 0.03). Malignant tumors of the bitches with a previous clinical history of pseudopregnancy expressed significantly more ER-alpha (P = 0.04). Immunoexpression of ER-alpha decreased significantly with tumor size (P = 0.05) and skin ulceration (P = 0.01). Low levels of ER-alpha were significantly associated with lymph node involvement (P < 0.01). Malignant tumors had lower ER-alpha expression than did benign tumors (P < 0.01). Proliferation index measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining was inversely correlated with ER-alpha scores (P = 0.05) in all tumors. Low ER-alpha levels in primary malignant tumors were significantly associated with the occurrence of metastases in the follow-up (P = 0.03). Multivariate analyses were performed to determine the prognostic significance of some follow-up variables. ER-alpha value, Ki-67 index, and age were independent factors that could predict disease-free survival. Lymph node status, age, and ER-alpha index were independent prognostic factors for the overall survival. The immunohistochemical detection of ER-alpha in canine mammary tumors is a simple technique with prognostic value that could be useful in selecting appropriate hormonal therapy.

  9. A Survey of Attitudes towards the Clinical Application of Systemic Inflammation Based Prognostic Scores in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Watt, David G.; Roxburgh, Campbell S.; White, Mark; Chan, Juen Zhik; Horgan, Paul G.; McMillan, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The systemic inflammatory response (SIR) plays a key role in determining nutritional status and survival of patients with cancer. A number of objective scoring systems have been shown to have prognostic value; however, their application in routine clinical practice is not clear. The aim of the present survey was to examine the range of opinions internationally on the routine use of these scoring systems. Methods. An online survey was distributed to a target group consisting of individuals worldwide who have reported an interest in systemic inflammation in patients with cancer. Results. Of those invited by the survey (n = 238), 65% routinely measured the SIR, mainly for research and prognostication purposes and clinically for allocation of adjuvant therapy or palliative chemotherapy. 40% reported that they currently used the Glasgow Prognostic Score/modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS/mGPS) and 81% reported that a measure of systemic inflammation should be incorporated into clinical guidelines, such as the definition of cachexia. Conclusions. The majority of respondents routinely measured the SIR in patients with cancer, mainly using the GPS/mGPS for research and prognostication purposes. The majority reported that a measure of the SIR should be adopted into clinical guidelines. PMID:26504363

  10. A clinically based prognostic index for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a cut-off at 70 years of age significantly improves prognostic stratification: population-based analysis from the Danish Lymphoma Registry.

    PubMed

    Gang, Anne O; Pedersen, Michael; d'Amore, Francesco; Pedersen, Lars M; Jensen, Bo A; Jensen, Paw; Møller, Michael B; Mourits-Andersen, Hans T; Pedersen, Robert S; Klausen, Tobias W; de N Brown, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of rituximab and generally improved health among elderly patients have increased the survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The International Prognostic Index (IPI) from 1992 is based on pre-rituximab data from clinical trials including several lymphoma subtypes. We applied IPI factors to a population-based rituximab-treated cohort of 1990 patients diagnosed 2000-2010 and explored new factors and the optimal prognostic age cut-off for DLBCL. Multivariate-analyses (MVA) confirmed the prognostic value of all IPI factors except the presence of > 1 extranodal lesion. The optimal age cut-off was 70 years. In a MVA of albumin, lymphocyte count, sex, immunoglobulin G, bulky disease, hemoglobin and B-symptoms, only albumin was prognostic. We propose: (1) a modified DLBCL prognostic index (DLBCL-PI) including: age (70 years), performance status (PS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), stage and albumin level, and (2) a separate age-adjusted DLBCL-PI for patients ≤ 70 years including PS, LDH, albumin level and > 1 extranodal lesion, however excluding stage.

  11. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C) as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in patients with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Daye; Liang, Bin; Li, Yunhui

    2013-01-01

    VEGF-C is regarded as one of the most efficient factors in regulating lymphangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to better understand the role of VEGF-C in the progression of ovarian cancer and to assess its diagnostic and prognostic significance. A total of 109 patients with ovarian cancer, 76 patients with benign ovarian diseases, and 50 healthy controls were recruited in this study. Serum levels of VEGF-C were determined by ELISA method. The results showed that serum levels of VEGF-C were significantly higher in the patients with ovarian cancer than those with benign ovarian diseases and healthy controls (P<0.01). Serum level of VEGF-C was correlated with FIGO stage, lymph node metastasis, tumor resectability, and survival of the patients (P<0.05). The areas of receiver operating curves of VEGF-C were higher than those of CA125 in different screening groups. Analysis using the Kaplan-meier method indicated that patients with high VEGF-C had significantly shorter overall survival time than those with low VEGF-C (P<0.0001). In a multivariate analysis along with clinical prognostic parameters, serum VEGF-C was identified as an independent adverse prognostic variable for overall survival. These results indicated that serum VEGF-C may be a clinically useful indicator for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation in ovarian cancer patients.

  12. Complex molecular genetic abnormalities involving three or more genetic mutations are important prognostic factors for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wakita, S; Yamaguchi, H; Ueki, T; Usuki, K; Kurosawa, S; Kobayashi, Y; Kawata, E; Tajika, K; Gomi, S; Koizumi, M; Fujiwara, Y; Yui, S; Fukunaga, K; Ryotokuji, T; Hirakawa, T; Arai, K; Kitano, T; Kosaka, F; Tamai, H; Nakayama, K; Fukuda, T; Inokuchi, K

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a comprehensive analysis of 28 recurrently mutated genes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 271 patients with de novo AML. Co-mutations were frequently detected in the intermediate cytogenetic risk group, at an average of 2.76 co-mutations per patient. When assessing the prognostic impact of these co-mutations in the intermediate cytogenetic risk group, overall survival (OS) was found to be significantly shorter (P=0.0006) and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) significantly higher (P=0.0052) in patients with complex molecular genetic abnormalities (CMGAs) involving three or more mutations. This trend was marked even among patients aged ⩽65 years who were also FLT3-ITD (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplications)-negative (OS: P=0.0010; CIR: P=0.1800). Moreover, the multivariate analysis revealed that CMGA positivity was an independent prognostic factor associated with OS (P=0.0007). In stratification based on FLT3-ITD and CEBPA status and 'simplified analysis of co-mutations' using seven genes that featured frequently in CMGAs, CMGA positivity retained its prognostic value in transplantation-aged patients of the intermediate cytogenetic risk group (OS: P=0.0002. CIR: P<0.0001). In conclusion, CMGAs in AML were found to be strong independent adverse prognostic factors and simplified co-mutation analysis to have clinical usefulness and applicability.

  13. Prognostic factors determining the outcome of treatment in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Hadziyannis, S J

    2000-01-01

    After a brief introduction in terminology and a distinction between predictors and determinants or response to therapy in chronic hepatitis C, a review of the wide literature on this topic is presented. None of the pretreatment variables or combination of them can be used as an absolute predictor of response in individual patients. Prognostic factors can help in clinical practice for informing and counseling patients of the likelihood of response. Information on pretreatment HCV RNA levels and HCV genotype can improve the cost benefit of therapy. Predictors of response should be properly evaluated in terms of positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy. The strongest hitherto predictor of sustained response to any therapeutic regimen in chronic hepatitis is the clearance of HCV RNA during treatment. Recent data suggest that sequencing of several regions of the HCV genome may provide important prognostic information on the outcome of therapy. In complex and difficult to treat subsets of patients with chronic HCV infection, available data on predictors and determinants of the outcome of treatment are limited. PMID:10925467

  14. Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (Fgf21) as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker in Renal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Knott, ME; Minatta, JN; Roulet, L; Gueglio, G; Pasik, L; Ranuncolo, SM; Nuñez, M; Puricelli, L; De Lorenzo, MS

    2016-01-01

    Background The finding of new biomarkers is needed to have a better sub-classification of primary renal tumors (RCC) as well as more reliable predictors of outcome and therapy response. In this study, we evaluated the role of circulating FGF21, an endocrine factor, as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for ccRCC. Materials and Methods Serum samples from healthy controls (HC), clear cell and chromophobe RCC cancer patients were obtained from the serum biobank “Biobanco Público de Muestras Séricas Oncológicas” (BPMSO) of the “Instituto de Oncología “Ángel H. Roffo”. Serum FGF21 and leptin were measured by ELISA while other metabolic markers were measured following routinely clinical procedures. Results One of our major findings was that FGF21 levels were significantly increased in ccRCC patients compared with HC. Moreover, we showed an association between the increased serum FGF21 levels and the shorter disease free survival in a cohort of 98 ccRCC patients, after adjustment for other predictors of outcome. Conclusion Our results suggest that higher FGF21 serum level is an independent prognostic biomarker, associated with worse free-disease survival. PMID:27358750

  15. GATA3 Expression Is a Poor Prognostic Factor in Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Haraguchi, Toshiaki; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Hiraoka, Koji; Yokoyama, Shintaro; Ishibashi, Yukinao; Hashiguchi, Toshihiro; Matsuda, Koutaro; Hamada, Tetsuya; Okawa, Takahiro; Shiba, Naoto; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have investigated the significance of GATA3 expression in patients with various malignant tumors. However, no previous studies have evaluated the clinicopathological importance of GATA3 expression in soft tissue sarcomas (STS) patients. Methods We evaluated GATA3 expression in 76 STS cases using immunohistochemical analysis, and statistically compared clinicopathological characteristics between GATA3-positive and GATA3-negative cases. Result GATA3-positive expression was significantly associated with a higher mitotic count (P < 0.0001). Disease-free survival (DFS) of GATA3-positive cases was significantly shorter than that of cases without GATA3 expression (P = 0.0104). Overall survival (OS) of GATA3-positive cases was significantly shorter than that of cases without GATA3 expression (P = 0.0006). GATA3-positive expression was significantly associated with shorter DFS in both univariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 2.719; P = 0.012) and multivariate analysis (HR, 2.711; P = 0.014). GATA3-positive expression was also significantly associated with worse OS in both univariate analysis (HR, 5.730; P = 0.0007) and multivariate analysis (HR, 5.789; P = 0.0008). Conclusion These results indicate that GATA3 is an independent prognostic factor and suggest that evaluation of GATA3 expression might enable more effective clinical follow-up using prognostic stratification of STS patients. PMID:27249072

  16. Cell proliferation as a long-term prognostic factor in diffuse large-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Silvestrini, R; Costa, A; Boracchi, P; Giardini, R; Rilke, F

    1993-05-01

    The relevance of cell proliferation rate--defined as the 3H-thymidine labeling index (3H-dT LI)--in predicting response to treatment (complete remission, CR), freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS) was evaluated in 86 patients with diffuse large-cell lymphoma (DLCL). The biologic variable was not associated with most of the established clinical factors, such as gender and age of the patient, performance status, B symptoms, tumor bulk, or extranodal disease, but was directly related to stage. 3H-dT LI significantly predicted short- and long-term clinical outcome. In fact, more patients with slowly proliferating DLCL reached CR and had longer median FFP and OS than patients with rapidly proliferating DLCL. Multiple-regression analysis to evaluate the relative contribution of the different biologic and clinical variables in predicting CR, FFP and OS showed that 3H-dT LI and Ann Arbor stage were the only 2 stable factors, which retained their prognostic significance even in the presence of other conventional factors, and that 3H-dT LI was the most powerful as an indicator of risk of death in DLCL patients.

  17. Osteoprotegerin and Vascular Calcification: Clinical and Prognostic Relevance.

    PubMed

    Makarović, Sandra; Makarović, Zorin; Steiner, Robert; Mihaljević, Ivan; Milas-Ahić, Jasminka

    2015-06-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a key regulator in bone metabolism, that also has effect in vascular system. Studies suggest that osteoprotegerin is a critical arterial calcification inhibitor, and is released by endothelial cells as a protective mechanism for their survival in certain pathological conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and other metabolic disorders. That has been shown in studies in vitro and in animal models. The discovery that OPG deficient mice (OPG -/- mice) develop severe osteoporosis and arterial calcification, has led to conclusion that osteoprotegerin might be mulecule linking vascular and bone system. Paradoxically however, clinical trials have shown recently that OPG serum levels is increased in coronary artery disease and correlates with its severity, ischemic cardial decompensation, and future cardiovascular events. Therefore it is possible that osteoprotegerin could have a new function as a potential biomarker in early identification and monitoring patients with cardiovascular disease. Amongst that osteoprotegerin is in association with well known atherosclerosis risc factors: undoubtedly it is proven its relationship with age, smoking and diabetes mellitus. There is evidence regarding presence of hyperlipoproteinemia and increased serum levels of osteoprotegerin. Also the researches have been directed in genetic level, linking certain single nucleotid genetic polymorphisms of osteoprotegerin and vascular calcification appearance. This review emphasises multifactorial role of OPG, presenting numerous clinical and experimental studies regarding its role in vascular pathology, suggesting a novel biomarker in cardiovascular diseases, showing latest conclusions about this interesting topic that needs to be further explored. PMID:26753467

  18. Causes of Death and Prognostic Factors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Uehara, Hirotsugu; Berna, Marc J.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    literature series, the main causes of MEN1-related deaths were due to the malignant nature of the PETs, followed by the malignant nature of thymic carcinoid tumors. These results differ from the results of a number of the literature series, especially those reported before the 1990s. The causes of non-MEN1-related death for the 2 series, in decreasing frequency, were cardiovascular disease, other nonendocrine tumors > lung diseases, cerebrovascular diseases. The most frequent non-MEN1-related tumor deaths were colorectal, renal > lung > breast, oropharyngeal. Although both overall and disease-related survival are better than in the past (30-yr survival of NIH series: 82% overall, 88% disease-related), the mean age at death was 55 years, which is younger than expected for the general population. Detailed analysis of causes of death correlated with clinical, laboratory, and tumor characteristics of patients in the 2 series allowed identification of a number of prognostic factors. Poor prognostic factors included higher fasting gastrin levels, presence of other functional hormonal syndromes, need for >3 parathyroidectomies, presence of liver metastases or distant metastases, aggressive PET growth, large PETs, or the development of new lesions. The results of this study have helped define the causes of death of MEN1 patients at present, and have enabled us to identify a number of prognostic factors that should be helpful in tailoring treatment for these patients for both short- and long-term management, as well as in directing research efforts to better define the natural history of the disease and the most important factors determining long-term survival at present. PMID:23645327

  19. Prognostic Significance of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Serum Determination in Women with Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bandiera, Elisabetta; Franceschini, Roberta; Specchia, Claudia; Bignotti, Eliana; Trevisiol, Chiara; Gion, Massimo; Pecorelli, Sergio; Santin, Alessandro Davide; Ravaggi, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. We performed a review of the literature to elucidate the potential prognostic significance of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (sVEGF) levels in ovarian cancer. Methods. Eligible studies in English and Italian were identified in MEDLINE/PubMed from VEGF discovery to October 2011. All studies evaluating: (i) sVEGF levels before any surgical and chemotherapeutic treatment; (ii) the association between sVEGF levels and the established prognostic variables; (iii) the value of sVEGF levels in predicting patients' outcomes, were selected for this review. Results. The search resulted in 758 titles. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. A statistically significant association between the level of sVEGF and FIGO stage, tumour grade, residual tumour size, lymph node involvement, and presence of ascites was found in at least one study. sVEGF, in comparison with the established prognostic factors, appears to be the best prognostic marker for overall survival, since it stands out as an independent prognostic factor in most of the studies considered. Moreover, sVEGF levels were shown to be independent prognostic factors by 2 out of the 3 studies that considered DFS as an end point. Conclusion. High levels of sVEGF identify a subgroup of patients with higher risk of death and/or recurrence. These patients should be eligible for individually tailored therapeutic interventions. PMID:22792477

  20. Prognostic factors associated with pressure sore development in the immediate post-operative period.

    PubMed

    Nixon, J; Brown, J; McElvenny, D; Mason, S; Bond, S

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify variables associated with post-operative pressure sore incidence. The data were derived from a sequential, double triangular, randomised, blinded, controlled trial of the intra-operative use of a visco-elastic polymer pad conducted at two centres. Of 446 surgical patients recruited the main endpoint was assessed for 416 patients of whom 65 (15.6%) had a post-operative pressure sore. Analysis determined that the probability of a patient developing a pressure sore was associated with increased number of hypotensive episodes and mean core temperature during surgery, and reduced mobility Day 1 post-operatively. The development of a probability equation illustrates the future potential of prognostic factor research in the development of risk assessment tools and their application within clinical settings.

  1. Clinical and molecular prognostic and predictive biomarkers in clear cell renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Kukwa, Wojciech; Kornakiewicz, Anna; Lian, Fei; Szczylik, Cezary

    2014-12-01

    The natural history of clear cell renal cell cancer is highly unpredictable with various progressors and with populations where small renal masses may be accompanied by metastatic disease. Currently, there is a critical need to determine patient risk and optimize treatment regimes. For these patients, molecular markers may offer significant information in terms of prognostic and predictive values, as well as determination of valid therapeutic targets. Until now, only a few of the many identified clear cell renal cell cancer biomarkers have been clinically validated in large cohorts. And only several biomarkers are integrated in predictive or prognostic models. Therefore, a large cohesive effort is required to advance the field of clear cell renal cell cancer prognostic biomarkers through systematic discovery, verification, validation and clinical implementation.

  2. Obstructive Jaundice in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Response after Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Prognostic Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon Woo; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Seong Ho; Ko, Young Hwan; Yoon, Chang Jin; Yeon, Kyung-Mo

    2002-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by biliary involvement of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and to determine the prognostic factors. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 22 consecutive patients (M:F = 20:2, mean age 52.8 years).Inclusion criteria were the patient having obstructive jaundice caused by HCC that invaded the bile ducts and having at least 4 weeks of follow-up data after the PTBD. We defined 'good response' and 'poor response' as whether the level of total bilirubin decreased more than 50% in 4 weeks or not. Total bilirubin level (T-bil),Child-Pugh score and the location of biliary obstruction for the two groups were compared. In addition, the interval between clinical onset of jaundice and PTBD, the degree of parenchymal atrophy and the size of the primary tumor were compared. Results: Of the 22 patients, 13 (59.1%) showed good response. T-bil was significantly lower in the good response group than in the poor (14.2 {+-} 6 mg/dlvs 25.9 {+-} 13.8 mg/dl, p = .017). In the five patients with T-bil <10 mg/dl, four (80%) showed good response,while in nine patients with T-bil > 20 mg/dl, only three (33%)showed good response. Although statistically not significant, patients with Child score <10 showed better results [good response rate of 66.7% (12/18)] than patients with Child score ?10 [good response rate of 25% (1/4)]. Involvement of secondary confluence of the bile duct also served as a poor prognostic factor (p =0.235). The interval between clinical onset of jaundice and PTBD, the presence of parenchymal atrophy and the size of the tumor did not show significant effect. Conclusion: Early and effective biliary drainage might be necessary in this group of patients with limited hepatic function.

  3. Methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer: A prognostic factor or not?

    PubMed

    Gallois, C; Laurent-Puig, P; Taieb, J

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is due to different types of genetic alterations that are translated into different phenotypes. Among them, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP+) is the most recently involved in carcinogenesis of some CRC. The malignant transformation in this case is mainly due to the transcriptional inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. CIMP+ are reported to be more frequently found in the elderly and in women. The tumors are more frequently located in the proximal part of the colon, BRAF mutated and are associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype. All sporadic MSI CRC belong to the methylator phenotype, however some non MSI CRC may also harbor a methylator phenotype. The prognostic value of CIMP is not well known. Most studies show a worse prognosis in CIMP+ CRC, and adjuvant treatments seem to be more efficient. We review here the current knowledge on prognostic and predictive values in CIMP+ CRC. PMID:26702883

  4. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor as a potential prognostic factor in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Long-Jun; Xie, Dan; Hu, Pin-Jin; Liao, Yi-Ji; Deng, Hai-Xia; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Zhu, Sen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression and its clinical relevance in gastric cancer, and effects of MIF knockdown on proliferation of gastric cancer cells. METHODS: Tissue microarray containing 117 samples of gastric cancer and adjacent non-cancer normal tissues was studied for MIF expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) semiquantitatively, and the association of MIF expression with clinical parameters was analyzed. MIF expression in gastric cancer cell lines was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Two pairs of siRNA targeting the MIF gene (MIF si-1 and MIF si-2) and one pair of scrambled siRNA as a negative control (NC) were designed and chemically synthesized. All siRNAs were transiently transfected in AGS cells with OligofectamineTM to knock down the MIF expression, with the NC group and mock group (OligofectamineTM alone) as controls. At 24, 48, and 72 h after transfection, MIF mRNA was analyzed by RT-PCR, and MIF and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins were detected by Western blot. The proliferative rate of AGS cells was assessed by methylthiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and colony forming assay. RESULTS: The tissue microarray was informative for IHC staining, in which the MIF expression in gastric cancer tissues was higher than that in adjacent non-cancer normal tissues (P < 0.001), and high level of MIF was related to poor tumor differentiation, advanced T stage, advanced tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, and poor patient survival (P < 0.05 for all). After siRNA transfection, MIF mRNA was measured by real-time PCR, and MIF protein and PCNA were assessed by Western blot analysis. We found that compared to the NC group and mock group, MIF expression was knocked down successfully in gastric cancer cells, and PCNA expression was downregulated with MIF knockdown as well. The cell counts and the doubling times were assayed by MTT 4 d after transfection, and

  5. Clinical and prognostic significance of coagulation assays in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Serilmez, Murat; Keskin, Serkan; Sen, Fatma; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2013-03-01

    Activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently encountered among cancer patients. Such tumors are supposed to be associated with higher risk of invasion, metastases and eventually worse outcome. The aim of this study is to explore the prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for lung cancer patients. The study comprised 110 lung cancer patients. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, aPTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels and platelet counts were evaluated. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group (p < 0.001). There was a significant association between D-Dimer levels and histological subtypes of NSCLC, pointing an elevated plasma D-dimer level in squamous cell cancer (p = 0.035). Patients with extensive stage SCLC exhibited evidently higher levels of D-Dimer, INR and PLT (p = 0.037, p = 0.042, p = 0.04, respectively). Prolongation of PT and INR had statistically significant adverse effect on survival (p = 0.05 and p = 0.014, respectively). Although prolonged aPTT and high levels of D-dimer was associated with worse survival, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.117, p = 0.104). Multivariate analysis revealed INR as the sole independent prognostic variable among coagulation parameters (p = 0.05). In conclusion, elevation of PT and INR are associated with decreased survival in lung cancer patients.

  6. Rheumatoid Factors: Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid factors are antibodies directed against the Fc region of immunoglobulin G. First detected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 70 years ago, they can also be found in patients with other autoimmune and nonautoimmune conditions, as well as in healthy subjects. Rheumatoid factors form part of the workup for the differential diagnosis of arthropathies. In clinical practice, it is recommended to measure anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factors together because anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies alone are only moderately sensitive, and the combination of the two markers improves diagnostic accuracy, especially in the case of early rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, different rheumatoid factor isotypes alone or in combination can be helpful when managing rheumatoid arthritis patients, from the time of diagnosis until deciding on the choice of therapeutic strategy. PMID:24324289

  7. A genomic and clinical prognostic index for hepatitis C-related early-stage cirrhosis that predicts clinical deterioration

    PubMed Central

    King, Lindsay Y.; Canasto-Chibuque, Claudia; Johnson, Kara B.; Yip, Shun; Chen, Xintong; Kojima, Kensuke; Deshmukh, Manjeet; Venkatesh, Anu; Tan, Poh Seng; Sun, Xiaochen; Villanueva, Augusto; Sangiovanni, Angelo; Nair, Venugopalan; Mahajan, Milind; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Kumada, Hiromitsu; Iavarone, Massimo; Colombo, Massimo; Fiel, Maria Isabel; Friedman, Scott L.; Llovet, Josep M.; Chung, Raymond T.; Hoshida, Yujin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The number of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis is increasing, leading to a rising risk of complications and death. Prognostic stratification in patients with early-stage cirrhosis is still challenging. We aimed to develop and validate a clinically useful prognostic index based on genomic and clinical variables to identify patients at high risk of disease progression. Design We developed a prognostic index, comprised of a 186-gene signature validated in our previous genome-wide profiling study, bilirubin (>1mg/dL), and platelet count (<100,000/mm3), in an Italian HCV cirrhosis cohort (training cohort, n=216, median follow-up 10 years). The gene signature test was implemented utilizing a digital transcript counting (nCounter) assay specifically developed for clinical use, and the prognostic index was evaluated using archived specimens from an independent cohort of HCV-related cirrhosis in the U.S. (validation cohort, n=145, median follow-up 8 years). Results In the training cohort, the prognostic index was associated with hepatic decompensation (HR=2.71, p=0.003), overall death (HR=6.00, p<0.001), hepatocellular carcinoma (HR=3.31, p=0.001), and progression of Child-Turcotte-Pugh class (HR=6.70, p<0.001). The patients in the validation cohort were stratified into high (16%), intermediate (42%), or low (42%) risk group by the prognostic index. The high-risk group had a significantly increased risk of hepatic decompensation (HR=7.36, p<0.001), overall death (HR=3.57, p=0.002), liver-related death (HR=6.49, p<0.001), and all liver-related adverse events (HR=4.98, p<0.001). Conclusion A genomic and clinical prognostic index readily available for clinical use was successfully validated, warranting further clinical evaluation for prognostic prediction, and clinical trial stratification and enrichment for preventive interventions. PMID:25143343

  8. Long Term Surgical Outcome and Prognostic Factors of Atypical and Malignant Meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Chi; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Chang, Cheng-Nen; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Hsu, Yung-Hsin; Lin, Tzu-Kan; Hsu, Peng-Wei; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Chen, Yao-Liang; Chen, Pin-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Atypical and malignant meningiomas are rare. Our aim was to examine the treatment outcomes following surgical resection, and analyze associations between clinical characteristics and overall survival (OS) or relapse free survival (RFS). 102 patients with atypical or malignant meningiomas underwent microsurgical resection between June 2001 and November 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. We compared demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment, and complications. The five-year and ten-year overall survival rates were 93.5% and 83.4%, respectively. Three factors significantly reduced OS: Malignant meningiomas (p < 0.001), which also decreased RFS (p < 0.001); female patients (p = 0.049), and patients with Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) < 70 at diagnosis (p = 0.009). Fifty two patients (51%) experienced tumor relapse. Total resection of tumors significantly impacted RFS (p = 0.013). Tumors located at parasagittal and posterior fossa area lead to higher relapse rate (p = 0.004). Subtotal resection without adjuvant radiotherapy lead to the worst local control of tumor (p = 0.030). An MIB-1 index <8% improved OS and RFS (p = 0.003). Total resection of atypical and malignant meningiomas provided better outcome and local control. Adjuvant radiation therapy is indicated for patients with malignant meningiomas, with incompletely excised tumors; or with tumors in the parasagittal or posterior fossa area. The MIB-1 index of the tumor is an independent prognostic factor of clinical outcome. PMID:27760993

  9. Salvage chemotherapy followed by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-primed donor leukocyte infusion with graft-vs.-host disease control for minimal residual disease in acute leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: prognostic factors and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Lan-Ping; Wang, Yu; Yan, Chen-Hua; Chen, Huan; Chen, Yu-Hong; Han, Wei; Wang, Feng-Rong; Wang, Jing-Zhi; Liu, Kai-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the prognostic factors and clinical outcomes of preemptive chemotherapy followed by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-primed donor leukocyte infusion (Chemo-DLI) according to minimal residual disease (MRD) status in patients with acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) (n = 101). Patients received immunosuppressive drugs to prevent graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) after Chemo-DLI. The 3-yr cumulative incidences of relapse, non-relapse mortality, and disease-free survival (DFS) after HSCT were 39.5%, 9.6%, and 51.7%, respectively. The cumulative incidences of relapse and DFS were significantly poorer in patients who exhibited early-onset MRD. Forty-four patients turned MRD negative 1 month after Chemo-DLI; their cumulative incidences of relapse and DFS were significantly better than those with persistent MRD 1 month after preemptive Chemo-DLI (relapse: 19.8% vs. 46.8%, P = 0.001; DFS: 69.6% vs. 46.4%, P = 0.004). The cumulative incidences of relapse and DFS after HSCT were significantly better in patients with chronic GVHD (cGVHD) than those without cGVHD (relapse: 19.6% vs. 63.7%, P < 0.001; DFS: 74.4% vs. 23.8%, P < 0.001). Early-onset MRD, persistent MRD after Chemo-DLI, and non-cGVHD after Chemo-DLI, which were associated with increased relapse and impaired DFS, suggest unsatisfactory response to preemptive Chemo-DLI.

  10. Atrial Fibrillation in Acute St-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Clinical and Prognostic Features

    PubMed Central

    Gorenek, Bulent; Kudaiberdieva, Gulmira

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia in the setting of acute coronary syndrome and acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This review summarizes recent evidence on the clinical and prognostic significance of pre-existent and new-onset AF in acute STEMI patients and highlights new emerging predictors of AF development in the era of contemporary treatment. PMID:22920476

  11. Baseline nutritional status is prognostic factor after definitive radiochemotherapy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Clavier, J-B; Antoni, D; Atlani, D; Ben Abdelghani, M; Schumacher, C; Dufour, P; Kurtz, J-E; Noel, G

    2014-08-01

    Identify prognostic factors for survival and patterns of treatment failure after definitive radiochemotherapy for esophageal cancer. Between 2003 and 2006, 143 patients with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus were retrospectively reviewed. Median age was 65 years (42-81). Median radiation dose was 62.5 Gy (38-72) with 1.8-2 Gy fraction. Median follow-up was 20.8 months (2.8-92.4). Three and 5-year local recurrence-free survival rates were 58.3% and 50.9%. In univariate analysis, traversable esophageal stricture was a prognostic factor. Three, 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival rates were 42.4% and 34.9%. In multivariate analysis, traversable esophageal stricture and stage < IIB were independent prognostic factors. Three and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 30.5% and 25.9%. In multivariate analysis, Nutritional Risk Index (NRI) ≥ 97.5 and performance status (PS) = 0 were independent prognostic factors. Median, 3, and 5-year overall survival rates were 22.1 months, 34.4%, and 19.8%. In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors were NRI ≥ 97.5 and PS = 0. Median survival times for the NRI classes (no denutrition, moderate and severe denutrition) were 29.5, 19.7, and 12 months (P = 0.0004), respectively. A major impact of baseline NRI was found in terms of survival; it should be included in future prospective trials.

  12. Low-Level Microsatellite Instability as a Potential Prognostic Factor in Sporadic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Duck-Woo; Lee, Hye Seung; Ihn, Myong Hoon; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Min, Byung Soh; Kim, Woo Ram; Huh, Jung Wook; Yun, Jung-A.; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Nam Kyu; Lee, Woo Yong; Kim, Hee Cheol; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) colorectal cancers (CRCs) have been shown to exhibit a distinct phenotype, the clinical value of MSI-low (MSI-L) in CRC remains unclear. We designed this study to examine the clinicopathologic characteristics and oncologic implications associated with MSI-L CRCs. We retrospectively reviewed data of CRC patients from 3 tertiary referral hospitals in Korea, who underwent surgical resection between January 2003 and December 2009 and had available MSI testing results. MSI testing was performed using the pentaplex Bethesda panel. Clinicopathologic features and oncologic outcomes were compared between MSI-L and microsatellite stable (MSS) CRCs; prognostic factors for survival were also examined. Of the 3019 patients reviewed, 2621 (86.8%) were MSS, and 200 (6.6%) were MSI-L; the remaining 198 (6.6%) were MSI-H. MSI-L and MSS CRCs were comparable in terms of their clinicopathologic features, with the exception of proximal tumor location (MSI-L 30.0% vs MSS 22.1%, P = 0.024) and tumor size (MSI-L 5.2 ± 2.6 cm vs MSS 4.6 ± 2.1 cm, P = 0.001). No differences were detected in either 3-year disease-free survival (MSI-L 87.2% vs MSS 82.6%, P = 0.121) or 5-year overall survival (OS) (MSI-L 74.2% vs MSS 78.3%, P = 0.131) by univariable analysis. However, MSI-L was an independent prognostic factor for poor OS by Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio 1.358, 95% confidence interval 1.014–1.819, P = 0.040). MSI-L may be an independent prognostic factor for OS in sporadic CRCs despite their clinicopathologic similarity to MSS. Further studies investigating the significance of MSI-L in the genesis and prognosis of CRCs are needed. PMID:26683947

  13. An integrative analysis of treatment, outcomes and prognostic factors for primary spinal anaplastic ependymomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiqin; Sui, Mingxing; Ye, Jingliang; Wan, Zhiping; Chen, Feng; Luo, Chun

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of treatment modalities in primary spinal anaplastic ependymomas (PSAE) and identify promising prognostic factors. PSAE are rare tumors of the central nervous system with poorly understood clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes. We reviewed the literature in PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases to identify patients with PSAE. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis and univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis were performed on the PSAE patients and overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed to evaluate the clinical outcomes. Of the 40 patients with PSAE, the tumors were mostly intramedullary (n=19; 47.5%) and frequently involved the thoracic cord (n=25; 62.5%). Eighteen patients suffered recurrence during the follow-up with a median PFS of 24 months. The 1, 2, and 5year OS rates of the PSAE patients were 91.5%, 82.1%, and 63.1%, respectively. Gross total resection (GTR) was independently associated with prolonged PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.11; p=0.004) and OS (HR 0.11; p=0.003) in the multivariate analysis. Adjuvant radiotherapy also conferred improved PFS (HR 0.15; p=0.008) and OS (HR 0.16; p=0.022). Age, sex, tumor location and chemotherapy did not influence the outcomes in this group. The results of our study suggest that GTR and adjuvant radiotherapy are strong prognostic indicators in patients with PSAE and the role of chemotherapy is yet to be defined. PMID:25769252

  14. Pediatric intracranial ependymomas: prognostic relevance of histological, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometric factors.

    PubMed

    Zamecnik, Josef; Snuderl, Matija; Eckschlager, Tomas; Chanova, Marketa; Hladikova, Marie; Tichy, Michal; Kodet, Roman

    2003-10-01

    The correlation between the histological features and clinical outcome remains poor in pediatric intracranial ependymomas. We performed a retrospective study of a group of 31 patients (diagnosed from 1985 to 1995) to assess prognostic implications of the current grading system, of histological and immunohistochemical features, and of ploidy status estimated by flow cytometry. Immunoexpression of a broad spectrum of antigens was evaluated, including MIB-1, topoisomerase-IIalpha, cyclin D1, glial and epithelial proteins (GFAP, EMA, cytokeratins), molecules involved in controlling apoptosis (bcl-2, caspase-3/CPP32), and p53 oncoprotein. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of each variable on both the progression free survival (PFS) and the overall survival (OS) with at least 7-year follow up. Although we showed a significant correlation between histological grade and prognosis, the current grading system failed in predicting outcome in nearly one third of individual cases. Problems with interpathologist reproducibility were also demonstrated. The extent of surgical resection was the only clinical factor that was associated with survival. Both the PFS and the OS were significantly decreased for the following pathological variables: increased cellularity (>300 nuclei per HPF), mitotic activity of >7 per 10 HPF, increased MIB-1 labeling index (LI), topoisomerase-IIalpha LI, S-phase fraction, and p53 and bcl-2 positivity. Increased cyclin D1 LI was demonstrated to have only a marginally significant impact on PFS. A flow chart modeling was further performed to formulate a scheme for discriminating of prognostic subgroups. Based on that, p53 immunopositivity and/or MIB-1 LI of >5% (after subtotal resection) or MIB-1 LI of >15% (after complete resection) were the strongest indicators of the tumor's aggressive behavior and of a poor prognosis of the disease. Foci of hypercellularity should be specifically looked for in

  15. Breast sarcomas and malignant phyllodes tumours: comparison of clinicopathological features, treatment strategies, prognostic factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sue Zann; Selvarajan, Sathiyamoorthy; Thike, Aye Aye; Nasir, Nur Diyana Binte Md; Tan, Benita Kiat Tee; Ong, Kong Wee; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to compare the clinicopathological features, treatment strategies and clinical outcomes of breast sarcomas (BS) and malignant phyllodes tumours (MPT), and determine their prognostic factors. Cases of BS and MPT diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital from January 1991 to December 2014 were derived from department files. Clinicopathological features, treatment strategies and survivals of patients with BS and MPT were compared. Prognostic indicators for BS and MPT were identified. BS and MPT were comparable in all except one of their clinicopathological features. A significantly higher proportion of BS patients had a history of previous breast carcinoma and thus radiation to the chest as compared to the MPT group (17.6 vs 0 %, P = 0.018). There was no significant difference in survival outcomes between BS and MPT. The 5-year disease-free survivals (DFS) for BS and MPT were 59.1 and 57.4 % respectively (P = 0.816), while the 5-year overall survivals (OS) for BS and MPT were 86.5 and 78.5 % respectively (P = 0.792). Combining both groups of tumours, univariate analysis showed that DFS was significantly affected by multifocality (P = 0.019), histological subtype (P = 0.014), presence of malignant heterologous elements (P < 0.001) and margin status (P = 0.023). Margin status was the only parameter which had a significant impact on OS (P = 0.040). Multivariate analysis confirmed the above findings. BS and MPT are rare entities with remarkable heterogeneity. They share similar clinicopathological features and outcomes, provoking thoughts on their biological relationship and clinical significance of pathologic distinction. PMID:27541020

  16. Complex karyotype in mantle cell lymphoma is a strong prognostic factor for the time to treatment and overall survival, independent of the MCL international prognostic index.

    PubMed

    Sarkozy, Clémentine; Terré, Christine; Jardin, Fabrice; Radford, Isabelle; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Penther, Dominique; Bastard, Christian; Rigaudeau, Sophie; Pilorge, Sylvain; Morschhauser, Franck; Bouscary, Didier; Delarue, Richard; Farhat, Hassan; Rousselot, Philippe; Hermine, Olivier; Tilly, Hervé; Chevret, Sylvie; Castaigne, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is usually an aggressive disease. However, a few patients do have an "indolent" evolution (iMCL) defined by a long survival time without intensive therapy. Many studies highlight the prognostic role of additional genetic abnormalities, but these abnormalities are not routinely tested for and do not yet influence the treatment decision. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of these additional abnormalities detected by conventional cytogenetic testing, as well as their relationships with the clinical characteristics and their value in identifying iMCL. All consecutive MCL cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 at four institutions were retrospectively selected on the basis of an informative karyotype with a t(11;14) translocation at the time of diagnosis. A total of 125 patients were included and followed for an actual median time of 35 months. The median overall survival (OS) and survival without treatment (TFS) were 73.7 and 1.3 months, respectively. In multivariable Cox models, a high mantle cell lymphoma international prognostic index score, a complex karyotype, and blastoid morphology were independently associated with a shortened OS. Spleen enlargement, nodal presentation, extra-hematological involvement, and complex karyotypes were associated with shorter TFS. A score based on these factors allowed for the identification of "indolent" patients (median TFS 107 months) from other patients (median TFS: 1 month). In conclusion, in this multicentric cohort of MCL patients, a complex karyotype was associated with a shorter survival time and allowed for the identification of iMCL at the time of diagnosis. PMID:24249260

  17. Supratentorial hemispheric ependymomas: an analysis of 109 adults for survival and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Hollon, Todd; Nguyen, Vincent; Smith, Brandon W; Lewis, Spencer; Junck, Larry; Orringer, Daniel A

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Survival rates and prognostic factors for supratentorial hemispheric ependymomas have not been determined. The authors therefore designed a retrospective study to determine progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and prognostic factors for hemispheric ependymomas. METHODS The study population consisted of 8 patients from our institution and 101 patients from the literature with disaggregated survival information (n = 109). Patient age, sex, tumor side, tumor location, extent of resection (EOR), tumor grade, postoperative chemotherapy, radiation, time to recurrence, and survival were recorded. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox proportional hazard models were completed to determine survival rates and prognostic factors. RESULTS Anaplastic histology/WHO Grade III tumors were identified in 62% of cases and correlated with older age. Three-, 5-, and 10-year PFS rates were 57%, 51%, and 42%, respectively. Three-, 5-, and 10-year OS rates were 77%, 71%, and 58%, respectively. EOR and tumor grade were identified on both Kaplan-Meier log-rank testing and univariate Cox proportional hazard models as prognostic for PFS and OS. Both EOR and tumor grade remained prognostic on multivariate analysis. Subtotal resection (STR) predicted a worse PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 4.764, p = 0.001) and OS (HR 4.216, p = 0.008). Subgroup survival analysis of patients with STR demonstrated a 5- and 10-year OS of 28% and 0%, respectively. WHO Grade III tumors also had worse PFS (HR 10.2, p = 0.004) and OS (HR 9.1, p = 0.035). Patients with WHO Grade III tumors demonstrated 5- and 10-year OS of 61% and 46%, respectively. Postoperative radiation was not prognostic for PFS or OS. CONCLUSIONS A high incidence of anaplastic histology was found in hemispheric ependymomas and was associated with older age. EOR and tumor grade were prognostic factors for PFS and OS on multivariate analysis. STR or WHO Grade III pathology, or both, predicted worse overall prognosis in patients

  18. Antihistamines and other prognostic factors for adverse outcome in hyperemesis gravidarum

    PubMed Central

    Fejzo, Marlena S.; Magtira, Aromalyn; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; MacGibbon, Kimber; Mullin, Patrick; Romero, Roberto; Tabsh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of adverse perinatal outcome in women with hyperemesis gravidarum and identify prognostic factors. Study design This is a case-control study in which outcomes of first pregnancies were compared between 254 women with hyperemesis gravidarum treated with intravenous fluids and 308 controls. Prognostic factors were identified by comparing the clinical profile of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum with a normal and an adverse pregnancy outcome. Binary responses were analyzed using either a Chi-square or Fisher exact test and continuous responses were analyzed using a t-test. Results Women with hyperemesis gravidarum have over a 4-fold increased risk of poor outcome including preterm birth and lower birth weight (p < 0.0001). Among maternal characteristics, only gestational hypertension had an influence on outcome (p < 0.0001). Treatment as an outpatient and/or by alternative medicine (acupuncture/acupressure/Bowen massage) was associated with a positive outcome (p < 0.0089). Poor outcomes were associated with early start of symptoms (p < 0.019), and treatment with methylprednisolone (p < 0.0217), promethazine (p < 0.0386), and other antihistamines [diphenhy- dramine (Benadryl), dimenhydrinate (Gravol), doxylamine (Unisom), hydroxyzine (Vistaril/Atarax), doxylamine and pyridoxine (Diclectin/Bendectin)] (p < 0.0151) independent of effectiveness. Among these medications, only the other antihistamines were prescribed independent of severity: they were effective in less than 20% of cases and were taken by almost 50% of patients with an adverse outcome. Conclusion Poor outcomes are significantly greater in women with HG and are associated with gestational hypertension, early symptoms, and antihistamine use. Given these results, there is an urgent need to address the safety and effectiveness of medications containing antihistamines in women with severe nausea of pregnancy. PMID:23751910

  19. CD47 is an adverse prognostic factor and a therapeutic target in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazumichi; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Matsumura, Kouji; Kinoshita, Manabu; Takahata, Risa; Matsumoto, Yusuke; Hiraki, Shuichi; Ono, Satoshi; Seki, Shuhji; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo

    2015-09-01

    CD47 is an antiphagocytic molecule that acts via ligation to signal regulatory protein alpha on phagocytes; its enhanced expression and therapeutic targeting have recently been reported for several malignancies. However, CD47 expression in gastric cancer is not well documented. Immunohistochemical expression of CD47 in surgical specimens was investigated. Expression of CD47 and CD44, a known gastric cancer stem cell marker, were investigated in gastric cancer cell lines by flow cytometry. MKN45 and MKN74 gastric cancer cells were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting according to CD44 and CD47 expression levels, and their in vitro proliferation, spheroid-forming capacity, and in vivo tumorigenicity were studied. In vitro phagocytosis of cancer cells by human macrophages in the presence of a CD47 blocking monoclonal antibody (B6H12) and the survival of immunodeficient mice intraperitoneally engrafted with MKN45 cells and B6H12 were compared to experiments using control antibodies. Immunohistochemistry of the clinical specimens indicated that CD47 was positive in 57 out of 115 cases, and its positivity was an independent adverse prognostic factor. Approximately 90% of the MKN45 and MKN74 cells expressed CD47 and CD44. CD47(hi) gastric cancer cells showed significantly higher proliferation and spheroid colony formation than CD47(lo) , and CD44(hi) CD47(hi) cells showed the highest proliferation in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. B6H12 significantly enhanced in vitro phagocytosis of cancer cells by human macrophages and prolonged the survival of intraperitoneal cancer dissemination in mice compared to control antibodies. In conclusion, CD47 is an adverse prognostic factor and promising therapeutic target in gastric cancer. PMID:26077800

  20. Resting heart rate as a prognostic factor for mortality in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Park, Seho; Lim, Sung Mook; Lee, Mi Kyung; Giovannucci, Edward L; Kim, Joo Heung; Kim, Seung Il; Jeon, Justin Y

    2016-09-01

    Although elevated resting heart rate (RHR) has been shown to be associated with mortality in the general population and patients with certain diseases, no study has examined this association in patients with breast cancer. A total of 4786 patients with stage I-III breast cancer were retrospectively selected from the Severance hospital breast cancer registry in Seoul, Korea. RHR was measured at baseline and the mean follow-up time for all patients was 5.0 ± 2.5 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox regression models. After adjustment for prognostic factors, patients in the highest quintile of RHR (≥85 beat per minute (bpm)) had a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.57; 95 %CI 1.05-2.35), breast cancer-specific mortality (HR: 1.69; 95 %CI 1.07-2.68), and cancer recurrence (HR: 1.49; 95 %CI 0.99-2.25), compared to those in the lowest quintile (≤67 bpm). Moreover, every 10 bpm increase in RHR was associated with 15, 22, and 6 % increased risk of all-cause mortality, breast cancer-specific mortality, and cancer recurrence, respectively. However, the association between RHR and cancer recurrence was not statistically significant (p = 0.26). Elevated RHR was associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with breast cancer. The findings from this study suggest that RHR may be used as a prognostic factor for patients with breast cancer in clinical settings. PMID:27544225

  1. CD47 is an adverse prognostic factor and a therapeutic target in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kazumichi; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Matsumura, Kouji; Kinoshita, Manabu; Takahata, Risa; Matsumoto, Yusuke; Hiraki, Shuichi; Ono, Satoshi; Seki, Shuhji; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    CD47 is an antiphagocytic molecule that acts via ligation to signal regulatory protein alpha on phagocytes; its enhanced expression and therapeutic targeting have recently been reported for several malignancies. However, CD47 expression in gastric cancer is not well documented. Immunohistochemical expression of CD47 in surgical specimens was investigated. Expression of CD47 and CD44, a known gastric cancer stem cell marker, were investigated in gastric cancer cell lines by flow cytometry. MKN45 and MKN74 gastric cancer cells were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting according to CD44 and CD47 expression levels, and their in vitro proliferation, spheroid-forming capacity, and in vivo tumorigenicity were studied. In vitro phagocytosis of cancer cells by human macrophages in the presence of a CD47 blocking monoclonal antibody (B6H12) and the survival of immunodeficient mice intraperitoneally engrafted with MKN45 cells and B6H12 were compared to experiments using control antibodies. Immunohistochemistry of the clinical specimens indicated that CD47 was positive in 57 out of 115 cases, and its positivity was an independent adverse prognostic factor. Approximately 90% of the MKN45 and MKN74 cells expressed CD47 and CD44. CD47hi gastric cancer cells showed significantly higher proliferation and spheroid colony formation than CD47lo, and CD44hiCD47hi cells showed the highest proliferation in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. B6H12 significantly enhanced in vitro phagocytosis of cancer cells by human macrophages and prolonged the survival of intraperitoneal cancer dissemination in mice compared to control antibodies. In conclusion, CD47 is an adverse prognostic factor and promising therapeutic target in gastric cancer. PMID:26077800

  2. Time-Dependent Effects of Prognostic Factors in Advanced Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jin-Ok; Min, Jae-Seok; Kim, Min-Suk; Lee, Hae-Won; Park, Sunhoo; Yu, Hang-Jong; Bang, Ho-Yoon; Lee, Jong-Inn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to identify time-dependent prognostic factors and demonstrate the time-dependent effects of important prognostic factors in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Materials and Methods We retrospectively evaluated 3,653 patients with AGC who underwent curative standard gastrectomy between 1991 and 2005 at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital. Multivariate survival analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression was used in the analysis. A non-proportionality test based on the Schoenfeld residuals (also known as partial residuals) was performed, and scaled Schoenfeld residuals were plotted over time for each covariate. Results The multivariate analysis revealed that sex, depth of invasion, metastatic lymph node (LN) ratio, tumor size, and chemotherapy were time-dependent covariates violating the proportional hazards assumption. The prognostic effects (i.e., log of hazard ratio [LHR]) of the time-dependent covariates changed over time during follow-up, and the effects generally diminished with low slope (e.g., depth of invasion and tumor size), with gentle slope (e.g., metastatic LN ratio), or with steep slope (e.g., chemotherapy). Meanwhile, the LHR functions of some covariates (e.g., sex) crossed the zero reference line from positive (i.e., bad prognosis) to negative (i.e., good prognosis). Conclusions The time-dependent effects of the prognostic factors of AGC are clearly demonstrated in this study. We can suggest that time-dependent effects are not an uncommon phenomenon among prognostic factors of AGC. PMID:26819803

  3. Developing a multivariable prognostic model for pancreatic endocrine tumors using the clinical data warehouse resources of a single institution.

    PubMed

    Botsis, Taxiarchis; Anagnostou, Valsamo K; Hartvigsen, Gunnar; Hripcsak, George; Weng, Chunhua

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Current staging systems are not accurate for classifying pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) by risk. Here, we developed a prognostic model for PETs and compared it to the WHO classification system. METHODS: We identified 98 patients diagnosed with PET at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center (1999 to 2009). Tumor and clinical characteristics were retrieved and associations with survival were assessed by univariate Cox analysis. A multivariable model was constructed and a risk score was calculated; the prognostic strength of our model was assessed with the concordance index. RESULTS: Our cohort had median age of 60 years and consisted of 61.2% women; median follow-up time was 10.4 months (range: 0.1-99.6) with a 5-year survival of 61.5%. The majority of PETs were non-functional and no difference was observed between functional and non-functional tumors with respect to WHO stage, age, pathologic characteristics or survival. Distant metastases, aspartate aminotransferase-AST and surgical resection (HR=3.39, 95% CI: 1.38-8.35, p=0.008, HR=3.73, 95% CI: 1.20-11.57, p=0.023 and HR=0.20, 95% CI: 0.08-0.51, p<0.001 respectively) were the strongest predictors in the univariate analysis. Age, perineural and/or lymphovascular invasion, distant metastases and AST were the independent prognostic factors in the final multivariable model; a risk score was calculated and classified patients into low (n=40), intermediate (n=48) and high risk (n=10) groups. The concordance index of our model was 0.93 compared to 0.72 for the WHO system. CONCLUSION: Our prognostic model was highly accurate in stratifying patients by risk; novel approaches as such could thus be incorporated into clinical decisions.

  4. Therapeutic Outcomes and Prognostic Factors in Childhood Absence Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Ryun; Kim, Gun-Ha; Eun, So-Hee; Eun, Baik-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is one of the most common types of pediatric epilepsy. It is generally treated with ethosuximide (ESM), valproic acid (VPA), or lamotrigine (LTG), but the efficacy and adverse effects of these drugs remain controversial. This study compared initial therapy treatment outcomes, including VPA-LTG combination, and assessed clinical factors that may predict treatment response and prognosis. Methods Sixty-seven patients with typical CAE were retrospectively enrolled at the Korea University Medical Center. We reviewed patients' clinical characteristics, including age of seizure onset, seizure-free interval, duration of seizure-free period, freedom from treatment failure, breakthrough seizures frequency, and electroencephalogram (EEG) findings. Results The age at seizure onset was 7.9±2.7 years (mean±SD), and follow-up duration was 4.4±3.7 years. Initially, 22 children were treated with ESM (32.8%), 23 with VPA (34.3%), 14 with LTG (20.9%), and 8 with VPA-LTG combination (11.9%). After 48 months of therapy, the rate of freedom from treatment failure was significantly higher for the VPA-LTG combination therapy than in the three monotherapy groups (p=0.012). The treatment dose administrated in the VPA-LTG combination group was less than that in the VPA and LTG monotherapy groups. The shorter interval to loss of 3-Hz spike-and-wave complexes and the presence of occipital intermittent rhythmic delta activity on EEG were significant factors predicting good treatment response. Conclusions This study showed that low-dose VPA-LTG combination therapy has a good efficacy and fewer side effects than other treatments, and it should thus be considered as a firstline therapy in absence epilepsy. PMID:26610892

  5. Prognostic factors in recurrent glioblastoma patients treated with bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Christina; Tichy, Julia; Schäfer, Niklas; Franz, Kea; Mack, Frederic; Mittelbronn, Michel; Kebir, Sied; Thiepold, Anna-Luisa; Waha, Andreas; Filmann, Natalie; Banat, Mohammed; Fimmers, Rolf; Steinbach, Joachim P; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Rieger, Johannes; Glas, Martin; Bähr, Oliver

    2016-08-01

    The value of bevacizumab (BEV) in recurrent glioblastoma is unclear. Imaging parameters and progression-free survival (PFS) are problematic endpoints. Few data exist on clinical factors influencing overall survival (OS) in unselected patients with recurrent glioblastoma exposed to BEV. We retrospectively analyzed 174 patients with recurrent glioblastoma treated with BEV at two German brain tumor centers. We evaluated general patient characteristics, MGMT status, pretreatment, concomitant oncologic treatment and overall survival. Karnofsky performance score, number of prior chemotherapies, number of prior recurrences and combined treatment with irinotecan (IRI) were significantly associated with OS in univariate analysis. We did not find differences in OS related to sex, age, histology, MGMT status, prior surgical treatment or number of prior radiotherapies. Combined treatment with IRI and higher KPS both remained significantly associated with prolonged survival in multivariate analysis, but patients receiving IRI co-treatment had less advanced disease. Grouping into clinically relevant categories revealed an OS of 16.9 months from start of BEV in patients with first recurrence and KPS ≥ 80 % (n = 25). In contrast, in patients with second recurrence and KPS < 80 %, OS was 3.6 months (n = 27). Our observational data support an early use of BEV in patients with good performance status. The benefit of co-treatment with IRI in our cohort seems to be the result of biased patient recruitment. PMID:27193554

  6. Factor Structure of the Rorschach Prognostic Rating Scale and Its Relation to Therapeutic Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Stephen M.; Edinger, Jack D.

    1976-01-01

    This study evaluated the factor structure of the Rorschach Prognostic Rating Scale (RPRS) in order to: (a) test the assumption that the RPRS represents a unitary response system and (b) determine the efficacy of employing population specific factor scores as predictors of therapy outcome. (Author/NG)

  7. Diffusion Weighted MR Imaging of Breast and Correlation of Prognostic Factors in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kızıldağ Yırgın, İnci; Arslan, Gözde; Öztürk, Enis; Yırgın, Hakan; Taşdemir, Nihat; Gemici, Ayşegül Akdoğan; Kabul, Fatma Çelik; Kaya, Eyüp

    2016-01-01

    Background: Through Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI), information related to early molecular changes, changes in the permeability of cell membranes, and early morphologic and physiologic changes such as cell swelling can be obtained. Aims: We investigated the correlation between the prognostic factors of breast cancer and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in DWI sequences of malignant lesions. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Patients who were referred to our clinic between September 2012 and September 2013, who underwent dynamic breast MRI before or after biopsy and whose biopsy results were determined as malignant, were included in our study. Before the dynamic analysis, DWI sequences were taken. ADC relationship with all prognostic factors was investigated. Pearson correlation test was used to compare the numerical data, while Spearman correlation and Fisher exact tests were used to compare the categorical data. The advanced relationships were evaluated with linear regression analysis and univariate analysis. The efficiency of the parameters was evaluated using ROC analysis. The significance level (P) was accepted as 0.05. Results: In total, 41 female patients with an average age of 49.4 years (age interval 21–77) and 44 lesions were included into the study. In the Pearson correlation test, no statistically significant difference was determined between ADC and the patient’s age and tumor size. In the Spearman correlation test, a statistically significant difference was determined between nuclear grade (NG) and ADC (r=−0.424, p=0.04); no statistically significant correlation was observed between the other prognostic factors with each other and ADC values. In the linear regression analysis, the relationship of NG with ADC was found to be more significant alone than when comparing all parameters (corrected r2=0.196, p=0.005). Further evaluations between the NG and ADC correlation were carried out with ROC analysis. A

  8. Improving Clinical Risk Stratification at Diagnosis in Primary Prostate Cancer: A Prognostic Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Karen A.; Muir, Kenneth R.; Gavin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over 80% of the nearly 1 million men diagnosed with prostate cancer annually worldwide present with localised or locally advanced non-metastatic disease. Risk stratification is the cornerstone for clinical decision making and treatment selection for these men. The most widely applied stratification systems use presenting prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration, biopsy Gleason grade, and clinical stage to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk. There is, however, significant heterogeneity in outcomes within these standard groupings. The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) has recently adopted a prognosis-based pathological classification that has yet to be included within a risk stratification system. Here we developed and tested a new stratification system based on the number of individual risk factors and incorporating the new ISUP prognostic score. Methods and Findings Diagnostic clinicopathological data from 10,139 men with non-metastatic prostate cancer were available for this study from the Public Health England National Cancer Registration Service Eastern Office. This cohort was divided into a training set (n = 6,026; 1,557 total deaths, with 462 from prostate cancer) and a testing set (n = 4,113; 1,053 total deaths, with 327 from prostate cancer). The median follow-up was 6.9 y, and the primary outcome measure was prostate-cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). An external validation cohort (n = 1,706) was also used. Patients were first categorised as low, intermediate, or high risk using the current three-stratum stratification system endorsed by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines. The variables used to define the groups (PSA concentration, Gleason grading, and clinical stage) were then used to sub-stratify within each risk category by testing the individual and then combined number of risk factors. In addition, we incorporated the new ISUP prognostic score as a discriminator

  9. WPSS is a strong prognostic indicator for clinical outcome of allogeneic transplant for myelodysplastic syndrome in Southeast Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liyuan; Hao, Siguo; Diong, Colin; Goh, Yeow-Tee; Gopalakrishnan, Sathish; Ho, Aloysius; Hwang, William; Koh, Liang-Piu; Koh, Mickey; Lim, Zi-Yi; Loh, Yvonne; Poon, Michelle; Tan, Lip-Kun; Tan, Patrick; Linn, Yeh-Ching

    2015-05-01

    To better understand the predictive factors and improve clinical outcome of allogeneic transplant for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), we retrospectively analyzed the post-transplant outcome of 60 Southeast Asian patients with MDS. Multivariate analysis showed that WHO classification-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) significantly affect overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), and cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality (CINRM). Stratified by WPSS into very low/low, intermediate, high, and very high-risk categories, 3-year OS was 100, 61, 37, and 18% (p = 0.02); PFS was 100, 55, 32, and 18% (p = 0.014); CIR was 12, 24, 38, and 59% (p = 0.024); CINRM was 0, 6, 12, and 26% (p = 0.037), respectively. WHO classification, Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R), IPSS-R-defined cytogenetic risk groups, donor gender, and acute and chronic graft vs host disease (GVHD) also influenced different aspects of transplant outcome. We found that WPSS is a powerful predictor of post-transplant outcome. WPSS provides an important model not only for prognostication but also for exploration of further post-transplant measures such as immunological maneuvers or novel therapy to improve the poor outcome of high-risk patients.

  10. The prognostic significance of transforming growth factors in human breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, P. A.; Barrett-Lee, P.; Travers, M.; Luqmani, Y.; Powles, T.; Coombes, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) and Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta 1) are growth regulatory for breast cancer cell lines in vitro and several studies have suggested that levels of the receptor for TGF alpha, the epidermal growth factor (EGFR) in tumour biopsies predict relapse and survival. We have examined the prognostic significance of TGF alpha, TGF-beta 1 and EGFR mRNA expression in a series of patients with primary breast cancer with a median follow up period of 60 months. In 167 patients the expression of TGF-beta 1 was inversely correlated with node status (P = 0.065) but not ER status, tumour size or menopausal status. Patients with high levels of TGF-beta 1 had a longer disease free interval with a significantly longer probability of survival at 80 months although the overall relapse free survival was not increased. EGFR mRNA expression was measured in 106 patients and was inversely correlated with ER status (P = 0.018). EGFR levels did not predict for early relapse or survival. TGF alpha mRNA levels were measured in 104 patients, no correlation was seen tumour size, node status, Er status, or clinical outcome. PMID:8390290

  11. Prognostic Factors for Node-Negative Advanced Gastric Cancer after Curative Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Woo; Koo, Ho-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lymph node (LN) metastasis is the best prognostic indicator in non-distant metastatic advanced gastric cancer. This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of various clinicopathologic factors in node-negative advanced gastric cancer. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of 254 patients with primary node-negative stage T2~4 gastric cancer. These patients were selected from a pool of 1,890 patients who underwent radical resection at Memorial Jin-Pok Kim Korea Gastric Cancer Center, Inje University Seoul Paik Hospital between 1998 and 2008. Results Of the 254 patients, 128 patients (50.4%), 88 patients (34.6%), 37 patients (14.6%), and 1 patient (0.4%) had T2, T3, T4a, and T4b tumors, respectively. In a univariate analysis, operation type, T-stage, venous invasion, tumor size, and less than 15 LNs significantly correlated with tumor recurrence and cumulative overall survival. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, tumor size, venous invasion, and less than 15 LNs significantly and independently correlated with recurrence. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, tumor size (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.926; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.173~7.300; P=0.021), venous invasion (HR: 3.985; 95% CI: 1.401~11.338; P=0.010), and less than 15 LNs (HR: 0.092; 95% CI: 0.029~0.290; P<0.001) significantly correlated with overall survival. Conclusions Node-negative gastric cancers recurred in 8.3% of the patients in our study. Tumor size, venous invasion, and less than 15 LNs reliably predicted recurrence as well as survival. Aggressive postoperative treatments and timely follow-ups should be considered in cases with these characteristics. PMID:27752393

  12. Alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems: a brief review of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The number of articles on alexithymia has been steadily increasing since the word “alexithymia” was coined in the 1970s to denote a common characteristic that is observed among classic psychosomatic patients in whom therapy was unsuccessful. Alexithymia, a disorder of affect regulation, has been suggested to be broadly associated with various mental and physical health problems. However, most available evidence is based on anecdotal reports or cross-sectional observations. To clarify the predictive value of alexithymia for health problems, a systematic review of prospective studies was conducted. A search of the PubMed database identified 1,507 articles on “alexithymia” that were published by July 31, 2011. Among them, only 7 studies examined the developmental risks of alexithymia for health problems among nonclinical populations and 38 studies examined the prognostic value of alexithymia among clinical populations. Approximately half of the studies reported statistically significant adverse effects, while 5 studies demonstrated favorable effects of alexithymia on health outcomes; four of them were associated with surgical interventions and two involved cancer patients. The studies that showed insignificant results tended to have a small sample size. In conclusion, epidemiological evidence regarding alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems remains un-established. Even though alexithymia is considered to be an unfavorable characteristic for disease control and health promotion overall, some beneficial aspects are suggested. More prospective studies with sufficient sample sizes and follow-up period, especially those involving life course analyses, are needed to confirm the contribution of alexithymia to health problems. PMID:23244192

  13. Surgical Management of Aneurysmal Hematomas: Prognostic Factors and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Meneghelli, P; Cozzi, F; Hasanbelliu, A; Locatelli, F; Pasqualin, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    From 1991 until 2013, 304 patients with intracranial hematomas from aneurysmal rupture were managed surgically in our department, constituting 17 % of all patients with aneurysmal rupture. Of them, 242 patents presented with isolated intracerebral hematomas (in 69 cases associated with significant intraventricular hemorrhage), 50 patients presented with combined intracerebral and subdural hematomas (in 11 cases associated with significant intraventricular hemorrhage), and 12 presented with an isolated subdural hematoma. The surgical procedure consisted of simultaneous clipping of the aneurysm and evacuation of the hematoma in all cases. After surgery, 16 patients (5 %) submitted to an additional decompressive hemicraniectomy, and 66 patients (21 %) submitted to a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Clinical outcomes were assessed at discharge and at 6 months, using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS); a favorable outcome (mRS 0-2) was observed in 10 % of the cases at discharge, increasing to 31 % at 6 months; 6-month mortality was 40 %. Applying uni- and multivariate analysis, the following risk factors were associated with a significantly worse outcome: age >60; preoperative Hunt-Hess grades IV-V; pupillary mydriasis (only on univariate); midline shift >10 mm; hematoma volume >30 cc; and the presence of hemocephalus (i.e., packed intraventricular hemorrhage). Based on these results, an aggressive surgical treatment should be adopted for most cases with aneurysmal hematomas, excluding patients with bilateral mydriasis persisting after rescue therapy. PMID:27637622

  14. Prognostic and Clinical Significance of miRNA-205 in Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, Milosz; Wojciechowski, Michal; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the reproductive female tract, with endometrioid endometrial cancer being the most frequent type. Despite the relatively favourable prognosis in cases of endometrial cancer, there is a necessity to evaluate clinical and prognostic utility of new molecular markers. MiRNAs are small, non-coding RNA molecules that take part in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Altered expression of miRNAs may be associated with cancer initiation, progression and metastatic capabilities. MiRNA-205 seems to be one of the key regulators of gene expression in endometrial cancer. In this study, we investigated clinical and prognostic role of miRNA-205 in endometrioid endometrial cancer. After total RNA extraction from 100 archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to define miRNA-205 expression levels. The aim of the study was to evaluate miRNA-205 expression levels in regard to patients’ clinical and histopathological features, such as: survival rate, recurrence rate, staging, myometrial invasion, grading and lymph nodes involvement. Higher levels of miRNA-205 expression were observed in tumours with less than half of myometrial invasion and non-advanced cancers. Kaplan-Maier analysis revealed that higher levels of miRNA-205 were associated with better overall survival (p = 0,034). These results indicate potential clinical utility of miRNA-205 as a prognostic marker. PMID:27737015

  15. Etiologies and prognostic factors of leukocytoclastic vasculitis with skin involvement

    PubMed Central

    Bouiller, Kévin; Audia, Sylvain; Devilliers, Hervé; Collet, Evelyne; Aubriot, Marie Hélène; Leguy-Seguin, Vanessa; Berthier, Sabine; Bonniaud, Philippe; Chavanet, Pascal; Besancenot, Jean-François; Vabres, Pierre; Martin, Laurent; Samson, Maxime; Bonnotte, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, outcomes of patients with leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) were analyzed focusing on clinical, histopathology and laboratory findings, relapses, and survival. Data from patients with cutaneous vasculitis diagnosed between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010, at Dijon University Hospital (France) were retrospectively reviewed. LCV was defined as perivascular neutrophilic infiltrate, endothelial cell nuclear swelling, extravasation of red blood cells, and/or fibrin deposition in vessels. Patients were classified according to the 2012 Chapel Hill Consensus Conference. Relapses were defined as the recurrence of vasculitis symptoms after a period of remission >1 month. Time to relapse and/or death was calculated from the date of diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate (Cox model) analyses were performed. A total of 112 patients (57 males and 55 females), with a mean age of 60 ± 19 (18–98) years, were analyzed. Overall follow-up was 61 ± 38 months. At diagnosis, all patients had skin lesions, purpura being the most common (n = 83). Lesions were associated with systemic involvement in 55 (51%) patients. Only 41 (36.6%) patients received specific treatment: glucocorticoids in 29 of 41 (70.7%) and immunosuppressants in 9 of 41 (22%). Sixty-two patients (55%) had LCV due to underlying causes, 29 (25.9%) had single-organ cutaneous small vessel vasculitis (SoCSVV), and 21 (18.8%) had unclassifiable LCV. Twenty patients of the cohort (18%) experienced relapse, 14 ± 13 (1–40) months after the diagnosis of LCV. None of the 29 patients with SoCSVV relapsed. Independent risk factors for relapse were vascular thrombosis in the biopsy [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.9; P = 0.017], peripheral neuropathy (HR = 9.8; P = 0.001), hepatitis (HR = 3.1; P = 0.004), and positive antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA, HR = 5.9 P = 0.005). In contrast, SoCSVV was a protective factor for relapse (HR = 0.12; P = 0.043). The 1-, 3-, and 6-year overall

  16. KIAA1549: BRAF Gene Fusion and FGFR1 Hotspot Mutations Are Prognostic Factors in Pilocytic Astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Becker, Aline Paixão; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Carloni, Adriana C; Paulino, Alessandra; Sheren, Jamie; Aisner, Dara L; Musselwhite, Evelyn; Clara, Carlos; Machado, Hélio R; Oliveira, Ricardo S; Neder, Luciano; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Reis, Rui M

    2015-07-01

    Up to 20% of patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) experience a poor outcome. BRAF alterations and Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) point mutations are key molecular alterations in Pas, but their clinical implications are not established. We aimed to determine the frequency and prognostic role of these alterations in a cohort of 69 patients with PAs. We assessed KIAA1549:BRAF fusion by fluorescence in situ hybridization and BRAF (exon 15) mutations by capillary sequencing. In addition, FGFR1 expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry, and this was compared with gene amplification and hotspot mutations (exons 12 and 14) assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and capillary sequencing. KIAA1549:BRAF fusion was identified in almost 60% of cases. Two tumors harbored mutated BRAF. Despite high FGFR1 expression overall, no cases had FGFR1 amplifications. Three cases harbored a FGFR1 p.K656E point mutation. No correlation was observed between BRAF and FGFR1 alterations. The cases were predominantly pediatric (87%), and no statistical differences were observed in molecular alterations-related patient ages. In summary, we confirmed the high frequency of KIAA1549:BRAF fusion in PAs and its association with a better outcome. Oncogenic mutations of FGFR1, although rare, occurred in a subset of patients with worse outcome. These molecular alterations may constitute alternative targets for novel clinical approaches, when radical surgical resection is unachievable. PMID:26083571

  17. Role of perineural invasion as a prognostic factor in laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    MESOLELLA, MASSIMO; IORIO, BRIGIDA; MISSO, GABRIELLA; LUCE, AMALIA; CIMMINO, MARIANO; IENGO, MAURIZIO; LANDI, MARIO; SPERLONGANO, PASQUALE; CARAGLIA, MICHELE; RICCIARDIELLO, FILIPPO

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion of laryngeal cancer cells in the perineural space is a parameter associated with a negative prognosis, high loco-regional recurrence and low disease-free survival rates. The spread of tumor cells on the perineural sheath highlights the histopathological and clinically aggressive behavior of this type of tumor, which may extend proximally or distally in the nerve for >10 cm. Therefore, the surgical resection margin is generally insufficient to treat patients with laryngeal cancer presenting with perineural invasion (PNI) with surgery alone. In PNI, the minor laryngeal nerves are frequently involved, rather than the superior and inferior laryngeal nerves. The aim of the present study was: i) To evaluate the prognostic importance of PNI; ii) to correlate the rate of infiltration with factors associated with the tumor, including histotype, site and tumor-node-metastasis stage, and with the type of surgery (total or partial laryngectomy); and iii) to evaluate the rate of disease-free survival according to the outcome of combined surgery and radiotherapy (RT) treatment, by means of retrospective analysis. The results of the present study highlighted the importance of performing a closer clinical and instrumental follow-up in patients with laryngeal cancer whose histopathological examination is positive for PNI. In such cases, it is important to complement the surgical therapeutic treatment with adjuvant RT. PMID:27073523

  18. Microenvironmental remodeling as a parameter and prognostic factor of heterogeneous leukemogenesis in acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-A; Shim, Jae-Seung; Lee, Ga-Young; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Tae-Min; Kim, Myungshin; Leem, Sun-Hee; Lee, Jong-Wook; Min, Chang-Ki; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2015-06-01

    Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by clonal proliferation of stem cell-like blasts in bone marrow (BM); however, their unique cellular interaction within the BM microenvironment and its functional significance remain unclear. Here, we assessed the BM microenvironment of AML patients and demonstrate that the leukemia stem cells induce a change in the transcriptional programming of the normal mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). The modified leukemic niche alters the expressions of cross-talk molecules (i.e., CXCL12 and JAG1) in MSCs to provide a distinct cross-talk between normal and leukemia cells, selectively suppressing normal primitive hematopoietic cells while supporting leukemogenesis and chemoresistance. Of note, AML patients exhibited distinct heterogeneity in the alteration of mesenchymal stroma in BM. The distinct pattern of stromal changes in leukemic BM at initial diagnosis was associated with a heterogeneous posttreatment clinical course with respect to the maintenance of complete remission for 5 to 8 years and early or late relapse. Thus, remodeling of mesenchymal niche by leukemia cells is an intrinsic self-reinforcing process of leukemogenesis that can be a parameter for the heterogeneity in the clinical course of leukemia and hence serve as a potential prognostic factor. PMID:25791383

  19. Serologic features of primary Sjögren’s syndrome: clinical and prognostic correlation

    PubMed Central

    García-Carrasco, Mario; Mendoza-Pinto, Claudia; Jiménez-Hernández, César; Jiménez-Hernández, Mario; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo; Riebeling, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory systemic autoimmune disease. The disease spectrum extends from sicca syndrome to systemic involvement and extraglandular manifestations, and SS may be associated with malignancies, especially non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Patients with SS present a broad spectrum of serologic features. Certain serological findings are highly correlated with specific clinical features, and can be used as prognostic markers. PMID:23525186

  20. Prognostic factors and treatment results of pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma: A single center experience.

    PubMed

    Büyükkapu-Bay, Sema; Çorapçıoğlu, Funda; Aksu, Görkem; Anık, Yonca; Demir, Hakan; Erçin, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the demographic, clinic data, prognostic factors and treatment/follow-up results of children who were diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma and followed in our center of Pediatric Oncology, Kocaeli University Medical Faculty, Kocaeli, Turkey, for 10 years. This retrospective study evaluated 41 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma who were younger than 18 years-old. All patients were treated with risked adapted ABVD (Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vincristine, Dacarbazine) chemotherapy and also received involved field radiotherapy. Thirty-two patients (78%) were males and 9 (22%) were females, with a mean age of 10.7±4.0 years. The histopathological diagnosis was mixed cellular type in 51.2% of the patients. B symptoms (unexplained fever, unexplained weight loss, drenching night sweats) were present in 53.7% of the patients and 36.6% of the patients were at advanced stage at the time of the diagnosis. The 3-year overall and event-free survival rates were 88% and 5-year overall and event-free survival rates were 88%, 78%. Age, stage, treatment risk groups, presence of B symptoms and hematological parameters had no significant effect on overall and event-free survival in univariate analysis while bulky disease was the only significant factor on overall survival. Our treatment policy was succesful regarding the similar survival rates in the treatment risk groups, however novel treatment strategies adopting the early response with the reduction of adverse effects are planned in the near future. PMID:27186698

  1. Prognostic value of peritumoral heat-shock factor-1 in patients receiving resection of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J-B; Guo, K; Sun, H-C; Zhu, X-D; Zhang, B; Lin, Z-H; Zhang, B-H; Liu, Y-K; Ren, Z-G; Fan, J

    2013-01-01

    Background: The cross-talk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and abnormal metabolic signals in peritumoral microenvironment modifies our knowledge of hepatocarcinogenesis. As an indispensable modulator of various stresses, the clinical significance of heat-shock transcription factor-1 (HSF1) in HCC microenvironment has never been defined. Methods: Hepatocellular carcinoma and matched peritumoral liver tissues (n=332) were semiquantitatively analysed for HSF1 expression, followed by correlation with clinicopathological parameters (patient outcomes). Moreover, the effects of HSF1 deficiency in L02 on monocarboxylate transporter-4 (MCT4) and HCC cells' colonisation and proliferation were investigated. Results: High expression of HSF1 in peritumoral tissue but not in HCC tissue was associated with poorer overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR), especially early recurrence (ER), which was further reconfirmed in validation cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that prognostic performance of peritumoral HSF1 was independent of other clinicopathological factors (hazard ratio for OS=2.60, P=0.002, for TTR=2.52, P<0.001). Notably, downregulation of HSF1 in L02 decreased MCT4 expression significantly. The supernatant from L02-shRNA-HSF1 in hypoxia, NOT normoxia condition, inhibited HCC cell colonisation and proliferation. Moreover, the combination of peritumoral HSF1 and MCT4 was the best predictor for ER and OS. Conclusion: High peritumoral HSF1 expression can serve as a sensitive ‘readout' for high-risk HCC ER, and could be a potential metabolic intervention target following curative resection. PMID:24002609

  2. Identifying prognostic factors for drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS).

    PubMed

    Wei, Chia-Hung; Chung-Yee Hui, Rosaline; Chang, Chee-Jen; Ho, Hsin-Chun; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chung, Wen-Hung

    2011-01-01

    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a severe cutaneous drug reaction. Although the severity-of-illness score (SCORTEN) has been proposed for toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) for 10 years, a prognostic score for DRESS is still lacking. To identify prognostic factors of DRESS patients during hospitalization in one medical health system in Taiwan. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with DRESS diagnosed by dermatologists in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CMGH) Health System from 2001 to 2010. To study prognostic factors, we collected data at early disease and maximal disease stages. 91 individuals, including 13 dead patients, were evaluated. Five independent prognostic factors of death were found: heart rate > 90/min, white blood cells >12,000/mm(3) and respiratory rate >20/min (at early disease stage), coagulopathy and gastrointestinal bleeding (at maximal disease stage). In addition, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) occurred at a much higher percentage among non-survivors throughout hospitalization. We found tachycardia, leukocytosis, tachypnea, coagulopathy, gastrointestinal bleeding and SIRS were associated with a poor outcome in DRESS patients. DRESS patients with persistent SIRS during hospitalization were also associated with a higher mortality risk. Early recognition and prompt intervention in these factors may improve outcome.

  3. Change in Quality of Life after Rehabilitation: Prognostic Factors for Visually Impaired Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langelaan, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R.; van Nispen, Ruth M. A.; Wouters, Bill; Moll, Annette C.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults, and prognostic baseline factors responsible for…

  4. Joint NCCTG and NABTC prognostic factors analysis for high-grade recurrent glioma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenting; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Buckner, Jan C.; Novotny, Paul J.; Chang, Susan M.; O'Fallon, Judith R.; Jaeckle, Kurt A.; Prados, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine prognostic factors in patients with high-grade recurrent glioma for 3 outcome variables (overall survival, progression-free survival [PFS], and PFS rate 6 months after study registration [PFS6]). Data from 15 North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) trials (n = 469, 1980–2004) and 12 North American Brain Tumor Consortium (NABTC) trials (n = 596, 1998–2002) were included. Eighteen prognostic variables were considered including type of treatment center (community/academic) and initial low-grade histology (yes/no). Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA), Cox proportional hazards, and logistic regression models with bootstrap resampling were used to identify prognostic variables. Longer survival was associated with last known grade (Grade) of III, younger age, ECOG performance score (PS) of 0, shorter time from initial diagnosis (DxTime), and no baseline steroid use. Factors associated with longer PFS were Grade III and shorter DxTime. For patients without temozolomide as part of the treatment regimen, the only factor associated with better PFS6 was Grade III, although DxTime was important in RPA and PS was important in logistic regression. Grade was the most important prognostic factor for all three endpoints regardless of the statistical method used. Other important variables for one or more endpoints included age, PS, and DxTime. Neither type of treatment center nor initial low-grade histology was identified as a major predictor for any endpoint. PMID:20150383

  5. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression As Prognostic Marker in Patients With Anal Carcinoma Treated With Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fraunholz, Ingeborg; Falk, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in pretreatment tumor biopsy specimens of patients with anal cancer treated with concurrent 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C-based chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining for EGFR was performed in pretreatment biopsy specimens of 103 patients with anal carcinoma. EGFR expression was correlated with clinical and histopathologic characteristics and with clinical endpoints, including local failure-free survival (LFFS), colostomy-free survival (CFS), distant metastases-free survival (DMFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). Results: EGFR staining intensity was absent in 3%, weak in 23%, intermediate in 36% and intense in 38% of the patients. In univariate analysis, the level of EGFR staining was significantly correlated with CSS (absent/weak vs intermediate/intense expression: 5-year CSS, 70% vs 86%, P=.03). As a trend, this was also observed for DMFS (70% vs 86%, P=.06) and LFFS (70% vs 87%, P=.16). In multivariate analysis, N stage, tumor differentiation, and patients’ sex were independent prognostic factors for CSS, whereas EGFR expression only reached borderline significance (hazard ratio 2.75; P=.08). Conclusion: Our results suggest that elevated levels of pretreatment EGFR expression could be correlated with favorable clinical outcome in anal cancer patients treated with CRT. Further studies are warranted to elucidate how EGFR is involved in the response to CRT.

  6. Prognostic Factors in Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, Yukinori; Shibuya, Keiko; Nagata, Yasushi; Takayama, Kenji; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Mizowaki, Takashi; Narabayashi, Masaru; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the factors that influence clinical outcomes after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: A total of 101 consecutive patients who underwent SBRT with 48 Gy in 4 fractions for histologically confirmed Stage I NSCLC were enrolled in this study. Factors including age, maximal tumor diameter, sex, performance status, operability, histology, and overall treatment time were evaluated with regard to local progression (LP), disease progression (DP), and overall survival (OS) using the Cox proportional hazards model. Prognostic models were built with recursive partitioning analysis. Results: Three-year OS was 58.6% with a median follow-up of 31.4 months. Cumulative incidence rates of LP and DP were 13.2% and 40.8% at 3 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumor diameter was a significant factor in all endpoints of LP, DP, and OS. Other significant factors were age in DP and sex in OS. Recursive partitioning analysis indicated a condition for good prognosis (Class I) as follows: female or T1a (tumor diameter {<=}20 mm). When the remaining male patients with T1b-2a (>20 mm) were defined as Class II, 3-year LP, DP, and OS were 6.8%, 23.6%, and 69.9% in recursive partitioning analysis Class I, respectively, whereas these values were 19.9%, 58.3%, and 47.1% in Class II. The differences between the classes were statistically significant. Conclusions: Tumor diameter and sex were the most significant factors in SBRT for NSCLC. T1a or female patients had good prognosis.

  7. Improving Clinical Risk Stratification at Diagnosis in Primary Prostate Cancer: A Prognostic Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Karen A.; Muir, Kenneth R.; Gavin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over 80% of the nearly 1 million men diagnosed with prostate cancer annually worldwide present with localised or locally advanced non-metastatic disease. Risk stratification is the cornerstone for clinical decision making and treatment selection for these men. The most widely applied stratification systems use presenting prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration, biopsy Gleason grade, and clinical stage to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk. There is, however, significant heterogeneity in outcomes within these standard groupings. The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) has recently adopted a prognosis-based pathological classification that has yet to be included within a risk stratification system. Here we developed and tested a new stratification system based on the number of individual risk factors and incorporating the new ISUP prognostic score. Methods and Findings Diagnostic clinicopathological data from 10,139 men with non-metastatic prostate cancer were available for this study from the Public Health England National Cancer Registration Service Eastern Office. This cohort was divided into a training set (n = 6,026; 1,557 total deaths, with 462 from prostate cancer) and a testing set (n = 4,113; 1,053 total deaths, with 327 from prostate cancer). The median follow-up was 6.9 y, and the primary outcome measure was prostate-cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). An external validation cohort (n = 1,706) was also used. Patients were first categorised as low, intermediate, or high risk using the current three-stratum stratification system endorsed by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines. The variables used to define the groups (PSA concentration, Gleason grading, and clinical stage) were then used to sub-stratify within each risk category by testing the individual and then combined number of risk factors. In addition, we incorporated the new ISUP prognostic score as a discriminator

  8. Topoisomerase II alpha--a fundamental prognostic factor in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hajduk, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    Because of the introduction of modern diagnostic methods, numerous prognostic and predictive factors have been recognized and are today considered classic, yet they seem to be insufficient in assessment of prognosis, hence the need for further investigations. Among factors newly discovered by molecular techniques, there are class I and II topoisomerases, the role of which as prognosticators has not been fully determined. The objective of the present investigation was the assessment of topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) expression in patients with infiltrating breast carcinoma, as a prognostic factor in correlation with other recognized prognosticators and patient survival. The study was carried out in 151 patients treated by mastectomy and lymph node excision followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. The material was evaluated histopathologically according to the pTNM system, taking into consideration such parameters as grade of malignancy (G); the ER, PR as well as HER2 and TOP2A receptors status--all of them were assessed immunohistochemically. TOP2A was expressed with varying intensity in the majority of infiltrating ductal carcinomas studied, more frequently in large T3 and T4, grade G2 and G3 tumours, in patients with extensive metastases to regional N2 and N3 lymph nodes, a positive HER2 and negative ER and PR status. Five-year mortality rates were higher and 5-year symptom-free survival rates were lower in patients with TOP2A-positive tumours as compared to individuals with a negative TOP2A status. The study indicates that TOP2A expression is a negative predictive factor and may be recognized as a prognostic factor.

  9. CLINICAL AND GENETIC PREDICTORS AND PROGNOSTIC MODEL OF RAPIDLY PROGRESSIVE HEPATIC FIBROSIS IN CHRONIC HEPATITIS C.

    PubMed

    Dubinskaya, G; Sizova, L; Koval, T; Kovalyova, Е; Kaydashev, I

    2016-07-01

    The search for risk factors for rapid progression of hepatic fibrosis (HF) in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a topical scientific and practical task. The purpose of the study is to identify clinical and genetic predictors and create the prognostic model of rapidly progressive HF in CHC. A retrospective cohort study of 125 patients with CHC has been carried out. The logistic regression and ROC-analysis have been applied for statistical data processing. The resulting analysis of 46 potential predictors of rapidly progressive HF in CHC identified the following significant ctiteria: male gender - ОR=3.44 [95% СΙ 1.60-7.39], р=0.001; increased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) - ОR=4.93 [95% СΙ 1.54-15.76], р=0.007, particularly, moderate cytolytic activity - ОR=2.36 [95% СΙ 1.08-5.16], р=0.031; aspartate aminotransferase (АSТ) - ОR=3.65 [95% СΙ 1.41-9.43] р=0.007; γ-glutamiltranspeptidase (GGTP) - ОR=3.63 [95% СΙ 1.73-7.61], р=0.001; total bilirubin - ОR=3.53 [95% СΙ 1.47-8.47], р=0.005; alkaline phosphatase - ОR=9.18 [95% 1.11-75.80], р=0.039; alcohol intake>40 g/day (ОR=3.53 [95% СΙ 1.36-9.17], р=0.009), Gln11Gln genotype of the TLR7 gene (ОR=4.56 [95% СΙ 1.57-13.22], р=0.005), presence of chronic cholecystitis and/or pancreatitis (ОR=5.30 [95% СΙ 1.84-15.25], р=0.002). The prognostic model, comprising 6 predictors (level of GGTP>upper limit of normal (ULN), male gender, Gln11Gln genotype of the TLR7 gene chronic cholecystitis and/or pancreatitis, levels of total bilirubin and АSТ>ULN) have been created, demonstrating the statistical significance (p=0.000) and high operational characteristics (sensitivity - 85.5%, specificity - 68.3%, total number of the appropriate assignments - 76.8%, positive and negative predictive value - 72,6% and 82.7%,, respectively, the AUC ROC-curve - 0.840). Use of the created model will help to predict the rapid progression of HF in CHC and form the risk-group, requiring individual

  10. CLINICAL AND GENETIC PREDICTORS AND PROGNOSTIC MODEL OF RAPIDLY PROGRESSIVE HEPATIC FIBROSIS IN CHRONIC HEPATITIS C.

    PubMed

    Dubinskaya, G; Sizova, L; Koval, T; Kovalyova, Е; Kaydashev, I

    2016-07-01

    The search for risk factors for rapid progression of hepatic fibrosis (HF) in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a topical scientific and practical task. The purpose of the study is to identify clinical and genetic predictors and create the prognostic model of rapidly progressive HF in CHC. A retrospective cohort study of 125 patients with CHC has been carried out. The logistic regression and ROC-analysis have been applied for statistical data processing. The resulting analysis of 46 potential predictors of rapidly progressive HF in CHC identified the following significant ctiteria: male gender - ОR=3.44 [95% СΙ 1.60-7.39], р=0.001; increased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) - ОR=4.93 [95% СΙ 1.54-15.76], р=0.007, particularly, moderate cytolytic activity - ОR=2.36 [95% СΙ 1.08-5.16], р=0.031; aspartate aminotransferase (АSТ) - ОR=3.65 [95% СΙ 1.41-9.43] р=0.007; γ-glutamiltranspeptidase (GGTP) - ОR=3.63 [95% СΙ 1.73-7.61], р=0.001; total bilirubin - ОR=3.53 [95% СΙ 1.47-8.47], р=0.005; alkaline phosphatase - ОR=9.18 [95% 1.11-75.80], р=0.039; alcohol intake>40 g/day (ОR=3.53 [95% СΙ 1.36-9.17], р=0.009), Gln11Gln genotype of the TLR7 gene (ОR=4.56 [95% СΙ 1.57-13.22], р=0.005), presence of chronic cholecystitis and/or pancreatitis (ОR=5.30 [95% СΙ 1.84-15.25], р=0.002). The prognostic model, comprising 6 predictors (level of GGTP>upper limit of normal (ULN), male gender, Gln11Gln genotype of the TLR7 gene chronic cholecystitis and/or pancreatitis, levels of total bilirubin and АSТ>ULN) have been created, demonstrating the statistical significance (p=0.000) and high operational characteristics (sensitivity - 85.5%, specificity - 68.3%, total number of the appropriate assignments - 76.8%, positive and negative predictive value - 72,6% and 82.7%,, respectively, the AUC ROC-curve - 0.840). Use of the created model will help to predict the rapid progression of HF in CHC and form the risk-group, requiring individual

  11. Prognostic factors of Chinese patients with T/NK-cell lymphoma: a single institution study of 170 patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng-Peng; Wang, Yan; Shen, Yang; Wang, Li; Shen, Zhi-Xiang; Zhao, Wei-Li

    2012-09-01

    T/natural killer-cell lymphoma (T/NKCL) is a heterogeneous group of lymphoma and has a higher incidence in Asia than in Western countries. T/NKCL is presented with various clinicopathologic features, and in general, associated with a poor clinical outcome. This study aims to analyze the clinical prognostic factors in patients with T/NKCL. From January 1999 to December 2009, a total of 170 patients with T/NKCL, except mycosis fungoides, were included in this retrospective study. The diagnosis was established according to World Health Organization classification. The clinical characteristics and prognostic factors were evaluated. Of the 170 patients, mainly peripheral T-cell lymphoma-unspecified (65 cases), precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (31 cases) and nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL, 19 cases), advanced disease (Ann Arbor stages III-IV) was presented in 68.8% and extranodal involvement was in 71.2% of the patients. According to the international prognostic index (IPI), 77 cases were categorized as high/intermediate or high-risk group. Using the prognostic index for peripheral T-cell lymphoma-unspecified (PIT), 87 cases were classified as group 3 or 4. Most of the initial regimens were CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone)-based chemotherapy (87.6%). Cumulative probability of overall survival at 5 years was 43%, and the median survival time was 44.5 months. Univariate analysis revealed that factors associated with a poor outcome were poor performance status (ECOG > 1) (P = 0.001), advanced disease (P = 0.009), the presence of B symptom (P = 0.001), multiple extranodal involvement (P = 0.005), bone marrow involvement (P = 0.003), elevated lactic dehydrogenase level (P = 0.019), IPI (P < 0.001), PIT (P < 0.001), abnormal white blood cell count (P = 0.016), decreased platelet count (P = 0.005) and serum Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgA positivity (P = 0.016). In the multivariate analysis, PIT (P < 0.001; relative risk, 3.221; 95% CI

  12. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in elderly patients: long-term outcome and prognostic factors in an interdisciplinary treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Schöller, Karsten; Massmann, Maike; Markl, Gertraud; Kunz, Mathias; Fesl, Gunther; Brückmann, Hartmut; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Schichor, Christian

    2013-04-01

    The number of elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is increasing with the aging of the population. However, management recommendations based on long-term outcome data and analyses of prognostic factors are scarce. Our study focused exclusively on elderly patients aged ≥ 60 years at the onset of SAH. Patients were selected from an in-house database and compared in cohorts of age 60-69, 70-79, and ≥ 80, regarding pre-existing medical conditions, treatment, clinical course including complications, and outcome. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify prognostic factors for death and disability. A total of 256 patients (138 aged 60-69, 93 aged 70-79, 25 aged ≥ 80) with putative aneurysmal SAH who had been admitted to our hospital between January 1, 1996 and June 30, 2007 were extracted. The median follow-up of our total cohort was 35.5 months (range <1-154 months). Endovascular or conservative aneurysm treatment was applied more often with increasing age (p < 0.006). The 1-year survival rate was 78, 65, and 38 % in the three age groups, respectively (p = 0.0002); most of the patients died from the initial hemorrhage or from medical complications. Patients aged <70 with an initial World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) score of I-III showed the best clinical recovery. WFNS score, age, and clipping/coiling were extracted as prognostic factors from the Cox model. Elderly patients who get admitted with a good WFNS score (I-III) seem to benefit from aggressive treatment whereas caution seems to be warranted particularly in patients ≥ 70 years of age who get admitted in a WFNS score of IV and V because of their limited short- and long-term prognosis.

  13. Factors prognosticating the outcome of decompressive craniectomy in severe traumatic brain injury: A Malaysian experience

    PubMed Central

    Sharda, Priya; Haspani, Saffari; Idris, Zamzuri

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this prospective cohort study was to analyse the characteristics of severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in a regional trauma centre Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) along with its impact of various prognostic factors post Decompressive Craniectomy (DC). Materials and Methods: Duration of the study was of 13 months in HKL. 110 consecutive patients undergoing DC and remained in our centre were recruited. They were then analysed categorically with standard analytical software. Results: Age group have highest range between 12-30 category with male preponderance. Common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident involving motorcyclist. Univariate analysis showed statistically significant in referral area (P = 0.006). In clinical evaluation statistically significant was the motor score (P = 0.040), pupillary state (P = 0.010), blood pressure stability (P = 0.013) and evidence of Diabetes Insipidus (P < 0.001). In biochemical status the significant statistics included evidence of coagulopathy (P < 0.001), evidence of acidosis (P = 0.003) and evidence of hypoxia (P = 0.030). In Radiological sector, significant univariate analysis proved in location of the subdural clot (P < 0.010), location of the contusion (P = 0.045), site of existence of both type of clots (P = 0.031) and the evidence of edema (P = 0.041). The timing of injury was noted to be significant as well (P = 0.061). In the post operative care was, there were significance in the overall stability in intensive care (P < 0.001), the stability of blood pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, pulse rates and oxygen saturation (all P < 0.001)seen individually, post operative ICP monitoring in the immediate (P = 0.002), within 24 hours (P < 0.001) and within 24-48 hours (P < 0.001) period, along with post operative pupillary size (P < 0.001) and motor score (P < 0.001). Post operatively, radiologically significant statistics included evidence of midline shift post operatively in the CT scan

  14. Circulating insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 as prognostic biomarker in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Carina Gabriela; Colombo, Bruno da Silveira; Ronsoni, Marcelo Fernando; Soares e Silva, Pedro Eduardo; Fayad, Leonardo; Silva, Telma Erotides; Wildner, Letícia Muraro; Bazzo, Maria Luiza; Dantas-Correa, Esther Buzaglo; Narciso-Schiavon, Janaína Luz; Schiavon, Leonardo de Lucca

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prognostic significance of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Prospective study that included two cohorts: outpatients with stable cirrhosis (n = 138) and patients hospitalized for acute decompensation (n = 189). Development of complications, mortality or liver transplantation was assessed by periodical phone calls and during outpatient visits. The cohort of stable cirrhosis also underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation yearly (2013 and 2014) in predefined study visits. In patients with stable cirrhosis, IGFBP-3 levels were measured at baseline (2012) and at second re-evaluation (2014). In hospitalized subjects, IGFBP-3 levels were measured in serum samples collected in the first and in the third day after admission and stored at -80 °C. IGFBP-3 levels were measured by immunochemiluminescence. RESULTS: IGFBP-3 levels were lower in hospitalized patients as compared to outpatients (0.94 mcg/mL vs 1.69 mcg/mL, P < 0.001) and increased after liver transplantation (3.81 mcg/mL vs 1.33 mcg/mL, P = 0.008). During the follow-up of the stable cohort, 17 patients died and 11 received liver transplantation. Bivariate analysis showed that death or transplant was associated with lower IGFBP-3 levels (1.44 mcg/mL vs 1.74 mcg/mL, P = 0.027). The Kaplan-Meier transplant-free survival probability was 88.6% in patients with IGFBP-3 ≥ 1.67 mcg/mL and 72.1% for those with IGFBP3 < 1.67 mcg/mL (P = 0.015). In the hospitalized cohort, 30-d mortality was 24.3% and was independently associated with creatinine, INR, SpO2/FiO2 ratio and IGFBP-3 levels in the logistic regression. The 90-d transplant-free survival probability was 80.4% in patients with IGFBP-3 ≥ 0.86 mcg/mL and 56.1% for those with IGFBP3 < 0.86 mcg/mL (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Lower IGFBP-3 levels were associated with worse outcomes in patients with cirrhosis, and might represent a promising prognostic tool that can be incorporated in

  15. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with 17p deletion: a retrospective analysis of prognostic factors and therapy results.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Julio; Espinet, Blanca; Oliveira, Ana C; Abrisqueta, Pau; de la Serna, Javier; Collado, Rosa; Loscertales, Javier; Lopez, Montserrat; Hernandez-Rivas, Jose A; Ferra, Christelle; Ramirez, Angel; Roncero, Josep M; Lopez, Cristina; Aventin, Anna; Puiggros, Anna; Abella, Eugenia; Carbonell, Felix; Costa, Dolors; Carrio, Anna; Gonzalez, Marcos

    2012-04-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) whose tumour cells harbour a 17p deletion (17p-) are universally considered to have a poor prognosis. The deletion can be detected at diagnosis or during the evolution of the disease, particularly in patients who have received chemotherapy. We sought to evaluate the natural history of patients with 17p- CLL, identify predictive factors within this prognostic subgroup, and evaluate the results of different therapeutic approaches. Data from 294 patients with 17p- CLL followed up at 20 different institutions was retrospectively collected and analysed. Median age was 68 (range 27-98) years at the time of fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. After 17p- documentation, 52% received treatment, achieving an overall response rate of 50%. Median overall survival was 41 months, and was significantly shorter in patients with elevated beta(2)-microglobulin concentration (P < 0·001), B symptoms (P = 0·016), higher percentage of cells with deletion (P < 0·001), and acquired deletions (P = 0·012). These findings suggest that patients with 17p- CLL have a variable prognosis that can be refined using simple clinical and laboratory features, including 17p- clone size, beta2-microglobulin concentration, presence of B symptoms and type of deletion (de novo versus acquired).

  16. [Metformin-associated lactic acidosis: incidence, diagnosis, prognostic factors and treatment].

    PubMed

    Vives, M; Romano, J; Stoll, E; Lafuente, A; Nagore, D; Monedero, P

    2012-05-01

    We describe the case of a patient with severe lactic acidosis, as well as presenting some data on its incidence, diagnosis, prognostic factors, and the most appropriate treatment. A 76 year-old male patient with diabetes on treatment with metformin, hypertension, dyslipaemia, and with mild cognitive impairment, was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in a state of circulatory shock, requiring aggressive treatment with vasopressors and volume. The patient had acute kidney injury with an anuria of 3 days, probably secondary to dehydration to vomiting and to NSAIDs. As a result of the acute renal damage, the patient suffered a severe metformin-associated lactic acidosis. The rest of the causes of metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap were ruled out, as well as a possible sepsis or rhabdomyolysis. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is an uncommon metabolic condition, but with a high mortality. To reduce the mortality of these patients, it is important to make an early diagnosis using the clinical records, physical examination, and laboratory tests, with an early resuscitation with volume, vasopressors, bicarbonate, and renal replacement therapy.

  17. Prognostic factors in bone marrow transplantation for beta thalassemia major: experiences from Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghavamzadeh, A; Nasseri, P; Eshraghian, M R; Jahani, M; Baybordi, I; Nateghi, J; Khodabandeh, A; Sadjadi, A R; Mohyeddin, M; Khademi, Y

    1998-12-01

    This study concerns the effects of several pre-transplant features on outcome for patients with beta thalassemia major who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Seventy patients with beta thalassemia major underwent bone marrow transplantation during the period 1991-1997 in Shariati Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The survival and rejection curves levelled off at 8 and 18 months after transplantation at 82.6% and 11.4%, respectively. Pre-transplant clinical features (age, serum ferritin, portal fibrosis, hepatomegaly and quality of chelation therapy) were examined for their effects on survival and recurrence of thalassemia in this group of patients who were less than 16 years old. Increasing age, presence of portal fibrosis and increasing serum ferritin were significantly associated with reduced probability of survival (P = 0.0047, P = 0.016 and P = 0.024, respectively). Hepatomegaly and inadequate pre-transplant chelation therapy which were documented as poor prognostic factors in previous studies, were not evaluable in this study. We also showed the benefits of transplanting more than 5.5 x 10(8)/kg cells in this group of patients with no increase in complications.

  18. A Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma Revealed by a Single Bone Lesion with No Poor Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Godbert, Yann; Henriques-Figueiredo, Benedicte; Cazeau, Anne-Laure; Carrat, Xavier; Stegen, Marc; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Bonichon, Francoise

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Thyroid carcinomas incidence, in particular papillary variants, is increasing. These cancers are generally considered to have excellent prognosis, and papillary microcarcinomas are usually noninvasive. Many prognostic histopathology factors have been described to guide therapeutic decisions. Most patients are treated with total thyroidectomy without radioiodine treatment or partial surgery. Case Summary. A 65-year-old man with no significant medical history presented with pain in the left chest wall that had been present for several months. A computed tomography (CT) found a large tissue mass of 4 cm responsible for lysis of the middle arch of the 4th rib on the left. It was a single lesion, highly hypermetabolic on the 18-FDG PET/CT. The histology analysis of the biopsy and surgical specimen favored an adenocarcinoma with immunostaining positive for TTF1 and thyroglobulin (Tg). The total thyroidectomy carried out subsequently revealed a 4 mm papillary microcarcinoma with vesicular architecture of the right lobe, well delimited and distant from the capsule without vascular embolisms. After two radioiodine treatments, the patient is in complete clinical, biological, and radiological remission. Conclusion. This extremely rare case of a singular bone metastasis revealing a papillary thyroid microcarcinoma illustrates the necessity of further research to better characterize the forms of papillary thyroid microcarcinomas with potentially poor prognosis. PMID:23509641

  19. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with 17p deletion: a retrospective analysis of prognostic factors and therapy results.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Julio; Espinet, Blanca; Oliveira, Ana C; Abrisqueta, Pau; de la Serna, Javier; Collado, Rosa; Loscertales, Javier; Lopez, Montserrat; Hernandez-Rivas, Jose A; Ferra, Christelle; Ramirez, Angel; Roncero, Josep M; Lopez, Cristina; Aventin, Anna; Puiggros, Anna; Abella, Eugenia; Carbonell, Felix; Costa, Dolors; Carrio, Anna; Gonzalez, Marcos

    2012-04-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) whose tumour cells harbour a 17p deletion (17p-) are universally considered to have a poor prognosis. The deletion can be detected at diagnosis or during the evolution of the disease, particularly in patients who have received chemotherapy. We sought to evaluate the natural history of patients with 17p- CLL, identify predictive factors within this prognostic subgroup, and evaluate the results of different therapeutic approaches. Data from 294 patients with 17p- CLL followed up at 20 different institutions was retrospectively collected and analysed. Median age was 68 (range 27-98) years at the time of fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. After 17p- documentation, 52% received treatment, achieving an overall response rate of 50%. Median overall survival was 41 months, and was significantly shorter in patients with elevated beta(2)-microglobulin concentration (P < 0·001), B symptoms (P = 0·016), higher percentage of cells with deletion (P < 0·001), and acquired deletions (P = 0·012). These findings suggest that patients with 17p- CLL have a variable prognosis that can be refined using simple clinical and laboratory features, including 17p- clone size, beta2-microglobulin concentration, presence of B symptoms and type of deletion (de novo versus acquired). PMID:22224845

  20. Composite prognostic models across the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease spectrum: Clinical application in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Lückhoff, Hilmar K; Kruger, Frederik C; Kotze, Maritha J

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in clinical presentation, histological severity, prognosis and therapeutic outcomes characteristic of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) necessitates the development of scientifically sound classification schemes to assist clinicians in stratifying patients into meaningful prognostic subgroups. The need for replacement of invasive liver biopsies as the standard method whereby NAFLD is diagnosed, graded and staged with biomarkers of histological severity injury led to the development of composite prognostic models as potentially viable surrogate alternatives. In the present article, we review existing scoring systems used to (1) confirm the presence of undiagnosed hepatosteatosis; (2) distinguish between simple steatosis and NASH; and (3) predict advanced hepatic fibrosis, with particular emphasis on the role of NAFLD as an independent cardio-metabolic risk factor. In addition, the incorporation of functional genomic markers and application of emerging imaging technologies are discussed as a means to improve the diagnostic accuracy and predictive performance of promising composite models found to be most appropriate for widespread clinical adoption. PMID:26019735

  1. Positive esophageal proximal resection margin: an important prognostic factor for esophageal cancer that warrants adjuvant therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun-Cang; Deng, Han-Yu; Wang, Wen-Ping; He, Du; Ni, Peng-Zhi; Hu, Wei-Peng; Wang, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Positive esophageal proximal resection margin (ERM+) following esophagectomy was considered as incomplete or R1 resection. The clinicopathological data and long-term prognosis of esophageal cancer (EC) patients with ERM+ after esophagectomy were still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance of ERM+ and its therapeutic option. Methods From November 2008 to December 2014, 3,594 patients with histologically confirmed EC underwent radical resection in our department. Among them there were 37 patients (1.03%) who had ERM+. ERM+ was defined as carcinoma or atypical hyperplasia (severe or moderate) at the residual esophageal margin in our study. For comparison, another 74 patients with negative esophageal proximal resection margin (ERM−) were propensity-matched at a ratio of 1:2 as control group according to sex, age, tumor location and TNM staging. The relevant prognostic factors were investigated by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results In this large cohort of patients, the rate of ERM+ was 1.03%. The median survival time was 35.000 months in patients with ERM+, significantly worse than 68.000 months in those with ERM− (Chi-square =4.064, P=0.044). Survival in patients with esophageal residual atypical hyperplasia (severe or moderate) was similar to those with esophageal residual carcinoma. Survival rate in stage I–II was higher than that in stage III–IV (Chi-square =27.598, P=0.000) in ERM−; But there was no difference between the two subgroups of patients in ERM+. Furthermore, in those patients with ERM+, survival was better in those who having adjuvant therapy, compared to those without adjuvant therapy (Chi-square =5.480, P=0.019). And the average survival time which was improved to a well situation for ERM+ patients who have adjuvant therapy was 68.556 months which is comparable to average survival time (65.815 months) of ERM− for those patients who are at earlier stages

  2. Prognostic value of vascularity and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, R; Carlile, J; Pendleton, N; Schor, A

    2001-01-01

    Aims—High expression of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumours has been found to be associated with poor prognosis in some studies, but not in others. The aims of this study were to determine the prognostic value of VEGF in operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its possible association with vascularity. Methods—Sections from 81 NSCLC archival specimens were stained with antibodies to von Willebrand factor (vWF) and VEGF. Vascularity was measured by the average density of vWF positive vessels. VEGF expression in tumour cells was assessed by consensus of two independent observers according to three indices, namely: (1) percentage of area stained, (2) intensity of staining, and (3) final score (product of area and intensity). Results—VEGF immunoreactivity was present in all tumours and adjacent normal lung tissue. None of the three VEGF indices was associated with vascularity or the clinical parameters examined. Mean survival times were shorter in patients with high VEGF expression, but the difference was not significant. This applied to the full cohort of patients, or when analysed separately according to tumour type or stage. However, high VEGF expression was associated with poor survival in patients with high vascularity (p = 0.02). VEGF had no discriminant value among patients with low vascularity. Vascularity had no prognostic value, except for late stage patients (UICC stages II and IIIa combined; n = 36), where high vascularity was associated with longer survival (p = 0.01). Conclusions—VEGF on its own has no prognostic value in NSCLC, but may become a useful indicator when combined with vascularity. VEGF may play a physiological role in the normal lung. Key Words: non-small cell lung cancer • vascular endothelial growth factor • vascularity • prognosis PMID:11215279

  3. Age, Neurological Status MRC Scale, and Postoperative Morbidity are Prognostic Factors in Patients with Glioblastoma Treated by Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Verlut, Clotilde; Mouillet, Guillaume; Magnin, Eloi; Buffet-Miny, Joëlle; Viennet, Gabriel; Cattin, Françoise; Billon-Grand, Nora Clelia; Bonnet, Emilie; Servagi-Vernat, Stéphanie; Godard, Joël; Billon-Grand, Romain; Petit, Antoine; Moulin, Thierry; Cals, Laurent; Pivot, Xavier; Curtit, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Temozolomide and concomitant radiotherapy followed by temozolomide has been used as a standard therapy for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiform since 2005. A search for prognostic factors was conducted in patients with glioblastoma routinely treated by this strategy in our institution. METHODS This retrospective study included all patients with histologically proven glioblastoma diagnosed between June 1, 2005, and January 1, 2012, in the Franche-Comté region and treated by radiotherapy (daily fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 60 Gy) combined with temozolomide at a dose of 75 mg/m2 per day, followed by six cycles of maintenance temozolomide (150–200 mg/m2, five consecutive days per month). The primary aim was to identify prognostic factors associated with overall survival (OS) in this cohort of patients. RESULTS One hundred three patients were included in this study. The median age was 64 years. The median OS was 13.7 months (95% confidence interval, 12.5–15.9 months). In multivariate analysis, age over 65 years (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.88; P = 0.01), Medical Research Council (MRC) scale 3–4 (HR = 1.62; P = 0.038), and occurrence of postoperative complications (HR = 2.15; P = 0.028) were associated with unfavorable OS. CONCLUSIONS This study identified three prognostic factors in patients with glioblastoma eligible to the standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment. Age over 65 years, MRC scale 3–4, and occurrence of postoperative complications were associated with unfavorable OS. A simple clinical evaluation including these three factors enables to estimate the patient prognosis. MRC neurological scale could be a useful, quick, and simple measure to assess neurological status in glioblastoma patients. PMID:27559302

  4. LYMPHOPENIA AS A PROGNOSTIC FACTOR FOR OVERALL SURVIVAL IN ADVANCED CARCINOMAS, SARCOMAS AND LYMPHOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Cropet, Claire; Van Glabbeke, Martine; Sebban, Catherine; Le Cesne, Axel; Judson, Ian; Tredan, Olivier; Verweij, Jaap; Biron, Pierre; Labidi, Inthidar; Guastalla, Jean-Paul; Bachelot, Thomas; Perol, David; Chabaud, Sylvie; Hogendoorn, Pancras C.W.; Cassier, Philippe; Dufresne, Armelle; Blay, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    Lymphopenia is frequent in advanced cancers and predicts the toxicity of chemotherapy. Its impact on relapse and survival is uncertain. Its prognostic value for survival was analyzed in 3 databases of previously reported prospective multicenter studies: 1) FEC chemotherapy in metastatic breast carcinoma; 2) CYVADIC in advanced soft-tissue sarcoma (EORTC-STBSG 62791); 3) prospective, consecutive phase III studies of aggressive diffuse large-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas conducted at Bérard center between 1987 and 1993. Univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors for survival were performed. The incidence of lymphopenia <1000/μL before treatment was constant among series: 25%, 24%, 27% respectively. Lymphopenia was significantly more frequent (p<0.05) in metastatic breast cancer patients with performance status (PS)>1, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients with international prognostic index (IPI)>0, and advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and metastatic breast cancer patients with bone metastases. In univariate analysis, lymphopenia <1000/μL significantly correlated to overall survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer (median 10 vs. 14 months, p <0.0001), advanced soft-tissue sarcoma (median 5 vs. 10 months, p <0.01), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (median 11 vs. 94 months, p <0.0001). In multivariate analysis (Cox model), lymphopenia was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in metastatic breast cancer (RR: 1.8; 95%CI 1.3–2.4) along with liver metastases and PS; in advanced soft-tissue sarcoma (RR: 1.46; 95%CI 1.0–2.1) along with liver metastases, lung metastases and PS; and in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (RR: 1.48; 95%CI 1.03–2.1) along with IPI. Our findings demonstrate that lymphopenia is an independent prognostic factor for overall and progression-free survival in several cancers. PMID:19549917

  5. Lysosome-associated protein transmembrane-4β-35 is a novel independent prognostic factor in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Man; Hu, Guohua

    2015-09-01

    The lysosome-associated protein transmembrane-4β-35 (LAPTM4B-35) protein has been indicated to be involved in solid tumors, while its role in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the LAPTM4B-35 protein expression and its clinical and prognostic role in SCLC patients. A total of 88 SCLC patients who underwent radical surgery between 2002 and 2010 were enrolled in the study. The level of messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein was detected from the fresh paired tumor specimens and adjacent normal tissues. The clinicopathological and survival data were collected. And the relationship between LAPTM4B-35 and clinicopathological features was analyzed. The prognostic value of LAPTM4B-35 for SCLC was investigated by univariate and multivariate analyses. The LAPTM4B-35 was overexpressed significantly in SCLC cancer tissues. The elevated protein expression was correlated strongly with clinical stage (p = 0.012) and tumor recurrence (p = 0.023). The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) were significantly worse in the patients with high LAPTM4B-35 level. Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that high LAPTM4B-35 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) and DFS (p = 0.017 vs p = 0.011). LAPTM4B-35 overexpression was an independent factor in SCLC prognosis, which may be considered a potential useful marker in defining the SCLC prognosis.

  6. Coexistence of HER2, Ki67, and p53 in Osteosarcoma: A Strong Prognostic Factor

    PubMed Central

    Mardanpour, Keykhosro; Rahbar, Mahtab; Mardanpour, Sourena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many laboratories are currently evaluating the usefulness of the determination of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), p53, and Ki67 proliferation indices using immunohistochemical techniques in cancer. Although the available studies suggest that these factors might indeed be helpful in making treatment decisions in osteosarcoma patients, their clinical usefulness is still controversial. Aims: We proposed to introduce the value of the coexistence of HER2 overexpression, p53 protein accumulation, and Ki67 in osteosarcoma, which could be a prognostic factor in osteosarcoma. Material and Methods: Expression of HER2, p53, and Ki67 was examined by immunohistochemistry in samples of resected bone tumor tissue from 56 patients with osteosarcoma, obtained between 2009 and 2014 (median follow-up period of 48 months), and their significance for prognosis was analyzed. Results: Of the 56 osteogenic sarcoma tissue samples, 80, 89, and 96.5% were positive for HER2 overexpression, p53 protein accumulation, and Ki67 expression, respectively. Overexpression of HER2 and accumulation of p53 protein significantly correlated with reduced disease-free (P < 0.01) and overall survival (P < 0.003). HER2 and Ki67 co-overexpression significantly correlated with decreased disease-free (P < 0.03) and overall survival (P < 0.02). HER2, accumulation of p53 protein, and Ki67 co-overexpression significantly correlated with reduced disease-free (P < 0.01) and overall survival (P < 0.005) as did patients with larger tumor size, high grade of tumor, positive lymph node, and metastasis status within the specified period of follow up. Conclusions: We found evidence that coexistence of HER2 and Ki67 overexpression and p53 protein accumulation predict the development of lymph node involvement and metastases in patients with high-grade osteosarcoma and were significantly associated with reduced survival. PMID:27298815

  7. Adjuvant radiochemotherapy for gastric cancer: Should we use prognostic factors to select patients?

    PubMed Central

    Agolli, Linda; Maurizi Enrici, Riccardo; Osti, Mattia Falchetto

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy has a not well-established role in the pre-operative and in the post-operative setting in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Randomized trials report controversial outcomes and impact on survival. In the D2 loco-regional node resection era, after a well-performed radical surgery, local treatment using radiotherapy combined to chemotherapy should be considered for locally advanced GC. Prognostic factors could help the better selection of subgroups that present high risk of loco-regional recurrence. Then, the addition of radiotherapy could improve the disease-free survival and also quality of life. There are no large prospective studies that have assessed specific factors predicting for recurrence or survival, but only retrospective series, some of them including high number of patients with homogeneous characteristics. In locally advanced GC adding radiotherapy to the post-operative chemotherapy seems to improve outcomes and quality of life. Prognostic factors such as T-stage, N-status, nodal ratio, and other histological factors should be considered to submit patients to post-operative combined treatment. Larger prospective series are necessary to investigate the role of combined chemoradiation after radical D2-resection, especially in locally advanced GC. Further prospective investigations are needed to suggest prognostic factors that have significant impact on survival and recurrence, improving the management and outcomes, particularly in locally advanced GC patients. PMID:26811652

  8. Predictive models and prognostic factors for upper tract urothelial carcinoma: a comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mbeutcha, Aurélie; Mathieu, Romain; Rouprêt, Morgan; Gust, Kilian M.; Briganti, Alberto; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of customized patient care for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), decision-making could be facilitated by risk assessment and prediction tools. The aim of this study was to provide a critical overview of existing predictive models and to review emerging promising prognostic factors for UTUC. A literature search of articles published in English from January 2000 to June 2016 was performed using PubMed. Studies on risk group stratification models and predictive tools in UTUC were selected, together with studies on predictive factors and biomarkers associated with advanced-stage UTUC and oncological outcomes after surgery. Various predictive tools have been described for advanced-stage UTUC assessment, disease recurrence and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Most of these models are based on well-established prognostic factors such as tumor stage, grade and lymph node (LN) metastasis, but some also integrate newly described prognostic factors and biomarkers. These new prediction tools seem to reach a high level of accuracy, but they lack external validation and decision-making analysis. The combinations of patient-, pathology- and surgery-related factors together with novel biomarkers have led to promising predictive tools for oncological outcomes in UTUC. However, external validation of these predictive models is a prerequisite before their introduction into daily practice. New models predicting response to therapy are urgently needed to allow accurate and safe individualized management in this heterogeneous disease. PMID:27785429

  9. Seeking new prognostic and predictive factors in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma – apoptosis-regulating factors

    PubMed Central

    Szczylik, Cezary; Rzepecki, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Kidney cancer, despite the constant upward trend in the incidence of this type of cancer (about 1.5-5.9% per year), is rather rare, representing approximately 2-3% of all adult cancers. Since recently, drugs based on so-called targeted therapy play a decisive role in the treatment of patients with metastatic kidney cancer. Prognostic and predictive factors can significantly contribute to prognosis assessment and the correct classification of patients to specific forms of causal treatment of kidney cancer. In addition to the most commonly used and widely known prognostic factors, grouped in the so-called Motzer model, new prognostic markers of this tumour are being sought. Preliminary reports indicate that there may be a promising role of factors that regulate the cell cycle and apoptosis, and agents from the group of hypoxia-induced proteins. The proliferation markers or proteins related to cellular adhesion can also be relevant. This article presents examples of markers from the first of the above groups of proteins, which on the basis of the performed analyses showed independent prognostic or predictive value in kidney cancer. PMID:23788861

  10. Prognostic Factors and Complications in Patients With Operational Peptic Ulcer Perforation in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Suriya, Chutikarn; Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Kayee, Toranee

    2014-01-01

    Background Peptic ulcer perforation (PUP) is a very serious condition that leads to excessive complications and mortality. This study aimed to explore the possible prognostic factors and complications in patients with perforated peptic ulcer operation. Methods A 6-year retrospective cohort study in Nakornping Hospital between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2010 was conducted. The study included 912 patients who underwent PUP surgery. Patient characteristics were analyzed by using frequency, percentage, mean (standard deviation) and median (range). A comparison between groups was made. The Pearson’s Chi-squared or Fisher’s exact test was used for categorical variables, as appropriate. The Student’s t test was used for continuous variables with normal distribution, and Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed for continuous variables with non-normal distributions. Exponential risk regression analysis was performed to estimate the relative risk (RR) for the prognostic factors with a probability value of < 0.05 as a statistically significant value. Post-operative length of stay was computed graphically based on Kaplan-Meier estimates. Results During the study period, 912 post-operative PUP patients were observed. The median age of patients was 78.5 (15 - 92) years, and 77.74% of the patients were male gender. Multivariate analysis showed that five prognostic indicators: underlying illnesses; liver disease (RR: 5.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36 - 21.56) and kidney disease (RR: 4.72; 95% CI: 1.05 - 21.11); duration of operation > 3 h (RR: 9.83; 95% CI: 1.61-59.66); unplanned admission to ICU (RR: 9.22; 95% CI: 1.55 - 54.68); and prolonged ventilation > 24 h (RR: 9.02; 95% CI: 0.42 - 9.98) were associated with post-operative PUP complications. Post-operative complications developed in 87 (9.54%) patients with 135 complications: 11 (1.21%) patients underwent re-operation, 32 (3.51%) patients suffered with surgical site infection, 74 (8.11%) patients encountered

  11. Epstein–Barr virus DNA level as a novel prognostic factor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Shu, Chi; Song, Yanlin; Li, Qingfang; Huang, Jingwen; Ma, Xuelei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The plasma Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) DNA level in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) performs as an appealing prognostic factor, but conclusions of its prognostic values from previous studies are inconsistent. In this study, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic value of EBV DNA level in patients with NPC. Methods: Published studies were searched in PubMed. The baseline characteristics of patients, overall survival (OS), and other survival outcomes were extracted. Pooled hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence interval (CI), and P value were calculated to estimate the prognostic value of EBV DNA level. Each cut-off value mentioned in the studies was obtained. Kaplan–Meier curves were used to extract data, and graphical survival plots were extracted for calculating HR when the study did not describe the information directly. Results: This meta-analysis pooled 23 eligible studies including 10,732 patients with NPC. The pooled HR (95% CI) of pretreatment plasma EBV DNA level (pre-DNA) for OS was 2.78 (2.19, 3.55), and the HR (95% CI) of posttreatment plasma EBV DNA level (post-DNA) for OS was 5.43 (2.72, 10.82), suggesting that EBV DNA level was significantly correlated to the outcomes of patients with NPC. Conclusion: High expression levels of EBV DNA predicts poor prognosis in NPC. PMID:27749596

  12. Extended Survival and Prognostic Factors for Patients With ALK-Rearranged Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Brain Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Johung, Kimberly L.; Yeh, Norman; Desai, Neil B.; Williams, Terence M.; Lautenschlaeger, Tim; Arvold, Nils D.; Ning, Matthew S.; Attia, Albert; Lovly, Christine M.; Goldberg, Sarah; Beal, Kathryn; Yu, James B.; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Chiang, Veronica L.; Camidge, D. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We performed a multi-institutional study to identify prognostic factors and determine outcomes for patients with ALK-rearranged non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and brain metastasis. Patients and Methods A total of 90 patients with brain metastases from ALK-rearranged NSCLC were identified from six institutions; 84 of 90 patients received radiotherapy to the brain (stereotactic radiosurgery [SRS] or whole-brain radiotherapy [WBRT]), and 86 of 90 received tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. Estimates for overall (OS) and intracranial progression-free survival were determined and clinical prognostic factors were identified by Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results Median OS after development of brain metastases was 49.5 months (95% CI, 29.0 months to not reached), and median intracranial progression-free survival was 11.9 months (95% CI, 10.1 to 18.2 months). Forty-five percent of patients with follow-up had progressive brain metastases at death, and repeated interventions for brain metastases were common. Absence of extracranial metastases, Karnofsky performance score ≥ 90, and no history of TKIs before development of brain metastases were associated with improved survival (P = .003, < .001, and < .001, respectively), whereas a single brain metastasis or initial treatment with SRS versus WBRT were not (P = .633 and .666, respectively). Prognostic factors significant by multivariable analysis were used to describe four patient groups with 2-year OS estimates of 33%, 59%, 76%, and 100%, respectively (P < .001). Conclusion Patients with brain metastases from ALK-rearranged NSCLC treated with radiotherapy (SRS and/or WBRT) and TKIs have prolonged survival, suggesting that interventions to control intracranial disease are critical. The refinement of prognosis for this molecular subtype of NSCLC identifies a population of patients likely to benefit from first-line SRS, close CNS observation, and treatment of emergent CNS disease. PMID:26438117

  13. Evaluation of outcome and prognostic factors in 739 patients with uterine cervix carcinoma: a single institution experience

    PubMed Central

    Yöney, Adnan; Teke, Memik; Adanaş, Gültekin; Urakçı, Zuhat; Türkcü, Gül; Eren, Bekir; İnal, Ali; Ünsal, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study The aim of this retrospective chart review was to determine the long-term outcomes and identify prognostic factors that impact the survival of patients with cervical cancer. Material and methods A retrospective chart review of 739 patients with International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I–IV cervical cancer treated with surgery, radiation or chemoradiation was performed. Patient charts were evaluated in terms of demographics, clinical outcomes, and survival. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method, and differences in survival were compared with the log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was performed with a Cox proportional hazards model to determine the estimated hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each prognostic factor. Results The Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated that pelvic nodal metastasis (p = 0.018), parametrial invasion (p = 0.015), and presence of disease in the surgical margin (p = 0.011) were all independent prognostic factors for OS. The 5-year OS rate of patients with negative pelvic lymph nodes was 67.1%, which was higher than the rate for those with positive nodes at 49.0% (p < 0.05). The 5-year OS rate was 54.3% for patients with metastasis to the parametrium, 79.2% with a cancer-free parametrium, 60.9% with a cancer-positive surgical margin, 85.4% with a cancer-negative surgical margin, and 64.3% with a 1–3 mm close surgical margin (p < 0.05). Conclusions Assessing pelvic lymph nodes, the parametrium, and surgical margins is important for survival and may aid in better identifying patients who would derive greater benefits from receiving adjuvant therapies and more aggressive treatments. PMID:26034391

  14. Prognostic Significance of Tumor Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1{alpha} Expression for Outcome After Radiotherapy in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Priyamal; Slevin, Nick J.; Sloan, Philip; Valentine, Helen; Cresswell, Jo; Ryder, David; Price, Patricia; Homer, Jarrod J.; West, Catharine

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents a heterogeneous group of patients in terms of subsite, treatment, and biology. Currently most management decisions are based on clinical parameters with little appreciation of patient differences in underlying tumor biology. We investigated the prognostic significance of clinicopathologic features and tumor hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) expression in a homogeneous series of patients who underwent radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: An audit identified 133 consecutive patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil or tongue base. All patients received primary radiotherapy between 1996 and 2001. Tumor HIF-1{alpha} expression was examined in 79 patients. Results: Features associated with poor locoregional control were low Hb level (p = 0.05) and advancing T (p = 0.008), N (p = 0.03), and disease (p = 0.008) stage. HIF-1{alpha} expression was a more significant adverse prognostic factor in the tonsil (hazard ratio [HR], 23.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]. 3.04-176.7) than the tongue-base tumor (HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.14-7.19) group (p = 0.03, test for interaction). High tumor HIF-1{alpha} expression was associated with low blood Hb levels (p = 0.03). In a multivariate analysis HIF-1{alpha} expression retained prognostic significance for locoregional control (HR, 7.10; 95% CI, 3.07-16.43) and cancer-specific survival (HR, 9.19; 95% CI, 3.90-21.6). Conclusions: There are significant differences in radiation therapy outcome within a homogeneous subsite of the oropharynx related to molecular marker expression. The work highlights the importance of studying homogeneous groups of patients in HNSCC, and the complex interrelationships between tumor biology and clinicopathologic factors. The establishment of tumor-type specific markers would represent a major advance in this area.

  15. Residual Tumor After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Outside the Radiation Therapy Target Volume: A New Prognostic Factor for Survival in Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Muijs, Christina; Smit, Justin; Karrenbeld, Arend; Beukema, Jannet; Mul, Veronique; Dam, Go van; Hospers, Geke; Kluin, Phillip; Langendijk, Johannes; Plukker, John

    2014-03-15

    Purpose/Objective(s): The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy of gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation and clinical target volume (CTV) margins for neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (neo-CRT) in esophageal carcinoma at pathologic examination and to determine the impact on survival. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 63 esophageal cancer patients treated with neo-CRT. GTV and CTV borders were demarcated in situ during surgery on the esophagus, using anatomical reference points to provide accurate information regarding tumor location at pathologic evaluation. To identify prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), a Cox regression analysis was performed. Results: After resection, macroscopic residual tumor was found outside the GTV in 7 patients (11%). Microscopic residual tumor was located outside the CTV in 9 patients (14%). The median follow-up was 15.6 months. With multivariate analysis, only microscopic tumor outside the CTV (hazard ratio [HR], 4.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-15.36), and perineural growth (HR, 5.77; 95% CI, 1.27-26.13) were identified as independent prognostic factors for OS. The 1-year OS was 20% for patients with tumor outside the CTV and 86% for those without (P<.01). For DFS, microscopic tumor outside the CTV (HR, 5.92; 95% CI, 1.89-18.54) and ypN+ (HR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.33-8.48) were identified as independent adverse prognostic factors. The 1-year DFS was 23% versus 77% for patients with or without tumor outside the CTV (P<.01). Conclusions: Microscopic tumor outside the CTV is associated with markedly worse OS after neo-CRT. This may either stress the importance of accurate tumor delineation or reflect aggressive tumor behavior requiring new adjuvant treatment modalities.

  16. Rhabdomyolysis. The role of diagnostic and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Keltz, Eran; Khan, Fahmi Yousef; Mann, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Summary Rhabdomyolysis, literally meaning the breakdown of muscle tissue, is a common syndrome with many causes, acquired ones such as exertion, trauma, infections, temperature extremes, drugs, toxins, electrolyte and endocrine abnormalities, and congenital ones such as myopathies and connective tissue disorders. All results in a common pathophysiologic pathway which ends with the dispersing of muscle tissue content into the circulation. Rhabdomyolysis has characteristic clinical, laboratory and radiologic features, but does require a high index of suspicion so that the diagnosis would not be missed. The sensitivity and specificity of the various characteristics, as well as clinical guidelines, are discussed in this paper. The syndrome may present with several complications, e.g. arrhythmias, electrolyte abnormalities, acute renal injury, acidosis, volume depletion, compartment syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The prognosis is highly variable and depends on the underlying etiologies and complications, but is in general considered as good. The milestone of treatment is vigorous fluid resuscitation. Treatment options, in practice and in research, are discussed in the following pages. PMID:24596694

  17. Stem cell niche as a prognostic factor in leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ga-Young; Kim, Jin-A; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2015-08-01

    Despite high interests on microenvironmental regulation of leukemic cells, little is known for bone marrow (BM) niche in leukemia patients. Our recent study on BMs of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients showed that the mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are altered during leukemic conditions in a clinical course-dependent manner. Leukemic blasts caused reprogramming of transcriptomes in MSCs and remodeling of niche cross-talk, selectively suppressing normal primitive hematopoietic cells while supporting leukemogenesis and chemo- resistance. Notably, differences in BM stromal remodeling were correlated to heterogeneity in subsequent clinical courses of AML, i.e., low numbers of mesenchymal progenitors at initial diagnosis were correlated to complete remission for 5-8 years, and high contents of mesenchymal progenitor or MSCs correlated to early or late relapse, respectively. Thus, stromal remodeling by leukemic cell is an intrinsic part of leukemogenesis that can contribute to the clonal dominance of leukemic cells over normal hematopoietic cells, and can serve as a biomarker for prediction of prognosis. PMID:26198094

  18. [Endometrial carcinoma--stage I. Evaluation of risk and prognostic factors in an analysis of 120 cases].

    PubMed

    Romano, F M; Bruno, G; Manicastri, A M

    1991-03-01

    The Authors report on a series of 120 cases of endometrial carcinoma observed from 1980 to 1989, in the 1st Gynecological Oncology of the Oncological Hospital "M. Ascoli", Palermo. After careful clinical and pathologic review, the cases, subdivided in pre and post-menopausal groups, in order to verify possible differences between the two groups, were evaluated with reference to the principal risk factors and to some prognostic factors. As for the risk factors (old age, nulliparity, obesity, long fertile life, etc.), the data do not differ from the results in the literature. The evaluation of the prognostic indicators confirms once again the close relationship between histologic grade and myometrial invasion of the tumor. They have an important predictive value for prognosis and their knowledge is indispensable for an adequate therapeutic strategy, especially at pathologic stage I. Furthermore, findings show some delay in endometrial cancer diagnosis in the population studied, particularly in premenopausal women. Such delay turns out to be significantly associated with a greater myometrial infiltration of tumor.

  19. Gross tumor volume is the prognostic factor for squamous cell esophageal cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Guoliang

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate whether gross tumor volume (GTV) defined on radiotherapy planning scans a prognostic factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients treated with definitive radiotherapy. Methods From 2008 to 2011, 187 ESCC patients who were treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy were analyzed retrospectively. Tumor volumes such as GTV, gross tumor volume of primary esophageal cancer (GTV-P), and gross tumor volume of metastases lymph nodes (GTV-N) were computed by Philips Healthcare radiation therapy planning system (Pinnacle 8.0). Kaplan-Meier cumulative probability and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the effect of the clinical factors along with tumor volume on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results In the univariate analysis, fraction dose, TNM stage, total radiation dose, GTV, GTV-P, and GTV-N were all significantly associated with both OS and PFS (P<0.05). While in multivariate analysis, GTV and fraction dose were significantly associated with both OS and PFS (adjusted P<0.05) with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, chemotherapy, fraction dose, GTV, and radiation dose. Conclusions GTV may serve as a good prognostic factor for ESCC patients treated with definitive radiotherapy. Larger prospective studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:27293832

  20. Pathological factors, behavior, and histological prognostic risk groups in subtypes of penile squamous cell carcinomas (SCC).

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Diego F; Soares, Fernando; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Cañete, Sofía; Fernández-Nestosa, María José; Rodríguez, Ingrid M; Barreto, José; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2015-05-01

    Pathologists' contribution in the determination of prognosis in invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma is crucial. The TNM staging system is based on the identification of pathological data. There are multiple pathologically based factors believed to be important in relation to the rates of regional inguinal lymph node and specific cancer death. Among them are tumor site, size, histological subtypes, thickness or anatomical level of invasion, tumor front, and vascular or perineural invasion. The identification of these factors determines the prognostic profile of patients with penile cancer. These factors are used for the construction of pathological risk groups, prognostic index, or nomograms and are helpful in the prediction of nodal metastasis or patients' outcome. This review will describe in detail the influential pathological prognostic factors present in each tumor category emphasizing the impact of especial histological subtypes in tumor spread and final outcome. There are few studies comprehensibly addressing the relation of tumor morphology and prognosis according to histological types. We are summarizing findings of prognostic factors in 3 different series for the most common types and individual series in more recently described tumor entities. We had found a broad correlation of special subtypes of penile squamous cell carcinomas that made regional nodal status and final outcome predictable according to histological features of the tumor. These findings permitted grouping special subtypes of squamous cell carcinomas into prognosis risk groups of low, intermediate, and high. In the first category of excellent prognoses are the usual grade I, verrucous, papillary NOS, pseudohyperplastic and cuniculatum carcinomas. In the second group, there are the grade II usual, mixed and warty carcinomas. The third category of tumors, with the worst prognosis is composed of high grade usual, basaloid, warty-basaloid, papillary basaloid, and sarcomatoid carcinomas. We

  1. Prognostic factors on survival rate of fingers replantation

    PubMed Central

    Lima, José Queiroz; Carli, Alberto De; Nakamoto, Hugo Alberto; Bersani, Gustavo; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors that influence the survival rate of replantation and revascularization of the thumb and/or fingers. Methods: We included fifty cases treated in our department from May 2012 to October 2013 with total or partial finger amputations, which had blood perfusion deficit and underwent vascular anastomosis. The parameters evaluated were: age, gender, comorbidities, trauma, time and type of ischemia, mechanism, the injured area, number of anastomosed vessels and use of vein grafts. The results were statistically analyzed and type I error value was set at p <0.05 . Results: Fifty four percent of the 50 performed replantation survived. Of 15 revascularizations performed, the survival rate was 93.3%. The only factor that affected the survival of the amputated limb was the necessity of venous anastomosis. Conclusion: We could not establish contraindications or absolute indications for the replantation and revascularization of finger amputations in this study. Level of Evidence III, Retropective Study. PMID:26327788

  2. Circulating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Has Diagnostic and Prognostic Value in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Korley, Frederick K; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Wu, Alan H B; Yue, John K; Manley, Geoffrey T; Sair, Haris I; Van Eyk, Jennifer; Everett, Allen D; Okonkwo, David O; Valadka, Alex B; Gordon, Wayne A; Maas, Andrew I R; Mukherjee, Pratik; Yuh, Esther L; Lingsma, Hester F; Puccio, Ava M; Schnyer, David M

    2016-01-15

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is important for neuronal survival and regeneration. We investigated the diagnostic and prognostic values of serum BDNF in traumatic brain injury (TBI). We examined serum BDNF in two independent cohorts of TBI cases presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) of the Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH; n = 76) and San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH, n = 80), and a control group of JHH ED patients without TBI (n = 150). Findings were subsequently validated in the prospective, multi-center Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in TBI (TRACK-TBI) Pilot study (n = 159). We investigated the association between BDNF, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) and recovery from TBI at 6 months in the TRACK-TBI Pilot cohort. Incomplete recovery was defined as having either post-concussive syndrome or a Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended score <8 at 6 months. Median day-of-injury BDNF concentrations (ng/mL) were lower among TBI cases (JHH TBI, 17.5 and SFGH TBI, 13.8) than in JHH controls (60.3; p = 0.0001). Among TRACK-TBI Pilot subjects, median BDNF concentrations (ng/mL) were higher in mild (8.3) than in moderate (4.3) or severe TBI (4.0; p = 0.004. In the TRACK-TBI cohort, the 75 (71.4%) subjects with very low BDNF values (i.e., prognostic information regarding recovery from TBI. Thus, day

  3. Blood Cell Palmitoleate-Palmitate Ratio Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Alexandre; Blasco, Hélène; Fleury, Marie-Céline; Corcia, Philippe; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Robelin, Laura; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Lequeu, Thiebault; Bergaentzle, Martine; Gachet, Christian; Pradat, Pierre-François; Marchioni, Eric; Andres, Christian R.; Tranchant, Christine; Gonzalez De Aguilar, Jose-Luis; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence supports a link between fatty acid metabolism and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we determined the fatty acid composition of blood lipids to identify markers of disease progression and survival. We enrolled 117 patients from two clinical centers and 48 of these were age and gender matched with healthy volunteers. We extracted total lipids from serum and blood cells, and separated fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography. We measured circulating biochemical parameters indicative of the metabolic status. Association between fatty acid composition and clinical readouts was studied, including ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R), survival, disease duration, site of onset and body mass index. Palmitoleate (16:1) and oleate (18:1) levels, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase indices (16:1/16:0 and 18:1/18:0) significantly increased in blood cells from ALS patients compared to healthy controls. Palmitoleate levels and 16:1/16:0 ratio in blood cells, but not body mass index or leptin concentrations, negatively correlated with ALSFRS-R decline over a six-month period (p<0.05). Multivariate Cox analysis, with age, body mass index, site of onset and ALSFRS-R as covariables, showed that blood cell 16:1/16:0 ratio was an independent prognostic factor for survival (hazard ratio=0.1 per unit of ratio, 95% confidence interval=0.01-0.57, p=0.009). In patients with high 16:1/16:0 ratio, survival at blood collection was extended by 10 months, as compared to patients with low ratio. The 16:1/16:0 index is an easy-to-handle parameter that predicts survival of ALS patients independently of body mass index. It therefore deserves further validation in larger cohorts for being used to assess disease outcome and effects of disease-modifying drugs. PMID:26147510

  4. [Prognostic factors of morbimortality in patients with emphysematous pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Torres-Mercado, León Octavio; García-Padilla, Miguel Ángel; Serrano-Brambila, Eduardo; Maldonado-Alcaraz, Efraín; López-Sámano, Virgilio Augusto; Montoya-Martínez, Guillermo; Moreno-Palacios, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: La pielonefritis enfisematosa es una infección grave del tracto urinario caracterizada por la presencia de gas en los sistemas colectores, en el parénquima renal o en el tejido perirrenal; su causa no es del todo conocida, pero se ha sugerido que se debe a la fermentación de glucosa por enterobacterias y anaerobios. El objetivo fue evaluar los factores pronósticos de morbimortalidad en pacientes con diagnóstico de pielonefritis enfisematosa. Métodos: estudio de cohorte histórica en pacientes con diagnóstico de pielonefritis enfisematosa que ingresaron a nuestro hospital de marzo de 2005 a diciembre de 2014. Se identificaron los pacientes con desenlace adverso definido como aquel que requirió estancia en unidad de cuidados intensivos, nefrectomía o muerte. Se realizó una regresión logística múltiple para obtener la relación de cada factor pronóstico con el desenlace adverso. Resultados: Fueron evaluados 73 pacientes (48 mujeres [65.8 %]). Diabetes, litiasis urinaria, infección por Escherichia coli y el estado de choque se presentaron en 68.5 %, 68.5 %, 63 % y 15.1 %, respectivamente. Fueron factores significativos para desenlace adverso la leucocitosis ≥ 12 000 μL (RM 43.65, IC 95 % 2.36-805, p < 0.001), la trombocitopenia ≤ 120 000 μL (RM 363, IC 95 % 9.2-14208, p < 0.0001), y la clase radiológica 3 de Huang (RM 62, IC 95 % 4-964, p < 0.001). Conclusión: la trombocitopenia, la leucocitosis y la clase radiológica 3 se asociaron con un desenlace adverso en los pacientes con pielonefritis enfisematosa.

  5. Role of MALAT1 as a Prognostic Factor for Survival in Various Cancers: A Systematic Review of the Literature with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yao; Niu, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The expression of metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a highly abundant and ubiquitously expressed long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), influences clinical parameters and may have prognostic value in cancer. This meta-analysis evaluated the prognostic role of MALAT1 in various cancers. Materials and Methods. Systematic literature searches of PubMed and EMBASE databases were conducted for eligible studies of the prognostic role of MALAT1 in cancer. Overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed. Summary hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were assessed to evaluate the influence of MALAT1 expression on patient prognosis. Results. Nine studies with a total of 932 patients were included in the analysis. Elevated MALAT1 expression was significantly correlated with poor OS (HR 2.02; 95% CI: 1.62–2.52; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%). Subgroup analysis indicated that tumor type, histology type, ethnicity, and measurement technique did not affect the prognostic value of MALAT1 for OS. The HR of elevated MALAT1 for DFS was 2.78 (95% CI: 1.87–4.15; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%). Conclusions. Elevated MALAT1 expression is correlated with poor OS in various types of cancer, suggesting that this gene is a prognostic factor for different types of cancer. PMID:26420912

  6. Nutritional and prognostic significance of insulin-like growth factor 1 in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Caregaro, L; Alberino, F; Amodio, P; Merkel, C; Angeli, P; Plebani, M; Bolognesi, M; Gatta, A

    1997-03-01

    Most of the traditional parameters for nutrition assessment have important limitations in patients with chronic liver disease. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been found to be regulated by nutrition and proposed as a nutritional marker. Its nutritional significance in patients with liver cirrhosis, however, has not been investigated. Serum IGF-1 as well as traditional anthropometric, visceral, and immunologic parameters were evaluated in 64 hospitalized cirrhotics, followed up clinically for 2 y. IGF-1Z-score averaged -2.16 +/- 1.08 and inversely correlated with Child-Pugh score (P < 0.01), the most reliable composite score reflecting the severity of liver disease. IGF-1Z-score was not different in patients with or without signs of energy malnutrition, as defined by values of midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) and/or triceps skinfold (TSF) < 5th percentile. Moreover, IGF-1Z-score did not correlate with MAMC or TSF. Despite its correlation with all visceral proteins, the reduction of IGF-1 was much greater and more frequent than that of visceral proteins. Patients with IGF-1Z-score < median values (-2.5) showed lower long-term survival rates compared with patients with IGF-1Z-score > -2.5 (P < 0.01). These data indicate that serum IGF-1 is not related to energy malnutrition in cirrhotic patients, while it appears to be a good predictor of survival and an early marker of liver dysfunction. Multiple factors, most of which are related to the severity of the liver disease, may contribute to the reduction of IGF-1. This multifactorial pathogenesis probably accounts for its prognostic significance. PMID:9131676

  7. Prognostic factors for metachronous contralateral breast cancer: a comparison of the linear Cox regression model and its artificial neural network extension.

    PubMed

    Mariani, L; Coradini, D; Biganzoli, E; Boracchi, P; Marubini, E; Pilotti, S; Salvadori, B; Silvestrini, R; Veronesi, U; Zucali, R; Rilke, F

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess prognostic factor for metachronous contralateral recurrence of breast cancer (CBC). Two factors were of particular interest, namely estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PgR) receptors assayed with the biochemical method in primary tumor tissue. Information was obtained from a prospective clinical database for 1763 axillary node-negative women who had received curative surgery, mostly of the conservative type, and followed-up for a median of 82 months. The analysis was performed based on both a standard (linear) Cox model and an artificial neural network (ANN) extension of this model proposed by Faraggi and Simon. Furthermore, to assess the prognostic importance of the factors considered, model predictive ability was computed. In agreement with already published studies, the results of our analysis confirmed the prognostic role of age at surgery, histology, and primary tumor site, in that young patients (< or = 45 years) with tumors of lobular histology or located at inner/central mammary quadrants were at greater risk of developing CBC. ER and PgR were also shown to have a prognostic role. Their effect, however, was not simple in relation to the presence of interactions between ER and age, and between PgR and histology. In fact, ER appeared to play a protective role in young patients, whereas the opposite was true in older women. Higher levels of PgR implied a greater hazard of CBC occurrence in infiltrating duct carcinoma or tumors with an associated extensive intraductal component, and a lower hazard in infiltrating lobular carcinoma or other histotypes. In spite of the above findings, the predictive value of both the standard and ANN Cox models was relatively low, thus suggesting an intrinsic limitation of the prognostic variables considered, rather than their suboptimal modeling. Research for better prognostic variables should therefore continue.

  8. Prognostic Factors after Liver Resection for Colorectal Liver Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Matias, Margarida; Casa-Nova, Mafalda; Faria, Mariana; Pires, Ricardo; Tato-Costa, Joana; Ribeiro, Leonor; Costa, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A ressecção de metástases hepáticas é o único tratamento potencialmente curativo em doentes com metástases hepáticas de cancro colo-rectal, resultando numa sobrevida global de 36-58%. Até à data foram publicados múltiplos trabalhos sobre factores de prognóstico após hepatectomia em doentes com metástases hepáticas de cancro colo-rectal. No entanto, poucos apresentaram modelos de prognóstico que permitam estratificar os doentes em grupos de risco, relacionando-os com sobrevida após metastasectomia hepática.Objectivos: Identificar, avaliar e comparar os diferentes scores de prognóstico após recessão de metástases hepáticas de cancro colo-rectal.Material e Métodos: Pesquisa na PubMed, Cochrane e Embase, de artigos publicados entre 1990 e 2013, usando os termos ‘recessão hepática’, ‘cancro colo-rectal’, ‘metástases hepáticas’, ‘hepatectomia’, ‘prognóstico’ e ‘modelo’. Apenas os artigos que apresentaram modelos de prognóstico com base em variáveis clínico-patológicas foram incluídos.Resultados: De 1996 a Junho de 2013, 19 modelos de prognóstico foram identificados, incluindo um nomograma. Foram identificados 30 diferentes factores prognósticos, embora nenhum factor fosse comum a todos os modelos prognósticos. Os factores mais frequentemente incluídos foram: número de metástases hepáticas, envolvimento ganglionar regional do tumor primário, nível sérico de CEA pré-operatório e tamanho máximo das metástases. A amostra mediana foi de 305 doentes (81-1 568 doentes) e o seguimento mediano foi de 33 meses (16-54 meses). Todos os estudos foram retrospectivos e utilizaram o modelo proporcional de Cox para análise multivariada.Conclusão: Vários factores têm sido constantemente reportados como tendo valor prognostico após ressecção de metástases hepáticas de cancro colorectal, no entanto, não existe consenso sobre o modelo ideal de prognóstico.

  9. New prognostic factors and scoring system for patients with skeletal metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Hirohisa; Okada, Rieko; Takagi, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Mitsuru; Murata, Hideki; Harada, Hideyuki; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Asakura, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to update a previous scoring system for patients with skeletal metastases, that was proposed by Katagiri et al. in 2005, by introducing a new factor (laboratory data) and analyzing a new patient cohort. Between January 2005 and January 2008, we treated 808 patients with symptomatic skeletal metastases. They were prospectively registered regardless of their treatments, and the last follow-up evaluation was performed in 2012. There were 441 male and 367 female patients with a median age of 64 years. Of these patients, 749 were treated nonsurgically while the remaining 59 underwent surgery for skeletal metastasis. A multivariate analysis was conducted using the Cox proportional hazards model. We identified six significant prognostic factors for survival, namely, the primary lesion, visceral or cerebral metastases, abnormal laboratory data, poor performance status, previous chemotherapy, and multiple skeletal metastases. The first three factors had a larger impact than the remaining three. The prognostic score was calculated by adding together all the scores for individual factors. With a prognostic score of ≥7, the survival rate was 27% at 6 months, and only 6% at 1 year. In contrast, patients with a prognostic score of ≤3 had a survival rate of 91% at 1 year, and 78% at 2 years. Comparing the revised system with the previous one, there was a significantly lower number of wrongly predicted patients using the revised system. This revised scoring system was able to predict the survival rates of patients with skeletal metastases more accurately than the previous system and may be useful for selecting an optimal treatment. PMID:25044999

  10. Tumor Volume Reduction Rate After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy as a Prognostic Factor in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Seung-Gu; Kim, Dae Yong; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Sun Young; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Byung Chang; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Kim, Min Ju

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic significance of tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and Materials: In total, 430 primary LARC (cT3-4) patients who were treated with preoperative CRT and curative radical surgery between May 2002 and March 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. Pre- and post-CRT tumor volumes were measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest MR volumetry. Tumor volume reduction rate was determined using the equation TVRR (%) = (pre-CRT tumor volume - post-CRT tumor volume) Multiplication-Sign 100/pre-CRT tumor volume. The median follow-up period was 64 months (range, 27-99 months) for survivors. Endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: The median TVRR was 70.2% (mean, 64.7% {+-} 22.6%; range, 0-100%). Downstaging (ypT0-2N0M0) occurred in 183 patients (42.6%). The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 77.7% and 86.3%, respectively. In the analysis that included pre-CRT and post-CRT tumor volumes and TVRR as continuous variables, only TVRR was an independent prognostic factor. Tumor volume reduction rate was categorized according to a cutoff value of 45% and included with clinicopathologic factors in the multivariate analysis; ypN status, circumferential resection margin, and TVRR were significant prognostic factors for both DFS and OS. Conclusions: Tumor volume reduction rate was a significant prognostic factor in LARC patients receiving preoperative CRT. Tumor volume reduction rate data may be useful for tailoring surgery and postoperative adjuvant therapy after preoperative CRT.

  11. The clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of gastric squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dong, Caixia; Jiang, Mengjie; Tan, Yinuo; Kong, Yiyao; Yang, Ziru; Zhong, Chenhan; Li, Dan; Yuan, Ying

    2016-08-01

    Primary gastric squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is an exceedingly rare disease. We increased the understanding of gastric SCC and evaluated prognostic factors of gastric SCC.In this large-population cohort study, we retrospectively collected 163 primary gastric SCC and 66,209 primary gastric adenocarcinoma cases from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results program (SEER) database from 1988 to 2012. The Chi-squared test demonstrated the distributed differences. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to evaluate the prognostic factors.Gastric SCC accounted for 0.2% of all the primary gastric cancer cases. The mean age of patients with gastric SCC was 69.6 years old, and the man-to-woman ratio was 2.3:1. The proportion of black was higher in gastric SCC than gastric adenocarcinoma (P < 0.001). Almost half of the gastric SCCs were diagnosed in stage IV and more than half were poorly differentiated. In gastric SCC, the median survival was 8.0 months and the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 32.7%; in gastric adenocarcinoma the median survival rate was 19.0 months and the 5-year OS was 35.4%. The multivariate analysis showed that number of primary lesions, tumor location, grade, and stage were independent prognostic factors in gastric SCC. The tumor stage was the most important prognostic factor.Primary gastric SCC is exceedingly rare. Compared with gastric adenocarcinoma, gastric SCC was more frequent in black patients and was usually diagnosed when it was poorly differentiated and at a later stage. On the whole, gastric SCC has a poorer outcome. Disease stage is likely a key determinant in survival. PMID:27559983

  12. Clinical prognostic indicators of dysphagia following prolonged orotracheal intubation in ICU patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development of postextubation swallowing dysfunction is well documented in the literature with high prevalence in most studies. However, there are relatively few studies with specific outcomes that focus on the follow-up of these patients until hospital discharge. The purpose of our study was to determine prognostic indicators of dysphagia in ICU patients submitted to prolonged orotracheal intubation (OTI). Methods We conducted a retrospective, observational cohort study from 2010 to 2012 of all patients over 18 years of age admitted to a university hospital ICU who were submitted to prolonged OTI and subsequently received a bedside swallow evaluation (BSE) by a speech pathologist. The prognostic factors analyzed included dysphagia severity rate at the initial swallowing assessment and at hospital discharge, age, time to initiate oral feeding, amount of individual treatment, number of orotracheal intubations, intubation time and length of hospital stay. Results After we excluded patients with neurologic diseases, tracheostomy, esophageal dysphagia and those who were submitted to surgical procedures involving the head and neck, our study sample size was 148 patients. The logistic regression model was used to examine the relationships between independent variables. In the univariate analyses, we found that statistically significant prognostic indicators of dysphagia included dysphagia severity rate at the initial swallowing assessment, time to initiate oral feeding and amount of individual treatment. In the multivariate analysis, we found that dysphagia severity rate at the initial swallowing assessment remained associated with good treatment outcomes. Conclusions Studies of prognostic indicators in different populations with dysphagia can contribute to the design of more effective procedures when evaluating, treating, and monitoring individuals with this type of disorder. Additionally, this study stresses the importance of the initial assessment

  13. Prognostic factors for musculoskeletal pain in primary care: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mallen, Christian D; Peat, George; Thomas, Elaine; Dunn, Kate M; Croft, Peter R

    2007-01-01

    Background Estimating the future course of musculoskeletal pain is an important consideration in the primary care consultation for patients and healthcare professionals. Studies of prognostic indicators tend to have been viewed in relation to each site separately, however, an alternative view is that some prognostic indicators may be common across different sites of musculoskeletal pain. Aim To identify generic prognostic indicators for patients with musculoskeletal pain in primary care. Design of study Systematic review. Setting Observational cohort studies in primary care. Method MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and CINAHL electronic databases were searched from inception to April 2006. Inclusion criteria were that the study was a primary care-based cohort, published in English and contained information on prognostic indicators for musculoskeletal conditions. Results Forty-five studies were included. Eleven factors, assessed at baseline, were found to be associated with poor outcome at follow up for at least two different regional pain complaints: higher pain severity at baseline, longer pain duration, multiple-site pain, previous pain episodes, anxiety and/or depression, higher somatic perceptions and/or distress, adverse coping strategies, low social support, older age, higher baseline disability, and greater movement restriction. Conclusion Despite substantial heterogeneity in the design and analysis of original studies, this review has identified potential generic prognostic indicators that may be useful when assessing any regional musculoskeletal pain complaint. However, Its unclear whether these indicators, used alone, or in combination, can correctly estimate the likely course of individual patients' problems. Further research is needed, particularly in peripheral joint pain and using assessment methods feasible for routine practice. PMID:17688762

  14. [VEGETATIVE REACTIONS AS PROGNOSTIC FACTOR IN POSTERIOR FOSSA SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Nazarov, R V; Kondrat'ev, A N

    2015-01-01

    Mortality rate related to posterior fossa tumors resection varies from 1 to 8 percent, according to various authors. It depends on tumor size and its growth characteristics. To determine the physiological acceptability of surgery, physiological significance of vegetative reactions associated with tumors resection has to be assessed. We divide these reactions (centrogenic reactions - CR) into 2 main groups. The first group has a relatively precise morphofunctional structure, similar to the classic reflex arc. They appear due to irritation of local centers or cranial nerves nuclei with mixed motor-vegetative structure. In most cases they are not connected with anatomic damage of CNS structures. The second group of CR is correlated with dysfunction of brain and represents brain s attempt to turn into a new functional state. Their presence should be considered as a functional degradation symptom, which might be even irreversible. Emergence from anesthesia in the operative room is not recommended in this clinical situation. Neurovegetative stabilization should be provided for a period of 6 to 24 hours after tumor resection. PMID:26596024

  15. Treatment of local–regional prostate cancer detected by PSA screening: benefits and harms according to prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Wever, E M; Heijnsdijk, E A M; Draisma, G; Bangma, C H; Roobol, M J; Schröder, F H; de Koning, H J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Men with screen-detected prostate cancer can choose to undergo immediate curative treatment or enter into an expectant management programme. We quantified how the benefits and harms of immediate treatment vary according to the prognostic factors of clinical T-stage, Gleason score, and patient age. Methods: A microsimulation model based on European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer data was used to predict the benefits and harms of immediate treatment versus delayed treatment of local–regional prostate cancer in men aged 55–74 years. Benefits included life-years gained and reduced probability of death from prostate cancer. Harms included lead time and probability of overdiagnosis. Results: The ratio of mean lead time to mean life-years gained ranged from 1.8 to 31.2, and the additional number of treatments required per prostate cancer death prevented ranged from 0.3 to 11.6 across the different prognostic groups. Both harm–benefit ratios were lowest, most favourable, for men aged 55–59 years and diagnosed with moderate-risk prostate cancer. Ratios were high for men aged 70–74 years regardless of clinical T-stage and Gleason score. Conclusion: Men aged 55–59 years with moderate-risk prostate cancer are predicted to derive greatest benefit from immediate curative treatment. Immediate treatment is least favourable for men aged 70–74 years with either low-risk or high-risk prostate cancer. PMID:23674085

  16. Prognostic Factors for Survival after Resection of Pulmonary Metastases from Colorectal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Osoegawa, Atsushi; Kometani, Takuro; Fukuyama, Seiichi; Hirai, Fumihiko; Seto, Takashi; Ichinose, Yukito

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: As chemotherapy has improved, the survival of patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma has reached up to 2.5 years. Many of these patients experience pulmonary metastases; however, the prognosis after pulmonary metastasectomy is not satisfying. In this study, we analyzed the prognostic factors for survival in patients who underwent pulmonary metastasectomy. Methods: Eighty-seven patients with colorectal carcinoma received pulmonary metastasectomy. The pathological status of the primary tumor, outcome of the pulmonary metastasectomy, disease-free interval, perioperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level and history of liver metastases were assessed. Results: The five-year survival was 42.5% after pulmonary metastasectomy. A univariate analyses revealed that the CEA level (p = 0.043) and the number of pulmonary metastases (p = 0.047) were prognostic factors for survival. The CEA level was an independent prognostic factor in a multivariate analysis (relative risk = 2.01, p = 0.037). Among cases with elevated preoperative CEA levels, those whose CEA level normalized after metastasectomy had a better prognosis compared with those whose CEA level decreased but was still high, or whose level increased after metastasectomy (median survival time of 41.8 months compared with 28.1 or 15.7 months, respectively p = 0.021). Conclusion: The CEA level can be a predictive marker for the prognosis in patients with pulmonary metastases from colorectal carcinoma. PMID:26289631

  17. Various distinctive cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia aged 60 years and older express adverse prognostic value: results from a prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    van der Holt, Bronno; Breems, Dimitri A; Berna Beverloo, H; van den Berg, Eva; Burnett, Alan K; Sonneveld, Pieter; Löwenberg, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Diagnostic cytogenetic abnormalities are considered important prognostic factors in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). However, the prognostic assessments have mainly been derived from patients with AML aged <60 years. Two recent studies of AML patients of 60 years and older proposed prognostic classifications with distinct discrepancies. To further study the prognostic value of cytogenetic abnormalities in this patient population, we have evaluated cytogenetic abnormalities in a series of 293 untreated patients with AML aged 60 years and older, included in a randomised phase 3 trial, also in relation to patient characteristics and clinical outcome. The most frequently observed cytogenetic abnormality was trisomy 8 (+8), in 31 (11%) patients. Abnormalities, such as -5, 5q-, abn(17p) and abn(17q), were almost exclusively present in complex karyotypes. A relatively favourable outcome was only observed in five patients with core-binding factor abnormalities t(8;21) and inv(16)/del(16)/t(16;16). However, most of the other evaluated cytogenetic abnormalities, such as 5q-, -7, +8, abn(17p), abn(17q), and complex aberrations expressed a more adverse prognosis when compared with patients with AML aged 60 years and older with a normal karyotype. Large studies to confirm the prognosis of individual cytogenetic aberrations are warranted.

  18. The clinical impact of staging bone marrow examination on treatment decisions and prognostic assessment of lymphoma patients.

    PubMed

    Painter, Dan; Smith, Alexandra; de Tute, Ruth; Crouch, Simon; Roman, Eve; Jack, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the value of performing a staging bone marrow in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL) and classical hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). The results of 3112 staging bone marrow examinations were assessed for impact on prognostic assessment and critical treatment decisions. The detection of marrow involvement altered the disease-specific prognostic index for 4·3% of DLBCL, 6·2% of FL and 0·6% of CHL but marrow involvement in DLBCL was an independent prognostic factor. Knowing the marrow status potentially changed treatment in 92 patients, detection of these patients would have required 854 examinations to be performed.

  19. Pyrosequencing quantified methylation level of BRCA1 promoter as prognostic factor for survival in breast cancer patient

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Lian; Zhang, Jia-Xin; Wang, Lian-Xin; Yang, Jun; Ding, Jin-Hua; Pan, Xin; Shao, Zhi-Ming; Biskup, Ewelina

    2016-01-01

    BRCA1 promoter methylation is an essential epigenetic transcriptional silencing mechanism, related to breast cancer (BC) occurrence and progression. We quantified the methylation level of BRCA1 promoter and evaluated its significance as prognostic and predictive factor. BRCA1 promoter methylation level was quantified by pyrosequencing in surgical cancerous and adjacent normal specimens from 154 BC patients. A follow up of 98 months was conducted to assess the correlation between BRCA1-methylation level vs. overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS). The mean methylation level in BC tissues was significantly higher (mean 32.6%; median 31.9%) than in adjacent normal samples (mean 16.2%; median 13.0%) (P < 0.0001). Tumor stage (R = 0.6165, P < 0.0001) and size (R = 0.7328, P < 0.0001) were significantly correlated with the methylation level. Patients with unmethylated BRCA1 had a better OS and DFS compared to the methylated group (each P < 0.0001). BRCA1 promoter methylation level has a statistically significance on survival in BC patients (HazR = 1.465, P = 0.000) and is an independent prognostic factor for OS in BC patients (HazR = 2.042, P = 0.000). Patients with ductal type, HER2 negative, lymph node negative stage 1+2 tumors had a better OS and DFS. Classification of grades and molecular subtypes did not show any prognostic significance. Pyrosequencing is a precise and efficient method to quantify BRCA1 promoter methylation level, with a high potential for future clinical implication, as it identifies subgroups of patients with poorer prognosis. PMID:27027444

  20. Pyrosequencing quantified methylation level of BRCA1 promoter as prognostic factor for survival in breast cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Cai, Feng-Feng; Chen, Su; Wang, Ming-Hong; Lin, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Lian; Zhang, Jia-Xin; Wang, Lian-Xin; Yang, Jun; Ding, Jin-Hua; Pan, Xin; Shao, Zhi-Ming; Biskup, Ewelina

    2016-05-10

    BRCA1 promoter methylation is an essential epigenetic transcriptional silencing mechanism, related to breast cancer (BC) occurrence and progression. We quantified the methylation level of BRCA1 promoter and evaluated its significance as prognostic and predictive factor. BRCA1 promoter methylation level was quantified by pyrosequencing in surgical cancerous and adjacent normal specimens from 154 BC patients. A follow up of 98 months was conducted to assess the correlation between BRCA1-methylation level vs. overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS). The mean methylation level in BC tissues was significantly higher (mean 32.6%; median 31.9%) than in adjacent normal samples (mean 16.2%; median 13.0%) (P < 0.0001). Tumor stage (R = 0.6165, P < 0.0001) and size (R = 0.7328, P < 0.0001) were significantly correlated with the methylation level. Patients with unmethylated BRCA1 had a better OS and DFS compared to the methylated group (each P < 0.0001). BRCA1 promoter methylation level has a statistically significance on survival in BC patients (HazR = 1.465, P = 0.000) and is an independent prognostic factor for OS in BC patients (HazR = 2.042, P = 0.000). Patients with ductal type, HER2 negative, lymph node negative stage 1+2 tumors had a better OS and DFS. Classification of grades and molecular subtypes did not show any prognostic significance. Pyrosequencing is a precise and efficient method to quantify BRCA1 promoter methylation level, with a high potential for future clinical implication, as it identifies subgroups of patients with poorer prognosis. PMID:27027444

  1. Prognostic Factor Analysis of Intraocular Pressure with Neovascular Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Satoko; Nakamuro, Takako; Yokoyama, Katsuhiko; Kiyosaki, Kunihiro; Kubota, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To perform multivariate analysis for identifying independent predictors of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) with neovascular glaucoma (NVG), including antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injections. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 142 NVG patients (181 eyes) with ischemic retinal diseases [proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in 134 eyes, retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in 29, and ocular ischemic syndrome in 18]. We analyzed age, gender, initial/final LogMAR VA, initial/final IOP, extent of iris and/or angle neovascularization, treatments, preexisting complications, concurrent medications, and follow-up duration. Results. The mean follow-up duration was 23.8 ± 18.8 months. At the final follow-up, 125 (72.3%) eyes had IOP ≤ 21 mmHg. NVG patients with RVO had a higher degree of angle closure and higher IOP. NVG with PDR had better IOP and LogMAR VA. Angle closure had the greatest impact on final IOP. Greater than 90% of patients treated with trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (LEC) had persistent declines in IOP (≤21 mmHg). Stand-alone and combination anti-VEGF therapies were not associated with improved long-term prognosis of IOP. Conclusions. Angle closure was found to have the greatest effect on NVG-IOP prognosis. When target IOP values are not obtained after adequate PRP with or without anti-VEGF, early LEC may improve the prognosis of IOP. PMID:27579175

  2. Prognostic Factor Analysis of Intraocular Pressure with Neovascular Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Nakamuro, Takako; Yokoyama, Katsuhiko; Kiyosaki, Kunihiro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To perform multivariate analysis for identifying independent predictors of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) with neovascular glaucoma (NVG), including antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injections. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 142 NVG patients (181 eyes) with ischemic retinal diseases [proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in 134 eyes, retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in 29, and ocular ischemic syndrome in 18]. We analyzed age, gender, initial/final LogMAR VA, initial/final IOP, extent of iris and/or angle neovascularization, treatments, preexisting complications, concurrent medications, and follow-up duration. Results. The mean follow-up duration was 23.8 ± 18.8 months. At the final follow-up, 125 (72.3%) eyes had IOP ≤ 21 mmHg. NVG patients with RVO had a higher degree of angle closure and higher IOP. NVG with PDR had better IOP and LogMAR VA. Angle closure had the greatest impact on final IOP. Greater than 90% of patients treated with trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (LEC) had persistent declines in IOP (≤21 mmHg). Stand-alone and combination anti-VEGF therapies were not associated with improved long-term prognosis of IOP. Conclusions. Angle closure was found to have the greatest effect on NVG-IOP prognosis. When target IOP values are not obtained after adequate PRP with or without anti-VEGF, early LEC may improve the prognosis of IOP. PMID:27579175

  3. CD200 is a new prognostic factor in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Moreaux, Jerome; Hose, Dirk; Reme, Thierry; Jourdan, Eric; Hundemer, Michael; Legouffe, Eric; Moine, Philippe; Bourin, Philippe; Moos, Marion; Corre, Jill; Möhler, Thomas; De Vos, John; Rossi, Jean Francois; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard

    2006-12-15

    Using Affymetrix microarrays, we identified the expression of the CD200 gene in multiple myeloma cells (MMCs) of 112 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). The CD200 gene was either absent or present (Affymetrix call) in 22% and 78% of MMCs, respectively. The CD200 gene is not expressed in cells of the patients' bone marrow (BM). CD200 is a membrane glycoprotein that imparts an immunoregulatory signal through CD200R, leading to the suppression of T-cell-mediated immune responses. Patients with CD200(absent) MMCs have an increased event-free survival (EFS; 24 months) compared with patients with CD200(present) MMCs (14 months), after high-dose therapy and stem cell transplantation. In a Cox proportional-hazard model, the absence or presence of CD200 expression in MMCs is predictive for EFS for patients independently of ISS stage or beta2M serum levels. Thus, CD200 is an independent prognosis factor for patients with MM that could represent a new therapeutic target in MM.

  4. Prognostic factors and biomarkers of congenital obstructive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Robert L

    2016-09-01

    Congenital obstructive nephropathy (CON) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Anomalies of the urinary tract are often associated with abnormal nephrogenesis, which is compounded by obstructive injury and by maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight. Currently available fetal and postnatal imaging and analytes of amniotic fluid, urine, or blood lack predictive value. For ureteropelvic junction obstruction, biomarkers are needed for optimal timing of pyeloplasty; for posterior urethral valves, biomarkers of long-term prognosis and CKD are needed. The initial nephron number may be a major determinant of progression of CKD, and most patients with CON who progress to renal failure reach this point in adulthood, presumably compounded by episodes of acute kidney injury. Biomarkers of tubular injury may be of particular value in predicting the need for surgical intervention or in tracking progression of CKD, and must be adjusted for patient age. Discovery of new biomarkers may depend on "unbiased" proteomics, whereby patterns of urinary peptide fragments from patients with CON are analyzed in comparison to controls. Most promising are the analysis of urinary exosomes (restricting biomarkers to relevant tubular cells) and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques allowing precise determination of nephron number and tubular mass. The greatest need is for large prospective multicenter studies with centralized biomarker sample repositories to follow patients with CON from fetal life through adulthood.

  5. Prognostic factors and biomarkers of congenital obstructive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Robert L

    2016-09-01

    Congenital obstructive nephropathy (CON) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Anomalies of the urinary tract are often associated with abnormal nephrogenesis, which is compounded by obstructive injury and by maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight. Currently available fetal and postnatal imaging and analytes of amniotic fluid, urine, or blood lack predictive value. For ureteropelvic junction obstruction, biomarkers are needed for optimal timing of pyeloplasty; for posterior urethral valves, biomarkers of long-term prognosis and CKD are needed. The initial nephron number may be a major determinant of progression of CKD, and most patients with CON who progress to renal failure reach this point in adulthood, presumably compounded by episodes of acute kidney injury. Biomarkers of tubular injury may be of particular value in predicting the need for surgical intervention or in tracking progression of CKD, and must be adjusted for patient age. Discovery of new biomarkers may depend on "unbiased" proteomics, whereby patterns of urinary peptide fragments from patients with CON are analyzed in comparison to controls. Most promising are the analysis of urinary exosomes (restricting biomarkers to relevant tubular cells) and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques allowing precise determination of nephron number and tubular mass. The greatest need is for large prospective multicenter studies with centralized biomarker sample repositories to follow patients with CON from fetal life through adulthood. PMID:26667236

  6. Prognostic factors in non-small cell lung cancer patients who received neoadjuvant therapy and curative resection

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chen-Ping; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Wu, Ching-Feng; Fu, Jui-Ying; Liu, Yun-Hen; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world, and more and more treatment modalities have been introduced in order to improve patients’ survival. For patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), survival prognosis is poor and multimodality neoadjuvant therapies are given to improve patients’ survival. However, the possibility of occult metastases may lead to discrepancy between clinical and pathologic staging and underestimation of the disease severity. This discrepancy could be the reason for poor survival prediction reported by previous studies which conducted their analysis from the point of view of clinical stage. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between clinico-pathologic factors and survival from the pathologic point of view and to try to identify survival prognostic factors. Methods From January 2005 to June 2011, 88 patients received neoadjuvant therapy because of initial locally advanced disease, followed by anatomic resection and mediastinal lymph node (LN) dissection. All their clinico-pathologic data were collected from a retrospective review of the medical records and subjected to further analysis. Results We found that total metastatic LN ratio (P=0.01) and tumor size (P=0.02) were predictive factors for disease free survival (DFS). We used these two prognostic factors to stratify all patients into four groups. Group 4 (tumor size ≤5, total metastatic LN ratio ≤0.065) had the best DFS curve, while the DFS curve progressively deteriorated across group 3 (tumor size ≤5, total metastatic LN ratio >0.065), group 2 (tumor size >5, total metastatic LN ratio ≤0.065) and group 1 (tumor size >5, total metastatic LN ratio >0.065). However, no definitive prognostic factor could be identified in this study. Conclusions In conclusion, tumor size greater than 5 cm and total metastatic LN ratio greater than 0.065 could predict the DFS of patients with advanced NSCLC after multimodality

  7. Primary tumor inflammation in gross tumor volume as a prognostic factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Chen, Lei; Tang, Ling-Long; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Wen-Fei; Mao, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Rui; Liu, Li-Zhi; Tian, Li; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of primary tumor inflammation (PTI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the era of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Results PTI was observed in 376/1708 (22.0%) patients, and was present in the sphenoid sinus in 289/376 (76.9%), in the nasal cavity in 27 (7.2%), and in both places in 60 (15.9%). The estimated 4-year local relapse-free survival (LRFS), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates for PTI vs. non-PTI group were 89.2% vs. 96.1% (P < 0.001), 73.4% vs. 85.1% (P < 0.001), 85.0% vs. 92.1% (P < 0.001) and 83.6% vs. 91.4% (P < 0.001), respectively. After adjustment for these known prognostic factors, PTI was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor for LRFS (HR 2.152, 95% CI 1.318–3.516, P = 0.002), DFS (HR 1.581, 95% CI 1.204–2.077, P = 0.001) and DMFS (HR 1.682, 95% CI 1.177–2.402, P = 0.004). Conclusions Primary tumor inflammation was identified as a strong prognostic factor for patients with NPC in the era of IMRT and should be considered when devising future treatment strategies aimed at improving survival in NPC patients. Materials and Methods Data on 1708 patients with nonmetastatic, histologically-confirmed NPC treated with IMRT between November 2009 and February 2012 at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center were retrospectively reviewed. Patient survival between PTI and non-PTI groups were compared. PMID:26934649

  8. Prognostic factors in the radiotherapy of Graves' ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, I.A.; Kriss, J.P.; McDougall, I.R.; Donaldson, S.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Between April 1968 and February 1988, 311 patients with symptomatic and progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy were treated with megavoltage orbital radiotherapy. The patients were divided into three groups: I treated with 20 Gy/2 weeks; II treated with 30 Gy/3 weeks, and III received 20 Gy/2 weeks. The degree of eye involvement was evaluated numerically before and after therapy for each of five parameters: soft tissue signs, proptosis, eye muscle impairment, corneal involvement, and sight loss. Pre-treatment and current thyroid diagnosis and status were also noted. To evaluate the effects of radiotherapy alone, follow-up was terminated at the time any eye surgery was done; for those not treated surgically the minimum follow-up was 12 months. Because there were significant demographic differences between the patient groups, the results of each group were analyzed separately. A stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to determine if there were any significant variables affecting outcome. Based on these data formulae were derived which enable outcome to be predicted in any patient. Before therapy more than 90% of patients in all groups had soft tissue and eye muscle involvement, whereas 65-75% had proptosis and about half 50% had some degree of sight loss. Radiotherapy arrested progression of ophthalmic parameters in all but 1-6% of the patients. Objective and symptomatic improvement was noted for all parameters assessed, but there was marked individual variability. The best responses were noted for soft tissue, corneal involvement, and sight loss; however over half the patients had some improvement in eye muscle function and proptosis. Factors which resulted in less favorable outcome included male gender, advanced age, need for concurrent therapy for hyperthyroidism, and no history of hyperthyroidism. No complications have been observed.

  9. Procalcitonin as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Factor for Tuberculosis Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinseung; Kim, Si Eun; Park, Bong Soo; Shin, Kyong Jin; Ha, Sam Yeol; Park, JinSe; Kim, Sung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose We investigated the potential role of serum procalcitonin in differentiating tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial and viral meningitis, and in predicting the prognosis of tuberculosis meningitis. Methods This was a retrospective study of 26 patients with tuberculosis meningitis. In addition, 70 patients with bacterial meningitis and 49 patients with viral meningitis were included as the disease control groups for comparison. The serum procalcitonin level was measured in all patients at admission. Differences in demographic and laboratory data, including the procalcitonin level, were analyzed among the three groups. In addition, we analyzed the predictive factors for a prognosis of tuberculosis meningitis using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at discharge, and the correlation between the level of procalcitonin and the GCS score at discharge. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a low level of procalcitonin (≤1.27 ng/mL) independently distinguished tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial meningitis. The sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial meningitis were 96.2% and 62.9%, respectively. However, the level of procalcitonin in patients with tuberculosis meningitis did not differ significantly from that in patients with viral meningitis. In patients with tuberculosis meningitis, a high level of procalcitonin (>0.4 ng/mL) was a predictor of a poor prognosis, and the level of procalcitonin was negatively correlated with the GCS score at discharge (r=-0.437, p=0.026). Conclusions We found that serum procalcitonin is a useful marker for differentiating tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial meningitis and is also valuable for predicting the prognosis of tuberculosis meningitis. PMID:27165424

  10. Significant Prognostic Factors for Completely Resected pN2 Non-small Cell Lung Cancer without Neoadjuvant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Masayuki; Mun, Mingyon; Nakagawa, Ken; Nishio, Makoto; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Okumura, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify prognostic factors for pathologic N2 (pN2) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated by surgical resection. Methods: Between 1990 and 2009, 287 patients with pN2 NSCLC underwent curative resection at the Cancer Institute Hospital without preoperative treatment. Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 46%, 55% and 24%, respectively. The median follow-up time was 80 months. Multivariate analysis identified four independent predictors for poor OS: multiple-zone mediastinal lymph node metastasis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.616; p = 0.003); ipsilateral intrapulmonary metastasis (HR, 1.042; p = 0.002); tumor size >30 mm (HR, 1.013; p = 0.002); and clinical stage N1 or N2 (HR, 1.051; p = 0.030). Multivariate analysis identified three independent predictors for poor RFS: multiple-zone mediastinal lymph node metastasis (HR, 1.457; p = 0.011); ipsilateral intrapulmonary metastasis (HR, 1.040; p = 0.002); and tumor size >30 mm (HR, 1.008; p = 0.032). Conclusion: Multiple-zone mediastinal lymph node metastasis, ipsilateral intrapulmonary metastasis, and tumor size >30 mm were common independent prognostic factors of OS, CSS, and RFS in pN2 NSCLC. PMID:25740454

  11. Expression and Prognostic Significance of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors 1 and 3 in Gastric and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hedner, Charlotta; Borg, David; Nodin, Björn; Karnevi, Emelie; Jirström, Karin; Eberhard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas are major global cancer burdens. These cancer forms are characterized by a poor prognosis and a modest response to chemo- radio- and targeted treatment. Hence there is an obvious need for further enhanced diagnostic and treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and prognostic impact of human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (HER1/EGFR) and 3 (HER3), as well as the occurrence of EGFR and KRAS mutations in gastric and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Methods Immunohistochemical expression of EGFR and HER3 was analysed in all primary tumours and a subset of lymph node metastases in a consecutive cohort of 174 patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach, cardia and esophagus. The anti-HER3 antibody used was validated by siRNA-mediated knockdown, immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR. EGFR and KRAS mutation status was analysed by pyrosequencing tecchnology. Results and Discussion High EGFR expression was an independent risk factor for shorter overall survival (OS), whereas high HER3 expression was associated with a borderline significant trend towards a longer OS. KRAS mutations were present in only 4% of the tumours and had no prognostic impact. All tumours were EGFR wild-type. These findings contribute to the ongoing efforts to decide on the potential clinical value of different HERs and druggable mutations in gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas, and attention is drawn to the need for more standardised investigational methods. PMID:26844548

  12. [Diagnostic problems and prognostic factors in prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Tarján, Miklós

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to refine the methodology for discriminating ductal (DAP) and acinar adenocarcinomas (AAP) of the prostate preoperatively with a high degree of accuracy, and confirm that prostate carcinoma of ductal origin is a more aggressive subtype. Moreover, we intended to evaluate the clinical utility of transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic sextant or octant biopsies in prediction of extracapsular extension (ECE) at radical prostatectomy. A blinded retrospective analysis of 3-dimensional histology specimens from 110 consecutive radical prostatectomy (RP) cases operated between 2000 and 2006 was carried out (average follow-up: 5.1 years). The samples were also analyzed for 9 different biomarkers. We performed a retrospective analysis of 84 cases of patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic sextant (in 60 cases) or octant (in 24 cases) biopsy. The presence of ECE was correlated to the number of positive biopsies on each side of the prostate by chi-square analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for both positive (two or three positive biopsies per side) and negative (no or only one positive biopsy per side) test results. The number of positive cores was thereafter combined with two other parameters: prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and Gleason score. 3-dimensional and conventional histology classified 97 cases of AAP and 13 cases of DAP. DAP cases had a significantly greater frequency of pT3a and more advanced cancers (p<0.0001), >20 mm tumor focus (p=0.0020), highgrade PIN (p=0.0079), Gleason score ≥7 (p<0.0001), positive surgical margin (p=0.0219), ECE (p<0.0001), vascular invasion (p=0.0033), seminal vesicle infiltration (p=0.0213), biochemical/local recurrence (p=0.0015), regional lymph node metastases and distant metastases (p<0.0001). Three biomarkers in combination (chromogranine A, EGFR, p53) distinguished DAP from AAP with an accuracy of 94% (AUC 0.94; 95% CI: 0.88-0.99). ECE was

  13. Overview of different scoring systems in Fournier’s Gangrene and assessment of prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Doluoğlu, Ömer Gökhan; Karagöz, Mehmet Ali; Kılınç, Muhammet Fatih; Karakan, Tolga; Yücetürk, Cem Nedim; Sarıcı, Haşmet; Özgür, Berat Cem; Eroğlu, Muzaffer

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this study we aimed to evaluate prognostic factors for the survival of patients with Fournier’s gangrene (FG), and overview different validated scoring systems for outcome prediction. Material and methods We retrospectively analyzed the data of 39 patients treated for FG in our clinic. Data were collected on medical history, symptoms, physical examination findings, vital signs, laboratory parameters at admission and at the end of treatment, timing and extent of surgical debridement, and the antibiotic treatment used. The Fournier’s Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI) and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) were used to predict outcome. The data were analyzed in relation with the survival of the patients. Mann-Whitney U test, chi -square test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Cox regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. Results Of 39 patients analyzed, 8 (20.5%) died and 31 (79.5%) survived. The median FGSI score on admission was 2 (0–9) for the survivors and 6 (2–14) for the non-survivors (p=0.004). The median CCI scores of the survivors and non-survivors were 2 (0–10) and 6.5 (5–11), respectively (p=0.001). Except for urea, albumin and hematocrit levels, no significant differences were found between survivors and non-survivors for other laboratory parameters on admission. Lower albumin levels and advanced age were found to be associated with mortality. Conclusion High blood urea, low albumin, and low hematocrit levels were associated with poor prognosis. High CCI and FGSI scores could be associated with a poor prognosis in patients with FG.

  14. Outcome and prognostic factors of desmoplastic medulloblastoma treated within a multidisciplinary treatment concept

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Desmoplasia in medulloblastoma is often diagnosed in adult patients and was repeatedly associated with improved results. Today, all medulloblastoma patients receive intensive multimodal treatment including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This study was set up to investigate treatment outcome and prognostic factors after radiation therapy in patients with desmoplastic medulloblastomas. Methods Twenty patients treated for desmoplastic medulloblastoma in the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Heidelberg between 1984 and 2007 were included. Data were collected retrospectively. Tumor resection was performed in all patients. All patients underwent postsurgical radiotherapy (RT). Two patients underwent whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), and 18 patients received craniospinal irradiation (CSI). In all patients, an additional boost was delivered to the posterior fossa. The median dose to the whole brain and the craniospinal axis was 35.2 Gray (Gy), and 54.4 Gy to the posterior fossa. Fourteen patients received chemotherapy, including seven who were treated with combined radiochemotherapy and twelve who received adjuvant chemotherapy. Statistical analysis was performed using the log-rank test and the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Median follow-up was 59 months. Overall (OS), local (LPFS) and distant progression-free survival (DPFS) was 80%, 71.2%, and 83.3% at 60 months. Patients who suffered from local or distant relapses had significantly worse outcome. Five patients died from recurrent medulloblastoma. Treatment-associated toxicity was acceptable. Conclusions Multimodal approaches with surgical resection followed by chemoirradiation achieved high response rates with long OS in desmoplastic medulloblastoma patients. Staging parameters expected to predict for poor prognosis did not significantly influence outcome. However, success of any first line regimen had strong impact on disease control, and remission was achieved in no patient with

  15. Interleukin 6 Receptor Is an Independent Prognostic Factor and a Potential Therapeutic Target of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Isobe, Aki; Sawada, Kenjiro; Kinose, Yasuto; Ohyagi-Hara, Chifumi; Nakatsuka, Erika; Makino, Hiroshi; Ogura, Tomonori; Mizuno, Tomoko; Suzuki, Noriko; Morii, Eiichi; Nakamura, Koji; Sawada, Ikuko; Toda, Aska; Hashimoto, Kae; Mabuchi, Seiji; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Morishige, Ken-ichirou; Kurachi, Hirohisa; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic cancer and new targeted molecular therapies against this miserable disease continue to be challenging. In this study, we analyzed the expressional patterns of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its receptor (IL-6R) expression in ovarian cancer tissues, evaluated the impact of these expressions on clinical outcomes of patients, and found that a high-level of IL-6R expression but not IL-6 expression in cancer cells is an independent prognostic factor. In in vitro analyses using ovarian cell lines, while six (RMUG-S, RMG-1, OVISE, A2780, SKOV3ip1 and OVCAR-3) of seven overexpressed IL-6R compared with a primary normal ovarian surface epithelium, only two (RMG-1, OVISE) of seven cell lines overexpressed IL-6, suggesting that IL-6/IL-6R signaling exerts in a paracrine manner in certain types of ovarian cancer cells. Ovarian cancer ascites were collected from patients, and we found that primary CD11b+CD14+ cells, which were predominantly M2-polarized macrophages, are the major source of IL-6 production in an ovarian cancer microenvironment. When CD11b+CD14+ cells were co-cultured with cancer cells, both the invasion and the proliferation of cancer cells were robustly promoted and these promotions were almost completely inhibited by pretreatment with anti-IL-6R antibody (tocilizumab). The data presented herein suggest a rationale for anti-IL-6/IL-6R therapy to suppress the peritoneal spread of ovarian cancer, and represent evidence of the therapeutic potential of anti-IL-6R therapy for ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:25658637

  16. Interleukin 6 receptor is an independent prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Aki; Sawada, Kenjiro; Kinose, Yasuto; Ohyagi-Hara, Chifumi; Nakatsuka, Erika; Makino, Hiroshi; Ogura, Tomonori; Mizuno, Tomoko; Suzuki, Noriko; Morii, Eiichi; Nakamura, Koji; Sawada, Ikuko; Toda, Aska; Hashimoto, Kae; Mabuchi, Seiji; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Morishige, Ken-ichirou; Kurachi, Hirohisa; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic cancer and new targeted molecular therapies against this miserable disease continue to be challenging. In this study, we analyzed the expressional patterns of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its receptor (IL-6R) expression in ovarian cancer tissues, evaluated the impact of these expressions on clinical outcomes of patients, and found that a high-level of IL-6R expression but not IL-6 expression in cancer cells is an independent prognostic factor. In in vitro analyses using ovarian cell lines, while six (RMUG-S, RMG-1, OVISE, A2780, SKOV3ip1 and OVCAR-3) of seven overexpressed IL-6R compared with a primary normal ovarian surface epithelium, only two (RMG-1, OVISE) of seven cell lines overexpressed IL-6, suggesting that IL-6/IL-6R signaling exerts in a paracrine manner in certain types of ovarian cancer cells. Ovarian cancer ascites were collected from patients, and we found that primary CD11b+CD14+ cells, which were predominantly M2-polarized macrophages, are the major source of IL-6 production in an ovarian cancer microenvironment. When CD11b+CD14+ cells were co-cultured with cancer cells, both the invasion and the proliferation of cancer cells were robustly promoted and these promotions were almost completely inhibited by pretreatment with anti-IL-6R antibody (tocilizumab). The data presented herein suggest a rationale for anti-IL-6/IL-6R therapy to suppress the peritoneal spread of ovarian cancer, and represent evidence of the therapeutic potential of anti-IL-6R therapy for ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:25658637

  17. Overview of different scoring systems in Fournier’s Gangrene and assessment of prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Doluoğlu, Ömer Gökhan; Karagöz, Mehmet Ali; Kılınç, Muhammet Fatih; Karakan, Tolga; Yücetürk, Cem Nedim; Sarıcı, Haşmet; Özgür, Berat Cem; Eroğlu, Muzaffer

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this study we aimed to evaluate prognostic factors for the survival of patients with Fournier’s gangrene (FG), and overview different validated scoring systems for outcome prediction. Material and methods We retrospectively analyzed the data of 39 patients treated for FG in our clinic. Data were collected on medical history, symptoms, physical examination findings, vital signs, laboratory parameters at admission and at the end of treatment, timing and extent of surgical debridement, and the antibiotic treatment used. The Fournier’s Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI) and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) were used to predict outcome. The data were analyzed in relation with the survival of the patients. Mann-Whitney U test, chi -square test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Cox regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. Results Of 39 patients analyzed, 8 (20.5%) died and 31 (79.5%) survived. The median FGSI score on admission was 2 (0–9) for the survivors and 6 (2–14) for the non-survivors (p=0.004). The median CCI scores of the survivors and non-survivors were 2 (0–10) and 6.5 (5–11), respectively (p=0.001). Except for urea, albumin and hematocrit levels, no significant differences were found between survivors and non-survivors for other laboratory parameters on admission. Lower albumin levels and advanced age were found to be associated with mortality. Conclusion High blood urea, low albumin, and low hematocrit levels were associated with poor prognosis. High CCI and FGSI scores could be associated with a poor prognosis in patients with FG. PMID:27635295

  18. Predicting the onset of psychosis in patients at clinical high risk: practical guide to probabilistic prognostic reasoning.

    PubMed

    Fusar-Poli, P; Schultze-Lutter, F

    2016-02-01

    Prediction of psychosis in patients at clinical high risk (CHR) has become a mainstream focus of clinical and research interest worldwide. When using CHR instruments for clinical purposes, the predicted outcome is but only a probability; and, consequently, any therapeutic action following the assessment is based on probabilistic prognostic reasoning. Yet, probabilistic reasoning makes considerable demands on the clinicians. We provide here a scholarly practical guide summarising the key concepts to support clinicians with probabilistic prognostic reasoning in the CHR state. We review risk or cumulative incidence of psychosis in, person-time rate of psychosis, Kaplan-Meier estimates of psychosis risk, measures of prognostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in receiver operator characteristic curves, positive and negative predictive values, Bayes' theorem, likelihood ratios, potentials and limits of real-life applications of prognostic probabilistic reasoning in the CHR state. Understanding basic measures used for prognostic probabilistic reasoning is a prerequisite for successfully implementing the early detection and prevention of psychosis in clinical practice. Future refinement of these measures for CHR patients may actually influence risk management, especially as regards initiating or withholding treatment.

  19. A profile of prognostic and molecular factors in European and Māori breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background New Zealand Māori have a poorer outcome from breast cancer than non-Māori, yet prognostic data are sparse. The objective of this study was to quantify levels of prognostic factors in a cohort of self-declared Māori and European breast cancer patients from Christchurch, New Zealand. Methods and Results Clinicopathological and survival data from 337 consecutive breast cancer patients (27 Māori, 310 European) were evaluated. Fewer tumours were high grade in Māori women than European women (p = 0.027). No significant ethnic differences were detected for node status, tumour type, tumour size, human epidermal growth factor receptor, oestrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status, or survival. In addition, tumour and serum samples from a sub-cohort of 14 Māori matched to 14 NZ European patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for molecular prognostic factors. Significant correlations were detected between increased grade and increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α), glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), microvessel density (MVD) and cytokeratins CK5/6 (p < 0.05). High nodal status correlated with reduced carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX). Negative ER/PR status correlated with increased GLUT-1, CA-IX and MVD. Within the molecular factors, increased HIF-1α correlated with raised GLUT-1, MVD and CK5/6, and CK5/6 with GLUT-1 and MVD (p < 0.05). The small number of patients in this sub-cohort limited discrimination of ethnic differences. Conclusions In this Christchurch cohort of breast cancer patients, Māori women were no more likely than European women to have pathological or molecular factors predictive of poor prognosis. These data contrast with data from the North Island NZ, and suggest potential regional differences. PMID:20932344

  20. Comparing the importance of prognostic factors in Cox and logistic regression using SAS.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Georg; Schemper, Michael

    2003-06-01

    Two SAS macro programs are presented that evaluate the relative importance of prognostic factors in the proportional hazards regression model and in the logistic regression model. The importance of a prognostic factor is quantified by the proportion of variation in the outcome attributable to this factor. For proportional hazards regression, the program %RELIMPCR uses the recently proposed measure V to calculate the proportion of explained variation (PEV). For the logistic model, the R(2) measure based on squared raw residuals is used by the program %RELIMPLR. Both programs are able to compute marginal and partial PEV, to compare PEVs of factors, of groups of factors, and even to compare PEVs of different models. The programs use a bootstrap resampling scheme to test differences of the PEVs of different factors. Confidence limits for P-values are provided. The programs further allow to base the computation of PEV on models with shrinked or bias-corrected parameter estimates. The SAS macros are freely available at www.akh-wien.ac.at/imc/biometrie/relimp

  1. Prognostic stratification of acute pulmonary embolism: Focus on clinical aspects, imaging, and biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Masotti, Luca; Righini, Marc; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Antonelli, Fabio; Landini, Giancarlo; Cappelli, Roberto; Ray, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) represents a common disease in emergency medicine and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment have had wide diffusion. However, PE morbidity and mortality remain high, especially when associated to hemodynamic instability or right ventricular dysfunction. Prognostic stratification to identify high risk patients needing to receive more aggressive pharmacological and closer monitoring is of utmost importance. Modern guidelines for management of acute PE are based on risk stratification using either clinical, radiological, or laboratory findings. This article reviews the modern treatment of acute PE, which is customized upon patient prognosis. Accordingly the current risk stratification tools described in the literature such as clinical scores, echocardiography, helical computer tomography, and biomarkers will be reviewed. PMID:19649307

  2. Tissue eosinophilia correlates strongly with poor prognosis in nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's disease, allowing for known prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    von Wasielewski, R; Seth, S; Franklin, J; Fischer, R; Hübner, K; Hansmann, M L; Diehl, V; Georgii, A

    2000-02-15

    Although eosinophilic granulocytes are frequently observed in lymphatic tissue of Hodgkin's patients, no substantial data reveal the prognostic role, if any, of tissue eosinophilia. Thus, eosinophilia was analyzed histologically in 1511 diagnostic biopsy specimens of patients treated under protocol therapy of the German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group between 1988 and 1994. Prominent eosinophilia was seen in 38% of cases, which differed among the histologic types of Hodgkin's disease (HD): none in lymphocyte predominant, 14% in lymphocyte rich classical, 40% in nodular sclerosis grade 1 (NS-1), 55% in nodular sclerosis grade 2, 43% in mixed cellularity (MC), and 54% in lymphocyte depleted. In a multivariate analysis, tissue eosinophilia proved to be the strongest prognostic factor for freedom from treatment failure (P <. 001) and overall survival (P <.001) in a stage-stratified model. Among NS-1 patients, the effect was highly significant. In MC, no significant effect of eosinophilia on survival could be demonstrated. Eosinophils secrete CD30 ligand that is capable of binding to CD30 positive HD cells. The activation of TRAF2, followed by NF-kappaB, which occurs on CD30L/CD30 binding, may explain the neoplastic proliferation and apoptosis protection of HD cells. TRAF2 is also activated by EBV-LMP expression, which is detectable in the majority of MC but not NS cases. In addition to the possibility that eosinophils are only passive indicators for other unknown prognostic determinants, it may be concluded that the positive clinical outcome of eosinophilia-negative NS cases could be due to lower NF-kappaB activity. (Blood. 2000;95:1207-1213) PMID:10666192

  3. HES1 is an independent prognostic factor for acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chen; Tang, Yingjun; Wang, Tengteng; Yu, Yong; Wang, Xiaofang; Wang, Yafei; Zhang, Yizhuo

    2015-01-01

    HES1 is the target of Notch signaling which is reported to affect cell differentiation and maintain the cells in G0 phase in various tissues including the hematopoietic tissue. HES1 expression appears to be an independent prognostic factor for survival in a heterogeneous group of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. To better assess its significance, we analyzed HES1 expression in a group of non-core binding factor AML patients and correlated its expression with the overall survival and relapse-free survival of AML patients. First, we detected the messenger RNA expression of HES1 in 40 patients with AML by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The top 50% of AML cases with the high HES1 expression were compared with the rest of the AML cohort. Overall survival was calculated from the date of diagnosis until the date of death from any cause or until the date of final follow-up. Relapse-free survival was determined for responders from the time of diagnosis until relapse or death from any cause. We showed that the lower-expression group had a shorter overall survival time and shorter relapse-free survival time compared with those of the high-expression group (37.6±1.6 versus 54.0±1.3 months, 28.6±1.8 months versus 44.8±2.1 months, respectively, P<0.05), and Cox regression showed that HES1 was an independent prognostic factor. In all, we conclude that expression of HES1 is a useful prognostic factor for patients with non-core binding factor AML. PMID:25960660

  4. Prognostic factors influencing the outcome in pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, P.; Torres, A.; Miro, J. M.; Vieigas, C.; Mallolas, J.; Zamora, L.; Gatell, J. M.; Valls, M. E.; Riquelme, R.; Rodríguez-Roisin, R.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Studies attempting to identify the prognostic factors that influence the outcome of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in patients with AIDS using a multivariate analysis are few. In order to identify those prognostic factors amenable to medical intervention, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on 102 patients with AIDS suffering a first episode of PCP. METHODS--One hundred and two consecutive patients with AIDS (51% drug abusers, 45% homosexuals, and 4% with other HIV risk factors) admitted to our institution between 1986 and 1989 whose respiratory infection was diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage were studied prospectively. RESULTS--The overall mortality was 28%, rising to 79% in those patients who required mechanical ventilation. According to univariate analysis the following variables were related to a poor prognosis: age > 35 years; risk factor for HIV infection other than drug abuse; and AIDS diagnosis confirmed before 1988; PaO2 < 8 kPa at admission; severe acute respiratory failure on admission (PaO2/FIO2 < 20 kPa); mechanical ventilation; antibiotic therapy for PCP other than trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole; multiple microbial pulmonary infection; serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) > 22.5 mukat/l on admission; serum albumin level < 30 g/l. Multivariate analysis showed that only mechanical ventilation was independently associated with a poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS--The mortality of AIDS patients presenting with a first episode of PCP before 1990 was high (28%). The main prognostic factor associated with poor outcome was the requirement for mechanical ventilation due to severe acute respiratory failure. PMID:7638811

  5. Prognostic factors in stages II/III/IV and stages III/IV endometrioid and serous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Mhawech-Fauceglia, P.; Herrmann, R.F.; Kesterson, J.; Izevbaye, I.; Lele, S.; Odunsi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To explore and to compare the outcome of patients diagnosed with stage II/III/IV and stage III/IV endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC) with their serous carcinoma (USC) counterparts. Materials and methods A total of 107 patients (73 EAC and 34 USC) were evaluated. For statistical analysis, the following baseline variables were considered for their prognostic value: the patient’s age at presentation, the tumor size, the depth of myometrial invasion (MI), the lympho-vascular involvement (LVI) and the USC and the EAC subtypes (considered as binary variables). Disease free survival (DFS), death of disease (DOD) and overall survival (OS) were assessed using univariate and multiple Cox proportional hazards models. Results In univariate analysis, USC tends to recur more frequently than EAC (p = 0.004), a finding that disappeared in multivariate analysis. Furthermore, tumor histology had no significance in predicting the tumor outcomes. Among all of the prognostic factors and after adjusting for the aforementioned variables, MI ≥50% was the only independent factor in predicting DOD in stages II/III/IV (p = 0.009) and in stages III/IV (p = 0.004). MI was also an independent predictive factor for OS (p = 0.02) and early recurrences in stages III/IV. LVI was the only independent factor in predicting recurrences (p = 0.004) in stages II/III/IV but not in stages III/IV. Conclusion Based on our study, tumor histology was not a significant factor in predicting disease outcome in stages II/III/IV and II/IV. Despite our limited sample size, we believe that our findings provide meaningful insights into the clinical study of endometrial cancer patients which in turn warrants further investigation. PMID:20926229

  6. Prognostic factors and survival in late adolescent and adult patients with small round cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Eralp, Yeşim; Bavbek, Sevil; Başaran, Mert; Kaytan, Esra; Yaman, Fulya; Bilgiç, Bilge; Darendeliler, Emin; Onat, Haluk

    2002-08-01

    The primary objective of this study is to review the clinical characteristics of 25 patients in the adult and late adolescent age group, diagnosed and treated with small round cell tumors involving soft tissues (extraosseous Ewing sarcoma, rhabdo-myosarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and undiffer-entiated small round cell tumors). Additionally, survival and prognostic factors influencing the outcome with multimodality treatment are evaluated. There were 19 males (76%) and 6 females (24%). The median age was 26 years (range: 15-56 years). In 9 patients (36%), the tumor was located at an extremity, whereas 16 patients (64%) had central localizations. Tumor size was larger than 10 cm in 7 patients (29.2%). Six patients (24%) had metastatic disease. Twelve patients (48%) received radiation and 16 patients (64%) underwent surgery. Among the resected tumors, 2 were resected with contaminated margins (12.5%), whereas 2 were radically resected and 12 (75%) were resected with wide margins. All patients were given a median of 4 cycles of multiagent chemotherapy (1-14 cycles). With preoperative chemotherapy, complete regression (CR) of the tumor was achieved in 6 patients (24%). In 4 patients (16%), a partial response was obtained. After the completion of multimodality treatment, 12 patients (48%) had a CR. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for the entire group was 25.0 +/- 10.8% at 1 year and 30.5 +/- 15.5% at 3 years, respectively. Nonmetastatic disease, wide and radical resection, and presence of CR to multimodality treatment were associated with a significantly longer PFS and OS by univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis, CR to multimodality treat-ment was the only independent predictive factor for a longer OS (p: 0.0036, relative risk [RR]: 23.6, 95% CI: 2.8; 198.7) and metastatic presentation was the only independent factor predic-tive for a shorter PFS (p: 0.017, RR. 15, 95% CI: 1.6; 141.2). Large-scale, multicenter studies are required for

  7. Evaluation of prognostic factors in patients with relapsed AML: Clonal evolution versus residual disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyojeong; Seol, Young Mi; Song, Moo-Kon; Choi, Young Jin; Shin, Ho-Jin; Park, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Eun Yup

    2016-01-01

    Background It is widely known that the prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) depends on chromosomal abnormalities. The majority of AML patients relapse and experience a dismal disease course despite initial remission. Methods We reviewed the medical records and laboratory findings of 55 AML patients who had relapsed between 2004 and 2013 and who had been treated at the Division of Hematology of the Pusan National University Hospital. Results The event-free survival (EFS) was related to prognostic karyotype classification at the time of diagnosis and relapse (unfavorable vs. favorable or intermediate karyotypes at diagnosis, 8.2 vs. 11.9 mo, P=0.003; unfavorable vs. favorable or intermediate karyotypes at relapse, 8.2 vs. 11.9 mo, P=0.009). The overall survival (OS) was significantly correlated with karyotype classification only at diagnosis (unfavorable vs. favorable or intermediate vs. karyotypes at diagnosis, 8.5 vs. 21.8 mo, P=0.001; unfavorable vs. favorable or intermediate karyotypes at relapse, 8.5 vs. 21.2 mo, P=0.136). A change in karyotype between diagnosis and relapse, which is regarded as a factor of resistance against treatment, was not a significant prognostic factor for OS, EFS, and post-relapse survival (PRS). A Cox proportional hazards model showed that the combined use of fludarabine, cytosine arabinoside, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (FLAG) as a salvage regimen, was a significant prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio=0.399, P=0.010) and the PRS (hazard ratio=0.447, P=0.031). Conclusion The karyotype classification at diagnosis predicts survival including PRS in relapsed AML patients as well as in treatment-naïve patients. We suggest that presently, administration of salvage FLAG could be a better treatment option. PMID:27722128

  8. Induction chemotherapy-based larynx preservation program for locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer: oncologic and functional outcomes and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Bozec, Alexandre; Benezery, Karen; Ettaiche, Marc; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Vandersteen, Clair; Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Riss, Jean-Christophe; Hannoun-Lévi, Jean-Michel; Chand, Marie-Eve; Leysalle, Axel; Saada, Esma; Guigay, Joël; Sudaka, Anne; Demard, François; Santini, José; Peyrade, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate oncologic and functional outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer included in an induction chemotherapy (ICT)-based larynx preservation program in daily clinical practice. All patients with locally advanced (T3/4, N0-3, M0) hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, technically suitable for total pharyngo-laryngectomy, treated by docetaxel (75 mg/m(2), day 1), cisplatin (75 mg/m(2), day 1) and 5-fluorouracil (750 mg/m(2)/day, day 1-5) (TPF)-ICT (2-3 cycles) for larynx preservation at our institution between 2004 and 2013, were included in this retrospective study. Prognostic factors of oncologic (overall, cause-specific and recurrence-free survival: OS, SS and RFS) and functional (dysphagia outcome and severity scale, permanent enteral nutrition, larynx preservation) outcomes were assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 53 patients (42 men and 11 women, mean age 58.6 ± 8.2 years) were included in this study. Grade 3-4 toxicities were experienced by 17 (32 %) patients during ICT. The rate of poor response (response <50 % without larynx remobilization) to ICT was 10 %. At 5 years, OS, SS and RFS rates were 56, 60 and 54 %, respectively. Four patients required definitive enteral nutrition (permanent enteral tube feeding). The rate of patients alive, disease-free and with a functional larynx at 2 years was 58 %. T4 tumor stage (p = 0.005) and response to ICT <50 % (p = 0.02) were independent prognostic factors of OS. Response to ICT was significantly associated with the risk of permanent enteral nutrition (p = 0.04) and larynx preservation (p = 0.01). In daily clinical practice, a TPF-ICT-based larynx preservation protocol can be used in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer with satisfactory results in terms of tolerance, efficacy and oncologic and functional outcomes.

  9. Identifying Prognostic SNPs in Clinical Cohorts: Complementing Univariate Analyses by Resampling and Multivariable Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Hieke, Stefanie; Benner, Axel; Schlenk, Richard F.; Schumacher, Martin; Bullinger, Lars; Binder, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Clinical cohorts with time-to-event endpoints are increasingly characterized by measurements of a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms that is by a magnitude larger than the number of measurements typically considered at the gene level. At the same time, the size of clinical cohorts often is still limited, calling for novel analysis strategies for identifying potentially prognostic SNPs that can help to better characterize disease processes. We propose such a strategy, drawing on univariate testing ideas from epidemiological case-controls studies on the one hand, and multivariable regression techniques as developed for gene expression data on the other hand. In particular, we focus on stable selection of a small set of SNPs and corresponding genes for subsequent validation. For univariate analysis, a permutation-based approach is proposed to test at the gene level. We use regularized multivariable regression models for considering all SNPs simultaneously and selecting a small set of potentially important prognostic SNPs. Stability is judged according to resampling inclusion frequencies for both the univariate and the multivariable approach. The overall strategy is illustrated with data from a cohort of acute myeloid leukemia patients and explored in a simulation study. The multivariable approach is seen to automatically focus on a smaller set of SNPs compared to the univariate approach, roughly in line with blocks of correlated SNPs. This more targeted extraction of SNPs results in more stable selection at the SNP as well as at the gene level. Thus, the multivariable regression approach with resampling provides a perspective in the proposed analysis strategy for SNP data in clinical cohorts highlighting what can be added by regularized regression techniques compared to univariate analyses. PMID:27159447

  10. The clinical value of tissue factor assays.

    PubMed

    Francis, J L; Carvalho, M; Francis, D A

    1995-06-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is now considered to be the primary physiologic activator of the blood coagulation system. Coupled with recent advances in our understanding of the biochemistry of TF this has heightened interest in measuring aspects of TF activity in disease states. Expression of TF by blood monocytes in various diseases is an established trigger for intravascular coagulation and there is now a considerable body of experience with its measurement. This has considerable clinical potential although more widespread application awaits a consensus on the most appropriate methodologic approach to its measurement. TF can be detected in urine and may reflect the activation state of renal macrophages. Urinary TF is increased in cancer and could have diagnostic and prognostic value in a variety of malignant diseases. Finally, it is now possible to measure soluble TF in plasma. One such assay is commercially available and is technically simple to perform. The clinical value of such assays, however, must await better understanding of the source and function of soluble TF in plasma.

  11. The clinical value of tissue factor assays.

    PubMed

    Francis, J L; Carvalho, M; Francis, D A

    1995-06-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is now considered to be the primary physiologic activator of the blood coagulation system. Coupled with recent advances in our understanding of the biochemistry of TF this has heightened interest in measuring aspects of TF activity in disease states. Expression of TF by blood monocytes in various diseases is an established trigger for intravascular coagulation and there is now a considerable body of experience with its measurement. This has considerable clinical potential although more widespread application awaits a consensus on the most appropriate methodologic approach to its measurement. TF can be detected in urine and may reflect the activation state of renal macrophages. Urinary TF is increased in cancer and could have diagnostic and prognostic value in a variety of malignant diseases. Finally, it is now possible to measure soluble TF in plasma. One such assay is commercially available and is technically simple to perform. The clinical value of such assays, however, must await better understanding of the source and function of soluble TF in plasma. PMID:7647219

  12. Clinical, epidemiological and histopathological prognostic factors in oral squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dragomir, L P; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Searpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-10-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  13. Clinical, Epidemiological And Histopathological Prognostic Factors In Oral Squamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dragomir, L.P.; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Şearpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  14. Prognostic factors in pediatric cases of drowning and near-drowning.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, J P

    1979-05-01

    Ninety-three cases of drowning or near-drowning in the pediatric age group between 1972 and 1976 were reviewed. A scoring system for prognostic factors was developed using one point for each of five unfavorable factors involved in the drowning or near-drowning of each patient. The prognostic factors were 1) age less than three years; 2) maximum submersion time estimated longer than five minutes; 3) resuscitation not attempted for at least ten minutes after rescue; 4) patient in coma on admission to hospital, and 5) arterial blood pH of less than or equal to 7.10. This scoring system significantly predicted the eventual outcome of patients who had experienced the postsubmersion syndrome. Patients with scores of less than or equal to 2 had a 90% chance of full recovery; those with scores of greater than or equal to 3 had only a 5% probability of survival. The early institution of resuscitative efforts was the single most important factor influencing survival.

  15. Nuclear fractal dimension as a prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Goutzanis, L; Papadogeorgakis, N; Pavlopoulos, P M; Katti, K; Petsinis, V; Plochoras, I; Pantelidaki, C; Kavantzas, N; Patsouris, E; Alexandridis, C

    2008-04-01

    Strong theoretical reasons exist for using fractal geometry in measurements of natural objects, including most objects studied in pathology. Indeed, fractal dimension provides a more precise and theoretically more appropriate approximation of their structure properties and especially their shape complexity. The aim of our study was to evaluate the nuclear fractal dimension (FD) in tissue specimens from patients with oral cavity carcinomas in order to assess its potential value as prognostic factor. Relationships between FD and other factors including clinicopathologic characteristics were also investigated. Histological sections from 48 oral squamous cell carcinomas as well as from 17 non-malignant mucosa specimens were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin for pathological examination and with Feulgen for nuclear complexity evaluation. The sections were evaluated by image analysis using fractal analysis software to quantify nuclear FD by the box-counting method. Carcinomas presented higher mean values of FD compared to normal mucosa. Well differentiated neoplasms had lower FD values than poorly differentiated ones. FD was significantly correlated with the nuclear size. Patients with FD lower than the median value of the sample had statistically significant higher survival rates. Within the sample of patients studied, FD was proved to be an independent prognostic factor of survival in oral cancer patients. In addition this study provides evidence that there are several statistically significant correlations between FD and other morphometric characteristics or clinicopathologic factors in oral squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:17692559

  16. Epithelial cells in bone marrow of oesophageal cancer patients: a significant prognostic factor in multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thorban, S; Rosenberg, R; Busch, R; Roder, R J

    2000-01-01

    The detection of epithelial cells in bone marrow, blood or lymph nodes indicates a disseminatory potential of solid tumours. 225 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus were prospectively studied. Prior to any therapy, cytokeratin-positive (CK) cells in bone marrow were immunocytochemically detected in 75 patients with the monoclonal anti-epithelial-cell antibody A45-B/B3 and correlated with established histopathologic and patient-specific prognosis factors. The prognosis factors were assessed by multivariate analysis. Twenty-nine of 75 (38.7%) patients with oesophageal cancer showed CK-positive cells in bone marrow. The analyses of the mean and median overall survival time showed a significant difference between patients with and without epithelial cells in bone marrow (P< 0.001). Multivariate analysis in the total patient population and in patients with curative resection of the primary tumour confirmed the curative resection rate and the bone marrow status as the strongest independent prognostic factors, besides the T-category. The detection of epithelial cells in bone marrow of oesophageal cancer patients is a substantial prognostic factor proved by multivariate analysis and is helpful for exact preoperative staging, as well as monitoring of neoadjuvant therapy. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10883665

  17. Prognostic factors and visual outcome for fireworks-related burns during spring festival in South China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying; Liang, Xuanwei; Liu, Xialin; Qu, Bo; Ni, Yao; Jiang, Shuhong; Liu, Yizhi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and the visual results of fireworks-related ocular burn injuries and to determine the prognostic factors. The authors conducted a prospective observational study of 53 eyes of 46 consecutive patients with fireworks-related ocular injury who visited Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center during the Spring Festival in Southern China. Eyes were graded using an ocular trauma classification system, which included age of the patient. Patients were followed up for a minimum of 5 months. Best-corrected visual acuity at the last follow-up was considered the final visual outcome. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 13.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). Results of statistical tests were considered statistically significant for P < .05. Almost all patients (89.1%) were male with a mean age of 14.3 ± 8.5 years. There was preponderance of young patients, with 63.0% (29) of the patients being younger than 15 years. In addition to their ocular injuries, 23 patients (50.0%) also had eyelid and/or facial burns. The most common initial anterior segment injuries were open-globe injuries (42, 79.3%), conjunctival burns (16, 30.2%), and foreign bodies (18, 34.0%). Others were traumatic cataract, lens subluxation and dislocation, and vitreous hemorrhage. Management after first aid included pars plana vitrectomy (9, 17.0%), aspiration of cataract (18, 34.0%), retinal reattachment (8, 15.1%), and enucleation. Amniotic membrane grafts were used in 11 patients (20.8%) with serious conjunctiva burns and corneal contusions and abrasions who were thought to have a good prognosis. Fireworks-related ocular injuries included a variety of clinical manifestations. Examinations such as B scan, optical coherence tomography, and ultrasound biomicroscopy helped to make a correct diagnosis and plan further treatment. Fireworks-related ocular injuries commonly affect young male subjects of Southern China. Visual outcomes were frequently poor and visually

  18. Prognostic Utility of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio on Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Severe Calcific Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyoung Im; Cho, Sang Hoon; Her, Ae-Young; Singh, Gillian Balbir; Shin, Eun-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of calcific aortic stenosis (AS). We aimed to evaluate the association between an inflammatory marker, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with severe calcific AS. Methods A total of 336 patients with isolated severe calcific AS newly diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 were enrolled in this study. Using Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression models, we investigated the prognostic value of NLR adjusted for baseline covariates including logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation score (EuroSCORE-I) and undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). We also evaluated the clinical relevance of NLR risk groups (divided into low, intermediate, high risk) as categorized by NLR cutoff values. MACE was defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, cardiac death and non-fatal myocardial infarction during the follow-up period. Results The inflammatory marker NLR was an independent prognostic factor most significantly associated with MACE [hazard ratio (HR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–1.09; p-value <0.001]. The goodness-of-fit and discriminability of the model including EuroSCORE-I and AVR (loglikelihood difference, 15.49; p-value <0.001; c-index difference, 0.035; p-value = 0.03) were significantly improved when NLR was incorporated into the model. The estimated Kaplan-Meier survival rates at 5 years for the NLR risk groups were 84.6% for the low risk group (NLR ≤ 2), 67.7% for the intermediate risk group (2 < NLR ≤ 9), and 42.6% for the high risk group (NLR > 9), respectively. Conclusion The findings of the present study demonstrate the potential utility of NLR in risk stratification of patients with severe calcific AS. PMID:27548384

  19. Outcomes and Prognostic Factors in Women With 1 to 3 Breast Cancer Brain Metastases Treated With Definitive Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T. Jonathan; Oh, Jung Hun; Folkert, Michael R.; Gupta, Gaorav; Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang; Morikawa, Aki; Seidman, Andrew; Brennan, Cameron; Yamada, Yoshiya; Chan, Timothy A.; Beal, Kathryn

    2014-11-01

    Background: With the continuing increase in the use of definitive stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for patients with limited brain metastases (BM), clinicians need more specific prognostic tools. We investigated clinical predictors of outcomes in patients with limited breast cancer BM treated with SRS alone. Methods and Materials: We identified 136 patients with breast cancer and 1-3 BM who underwent definitive SRS for 186 BM between 2000 and 2012. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess overall survival (OS), regional failure (RF), and local failure (LF). Associations between clinical factors and outcomes were tested using Cox regression. A point scoring system was used to stratify patients based on OS, and the predictive power was tested with concordance probability estimate (CPE). Results: The median OS was 17.6 months. The 12-month RF and LF rates were 45% and 10%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, >1 lesion (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.6, P=.02), triple-negative (TN) disease (HR=2.0, P=.006), and active extracranial disease (ED) (HR=2.7, P<.0001) were significantly associated with worse OS. The point score system was defined using proportional simplification of the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression function. The median OS for patients with 3.0-4.0 points (n=37), 4.5-5.5 points (n=28), 6.0-6.5 points (n=37), and 8-8.5 points (n=34) were 9.2, 15.6, 25.1, and 45.1 months, respectively (P<.0001, CPE = 0.72). Active ED (HR=2.4, P=.0007) was significantly associated with RF. Higher risk for LF was significantly associated with larger BM size (HR=3.1, P=.0001). Conclusion: Patients with >1 BM, active ED, and TN had the highest risk of death after SRS. Active ED is an important prognostic factor for OS and intracranial control.

  20. Prognostic factors in patients treated with stereotactic image-guided robotic radiosurgery for brain metastases: a single-center retrospective analysis of 223 patients.

    PubMed

    Pontoriero, Antonio; Conti, Alfredo; Iatì, Giuseppe; Mondello, Stefania; Aiello, Dario; Rifatto, Carmen; Risoleti, Edoarda; Mazzei, Micol; Tomasello, Francesco; Pergolizzi, Stefano; De Renzis, Costantino

    2016-07-01

    In this retrospective study, we evaluated the overall survival (OS) and local control (LC) of brain metastases (BM) in patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The scope was to identify host, tumor, and treatment factors predictive of LC and survival and define implications for clinical decisions. A total of 223 patients with 360 BM from various histologies treated with SRS alone or associated with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in our institution between July 1, 2008 and August 31, 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Among other prognostic factors, we had also evaluated retrospectively Karnofsky performance status scores (KPS) and graded prognostic assessment (GPA). Overall survival (OS) and local control (LC) were the primary endpoints. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate OS and LC and identify factors predictive of survival and local control. The median duration of follow-up time was 9 months (range 0.4-51 months). Median overall survival of all patients was 11 months. The median local control was 38 months. No statistical difference in terms of survival or LC between patients treated with SRS alone or associated with WBRT was found. On multivariate analysis, KPS was the only statistically significant predictor of OS (hazard ratio [HR] 2.53, p = 0.006). On univariate analysis, KPS and GPA were significantly prognostic for survival. None of the host, tumor, or treatment factors analyzed in the univariate model factors were significantly associated with local failure. PMID:27106896

  1. Treatment results and prognostic factors of pediatric neuroblastoma: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We conducted a retrospective analysis to investigate treatment results and prognostic factors of pediatric neuroblastoma patients. Methods This retrospective study was carried out analyzing the medical records of patients with the pathological diagnosis of neuroblastoma seen at South Egypt Cancer Institute, Assiut University during the period from January 2001 and January 2010. After induction chemotherapy, response according to international neuoblastoma response criteria was assessed. Radiotherapy to patients with residual primary tumor was applied. Overall and event free survival (OAS and EFS) rates were estimated using Graphed prism program. The Log-rank test was used to examine differences in OAS and EFS rates. Cox-regression multivariate analysis was done to determine the independent prognostic factors affecting survival rates. Results Fifty three cases were analyzed. The median follow-up duration was 32 months and ranged from 2 to 84 months. The 3-year OAS and EFS rates were 39.4% and 29.3% respectively. Poor prognostic factors included age >1 year of age, N-MYC amplification, and high risk group. The majority of patients (68%) presented in high risk group, where treatment outcome was poor, as only 21% of patients survived for 3 year. Conclusion Multivariate analysis confirmed only the association between survival and risk group. However, in univariate analysis, local radiation therapy resulted in significant survival improvement. Therefore, radiotherapy should be given to patients with residual tumor evident after induction chemotherapy and surgery. Future attempts to improve OAS in high risk group patients with aggressive chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation should be considered. PMID:21182799

  2. Pathologic Nodal Classification Is the Most Discriminating Prognostic Factor for Disease-Free Survival in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy and Curative Resection

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Dae Yong

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: We retrospectively evaluated the effects of clinical and pathologic factors on disease-free survival (DFS) with the aim of identifying the most discriminating factor predicting DFS in rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and curative resection. Methods and Materials: The study involved 420 patients who underwent preoperative CRT and curative resection between August 2001 and October 2006. Gender, age, distance from the anal verge, histologic type, histologic grade, pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, cT, cN, cStage, circumferential resection margin, type of surgery, preoperative chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, ypT, ypN, ypStage, and tumor regression grade (TRG) were analyzed to identify prognostic factors associated with DFS. To compare the discriminatory prognostic ability of four tumor response-related pathologic factors (ypT, ypN, ypStage, and TRG), the Akaike information criteria were calculated. Results: The 5-year DFS rate was 75.4%. On univariate analysis, distance from the anal verge, histologic type, histologic grade, pretreatment CEA level, cT, circumferential resection margin, type of surgery, preoperative chemotherapeutic regimen, ypT, ypN, ypStage, and TRG were significantly associated with DFS. Multivariate analysis showed that the four parameters ypT, ypN, ypStage, and TRG were, consistently, significant prognostic factors for DFS. The ypN showed the lowest Akaike information criteria value for DFS, followed by ypStage, ypT, and TRG, in that order. Conclusion: In our study, ypT, ypN, ypStage, and TRG were important prognostic factors for DFS, and ypN was the most discriminating factor.

  3. [PS2 as a prognostic factor in 1065 cases of human breast cancer. A multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Besse, G; Kwiatkowski, F; Gaillard, G; Daver, A; Dalifard, I; Basuyau, J P; Brunelle, P; Wafflart, J; Angibeau, R M; Auvray, E

    1994-04-01

    pS2 protein assay was performed with Elsa-pS2 kit (CIS-Biointernational) on a group of 1,065 patients with operable breast cancer who underwent breast surgery in the years 1982 through 1990. The median follow-up was 57 months. This group included exclusively infiltrating ductal carcinoma with primary surgery. Age mean was 58 yr; T0-T1, 33.6%; T2-T4, 66.4%; Differentiation grade I, 29%; node negative, 53%; estrogen receptor (ER) positive, 62.4%; progesterone receptor (PR) positive, 55.2%; mean tumor size, 2.4 cm; local recurrence, 5.2%; metastasis, 17.5%. pS2 values varied from 0.1 to 707 ng/mg of cytosol protein (median, 5.6; mean 24.5; 95th percentile 112 ng/mg p). There was no significant relationship between the mean level of pS2 and age, tumor size, nodal status, whereas pS2 was related to histological grade (P < 10(-3)), ER (P < 10(-5)), and PR (P < 10(-5)). By using 2 ng/mg p as pS2 cutoff, 77/391 (19.7%) of ER+PR+ tumors were pS2-, and 122/345 (35.4%) of ER-PR-tumors were pS2+; with this cutoff, a strong relationship existed between pS2 and overall survival, but not between pS2 and relapse-free survival. With Cox multivariate analysis, pS2 protein was classified after lymph node status, histological size, ER, differentiation grade, age, clinical stage, PR. In patients with axillary lymph node involvement (N+), pS2 status could discriminate between good and bad prognosis, specially for patients with small tumors (< 2 cm) and with less than seven invaded nodes. This study showed that pS2 protein was a poor prognostic factor in comparison with classical factors.

  4. Male Breast Cancer Prognostic Factors Versus Female Counterparts with Propensity Scores and Matched-Pair Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stitt, Larry; Vujovic, Olga; Joseph, Kurian; Assouline, Avi; Younus, Jawaid; Perera, Francisco; Tai, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of prognostic factors and their impact on survival in male and female breast cancer. Methods: Medical records for men and women diagnosed with breast cancer referred to the cancer center for treatment were reviewed. Patients with distant metastatic diseases were excluded. Data on prognostic factors including age, nodal status, resection margin, use of hormonal therapy, chemotherapy with and without hormone and radiation therapy (RT), survival, and recurrence were analyzed. Survival estimates were obtained using Kaplan-Meier methodology. The Cox regression interaction was used to compare male and female differences in prognostic factors. Male breast cancer (MBC) and female breast cancer (FBC) were matched according to propensity scores and survival compared using Cox regression. Results: From 1963-2006, there were 75 MBC and 1,313 FBC totaling 1,388 breast cancers. The median age of the cohort was 53 (range: 23-90) years. Median follow-up was 90 (range: 0.4-339) months. Prognostic factors of patients were balanced among the groups after adjusting for propensity scores. A Cox model adjusting for propensity scores showed that overall survival (OS) (HR= 2.52 (1.65, 3.86), P<0.001) and distant disease recurrence-free survival (DDRFS) (HR= 2.39 (0.75, 3.04), P=0.003) were significantly different for MBC and FBC. Analyses that stratified by propensity score quintiles had similar findings: OS HR=2.41 (1.67, 3.47), P<0.001); DDRFS HR=2.89 (1.81, 4.60), P<0.001). When MBC and FBC were matched (1:3) by propensity scores, differences between MBC and FBC were again observed in OS (HR=1.94, 95%CI:1.18-3.19, P=0.009) and DDRFS (HR=2.79, 95%CI:1.36-5.75, P=0.005) with MBC at a higher risk of death and  disease recurrence compared to FBC . Conclusion: This large series showed that MBC and FBC survivals are not similar, with MBC having a worse outcome. The finding of this study needs confirmation from a complete prospective database. PMID

  5. Clinical significance and prognostic value of TRIM24 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Jun; Yang, Qing; Xie, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Xian-Zi; Zhang, Mei-Yin; Wang, Hui-Yun; Xu, Guo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24), a member of the transcription intermediary factor 1 family, is defined as a co-regulator with several nuclear receptors, such as RARα. TRIM24 has been reported to be involved in many cancers. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression pattern and prognostic significance of TRIM24 and its relationship with RARα in esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). Both mRNA and protein expression levels of TRIM24 were found to be significantly decreased in ESCC, as judged by qRT-PCR and western blot. Immunohistochemistry staining shows that the reduced TRIM24 protein is associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.024), advance pathological TNM (pTNM) stage (P=0.046) and recurrence/metastasis (P=0.001). Upregulated TRIM24 protein predicts longer overall survival and disease-free survival (both P<0.001) and is an independent predictor for good prognosis (HR, 0.519; 95%CI, 0.341-0.788; P=0.002). TRIM24 expression has been proven remarkably to improve prediction of survival of pTNM stage in ESCC patients, especially in stage I and II. However, no significant relationship was found between TRIM24 and RARα expression levels. In conclusion, reduced TRIM24 protein is associated with poor survival in ESCC patients, suggesting TRIM24 protein is a potential prognostic biomarker for ESCC. PMID:27689360

  6. Prognostic factors for survival of patients with glioblastoma: Recursive partitioning analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Chang, Susan M.; Prados, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Survival for patients with glioblastoma multiforme is short, and current treatments provide limited benefit. Therefore, there is interest in conducting phase 2 trials of experimental treatments in newly diagnosed patients. However, this requires historical data with which to compare the experimental therapies. Knowledge of prognostic markers would also allow stratification into risk groups for phase 3 randomized trials. In this retrospective study of 832 glioblastoma multiforme patients enrolled into prospective clinical trials at the time of initial diagnosis, we evaluated several potential prognostic markers for survival to establish risk groups. Analyses were done using both Cox proportional hazards modeling and recursive partitioning analyses. Initially, patients from 8 clinical trials, 6 of which included adjuvant chemotherapy, were included. Subsequent analyses excluded trials with interstitial brachytherapy, and finally included only nonbrachytherapy trials with planned adjuvant chemotherapy. The initial analysis defined 4 risk groups. The 2 lower risk groups included patients under the age of 40, the lowest risk group being young patients with tumor in the frontal lobe only. An intermediate-risk group included patients with Karnofsky performance status (KPS) >70, subtotal or total resection, and age between 40 and 65. The highest risk group included all patients over 65 and patients between 40 and 65 with either KPS < 80 or biopsy only. Subgroup analyses indicated that inclusion of adjuvant chemotherapy provides an increase in survival, although that improvement tends to be minimal for patients over age 65, for patients over age 40 with KPS less than 80, and for those treated with brachytherapy. PMID:15279715

  7. Prognostic factors for survival of patients with glioblastoma: recursive partitioning analysis.

    PubMed

    Lamborn, Kathleen R; Chang, Susan M; Prados, Michael D

    2004-07-01

    Survival for patients with glioblastoma multiforme is short, and current treatments provide limited benefit. Therefore, there is interest in conducting phase 2 trials of experimental treatments in newly diagnosed patients. However, this requires historical data with which to compare the experimental therapies. Knowledge of prognostic markers would also allow stratification into risk groups for phase 3 randomized trials. In this retrospective study of 832 glioblastoma multiforme patients enrolled into prospective clinical trials at the time of initial diagnosis, we evaluated several potential prognostic markers for survival to establish risk groups. Analyses were done using both Cox proportional hazards modeling and recursive partitioning analyses. Initially, patients from 8 clinical trials, 6 of which included adjuvant chemotherapy, were included. Subsequent analyses excluded trials with interstitial brachytherapy, and finally included only nonbrachytherapy trials with planned adjuvant chemotherapy. The initial analysis defined 4 risk groups. The 2 lower risk groups included patients under the age of 40, the lowest risk group being young patients with tumor in the frontal lobe only. An intermediate-risk group included patients with Karnofsky performance status (KPS) >70, subtotal or total resection, and age between 40 and 65. The highest risk group included all patients over 65 and patients between 40 and 65 with either KPS<80 or biopsy only. Subgroup analyses indicated that inclusion of adjuvant chemotherapy provides an increase in survival, although that improvement tends to be minimal for patients over age 65, for patients over age 40 with KPS less than 80, and for those treated with brachytherapy.

  8. Analysis of Prognostic Factors and Patterns of Recurrence in Patients With Pathologic Stage III Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Samir; Portelance, Lorraine . E-mail: lorraine.portelance@muhc.mcgill.ca; Gilbert, Lucy; Tan, Leonard; Stanimir, Gerald; Duclos, Marie; Souhami, Luis

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess prognostic factors and patterns of recurrence in patients with pathologic Stage III endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 2003, 107 patients with pathologic International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage III endometrial adenocarcinoma confined to the pelvis were treated at our institution. Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) was delivered to 68 patients (64%). The influence of multiple patient- and treatment-related factors on pelvic and distant control and overall survival (OS) was evaluated. Results: Median follow-up for patients at risk was 41 months. Five-year actuarial OS was significantly improved in patients treated with adjuvant RT (68%) compared with those with resection alone (50%; p = 0.029). Age, histology, grade, uterine serosal invasion, adnexal involvement, number of extrauterine sites, and treatment with adjuvant RT predicted for improved survival in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that grade, uterine serosal invasion, and treatment with adjuvant RT were independent predictors of survival. Five-year actuarial pelvic control was improved significantly with the delivery of adjuvant RT (74% vs. 49%; p = 0.011). Depth of myometrial invasion and treatment with adjuvant RT were independent predictors of pelvic control in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Multiple prognostic factors predicting for the outcome of pathologic Stage III endometrial cancer patients were identified in this analysis. In particular, delivery of adjuvant RT seems to be a significant independent predictor for improved survival and pelvic control, suggesting that pelvic RT should be routinely considered in the management of these patients.

  9. 30-Day Mortality in Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Prognostic Value of Clinical Scores and Anamnestic Features

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Andreas Gunter; Taute, Bettina-Maria; Baasai, Nansalmaa; Wienke, Andreas; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Schramm, Dominik; Surov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Identification of high-risk patients with pulmonary embolism is vital. The aim of the present study was to examine clinical scores, their single items, and anamnestic features in their ability to predict 30-day mortality. Materials and Methods A retrospective, single-center study from 06/2005 to 01/2010 was performed. Inclusion criteria were presence of pulmonary embolism, availability of patient records and 30-day follow-up. The following clinical scores were calculated: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, original and simplified pulmonary embolism severity index, Glasgow Coma Scale, and euroSCORE II. Results In the study group of 365 patients 39 patients (10.7%) died within 30 days due to pulmonary embolism. From all examined scores and parameters the best predictor of 30-day mortality were the Glasgow Coma scale (≤ 10) and parameters of the circulatory system including presence of mechanical ventilation, arterial pH (< 7.335), and systolic blood pressure (< 99 mm Hg). Conclusions Easy to ascertain circulatory parameters have the same or higher prognostic value than the clinical scores that were applied in this study. From all clinical scores studied the Glasgow Coma Scale was the most time- and cost-efficient one. PMID:26866472

  10. Prognostic factors for long term survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moumtzi, Despoina; Lampaki, Sofia; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Lagoudi, Kalliopi; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pataka, Athanasia; Tsiouda, Theodora; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Lazaridis, George; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Timotheadou, Helen; Barbetakis, Nikolaos; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents 85% of all lung cancers. It is estimated that 60% of patients with NSCLC at time of diagnosis have advanced disease. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and demographic prognostic factors of long term survival in patients with unresectable NSCLC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed data of 1,156 patients with NSCLC stage IIIB or IV who survived more than 60 days from the time of diagnosis and treated from August 1987 until March 2013 in the Oncology Department of Pulmonary Clinic of the General Hospital Papanikolaou. Initially univariate analysis using the log-rank test was conducted and then multivariate analysis using the proportional hazards model of Cox. Also Kaplan Meier curves were used to describe the distribution of survival times of patients. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results The mean age at diagnosis was 62 years. About 11.9% of patients were women and 88.1% were male. The majority of cases were adenocarcinomas (42.2%), followed squamous (33%) and finally the large cell (6%). Unlike men, most common histological type among women was adenocarcinoma rather than squamous (63% vs. 10.9%). In univariate analysis statistically significant factors in the progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were: weight loss ≥5%, histological type, line 1 drugs, line 1 combination, line 1 cycles and radio lung. Specifically radio lung gives clear survival benefit in the PFS and OS in stage IIIB (P=0.002) and IV (P<0.001). On the other hand, the number of distant metastases in stage IV patients did not affect OS, neither PFS. In addition patients who received platinum and taxane had better PFS (P=0.001) and OS (P<0.001) than those who received platinum without taxane. Also the third drug administration proved futile, since survival (682.06±34.9) (P=0.023) and PFS (434.93±26.93) (P=0.012) of patients who received less than three drugs was significantly larger. Finally

  11. Prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shen, G H; Ghazizadeh, M; Kawanami, O; Shimizu, H; Jin, E; Araki, T; Sugisaki, Y

    2000-01-01

    The influence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and microvessel density (MVD) on prognosis and the relationship between VEGF expression and MVD in ovarian carcinoma are not well defined. We studied VEGF expression in parallel with MVD by immunohistochemistry in 94 ovarian tumours (64 malignant, 13 borderline, and 17 benign) and correlated the results with the clinicopathologic prognostic factors of the disease to clarify their significance in this disease. Assessment of VEGF mRNA isoforms by RT-PCR was also performed. Of the malignant, borderline, and benign ovarian tumours respectively, two (3%), four (31%) and 16 (94%) were negative, 31 (48%), seven (54%) and one (6%) had low expressions, and 31 (48%), two (15%) and none (0%) had high expressions of VEGF. There were significant associations between the VEGF expression and disease stage (P = 0.002), histologic grade (P = 0.0004), and patient outcome (P = 0.0002). MVD did not correlate significantly with the clinicopathologic parameters. Likewise, no correlation was found between MVD and VEGF expression. The survival of patients with high VEGF expression was significantly worse than that of patients with low and negative VEGF expression (P = 0.0004). Multivariate analysis revealed that disease stage and VEGF expression were significant and independent prognostic indicators of overall survival time (P = 0.008 and P = 0.006 respectively). These findings suggest that in conjunction with the established clinicopathologic prognostic parameters of ovarian carcinoma, VEGF expression may enhance the predictability of patients at high risk for tumour progression who are potential candidates for further aggressive therapy. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10901370

  12. EndoPredict improves the prognostic classification derived from common clinical guidelines in ER-positive, HER2-negative early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dubsky, P.; Filipits, M.; Jakesz, R.; Rudas, M.; Singer, C. F.; Greil, R.; Dietze, O.; Luisser, I.; Klug, E.; Sedivy, R.; Bachner, M.; Mayr, D.; Schmidt, M.; Gehrmann, M. C.; Petry, C.; Weber, K. E.; Kronenwett, R.; Brase, J. C.; Gnant, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background In early estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer, the decision to administer chemotherapy is largely based on prognostic criteria. The combined molecular/clinical EndoPredict test (EPclin) has been validated to accurately assess prognosis in this population. In this study, the clinical relevance of EPclin in relation to well-established clinical guidelines is assessed. Patients and methods We assigned risk groups to 1702 ER-positive/HER2-negative postmenopausal women from two large phase III trials treated only with endocrine therapy. Prognosis was assigned according to National Comprehensive Cancer Center Network-, German S3-, St Gallen guidelines and the EPclin. Prognostic groups were compared using the Kaplan–Meier survival analysis. Results After 10 years, absolute risk reductions (ARR) between the high- and low-risk groups ranged from 6.9% to 11.2% if assigned according to guidelines. It was at 18.7% for EPclin. EPclin reassigned 58%–61% of women classified as high-/intermediate-risk (according to clinical guidelines) to low risk. Women reclassified to low risk showed a 5% rate of distant metastasis at 10 years. Conclusion The EPclin score is able to predict favorable prognosis in a majority of patients that clinical guidelines would assign to intermediate or high risk. EPclin may reduce the indications for chemotherapy in ER-positive postmenopausal women with a limited number of clinical risk factors. PMID:23035151

  13. Value of quantitative pathological variables as prognostic factors in advanced ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Brinkhuis, M; Baak, J P; Meijer, G A; van Diest, P J; Mogensen, O; Bichel, P; Neijt, J P

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate correlations among clinical, pathological, morphometric, stereological, and DNA flow cytometric variables and their prognostic value in advanced ovarian cancer. METHODS: Tissue was collected from 180 patients with advanced ovarian cancer. All 180 had undergone debulking surgery and were being treated with cisplatin. Long term follow up was available for all patients. The mitotic activity index (MAI), volume % of epithelium (VPE), mean nuclear area (MNA), standard deviation of the nuclear area (SDNA), estimates of volume weighted mean nuclear volume (nu v), and variables obtained from minimum spanning tree (MST) analysis were assessed in the least differentiated tumour section in each case. DNA flow cytometry was also performed. RESULTS: Quantitative pathological features differed significantly with respect to histological grade. The MAI, MNA, SDNA, and the number of points connected to three neighbours differed significantly among the different DNA ploidy groups. The VPE and number of points connected to two or three neighbours differed significantly between FIGO stages III and IV. Fifty two (29%) patients survived. FIGO stage, residual disease and SDNA had prognostic significance on both univariate and multivariate survival analysis. In patients with FIGO III stage disease and residual tumour nodes < or = 2 cm in diameter (67 patients, 29 (43%) survivors) a prognostic index was established based on SDNA and of the line length of the MST. The median survival time was not reached in a subgroup of patients with favourable prognosis (overall survival 57%). Median survival was 32 months for patients with an unfavourable index score (overall survival 28%). CONCLUSION: Morphometric variables have important additional value in predicting prognosis in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. PMID:8655681

  14. Flexible modeling of the effects of continuous prognostic factors in relative survival.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Amel; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Giorgi, Roch; Binquet, Christine; Bonithon-Kopp, Claire; Quantin, Catherine

    2011-05-30

    Relative survival methods permit separating the effects of prognostic factors on disease-related 'excess mortality' from their effects on other-causes 'natural mortality', even when individual causes of death are unknown. As in conventional 'crude' survival, accurate assessment of prognostic factors requires testing and possibly modeling of non-proportional effects and, for continuous covariates, of non-linear relationships with the hazard. We propose a flexible extension of the additive-hazards relative survival model, in which the observed all-causes mortality hazard is represented by a sum of disease-related 'excess' and natural mortality hazards. In our flexible model, the three functions representing (i) the baseline hazard for 'excess' mortality, (ii) the time-dependent effects, and (iii) for continuous covariates, non-linear effects, on the logarithm of this hazard, are all modeled by low-dimension cubic regression splines. Non-parametric likelihood ratio tests are proposed to test the time-dependent and non-linear effects. The accuracy of the estimated functions is evaluated in multivariable simulations. To illustrate the new insights offered by the proposed model, we apply it to re-assess the effects of patient age and of secular trends on disease-related mortality in colon cancer.

  15. Prognostic factors after hepatic resection for the single hepatocellular carcinoma larger than 5 cm

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Keun Soo; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine which factors affect the prognosis of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) larger than 5 cm, including the prognostic difference between tumor sizes from 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm. Methods The medical records of 114 patients who underwent hepatectomy for single HCC larger than 5 cm were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Results In the analysis of the entire cohort of 114 patients, the 5-year overall and diseases-free survival rates were 50% and 29%, respectively. In a comparison of survival rates between groups, tumor sizes of 5 to 10 cm and larger than 10 cm, the overall and disease-free survival rates were not significantly different, respectively (54% vs. 41%, P = 0.433 and 33% vs. 23%, P = 0.083). On multivariate analysis, positive hepatitis B, high prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II levels over 200 mIU/mL, and vascular invasion (micro- and macrovascular invasion) were independent prognostic factors for recurrence after hepatic resection. However, tumor size larger than 10 cm was not significant for recurrence after resection. Conclusion This study shows that surgical resection of solitary HCC larger than 5 cm showed favorable overall survival. And there is no survival difference with tumors between 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm. PMID:27617250

  16. Outcome and Prognostic Factors for Traumatic Endophthalmitis over a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Nicoară, Simona Delia; Călinici, Tudor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the outcome and identify the prognostic factors of traumatic endophthalmitis over a 5-year period. Methods. We reviewed the medical records of all the traumatic endophthalmities that we treated in our department over the last 5 years (2009–2013). We extracted the following parameters: age, gender, wound anatomy, associated ocular lesions, treatment, and initial and final visual acuities. We used the program SPSS version 20.0.0. for the statistical analysis of our data. Results. During the last 5 years, we treated 14 traumatic endophthalmities, representing 46.66% of all types of endophthalmities. The infection rate in open globe injuries was 8.13% and 34.78%, if an intraocular foreign body (IOFB) was associated. All the patients were males with the median age of 37 years. Initial visual acuities varied between light perception and 0.4 and the timing of treatment from a few hours to 10 days. We administered antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs, systemically and intravitreally, in all cases. We performed pars plana vitrectomy in 64.28% of cases. In 57.14% of cases, the final visual acuity was 0.1 or more. Conclusions. IOFBs increased significantly the risk for endophthalmitis. The worse prognostic factors were retinal detachment at presentation and delayed treatment. This trial is registered with IRCT2014082918966N1. PMID:25302113

  17. Prognostic factors after hepatic resection for the single hepatocellular carcinoma larger than 5 cm

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Keun Soo; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine which factors affect the prognosis of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) larger than 5 cm, including the prognostic difference between tumor sizes from 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm. Methods The medical records of 114 patients who underwent hepatectomy for single HCC larger than 5 cm were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Results In the analysis of the entire cohort of 114 patients, the 5-year overall and diseases-free survival rates were 50% and 29%, respectively. In a comparison of survival rates between groups, tumor sizes of 5 to 10 cm and larger than 10 cm, the overall and disease-free survival rates were not significantly different, respectively (54% vs. 41%, P = 0.433 and 33% vs. 23%, P = 0.083). On multivariate analysis, positive hepatitis B, high prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II levels over 200 mIU/mL, and vascular invasion (micro- and macrovascular invasion) were independent prognostic factors for recurrence after hepatic resection. However, tumor size larger than 10 cm was not significant for recurrence after resection. Conclusion This study shows that surgical resection of solitary HCC larger than 5 cm showed favorable overall survival. And there is no survival difference with tumors between 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm.

  18. Angiogenesis in Breast Cancer and its Correlation with Estrogen, Progesterone Receptors and other Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Poonam; Kamal, Vinay; Agarwal, Prem Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of study is to evaluate angiogenesis using CD34, in estrogen, progesterone positive and negative breastcancer and to correlate the microvessel density with known histological prognostic factors, morphological type of breast carcinoma and lymph node metastasis. Materials and Methods: Twenty eight untreated cases of breast cancer were included in the study and paraffin embedded sections were obtained from representative mastectomy specimen of breast cancer patient. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and immunohistochemistry was performed using CD34, estrogen, progesterone, cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen antibody. Angiogenesis was analysed using CD 34 antibody. For statistical analysis, cases were grouped into estrogen, progesterone positive and negative receptors. Results: Mean microvessel density in ER-/PR-, ER-/ PR+, ER+/PR-, ER+/PR+ was 15.45, 14.83, 11, 10.89 respectively. A significant correlation was found between ER receptors and mean vascular density with p-value (< 0.05). A significant difference was observed in mean vascular density between the four groups comprising (p-value < 0.05). Infiltrating duct carcinoma (NOS) grade III has got the highest mean microvessel density (14.17) followed by grade II (12.93) and grade I (12.33). Conclusion: Information about prognostic factors in breast cancer patients may lead to better ways to identify those patients at high risk who might benefit from adjuvant therapies. PMID:25737993

  19. Materials and prognostic factors of bone regeneration in periapical surgery: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Sánchez-Garcés, Maria Á

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Analyse the effectiveness of different materials and techniques used in guided tissue regeneration (GTR) applied in periapical surgery, comparing the success rate obtained in 4-wall defects and in through-and-through bone lesions as well as to establish prognostic factors. Material and Methods: A Cochrane, PubMed-MEDLINE and Scopus database search (October 2012 to March 2013) was conducted with the search terms “periapical surgery”, “surgical endodontic treatment”, “guided tissue regeneration”, “bone regeneration”, “bone grafts”, “barrier membranes” and “periapical lesions” individually and next, using the Boolean operator “AND”. The inclusion criteria were the use of GTR (bone graft and/or membrane barrier), clinical studies including at least 10 patients, 10 years aged articles published in English or French. The exclusion criteria were case reports and nonhuman studies. Results: 34 publications were selected from a total of 483. 9 of the 34 were excluded. Finally, the systematic review included 25 articles: 2 metaanalysis, 8 reviews, 13 prospective studies and 2 retrospective studies. They were stratified according to their level of scientific evidence using the SORT criteria. The 4-wall periapical and through-and-through lesions improve more their prognosis by combining bone grafts and barrier membranes than using these materials exclusively, respect to the control groups. The results show lower failure rates in 4-wall lesions than in through-and-through lesions using GTR. Conclusions: The combined GTR technique (filling material and membranes) obtains a greater success rate both in 4-wall lesions and in through-and-through lesions, respect to the control groups. The use of regeneration materials seems to be more necessary in through-and-through lesions,> 5mm lesions, lower teeth and apicomarginal lesions as they have the worst healing prognosis. In function of the articles scientific quality, a type B recommendation

  20. Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus: Validation of a clinical decision making tool in breast cancer in an independent series.

    PubMed

    Green, Andrew R; Soria, Daniele; Stephen, Jacqueline; Powe, Desmond G; Nolan, Christopher C; Kunkler, Ian; Thomas, Jeremy; Kerr, Gillian R; Jack, Wilma; Cameron, David; Piper, Tammy; Ball, Graham R; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Rakha, Emad A; Bartlett, John Ms; Ellis, Ian O

    2016-01-01

    The Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus (NPI+) is a clinical decision making tool in breast cancer (BC) that aims to provide improved patient outcome stratification superior to the traditional NPI. This study aimed to validate the NPI+ in an independent series of BC. Eight hundred and eighty five primary early stage BC cases from Edinburgh were semi-quantitatively assessed for 10 biomarkers [Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PgR), cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, CK7/8, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2, HER3, HER4, p53, and Mucin 1] using immunohistochemistry and classified into biological classes by fuzzy logic-derived algorithms previously developed in the Nottingham series. Subsequently, NPI+ Prognostic Groups (PGs) were assigned for each class using bespoke NPI-like formulae, previously developed in each NPI+ biological class of the Nottingham series, utilising clinicopathological parameters: number of positive nodes, pathological tumour size, stage, tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic counts. Biological classes and PGs were compared between the Edinburgh and Nottingham series using Cramer's V and their role in patient outcome prediction using Kaplan-Meier curves and tested using Log Rank. The NPI+ biomarker panel classified the Edinburgh series into seven biological classes similar to the Nottingham series (p > 0.01). The biological classes were significantly associated with patient outcome (p < 0.001). PGs were comparable in predicting patient outcome between series in Luminal A, Basal p53 altered, HER2+/ER+ tumours (p > 0.01). The good PGs were similarly validated in Luminal B, Basal p53 normal, HER2+/ER- tumours and the poor PG in the Luminal N class (p > 0.01). Due to small patient numbers assigned to the remaining PGs, Luminal N, Luminal B, Basal p53 normal and HER2+/ER- classes could not be validated. This study demonstrates the reproducibility of NPI+ and confirmed its prognostic value in an independent cohort

  1. Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus: Validation of a clinical decision making tool in breast cancer in an independent series.

    PubMed

    Green, Andrew R; Soria, Daniele; Stephen, Jacqueline; Powe, Desmond G; Nolan, Christopher C; Kunkler, Ian; Thomas, Jeremy; Kerr, Gillian R; Jack, Wilma; Cameron, David; Piper, Tammy; Ball, Graham R; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Rakha, Emad A; Bartlett, John Ms; Ellis, Ian O

    2016-01-01

    The Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus (NPI+) is a clinical decision making tool in breast cancer (BC) that aims to provide improved patient outcome stratification superior to the traditional NPI. This study aimed to validate the NPI+ in an independent series of BC. Eight hundred and eighty five primary early stage BC cases from Edinburgh were semi-quantitatively assessed for 10 biomarkers [Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PgR), cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, CK7/8, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2, HER3, HER4, p53, and Mucin 1] using immunohistochemistry and classified into biological classes by fuzzy logic-derived algorithms previously developed in the Nottingham series. Subsequently, NPI+ Prognostic Groups (PGs) were assigned for each class using bespoke NPI-like formulae, previously developed in each NPI+ biological class of the Nottingham series, utilising clinicopathological parameters: number of positive nodes, pathological tumour size, stage, tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic counts. Biological classes and PGs were compared between the Edinburgh and Nottingham series using Cramer's V and their role in patient outcome prediction using Kaplan-Meier curves and tested using Log Rank. The NPI+ biomarker panel classified the Edinburgh series into seven biological classes similar to the Nottingham series (p > 0.01). The biological classes were significantly associated with patient outcome (p < 0.001). PGs were comparable in predicting patient outcome between series in Luminal A, Basal p53 altered, HER2+/ER+ tumours (p > 0.01). The good PGs were similarly validated in Luminal B, Basal p53 normal, HER2+/ER- tumours and the poor PG in the Luminal N class (p > 0.01). Due to small patient numbers assigned to the remaining PGs, Luminal N, Luminal B, Basal p53 normal and HER2+/ER- classes could not be validated. This study demonstrates the reproducibility of NPI+ and confirmed its prognostic value in an independent cohort

  2. Reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation for Hodgkin’s lymphoma: identification of prognostic factors predicting outcome

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Stephen P.; Sureda, Anna; Canals, Carmen; Russell, Nigel; Caballero, Dolores; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Iriondo, Arturo; Cook, Gordon; Pettitt, Andrew; Socie, Gerard; Bonifazi, Francesca; Bosi, Alberto; Michallet, Mauricette; Liakopoulou, Effie; Maertens, Johan; Passweg, Jakob; Clarke, Fiona; Martino, Rodrigo; Schmitz, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Background The role of reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem transplantation (RICalloSCT) in the management of patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma remains controversial. Design and Methods To further define its role we have conducted a retrospective analysis of 285 patients with HL who underwent a RICalloSCT in order to identify prognostic factors that predict outcome. Eighty percent of patients had undergone a prior autologous stem cell transplantation and 25% had refractory disease at transplant. Results Non-relapse mortality was associated with chemorefractory disease, poor performance status, age >45 and transplantation before 2002. For patients with no risk factors the 3-year non-relapse mortality rate was 12.5% compared to 46.2% for patients with 2 or more risk factors. The use of an unrelated donor had no adverse effect on the non-relapse mortality. Acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) grades II–IV developed in 30% and chronic GVHD in 42%. The development of cGVHD was associated with a lower relapse rate. The disease progression rate at one and five years was 41% and 58.7% respectively and was associated with chemorefractory disease and extent of prior therapy. Donor lymphocyte infusions were administered to 64 patients for active disease of whom 32% showed a clinical response. Eight out of 18 patients receiving donor lymphocyte infusions alone had clinical responses. Progression-free and overall survival were both associated with performance status and disease status at transplant. Patients with neither risk factor had a 3-year PFS and overall survival of 42% and 56% respectively compared to 8% and 25% for patients with one or more risk factors. Relapse within six months of a prior autologous transplant was associated with a higher relapse rate and a lower progression-free. Conclusions This analysis identifies important clinical parameters that may be useful in predicting the outcome of RICaIICalloSCT in Hodgkin’s lymphoma. PMID:19066328

  3. Review of the molecular profile and modern prognostic markers for gastric lymphoma: How do they affect clinical practice?

    PubMed Central

    Alevizos, Leonidas; Gomatos, Ilias P.; Smparounis, Spyridon; Konstadoulakis, Manousos M.; Zografos, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Primary gastric lymphoma is a rare cancer of the stomach with an indeterminate prognosis. Recently, a series of molecular prognostic markers has been introduced to better describe this clinical entity. This review describes the clinical importance of several oncogenes, apoptotic genes and chromosomal mutations in the initiation and progress of primary non-Hodgkin gastric lymphoma and their effect on patient survival. We also outline the prognostic clinical importance of certain cellular adhesion molecules, such as ICAM and PECAM-1, in patients with gastric lymphoma, and we analyze the correlation of these molecules with apoptosis, angiogenesis, tumour growth and metastatic potential. We also focus on the host–immune response and the impact of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric lymphoma development and progression. Finally, we explore the therapeutic methods currently available for gastric lymphoma, comparing the traditional invasive approach with more recent conservative options, and we stress the importance of the application of novel molecular markers in clinical practice. PMID:22564515

  4. Review of the molecular profile and modern prognostic markers for gastric lymphoma: how do they affect clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Alevizos, Leonidas; Gomatos, Ilias P; Smparounis, Spyridon; Konstadoulakis, Manousos M; Zografos, Georgios

    2012-04-01

    Primary gastric lymphoma is a rare cancer of the stomach with an indeterminate prognosis. Recently, a series of molecular prognostic markers has been introduced to better describe this clinical entity. This review describes the clinical importance of several oncogenes, apoptotic genes and chromosomal mutations in the initiation and progress of primary non-Hodgkin gastric lymphoma and their effect on patient survival. We also outline the prognostic clinical importance of certain cellular adhesion molecules, such as ICAM and PECAM-1, in patients with gastric lymphoma, and we analyze the correlation of these molecules with apoptosis, angiogenesis, tumour growth and metastatic potential. We also focus on the host-immune response and the impact of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric lymphoma development and progression. Finally, we explore the therapeutic methods currently available for gastric lymphoma, comparing the traditional invasive approach with more recent conservative options, and we stress the importance of the application of novel molecular markers in clinical practice.

  5. Prognostic roles for fibroblast growth factor receptor family members in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fengju; Zheng, Hong; Chen, Kexin; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Jilong

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are rare, highly malignant, and poorly understood sarcomas. The often poor outcome of MPNST highlights the necessity of identifying prognostic predictors for this aggressive sarcoma. Here, we investigate the role of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family members in human MPNSTs. Results aCGH and bioinformatics analysis identified frequent amplification of the FGFR1 gene. FISH analysis revealed that 26.9% MPNST samples had amplification of FGFR1, with both focal and polysomy patterns observed. IHC identified that FGFR1 protein expression was positively correlated with FGFR1 gene amplification. High expression of FGFR1 protein was associated with better overall survival (OS) and was an independent prognostic predictor for OS of MPNST patients. Additionally, combined expression of FGFR1 and FGFR2 protein characterized a subtype of MPNST with better OS. FGFR4 protein was expressed 82.3% of MPNST samples, and was associated with poor disease-free survival. Materials and Methods We performed microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) profiling of two cohorts of primary MPNST tissue samples including 25 patients treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and 26 patients from Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to validate the gene amplification detected by aCGH analysis. Another cohort of 63 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded MPNST samples (including 52 samples for FISH assay) was obtained to explore FGFR1, 2, 3, and 4 protein expression by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Conclusions Our integrated genomic and molecular studies provide evidence that FGFRs play different prognostic roles in MPNST. PMID:26993773

  6. Reduced impact of nodal metastases as a prognostic factor for tonsil cancer in the HPV era.

    PubMed

    Vila, Peter M; Stucken, Chaz L; Morris, Luc G T; Posner, Marshall R; Genden, Eric M; Boffetta, Paolo; Sikora, Andrew G

    2014-09-01

    Metastatic lymph nodes (LN) are an adverse prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nodal metastases have reduced impact on survival in tonsil cancer in the HPV-predominant era. Incidence and mortality data of tonsil and oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2007 were obtained from the SEER database. Based on published literature, we considered cases of tonsil cancer from 1988 to 1997 as the pre-HPV cohort (N = 752), and 1998-2007 as the HPV-predominant cohort (N = 2,755). Comparing the two cohorts, Kaplan-Meier 5-year overall survival (OS) for tonsil SCC improved from 54.0 to 74.3 % (p < 0.0001), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) improved from 66.0 to 82.9 % (p < 0.0001). Stratifying by LN involvement showed improved OS in the HPV-predominant cohort with one (63.6 vs. 79.7 %, p < 0.0001), two to three (54.2 vs. 75.9 %, p < 0.0001), four to eight (40.3 vs. 68.9 %, p < 0.0001), and greater than eight positive nodes (25.5 vs. 41.9 %, p < 0.0001). While metastatic LNs still negatively affect prognosis, their impact on OPC survival has diminished in the HPV-predominant era. This finding provides a rationale for additional studies of the prognostic significance of LN metastases in OPC cohorts of defined HPV status, and supports the concept that HPV-related OPC is a disease distinct from "classical" OPC, with unique prognostic features. PMID:24190760

  7. Reduced Impact of Nodal Metastases as a Prognostic Factor for Tonsil Cancer in the HPV Era

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Peter M.; Stucken, Chaz L.; Morris, Luc G.T.; Posner, Marshall R.; Genden, Eric M.; Boffetta, Paolo; Sikora, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Metastatic lymph nodes (LN) are an adverse prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nodal metastases have reduced impact on survival in tonsil cancer in the HPV-predominant era. Methods Incidence and mortality data of tonsil and oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2007 was obtained from the SEER database. Based on published literature, we considered cases of tonsil cancer from 1988–1997 the pre-HPV cohort (N=752), and 1998–2007 as the HPV-predominant cohort (N=2,755). Results Comparing the two cohorts, Kaplan-Meier five-year overall survival (OS) for tonsil SCC improved from 54.0% to 74.3% (p<0.0001), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) improved from 66.0 to 82.9% (p<0.0001). Stratifying by LN involvement showed improved OS in the HPV-predominant cohort with one (63.6 vs. 79.7%, p<0.0001), two to three (54.2 vs. 75.9%, P<0.0001), four to eight (40.3 vs. 68.9%, p<0.0001), and greater than eight positive nodes (25.5 vs. 41.9%, p<0.0001). Conclusion While metastatic LNs still negatively affect prognosis, their impact on OPC survival has diminished in the HPV-predominant era. This finding provides a rationale for additional studies of the prognostic significance of LN metastases in OPC cohorts of defined HPV status, and supports the concept that HPV-related OPC is a disease distinct from “classical” OPC, with unique prognostic features. PMID:24190760

  8. Primary Tumor Location as a Prognostic Factor in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Loupakis, Fotios; Yang, Dongyun; Yau, Linda; Feng, Shibao; Cremolini, Chiara; Zhang, Wu; Maus, Martin K. H.; Antoniotti, Carlotta; Langer, Christiane; Scherer, Stefan J.; Müller, Thomas; Hurwitz, Herbert I.; Saltz, Leonard; Falcone, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Background: We sought to clarify the prognostic impact of primary tumor location in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Methods: We evaluated the association between tumor location and survival parameters in patients with previously untreated mCRC receiving first-line chemotherapy ± bevacizumab in three independent cohorts: a prospective pharmacogenetic study (PROVETTA) and two randomized phase III trials, AVF2107g and NO16966. Cancers proximal or distal of the splenic flexure were classified as right-sided or left-sided, respectively. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Data were analyzed with Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Among evaluable patients in the PROVETTA (n = 200), AVF2107g (n = 559), and NO16966 (n = 1268) studies, 72.0%, 63.1%, and 73.7% had left-sided tumors, respectively. In PROVETTA, patients with left-sided tumors had superior OS (left-sided vs right-sided: hazard ratio [HR] = .44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .28 to .70, P < .001) and progression-free survival (HR = .52, 95% CI = .36 to .75, P < .001) outcomes. Multivariable analyses confirmed right-sided location as a negative prognostic variable, independent of mucinous histology and BRAF mutational status. Data from the AVF2107g (HR for OS = .55, 95% CI = .43 to .70) and NO16966 trials (HR for OS = .71, 95% CI = .62 to .82 both P < .001) also showed favorable outcomes in patients with left-sided tumors. In both randomized studies, the efficacy of bevacizumab was independent of tumor location. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that primary tumor location is an important prognostic factor in previously untreated mCRC. Given the consistency across an exploratory set and two confirmatory phase III studies, side of tumor origin should be considered for stratification in randomized trials. PMID:25713148

  9. Treatment, Outcome and Prognostic Factors in Renal Cell Carcinoma - A Single Center Study (2000-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Achermann, Christof; Stenner, Frank; Rothschild, Sacha I.

    2016-01-01

    In Switzerland efficient availability of novel drugs for renal cell cancer (RCC) has been granted early. Since the advent of the targeted agents for RCC the usage of these drugs has been reported to improve progression free survival. Here, we find that patients who are able to receive sequential targeted therapy, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and mTOR inhibitors (mTORi), have a largely better outcome than those who have less exposure to these agents. The value of the prognostic scores developed by Motzer and Heng is fully reflected by the outcomes according to prognostic risk groups in our unselected patient cohort. Also, the use of surgical intervention appears to be an important prognostic factor, however with a somehow diminished effect by novel systemic therapies. The importance of multiple lines of targeted therapies is underlined by this retrospective analysis. For patients with metastatic RCC not receiving targeted therapy the median OS was 22.6 months compared to those with one TKI 25.4 months. Patients receiving a second-line therapy (median overall survival 27.6 months) and those patients with three or more lines of therapy (43.8 months) have the greatest benefit. Also, exposure to a mTORi improves survival versus non-exposure to mTORi (63.3 vs. 22.3 months, p=0.038). In conclusion a trend towards improved survival is confirmed for an unselected population when the full variety of therapeutic options is available and can be used for the individual patient. PMID:27313782

  10. miR-422a is an independent prognostic factor and functions as a potential tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Gui-Xi; Qu, Ai-Lin; Yang, Yong-Mei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Shou-Cai; Wang, Chuan-Xin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the expression of miR-422a in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues and to further explore the prognostic value and function of miR-422a in CRC carcinogenesis. METHODS: miR-422a expression was analyzed in 102 CRC tissues and paired normal mucosa adjacent to carcinoma by quantitative real-time PCR. The relationship of miR-422a expression with clinicopathological parameters was also analyzed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox multivariate analysis were performed to estimate the potential role of miR-422a. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were used for in vitro functional analysis of miR-422a. RESULTS: The levels of miR-422a were dramatically reduced in CRC tissues compared with normal mucosa (P < 0.05), and significantly correlated with local invasion (P = 0.004) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression multivariate analyses revealed that miR-422a expression (HR = 0.568, P = 0.015) and clinical TNM stage (HR = 2.942, P = 0.003) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival in CRC patients. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that overexpression of miR-422a inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of SW480 and HT-29 cells. CONCLUSION: Down-regulation of miR-422a may serve as an independent prognosis factor in CRC. MiR-422a functions as a tumor suppressor and regulates progression of CRC. PMID:27350737

  11. Serum Levels of Interleukin-9 Correlate with Negative Prognostic Factors in Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Qi-rong; Wang, Liang; Chen, Xiao-qin; Liu, Cheng-cheng; Lv, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-9 (IL-9) is more functionally diverse than previously expected, especially with regards to lymphomagenesis. However, the relationship between IL-9 and the clinicopathological features of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma is less well established. Patients with this lymphoma in Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center between January 2003 and March 2013 were systematically reviewed in an intention-to-treat analysis. Baseline serum IL-9 levels were determined using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A total of seventy-four patients were enrolled in this study. The mean concentration of serum IL-9 for all patients was 6.48 pg/mL (range: 1.38–51.87 pg/mL). Age, B symptoms and local lymph node involvement were found to be related to high serum IL-9 levels. Patients with low IL-9 levels tended to have higher rates of complete remission. Notably, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were longer in the low IL-9 level group than in the high IL-9 level group (PFS: 68.7 months vs. 28.3 months, P<0.001; OS: 86 months vs. 42.8 months, P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed independent prognostic factors for PFS. Similarly, high IL-9 levels (P = 0.003) and old age (P = 0.007) were independently predictive of shorter OS. Serum IL-9 is closely related to several clinical features, such as age, B symptoms and local lymph node involvement. It can also be a significant independent prognostic factor for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, which suggests a role for IL-9 in the pathogenesis of this disease and offers new insight into potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:24722378

  12. Tissue microarray-based study of hepatocellular carcinoma validating SPIB as potential clinical prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yi-Jung; Lin, Yueh-Min; Huang, Yen-Chi; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Lin, Liang-In; Lu, Jeng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the prognostic significance of SPIB protein overexpression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of SPIB expression in human HCC in order to determine possible correlations between SPIB expression and clinicopathological findings. The expression of SPIB proteins was detected using immunohistochemical staining in commercial multiple-tissue microarrays as a means of examining expression profiles in patients. Using online biomarker validation tool SurvExpress, we focused on the correlation between SPIB overexpression and survival as well as relapse-free survival (RFS). Results show that SPIB protein expression levels were significantly higher in colon, liver, and stomach tumors than in non-tumor tissues (p<0.05). SPIB overexpression in patients with HCC was also significantly higher than that of the normal samples (p<0.001). Among patients with liver disease, SPIB protein expression levels differ significantly according to the stage of liver disease, specifically between stages I, II, and III of HCC (p<0.05). SPIB expression was also shown to be significantly correlated with age (p=0.046) and histological grade (p=0.027). Furthermore, the SurvExpress analysis suggested that high SPIB and KI-67 mRNA expression were significantly associated with the poor survival of patients with HCC (p<0.05). Our results indicate that cross-talk in the expression of SPIB and KI-67 may be associated with poor prognosis and may potentially serve as a clinical prognostic indicator of HCC. This is the first time that such an association has been reported. PMID:26610895

  13. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    PubMed Central

    Pistelli, Mirco; Caramanti, Miriam; Biscotti, Tommasina; Santinelli, Alfredo; Pagliacci, Alessandra; De Lisa, Mariagrazia; Ballatore, Zelmira; Ridolfi, Francesca; Maccaroni, Elena; Bracci, Raffaella; Berardi, Rossana; Battelli, Nicola; Cascinu, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01), but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72) or overall survival (p = 0.93). Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target. PMID:24978437

  14. Survival prognostic factors and markers of morbidity in Spanish patients with systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Simeon, C.; Armadans, L.; Fonollosa, V.; Vilardell, M.; Candell, J.; Tolosa, C.; Mearin, F.; Rodrigo, M. J.; Solans, R.; Lima, J.; Sampol, G.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify survival prognostic factors and markers of morbidity among patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc).
PATIENTS AND METHODS—The study included 72 patients diagnosed with SSc. According to the extent of skin involvement, three groups of patients were established: group 1, without sclerosis and with sclerosis of fingers and neck; group 2, with sclerosis of face and distal to elbows and knees; group 3, with generalised sclerosis including the trunk. All patients were included in a study protocol to determine visceral involvement. Cumulative survival after first symptom has been estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The association between a hypothetical prognostic factor and cumulative survival after first symptom was assessed by log rank test. The association between a hypothetical risk factor and the prevalence of severe morbity was assessed by the odds ratio. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify the main predictors of severe morbidity.
RESULTS—Survival was estimated to be 85% 10 years after first SSc symptom. Survival was higher among SSc patients with skin involvement distal to elbows and knees than among the rest of patients; a forced vital capacity (FVC) on spirometry lower than 70% of expected value was associated with a shorter survival, even after adjustment for diffuse SSc. Skin involvement proximal to elbows or knees was associated with a higher prevalence of severe morbidity (OR = 46.57; p<0.001). According to a multiple logistic regression, severe morbidity was higher among patients with skin involvement proximal to knees or elbows (OR = 40.92; p<0.001) or among patients with pulmonary hypertension detected by Doppler echocardiography (OR = 23.66 p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—In patients with SSc the extent of skin sclerosis was found to be a determining factor on the prognosis. According to skin sclerosis extent two main subsets of SSc patients with different survival incidence and degree

  15. Conventional clinical and prognostic variables in 150 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases from the indigenous population of Karachi

    PubMed Central

    Alamgir, Muhammad Mohiuddin; Jamal, Qamar; Mirza, Talat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze clinical and prognostic variables of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) cases from the indigenous population of Karachi and to correlate with the common risk factor of tobacco habit. Methods: The study was conducted at Ziauddin University, Karachi. One hundred fifty OSCC cases were collected from the Oncology Department of Ziauddin University Hospital, North Nazimabad, Karachi and Otolaryngology ward of Civil Hospital, Karachi, during 2011 and 2015. The reporting included demographic details and variables like intra-oral subsites, clinical stage and histological grade. Recurrence of tumor after initial resection was also documented. Results: The patient’s population comprised of 98 males and 52 females. The mean age was 47.1± 12.22 (range:20-78 years). Maximum numbers were seen in the 41–50 years age group. Urdu-speaking community was the most affected ethnic group (n=75). Clinico-pathological analysis revealed that majority of cases were moderately differentiated (59%) and were either clinical stage II (35%) or IV (29%) tumors. The most common intra-oral subsite came out to be buccal mucosa of cheeks (56%) followed by lateral borders of tongue (21%), lips (13%), alveolar (6%), palate (2.6%) floor of mouth (1.3%), etc. Recurrence was observed in 08 out of 150 cases. All patients underwent primary resection±neck dissection and reconstruction where possible. Conclusions: Overall experience with oral squamous cell carcinoma shows that it has a high tendency for local invasion as well as dissemination to regional lymph nodes, i.e. cervical lymph nodes, both are associated with a poor prognosis. Preventable risk factor of tobacco chewing has been observed in majority of these cases. PMID:27375712

  16. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions as a prognostic factor for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ting-Kuang; Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi

    2006-01-01

    We investigated distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) as a prognostic factor in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) patients with the time-dependent Cox proportional-hazards model. We also compared the importance of the prognostic factors that are reported in the literature. 108 patients with ISSHL were included. Both DPOAE and pure tone audiometry were performed everyday for a maximum of 7 days during admission and followed every other week or monthly after discharge. All DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at 2f1-f2--namely 1093, 1375, 1750, 2187, 2781, 3500, 4375, and 5500 Hz. The average of two series of DPOAE intensity corrected for the noise level in eight frequencies was coded as dichotomous at > or =6 or <6 dB. We selected the most updated DPOAE at 3 days or more before the assessment of recovery into the analysis. The potential confounders including age, sex, history of vertigo at onset, history of hypertension, diabetes, coronary arterial disease, and stroke, configuration and severity of initial pure tone audiometry, the duration from onset to treatment, auditory brainstem response (ABR), vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP), and plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels, hemoglobin level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were collected for evaluation. The results showed that a better DPOAE amplitude was a significantly good prognostic indicator both in univariate analysis (recovery rate ratio = 3.626, 95% CI = 2.119-6.205, p < 0.0001) and multivariate analysis (recovery rate ratio = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.537-5.624, p = 0.0011). The Kaplan-Meier estimates showed that the younger age group (< or =40 years) with better initial pure tone audiometry (<65 dB) represented a better prognosis that was compatible with previous literature (log-rank test, p = 0.0297 and p = 0.0019 respectively). In the univariate analysis, normal ABR and VEMP waveforms were associated with a better prognosis (ABR: recovery rate ratio = 2.984, 95% CI = 1

  17. Alcohol drinking as an unfavorable prognostic factor for male patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Zhao, Bing-Cheng; Chen, Chen; Lei, Xin-Xing; Shen, Lu-Jun; Chen, Gang; Yan, Fang; Wang, Guan-Nan; Chen, Han; Jiang, Yi-Quan; Xia, Yun-Fei

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between alcohol drinking and the prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is unknown. To investigate the prognostic value of alcohol drinking on NPC, this retrospective study was conducted on 1923 male NPC patients. Patients were classified as current, former and non-drinkers according to their drinking status. Furthermore, they were categorized as heavy drinkers and mild/none drinkers based on the intensity and duration of alcohol drinking. Survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards model. We found that current drinkers had significantly lower overall survival (OS) rate (5-year OS: 70.2% vs. 76.4%, P < 0.001) and locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) rate (5-year LRFS: 69.3% vs. 77.5%, P < 0.001) compared with non-drinkers. Drinking ≥14 drinks/week, and drinking ≥20 years were both independent unfavorable prognostic factors for OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.81, P = 0.022; HR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.09–1.75, P = 0.007). Stratified analyses further revealed that the negative impacts of alcohol were manifested mainly among older patients and among smokers. In conclusion, alcohol drinking is a useful predictor of prognosis in male NPC patients; drinkers, especially heavy drinkers have poorer prognosis. PMID:26776301

  18. The putative oncogene, CRNDE, is a negative prognostic factor in ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Grzybowska, Ewa Anna; Pienkowska-Grela, Barbara; Podgorska, Agnieszka; Zub, Renata; Olbryt, Magdalena; Pamula-Pilat, Jolanta; Lisowska, Katarzyna M.; Grzybowska, Ewa; Rubel, Tymon; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Konopka, Bozena; Kulesza, Magdalena; Lukasik, Martyna

    2015-01-01

    The CRNDE gene seems to play an oncogenic role in cancers, though its exact function remains unknown. Here, we tried to assess its usefulness as a molecular prognostic marker in ovarian cancer. Based on results of our microarray studies, CRNDE transcripts were further analyzed by Real-Time qPCR-based profiling of their expression. The qPCR study was conducted with the use of personally designed TaqMan assays on 135 frozen tissue sections of ovarian carcinomas from patients treated with platinum compounds and either cyclophosphamide (PC, N = 32) or taxanes (TP, N = 103). Elevated levels of two different CRNDE transcripts were a negative prognostic factor; they increased the risk of death and recurrence in the group of patients treated with TP, but not PC (DNA-damaging agents only). Higher associations were found for overexpression of the short CRNDE splice variant (FJ466686): HR 6.072, 95% CI 1.814–20.32, p = 0.003 (the risk of death); HR 15.53, 95% CI 3.812–63.28, p < 0.001 (the risk of recurrence). Additionally, accumulation of the TP53 protein correlated with decreased expression of both CRNDE transcripts in tumor cells. Our results depict CRNDE as a potential marker of poor prognosis in women with ovarian carcinomas, and suggest that its significance depends on the therapeutic regimen used. PMID:26556866

  19. ExSurv: A Web Resource for Prognostic Analyses of Exons Across Human Cancers Using Clinical Transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Hashemikhabir, Seyedsasan; Budak, Gungor; Janga, Sarath Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Survival analysis in biomedical sciences is generally performed by correlating the levels of cellular components with patients' clinical features as a common practice in prognostic biomarker discovery. While the common and primary focus of such analysis in cancer genomics so far has been to identify the potential prognostic genes, alternative splicing - a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism that affects the functional form of a protein due to inclusion or exclusion of individual exons giving rise to alternative protein products, has increasingly gained attention due to the prevalence of splicing aberrations in cancer transcriptomes. Hence, uncovering the potential prognostic exons can not only help in rationally designing exon-specific therapeutics but also increase specificity toward more personalized treatment options. To address this gap and to provide a platform for rational identification of prognostic exons from cancer transcriptomes, we developed ExSurv (https://exsurv.soic.iupui.edu), a web-based platform for predicting the survival contribution of all annotated exons in the human genome using RNA sequencing-based expression profiles for cancer samples from four cancer types available from The Cancer Genome Atlas. ExSurv enables users to search for a gene of interest and shows survival probabilities for all the exons associated with a gene and found to be significant at the chosen threshold. ExSurv also includes raw expression values across the cancer cohort as well as the survival plots for prognostic exons. Our analysis of the resulting prognostic exons across four cancer types revealed that most of the survival-associated exons are unique to a cancer type with few processes such as cell adhesion, carboxylic, fatty acid metabolism, and regulation of T-cell signaling common across cancer types, possibly suggesting significant differences in the posttranscriptional regulatory pathways contributing to prognosis. PMID:27528797

  20. ExSurv: A Web Resource for Prognostic Analyses of Exons Across Human Cancers Using Clinical Transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Hashemikhabir, Seyedsasan; Budak, Gungor; Janga, Sarath Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Survival analysis in biomedical sciences is generally performed by correlating the levels of cellular components with patients’ clinical features as a common practice in prognostic biomarker discovery. While the common and primary focus of such analysis in cancer genomics so far has been to identify the potential prognostic genes, alternative splicing – a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism that affects the functional form of a protein due to inclusion or exclusion of individual exons giving rise to alternative protein products, has increasingly gained attention due to the prevalence of splicing aberrations in cancer transcriptomes. Hence, uncovering the potential prognostic exons can not only help in rationally designing exon-specific therapeutics but also increase specificity toward more personalized treatment options. To address this gap and to provide a platform for rational identification of prognostic exons from cancer transcriptomes, we developed ExSurv (https://exsurv.soic.iupui.edu), a web-based platform for predicting the survival contribution of all annotated exons in the human genome using RNA sequencing-based expression profiles for cancer samples from four cancer types available from The Cancer Genome Atlas. ExSurv enables users to search for a gene of interest and shows survival probabilities for all the exons associated with a gene and found to be significant at the chosen threshold. ExSurv also includes raw expression values across the cancer cohort as well as the survival plots for prognostic exons. Our analysis of the resulting prognostic exons across four cancer types revealed that most of the survival-associated exons are unique to a cancer type with few processes such as cell adhesion, carboxylic, fatty acid metabolism, and regulation of T-cell signaling common across cancer types, possibly suggesting significant differences in the posttranscriptional regulatory pathways contributing to prognosis. PMID:27528797

  1. Doxorubicin, vinblastine, and gemcitabine (CALGB 50203) for stage I/II nonbulky Hodgkin lymphoma: pretreatment prognostic factors and interim PET

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeffrey L.; LaCasce, Ann S.; Bartlett, Nancy L.; Kostakoglu, Lale; Hsi, Eric D.; Schöder, Heiko; Hall, Nathan C.; Jung, Sin-Ho; Canellos, George P.; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Takvorian, Ronald W.; Juweid, Malik E.; Cheson, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    To reduce doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine toxicity, the Cancer and Leukemia Group B conducted a phase 2 trial of doxorubicin, vinblastine, and gemcitabine for newly diagnosed, nonbulky stages I and II Hodgkin lymphoma. Ninety-nine assessable patients received 6 cycles of doxorubicin 25 mg/m2, vinblastine 6 mg/m2, and gemcitabine 800 mg/m2 (1000 mg/m2 in first 6) on days 1 and 15 every 28 days. Computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) were performed before and after 2 and 6 cycles. Complete remission (CR)/CR unconfirmed was achieved in 72 of 99 patients (72.7%) and partial remission in 24 of 99 patients (24.2%). The CR rate was 81% when using PET criteria. Two patients have died of Hodgkin lymphoma progression. Median follow-up for nonprogressing patients is 3.3 years. The progression-free survival (PFS) at 3 years was 77% (95% confidence interval, 68%-84%). The relapse rate was less than 10% for patients with favorable prognostic factors. The 2-year PFS for cycle 2 PET-negative and -positive patients was 88% and 54%, respectively (P = .0009), compared with 89% and 27% for cycle 6 PET-negative and -positive patients (P = .0001). Although the CR rate and PFS were lower than anticipated, patients with favorable prognostic features had a low rate of relapse. Cycle 2 PET and cycle 6 PET were predictive of PFS. This clinical trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00086801. PMID:21355087

  2. Prognostic Value of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) in Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Mingming; Hu, Ying; He, Jiabei; Li, Baolan

    2016-01-01

    Background Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is known to stimulate angiogenesis and thus to influence the proliferation, migration and survival of tumor cells. Many studies examined the relationship between human bFGF overexpression and survival in lung cancer patients, but the results have been mixed. To systematically summarize the clinical prognostic function of bFGF in lung cancer, we performed this systematic review with meta-analysis. Method Studies were identified by an electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang databases, including publications prior toAugust 2014. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) for overall survival (OS) were aggregated and quantitatively analyzed by meta-analysis. Results Twenty-two studies (n = 2154) were evaluated in the meta-analysis. Combined HR suggested that bFGF overexpression had an adverse impact on survival of patients with lung cancer(HR = 1.202,95%CI, 1.022–1.382). Our subgroup analysis revealed that the combined HR evaluating bFGF expression on OS in operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was 1.553 (95%CI, 1.120–1.986); the combined HR in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) was 1.667 (95%CI, 1.035–2.299). There was no significant impact of bFGF expression on survival in advanced NSCLC. Conclusion This meta-analysis showed that bFGF overexpression is a potential indicator of worse prognosis for patients with operable NSCLC and SCLC, but is not associated with outcome in advanced NSCLC. The data suggests that high bFGF expression is highly related to poor prognosis. Nevertheless,more high-quality studies should be performed in order to provide additional evidence for the prognostic value of bFGF in lung cancer. PMID:26824699

  3. Proposal for therapeutic approach based on prognostic factors including morphometric and flow-cytometric features in stage III-IV ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wils, J; van Geuns, H; Baak, J

    1988-05-01

    In 73 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage III and IV ovarian cancer the prognostic significance of morphometric and flow-cytometric features has been evaluated in comparison with more commonly used prognostic factors such as stage and tumor mass. Single features associated with prognosis were as follows: FIGO stage, bulky disease, mean and standard deviation of nuclear area, cellular DNA content, mitotic activity index, and volume percentage epithelium. Multivariate analysis showed that the most significant prognostic combination of features consisted of mean nuclear area, presence or absence of bulky disease, and FIGO stage (in sequence of decreasing importance; Mantel-Cox = 23.07, P less than 0.00001). On the basis of these factors patients with a poor prognosis can be identified. On the other hand two features were associated with an excellent prognosis namely a low mitotic index and a low-volume percentage epithelium. It is concluded that morphometric and flow-cytometric analysis in combination with clinical features can provide significant information to predict the prognosis of patients with advanced ovarian cancer treated with debulking surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. On the basis of our data a tentative proposal for future therapeutic approaches is made.

  4. Feeling too hot or cold after breast cancer: Is it just a nuisance or a potentially important prognostic factor?

    PubMed Central

    KOKOLUS, KATHLEEN M.; HONG, CHI-CHEN; REPASKY, ELIZABETH A.

    2010-01-01

    There is widespread recognition among both patients and caregivers that breast cancer patients often experience debilitating deficiencies in their ability to achieve thermal comfort, feeling excessively hot or cold under circumstances when others are comfortable. However, this symptom receives little clinical or scientific attention beyond identification and testing of drugs that minimise menopausal-like symptoms. Could some of these symptoms represent an important prognostic signal? Could thermal discomfort be among other cytokine-driven sickness behaviour symptoms seen in many breast cancer patients? While the literature reveals a strong link between treatment for breast cancer and some menopausal vasomotor symptoms (e.g. hot flashes also known as “hot flushes”), there is little data on quantitative assessment of severity of different types of symptoms and their possible prognostic potential. However, recent, intriguing studies indicating a correlation between the presence of hot flashes and reduced development of breast cancer recurrence strongly suggests that more study on this topic is needed. In comparison to reports on the phenomenon of breast cancer-associated hot flashes, there is essentially no scientific study on the large number of women who report feeling excessively cold after breast cancer treatment. Since similar acquired thermal discomfort symptoms can occur in patients with cancers other than breast cancer, there may be as yet unidentified cancer – or treatment-driven factor related to temperature dysregulation. In general, there is surprisingly little information on the physiological relationship between body temperature regulation, vasomotor symptoms, and cancer growth and progression. The goal of this article is twofold: (1) to review the scientific literature egarding acquired deficits inthermoregulation among breast cancer survivors and (2) to propose some speculative ideas regarding the possible basis for thermal discomfort among some

  5. Clinicopathological characteristics and cell cycle proteins as potential prognostic factors in myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Passador-Santos, F; Grönroos, M; Irish, J; Gilbert, R; Gullane, P; Perez-Ordonez, B; Mäkitie, A; Leivo, I

    2016-03-01

    Myoepithelial carcinoma (MCA) is a rare malignancy of salivary glands that was included in the WHO Classification of Head and Neck Tumors in 1991. MCA has shown a broad spectrum of clinical outcomes, but attempts to identify prognostic markers for this malignancy have not resulted in significant progress. Conventional histopathological characteristics such as tumour grade, nuclear atypia, mitotic index and cell proliferation have failed to predict the outcome of MCA. In this study, we reviewed the histopathology of 19 cases of MCA focusing on nuclear atypia, mitotic count, tumour necrosis, nerve and vascular invasion and occurrence of a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma in connection to the MCA. Histopathological characteristics and clinical information were correlated with the immunohistochemical expression of cell cycle proteins including c-Myc, p21, Cdk4 and Cyclin D3. The proportion of tumour cells immunoreactive for these markers and their intensity of staining were correlated with clinical information using logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Using logistic regression analysis, cytoplasmic c-Myc expression was associated with the occurrence of metastases (P = 0.019), but limitations of semi-quantitation of immunostaining and the limited number of cases preclude definitive conclusions. Our data show that the occurrence of tumour necrosis predicts poor disease-free survival in MCA (P = 0.035).

  6. Outcome and Prognostic Factors in Endometrial Stromal Tumors: A Rare Cancer Network Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schick, Ulrike; Bolukbasi, Yasmin; Thariat, Juliette; Abdah-Bortnyak, Roxolyana; Kuten, Abraham; Igdem, Sefik; Caglar, Hale; Ozsaran, Zeynep; Loessl, Kristina; Schleicher, Ursula; Zwahlen, Daniel; Villette, Sylviane; Vees, Hansjoerg

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To provide further understanding regarding outcome and prognostic factors of endometrial stromal tumors (EST). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed on the records of 59 women diagnosed with EST and treated with curative intent between 1983 and 2007 in the framework of the Rare Cancer Network. Results: Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) were found in 44% and undifferentiated ESS (UES) in 49% of the cases. In 7% the grading was unclear. Of the total number of patients, 33 had Stage I, 4 Stage II, 20 Stage III, and 1 presented with Stage IVB disease. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 12 patients, all with UES. External-beam radiotherapy (RT) was administered postoperatively to 48 women. The median follow-up was 41.4 months. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.2% and 64.8% for ESS and UES, respectively, with a corresponding 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate of 49.4% and 43.4%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, adjuvant RT was an independent prognostic factor for OS (p = 0.007) and DFS (p = 0.013). Locoregional control, DFS, and OS were significantly associated with age ({<=}60 vs. >60 years), grade (ESS vs. UES), and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (I-II vs. III-IV). Positive lymph node staging had an impact on OS (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The prognosis of ESS differed from that of UES. Endometrial stromal sarcomas had an excellent 5-year OS, whereas the OS in UES was rather low. However, half of ESS patients had a relapse. For this reason, adjuvant treatment such as RT should be considered even in low-grade tumors. Multicenter randomized studies are still warranted to establish clear guidelines.

  7. Sarcopenia is an independent prognostic factor in male patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nobuhiko; Hara, Takeshi; Shibata, Yuhei; Matsumoto, Takuro; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Soranobu; Kito, Yusuke; Kitagawa, Junichi; Kanemura, Nobuhiro; Goto, Naoe; Shiraki, Makoto; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Shimizu, Masahito; Tsurumi, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Sarcopenia reportedly predicts poor outcomes in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, because previous studies only involved elderly patients, it is difficult to generalize these results to all patients with DLBCL. We retrospectively analyzed 207 patients with DLBCL who received the R-CHOP or R-THP-COP regimen between June 2004 and May 2014. Sarcopenia was measured by the analysis of CT images at the L3 level before treatment. The surface of muscular tissues was selected according to the CT Hounsfield unit. This value was normalized for stature in order to calculate the L3 skeletal muscle index (L3 SMI, cm(2)/m(2)). Median age at diagnosis in the 121 males and 86 females was 67 years (range, 19-86 years). The sex-specific cutoffs for the L3 SMI were determined by receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis. Sarcopenic patients were older than non-sarcopenic patients, with a median age of 70 and 65 years, respectively (p < 0.001). Other International Prognostic Index factors were not significantly different when comparing sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients. With a median follow-up of 50.4 months, the 3-year overall survival (OS) was 70 % in the sarcopenic group and 85 % in the non-sarcopenic group (p = 0.0260). In a subgroup analysis by gender, there was a significant difference in the OS when comparing sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients in males but not in females (p = 0.0003, p = 0.4440, respectively). Sarcopenia is an independent prognostic factor in male patients with DLBCL. PMID:26385388

  8. Postoperative Strontium-90 Brachytherapy in the Prevention of Keloids: Results and Prognostic Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, Gustavo A. Stefano, Eduardo J.; Afonso, Sergio L.; De Fendi, Ligia I.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of keloidectomy and strontium 90 brachytherapy in the prevention of keloid recurrence following excision and to identify outcome and the prognostic factors that predict keloid recurrence after irradiation. Methods and Materials: Data of 612 patients with 892 keloids treated between 1992 and 2006 were evaluated retrospectively. Brachytherapy was performed using a Sr-90Y surface applicator. Total dose was 20 Gy in 10 fractions. Results: With a median follow-up of 61 months, the overall recurrence-free response rate for all keloids was 87.6%. Multivariate analysis revealed the following prognostic factors for recurrence: keloid size > 5 cm (p < 0.0001), burn scars as the keloid etiology (p < 0.0001), and previous treatment (p < 0.0001). Outcome was not found to be significantly related to the interval between surgery and radiotherapy, sex, or age. Pruritus and skin reddening were the most common symptoms of keloids, but all signs and symptoms abated with time after treatment. Cosmetic results from the keloid treatment were considered good or excellent in 70.6% of the patients. Conclusion: Our study findings show that excision plus Sr-90 brachytherapy is effective in the eradication of keloids. Sr-90 radiotherapy (20 Gy in 10 fractions) achieved a similar local control rate, as have higher doses per fraction in other series. It also resulted in a good cosmetic rate and relief of symptoms. Our data further suggest that the initiation of postoperative irradiation within hours of surgical excision is not important to therapeutic outcome.

  9. Treatment outcome and prognostic factor of CO2 laser cordectomy for early glottic cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Phil-Sang; Lee, Sang Joon

    2012-02-01

    Objectives: Laser cordectomy is very popular nowadays and become one of the treatments of choice for early glottis carcinoma. Transoral laser microsurgery has many advantages comparing conventional open surgery or radiation therapy. In this study, we examined the oncologic results of laser cordectomy for early glottic cancer and analyzed the prognostic impact on the survival of the several tumor-related and treatment-related factors. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed as early glottic squamous cell carcinoma, treated by laser cordectomy with curative intent were analyzed. Patients with preivous radiation therapy were included. From June 1988 to March 2005, 202 patients from five hospitals were analyzed (174 T1, 28 T2). Results: Five-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 98.4% and 84.9%. Twenty two patients developed local recurrence. Total laryngectomy was done in 6 patients and laryngeal preservation rate was 97%. Recurrence was higher in the patients with anterior commissure involvement (9/39) than without anterior commissure involvement (13/163). Recurrence was higher in T1b (4/15) than T1a (13/159). Previous radiation was also highly related to the recurrence (7/20 vs 15/182). Twenty patients with local recurrence after radiation therapy were treated by salvage laser cordectomy. Of them, 7 patients developed local recurrence and 5 year disease-free survival was 57%. Complication was rare with one case of hemorrhage. Tracheotomy was not necessary in all patients. Conclusions: Laser cordectomy for early glottic carcinoma showed high survival, laryngeal preservation rate and low complication rate. The prognostic factors were anterior commissure involvement, both vocal fold involvement and previous radiotherapy.

  10. Sarcopenia is an independent prognostic factor in male patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nobuhiko; Hara, Takeshi; Shibata, Yuhei; Matsumoto, Takuro; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Soranobu; Kito, Yusuke; Kitagawa, Junichi; Kanemura, Nobuhiro; Goto, Naoe; Shiraki, Makoto; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Shimizu, Masahito; Tsurumi, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Sarcopenia reportedly predicts poor outcomes in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, because previous studies only involved elderly patients, it is difficult to generalize these results to all patients with DLBCL. We retrospectively analyzed 207 patients with DLBCL who received the R-CHOP or R-THP-COP regimen between June 2004 and May 2014. Sarcopenia was measured by the analysis of CT images at the L3 level before treatment. The surface of muscular tissues was selected according to the CT Hounsfield unit. This value was normalized for stature in order to calculate the L3 skeletal muscle index (L3 SMI, cm(2)/m(2)). Median age at diagnosis in the 121 males and 86 females was 67 years (range, 19-86 years). The sex-specific cutoffs for the L3 SMI were determined by receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis. Sarcopenic patients were older than non-sarcopenic patients, with a median age of 70 and 65 years, respectively (p < 0.001). Other International Prognostic Index factors were not significantly different when comparing sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients. With a median follow-up of 50.4 months, the 3-year overall survival (OS) was 70 % in the sarcopenic group and 85 % in the non-sarcopenic group (p = 0.0260). In a subgroup analysis by gender, there was a significant difference in the OS when comparing sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients in males but not in females (p = 0.0003, p = 0.4440, respectively). Sarcopenia is an independent prognostic factor in male patients with DLBCL.

  11. URG4 expression is a novel prognostic factor for the progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and overall survival of patient

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guodong; Meng, Qingxiang; Zhang, Tian; Zeng, Chen; He, Benfu; Zhang, Shanshan

    2016-01-01

    URG4, a novel oncogene, is involved in the development and progression of various tumors. This study investigated the clinicopathological significance of URG4 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We used five NPC tissues and adjacent normal nasopharyngeal tissues to determine URG4 expression and found that URG4 was upregulated in NPC tissues. Immunohistochemistry analysis found URG4 was expressed positively in 97.1% (99/102) of NPC samples and highly expressed in 41.2% (42/102) of NPC samples. Its level was positively correlated with advancing clinical stage. Kaplan–Meier analysis with the log-rank test found that patients with high URG4 expression had poor outcome and patients with low URG4 expression had better survival. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between URG4 expression and clinical stage, larger tumor size, and lymph node involvement. Cox-regression analysis showed that URG4 expression could serve as a prognostic factor for NPC patients. In summary, this study showed that URG4 was upregulated in NPC tissues, patients with high URG4 expression had poor outcome, and URG4 was found to be a valuable biomarker for NPC progression. PMID:27284257

  12. Prognostic Significance of p27, Ki-67, and Topoisomerase lla Expression in Clinically Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hee Jin; Batts, Kenneth P.; Lloyd, Ricardo V.; Sebo, Thomas J.; Thompson, Geoffrey B.; Lohse, Christine M.; Pankratz, Shane V.

    2000-01-01

    Nonfunctioning islet cell tumors or pancreatic endocrine tumors are the most common type of malignant islet cell tumor. Although previously detected usually at an advanced stage because of mass effect, the early detection rate of small localized disease has been increasing. To date it has been difficult to predict the clinical behavior in localized regional nonfunctioning tumors. To investigate potential markers predicting malignancy and poor prognosis in nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors, we analyzed the expression of Ki-67, topoisomerase Ila (Topolla), and p27, as well as a variety of clinicopathologic parameters in 76 cases of nonfunctioning islet cell tumors (23 benign cases and 53 malignant cases). Ki-67, Topolla. and p27 labeling indices were significantly different between benign and malignant tumors. Expression of Ki-67, Topolla, and p27 were associated with survival in patients with a malignant tumor in a univariate setting. However, only p27 and Topolla were jointly associated with survival in multivariate analysis. Immunohistochemical staining for p27, Topolla, and Ki-67 can be helpful in the diagnosis of nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumor. Analysis of p27 and Topolla may also have potential utility as prognostic factors for malignant tumors.

  13. Evaluation of MAGE-1 Cancer-Testis Antigen Expression in Invasive Breast Cancer and its Correlation with Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Rastgoosalami, Mojtaba; Memar, Bahram; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; Fanipakdel, Azar

    2016-01-01

    Background Aberrant expression of cancer-testis antigens (CTA) in breast carcinoma tissue, and its natural expression in the testis, the tissue away from the immune system, makes them good candidates for cancer immunotherapy and vaccines designing. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the expression of a CTA (MAGE-1) in invasive breast cancer and its correlation with prognostic factors. Methods Paraffin blocks of breast cancer tissues from 113 patients operated in 2011 - 2013 were stained for MAGE-1expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The associations of MAGE-1 expression with known prognostic factors were assessed by statistical analysis using SPSS 16. Results MAGE-1 expression was found in cancer cell cytoplasms of 30.1% of patients, with different degrees of intensity, (23.9% moderate and 6.2% strong). Nuclear staining turned positive in 31.8%, stratified from moderate in 26.5%to to strong in 5.3%. There was a significant association between the number of lymph nodes involved and both nuclear (P = 0.042) and cytoplasmic (P = 0.003) MAGE-1 expression. There was also a significant correlation between the nuclear expression of MAGE-1 and tumor size (P = 0.018). Cytoplasmic expression of MAGE-1 increased with increasing pathologic grade of tumors although the association was not statistically significant (P = 0.119). Conclusions CTA MAGE-1 has significant association with some prognostic factors in breast cancer and may have the role of a prognostic factor. PMID:27761208

  14. Prognostic factors influencing survival in gastrointestinal leiomyosarcomas. Implications for surgical management and staging.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, E H; Pollock, R E; Munsell, M F; Atkinson, E N; Romsdahl, M M

    1992-01-01

    The appropriate surgical therapeutic options for either localized or more advanced disease in patients with gastrointestinal leiomyosarcomas remain unclear. A staging classification for this disease has not been adopted nor risk factors identifying patients at risk for recurrence defined. To address these issues, this study evaluated the influence of various clinicopathologic variables on overall and disease-free survival. In an univariate analysis of overall survival involving 191 patients, the Cox proportional hazards model identified four factors that were associated with a significantly better outcome: complete resection without tumor rupture (p less than 0.001), localized lesions (p less than 0.001), low grade of tumor (p = 0.02), and tumors smaller than 5 cm (p = 0.03). When interactive effects of these factors were taken into account, however, type of resection of the tumor was selected as the only significant prognostic factor in a multivariate analysis. Complete resection without tumor rupture improved overall survival of patients with localized disease (median, 46 months) as well as those with contiguous organ invasion (median, 36 months) or peritoneal implants (median, 36 months). In contrast, patients with incomplete resections survived for a median of 21 months. Patients with tumor rupture, despite removal of all gross disease, behaved similarly to those with incomplete resections; median survival was only 17 months. For disease-free survival, important determinants selected from a multivariate analysis were tumor rupture (p = 0.002), contiguous organ invasion (p = 0.02) and high tumor grade (p = 0.02). A staging classification incorporating these prognostic factors of significance was evaluated using a TGM system: T1 (less than 5 cm), T2 (greater than or equal to 5 cm), T3 (contiguous organ invasion or peritoneal implants), T4 (tumor rupture); G: G1 (low grade), G2 (high grade); M: M0 (no metastases), M1 (metastases present). The corresponding 5-year

  15. Prognostic factors vs. outcome in male-to-female transsexualism. A follow-up study of 13 cases.

    PubMed

    Lindemalm, G; Körlin, D; Uddenberg, N

    1987-03-01

    Thirteen male-to-female transsexuals were investigated 6 to 25 years after surgery. Thirty-five prognostic items were compared with each of three outcome variables. Traumatic loss of both parents in infancy was connected with repentance at follow-up. A childhood family of an overprotective mother and a distant father, on the other hand, was prognostically favourable. Contrary to most previous reports, high sexual activity and bisexual experience was associated with fair sexual adjustment and with non-repentance after sex change. The repenting individuals, on the other hand, had been a-sexual or hyposexual before surgery. Completed military service, a history of typically masculine, hard jobs, and a comparatively late (more than 30 years of age) first request for surgery, were found to be negative prognostic factors in sex-reassignment evaluations. The phenomenon of ambivalence or hesitance during the trial period is discussed. Both too much and too little ambivalence may suggest a poor prognosis. PMID:3591409

  16. Treatment Outcome and Recursive Partitioning Analysis-Based Prognostic Factors in Patients With Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Receiving Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Kim, Sung- Bae Ahn, Jin Hee; Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Jong Hoon; Jung, Hwoon Yong; Lee, Gin Hyug; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho-Young; Shin, Ji Hoon; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Park, Seung-Il

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To analyze the clinical outcomes and devise a prognostic model for patients with operable esophageal carcinoma who underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 269 patients were enrolled into three clinical trials assessing preoperative CRT at our institution. We assessed the significance of the pretreatment and treatment factors with regard to tumor recurrence and long-term survival and used recursive partitioning analysis to create a decision tree. Results: At a median follow-up of 31 months for the surviving patients, the median overall survival of all 180 patients in this study was 31.8 months, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 33.9%. The median event-free survival was 24.1 months, and the 5-year event-free survival rate was 29.3%. Of the 180 patients, 129 (71.7%) also underwent esophagectomy, and the perioperative mortality rate was 7.8%. A pathologic complete response was achieved by 58 patients (45%). The 5-year overall survival rate was 57.1% for patients who attained a pathologic complete response and 22.4% for those with gross residual disease (p = 0.0008). Recursive partitioning analysis showed that female patients who achieved a clinical response and underwent esophagectomy had the most favorable prognosis (p <0.0001). Among the patients who underwent esophagectomy, the group with good performance status, clinical Stage II, and a major pathologic response to CRT had the most favorable prognosis (p = 0.0002). Conclusion: Although preoperative CRT was generally effective and well-tolerated, an individualized approach is necessary to improve outcomes. Strategies to increase the response and reduce treatment failure should be investigated.

  17. Association Between Nutritional Status, Inflammatory Condition, and Prognostic Indexes with Postoperative Complications and Clinical Outcome of Patients with Gastrointestinal Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Costa, Milena Damasceno de Souza; Vieira de Melo, Camila Yandara Sousa; Amorim, Ana Carolina Ribeiro de; Cipriano Torres, Dilênia de Oliveira; Dos Santos, Ana Célia Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and relate nutritional and inflammatory status and prognostic indexes with postoperative complications and clinical outcome of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. Twenty-nine patients were evaluated; nutritional assessment was carried out by subjective and objective parameters; albumin, pre-albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were determined. To assess prognosis, the Glasgow scale, the Prognostic Inflammatory Nutritional Index (PINI), and CRP/albumin ratio were used; the clinical outcomes considered were hospital discharge and death. A high Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) score was associated with the occurrence of postoperative complications: 73% of the patients with postoperative complications had the highest SGA score, but only 6% of those without postoperative complications had the highest SGA score (P < 0.001). Greater occurrence of death was observed in patients with a high SGA score, low serum albumin, increased CRP, PINI > 1, and Glasgow score 2. There was a positive correlation between weight loss percentage with serum CRP levels (P = 0.002), CRP/albumin (P = 0.002), PINI (P = 0.002), and Glasgow score (P = 0.000). This study provides evidence that the assessment of the nutritional status and the use of prognostic indexes are good tools for predicting postoperative complications and clinical outcome in patients with gastrointestinal neoplasia.

  18. Outcomes of pediatric glioblastoma treated with adjuvant chemoradiation with temozolomide and correlation with prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Supriya; Gandhi, Ajeet Kumar; Joshi, Nikhil P.; Kumar, Anupam; Puri, Tarun; Sharma, Daya Nand; Haresh, Kunhi Parambath; Gupta, Subhash; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Rath, Goura Kisor; Sarkar, Chitra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pediatric glioblastoma (pGBM) patients are underrepresented in major trials for this disease. We aimed to explore the outcome of pGBM patients treated with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). Materials and Methods: 23 patients of pGBM treated from 2004 to 2010 were included in this retrospective analysis. Adjuvant therapy included conformal radiation 60 gray at 2 gray/fraction daily over 6 weeks with concurrent TMZ 75 mg/m2 followed by six cycles of adjuvant TMZ 150-200 mg/m2 (day 1-5) every 4 weeks. Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival (OS) were determined. Univariate analysis with log-rank test was used to determine the impact of prognostic variables on survival. Results: Median age at presentation was 11.5 years (range: 7-19 years) and M:F ratio was 15:8. All patients underwent maximal safe surgical resection; 13 gross total resection and 10 sub-total resection. At a median follow-up of 18 months (range: 2.1-126 months), the estimated median OS was 41.9 months. The estimated median OS for patients receiving only concurrent TMZ was 8 months while that for patients receiving concurrent and adjuvant TMZ was 41.9 months (P = 0.081). Estimated median OS for patients who did not complete six cycles of adjuvant TMZ was 9.5 months versus not reached for those who completed at least six cycles (P = 0.0005). Other prognostic factors did not correlate with survival. Conclusions: Our study shows the benefit of TMZ for pGBM patients. Both concurrent and adjuvant TMZ seem to be important for superior OS in this group of patients. PMID:26157286

  19. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and TSH as Risk Factors or Prognostic Markers in Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Danilovic, Debora Lucia Seguro; Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Fabri, Amanda Wictky; Santana, Nathalie Oliveira; Kulcsar, Marco Aurelio; Cernea, Claudio Roberto; Marui, Suemi; Hoff, Ana Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Objective The increasing incidence of thyroid nodules demands identification of risk factors for malignant disease. Several studies suggested the association of higher TSH levels with cancer, but influence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is controversial. This study aimed to identify the relationship of thyroid cancer with higher TSH levels and hypovitaminosis D and to evaluate their influence on prognostic characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). Methods We retrospectively evaluated 433 patients submitted to thyroidectomy for thyroid nodules. Patients were categorized according to quartiles of TSH and 25OHD levels. Clinicopathological features were analyzed. Results Subjects with thyroid carcinomas were more frequently male and younger compared to those with benign disease. Their median TSH levels were higher and adjusted odds-ratio (OR) for cancer in the highest-quartile of TSH (> 2.4 mUI/mL) was 2.36 (1.36–4.09). Although vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was prevalent in our cohort (84%), no significant differences in 25OHD levels or quartile distribution were observed between benign and malignant cases. Among 187 patients with PTC, analyses of prognostic features revealed increased risk of lymph nodes metastases for subjects with highest-quartile TSH levels (OR = 3.7, p = 0.029). Decreased 25OHD levels were not overtly associated with poor prognosis in PTC. Conclusions In this cross-sectional cohort, higher TSH levels increased the risk of cancer in thyroid nodules and influenced its prognosis, particularly favoring lymph nodes metastases. On the other hand, no association was found between 25OHD levels and thyroid carcinoma risk or prognosis, suggesting that serum 25OHD determination may not contribute to risk assessment workup of thyroid nodules. PMID:27737011

  20. Endocan-expressing microvessel density as a prognostic factor for survival in human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yuan; Niu, Wei; Lian, Pei-Long; Wang, Xian-Qiang; Meng, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Rui

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of endocan in tumour vessels and the relationships between endocan and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prognosis in gastric cancer. METHODS: This study included 142 patients with confirmed gastric cancer in a single cancer centre between 2008 and 2009. Clinicopathologic features were determined, and an immunohistochemical analysis of endocan-expressing microvessel density (MVD) (endocan-MVD), VEGF and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) was performed. Potential relationships between endocan-MVD and clinicopathological variables were assessed using a Student’s t-test or an analysis of variance test. Spearman’s rank correlation was applied to evaluate the relationship between endocan-MVD and the expression of VEGF/VEGFR2. Long-term survival of these patients was analysed using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Positive staining of endocan was observed in most of the gastric cancer tissues (108/142) and in fewer of the normal gastric tissues. Endocan-MVD was not associated with gender or histological type (P > 0.05), while endocan-MVD was associated with tumour size, Borrmann type, tumour differentiation, tumour invasion, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (P < 0.05). According to the Spearman’s rank correlation analysis, endocan-MVD had a positive correlation with VEGF (r = 0.167, P = 0.047) and VEGFR2 (r = 0.410, P = 0.000). The univariate analysis with a log-rank test indicated that the patients with a high level of endocan-MVD had a significantly poorer overall survival rate than those with a low level of endocan-MVD (17.9% vs 64.0%, P = 0.000). The multivariate analysis showed that a high level of endocan-MVD was a valuable prognostic factor. CONCLUSION: Endocan-MVD significantly correlates with the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 and is a valuable prognostic factor for survival in human gastric cancer. PMID:27340359

  1. Elevated asthma morbidity in Puerto Rican children: a review of possible risk and prognostic factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lara, M; Morgenstern, H; Duan, N; Brook, R H

    1999-01-01

    Latino children represent a significant proportion of all US children, and asthma is the most common chronic illness affecting them. Previous research has revealed surprising differences in health among Latino children with asthma of varying countries of family origin. For instance, Puerto Rican children have a higher prevalence of asthma than Mexican American or Cuban American children. In addition, there are important differences in family structure and socioeconomic status among these Latino populations: Cuban Americans have higher levels of education and family income than Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans; mainland Puerto Rican children have the highest proportion of households led by a single mother. Our review of past research documents differences in asthma outcomes among Latino children and identifies the possible genetic, environmental, and health care factors associated with these differences. Based on this review, we propose research studies designed to differentiate between mutable and immutable risk and prognostic factors. We also propose that the sociocultural milieus of Latino subgroups of different ethnic and geographic origin are associated with varying patterns of risk factors that in turn lead to different morbidity patterns. Our analysis provides a blue-print for future research, policy development, and the evaluation of multifactorial interventions involving the collaboration of multiple social sectors, such as health care, public health, education, and public and private agencies. PMID:10063393

  2. Concurrent radiotherapy and intrathecal methotrexate for treating leptomeningeal metastasis from solid tumors with adverse prognostic factors: A prospective and single-arm study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhenyu; Yang, Guozi; He, Hua; Zhao, Gang; Yuan, Tingting; Li, Yu; Shi, Weiyan; Gao, Pengxiang; Dong, Lihua; Li, Yunqian

    2016-10-15

    The prognosis of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) from solid tumors is extremely poor, especially for patients with adverse prognostic factors. In this phase II clinical trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of intrathecal chemotherapy (IC) combined with concomitant involved-field radiotherapy (IF-RT) for treating LM from solid tumors with adverse prognostic factors. Fifty-nine patients with LM from various solid tumors were enrolled between May 2010 and December 2014. Concurrent therapy consisted of concomitant IC (methotrexate 12.5-15 mg and dexamethasone 5 mg, weekly) and IF-RT (whole brain and/or spinal canal RT, 40 Gy/20f). For patients with low Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score and radiotherapy intolerance, induction IC (1-3 times) was given before concurrent therapy. Thirty-eight patients (64.4%) received subsequent treatments. All patients were followed up at least 6 months after LM diagnosis or until death. Primary endpoint evaluated was clinical response rate. Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and safety. The pathological types included lung cancer (n = 42), breast cancer (n = 11) and others (n = 6). Median KPS score was 40 (range 20-70). Fifty-one patients (86.4%) completed concurrent therapy. The overall response rate was 86.4% (51/59). OS ranged from 0.4 to 36.7 months (median 6.5 months), and 1-year-survival rate was 21.3%. Treatment-related adverse events mainly included acute meningitis, chronic-delayed encephalopathy, radiculitis, myelosuppression and mucositis. Twelve patients (20.3%) had grade III-V toxic reactions. We concluded that IC combined with concomitant IF-RT, with significant efficacy and acceptable toxicity, may be an optimal therapeutic option for treatment of LM from solid tumors with adverse prognostic factors. LM, in which cancer cells spread to membranes enveloping the brain and spinal cord, is a devastating complication of solid cancers. Existing LM therapies center on IC. In this prospective

  3. Prognostic significance of the co-expression of nucleophosmin and trefoil factor 3 in postoperative gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Sun, Zhenqing; Liu, Kewei; Qiu, Wensheng; Yao, Ruyong; Feng, Tongtong; Xin, Chao; Yue, Lu

    2014-11-01

    Although a number of studies have indicated that the positive expression of nucleophosmin (NPM) and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is associated with oncogenesis and poor prognosis in several tumor types, the prognostic value of the co-expression of NPM and TFF3 in gastric cancer (GC) has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the role of NPM and TFF3 in GC and determine their prognostic value. We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients who had undergone radical gastric tumor resection. The expression of NPM and TFF3 was detected by immunohistochemistry and the association of NPM and TFF3 with clinicopathological characteristics was investigated using the Chi-square test. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine the prognostic value of these markers. Of the 108 samples, NPM was positive in 57 (53%) and TFF3 was positive in 54 samples (50%). The positive expression of NPM was correlated with advanced tumor stage and recurrence (P=0.0333 and P<0.0001, respectively), whereas the expression of TFF3 was associated with larger tumor size (P=0.0005), poor differentiation (P=0.0435), lymph node metastasis (P=0.0116), advanced tumor stage (P=0.0244) and recurrence (P=0.0116). The univariate analysis revealed that the expression of NPM, the expression of TFF3 and the co-expression of the two were associated with poor survival (P=0.0004, 0.0028 and 0.0020, respectively). By multivariate analysis, all three factors were identified as independent prognostic factors in postoperative GC patients (hazard ratio = 1.970, 2.021 and 2.339, respectively). In conclusion, the expression of NPM and TFF3 and, particularly, the co-expression of the two, may serve as independent prognostic factors in postoperative GC patients.

  4. Prognostic significance of the co-expression of nucleophosmin and trefoil factor 3 in postoperative gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    LI, YONG; SUN, ZHENQING; LIU, KEWEI; QIU, WENSHENG; YAO, RUYONG; FENG, TONGTONG; XIN, CHAO; YUE, LU

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of studies have indicated that the positive expression of nucleophosmin (NPM) and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is associated with oncogenesis and poor prognosis in several tumor types, the prognostic value of the co-expression of NPM and TFF3 in gastric cancer (GC) has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the role of NPM and TFF3 in GC and determine their prognostic value. We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients who had undergone radical gastric tumor resection. The expression of NPM and TFF3 was detected by immunohistochemistry and the association of NPM and TFF3 with clinicopathological characteristics was investigated using the Chi-square test. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine the prognostic value of these markers. Of the 108 samples, NPM was positive in 57 (53%) and TFF3 was positive in 54 samples (50%). The positive expression of NPM was correlated with advanced tumor stage and recurrence (P=0.0333 and P<0.0001, respectively), whereas the expression of TFF3 was associated with larger tumor size (P=0.0005), poor differentiation (P=0.0435), lymph node metastasis (P=0.0116), advanced tumor stage (P=0.0244) and recurrence (P=0.0116). The univariate analysis revealed that the expression of NPM, the expression of TFF3 and the co-expression of the two were associated with poor survival (P=0.0004, 0.0028 and 0.0020, respectively). By multivariate analysis, all three factors were identified as independent prognostic factors in postoperative GC patients (hazard ratio = 1.970, 2.021 and 2.339, respectively). In conclusion, the expression of NPM and TFF3 and, particularly, the co-expression of the two, may serve as independent prognostic factors in postoperative GC patients. PMID:25279197

  5. Prognostic factors associated with the success rates of posterior orthodontic miniscrew implants: A subgroup meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Bin; Kusnoto, Budi; Kim, Eun-Jeong; BeGole, Ellen A; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik

    2016-01-01

    Objective To systematically review previous studies and to assess, via a subgroup meta-analysis, the combined odds ratio (OR) of prognostic factors affecting the success of miniscrew implants (MIs) inserted into the buccal posterior region. Methods Three electronic searches that were limited to articles on clinical human studies using MIs that were published in English prior to March 2015 were conducted. The outcome measure was the success of MIs. Patient factors included age, sex, and jaw of insertion (maxilla vs. mandible), while the MI factors included length and diameter. A meta-analysis was performed on 17 individual studies. The quality of each study was assessed for non-randomized studies and quantified using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The meta-analysis outcome was a combined OR. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses based on the study design, study quality, and sample size of miniscrews implanted were performed. Results Significantly higher success rates were revealed for MIs inserted in the maxilla, for patients ≥ 20 years of age, and for long MIs (≥ 8 mm) and MIs with a large diameter (> 1.4 mm). All subgroups acquired homogeneity, and the combined OR of the prospective studies (OR, 3.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.10-6.44) was significantly higher in the maxilla than that in the retrospective studies (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.60-2.74). Conclusions When a treatment plan is made, these risk factors, i.e. jaw of insertion, age, MI length, and MI diameter, should be taken into account, while sex is not critical to the success of MIs. PMID:27019826

  6. High-Grade Acute Organ Toxicity as a Positive Prognostic Factor in Primary Radiochemotherapy for Anal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Hendrik Andreas; Raus, Ismene; Jung, Klaus; Schueler, Phillip; Herrmann, Markus Karl; Hennies, Steffen; Vorwerk, Hilke; Hille, Andrea; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To test for a possible correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity during primary radiochemotherapy and treatment outcome for patients with anal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 2009, 72 patients with anal carcinoma were treated at our department (10 patients had stage I, 28 patients had stage II, 11 patients had stage IIIA, and 13 patients had stage IIIB cancer [Union Internationale Contre le Cancer criteria]). All patients received normofractionated (1.8 Gy/day, five times/week) whole-pelvis irradiation including iliac and inguinal lymph nodes with a cumulative dose of 50.4 Gy. Concomitant chemotherapy regimen consisted of two cycles of 5-fluorouracil (1,000 mg/m{sup 2}total body surface area (TBSA)/day as continuous intravenous infusion on days 1-4 and 29-32) and mitomycin C (10 mg/m{sup 2}/TBSA, intravenously on days 1 and 29). Toxicity during treatment was monitored weekly, and any incidence of Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) grade of {>=}3 for skin reaction, cystitis, proctitis, or enteritis was assessed as high-grade acute organ toxicity for later analysis. Results: We found significant correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity and overall survival, locoregional control, and stoma-free survival, which was independent in multivariate analysis from other possible prognostic factors: patients with a CTC acute organ toxicity grade of {>=}3 had a 5-year overall survival rate of 97% compared to 30% in patients without (p < 0.01, multivariate analysis; 97% vs. 48%, p = 0.03 for locoregional control, and 95% vs. 59%, p = 0.05 for stoma-free survival). Conclusions: Our data indicate that normal tissue and tumor tissue may behave similarly with respect to treatment response, since high-grade acute organ toxicity during radiochemotherapy showed itself to be an independent prognostic marker in our patient population. This hypothesis should be further analyzed by using biomolecular and clinical levels in future clinical trials.

  7. Multispecific T cell response and negative HCV RNA tests during acute HCV infection are early prognostic factors of spontaneous clearance

    PubMed Central

    Spada, E; Mele, A; Berton, A; Ruggeri, L; Ferrigno, L; Garbuglia, A R; Perrone, M P; Girelli, G; Del Porto, P; Piccolella, E; Mondelli, M U; Amoroso, P; Cortese, R; Nicosia, A; Vitelli, A; Folgori, A

    2004-01-01

    Background/Aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in a high frequency of chronic disease. The aim of this study was to identify early prognostic markers of disease resolution by performing a comprehensive analysis of viral and host factors during the natural course of acute HCV infection. Methods: The clinical course of acute hepatitis C was determined in 34 consecutive patients. Epidemiological and virological parameters, as well as cell mediated immunity (CMI) and distribution of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) alleles were analysed. Results: Ten out of 34 patients experienced self-limiting infection, with most resolving patients showing fast kinetics of viral clearance: at least one negative HCV RNA test during this phase predicted a favourable outcome. Among other clinical epidemiological parameters measured, the self-limiting course was significantly associated with higher median peak bilirubin levels at the onset of disease, and with the female sex, but only the latter parameter was independently associated after multivariate analysis. No significant differences between self-limiting or chronic course were observed for the distribution of DRB1 and DQB1 alleles. HCV specific T cell response was more frequently detected during acute HCV infection, than in patients with chronic HCV disease. A significantly broader T cell response was found in patients with self-limiting infection than in those with chronic evolving acute hepatitis C. Conclusion: The results suggest that host related factors, in particular sex and CMI, play a crucial role in the spontaneous clearance of this virus. Most importantly, a negative HCV RNA test and broad CMI within the first month after onset of the symptoms represent very efficacious predictors of viral clearance and could thus be used as criteria in selecting candidates for early antiviral treatment. PMID:15479691

  8. Time-varying effects of prognostic factors associated with disease-free survival in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Loki; Pu, Minya; Parker, Barbara A; Thomson, Cynthia A; Caan, Bette J; Flatt, Shirley W; Madlensky, Lisa; Hajek, Richard A; Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Saquib, Nazmus; Gold, Ellen B; Pierce, John P

    2009-06-15

    Early detection and effective treatments have dramatically improved breast cancer survivorship, yet the risk of relapse persists even 15 years after the initial diagnosis. It is important to identify prognostic factors for late breast cancer events. The authors investigated time-varying effects of tumor characteristics on breast-cancer-free survival using data on 3,088 breast cancer survivors from 4 US states who participated in a randomized dietary intervention trial in 1995-2006, with maximum follow-up through 15 years (median, 9 years). A piecewise constant penalized spline approach incorporating time-varying coefficients was adopted, allowing for deviations from the proportional hazards assumption. This method is more flexible than standard approaches, provides direct estimates of hazard ratios across time intervals, and is computationally tractable. Having a stage II or III tumor was associated with a 3-fold higher hazard of breast cancer than having a stage I tumor during the first 2.5 years after diagnosis; this hazard ratio decreased to 2.1 after 7.7 years, but higher tumor stage remained a significant risk factor. Similar diminishing effects were found for poorly differentiated tumors. Interestingly, having a positive estrogen receptor status was protective up to 4 years after diagnosis but detrimental after 7.7 years (hazard ratio = 1.5). These results emphasize the importance of careful statistical modeling allowing for possibly time-dependent effects in long-term survivorship studies. PMID:19403844

  9. Time-Varying Effects of Prognostic Factors Associated With Disease-Free Survival in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Loki; Pu, Minya; Parker, Barbara A.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Caan, Bette J.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Madlensky, Lisa; Hajek, Richard A.; Al-Delaimy, Wael K.; Saquib, Nazmus; Gold, Ellen B.

    2009-01-01

    Early detection and effective treatments have dramatically improved breast cancer survivorship, yet the risk of relapse persists even 15 years after the initial diagnosis. It is important to identify prognostic factors for late breast cancer events. The authors investigated time-varying effects of tumor characteristics on breast-cancer-free survival using data on 3,088 breast cancer survivors from 4 US states who participated in a randomized dietary intervention trial in 1995–2006, with maximum follow-up through 15 years (median, 9 years). A piecewise constant penalized spline approach incorporating time-varying coefficients was adopted, allowing for deviations from the proportional hazards assumption. This method is more flexible than standard approaches, provides direct estimates of hazard ratios across time intervals, and is computationally tractable. Having a stage II or III tumor was associated with a 3-fold higher hazard of breast cancer than having a stage I tumor during the first 2.5 years after diagnosis; this hazard ratio decreased to 2.1 after 7.7 years, but higher tumor stage remained a significant risk factor. Similar diminishing effects were found for poorly differentiated tumors. Interestingly, having a positive estrogen receptor status was protective up to 4 years after diagnosis but detrimental after 7.7 years (hazard ratio = 1.5). These results emphasize the importance of careful statistical modeling allowing for possibly time-dependent effects in long-term survivorship studies. PMID:19403844

  10. [Supra-tentorial low-grade astrocytomas in adults. Prognostic factors and therapeutic indications. Apropos of a series of 141 patients].

    PubMed

    Loiseau, H; Bousquet, P; Rivel, J; Vital, C; Kantor, G; Rougier, A; Dartigues, J F; Cohadon, F

    1995-01-01

    An abundant literature provides informations upon the prognosis of supratentorial low grade (grade II) astrocytomas, but the series are quite heterogeneous in terms of clinical material, neuropathological evaluation and statistical methods of analysis. So, outcome, prognostic factors and therapeutical indications are poorly defined. A retrospective study of 141 adults patients suffering ordinary low grade astrocytoma diagnosed in our unit between 1978 and 1988 was conducted. A follow up of 5 years or more, since neuropathological diagnosis, was mandatory for inclusion. Endpoint of statistical analysis was duration of survival. Results were expressed after uni and multivariates analysis. Clinical and morphological features of our series were comparable to those previously reported in the literature. Median survival time was 52 months. Considering age at diagnosis, survival curve analysis showed highly significant differences (p < 0.0001) and established three prognostic classes of age (before 50, between 50 and 60, and after 60 years of age). Comparisons of survival curves showed significant statistical differences (p < 0.0001) according to pretreatment functional status. Analysis of a clinical condition using a functional scale is more powerful, from a statistical point of view, than an individual analysis of each constituting parameters. In this series a good correlation was found between functional status and age at diagnosis. Neurological deficit was more correlated to age than to tumor location. Multivariate analysis, using the Cox model, defined some parameters acting independently on duration of survival: fronto-parietal location (p < 0.0001), pretherapeutical functional status (p < 0.001), age at diagnosis (p = 0.001), deepseated or multicentric tumor, mass effect (p < 0.01), frontal location (p < 0.02), total surgical removal (p < 0.05). Non significant parameters were: radiotherapy, time before diagnosis, age of onset, sex, contrast enhancement on CT scan

  11. Circulating Tumour Cells as an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients with Advanced Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Su, Po-Jung; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Hung-Ming; Lee, Chia-Lin; Huang, Wen-Kuan; Wu, Chiao-En; Chang, Hsien-Kun; Chao, Yin-Kai; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Lin, Nina Ming-Jung; Ye, Siou-Ru; Lee, Jane Ying-Chieh; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    The role of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in advanced oesophageal cancer (EC) patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) remains uncertain. A negative selection protocol plus flow cytometry was validated to efficiently identify CTCs. The CTC number was calculated and analysed for survival impact. The protocol's efficacy in CTC identification was validated with a recovery rate of 44.6 ± 9.1% and a coefficient of variation of 20.4%. Fifty-seven patients and 20 healthy donors were enrolled. Initial staging, first response to CRT, and surgery after CRT were prognostic for overall survival, with P values of <0.0001, <0.0001, and <0.0001, respectively. The CTC number of EC patients is significantly higher (P = 0.04) than that of healthy donors. Multivariate analysis for disease-specific progression-free survival showed that surgery after response to CCRT, initial stage, and CTC number (≥21.0 cells/mL) played independent prognostic roles. For overall survival, surgery after CCRT, performance status, initial stage, and CTC number were significant independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, a negative selection plus flow cytometry protocol efficiently detected CTCs. The CTC number before CCRT was an independent prognostic factor in patients with unresectable oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Further large-scale prospective studies for validation are warranted. PMID:27530152

  12. Circulating Tumour Cells as an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients with Advanced Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Su, Po-Jung; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Hung-Ming; Lee, Chia-Lin; Huang, Wen-Kuan; Wu, Chiao-En; Chang, Hsien-Kun; Chao, Yin-Kai; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Lin, Nina Ming-Jung; Ye, Siou-Ru; Lee, Jane Ying-Chieh; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    The role of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in advanced oesophageal cancer (EC) patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) remains uncertain. A negative selection protocol plus flow cytometry was validated to efficiently identify CTCs. The CTC number was calculated and analysed for survival impact. The protocol’s efficacy in CTC identification was validated with a recovery rate of 44.6 ± 9.1% and a coefficient of variation of 20.4%. Fifty-seven patients and 20 healthy donors were enrolled. Initial staging, first response to CRT, and surgery after CRT were prognostic for overall survival, with P values of <0.0001, <0.0001, and <0.0001, respectively. The CTC number of EC patients is significantly higher (P = 0.04) than that of healthy donors. Multivariate analysis for disease-specific progression-free survival showed that surgery after response to CCRT, initial stage, and CTC number (≥21.0 cells/mL) played independent prognostic roles. For overall survival, surgery after CCRT, performance status, initial stage, and CTC number were significant independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, a negative selection plus flow cytometry protocol efficiently detected CTCs. The CTC number before CCRT was an independent prognostic factor in patients with unresectable oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Further large-scale prospective studies for validation are warranted. PMID:27530152

  13. New breast cancer prognostic factors identified by computer-aided image analysis of HE stained histopathology images

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia-Mei; Qu, Ai-Ping; Wang, Lin-Wei; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Yang, Fang; Xiang, Qing-Ming; Maskey, Ninu; Yang, Gui-Fang; Liu, Juan; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided image analysis (CAI) can help objectively quantify morphologic features of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) histopathology images and provide potentially useful prognostic information on breast cancer. We performed a CAI workflow on 1,150 HE images from 230 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. We used a pixel-wise support vector machine classifier for tumor nests (TNs)-stroma segmentation, and a marker-controlled watershed algorithm for nuclei segmentation. 730 morphologic parameters were extracted after segmentation, and 12 parameters identified by Kaplan-Meier analysis were significantly associated with 8-year disease free survival (P < 0.05 for all). Moreover, four image features including TNs feature (HR 1.327, 95%CI [1.001 - 1.759], P = 0.049), TNs cell nuclei feature (HR 0.729, 95%CI [0.537 - 0.989], P = 0.042), TNs cell density (HR 1.625, 95%CI [1.177 - 2.244], P = 0.003), and stromal cell structure feature (HR 1.596, 95%CI [1.142 - 2.229], P = 0.006) were identified by multivariate Cox proportional hazards model to be new independent prognostic factors. The results indicated that CAI can assist the pathologist in extracting prognostic information from HE histopathology images for IDC. The TNs feature, TNs cell nuclei feature, TNs cell density, and stromal cell structure feature could be new prognostic factors. PMID:26022540

  14. New breast cancer prognostic factors identified by computer-aided image analysis of HE stained histopathology images.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Mei; Qu, Ai-Ping; Wang, Lin-Wei; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Yang, Fang; Xiang, Qing-Ming; Maskey, Ninu; Yang, Gui-Fang; Liu, Juan; Li, Yan

    2015-05-29

    Computer-aided image analysis (CAI) can help objectively quantify morphologic features of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) histopathology images and provide potentially useful prognostic information on breast cancer. We performed a CAI workflow on 1,150 HE images from 230 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. We used a pixel-wise support vector machine classifier for tumor nests (TNs)-stroma segmentation, and a marker-controlled watershed algorithm for nuclei segmentation. 730 morphologic parameters were extracted after segmentation, and 12 parameters identified by Kaplan-Meier analysis were significantly associated with 8-year disease free survival (P < 0.05 for all). Moreover, four image features including TNs feature (HR 1.327, 95%CI [1.001-1.759], P = 0.049), TNs cell nuclei feature (HR 0.729, 95%CI [0.537-0.989], P = 0.042), TNs cell density (HR 1.625, 95%CI [1.177-2.244], P = 0.003), and stromal cell structure feature (HR 1.596, 95%CI [1.142-2.229], P = 0.006) were identified by multivariate Cox proportional hazards model to be new independent prognostic factors. The results indicated that CAI can assist the pathologist in extracting prognostic information from HE histopathology images for IDC. The TNs feature, TNs cell nuclei feature, TNs cell density, and stromal cell structure feature could be new prognostic factors.

  15. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms as Prognostic and Predictive Factors of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Colorectal Cancer of Stages I and II

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Matej; Potočnik, Uroš; Repnik, Katja; Kavalar, Rajko; Štabuc, Borut

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly heterogeneous disease regarding the stage at time of diagnosis and there is special attention regarding adjuvant chemotherapy in unselected patients with stage I and stage II. The clinicohistologically based TNM staging system with emphasis on histological evaluation of primary tumor and resected regional lymph nodes remains the standard of staging, but it has restricted sensitivity resulting in false downward stage migration. Molecular characteristics might predispose tumors to a worse prognosis and identification of those enables identifying patients with high risk of disease recurrence. Suitable predictive markers also enable choosing the most appropriate therapy. The current challenge facing adjuvant chemotherapy in stages I and II CRC is choosing patients with the highest risk of disease recurrence who are going to derive most benefit without facing unnecessary adverse effects. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are one of the potential molecular markers that might help us identify patients with unfavorable prognostic factors regarding disease initiation and recurrence and could determine selection of an appropriate chemotherapy regimen in the adjuvant and metastatic setting. In this paper, we discuss SNPs of genes involved in the multistep processes of cancerogenesis, metastasis, and the metabolism of chemotherapy that might prove clinically significant. PMID:26884752

  16. Prognostic impact of atrial fibrillation on clinical outcomes of acute coronary syndromes, heart failure and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nileshkumar J; Patel, Aashay; Agnihotri, Kanishk; Pau, Dhaval; Patel, Samir; Thakkar, Badal; Nalluri, Nikhil; Asti, Deepak; Kanotra, Ritesh; Kadavath, Sabeeda; Arora, Shilpkumar; Patel, Nilay; Patel, Achint; Sheikh, Azfar; Patel, Neil; Badheka, Apurva O; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Paydak, Hakan; Viles-Gonzalez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of sustained arrhythmia, which is now on course to reach epidemic proportions in the elderly population. AF is a commonly encountered comorbidity in patients with cardiac and major non-cardiac diseases. Morbidity and mortality associated with AF makes it a major healthcare burden. The objective of our article is to determine the prognostic impact of AF on acute coronary syndromes, heart failure and chronic kidney disease. Multiple studies have been conducted to determine if AF has an independent role in the overall mortality of such patients. Our review suggests that AF has an independent adverse prognostic impact on the clinical outcomes of acute coronary syndromes, heart failure and chronic kidney disease. PMID:26225200

  17. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with benign or atypical intracranial meningioma: Long-term experience and prognostic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Milker-Zabel, Stefanie . E-mail: stefanie_milker-zabel@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Zabel, Angelika; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Wannenmacher, Michael; Debus, Juergen

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: To analyze our long-term experience and prognostic factors after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in patients with benign or atypical intracranial meningioma. Methods and materials: Between January 1985 and December 2001, 317 patients with a median age of 55.7 years were treated with FSRT for intracranial meningioma. The tumor distribution was World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 1 in 48.3%, WHO Grade 2 in 8.2%, and unknown in 43.5%. Of the 317 patients, 97 underwent RT as their primary treatment, 79 underwent postoperative RT (subtotal resection in 38 and biopsy only in 41), and 141 were treated for recurrent disease. The median target volume was 33.6 cm{sup 3} (range, 1.0-412.6 cm{sup 3}). The median total dose was 57.6 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction five times weekly. Results: The median follow-up was 5.7 years (range, 1.2-14.3 years). The overall local tumor control rate was 93.1% (295 of 317). Of the 317 patients, 72 had a partial response on CT/MRI and 223 (70.4%) remained stable. At a median of 4.5 years after FSRT, 22 patients (6.9%) had local tumor progression on MRI. Local tumor failure was significantly greater in patients with WHO Grade 2 meningioma (p < 0.002) than in patients with WHO Grade 1 or unknown histologic features. Patients treated for recurrent meningioma showed a trend toward decreased progression-free survival compared with patients treated with primary therapy, after biopsy, or after subtotal resection (p < 0.06). Patients with a tumor volume >60 cm{sup 3} had a recurrence rate of 15.5% vs. 4.3% for those with a tumor volume of {<=}60 cm{sup 3} (p < 0.001). In 42.9% of the patients, preexisting neurologic deficits improved. Worsening of preexisting neurologic symptoms occurred in 8.2%. Eight patients developed new clinical symptoms, such as reduced vision, trigeminal neuralgia, and intermittent tinnitus located at the side of the irradiated meningioma after FSRT. Conclusion: These data have demonstrated that FSRT is an

  18. Circulating tumor cells as a prognostic factor in patients with small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Satoshi; Gohda, Keigo; Fukui, Tomoya; Ryuge, Shinichiro; Otani, Sakiko; Masago, Akinori; Sato, Jun; Murakami, Katsuhiro; Maki, Sachiyo; Katono, Ken; Takakura, Akira; Sasaki, Jiichiro; Satoh, Yukitoshi; Masuda, Noriyuki

    2014-05-01

    The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood is currently an important field of study. Detection of CTCs by the OBP-401 assay (TelomeScan(®)) has previously been reported to be useful in the diagnosis, prognosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy in breast and gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the OBP-401 assay as a novel method of detecting CTCs of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients and to evaluate whether CTC count is associated with prognosis. Prospectively, 30 consecutively diagnosed SCLC patients who had commenced chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy were enrolled as subjects of the current study. Peripheral blood specimens were collected from the SCLC patients prior to and following the initiation of treatment and the viable CTCs were detected in the specimens following incubation with a telomerase-specific, replication-selective, oncolytic adenoviral agent, which was carrying the green fluorescent protein gene. CTCs were detected in 29 patients (96%). The group of 21 patients with a CTC count of <2 cells/7.5 ml prior to treatment (baseline) had a significantly longer median survival time than the group of eight patients with a CTC count of ≥2 cells/7.5 ml prior to treatment (14.8 and 3.9 months, respectively; P=0.007). The results of a multivariate analysis showed that the baseline CTC count was an independent prognostic factor for survival time (hazard ratio, 3.91; P=0.026). Among the patients that achieved a partial response to treatment, patients who had a CTC count of <2 cells/7.5 ml following two cycles of chemotherapy tended to have a longer median progression-free survival compared with patients who had a CTC count of ≥2 cell/7.5 ml (8.3 and 3.8 months, respectively; P=0.07). Therefore, CTCs may be detected via OBP-401 assay in SCLC patients and the CTC count prior to treatment appears to be a strong prognostic factor. PMID:24765158

  19. SERS-based quantitative detection of ovarian cancer prognostic factor haptoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, Jayakumar; Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Mahyuddin, Aniza P; Choolani, Mahesh; Olivo, Malini

    2015-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is increasingly being used for biosensing because of its high sensitivity and low detection limit, which are made possible by the unique Raman ‘fingerprint’ spectra from the biomolecules. Here we propose a novel SERS method for the fast, sensitive, and reliable quantitative analysis of haptoglobin (Hp), an acute phase plasma glycoprotein that is widely gaining application as a prognostic ovarian cancer biomarker. We exploited the peroxidase activity of the hemoglobin–haptoglobin (Hb–Hp) complex formed by the selective and specific binding of Hp to free Hb to catalyze the reaction of 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate and hydrogen peroxide to result in the final product of strongly SERS-active TMB2+. We observed a linear increase in the SERS signal of TMB2+ with increasing concentrations of Hb–Hp complex from 50 nM to 34 μM. Based on this concentration-dependent SERS spectrum, we quantified Hp in clinical samples. We observed that our inference about the prognosis of the disease coincided with the histology data and that our method was much more sensitive than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. PMID:25834423

  20. Real-world data on prognostic factors and treatment in peripheral T-cell lymphomas: a study from the Swedish Lymphoma Registry.

    PubMed

    Ellin, Fredrik; Landström, Jenny; Jerkeman, Mats; Relander, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are rare lymphomas with mostly poor outcome with current treatment. The addition of etoposide to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) and upfront consolidation with autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) have shown promising results but have never been tested in randomized trials. As a complement to retrospective analyses of clinical trials, we aimed at analyzing prognostic factors and outcome in an unselected, population-based cohort. Through the Swedish Lymphoma Registry, we identified 755 PTCL patients diagnosed during a 10-year period. In addition to International Prognostic Index factors, male gender was associated with an adverse overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.28; P = .011) and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR, 1.26; P = .014). In an intention-to-treat analysis in 252 nodal PTCL and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma patients (excluding anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma), upfront auto-SCT was associated with a superior OS (HR, 0.58; P = .004) and PFS (HR, 0.56; P = .002) compared with patients treated without auto-SCT. The addition of etoposide to CHOP resulted in superior PFS in patients ≤60 years (HR, 0.49; P = .008). This study is the largest population-based PTCL cohort reported so far and provides important information on outcome in PTCL outside the setting of clinical trials.

  1. Utility of Red Cell Distribution Width as a Prognostic Factor in Young Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Du-Ping; Ma, Rui-Min; Xiang, You-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The prognosis of breast cancer occurs in young women is usually poor. Red cell distribution width (RDW), 1 of many routinely examined parameters, has recently been proposed as a prognostic marker in solid tumors. The aim of our study was to assess the predictive value of RDW for survival in young women with breast cancer. We reviewed 203 consecutive young female patients (under 40) with invasive breast cancer diagnosed at the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University between January 2008 and December 2012. Preoperational RDW, clinicopathological information, and prognostic data were collected. RDW levels were divided into 2 groups: 161 patients with low RDW (≤13.75%) and 42 patients with high RDW (>13.75%). Clinicopathological differences between the 2 groups were calculated by chi-squared test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to examine the effect of RDW on survival. We found that high RDW was significantly associated with larger tumor size (P = 0.002), positive lymph node metastases (P = 0.011), and advanced stages (P = 0.004). Patients with high RDW showed significantly lower disease-free survival (DFS; P < 0.001) and lower overall survival (OS) rate (P < 0.001) than patients with low RDW. Moreover, the Cox regression multivariate analysis revealed that high pretreatment DRW was independently correlated with poor DFS and OS, with hazard ratio 4.819 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.291–10.138, P < 0.001) and 5.887 (95% CI 1.666–20.802, P = 0.006), respectively. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that pretreatment RDW may be associated with DFS and OS in young women with breast cancer. Further validation and feasibility studies are required before the result of our study can be considered for clinical practice. PMID:27124030

  2. Pretreatment Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score Predicts Clinical Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kishi, Takahiro; Matsuo, Yukinori Ueki, Nami; Iizuka, Yusuke; Nakamura, Akira; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Data from 165 patients who underwent SBRT for stage I NSCLC with histologic confirmation from January 1999 to September 2010 were collected retrospectively. Factors, including age, performance status, histology, Charlson comorbidity index, mGPS, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class based on sex and T stage, were evaluated with regard to overall survival (OS) using the Cox proportional hazards model. The impact of the mGPS on cause of death and failure patterns was also analyzed. Results: The 3-year OS was 57.9%, with a median follow-up time of 3.5 years. A higher mGPS correlated significantly with poor OS (P<.001). The 3-year OS of lower mGPS patients was 66.4%, whereas that of higher mGPS patients was 44.5%. On multivariate analysis, mGPS and RPA class were significant factors for OS. A higher mGPS correlated significantly with lung cancer death (P=.019) and distant metastasis (P=.013). Conclusions: The mGPS was a significant predictor of clinical outcomes for SBRT in NSCLC patients.

  3. International Society of Urological Pathology grading and other prognostic factors for renal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R; Egevad, Lars; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2014-11-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology convened an international consensus conference in 2012 to review aspects relating to the prognostic assessment, classification, and diagnosis of adult renal malignancy. The detailed recommendations of the conference are reported.

  4. Long-Term Outcomes and Prognostic Factors of Trabeculectomy following Intraocular Bevacizumab Injection for Neovascular Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Higashide, Tomomi; Ohkubo, Shinji; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate long-term outcomes and identify prognostic factors of trabeculectomy following intraocular bevacizumab injection for neovascular glaucoma. Methods Sixty-one eyes of 54 patients with neovascular glaucoma treated by trabeculectomy following intraocular bevacizumab injection were consecutively enrolled. Surgical success criteria were sufficient intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction (IOP ≤21 mmHg, ≥20% IOP reduction, no additional medications or glaucoma surgeries) without devastating complications (loss of light perception, phthisis bulbi, and endophthalmitis) or significant hypotony (IOP ≤5 mmHg continued ≥6 months and until the last follow-up visit or hypotony requiring intervention). Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression analysis were used to examine success rates and risk factors for surgical outcomes. Results The follow-up period after trabeculectomy was 45.0 ± 22.2 months (mean ± standard deviation). Surgical success rate was 86.9 ± 4.3% (± standard error), 74.0 ± 6.1%, and 51.3 ± 8.6% at 1, 3, and 5 years. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified two risk factors; lower preoperative IOP (≤30 mmHg) for surgical failure and hypotony [hazard ratio (HR), 2.92, 6.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22 to 7.03, 1.47 to 30.0; P = 0.018, 0.014, respectively], and vitrectomy after trabeculectomy for surgical failure with or without hypotony criteria (HR, 2.32, 4.06; 95% CI, 1.02 to 5.28, 1.30 to 12.7; P = 0.045, 0.016, respectively). Conclusions The long-term outcomes of trabeculectomy following intraocular bevacizumab injection for neovascular glaucoma were favorable. Lower baseline IOP was associated with development of significant hypotony, while additional vitrectomy was related to insufficient IOP reduction. PMID:26275060

  5. Prognostic value of platelet derived growth factor α receptor expression in grade 2 astrocytomas and oligoastrocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Ribom, D; Andrae, J; Frielingsdorf, M; Hartman, M; Nister, M; Smits, A

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the expression of platelet derived growth factor α receptor (PDGFRα) in low grade astrocytomas and oligoastrocytomas is associated with survival. Methods: Formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tumour samples of 40 consecutive patients with supratentorial diffuse astrocytomas and oligoastrocytomas of WHO grade 2, resected between 1986 and 1993, were used for immunohistochemical staining. The fraction of tumour cells expressing PDGFRα protein was quantified and entered into univariate and multivariate survival analyses. Changes in PDGFα expression over time were analysed in seven patients in whom reoperations had been performed. Results: Patients with a relatively high fraction of PDGFRα expressing cells had a more favourable outcome in both univariate (p = 0.04) and multivariate analyses (p = 0.02). Expression of PDGFRα was greater in oligoastrocytomas than in astrocytomas (p = 0.05). In four reoperated patients with histologically confirmed malignant transformation, there was a marked decrease in the number of cells expressing the receptor. Conclusions: There is an association between high PDGFRα expression and long survival time in patients with grade 2 astrocytomas and oligoastrocytomas. The findings suggest that expression of the receptor may be a useful prognostic marker in such patients. PMID:12023424

  6. The Prognostic and Predictive Role of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Surgical Resected Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Meng; Luo, Guopei; Liu, Chen; Cheng, He; Lu, Yu; Jin, Kaizhou; Liu, Zuqiang; Long, Jiang; Liu, Liang; Xu, Jin; Huang, Dan; Ni, Quanxing; Yu, Xianjun

    2016-01-01

    The data regarding the prognostic significance of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) expression and adjuvant therapy in patients with resected pancreatic cancer are insufficient. We retrospectively investigated EGFR status in 357 resected PDAC (pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma) patients using tissue immunohistochemistry and validated the possible role of EGFR expression in predicting prognosis. The analysis was based on excluding the multiple confounding parameters. A negative association was found between overall EGFR status and postoperative survival (p = 0.986). Remarkably, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy were significantly associated with favorable postoperative survival, which prolonged median overall survival (OS) for 5.8 and 10.2 months (p = 0.009 and p = 0.006, respectively). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that adjuvant chemotherapy correlated with an obvious survival benefit in the EGFR-positive subgroup rather than in the EGFR-negative subgroup. In the subgroup analyses, chemotherapy was highly associated with increased postoperative survival in the EGFR-positive subgroup (p = 0.002), and radiotherapy had a significant survival benefit in the EGFR-negative subgroup (p = 0.029). This study demonstrated that EGFR expression is not correlated with outcome in resected pancreatic cancer patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy were significantly associated with improved survival in contrary EGFR expressing subgroup. Further studies of EGFR as a potential target for pancreatic cancer treatment are warranted. PMID:27399694

  7. Preoperative serum fibrinogen is an independent prognostic factor in operable esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shui-Shen; Lei, Yi-Yan; Cai, Xiao-Li; Yang, Hong; Xia, Xin; Luo, Kong-Jia; Su, Chun-Hua; Zou, Jian-Yong; Zeng, Bo; Hu, Yi; Luo, Hong-He

    2016-01-01

    In order to fully elucidate the association between serum fibrinogen and prognosis of esophageal cancer, we examined serum fibrinogen concentrations in 1512 patients who underwent esophagectomy by the Clauss method. The impact of fibrinogen on overall survival and disease-free survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. Hyperfibrinogenemia was significantly associated with older age, male gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, weight loss, advanced pathological T stage and lymph node metastasis. Patients with hyperfibrinogenemia exhibited poor OS (HR=1.20, 95%CI: 1.04-1.38, P=0.012) and DFS (HR=1.18, 95%CI: 1.03-1.35, P=0.019). Subgroup analysis further exhibited an significant association between hyperfibrinogenemia and poor OS (P<0.001), DFS (P<0.001) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (P<0.001) and early pathological stage (I-II) (P=0.001). Collectively, this study indicates that preoperative serum fibrinogen is an independent prognostic factor for survival in esophageal cancer. PMID:27009857

  8. [Microbiologic spectrum and prognostic factors of hospital-acquired pneumonia cases].

    PubMed

    Sevinç, Can; Sahbaz, Sibel; Uysal, Ulker; Kilinç, Oğuz; Ellidokuz, Hülya; Itil, Oya; Gülay, Zeynep; Yunusoğlu, Sedat; Sargun, Serdar; Akkoyun, Kürşat Kaan; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri

    2007-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are an important cause of preventable morbidity and mortality; they also result in significant socioeconomic cost. Nosocomial pneumonia (NCP) is defined as pneumonia, which occurs 48 hours after hospitalization or after discharge from the hospital. It is the second or third most frequent infection among all hospital acquired infections, and the mortality of NCP is higher than the other hospital acquired infections. Patients, diagnosed as NCP were retrospectively analyzed in order to detect microbiological agent and prognostic factors. We evaluated 173 patients, 67.0% of them were male and 33.0% female. Comorbid diseases were present in 94.2% and a medical procedure had been applied in 75.1% of cases. A single agent was isolated in 79.2% of the cases while a mixt infection was present in 13.3%. In 7.5% of the cases, cultures were negative. Endotracheal aspirates were the most common materials (38.9%) used for detected microorganism and sputum cultures were used in 16.8% of the cases. Most commonly encountered microorganism were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. NCP developed on approximately 18th day of hospitalization. Overall mortality rate was 45.2%. The effects of diabetes mellitus and chronic pulmonary diseases on mortality rate were analized by logistic regression analysis and it's evaluated that the mortality rates increase 3.7 times with diabetes mellitus and 2.4 times with chronic pulmonary diseases. There was no effect of mechanical ventilation history on mortality.

  9. Hypoxia inducible factor: a potential prognostic biomarker in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jiang; Wenguang, Xu; Zhiyong, Wang; Yuntao, Zou; Wei, Han

    2016-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common oral cancer. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is involved in many malignant tumors' growth and metastasis and upregulated by hypoxia, including oral cancer. Many studies have studied about the prognostic value of HIF expression in OSCC; however, they do not get the consistent results. Therefore, this study explored the correlation between the HIF expression and the prognosis of OSCC. It conducted a meta-analysis of relevant publications searched in the Web of Science, PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Totally, this study identified 12 relevant articles reporting a total of 1112 patients. This analysis revealed a significant association between increased risk of mortality (RR = 1.20; 95 % CI 0.74-1.95; I (2) 85.4 %) and overexpression of HIFs. Furthermore, different HIF isoforms were associated with overall survival [HIF-1α (RR = 1.18; 95 % CI 0.66-2.11; I (2) 87.2 %) and HIF-2α (RR = 1.40; 95 % CI 0.93-2.09; I(2) 0.0 %)]. These results show that overexpression of HIFs, regardless of whether the HIF-1α or HIF-2α isoforms are overexpressed is significantly associated with increased risk of mortality in OSCC patients. In this study, the funnel is symmetric, suggesting existed no publication bias.

  10. Acute-on-chronic liver failure: Pathogenesis, prognostic factors and management

    PubMed Central

    Blasco-Algora, Sara; Masegosa-Ataz, José; Gutiérrez-García, María Luisa; Alonso-López, Sonia; Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado M

    2015-01-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is increasingly recognized as a complex syndrome that is reversible in many cases. It is characterized by an acute deterioration of liver function in the background of a pre-existing chronic liver disease often associated with a high short-term mortality rate. Organ failure (OF) is always associated, and plays a key role in determining the course, and the outcome of the disease. The definition of ACLF remains controversial due to its overall ambiguity, with several disparate criteria among various associations dedicated to the study of liver diseases. Although the precise pathogenesis needs to be clarified, it appears that an altered host response to injury might be a contributing factor caused by immune dysfunction, ultimately leading to a pro-inflammatory status, and eventually to OF. The PIRO concept (Predisposition, Insult, Response and Organ Failure) has been proposed to better approach the underlying mechanisms. It is accepted that ACLF is a different and specific form of liver failure, where a precipitating event is always involved, even though it cannot always be ascertained. According to several studies, infections and active alcoholism often trigger ACLF. Viral hepatitis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, or drug induced liver injury, which can also provoke the syndrome. This review mainly focuses on the physiopathology and prognostic aspects. We believe these features are essential to further understanding and providing the rationale for improveddisease management strategies. PMID:26576097

  11. Prognostic Factors of Cholangiocarcinoma After Surgical Resection: A Retrospective Study of 293 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhi-yuan; Guo, Xiao-chuan; Su, Dan; Wang, Li-jie; Zhang, Ting-ting; Bai, Li

    2015-01-01

    Background Cholangiocarcinoma is one of the most common malignancies in China. Surgical resection is the only treatment option; however, diagnosis at advanced stage precludes surgery. Comprehensive knowledge of prognostic markers is missing. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine clinicopathological indexes that would be indicative of prognosis in post-operative cases of cholangiocarcinoma. Material/Methods A retrospective analysis of 293 cases of cholangiocarcinoma patients attending the 301 Military Hospital in Beijing, China between January 2004 and December 2010 were included in the study. The patients had follow-up history until August 2012. Cox proportional hazards model analysis was performed to identify indexes of prognosis. All indicators were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results The median follow-up time was 55.90 months, with recurrence and metastasis in 162 cases (55.3%) and death in 223 cases (76.1%). The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates were 71.7%, 38.2%, and 10.6%, respectively. The independent risk factors of overall survival were degree of tumor differentiation, TNM stage, surgical margin, intraoperative blood transfusion, tumor location, alkaline phosphatase levels in blood, and relapse. Conclusions Good prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma patients is indicated by highly differentiated tumor, early stages of TNM staging, no resection margin invaded, no intraoperative blood transfusion, intrahepatic tumor, normal alkaline phosphatase levels, and no relapse. PMID:26269932

  12. Prognostic factors for a favorable outcome after varicocele repair in adolescents and adults

    PubMed Central

    Samplaski, Mary K; Jarvi, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    The effect of varicocele repair on male fertility remains controversial. It would be helpful to determined which men would benefit most from varicocele repair, and target repair efforts at those individuals. A detailed review of the literature on prognostic factors for varicocele repair was performed using the PubMed NLM database. We found that the best predictor of postvaricocelectomy semen parameters is the preoperative semen parameters. The greatest improvements in semen parameters were found in men with larger varicoceles. While there is controversy, higher testosterone, younger age and larger testis size, in some studies predict for improvements in semen parameters postvaricocelectomy. A nomogram has been developed to predict the postvaricocelectomy semen parameters based on the preoperative semen parameters, varicocele grade and the age of the man (www.fertilitytreatmentresults.com). Limited data consistently demonstrates the greatest improvements in DNA fragmentation rates in men with higher baseline DNA fragmentation rates. With respect to reproductive outcomes, higher baseline sperm density consistently predicts for natural pregnancy or assisted reproductive technology (ART) pregnancy rates. In addition, varicocele repair does seem to reduce the need for more invasive modalities of ART. In conclusion, we can now start to use specific parameters such as baseline semen quality, varicocele grade and patient age to predict post-repair semen quality and fertility potential following varicocelectomy. PMID:26732108

  13. Mammography outcomes in a practice setting by age: prognostic factors, sensitivity, and positive biopsy rate.

    PubMed

    Linver, M N; Paster, S B

    1997-01-01

    The separate unplanned analysis of women ages 40-49 in population-based randomized controlled trials has resulted in demonstration of statistically significant breast cancer mortality reduction due to screening mammography in only two of the individual trials, and in all such trials only through meta-analysis. Therefore, many researchers have utilized the surrogate endpoints of tumor size and axillary lymph node status to evaluate screening efficacy. For the present study, these endpoints were evaluated in an audit of 854 screen-detected cancers found in 147,125 mammographic examinations performed in women over 40 between 1988 and 1994 in a community practice setting. The concerns that mammography in the 40-49 group has a lower sensitivity and higher biopsy rate were also addressed. Median invasive tumor size and lymph node positivity were found to be equally small (1.0-1.1 cm and 13.5-12.2%, respectively), and the sensitivity and overall biopsy rate were found to be constant over all ages 40 and above. Positive biopsy rate (PBR) varied directly with increasing age, paralleling the measured cancer detection rate in each decade, with no abrupt change at age 50. We conclude that modern mammography in a community practice setting can successfully detect breast cancers with favorable prognostic factors and achieve constant sensitivity and acceptable PBRs in all women over 40. Our data also suggest that many of the large differences seen by inappropriately dividing data at age 50 decrease or disappear when analysis is performed by decade.

  14. Prognostic index score and clinical prediction model of local regional recurrence after mastectomy in breast cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Skye Hongiun . E-mail: skye@mail.kfcc.org.tw; Horng, C.-F.; Clarke, Jennifer L.; Tsou, M.-H.; Tsai, Stella Y.; Chen, C.-M.; Jian, James J.; Liu, M.-C.; West, Mike; Huang, Andrew T.; Prosnitz, Leonard R.

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To develop clinical prediction models for local regional recurrence (Lr) of breast carcinoma after mastectomy that will be superior to the conventional measures of tumor size and nodal status. Methods and Materials: Clinical information from 1,010 invasive breast cancer patients who had primary modified radical mastectomy formed the database of the training and testing of clinical prognostic and prediction models of LRR. Cox proportional hazards analysis and Bayesian tree analysis were the core methodologies from which these models were built. To generate a prognostic index model, 15 clinical variables were examined for their impact on LRR. Patients were stratified by lymph node involvement (<4 vs. {>=}4) and local regional status (recurrent vs. control) and then, within strata, randomly split into training and test data sets of equal size. To establish prediction tree models, 255 patients were selected by the criteria of having had LRR (53 patients) or no evidence of LRR without postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) (202 patients). Results: With these models, patients can be divided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups on the basis of axillary nodal status, estrogen receptor status, lymphovascular invasion, and age at diagnosis. In the low-risk group, there is no influence of PMRT on either LRR or survival. For intermediate-risk patients, PMRT improves LR control but not metastases-free or overall survival. For the high-risk patients, however, PMRT improves both LR control and metastasis-free and overall survival. Conclusion: The prognostic score and predictive index are useful methods to estimate the risk of LRR in breast cancer patients after mastectomy and for estimating the potential benefits of PMRT. These models provide additional information criteria for selection of patients for PMRT, compared with the traditional selection criteria of nodal status and tumor size.

  15. Analysis of the prognostic risk factors of idiopathic membranous nephropathy using a new surrogate end-point

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, BO; CHENG, MING; YANG, MING; HAN, SHUAI; ZHANG, YING-HUI; SHI, HONG-GUANG; ZHU, LIANG; ZHAO, XUE-ZHI

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in adults. The latest study of the chronic kidney disease-prognosis consortium showed that a 30% decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) within 2 years could cover more patients and showed a better correlation with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), as compared with serum creatinine (SCr). The aim of the present study was to analyze prognostic factors of ESRD using a 30% decrease in eGFR within 2 years as the end-point. The medical records of patients who were diagnosed as having IMN by clinical pathology between February 2011 and August 2012 and had been followed up for ≥24 months were analyzed retrospectively. A 30% decrease in eGFR or the occurrence of ESRD were the end-points. Factors affecting the prognosis were analyzed by the χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression analysis, and the cumulative risk of risk factors was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curve. A total of 73 patients with IMN were confirmed by clinical pathology. Blood pressure, tubulointerstitial injury area (TIA), glomerular sclerosis ratio, SCr, blood urea nitrogen, cystatin C, serum albumin and 24-h urine protein. In total, 28 patients (38.4%) reached the observation end-point. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only age ≥60 years, serum albumin <25 g/l and TIA >25% were independent risk factors for predicting the occurrence of end-point events in the two groups (P<0.05), which increased the risk of the occurrence of end-point events in IMN patients by 3.471-, 3.195- and 6.724-fold, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the occurrence of end-point events within 2 years was significantly higher in IMN patients whose age was ≥60 years, serum albumin <25 g/l and TIA >25% (log-rank P=0.004, P=0.024 and P=0.001). The results of the present study revealed that age ≥60 years, low serum albumin concentrations and severe tubulointerstitial injury are

  16. Carcinoembryonic Antigen as a Predictor of Pathologic Response and a Prognostic Factor in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy and Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Ji Won; Lim, Seok-Byung Kim, Dae Yong; Jung, Kyung Hae; Hong, Yong Sang; Chang, Hee Jin; Choi, Hyo Seong; Jeong, Seung-Yong

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a predictor of response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and prognostic factor for rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: The study retrospectively evaluated 352 locally advanced rectal cancer patients who underwent preoperative CRT followed by surgery. Serum CEA levels were determined before CRT administration (pre-CRT CEA) and before surgery (post-CRT CEA). Correlations between pre-CRT CEA levels and rates of good response (Tumor regression grade 3/4) were explored. Patients were categorized into three CEA groups according to their pre-/post-CRT CEA levels (ng/mL) (Group A: pre-CRT CEA {<=} 3; B: pre-CRT CEA >3, post-CRT CEA {<=}3; C: pre- and post-CRT CEA >3 ng/mL), and their oncologic outcomes were compared. Results: Of 352 patients, good responses were achieved in 94 patients (26.7%). The rates of good response decreased significantly as the pre-CRT CEA levels became more elevated (CEA [ng/mL]: {<=}3, 36.4%; 3-6, 23.6%; 6-9, 15.6%; >9, 7.8%; p < 0.001). The rates of good response were significantly higher in Group A than in Groups B and C (36.4% vs. 17.3% and 14.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). The 3-year disease-free survival rate was significantly better in Groups A and B than in Group C (82% and 79% vs. 57%, respectively; p = 0.005); the CEA grouping was identified as an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.025). Conclusions: In locally advanced rectal cancer patients, CEA levels could be of clinical value as a predictor of response to preoperative CRT and as an independent prognostic factor after preoperative CRT and curative surgery.

  17. Clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment outcomes, and prognostic factors of primary thoracic soft tissue sarcoma: A multicenter study of the Anatolian Society of Medical Oncology (ASMO)

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Olcun Umit; Oztop, Ilhan; Yasar, Nurgul; Urakci, Zuhat; Ozatli, Tahsin; Bozkurt, Oktay; Sevinc, Alper; Gunaydin, Yusuf; Yapar Taskoylu, Burcu; Arpaci, Erkan; Ulas, Arife; Kodaz, Hilmi; Tonyali, Onder; Avci, Nilufer; Aksoy, Asude; Yilmaz, Ahmet Ugur

    2015-01-01

    Background Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are rare malignant tumors of embryogenic mesoderm origin. Primary thoracic STSs account for a small percentage of all STSs and limited published information is available. This study aimed to identify the prognostic factors for thoracic STSs and evaluate the disease's clinical outcomes. Methods The medical records of 109 patients with thoracic STSs who were treated between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' survival rates were analyzed and potential prognostic factors evaluated. Results The median follow-up period was 29 months (range: 1–121 months). STSs were most frequently localized on the chest wall (n = 42; 38.5%) and lungs (n = 42; 38.5%). The most common histological types were malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n = 23; 21.1%), liposarcoma (n = 17; 15.6%), and leiomyosarcoma (n = 16; 14.7%). The median survival time of all patients was 40.3 months (95% confidence interval, 14.22–66.37 months), with one and five-year survival rates of 93.4% and 63.5%, respectively. Univariate analysis of all groups revealed that metastatic stage, unresectability, tumor diameter of >10 cm, tumor location other than the chest wall, and grade 3 diseases were predictable of poor survival. However, only grade 3 diseases and tumor location other than the chest wall were confirmed by multivariate analysis as poor prognostic factors. Conclusions Primary thoracic STSs are rarely seen malignant tumors. Our results indicated that patients with low-grade tumors and those localized on the chest wall often experienced better survival outcomes. PMID:26273340

  18. Invasive breast cancer in Argentine women: association between risk and prognostic factors with antigens of a peptidic and carbohydrate nature

    PubMed Central

    Demichelis, Sandra O; Isla-Larrain, Marina T; Cermignani, Luciano; Alberdi, Cecilio G; Segal-Eiras, Amada; Croce, María Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Objective In breast cancer, several tumor markers have been identified. The marker most extensively associated with breast cancer is MUC1. The objective of the study was to analyze prognostic and risk factors in relation to tumor markers in order to clarify breast cancer biology. A total of 349 primary tumor samples and lymph nodes from breast cancer patients were studied. Risk and prognostic factors were considered. An immunohistochemical approach was applied and an extensive statistical analysis was performed, including frequency analysis and analysis of variance. Correlation among variables was performed with principal component analysis. Results All the antigens showed an increased expression according to tumor size increment; moreover, sialyl Lewis x expression showed a significant increase in relation to disease stage, whereas Tn and TF presented a positive tendency. Vascular invasion was related to sialyl Lewis x expression and number of metastatic lymph nodes. Taking into account risk factors, when a patient had at least one child, Lewis antigens diminished their expression. In relation to breastfeeding, sialyl Lewis x expression diminished, although its apical expression increased. Conclusion Associations between MUC1 and carbohydrate antigens and risk and prognostic factors show the complexity of the cellular biological behavior that these antigens modulate in breast cancer. PMID:24367185

  19. Outcome and prognostic factors of malaria-associated acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Kute, V. B.; Shah, P. R.; Munjappa, B. C.; Gumber, M. R.; Patel, H. V.; Jain, S. H.; Engineer, D. P.; Naresh, V. V. Sai; Vanikar, A. V.; Trivedi, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most dreaded complications of severe malaria. We carried out prospective study in 2010, to describe clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, prognostic factors, and outcome in 59 (44 males, 15 females) smear-positive malaria patients with AKI. The severity of illness was assessed using Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (MODS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores. All patients received artesunate and hemodialysis (HD). Mean age of patients was 33.63 ± 14 years. Plasmodium falciparum malaria was seen in 76.3% (n = 45), Plasmodium vivax in 16.9% (n = 10), and mixed infection in 6.8% (n = 4) patients. Presenting clinical features were fever (100%), nausea-vomiting (85%), oliguria (61%), abdominal pain/tenderness (50.8%), and jaundice (74.5%). Mean APACHE II, SOFA, MODS, and GCS scores were 18.1 ± 3, 10.16 ± 3.09, 9.71 ± 2.69, and 14.15 ± 1.67, respectively, all were higher among patients who died than among those who survived. APACHE II ≥20, SOFA and MODS scores ≥12 were associated with higher mortality (P < 0.05). 34% patients received blood component transfusion and exchange transfusion was done in 15%. Mean number of HD sessions required was 4.59 ± 3.03. Renal biopsies were performed in five patients (three with patchy cortical necrosis and two with acute tubular necrosis). 81.3% of patients had complete renal recovery and 11.8% succumbed to malaria. Prompt diagnosis, timely HD, and supportive therapy were associated with improved survival and recovery of kidney functions in malarial with AKI. Mortality was associated with higher APACHE II, SOFA, MODS, GCS scores, requirement of inotrope, and ventilator support. PMID:22279340

  20. Hepatoma-derived growth factor upregulation is correlated with prognostic factors of early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Chou; Huang, Shun-Chen; Tai, Ming Hong; Chien, Chan-Chao Chang; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Chiang

    2014-11-21

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a unique nuclear/growth factor that plays an important role in the progression of different types of cancer. A total of 63 patients with early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma (Cx) were enrolled in this retrospective study. The expression of HDGF was significantly increased compared with adjacent non-tumor tissue samples (p < 0.001). Moreover, elevated nuclear HDGF levels were correlated with lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI; p < 0.05), lymph node metastasis (LNM; p < 0.001), recurrence (p < 0.001) and advanced grade (AG; p < 0.001). The growth of cervical cancer cells (Hela cells) was enhanced by HDGF treatment. The HDGF mRNA and protein level were significantly higher in malignant cervical cancer cells compared with primary ones. By adenovirus gene delivery, HDGF overexpression enhanced, whereas HDGF knockdown perturbed the tumorigenic behaviors of cervical cancer cells. HDGF overexpression is common in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma and is involved in the carcinogenesis of cervical adenocarcinoma. Cytoplasmic HDGF expression is strongly correlated with pelvic lymph node metastasis and recurrence, indicating that HDGF may serve as a novel prognostic marker for patients with Cx.

  1. Survival Prognostic Factors of Male Breast Cancer in Southern Iran: a LASSO-Cox Regression Approach.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Hadi Raeisi; Salehi, Alireza; Zare, Najaf

    2015-01-01

    We used to LASSO-Cox method for determining prognostic factors of male breast cancer survival and showed the superiority of this method compared to Cox proportional hazard model in low sample size setting. In order to identify and estimate exactly the relative hazard of the most important factors effective for the survival duration of male breast cancer, the LASSO-Cox method has been used. Our data includes the information of male breast cancer patients in Fars province, south of Iran, from 1989 to 2008. Cox proportional hazard and LASSO-Cox models were fitted for 20 classified variables. To reduce the impact of missing data, the multiple imputation method was used 20 times through the Markov chain Mont Carlo method and the results were combined with Rubin's rules. In 50 patients, the age at diagnosis was 59.6 (SD=12.8) years with a minimum of 34 and maximum of 84 years and the mean of survival time was 62 months. Three, 5 and 10 year survival were 92%, 77% and 26%, respectively. Using the LASSO-Cox method led to eliminating 8 low effect variables and also decreased the standard error by 2.5 to 7 times. The relative efficiency of LASSO-Cox method compared with the Cox proportional hazard method was calculated as 22.39. The19 years follow of male breast cancer patients show that the age, having a history of alcohol use, nipple discharge, laterality, histological grade and duration of symptoms were the most important variables that have played an effective role in the patient's survival. In such situations, estimating the coefficients by LASSO-Cox method will be more efficient than the Cox's proportional hazard method. PMID:26434910

  2. The risk factors and prognostic implication of acute pulmonary edema in resuscitated cardiac arrest patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dae-hyun; Kim, Joonghee; Rhee, Joong Eui; Kim, Taeyun; Kim, Kyuseok; Jo, You Hwan; Lee, Jin Hee; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Yu Jin; Hwang, Seung Sik

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pulmonary edema is frequently observed after a successful resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. Currently, its risk factors and prognostic implications are mostly unknown. Methods Adult OHCA patients with a presumed cardiac etiology who achieved sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in emergency department were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were grouped according to the severity of consolidation on their initial chest X-ray (group I, no consolidation; group II, patchy consolidati