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Sample records for clinical prognostic factors

  1. Emphysematous pyelonephritis: clinical characteristics and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Chuan; Chiang, Bing-Juin; Pong, Yuan-Hung; Chen, Chung-Hsin; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a severe necrotizing infection of the renal parenchyma and perirenal tissues that is caused by gas-producing bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to determine the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of patients with emphysematous pyelonephritis. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and laboratory data, imaging findings, and outcomes of 32 patients with emphysematous pyelonephritis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was carried out on variables that were significantly associated with patient mortality. The overall survival rate was 87.5% (28/32). Escherichia coli (43.6%) was the most common organism cultured from urine and blood specimens. Hypoalbuminemia, shock as the presenting feature, bacteremia, need for hemodialysis and polymicrobial infection were significantly more common in cases resulting in death. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.96. The cut-off point determined by the maximum Youden index (0.93) for three of these five factors yielded a sensitivity of 1.00 and specificity of 0.93. Shock as an initial presentation (P = 0.039) and polymicrobial infection (P = 0.010) were significantly associated with poor outcome. There were no significant differences in the clinical or laboratory features of the patients who did or did not undergo nephrectomy. Hypoalbuminemia, shock as an initial presentation, bacteremia, indications for hemodialysis and polymicrobial infection represent prognostic factors for mortality in patients with emphysematous pyelonephritis. Patients presenting with more than two of these prognostic factors carry the highest risk of mortality, and they require timely diagnosis and aggressive management. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of brain central neurocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xilei; Tong, Yusuo; Wang, Wanwei

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims This study is designed for the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of central neurocytoma (CN). Methods CN patients from 2004 to 2012 were enrolled from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data. Clinical characteristics including age, sex, race, tumor size, tumor number, surgery, and radiation therapy were summarized. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to explore the prognostic factors of CN. Results CN tended to be borderline malignant and single lesion. Compared with other brain tumor (NCN), Patients with CN (CNs) were more likely to be female, young, and non-white race. Surgery was the primary treatment of CN. Univariate and Multivariate analysis indicated tumor number and surgery were both independent prognostic factors of CN (P < 0.05). Unifocal CNs had a lower mortality risk than multifocal ones (HR 0.167, 95% CI 0.052-0.537), surgery significantly reduced the death risk of CNs (HR 0.284, 95% CI 0.088-0.921). Conclusions CN tend to be borderline malignant, single lesion, operated on. Most CNs are female and younger. single lesion and surgery are the independent positive prognostic factors of CN. PMID:27542237

  3. Acute transverse myelitis in children: clinical course and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Defresne, Pierre; Hollenberg, Henri; Husson, Béatrice; Tabarki, Brahim; Landrieu, Pierre; Huault, Gilbert; Tardieu, Marc; Sébire, Guillaume

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the clinical course of acute transverse myelitis in children, to identify prognostic factors, and to compare our findings with published data Twenty-four children, aged 2 to 14 years and admitted with a diagnosis of acute transverse myelitis, were studied. Clinical features and results of investigations were collected at admission and during the course of the disease. Motor, sphincter, and global outcomes were compared with those in the main adult and pediatric series. During the initial phase, the most common presenting symptoms were pain (88%) and fever (58%). Motor loss preceded sphincter dysfunction in two thirds of patients and became bilateral in half of the patients. When maximal deficit was achieved (plateau), the patients presented a combination of sensory, motor, and sphincter dysfunctions without radicular involvement The motor loss consistently involved the lower limbs but was inconsistent and moderate in the upper limbs. The mean duration of the plateau was 1 week. The recovery phase was characterized by a progressive improvement of all deficits. Sphincter dysfunction improved more slowly than did the other deficits. A full recovery was achieved by 31% of the patients; minimal sequelae were present in 25% and mild to severe sequelae in 44%. An unfavorable outcome was associated with complete paraplegia (P = .03) and/or a time to maximal deficit shorter than 24 hours (P = .005). A favorable outcome was associated with a plateau shorter than 8 days (P = .03), the presence of supraspinal symptoms (P = .01), and a time to independent walking shorter than 1 month (P = .01). The course of acute transverse myelitis in children proceeds through three stages, an initial phase, a plateau, and a recovery phase, each characterized by specific clinical features. The global outcome was favorable in 56% of patients. Several prognostic factors were identified.

  4. Prognostic factors for clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Pécora, José Otávio Reggi; Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Assunção, Jorge Henrique; Gracitelli, Mauro Emílio Conforto; Martins, João Paulo Sobreiro; Ferreira, Arnaldo Amado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify prognostic factors of postoperative functional outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective case series evaluating patients undergoing rotator cuff repair, analyzed by the UCLA score (pre and 12-month postoperative) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (preoperative). Patients' intrinsic variables related to the injury and intervention were evaluated. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to determine variables impact on postoperative functional assessment. RESULTS: 131 patients were included. The mean UCLA score increased from 13.17 ± 3.77 to 28.73 ± 6.09 (p<0,001). We obtained 65.7% of good and excellent results. Age (r= 0.232, p= 0.004) and reparability of posterosuperior injuries (r= 0.151, p= 0.043) correlated with the functional assessment at 12 months. After multivariate linear regression analysis, only age was associated (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The surgical treatment of rotator cuff tears lead to good and excellent results in 65.6% of patients. Age was an independent predictor factor with better clinical outcomes by UCLA score in older patients. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:26207092

  5. Acute renal infarction: Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Caravaca-Fontán, Fernando; Pampa Saico, Saúl; Elías Triviño, Sandra; Galeano Álvarez, Cristina; Gomis Couto, Antonio; Pecharromán de las Heras, Inés; Liaño, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acute renal infarction (ARI) is an uncommon disease, whose real incidence is probably higher than expected. It is associated with poor prognosis in a high percentage of cases. To describe the main clinical, biochemical and radiologic features and to determine which factors are associated with poor prognosis (death or permanent renal injury). The following is a retrospective, observational, single-hospital-based study. All patients diagnosed with ARI by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) over an 18-year period were included. Patients were classified according to the cardiac or non-cardiac origin of their disease. Clinical, biochemical and radiologic features were analysed, and multiple logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with poor prognosis. A total of 62 patients were included, 30 of which had a cardiac origin. Other 32 patients with non-cardiac ARI were younger, had less comorbidity, and were less frequently treated with oral anticoagulants. CT scans estimated mean injury extension at 35%, with no differences observed between groups. A total of 38% of patients had an unfavourable outcome, and the main determinants were: Initial renal function (OR=0.949; IC 95% 0.918-0.980; p=0.002), and previous treatment with oral anticoagulants (OR=0.135; IC 95% 0.032-0.565; p=0.006). ARI is a rare pathology with non-specific symptoms, and it is not associated with cardiological disease or arrhythmias in more than half of cases. A substantial proportion of patients have unfavourable outcomes, and the initial renal function is one of the main prognostic factors. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical features and prognostic factors in solitary plasmacytoma.

    PubMed

    Finsinger, Paola; Grammatico, Sara; Chisini, Marta; Piciocchi, Alfonso; Foà, Robin; Petrucci, Maria T

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to review the clinical features and outcome of 53 patients with solitary plasmacytoma managed at our Institution between 1976 and 2012. Thirty-five patients had bone solitary plasmacytoma and 18 extramedullary solitary plasmacytoma. Tumour sizes were larger in patients with bone involvement (P = 0·003). Treatment consisted of local radiotherapy (n = 26), radiotherapy + chemotherapy (n = 15), surgery (n = 4) and chemotherapy (n = 8); the local control rate was 94·3%. Progression to multiple myeloma was recorded in 20/35 (57·1%) patients with bone involvement and in 1/18 (5·5%) patients with extramedullary disease (P = 0·0003). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 78·4%; bone solitary plasmacytoma patients had a significantly worse OS (71·9% vs. 88·2%, respectively; P = 0·029) and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS; 53·0% vs. 88·5%; P = 0·0003) compared to extramedullary solitary plasmacytoma patients. On univariate analysis, bone disease and size (≥5 cm) impacted negatively on PFS (P = 0·0027 and P = 0·04, respectively). Bone disease also affected OS (P = 0·04). In multivariate analysis bone location was the only independent prognostic factor for PFS (P = 0·0041) and OS (P = 0·021). Patients with bone solitary plasmacytoma have a significantly worse prognosis than extramedullary solitary plasmacytoma cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Baseline serum albumin and other common clinical markers are prognostic factors in colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    González-Trejo, Sagrario; Carrillo, José F.; Carmona-Herrera, D. Darlene; Baz-Gutiérrez, Patricia; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Núñez, Gloria; Ochoa-Carrillo, Francisco J.; Gallardo-Rincón, Dolores; Aiello-Crocifoglio, Vincenzo; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to define the prognostic role of baseline serum albumin (BSA) in colorectal cancer (CRC) across tumor–node–metastasis (TNM) stages and other well defined prognostic factors. Many prognostic models in medicine employ BSA to define or refine treatments in very specific settings; in CRC, BSA has been found to be a prognostic factor as well. A retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with CRC demonstrated by biopsy, who attended a cancer center during a 7-year period. Multivariate analysis was utilized to define prognostic factors associated with overall survival (OS) employing the Cox model. In this retrospective cohort study, 1465 patients were included; 46.6% were females and 53.4% males (mean age, 59.1 years). Mean BSA was inversely correlated with TNM stages. By multivariate analysis, it was an independent explanatory variable. TNM stages, “R” classification, age, lymphocyte count, neutrophil/platelet ratio, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, platelet/lymphocyte ratio, postoperative morbidity, and BSA were independently associated with OS. Morbidities, surgery type, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were considered confounders after adjusting by TNM stages. BSA is a significant and independent prognostic factor in patients with CRC, and its effect is maintained across TNM strata and other well known clinical prognostic factors. It can be easily used in prognostic models and should be employed to stratify prognosis in therapeutic randomized clinical trials. PMID:28403106

  8. The clinical implications of integrating additional prognostic factors into the TNM.

    PubMed

    Henson, Donald Earl; Schwartz, Arnold M; Chen, Dechang; Wu, Dengyuan

    2014-04-01

    The management of solid tumors is governed by host and tumor factors that traditionally have incorporated TNM staging with additional pathologic, biologic, and clinical host factors. Beyond the anatomic-based TNM, increasingly new prognostic and predictive factors are being discovered that have important survival and treatment implications. However, because the TNM is based on a "bin" model, additional prognostic factors would rapidly overwhelm the current system. This communication demonstrates the clinical implications and improved patient prognosis derived from a new algorithmic model based on clustering analysis. A new algorithm is described that integrates additional factors into the TNM and calculates survival. The results indicate that additional factors can be integrated into the TNM staging system providing additional patient stratification without changing the TNM definitions. Adding prognostic factors to traditional TNM staging increases substratification of given stages and identifies and separates favorable and unfavorable clinical outcomes for specific TNM stages. Integration of additional prognostic factors into the TNM by a clustering algorithm can change the stratification of patient outcome. This may guide the clinician to select a more rational management program based on the additional factors and improve cohort selection for clinical trials. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Clinical features and prognostic factors of Churg-Strauss syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Yeong; Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Heung-Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare systemic necrotizing small-vessel vasculitis, with accompanying bronchial asthma, eosinophilia, and eosinophilic infiltration of various tissues. The purposes of our study were to characterize the clinical features of CSS and to identify factors associated with CSS prognosis in Koreans. Methods Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for all physician-diagnosed CSS patients in the Seoul National University Hospital between January 1990 and March 2011. Results Data from 52 CSS patients were analyzed. The respiratory tract was the most commonly involved organ (90.4%). Renal involvement was less frequent in antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)(-) patients than in ANCA(+) patients (p = 0.048). Clinical remission occurred in 95.3% of patients, but 16.3% of them relapsed. Patients who maintained remission for more than 6 months were relatively older (median, 51 years) at diagnosis (p = 0.004), had been diagnosed in earlier stages (p = 0.027), showed more frequent respiratory involvement (p = 0.024) and generalized symptoms (p = 0.039), and showed less frequent cutaneous involvement (p = 0.030) than those who did not achieve persistent (> 6 months) remission. Patients who achieved persistent remission also showed higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (p = 0.031) than those who did not. Conclusions ANCA(-) CSS patients showed less frequent renal involvement. Characteristics of good responders were older age, diagnosis at earlier stages, less cutaneous involvement, more respiratory involvement, high CRP values, and more generalized symptoms. PMID:24574837

  10. Systematic review of clinical prediction tools and prognostic factors in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lo, Benjamin W Y; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Yusuke; Farrokhyar, Forough; Thabane, Lehana; Levine, Mitchell A H

    2015-01-01

    Clinical prediction tools assist in clinical outcome prediction. They quantify the relative contributions of certain variables and condense information that identifies important indicators or predictors to a targeted condition. This systematic review synthesizes and critically appraises the methodologic quality of studies that derive both clinical predictors and clinical predictor tools used to determine outcome prognosis in patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This systematic review included prospective and retrospective cohort studies, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating prognostic factors and clinical prediction tools associated with determining the neurologic outcome in adult patients with aneurysmal SAH. Twenty-two studies were included in this systemic review. Independent, confounding, and outcome variables were studied. Methodologic quality of individual studies was also analyzed. Included were 3 studies analyzing databases from RCTs, 8 prospective cohort studies, and 11 retrospective cohort studies. The most frequently retained significant clinical prognostic factors for long-term neurologic outcome prediction include age, neurological grade, blood clot thickness, and aneurysm size. Systematic reviews for clinical prognostic factors and clinical prediction tools in aneurysmal SAH face a number of methodological challenges. These include within and between study patient heterogeneity, regional variations in treatment protocols, patient referral biases, and differences in treatment, and prognosis viewpoints across different cultures.

  11. Pediatric acute leukemia: the effect of prognostic factors on clinical outcomes at Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rujkijyanont, Piya; Kaewinsang, Suphathida; Monsereenusorn, Chalinee; Traivaree, Chanchai

    2014-02-01

    Leukemia is the most common malignancy in children. Multiple prognostic factors have been used in order to assist the clinician to decide appropriate risk-adjusted treatment for each patient; the current clinical outcomes of those patients have been significantly improved over the past decades. The purpose of this study was to examine survival outcome in children who were diagnosed with acute leukemia and treated in the Department of Pediatrics, Phramongkutklao Hospital during January 1, 2000 and July 31, 2013. The authors retrospectively reviewed the patients who were diagnosed with acute leukemia and treated at Phramongkutklao Hospital. Their clinical data were collected and analyzed based on clinicalfeatures inchluding age, initial WBC count at diagnosis, sex, immnunophenotype and cytogenetic abnormalities. Total 152 patients with acute leukemia, 123 patients were diagnosed with acute lymnphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 29 patients were diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The 5-year survival rates of ALL and AML patients were 72.63% and 30.30%, respectively. In addition, we found a correlation between the ALL patients' clinical outcomes and several prognostic factors including initial white blood cell count, CNS status at diagnosis and ploidy. However, there was no correlation between those factors and clinical outcomes in AML patients. Our treatment outcomes on patients with acute leukemia were similar to the reports from other countries. The several prognostic factors especially initial WBC at diagnosis can assist the clinician to select appropriate treatment option for each patient.

  12. Patients with brain metastases derived from gastrointestinal cancer: clinical characteristics and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Lin, L; Zhao, C-H; Ge, F-J; Wang, Y; Chen, Y-L; Liu, R-R; Jia, R; Liu, L-J; Liu, J-Z; Xu, J-M

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to evaluate the natural history, outcome, and possible prognostic factors in patients with brain metastases derived from gastrointestinal cancers. The clinical features, prognostic factors, and the effects of different treatment modalities on survival were retrospectively investigated in 103 patients with brain metastases derived from gastrointestinal cancers. The median time from diagnosis of primary tumor to brain metastasis was 22.00 months. The interval between diagnosis of primary tumor relapse and brain metastasis was 8.00 months. The median follow-up time was 7.80 months. The median survival time after diagnosis of brain metastases was 4.10 months for all patients and 1.17 months for patients who received only steroids (36.9 %), 3.97 months for patients who only received whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT 31.1 %), 11.07 months for patients who received gamma-knife surgery alone or/and WBRT (20.4 %), and 13.70 months for patients who underwent surgery and radiotherapy (12 patients, 11.6 %) (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class, extracranial metastasis, and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors. Brain metastasis derived from gastrointestinal tract cancer is rare, and overall patient survival is poor. RPA class, chemotherapy after brain metastases, and treatment regimens were independent prognostic factors for the survival of patients with brain metastases derived from gastrointestinal cancers.

  13. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in Chinese patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying-Jie; Sun, Yue-Li; Xia, Yi; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Huang, Jia-Jia; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Lin, Tong-Yu; Guan, Zhong-Zhen; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2012-06-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in Chinese Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. It is known that clinical characteristics and epidemiology of Hodgkin's lymphoma in China are different from Western countries. In total, 137 consecutive, previously untreated patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center were enrolled. Among these patients, 92 were male and 45 were female, with a median age of 28 (range: 2-76) years. The bimodal age curve of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma analyzed from our patients was not obvious as the Western population, showing an early peak in 25 years and a second peak in 45 years. Most of the patients (41.6%) were classified as nodular sclerosis classic Hodgkin's lymphoma. Results showed that the 5-year overall survival, event-free survival, and disease-free survival rates were 97.7, 85.0, and 94.0%, respectively. Lymphopenia at diagnosis was related to poorer overall survival (P = 0.015) and event-free survival (P < 0.001) in all-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. Multivariate analysis showed that lymphopenia as an independent unfavorable prognostic factor influenced event-free survival (P = 0.015). The international prognostic score ≥ 5 was also the only independent prognostic factor of disease-free survival in advanced-stage patients (P = 0.046). Our findings demonstrated that some clinical characteristics of Hodgkin's lymphoma in China were different from those in the Western countries. Lymphopenia was an effective prognostic predictor in both early stage and advanced stage.

  14. Prognostic Factors Toward Clinically Relevant Radiographic Progression in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Tomohiro; Okada, Akitomo; Fukuda, Takaaki; Hidaka, Toshihiko; Ishii, Tomonori; Ueki, Yukitaka; Kodera, Takao; Nakashima, Munetoshi; Takahashi, Yuichi; Honda, Seiyo; Horai, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Ryu; Okuno, Hiroshi; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Izumiyama, Tomomasa; Takai, Osamu; Miyashita, Taiichiro; Sato, Shuntaro; Kawashiri, Shin-ya; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Origuchi, Tomoki; Nakamura, Hideki; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Katsumi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine prognostic factors of clinically relevant radiographic progression (CRRP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical practice. We performed a multicenter prospective study in Japan of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD)-naive RA patients with moderate to high disease activity treated with conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs) at study entry. We longitudinally observed 408 patients for 1 year and assessed disease activity every 3 months. CRRP was defined as yearly progression of modified total Sharp score (mTSS) > 3.0 U. We also divided the cohort into 2 groups based on disease duration (<3 vs ≥3 years) and performed a subgroup analysis. CRRP was found in 10.3% of the patients. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent variables to predict the development of CRRP were: CRP at baseline (0.30 mg/dL increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.11), time-integrated Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) during the 1 year postbaseline (12.4-unit increase, 95%CI 1.17–2.59), RA typical erosion at baseline (95%CI 1.56–21.1), and the introduction of bDMARDs (95%CI 0.06–0.38). The subgroup analysis revealed that time-integrated DAS28-ESR is not a predictor whereas the introduction of bDMARDs is a significant protective factor for CRRP in RA patients with disease duration <3 years. We identified factors that could be used to predict the development of CRRP in RA patients treated with DMARDs. These variables appear to be different based on the RA patients’ disease durations. PMID:27124044

  15. Prognostic factors in cancer.

    PubMed

    Gospodarowicz, Mary; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment are the three core elements of the art of medicine. Modern medicine pays more attention to diagnosis and treatment but prognosis has been a part of the practice of medicine much longer than diagnosis. Cancer is a heterogeneous group of disease characterized by growth, invasion and metastasis. To plan the management of an individual cancer patient, the fundamental knowledge base includes the site of origin of the cancer, its morphologic type, and the prognostic factors specific to that particular patient and cancer. Most prognostic factors literature describes those factors that directly relate to the tumor itself. However, many other factors, not directly related to the tumor, also affect the outcome. To comprehensively represent these factors we propose three broad groupings of prognostic factors: 'tumor'-related prognostic factors, 'host'-related prognostic factors, and 'environment'-related prognostic factors. Some prognostic factors are essential to decisions about the goals and choice treatment, while others are less relevant for these purposes. To guide the use of various prognostic factors we have proposed a grouping of factors based on their relevance in everyday practice; these comprise 'essential,' 'additional,' and 'new and promising factors.' The availability of a comprehensive classification of prognostic factors assures an ordered and deliberate approach to the subject and provide safeguard against skewed approaches that may ignore large parts of the field. The current attention to tumor factors has diminished the importance of 'patient' (i.e., 'host'), and almost completely overshadows the importance of the 'environment'. This ignores the fact that the latter presents the greatest potential for immediate impact. The acceptance of a generic prognostic factor classification would facilitate communication and education about this most important subject in oncology.

  16. Pretreatment clinical prognostic factors for brain metastases from breast cancer treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Roehrig, Andrew T.; Ferrel, Ethan A.; Benincosa, Devon A.; MacKay, Alexander R.; Ling, Benjamin C.; Carlson, Jonathan D.; Demakas, John J.; Wagner, Aaron; Lamoreaux, Wayne T.; Fairbanks, Robert K.; Call, Jason A.; Cooke, Barton S.; Peressini, Ben; Lee, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain metastases significantly affect morbidity and mortality rates for patients with metastatic breast cancer. Treatment for brain metastases lengthens survival, and options such as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) can increase survival to 12 months or longer. This study retrospectively analyzes the prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) for patients with one or multiple brain metastases from breast cancer treated with SRS. Methods: Between December 2001 and May 2015, 111 patients with brain metastases from breast cancer were grouped by potential prognostic factors including age at diagnosis, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score, number of brain metastases, and whether or not they received adjuvant treatments such as whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) or surgical resection. Survival rates were determined for all groups, and hazard ratios were calculated using univariate and multivariate analyses to compare differences in OS. Results: Median OS was 16.8 ± 4.22 months. Univariate analysis of patients with a KPS ≤60 and multivariate analysis of KPS 70–80 showed significantly shorter survival than those with KPS 90–100 (5.9 ± 1.22 months, 21.3 ± 11.69 months, and 22.00 ± 12.56 months, P = 0.024 and < 0.001). Other results such as age ≥65 years and higher number of brain metastases trended toward shorter survival but were not statistically significant. No difference in survival was found for patients who had received WBRT in addition to SRS (P = 0.779). Conclusion: SRS has been shown to be safe and effective in treating brain metastases from breast cancer. We found our median survival to be 16.8 ± 4.22 months, an increase from other clinical reports. In addition, 38.4% of our population was alive at 2 years and 15.6% survived 5 years. Significant prognostic factors can help inform clinical treatment decisions. This study found that KPS was a significant prognostic indicator of OS in these patients. PMID:27990315

  17. Baseline serum albumin and other common clinical markers are prognostic factors in colorectal carcinoma: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    González-Trejo, Sagrario; Carrillo, José F; Carmona-Herrera, D Darlene; Baz-Gutiérrez, Patricia; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Núñez, Gloria; Ochoa-Carrillo, Francisco J; Gallardo-Rincón, Dolores; Aiello-Crocifoglio, Vincenzo; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis F

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to define the prognostic role of baseline serum albumin (BSA) in colorectal cancer (CRC) across tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages and other well defined prognostic factors. Many prognostic models in medicine employ BSA to define or refine treatments in very specific settings; in CRC, BSA has been found to be a prognostic factor as well. A retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with CRC demonstrated by biopsy, who attended a cancer center during a 7-year period. Multivariate analysis was utilized to define prognostic factors associated with overall survival (OS) employing the Cox model. In this retrospective cohort study, 1465 patients were included; 46.6% were females and 53.4% males (mean age, 59.1 years). Mean BSA was inversely correlated with TNM stages. By multivariate analysis, it was an independent explanatory variable. TNM stages, "R" classification, age, lymphocyte count, neutrophil/platelet ratio, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, platelet/lymphocyte ratio, postoperative morbidity, and BSA were independently associated with OS. Morbidities, surgery type, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were considered confounders after adjusting by TNM stages. BSA is a significant and independent prognostic factor in patients with CRC, and its effect is maintained across TNM strata and other well known clinical prognostic factors. It can be easily used in prognostic models and should be employed to stratify prognosis in therapeutic randomized clinical trials.

  18. Endodontic surgery prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Azarpazhooh, Amir; Shah, Prakesh S

    2011-01-01

    Medline, (PubMed) and the Cochrane databases together with hand searching of the following journals: Journal of Endodontics, International Endodontic Journal, Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology (name changed to Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontics in 1995), Endodontics and Dental Traumatology (name changed to Dental Traumatology in 2001), Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Clinical studies evaluating apical surgery with placement of a root-end filling were included. Studies on apical surgery with orthograde root canal filling or about apicectomy alone without root-end filling were excluded, as were experimental and animal studies. Only studies with ≥ ten patients with a minimum six month follow-up period and clearly defined radiographic and clinical healing criteria, with healing reported for at least two categories of a specific prognostic factor were accepted. Studies reporting in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Scandinavian languages were included. All studies were assessed separately by two of the three authors, with disagreements resolved by discussion. Prognostic factors were divided into patient related, tooth-related or treatment-related factors. The reported percentages of healed teeth were pooled per category. The statistical method of Mantel-Haenszel was applied to estimate the odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. Homogeneity was assessed using Woolf's test. With regard to tooth-related factors, the following were identified as predictors of healing: absence of preoperative pain or signs, good density of the root canal filling and a periapical lesion size of ≤ 5 mm. With regard to treatment-related factors, teeth treated with the use of an endoscope tended to have higher healed rates than teeth treated without the use of an endoscope. Although the clinician may be able to control treatment

  19. Medullary thyroid carcinoma: clinical characteristics, treatment, prognostic factors, and a comparison of staging systems.

    PubMed

    Kebebew, E; Ituarte, P H; Siperstein, A E; Duh, Q Y; Clark, O H

    2000-03-01

    The clinical courses of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) vary, and a number of prognostic factors have been studied, but the significance of some of these factors remains controversial. The study group consisted of 104 patients with MTC or C-cell hyperplasia managed at the hospitals of the University of California, San Francisco, between January 1960 and December 1998. Patients were classified as having sporadic MTC, familial non-multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) MTC, MEN 2A, or MEN 2B. The TNM, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS), and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) extent-of-disease stages were determined for each patient. The predictive values of these staging or prognostic scoring systems were compared by calculating the proportion of variance explained (PVE) for each system. Fifty-six percent of the patients had sporadic MTC, 22% had familial MTC, 15% had MEN 2A, and 7% had MEN 2B. The overall average age at diagnosis was 38 years, and patients with sporadic MTC presented at an older age (P < 0.05). Thirty-two percent of the patients with hereditary MTC were diagnosed by screening (genetic and/or biochemical). These patients had a lower incidence of cervical lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05) and 94.7% were cured at last follow-up (P < 0.0001) compared with patients not screened. Patients with sporadic MTC who had systemic symptoms (diarrhea, bone pain, or flushing) had widely metastatic MTC and 33.3% of those patients died within 5 years. Overall, 49.4% of the patients were cured, 12.3% had recurrent MTC, and 38.3% had persistent MTC. The mean follow-up time was 8.6 years (median, 5.0 years) with 10.7% (n=11) and 13.5% (n=14) cause specific mortality at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Patients with persistent or recurrent MTC who died of MTC lived for an average of 3.6 years (ranging from 1 month to 23.7 years). Patients who had total or

  20. Prognostic Factors of Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Spontaneous Thalamic Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Kyung-Jae; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Jung, Yong-Gu; Park, Jung-Yul; Park, Dong-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a well-known condition, but ICH restricted to the thalamus is less widely studied. We investigated the prognostic factors of thalamic ICHs. Material/Methods Seventy patients from January 2009 to November 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who demonstrated spontaneous ICH primarily affecting the thalamus on initial brain computed tomography (CT) were enrolled. Patients were categorized into 2 groups based on their Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores. Various presumptive prognostic factors were analyzed to investigate relationships between various clinical characteristics and outcomes. Results Of the enrolled patients, 39 showed a GOS of 4–5, and were categorized as the good outcome group, while another 31 patients showed a GOS of 1–3 and were categorized as the poor outcome group. Initial GCS score, calculated volume of hematoma, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), coexisting complications, hydrocephalus, performance of external ventricular drainage, and modified Graeb’s scores of patients with IVH were significantly different between the 2 groups. In multivariate analysis, among the factors above, initial GCS score (P=0.002, Odds ratio [OR]=1.761, Confidence interval [CI]=1.223–2.536) and the existence of systemic complications (P=0.015, OR=0.059, CI=0.006–0.573) were independently associated with clinical outcomes. Calculated hematoma volume showed a borderline relationship with outcomes (P=0.079, OR=0.920, CI=0.839–1.010). Conclusions Initial GCS score and the existence of systemic complications were strong predictive factors for prognosis of thalamic ICH. Calculated hematoma volume also had predictive value for clinical outcomes. PMID:26343784

  1. Clinical Manifestations and Prognostic Factors of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia without HIV.

    PubMed

    Asai, Nobuhiro; Motojima, Shinji; Ohkuni, Yoshihiro; Matsunuma, Ryo; Iwasaki, Takuya; Nakashima, Kei; Sogawa, Keiji; Nakashita, Tamao; Kaneko, Norihiro

    2017-07-19

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) can occur in HIV patients but also in those without HIV (non-HIV PCP) but with other causes of immunodeficiency including malignancy or rheumatic diseases. To evaluate the clinical presentation and prognostic factors of non-HIV PCP, we retrospectively reviewed all patients diagnosed as having PCP without HIV at Kameda Medical Center, Chiba, Japan, from January 2005 until June 2012. For the purpose of examining a prognostic factor for non-HIV PCP with 30-day mortality, we compared the characteristics of patients, clinical symptoms, radiological images, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS), and the time from the onset of respiratory symptoms to the start of therapy, in both survival and fatality groups. A total of 38 patients were eligible in this study. Twenty-five survived and 13 had died. The non-HIV PCP patients in the survivor group had a better PS and received anti-PCP therapy earlier than those in the nonsurvivor group. Rales upon auscultation and respiratory failure at initial visits were seen more frequently in the nonsurvivor group than in the survivor group. Lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein values tended to be higher in the nonsurvivor group, but this was not statistically significant. Multivariate analyses using 5 variables showed that a poor PS of 2-4 was an independent risk factor for non-HIV PCP patients and resulted in death (odds ratio 15.24; 95% confidence interval 1.72-135.21). We suggest that poor PS is an independent risk factor in non-HIV PCP, and a patient's PS and disease activity may correlate with outcome. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Prognostic factors for clinical failure of exacerbations in elderly outpatients with moderate-to-severe COPD

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert; Anzueto, Antonio; Miravitlles, Marc; Arvis, Pierre; Haverstock, Daniel; Trajanovic, Mila; Sethi, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbations represent a significant burden for patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Each exacerbation episode is frequently associated with a lengthy recovery and impaired quality of life. Prognostic factors for outpatients that may predict poor outcome after treatment with antibiotics recommended in the guidelines, are not fully understood. We aimed to identify pretherapy factors predictive of clinical failure in elderly (≥60 years old) outpatients with acute Anthonisen type 1 exacerbations. Trial registration NCT00656747. Methods Based on the moxifloxacin in AECOPDs (acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) trial (MAESTRAL) database, this study evaluated pretherapy demographic, clinical, sputum bacteriological factors using multivariate logistic regression analysis, with internal validation by bootstrap replicates, to investigate their possible association with clinical failure at end of therapy (EOT) and 8 weeks posttherapy. Results The analyses found that the independent factors predicting clinical failure at EOT were more frequent exacerbations, increased respiratory rate and lower body temperature at exacerbation, treatment with long-acting anticholinergic drugs, and in vitro bacterial resistance to study drug. The independent factors predicting poor outcome at 8 weeks posttherapy included wheezing at preexacerbation, mild or moderate (vs extreme) sleep disturbances, lower body temperature at exacerbation, forced expiratory volume in 1 second <30%, lower body mass index, concomitant systemic corticosteroids for the current exacerbation, maintenance long-acting β2-agonist and long-acting anticholinergic treatments, and positive sputum culture at EOT. Conclusion Several bacteriological, historical, treatment-related factors were identified as predictors of early (EOT) and later (8 weeks posttherapy) clinical failure in this older outpatient population with moderate-to-severe chronic

  3. Poor prognostic factors guiding treatment decisions in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a review of data from randomized clinical trials and cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Katinka; Zink, Angela

    2017-03-23

    Prognostic factors are used for treatment decisions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). High disease activity, the early presence of erosions, and autoantibody positivity are the most frequently used poor prognostic factors but other features, such as functional disability, extraarticular disease, or multibiomarkers, are also assessed. Prognostic factors are incorporated in current treatment recommendations for the management of RA and are used as inclusion criteria in randomized controlled trials. They are defined heterogeneously and the relevance of a single or combined presence of poor prognostic factors remains unclear. This review summarizes the current definitions of poor prognostic factors and their use in clinical research. Perspectives on future research are also outlined.

  4. Clinical prognostic factors of adjuvant radiation therapy for low-grade gliomas: results of 10 years survival.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Vildan; Aksu, Melek Gamze; Korcum, Aylin Fidan; Ozdemir, Beyza; Ceçen, Yiğit; Sindir, Bora; Genç, Mine

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas compose 5-20% of all glial tumors. The prognosis of the disease can be anticipated by specific clinical factors determined during diagnosis. For this purpose, our study investigated the clinical prognostic factors for low-grade gliomas. Patients diagnosed with histopathologically confirmed low-grade glioma, followed by Akdeniz University and Süleyman Demirel University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology between 1999 and 2013 were included in the study. The examination of survival by single variable analyses were performed by log rank test. For the multivariate analysis, independent factors for the prediction of survival by using possible factors determined by previous analyses were examined by using Cox regression analysis. Fifty-five patients were included in the study. The mean follow-up period was determined as 60 ± 57 (4.5-168.1) months. Five-year overall survival was determined as 69% and 10-year overall survival was determined as 40%. When the potential prognostic factors were studied in Cox regression model, pre-radiotherapy age below 40 and gross-total excision were determined as good prognostic factors. We demonstrated that the aggressive surgical resection provided a better survival advantage both in single variable analyses and multivariate analyses. Consequently, although the low number of patients was the most important limitation in our study, we consider that patient age and extent of resection are the most important clinical prognostic factors in low-grade gliomas.

  5. Temporal bone carcinoma: a first glance beyond the conventional clinical and pathological prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Marioni, Gino; Martini, Alessandro; Favaretto, Niccolò; Franchella, Sebastiano; Cappellesso, Rocco; Marino, Filippo; Blandamura, Stella; Mazzoni, Antonio; Zanoletti, Elisabetta

    2016-10-01

    Temporal bone squamous cell carcinoma (TBSCC) is an uncommon, aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis in advanced cases. The dismal outcome is partially related to: the lack of reliable clinical or pathological prognostic factors and the largely unstandardized surgical and integrated treatments adopted. There is an undeniable need for novel diagnostic/therapeutic strategies to improve the prognosis. The purpose of this critical review was to explore the level of available knowledge concerning the molecular markers involved in the biology of TBSCC that have a prognostic potential. The Pub-Med and Scopus electronic databases were searched without publication date limits for studies investigating molecular markers in cohorts of patients with primary TBSCC. The search terms used were: "temporal bone cancer", "temporal bone carcinoma", "temporal bone malignancy", "ear cancer", "ear carcinoma", and "ear malignancy". We decided preliminarily not to consider series with less than five cases. Nine retrospective case series of TBSCC were found in which different analytical techniques had been used to study the role of several biomarkers (HPV, vimentin, transforming growth factor β, CD105, RECK, matrix metalloproteinase-9, MASPIN, EBV, p16, TP53 mutation, pSTAT3, relaxin-2). CD105 expression (in tumor vessel endothelial cells) and MASPIN cytoplasmic expression (in carcinoma cells) were, respectively, found directly and inversely related with the neoplasm's recurrence rate. CD105 expression was also inversely related with disease-free survival in TBSCC. A future goal of such analyses should be to ascertain the radio- and chemo-sensitivity profiles of individual TBSCCs, enabling truly personalized therapies. A further, more ambitious goal will be to find targets for therapeutic agents that might prove crucial in improving the disease-specific survival for patients with advanced TBSCC.

  6. Prognostic factors of clinical outcomes in endodontic microsurgery: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Song, Minju; Kim, Sahng Gyoon; Lee, Seung-Jong; Kim, Baekil; Kim, Euiseong

    2013-12-01

    This prospective study examined the potential prognostic factors of endodontic microsurgery and compared the predictors of an isolated endodontic lesion with those of both an isolated endodontic lesion and an endodontic-periodontal lesion. Data were collected from the Microscope Center of the Department of Conservative Dentistry at the Dental College of Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea, between March 2001 and March 2011. A total number of 584 teeth were included, and all clinical procedures were performed by a single operator (E.K.). The evaluation was performed at least 1 year after surgery. For statistical analysis of the predisposing factors, the chi-square test and logistic regression were performed. Of the 584 cases treated, 431 cases came for recall after a period of at least 12 months. Sex (female), tooth position (anterior), arch type (maxilla), and lesion type (isolated endodontic lesion) were found to have a positive effect on surgical outcome. With regards to isolated endodontic lesions, the tooth position (anterior), arch type (maxilla), and type of restoration (single/splinted crown, short bridge, and removable partial denture abutment) were found to be pure positive predictors. In endodontic microsurgery, it is likely that preoperative factors, particularly the tooth position and arch type, have a greater influence on the healing outcome than intra- and post-operative factors. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The clinical course and prognostic factors of non-specific neck pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Borghouts, J A; Koes, B W; Bouter, L M

    1998-07-01

    Neck pain occurs frequently in western societies. In the majority of cases, no specific cause can be identified. In order to gain insight into the clinical course and prognostic factors of non-specific neck pain, a systematic review was conducted. A computerized literature search was carried out to identify observational studies on non-specific neck pain and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on conservative treatment of non-specific neck pain. Two reviewers scored independently, the methodological quality of all identified publications, using a standardized set of 13 criteria which were divided into five categories according to: study population, study design, follow-up, outcome measures and analysis/data presentation. To determine prognosis per study, an overall percentage of recovery for the most important outcome measures (pain, general improvement, functional status, health care utilization and lost days of work) was calculated. In total 23 eligible publications were identified (six observational studies and 17 RCTs). Only seven of 23 studies scored 50% or more of the 13 items, indicating a generally poor quality of methods. The most prevalent methodological shortcomings appeared to be selection of the study population, the sample size and analysis techniques. Most information regarding the clinical course is available for the group of patients with complaints for more than 6 months, who are treated in a secondary care or an occupational setting. In this group of patients, 46% (median) had less pain, with a range of 22-79% and a general improvement that ranged between 37 and 95% (47% median). The reduction in the use of analgesics ranged between 32 and 80% (37% median). Six studies reported on prognostic factors. Bearing in mind the limited number of studies and the low methodological quality, there are some indications that the localization (radiation to the arms/neurologic signs) and radiologic findings (degenerative changes in the discs and joints) are not

  8. Clinical and pathological characteristics, and prognostic factors for gastric cancer survival in 155 patients in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Angelov, Kostadin Georgiev; Vasileva, Mariela Borisova; Grozdev, Konstantin Savov; Sokolov, Manol Bonev; Todorov, Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Almost one million new cases of gastric cancer were estimated to have occurred in 2012, making it the fifth most common malignancy in the world. It is also the third leading cause of cancer death of people of both genders worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of some prognostic factors for gastric cancer survival in 155 patients treated at Aleksandrovska University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria. This retrospective study includes patients diagnosed and treated at Department of Surgery of Aleksandrovska University Hospital for the 9-years period of time between January 2005 and December 2013. We classified the prognostic factors as patient-related (age at diagnosis specification, gender, and blood type), tumor-related (N-stage, tumor differentiation, process localization), and treatment related (patients who had radical surgery and adjuvant therapy). We found that blood type is the only statistically significant prognostic factor for overall survival from the patients-related group of factors (p = 0.030). The only prognostic factor from the ones in the tumor related group remains the N-stage according to the TNM classification (p = 0.003). Adjuvant could not prove its value for overall survival (p = 0.675).

  9. Clinical findings and prognostic factors for dogs undergoing cholecystectomy for gall bladder mucocele.

    PubMed

    Malek, Sarah; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Hosgood, Giselle; Moens, Noel M M; Baily, Trina; Boston, Sarah E

    2013-05-01

    To report clinical findings and explore prognostic factors for dogs that had cholecystectomy for gall bladder mucocele. Retrospective case series. Dogs (n = 43) with gall bladder mucoceles. Diagnosis of gall bladder mucoceles was confirmed by histopathology and 74% were diagnosed based on preoperative abdominal ultrasonography. Intraoperative evidence of gall bladder rupture was noted in 10 dogs (23%), and 16 (37%) had evidence of previous leakage in the abdominal cavity. One dog had positive bacterial growth from the gall bladder content. The most common histopathologic findings in liver biopsies obtained at surgery were cholangiohepatitis, biliary hyperplasia, or cholestasis. Univariate analysis showed evidence of postoperative hypotension (P = .05) to be significantly negatively associated with survival. Significant difference in mean postoperative serum lactate (P = .034) and postoperative packed cell volume (P = .063) between dogs that survived and died was also noted. Elevations in postoperative serum lactate concentrations and immediate postoperative hypotension in dogs undergoing cholecystectomy for gall bladder mucoceles are associated with poor clinical outcome. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors for relapse in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hwa; Choi, Sang Tae; Kim, Jin Su; Yoon, Bo Young; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Yun Sung; Song, Jung-Soo; Lee, Sang-Heon; Kim, Hae-Rim

    2013-06-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory disease of the elderly in western countries, but the prevalence is apparently different between races and countries. Until now, an epidemiologic study of PMR is limited in Korea. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical data of 78 patients with PMR who were treated in 5 tertiary hospitals, and analyzed initial laboratory data, symptoms, therapeutic responses, and prognostic factors for relapse 1 year after treatments. Sixty percent of patients had pain in both shoulder and hip girdles with 10.6 weeks of duration, 75.9 ± 32.7 mm/h of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and 6.2 ± 6.4 mg/dl of C-reactive protein. The rate of relapse and remission at 1 year was 38.4 and 2.5 %, respectively. The rate of overall relapse was 46.1 %, and the relapse occurred mostly in a year, especially between 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. There were more female in relapse group (88.9 %, p = 0.037), and cumulative steroid dose of 1 year was significantly higher in relapse group (5.5 ± 2.7 vs. 4.4 ± 2.5 g, p = 0.018). Independent risk factors for relapse were initial CRP ≥ 2.5 mg/dl (OR 6.296, p = 0.047) and the use of hydroxychloroquine (OR 6.798, p = 0.035). Initial dosage or tapering speed of steroid did not influence on prognosis. In Korean patients with PMR, baseline clinical characteristics and relapse rate were similar to previous studies, but our patients accompanied no giant cell arteritis and showed lower remission rate as well as delayed therapeutic response and later occurrence of relapse. More aggressive management would be needed according to the clinical status of patients.

  11. Multigene classifiers, prognostic factors, and predictors of breast cancer clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jeffrey S

    2009-07-01

    A series of multigene classifiers, prognostic and predictive tests have recently been introduced as potentially useful adjuncts for the management of recently diagnosed breast cancer patients. These tests have used both slide-based methods including immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization and nonmorphology driven molecular platforms including quantitative multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction and genomic microarray profiling. In this review, a series of partially and completely commercialized multigene assays are compared with the standard breast cancer clinico-pathologic variables and biomarkers and evaluated as to the level of their scientific validation, current clinical utility, regulatory approval status, and estimated cost-benefit. A comparison of the Oncotype Dx and MammaPrint assays indicates that the Oncotype Dx test has the advantages of an earlier commercial launch in the US, wide acceptance for payment by third party payors, the ease of use of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues, a recommendation as ready for use by the American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Tumor Markers Update Committee, a continuous rather than dichotomous algorithm, inclusion of both estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in the mRNA profile, an ability to serve as both a prognostic and predictive test for certain hormonal and chemotherapeutic agents, demonstrated cost-effectiveness in 1 published study, and a high accrual rate for the prospective validation clinical trial (Trial Assigning Individualized Options for Treatment Rx). The MammaPrint assay has the advantages of a 510(k) clearance by the US Food and Drug Administration, a larger gene number which may enhance further utility, and the potentially wider patient eligibility including lymph node-positive, ER-negative, and younger patients being accrued into the prospective trial (the Microarray in Node-negative Disease may Avoid ChemoTherapy). A number

  12. Prognostic factors in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Braeckman, Johan; Michielsen, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    In the nineteenth century the main goal of medicine was predictive: diagnose the disease and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. Today the effort has shifted to cure the disease. Since the twentieth century, the word prognosis has also been used in nonmedical contexts, for example in corporate finance or elections. The most accurate form of prognosis is achieved statistically. Based on different prognostic factors it should be possible to tell patients how they are expected to do after prostate cancer has been diagnosed and how different treatments may change this outcome. A prognosis is a prediction. The word prognosis comes from the Greek word (see text) and means foreknowing. In the nineteenth century this was the main goal of medicine: diagnose the disease and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. Today the effort has shifted towards seeking a cure. Prognostic factors in (prostate) cancer are defined as "variables that can account for some of the heterogeneity associated with the expected course and outcome of a disease". Bailey defined prognosis as "a reasoned forecast concerning the course, pattern, progression, duration, and end of the disease. Prognostic factors are not only essential to understand the natural history and the course of the disease, but also to predict possible different outcomes of different treatments or perhaps no treatment at all. This is extremely important in a disease like prostate cancer where there is clear evidence that a substantial number of cases discovered by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing are unlikely ever to become clinically significant, not to mention mortal. Furthermore, prognostic factors are of paramount importance for correct interpretation of clinical trials and for the construction of future trials. Finally, according to WHO national screening committee criteria for implementing a national screening programme, widely accepted prognostic factors must be defined before

  13. Prognostic Factors Derived From A Prospective Database Dictate Clinical Biology Of Anal Cancer: The Intergroup Trial (RTOG 98-11)

    PubMed Central

    Ajani, Jaffer A.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Gunderson, Leonard L.; Pedersen, John; Benson, Al B.; Thomas, Charles R.; Mayer, Robert J.; Haddock, Michael G.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Only 4 prospective randomized phase III trials have been reported for anal cancer. Prognostic factor analysis for anal cancer from prospective database has been published from only one study (n=110). To confirm and uncover new prognostic factors, we analyzed the prospective database of intergroup RTOG 98-11. Methods Univariate and multivariate analyses of the baseline characteristics for 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were carried out. Various combinations of tumor diameter and clinically positive nodes (N+) were analyzed to identify subgroups. Results 644 were assessable and analyzed. Tumor diameter >5 cm was associated with poorer 5-year DFS (p=0.0003) and poorer 5-year OS (p=0.0031) and N+ was associated with poorer 5-year DFS (p=<0.0001) and poorer 5-year OS (p=<0.0001) in the multivariate analysis. In stratified analyses, N+ had more adverse influence on DFS and OS than did tumor diameter. Patients with >5cm tumor and N+ had the worst DFS (only 30% at 3 years compared to 74% for the best group; <5 cm primary and N0) and OS (only 48% at 4 years compared to 81% for the best group; <5 cm primary and N0). Men had worst DFS (p=0.02) and OS (p=0.016). These factors maintained their influence in each treatment arm Conclusions This prospective prognostic factor analysis establishes tumor diameter as an independent prognosticator of poorer 5-year DFS and OS and confirms N+ and male gender as poor prognostic factors. This analysis also uncovers novel subgroups (derived from combining prognostic factors) with incremental worsening of DFS and OS. PMID:20564111

  14. Clinical outcomes of adjuvant radiation therapy and prognostic factors in early stage uterine cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Rhee, Woo Joong; Choi, Seo Hee; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Gwi Eon; Kim, Yong Bae

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and to analyze prognostic factors of survival in the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IB-IIA uterine cervical cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 148 patients with FIGO IB-IIA uterine cervical cancer who underwent surgery followed by adjuvant RT at the Yonsei Cancer Center between June 1997 and December 2011. Adjuvant radiotherapy was delivered to the whole pelvis or an extended field with or without brachytherapy. Among all patients, 57 (38.5%) received adjuvant chemotherapy either concurrently or sequentially. To analyze prognostic factors, we assessed clinicopathologic variables and metabolic parameters measured on preoperative 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). To evaluate the predictive performance of metabolic parameters, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The median follow-up period was 63.2 months (range, 2.7 to 206.8 months). Locoregional recurrence alone occurred in 6 patients, while distant metastasis was present in 16 patients, including 2 patients with simultaneous regional failure. The 5-year and 10-year OSs were 87.0% and 85.4%, respectively. The 5-year and 10-year DFSs were 83.8% and 82.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, pathologic type and tumor size were shown to be significant prognostic factors associated with both DFS and OS. In subset analysis of 40 patients who underwent preoperative PET/CT, total lesion glycolysis was shown to be the most significant prognostic factor among the clinicopathologic variables and metabolic parameters for DFS. Our results demonstrated that adjuvant RT following hysterectomy effectively improves local control. From the subset analysis of preoperative PET/CT, we can consider that metabolic parameters may hold prognostic significance

  15. A Systematic Review of Clinical Outcomes and Prognostic Factors for Patients Undergoing Surgery for Spinal Metastases Secondary to Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Daniel M; Goodwin, C Rory; Yurter, Alp; Ju, Derek; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Fisher, Charles; Rhines, Laurence D; Fehlings, Michael G; Fourney, Daryl R; Mendel, Ehud; Laufer, Ilya; Bettegowda, Chetan; Patel, Shreyaskumar R; Rampersaud, Y Raja; Sahgal, Arjun; Reynolds, Jeremy; Chou, Dean; Weber, Michael H; Clarke, Michelle J

    2016-08-01

    Review of the literature. Surgery and cement augmentation procedures are effective palliative treatment of symptomatic spinal metastases. Our objective is to systematically review the literature to describe the survival, prognostic factors, and clinical outcomes of surgery and cement augmentation procedures for breast cancer metastases to the spine. We performed a literature review using PubMed to identify articles that reported outcomes and/or prognostic factors of the breast cancer patient population with spinal metastases treated with any surgical technique since 1990. The median postoperative survival for metastatic breast cancer was 21.7 months (8.2 to 36 months), the mean rate of any pain improvement was 92.9% (76 to 100%), the mean rate of neurologic improvement was 63.8% (53 to 100%), the mean rate of neurologic decline was 4.1% (0 to 8%), and the local tumor control rate was 92.6% (89 to 100%). Kyphoplasty studies reported a high rate of pain control in selected patients. Negative prognostic variables included hormonal (estrogen and progesterone) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor refractory tumor status, high degree of axillary lymph node involvement, and short disease-free interval (DFI). All other clinical or prognostic parameters were of low or insufficient strength. With respect to clinical outcomes, surgery consistently yielded neurologic improvements in patients presenting with a deficit with a minimal risk of worsening; however, negative prognostic factors associated with shorter survival following surgery include estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor negativity, HER2 negativity, and a short DFI.

  16. A Systematic Review of Clinical Outcomes and Prognostic Factors for Patients Undergoing Surgery for Spinal Metastases Secondary to Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sciubba, Daniel M.; Goodwin, C. Rory; Yurter, Alp; Ju, Derek; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Fisher, Charles; Rhines, Laurence D.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Fourney, Daryl R.; Mendel, Ehud; Laufer, Ilya; Bettegowda, Chetan; Patel, Shreyaskumar R.; Rampersaud, Y. Raja; Sahgal, Arjun; Reynolds, Jeremy; Chou, Dean; Weber, Michael H.; Clarke, Michelle J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design  Review of the literature. Objective  Surgery and cement augmentation procedures are effective palliative treatment of symptomatic spinal metastases. Our objective is to systematically review the literature to describe the survival, prognostic factors, and clinical outcomes of surgery and cement augmentation procedures for breast cancer metastases to the spine. Methods  We performed a literature review using PubMed to identify articles that reported outcomes and/or prognostic factors of the breast cancer patient population with spinal metastases treated with any surgical technique since 1990. Results  The median postoperative survival for metastatic breast cancer was 21.7 months (8.2 to 36 months), the mean rate of any pain improvement was 92.9% (76 to 100%), the mean rate of neurologic improvement was 63.8% (53 to 100%), the mean rate of neurologic decline was 4.1% (0 to 8%), and the local tumor control rate was 92.6% (89 to 100%). Kyphoplasty studies reported a high rate of pain control in selected patients. Negative prognostic variables included hormonal (estrogen and progesterone) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor refractory tumor status, high degree of axillary lymph node involvement, and short disease-free interval (DFI). All other clinical or prognostic parameters were of low or insufficient strength. Conclusion  With respect to clinical outcomes, surgery consistently yielded neurologic improvements in patients presenting with a deficit with a minimal risk of worsening; however, negative prognostic factors associated with shorter survival following surgery include estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor negativity, HER2 negativity, and a short DFI. PMID:27433433

  17. Clinical outcomes and prognostic factors of patients with advanced mesothelioma treated in a phase I clinical trials unit.

    PubMed

    Papadatos-Pastos, Dionysis; Roda, Desam; De Miguel Luken, Maria Jose; Petruckevitch, Ann; Jalil, Awais; Capelan, Marta; Michalarea, Vasiliki; Lima, Joao; Diamantis, Nikolaos; Bhosle, Jaishree; Molife, L Rhoda; Banerji, Udai; de Bono, Johann S; Popat, Sanjay; O'Brien, Mary E R; Yap, Timothy A

    2017-04-01

    We have previously reported a prognostic score for patients in phase I trials in the Drug Development Unit, treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital (RPS). The RPS is an objective tool used in patient selection for phase I trials based on albumin, number of disease sites and LDH. Patients with mesothelioma are often selected for phase I trials as the disease remains localised for long periods of time. We have now reviewed the clinical outcomes of patients with relapsed malignant mesothelioma (MM) and propose a specific mesothelioma prognostic score (m-RPS) that can help identify patients who are most likely to benefit from early referral. Patients who participated in 38 phase I trials between September 2003 and November 2015 were included in the analysis. Efficacy was assessed by response rate, median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Univariate (UVA) and multivariate analyses (MVA) were carried out to develop the m-RPS. A total of 65 patients with advanced MM were included in this retrospective study. The PFS was 2.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0-3.1 months) and OS was 8 months (95% CI 5.6-9.8 months). A total of four (6%) patients had RECIST partial responses, whereas 26 (40%) patients had RECIST stable disease >3 months. The m-RPS was developed comprising of three different prognostic factors: a neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio greater than 3, the presence of more than two disease sites (including lymph nodes as a single site of disease) and albumin levels less than 35 from the MVA. Patients each received a score of 1 for the presence of each factor. Patients in group A (m-RPS 0-1; n = 35) had a median OS of 13.4 months (95% CI 8.5-21.6), whereas those in group B (m-RPS 2-3; n = 30) had a median OS of 4.0 months (95% CI 2.9-7.1, P < 0.0001). A total of 56 (86%) patients experienced G1-2 toxicities, whereas reversible G3-4 toxicities were observed in 18 (28%) patients. Only 10 (15%) patients discontinued phase I trials due to

  18. Prognostic factors for tumor recurrence in patients with clinical stage I seminoma undergoing surveillance--protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kunath, Frank; Spek, Annabel; Jensen, Katrin; Zengerling, Friedemann; Schmidt, Stefanie

    2015-12-18

    Testicular cancer is primarily treated with the surgical removal of the affected testis. About 50% of testicular cancer patients present with a stage I seminoma. If no chemo- or radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment is initiated after orchiectomy, 15-20% of these patients will develop metastases. Although adjuvant treatment is effective in reducing the relapse risk, there is rising concern about overtreatment of these patients. Prognostic factors at primary diagnosis might have the potential to identify patients at higher risk of tumor relapse, allowing to guide individual therapy and to avoid overtreatment. Therefore, we aim to synthesize the available evidence on tumor or patient characteristics as possible prognostic factors for cancer recurrence in patients with clinical stage I seminoma. We will conduct a broad systematic review to analyze what prognostic factors predict cancer recurrence in patients with a first time diagnosis of clinical stage I seminoma, who received no adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy after orchiectomy. The literature search will comprise MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and the conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), American Urologic Association (AUA), and European Urologic Association (EAU) Annual Meetings. Prospective and retrospective longitudinal studies reporting on prognostic factors for cancer recurrence will be considered. We will consider the wealth of any candidate clinical or pathological prognostic factor reported in the literature. Our outcome of interest will be tumor recurrence at a minimum of 2 years follow-up. Study screening, data extraction, and quality assessment will be done by two reviewers independently. Hazard ratios will be used to measure the relationship between the potential prognostic factor and tumor recurrence. Meta-analyses will be conducted with sufficiently homogeneous studies and separately with respect to study design

  19. Prognosis Research Strategy (PROGRESS) 2: prognostic factor research.

    PubMed

    Riley, Richard D; Hayden, Jill A; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Moons, Karel G M; Abrams, Keith; Kyzas, Panayiotis A; Malats, Núria; Briggs, Andrew; Schroter, Sara; Altman, Douglas G; Hemingway, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Prognostic factor research aims to identify factors associated with subsequent clinical outcome in people with a particular disease or health condition. In this article, the second in the PROGRESS series, the authors discuss the role of prognostic factors in current clinical practice, randomised trials, and developing new interventions, and explain why and how prognostic factor research should be improved.

  20. Prognostic factors in Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Kaiserman, Igor; Bahar, Irit; McAllum, Penny; Srinivasan, Sathish; Elbaz, Uri; Slomovic, Allan R; Rootman, David S

    2012-06-01

    To assess the prognostic factors influencing visual prognosis and length of treatment after acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Forty-two AK eyes of 41 patients treated between 1999 and 2006 were included. A diagnosis of AK was made on the basis of culture results with a corresponding clinical presentation. We calculated the prognostic effect of the various factors on final visual acuity and the length of treatment. Multivariate regression analysis was used to adjust for the simultaneous effects of the various prognostic factors. Mean follow-up was 19.7 ± 21.0 months. Sixty-four percent of cases had > 1 identified risk factor for AK, the most common risk factor being contact lens wear (92.9% of eyes). At presentation, median best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/200 (20/30 to Hand Motion [HM]) that improved after treatment to 20/50 (20/20 to Counting Fingers [CF]). Infection acquired by swimming or related to contact lenses had significantly better final BCVA (p = 0.03 and p = 0.007, respectively). Neuritis and pseudodendrites were also associated with better final BCVA (p = 0.04 and p = 0.05, respectively). Having had an epithelial defect on presentation and having been treated with topical steroid were associated with worse final best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) (p = 0.0006 and p = 0.04). Multivariate regression analysis found a good initial visual acuity (p = 0.002), infections related to swimming (p = 0.01), the absence of an epithelial defect (p = 0.03), having been treated with chlorhexidine (p = 0.05), and not having receive steroids (p = 0.003) to significantly forecast a good final BCVA. We identified several prognostic factors that can help clinicians evaluate the expected visual damage of the AK infection and thus tailor treatment accordingly. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Is tumor volume an independent prognostic factor in clinically localized prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Eiji; Scardino, Peter T; Wheeler, Thomas M; Slawin, Kevin M; Ohori, Makoto

    2004-08-01

    There continues to be debate regarding the prognostic significance of tumor volume (TV) in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens. We assessed the prognostic significance of TV in a large series of patients followed for a long time to discover whether the effect of TV has changed with earlier detection of smaller tumors. TV was measured planimetrically in 1,302 consecutive RP specimens with clinical stage T1-3 prostate cancer from 1983 to 2000. We correlated TV with standard clinical and pathological features, and determined the prostate specific antigen nonprogression rate. Median followup was 46 months (range 1 to 202). TV was weakly associated with other clinical and pathological features. Median TV decreased significantly over time (2.16 cm3 before 1995 vs 1.25 cm3 after 1995, p <0.001) and this decrease was also found within each clinical stage. In univariate analysis TV correlated strongly with the probability of progression. However, in multivariate analysis TV was not a significant independent predictor of prognosis, either in the whole cohort of patients or in those with peripheral zone cancer only. Even in univariate analysis TV had no effect on prognosis for patients in whom cancer was either confined to the prostate or was Gleason score 2 through 6. TV provides no independent prognostic information when considered in multivariate analysis with Gleason score and pathological stage. Measurement of TV before treatment is less likely to characterize prostate cancer accurately than assessment of tumor grade and extent. There seems to be little reason to measure TV routinely in RP specimens.

  2. Clearing the Confusion over Hepatic Encephalopathy After TIPS Creation: Incidence, Prognostic Factors, and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Casadaban, Leigh C; Parvinian, Ahmad; Minocha, Jeet; Lakhoo, Janesh; Grant, Christopher W; Ray, Charles E; Knuttinen, M Grace; Bui, James T; Gaba, Ron C

    2015-04-01

    To assess the incidence, prognostic factors, and clinical outcomes of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation. In this single-institution retrospective study, 191 patients (m:f = 114:77, median age 54 years, median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease or MELD score 14) who underwent TIPS creation between 1999 and 2013 were studied. Medical record review was used to identify demographic characteristics, liver disease, procedure, and outcome data. Post-TIPS HE within 30 days was defined by new mental status changes and was graded according to the West Haven classification system. The influence of data parameters on HE occurrence and 90-day mortality was assessed using binary logistic regression. TIPS was successfully created with hemodynamic success in 99 % of cases. Median final PSG was 7 mmHg. HE incidence within 30 days was 42 % (81/191; 22 % de novo, 12 % stable, and 8 % worsening). Degrees of HE included grade 1 (46 %), grade 2 (29 %), grade 3 (18 %), and grade 4 (7 %). Medical therapy typically addressed HE, and shunt reduction was necessary in only three cases. MELD score (P = 0.020) and age (P = 0.009) were significantly associated with HE development on multivariate analysis. Occurrence of de novo HE post-TIPS did not associate with 90-day mortality (P = 0.400), in contrast to worsening HE (P < 0.001). The incidence of post-TIPS HE is non-trivial, but symptoms are typically mild and medically managed. HE rates are higher in older patients and those with worse liver function and should be contemplated when counseling on expected TIPS outcomes and post-procedure course.

  3. Clinical features and prognostic factors of listeriosis: the MONALISA national prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Caroline; Perrodeau, Élodie; Leclercq, Alexandre; Cazenave, Benoît; Pilmis, Benoît; Henry, Benoît; Lopes, Amanda; Maury, Mylène M; Moura, Alexandra; Goffinet, François; Dieye, Hélène Bracq; Thouvenot, Pierre; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noëlle; Tourdjman, Mathieu; Goulet, Véronique; de Valk, Henriette; Lortholary, Olivier; Ravaud, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc

    2017-05-01

    Listeriosis is a severe foodborne infection and a notifiable disease in France. We did a nationwide prospective study to characterise its clinical features and prognostic factors. MONALISA was a national prospective observational cohort study. We enrolled eligible cases declared to the National Reference Center for Listeria (all microbiologically proven) between Nov 3, 2009, and July 31, 2013, in the context of mandatory reporting. The outcomes were analysis of clinical features, characterisation of Listeria isolates, and determination of predictors of 3-month mortality or persisting impairment using logistic regression. A hierarchical clustering on principal components was also done for neurological and bacteraemic cases. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01520597. We enrolled 818 cases from 372 centres, including 107 maternal-neonatal infections, 427 cases of bacteraemia, and 252 cases of neurolisteriosis. Only five (5%) of 107 pregnant women had an uneventful outcome. 26 (24%) of 107 mothers experienced fetal loss, but never after 29 weeks of gestation or beyond 2 days of admission to hospital. Neurolisteriosis presented as meningoencephalitis in 212 (84%) of 252 patients; brainstem involvement was only reported in 42 (17%) of 252 patients. 3-month mortality was higher for bacteraemia than neurolisteriosis (hazard ratio [HR] 0·54 [95% CI 0·41-0·69], p<0·0001). For both bacteraemia and neurolisteriosis, the strongest mortality predictors were ongoing cancer (odds ratio [OR] 5·19 [95% CI 3·01-8·95], p<0·0001), multi-organ failure (OR 7·98 [4·32-14·72], p<0·0001), aggravation of any pre-existing organ dysfunction (OR 4·35 [2·79-6·81], p<0·0001), and monocytopenia (OR 3·70 [1·82-7·49], p=0·0003). Neurolisteriosis mortality was higher in blood-culture positive patients (OR 3·67 [1·60-8·40], p=0·002) or those receiving adjunctive dexamethasone (OR 4·58 [1·50-13·98], p=0·008). The severity of listeriosis is higher than

  4. Clinical importance of F-waves as a prognostic factor in Guillain-Barré syndrome in children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eung-Bin; Lee, Yun Young; Lee, Jae Min; Son, Su Min; Hwang, Su-Kyeong; Kwon, Soonhak

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A limited number of studies have examined the link between F-wave abnormalities and clinical presentation in pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Therefore, this study examined the importance of F-wave abnormalities as a prognostic factor in pediatric GBS patients. Methods The records and electrodiagnostic studies (EDS) of 70 GBS patients were retrospectively evaluated, and divided into 2 groups according to the results of EDS. Group A (n=33) presented with F-wave abnormalities, and group B (n=26) exhibited normal findings. We compared laboratory reports, clinical features, response to treatment, and prognosis between the 2 groups. Results Motor weakness was the most frequently observed symptom for either group. Clinically, the incidence of fever and upper respiratory symptoms differed between the 2 groups, while the prevalence of abnormal deep tendon reflex (DTR) was significantly higher in group A than B (P<0.05). Patients diagnosed with GBS had received intravenous immunoglobulin treatment: 94% in group A and 58% in group B. Furthermore, significantly greater numbers of patients in group A showed H-reflex abnormalities and poor prognosis compared with group B (P<0.05). Conclusion This study demonstrated that F-waves are a clinically important prognostic factor in GBS. F-wave abnormalities were associated with abnormal DTR and poor prognosis in patients. Limited studies have examined the link between F-wave abnormalities and clinical results; therefore, further randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm the clinical characteristics and efficacy of treatments. PMID:27462356

  5. Clinical importance of F-waves as a prognostic factor in Guillain-Barré syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eung-Bin; Lee, Yun Young; Lee, Jae Min; Son, Su Min; Hwang, Su-Kyeong; Kwon, Soonhak; Kim, Sae Yoon

    2016-06-01

    A limited number of studies have examined the link between F-wave abnormalities and clinical presentation in pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Therefore, this study examined the importance of F-wave abnormalities as a prognostic factor in pediatric GBS patients. The records and electrodiagnostic studies (EDS) of 70 GBS patients were retrospectively evaluated, and divided into 2 groups according to the results of EDS. Group A (n=33) presented with F-wave abnormalities, and group B (n=26) exhibited normal findings. We compared laboratory reports, clinical features, response to treatment, and prognosis between the 2 groups. Motor weakness was the most frequently observed symptom for either group. Clinically, the incidence of fever and upper respiratory symptoms differed between the 2 groups, while the prevalence of abnormal deep tendon reflex (DTR) was significantly higher in group A than B (P<0.05). Patients diagnosed with GBS had received intravenous immunoglobulin treatment: 94% in group A and 58% in group B. Furthermore, significantly greater numbers of patients in group A showed H-reflex abnormalities and poor prognosis compared with group B (P<0.05). This study demonstrated that F-waves are a clinically important prognostic factor in GBS. F-wave abnormalities were associated with abnormal DTR and poor prognosis in patients. Limited studies have examined the link between F-wave abnormalities and clinical results; therefore, further randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm the clinical characteristics and efficacy of treatments.

  6. Temporomandibular joint involvement as a positive clinical prognostic factor in necrotising external otitis.

    PubMed

    Yeheskeli, E; Eta, R Abu; Gavriel, H; Kleid, S; Eviatar, E

    2016-05-01

    Necrotising otitis externa is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. This study investigated whether temporomandibular joint involvement had any prognostic effect on the course of necrotising otitis externa in patients who had undergone hyperbaric oxygen therapy after failed medical and sometimes surgical therapy. A retrospective case series was conducted of patients in whom antibiotic treatment and surgery had failed, who had been hospitalised for further treatment and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Twenty-three patients with necrotising otitis externa were identified. The temporomandibular joint was involved in four patients (17 per cent); these patients showed a constant gradual improvement in C-reactive protein and were eventually discharged free of disease, except one patient who was lost to follow up. Four patients (16 per cent) without temporomandibular joint involvement died within 90 days of discharge, while all patients with temporomandibular joint involvement were alive. Three patients (13 per cent) without temporomandibular joint involvement needed recurrent hospitalisation including further hyperbaric oxygen therapy; no patients with temporomandibular joint involvement required such treatment. Patients with temporomandibular joint involvement had lower rates of recurrent disease and no mortality. Therefore, we suggest considering temporomandibular joint involvement as a positive prognostic factor in necrotising otitis externa management.

  7. Impact of misspecifying the distribution of a prognostic factor on power and sample size for testing treatment interactions in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, William M; LaValley, Michael P; Gagnon, David R; Losina, Elena

    2013-02-15

    Interaction in clinical trials presents challenges for design and appropriate sample size estimation. Here we considered interaction between treatment assignment and a dichotomous prognostic factor with a continuous outcome. Our objectives were to describe differences in power and sample size requirements across alternative distributions of a prognostic factor and magnitudes of the interaction effect, describe the effect of misspecification of the distribution of the prognostic factor on the power to detect an interaction effect, and discuss and compare three methods of handling the misspecification of the prognostic factor distribution. We examined the impact of the distribution of the dichotomous prognostic factor on power and sample size for the interaction effect using traditional one-stage sample size calculation. We varied the magnitude of the interaction effect, the distribution of the prognostic factor, and the magnitude and direction of the misspecification of the distribution of the prognostic factor. We compared quota sampling, modified quota sampling, and sample size re-estimation using conditional power as three strategies for ensuring adequate power and type I error in the presence of a misspecification of the prognostic factor distribution. The sample size required to detect an interaction effect with 80% power increases as the distribution of the prognostic factor becomes less balanced. Misspecification such that the actual distribution of the prognostic factor was more skewed than planned led to a decrease in power with the greatest loss in power seen as the distribution of the prognostic factor became less balanced. Quota sampling was able to maintain the empirical power at 80% and the empirical type I error at 5%. The performance of the modified quota sampling procedure was related to the percentage of trials switching the quota sampling scheme. Sample size re-estimation using conditional power was able to improve the empirical power under

  8. Analysis on therapeutic outcomes and prognostic factors of intracranial ependymoma: a report of 49 clinical cases in a single center.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jingliang; Zhu, Junle; Yan, Jiayi; Chen, Peiqin; Wan, Zhiping; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Lei; Qian, Jun; Luo, Chun

    2015-12-01

    Although intracranial ependymoma is relatively rare, it is often associated with great clinical aggressiveness and poor overall survival. There are controversies over factors affecting the prognosis of the disease. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate factors that may affect the therapeutic outcome and prognosis of intracranial ependymoma by reviewing the medical records of 49 patients who were surgically treated in our hospital between 2001 and 2014. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic variables relative to patient and tumor characteristics, and treatment modalities. All 49 patients (24 men and 25 women; mean age 27.6 years) underwent surgical resection, of whom 14 patients also underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Local recurrence was found in 15 (48.8 %) patients, and 22 (51.2 %) patients died during the follow-up periods. The 5-year recurrence rate was 65 % and the survival rate was 51 %. The results of statistical analysis suggested that preoperative extraventricular drainage and surgical resection extent were prognostic factors related to progression-free survival, and that age, surgical resection extent and histological grade were closely associated with survival. Interestingly, there was a significant correlation between the symptom of hydrocephalus and age (P = 0.010), and patients with a better clinical status (KPS ≥ 80) were significantly associated with a lower WHO grade (P = 0.007). In conclusion, we confirmed that surgical resection extent was the major independent factor affecting both recurrence and survival of patients with intracranial ependymoma, while age and WHO grade were prognostic factors affecting survival but not recurrence.

  9. Clinical characteristics, hospital outcome and prognostic factors of patients with ventilator-related pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C-W; Sun, S-F; Lee, D L; Chu, K-A; Lin, H-S

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a common cause of iatrogenic pneumothorax in intensive care units (ICU). Most of the patients with ventilator-related pneumothorax (VRP) have underlying lung diseases and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The prognostic factors of VRP are not clear. The objective of this study was to find the possible prognostic factors. Analysis of retrospectively collected data of patients with pneumothorax induced by mechanical ventilation. Data were obtained concerning demographics, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score, organ failure, underlying diseases, interval between the start of mechanical ventilation and pneumothorax, arterial blood gas, respiratory parameters and patient outcomes. One hundred and twenty-four patients with VRP were included for analysis. The incidence rate of VRP was 0.4% (124/31,660), and the mortality rate was 77.4%. The patients with VRP had higher hospital mortality rate than that of mechanically ventilated patients without pneumothorax (77.4% vs. 13.7%, P<0.001) or patient with procedure-related pneumothorax (77.4% vs. 29.4%, P<0.001). Most cases of VRP occurred in the early phase of mechanical ventilation, and 8.9% of the patients had a later episode of pneumothorax on the opposite lung. The interval between two episodes of VRP was short, at a median time of 2 days. Cox regression analysis showed that tension pneumothorax (P=0.001), PaO2/FiO2<200 (P=0.002), and APACHE II score (P=0.008) were significantly associated with death. VRP patients with tension pneumothorax or PaO2/FiO2<200 had a higher risk of death. APACHE II scores were associated with mortality in the VRP patients with PaO2/FiO2≥200 mmHg.

  10. Prognostic factors for acute myeloid leukaemia in adults--biological significance and clinical use.

    PubMed

    Liersch, Ruediger; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Krug, Utz

    2014-04-01

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease. Prognosis of AML is influenced both by patient-specific as well as disease-specific factors. Age is the most prominent patient-specific risk factor, while chromosomal aberrations are the strongest disease-specific risk factors. For patients with cytogenetically normal AML, prognosis can be specified by mutational status of the genes NPM1, FLT3 and CEBPA. A growing number of recurrent mutations in additional genes have recently been identified, for which the prognostic effect yet has to be determined. Performance status, geriatric assessment, secondary leukaemia following myelodysplastic syndrome or cytotoxic treatment, common laboratory parameters, leukaemic stem cell frequency, bone marrow microenvironment, gene expression levels, epigenetic changes, micro-RNA's as well as kinetics and depth of response to treatment influence prognosis of AML patients. Despite the high number of established risk factors, only few predictive markers exist which can truly aid therapy decisions in patients with AML. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Prognostic factors for survival in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: analysis of a multi-centre clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Yates, Emma; Rafiq, Muhammad K

    2016-10-01

    Information regarding factors influencing prognosis and quality of life (QoL) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is useful for clinicians and also for patients and their carers. The aims of this study are to identify prognostic factors for survival in ALS and to determine the physical factors influencing QoL. This study is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 512 patients who participated in a phase II/III clinical trial of olesoxime. Cox multivariate regression analysis found older age, bulbar onset disease, low baseline forced vital capacity, low baseline manual muscle test (MMT) scores and a shorter diagnostic delay to be independently associated with poor survival outcome. Physical factors shown to have the strongest correlation with poor QoL were low weight and a reduced ability to climb stairs. Therapeutic interventions including gastrostomy and non-invasive ventilation had no positive impact on QoL in this cohort. The prognostic factors for survival identified here are consistent with other studies of ALS patients, with the additional identification of baseline MMT score as another predictor of prognosis. Furthermore, the correlation between both weight and poor lower limb function with QoL is novel and underlines the importance of careful nutritional management in this hypercatabolic condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prognostic Factors Affecting Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer and Clinical Significance of Hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk Kuhn, Hildegard; Schultze, Juergen; Homann, Nils; Brandenburg, Bernd; Schulte, Rainer; Krull, Andreas; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate potential prognostic factors, including hemoglobin levels before and during radiotherapy, for associations with survival and local control in patients with unirradiated locally recurrent rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: Ten potential prognostic factors were investigated in 94 patients receiving radiotherapy for recurrent rectal cancer: age ({<=}68 vs. {>=}69 years), gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0-1 vs. 2-3), American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage ({<=}II vs. III vs. IV), grading (G1-2 vs. G3), surgery, administration of chemotherapy, radiation dose (equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions: {<=}50 vs. >50 Gy), and hemoglobin levels before (<12 vs. {>=}12 g/dL) and during (majority of levels: <12 vs. {>=}12 g/dL) radiotherapy. Multivariate analyses were performed, including hemoglobin levels, either before or during radiotherapy (not both) because these are confounding variables. Results: Improved survival was associated with better performance status (p < 0.001), lower AJCC stage (p = 0.023), surgery (p = 0.011), chemotherapy (p = 0.003), and hemoglobin levels {>=}12 g/dL both before (p = 0.031) and during (p < 0.001) radiotherapy. On multivariate analyses, performance status, AJCC stage, and hemoglobin levels during radiotherapy maintained significance. Improved local control was associated with better performance status (p = 0.040), lower AJCC stage (p = 0.010), lower grading (p = 0.012), surgery (p < 0.001), chemotherapy (p < 0.001), and hemoglobin levels {>=}12 g/dL before (p < 0.001) and during (p < 0.001) radiotherapy. On multivariate analyses, chemotherapy, grading, and hemoglobin levels before and during radiotherapy remained significant. Subgroup analyses of the patients having surgery demonstrated the extent of resection to be significantly associated with local control (p = 0.011) but not with survival (p = 0.45). Conclusion: Predictors for outcome in patients who received radiotherapy for

  13. Prognostic Factors for Clinical Outcomes in Autotransplantation of Teeth with Complete Root Formation: Survival Analysis for up to 12 Years.

    PubMed

    Jang, Youngjune; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Seung-Jong; Roh, Byoung-Duck; Park, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Euiseong

    2016-02-01

    Tooth autotransplantation is a treatment option that has the potential to restore masticatory function and esthetics to edentulous spaces resulting from extracted teeth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors and clinical outcomes for autotransplanted teeth with complete root formation. Patients who had received tooth autotransplantation in the Department of Conservative Dentistry, Yonsei University Dental Hospital, Seoul, Korea, from July 2001 to August 2010 were electronically searched, and a total of 105 cases of autotransplanted teeth met the inclusion criteria. Tooth survival, inflammatory root resorption (IRR), ankylosis, and related prognostic factors were assessed by using the survival analysis that was based on clinical and radiographic examination. The cumulative tooth survival rate was 68.2% at 12 years after the tooth autotransplantation. According to the Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, patient age, donor position, and extraoral time were significantly associated with tooth survival (P < .05). Donor extraction type was significantly associated with IRR (P < .05), and transplantation timing and initial stability were significantly associated with ankylosis (P < .05) CONCLUSIONS: Patients less than 45 years of age, maxillary donor teeth, and an extraoral time of less than 15 minutes were associated with significantly higher tooth survival. Surgical extraction of the donor tooth was associated with a significantly higher incidence of IRR. Immediate transplantation after the extraction of the recipient site's tooth and low initial stability were associated with a significantly lower incidence of ankylosis. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Can historical controls be used in current clinical trials in osteosarcoma. Analysis of prognostic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Brostroem, L.A.; Aparisi, T.; Ingimarsson, S.; Lagergren, C.; Nilsonne, U.; Strander, H.; Soederberg, G.

    1980-12-01

    A comparison with respect to possible prognostic factors has been made between a contemporary group of 44 patients with osteosarcoma in Sweden, who received treatment since 1971, and a historical group of 35 such patients treated prior to 1972. Only patients with no evidence of metastases on admission were included in the material. The female/male ratio was lower, but not significantly so, for the contemporary group. The mean age was similar in the two groups. Pain was the most common symptom in both groups. The site patterns differed slightly, although not significantly so, in the two groups, there was a higher ratio of frequency of femoral and lower leg tumors for the historical group than for the contemporary group. The variability in tumor size was greater for the historical group, as was the tumor diameter. The historical group had a greater proportion of osteoblastic tumors and these tended to be more malignant. On the whole the prognosis would be expected to be less favorable for the historical group and there would seem to be a definite risk in using this group as a control group to the adjuvant interferon treated patients.

  15. Waldenström's macroglobulinemia: clinical course and prognostic factors in 60 patients. Experience from a single hematology unit.

    PubMed

    Kyrtsonis, M C; Vassilakopoulos, T P; Angelopoulou, M K; Siakantaris, P; Kontopidou, F N; Dimopoulou, M N; Boussiotis, V; Gribabis, A; Konstantopoulos, K; Vaiopoulos, G A; Fessas, P; Kittas, C; Pangalis, G A

    2001-12-01

    Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma characterized by the presence in patients' serum of an IgM monoclonal component. We report on our experience with 60 WM patients, focusing on their clinical findings, response to treatment, and the possible identification of prognostic factors. Of these patients, 70% presented with fatigue, and lymphadenopathy was observed in 22%, splenomegaly in 18%, hepatomegaly in 13%, and extranodal site of involvement in 6%. Bleeding tendency was seen in 17%, infections in 17%, hyperviscosity syndrome in 12%, and cardiac failure in 25% of the patients. The median of IgM levels was 30 g/l with hypoalbuminemia in 20% of cases, hypogammaglobulinemia in 27%, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia in 15%, kappa light-chain restriction in 78%, and Bence-Jones proteinuria in 54%. Anemia was frequent (85%), followed by leukocytosis (18%), lymphocytosis (12%), leukopenia (10%), and thrombocytopenia (10%). Cryoglobulinemia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia were encountered in 5%. In all cases but two, bone marrow was involved. Of 50 patients initially treated with intermittent oral chlorambucil, 46 (92%) responded. Median overall survival was 108 months. Factors associated with adverse prognosis were age > or =65 years (p=0.06), presence of lymphadenopathy (p=0.06), bone marrow infiltration > or =50% (p=0.007), international prognostic index (IPI) > or =3 (p=0.0001), and Morel's scoring system (p=0.04). Concluding, we found in this series of WM patients that chlorambucil is an effective treatment and that the parameters of age, lymphadenopathy, percentage of bone marrow infiltration, IPI, and Morel's scoring system carry prognostic significance.

  16. [Clinical and biological prognostic factors in relapsed acute myeloid leukemia patients].

    PubMed

    Yébenes-Ramírez, Manuel; Serrano, Josefina; Martínez-Losada, Carmen; Sánchez-García, Joaquín

    2016-09-02

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most frequent type of acute leukemia in adults. Despite recent advances in the characterization of pathogenesis of AML, the cure rates are under 40%, being leukemia relapse the most common cause of treatment failure. Leukaemia relapse occurs due to clonal evolution or clonal escape. In this study, we aimed to analyze the clinical and biological factors influencing outcomes in patients with AML relapse. We included a total of 75 AML patients who experienced leukaemia relapse after achieving complete remission. We performed complete immunophenotyping and conventional karyotyping in bone marrow aspirates obtained at diagnosis and at leukemia relapse. Overall survival (OS) of the series was 3.7%±2.3, leukaemia progression being the most common cause of death. Patients relapsing before 12 months and those with adverse cytogenetic-molecular risk had statistically significant worse outcomes. A percentage of 52.5 of patients showed phenotypic changes and 50% cytogenetic changes at relapse. We did not find significant clinical factors predicting clonal evolution. The presence of clonal evolution at relapse did not have a significant impact on outcome. Patients with relapsed AML have a dismal prognosis, especially those with early relapse and adverse cytogenetic-molecular risk. Clonal evolution with phenotypic and cytogenetic changes occurred in half of the patients without predictive clinical factors or impact on outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Microvessel Landscape Assessment in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Unclear Value of Targeting Endoglin (CD105) as Prognostic Factor of Clinical Outcome.

    PubMed

    Lytras, Dimitrios; Leontara, Vassileia; Kefala, Maria; Foukas, Periklis G; Giannakou, Niki; Pouliakis, Abraham; Dervenis, Christos; Panayiotides, Ioannis G; Karakitsos, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis based on microvessel density assessment has been associated with poor prognosis in several studies of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Expression of endoglin (CD105), a tumor-induced vascularization marker, has been found to represent a negative prognostic factor in many malignant tumors. The aim of our study was to assess the value of tumoral microvascularity both with pan-endothelial markers and endoglin as well, in correlation with the clinical outcome of patients with PDAC. Fifty-eight patients with PDAC, 36 males and 22 females, with a mean (SD) age of 65.4 (10.0) years were included in the study. Deparaffinized sections from formalin-fixed areas both from the center and periphery (invasion front) of the tumors were immunostained for CD105 as well as for the endothelial markers CD31 and CD34. Tumoral angiogenesis was assessed on the basis of microvessel density (number of vessels per square millimeter) and on microvascular area (square micrometers) as well. High intratumoral microvascular area, in endoglin-stained sections, was found to be of marginal prognostic significance for recurrence (log rank, P 0.05). Survival was also marginally associated with CD31 intratumoral microvascular area (log rank, P 0.05). Further studies are needed before endoglin replaces the conventional angiogenesis markers in PDCA.

  18. Prognostic biological factors in severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Popa, CC

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a serious disease. Many clinical and laboratory prognostic scores for the severity of acute pancreatitis have been proposed over the years. The aim was to identify the biological factors of prognostic severity. The study was prospective, including a four-year period between 2007 and 2010. 103 patients were diagnosed with severe acute pancreatitis and treated in a surgical clinic in Bucharest. 58 were males, accounting for 56.31%, and 45 were women, 43.69% respectively. Numerous biochemical analyses of blood, especially the number of leukocytes, glucose, urea and bilirubin were monitored. They proposed generic profiles for patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Conclusions: There is no single biological prognostic factor, but a combination of different markers may contribute to a more precise prediction of severity, as confirmed by international literature. PMID:25713614

  19. Prognostic biological factors in severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Popa, C C

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a serious disease. Many clinical and laboratory prognostic scores for the severity of acute pancreatitis have been proposed over the years. The aim was to identify the biological factors of prognostic severity. The study was prospective, including a four-year period between 2007 and 2010. 103 patients were diagnosed with severe acute pancreatitis and treated in a surgical clinic in Bucharest. 58 were males, accounting for 56.31%, and 45 were women, 43.69% respectively. Numerous biochemical analyses of blood, especially the number of leukocytes, glucose, urea and bilirubin were monitored. They proposed generic profiles for patients with severe acute pancreatitis. There is no single biological prognostic factor, but a combination of different markers may contribute to a more precise prediction of severity, as confirmed by international literature.

  20. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of patients with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Priyam; Mathur, Purva; Misra, Mahesh C.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia earlier had limited pathogenic potential, but now with growing degree of immunosuppression in general population, it is being recognized as an important nosocomial pathogen. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective 7 years study was carried out to determine the clinical characteristics of all patients with Stenotrophomonas infections, antibiotic resistance pattern, and risk factors associated with hospital mortality. All patients with Stenotrophomonas culture positivity were identified and their medical records were reviewed. Risk factor associated with hospital mortality was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 123 samples obtained from 88 patients were culture positive. Most patients presented with bacteremia (45, 51%) followed by pneumonia (37, 42%) and skin and soft tissue infections (6, 7%). About 23 of 88 Stenotrophomonas infected patients had co-infection. Percentage resistance to cotrimoxazole; 8 (5.4%) was lower than that for levofloxacin; 18 (12%). Twenty-eight patients died during hospital stay. Intensive Care Unit admission (P = 0.0002), mechanical ventilation (P = 0.0004), central venous catheterization (P = 0.0227), urethral catheterization (P = 0.0484), and previous antibiotic intake (P = 0.0026) were independent risk factors associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that Stenotrophomonas can cause various infections irrespective of patient's immune status and irrespective of potential source. Thus, Stenotrophomonas should be thought of as potential pathogen and its isolation should be looked with clinical suspicion. PMID:28367030

  1. Clinical efficacy and safety of abatacept in methotrexate-naive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis and poor prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Westhovens, R; Robles, M; Ximenes, A C; Nayiager, S; Wollenhaupt, J; Durez, P; Gomez-Reino, J; Grassi, W; Haraoui, B; Shergy, W; Park, S-H; Genant, H; Peterfy, C; Becker, J-C; Covucci, A; Helfrick, R; Bathon, J

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of abatacept in methotrexate-naive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and poor prognostic factors. Methods: In this double-blind, phase IIIb study, patients with RA for 2 years or less were randomly assigned 1 : 1 to receive abatacept (∼10 mg/kg) plus methotrexate, or placebo plus methotrexate. Patients were methotrexate-naive and seropositive for rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated protein (CCP) type 2 or both and had radiographic evidence of joint erosions. The co-primary endpoints were the proportion of patients achieving disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28)-defined remission (C-reactive protein) and joint damage progression (Genant-modified Sharp total score; TS) at year 1. Safety was monitored throughout. Results: At baseline, patients had a mean DAS28 of 6.3, a mean TS of 7.1 and mean disease duration of 6.5 months; 96.5% and 89.0% of patients were RF or anti-CCP2 seropositive, respectively. At year 1, a significantly greater proportion of abatacept plus methotrexate-treated patients achieved remission (41.4% vs 23.3%; p<0.001) and there was significantly less radiographic progression (mean change in TS 0.63 vs 1.06; p = 0.040) versus methotrexate alone. Over 1 year, the frequency of adverse events (84.8% vs 83.4%), serious adverse events (7.8% vs 7.9%), serious infections (2.0% vs 2.0%), autoimmune disorders (2.3% vs 2.0%) and malignancies (0.4% vs 0%) was comparable for abatacept plus methotrexate versus methotrexate alone. Conclusions: In a methotrexate-naive population with early RA and poor prognostic factors, the combination of abatacept and methotrexate provided significantly better clinical and radiographic efficacy compared with methotrexate alone and had a comparable, favourable safety profile. PMID:19124524

  2. [Clinical observations on effects on prognostic factor treating hepatitis B-related cirrhosis with purification purgation dispersion tonicity].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongzhi; Li, Chuntao; Wang, Yongze; Guan, Weibin; Yang, Yuewu

    2003-11-01

    With prognostic factors as assessment standards, the effects of combination of TCM(purification purgation dispersion tonicity) and western medicine treating hepatitis B-related cirrhosis and its complications were assessed. In this study, study group and control group were divided, the number of each group was 30. In order to keep balance between the two groups, matching control design was adopted with Wang's 8 prognostic factors as matching conditions. In study group, except Hb, TBIL, ALB and PT had statistic difference, and the complications of cirrhosis such as ascites, HEP and UGH were treated with significant effects. Between study group and control group, in all of prognostic factors only TBIL had statistical diffirence. It suggested the effects were significant treating hepatitis B-related cirrhosis and its complications with combination of TCM(purification purgation dispersion tonicity) and western medicine. It also suggested that TCM therapy combining purification, purgation, dispersion and tonicity had significant effects on reducing jaundice.

  3. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) in the spine: a retrospective analysis of clinical and molecular prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Yin, Huabin; Han, Shuai; Yang, Xinhai; Wang, Jing; Huang, Quan; Yan, Wangjun; Zhou, Wang; Xiao, Jianru

    2015-04-01

    Spinal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are relatively rare. There is little information published in the literature regarding this subject. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate factors that may affect the outcomes of patients with spinal MPNSTs by reviewing 43 patients with spinal MPNST who were treated in our hospital between 2001 and 2012. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic variables relative to patient and tumor characteristics, treatment modality and molecules. All 43 MPNST patients (25 men and 18 women; median age 49 years) underwent surgical resection, of whom 15 patients also underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Local recurrence was found in 21 (48.8 %) patients. Twenty-two (51.2 %) patients died during the follow-up periods with a median survival time of 49 months. The 5-year recurrence and survival rate was 53 and 44 % respectively. The statistical analyses suggested that high-grade malignancy and osteolytic destruction were closely associated with recurrence and death. A total of 38 cases accepted postoperative immunohistochemisty examine. S-100 was identified as an independent factor related to both recurrence and survival, adjusting for clinical factors. In conclusion, we confirmed that malignant grade and osteolytic destruction were the two independent factors for both recurrence and survival, while patients with S-100 protein negative had a higher recurrence rate and a lower survival rate.

  4. Toward comprehensive management tailored to prognostic factors of patients with clinical stages I and II in Hodgkin's disease. The EORTC Lymphoma Group controlled clinical trials: 1964-1987.

    PubMed

    Tubiana, M; Henry-Amar, M; Carde, P; Burgers, J M; Hayat, M; Van der Schueren, E; Noordijk, E M; Tanguy, A; Meerwaldt, J H; Thomas, J

    1989-01-01

    From 1964 to 1987, the EORTC Lymphoma Group conducted four consecutive controlled clinical trials on clinical stages I and II Hodgkin's disease in which 1,579 patients were entered. From the onset the main aim of these trials was to identify the subsets of patients who could be treated safely by regional radiotherapy (RT). Therefore, several prognostic indicators were prospectively registered and progressively used in the trial protocols for the delineation of the favorable and unfavorable subgroups as soon as they were recognized of high predictive value. In the H2 trial (1972 to 1976), the histologic subtype was the only variable taken into account for the therapeutic strategy and the staging laparotomy findings were found to be of prognostic value only in patients with favorable prognostic indicators. In the H5 trial (1977 to 1982), patients were subdivided into two subgroups according to six prognostic indicators. Patients with favorable features were submitted to a staging laparotomy (lap); lap negative patients were randomized between mantle field RT and mantle field plus paraaortic RT. Disease free survival (DFS) and total survival (S) were similar in the two arms. Among patients with unfavorable features, DFS and S were significantly higher in the arm treated by combination of mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone (MOPP) chemotherapy (CT) and RT than in the arm treated by total nodal irradiation. Nevertheless, in patients below the age of 40, the overall survival rates were equivalent in the two arms. In the H6 trial, the delineation of the favorable subgroup was based on (a) absence of systemic symptoms and elevated ESR, (b) no more than one or two lymph node areas involved. The aim of the study was to assess the impact on survival of a therapeutic strategy including staging laparotomy. At a 4-year follow-up, no difference in survival was evidenced. In patients with unfavorable prognostic indicators, 3 MOPP-RT-3 MOPP were compared with 3

  5. Surgical treatment of patients with unilateral cerebellar infarcts: clinical outcome and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Tsitsopoulos, Parmenion P; Tobieson, Lovisa; Enblad, Per; Marklund, Niklas

    2011-10-01

    There are limited data on the long-term outcome and on factors influencing the prognosis in patients with cerebellar infarcts treated with surgical decompression. Thirty-two patients (age 64.3 ± 9.9 years) with expansive unilateral cerebellar infarcts were retrospectively evaluated. All patients were treated with ventriculostomy, suboccipital decompressive craniectomy and removal of the necrotic tissue. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the Reaction Level Scale (RLS) scores evaluated the level of consciousness during hospitalization, while the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was used for the 6-month and long-term outcome. Predicting factors were analyzed using a univariate logistic regression model. The median time from ictus to surgery was 48.4 h (range 8-120 h). Before surgery, the median GCS score was 9 (3-13). At discharge, the GCS score improved to 13.6 (7-15) (p < 0.05 compared to preoperative scores). At the long-term follow-up (median 67.5 months), ten patients were dead, and 77% of survivors had a good outcome (mRS score of ≤2). The number of days on a ventilator and the GCS score prior to surgery and at discharge were strong predictors of clinical outcome (p < 0.05), although one third of patients with a GCS ≤ 8 at the time of surgery had a good long-term outcome. In patients ≥70 years old, 50% had a good long-term outcome, and advanced age was not associated with a bad result (p > 0.05). Our results imply that surgical evacuation of significant cerebellar infarctions may be considered also in patients with advanced age and/or a decreased level of consciousness.

  6. Prognostic Factors Related to Clinical Response in Patients with Metastatic MelanomaTreated by CTL-Associated Antigen-4 Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Stephanie G.; Klapper, Jacob A.; Smith, Franz O.; C.Yang, James; Sherry, Richard M.; Royal, Richard E.; Kammula, Udai S.; Hughes, Marybeth S.; Allen, Tamika E.; Levy, Catherine L.; Michael, Yellin; Nichol, Geoffrey; E.White, Donald; Steinberg, Seth M.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose CTL-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) can inhibit T-cell activation and helps maintain peripheral self-tolerance. Previously, we showed immune-related adverse events (IRAE) and objective, durable clinical responses in patients with metastatic melanoma treated with CTLA-4 blockade.We have now treated139 patients in two trials and have sufficient follow-up to examine factors associated with clinical response. Experimental Design A total of 139 patients with metastatic melanoma were treated: 54 patients received ipilimumab in conjunction with peptide vaccinations and 85 patients were treated with intrapatient dose escalation of ipilimumab and randomized to receive peptides in accordance with HLA-A*0201status. Results Three patients achieved complete responses (CR; ongoing at 29+, 52+, and 53+ months); an additional 20 patients achieved partial responses (PR) for an overall objective response rate of 17%. The majority of patients (62%, 86 of 139) developed some form of IRAE, which was associated with a greater probability of objective antitumor response (P = 0.0004); all patients with CR had more severe IRAEs. Prior therapy with IFNα-2b was a negative prognostic factor, whereas prior high-dose interleukin-2 did not significantly affect the probability of response. There were no significant differences in the rate of clinical response or development of IRAEs between the two trials. The duration of tumor response was not affected by the use of high-dose steroids for abrogation of treatment-related toxicities (P = 0.23). There were no treatment-related deaths. Conclusion In patients with metastatic melanoma, ipilimumab can induce durable objective clinical responses, which are related to the induction of IRAEs. PMID:17982122

  7. [Prognostic factors in resuscitation].

    PubMed

    Bahloul, F; Le Gall, J R; Loirat, P; Alperovitch, A; Patois, E

    1988-10-08

    The outcome from intensive care is known to be influenced by such factors as age, previous health status, severity of the disease and diagnosis. In order to assess the influence of each individual factor, 3,687 patients from 38 French intensive care units were studied. For each patient were recorded: age, simplified acute physiological score (SAPS), previous health status, diagnosis, type of intensive care unit (medicine, scheduled or elective surgery) and immediate outcome. Each of these factors was found to influence the immediate survival rate. A multivariate analysis ranked the factors in the following order: SAPS, age, type of intensive care unit and previous health status. Diagnosis played a role in the prognosis since with a 10-15 points SAPS mortality was nil for drug overdose, 12 per cent for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 38 per cent for cardiogenic shock. However, a single diagnosis was made in only 37 per cent of the patients, as against 3 diagnoses in 17 per cent and 4 diagnoses or more in 7 per cent. When the type of intensive care unit was considered, the mean death rate was 20 per cent in medicine, 27 per cent in scheduled surgery and 5 per cent in elective surgery (P less than 0.001). Since this study showed a definite influence of each of the four factors on immediate survival, intensive care patients can be described and classified according to this system. However, it must be stressed that individual prognoses are extremely vague.

  8. [Pallidotomy in the treatment of complicated Parkinson's disease: clinical results at two years and analysis of prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Linazasoro, G; Gorospe, A; Rodríguez, M C; Guridi, J; Ramos, E; Mozo, A; Obeso, J A

    1999-02-01

    There is a renewed interest in pallidotomy as a treatment for complicated Parkinson's disease (PD). To present the clinical results as well as the analysis of prognostic factors obtained in 28 patients with PD and motor complications submitted to pallidotomy and followed by one year (n = 28) and 2 years (n = 12). The total motor score (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]) in the off state improved by 33 and 23% at one and two years, respectively (p < 0.01). All the cardinal signs of the disease were significantly improved (p < 0.01): tremor (92%), rigidity (67%), bradykinesia (46%) and axial symptoms (21%). A slight tendency to worsening in axial symptoms was observed. Dyskinesias disappeared in all but one patient. The Schawb & England Scale in off was improved by 21%. No improvement in the non-operated side was observed. The subgroup of patients with an improvement of less than 30% in the UPDRS was older than the one with larger clinical benefit. The observed tendency to worsening in the total motor score was related mainly to the progression of the symptoms in the non-operated side. Complications were mild and transient. Pallidotomy is a relatively safe and effective therapeutic option for complicated PD patients. An adequate selection of patients is necessary, since efficacy is partial and limited to one hemibody.

  9. Mutations of CREBBP and SOCS1 are independent prognostic factors in diffuse large B cell lymphoma: mutational analysis of the SAKK 38/07 prospective clinical trial cohort.

    PubMed

    Juskevicius, Darius; Jucker, David; Klingbiel, Dirk; Mamot, Christoph; Dirnhofer, Stephan; Tzankov, Alexandar

    2017-03-17

    Recently, the mutational background of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been revealed, identifying specific genetic events that drive lymphomagenesis. However, the prognostic value of these mutations remains to be determined. Prognostic biomarkers in DLBCL are urgently needed, since the current clinical parameter-based factors (e.g., International Prognostic Index (IPI)) are insufficient, particularly in identifying patients with poor prognosis who might benefit from alternative treatments. We investigated the prognostic value of somatic mutations in DLBCL in a clinical trial (NCT00544219) patient cohort homogenously treated with six cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP), followed by two cycles of R (R-CHOP-14). The primary endpoint was event-free survival (EFS) at 2 years. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Targeted high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of tumor genomic DNA was performed on all exons or hotspots of 68 genes frequently mutated in B cell lymphomas. Mutational data was correlated with the endpoints to identify prognostic associations. Targeted HTS detected somatic mutations in 71/76 (93%) of investigated cases. The most frequently mutated genes were KMT2D, SOCS1, GNA13, and B2M. Survival analysis revealed that CREBBP- and EP300-mutated cases had significantly worse OS, PFS, and EFS. In addition, ATM mutations predicted worse outcomes for all three clinical endpoints in germinal center B cell-like DLBCL. In contrast, SOCS1 mutations were associated with better PFS. On multivariable analysis taken into account IPI and failure to achieve complete remission, CREBBP and EP300 mutations remained significant to predict worse OS, PFS, and EFS. Targeted mutation analysis of a uniformly treated prospective clinical trial DLBCL cohort identifies tumor-based genetic prognostic markers that could be useful in the clinical management of such

  10. Quality of life as a prognostic factor of overall survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: results from two French clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bonnetain, Franck; Paoletti, Xavier; Collette, Sandra; Doffoel, Michel; Bouché, Olivia; Raoul, Jean Luc; Rougier, Philippe; Masskouri, Fadil; Barbare, Jean Claude; Bedenne, Laurent

    2008-08-01

    The aims of our study were to assess quality of life (QoL) as a prognostic factor of overall survival (OS) and to determine whether QoL data improved three prognostic classifications among French patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We pooled two randomized clinical trials conducted by the Fédération Francophone de Cancérologie Digestive in a palliative setting. In each trial QoL was assessed at baseline using the Spitzer QoL Index (0-10). Three prognostic classifications were calculated: Okuda, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP), and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer group (BCLC) scores. To explore whether the scores could be improved by including QoL, univariate Cox analyses of all potential baseline predictors were performed. A final multivariate Cox model was constructed including only significant multivariate baseline variables likely to result in improvement of each scoring system. In order to retain the best prognostic variable to add for each score, we compared Akaike information criterion, likelihood ratio, and Harrell's C-index. Cox analyses were stratified for each trial. Among 538 included patients, QoL at baseline was available for 489 patients (90%). Longer median OS was significantly associated with higher Spitzer scores at baseline, ranging from 2.17 months (Spitzer=3) to 8.93 months (Spitzer=10). Variables retained in the multivariate Cox model were: jaundice, hepatomegaly, hepatalgia, portal thrombosis, alphafetoprotein, bilirubin, albumin, small HCC, and Spitzer QoL Index (hazard ratio=0.84 95% CI [0.79-0.90]). According to Harrell's C-index, QoL was the best prognostic variable to add. CLIP plus the Spitzer QoL Index had the most discriminating value (C=0.71). Our results suggest that QoL is an independent prognostic factor for survival in HCC patients with mainly alcoholic cirrhosis. The prognostic value of CLIP score could be improved by adding Spitzer QOL Index scores.

  11. Medulloblastoma--prognostic factors and outcome of treatment: Review of the Mayo Clinic experience

    SciTech Connect

    Garton, G.R.; Schomberg, P.J.; Scheithauer, B.W.; Shaw, E.G.; Ilstrup, D.M.; Blackwell, C.R.; Laws, E.R. Jr.; Earle, J.D. )

    1990-08-01

    From March 1965 through December 1984, 58 patients (35 male and 23 female patients; median age, 17 years) with posterior fossa (PF) medulloblastoma underwent surgical treatment and postoperative radiation therapy at our institution. Radiation fields were the craniospinal axis in 39 patients, PF plus spinal axis in 12, PF in 6, and whole brain in 1. Median radiation doses were 43 Gy (22 to 60 Gy) to the PF and 34 Gy (6.2 to 50 Gy) to the spinal axis. Overall 5- and 10-year survivals were 50% and 33%, respectively; 5- and 10-year relapse-free survivals were 46% and 32%. Treatment failed in 34 patients (59%): in 18 who had irradiation to the craniospinal axis (13 had received 50 Gy or less to the PF) and in 16 who had a radiation field of less than the craniospinal axis. A statistically significant (P less than 0.05) improvement in 10-year survival was associated with the following prognostic variables: PF dose of 50 Gy or more, whole-brain irradiation, and spinal axis irradiation. In comparison with subtotal resection, total resection was correlated with better 10-year relapse-free survival but not overall survival. All five patients with initial treatment failure only in the spine had received a radiation dose of 30 Gy or less to the spinal axis. The 2-year survival after relapse was 46% with salvage chemotherapy or irradiation in 23 patients and 0% in the 11 patients who received no further treatment (P less than 0.01).

  12. [Prognostic factors in emphysematous pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Olvera-Posada, D; García-Mora, A; Culebro-García, C; Castillejos-Molina, R; Sotomayor, M; Feria-Bernal, G; Rodríguez-Covarrubias, F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze our experience with 18 cases of Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) in a tertiary care center and describe our treatment strategy. Of 262 patients admitted with acute pyelonephritis, 18 had CT findings of EPN. The Wan and Huang classifications were used. We assessed the clinical, radiological, and therapeutic characteristics of these patients and investigated potential prognostic factors of mortality. Between 2005 and 2010, 17 women and 1 man with EPN were treated. Mean age was 52.4 years. Diabetes was found in 66% and hypertension in 72%. The most common clinical findings were tachycardia (11), fever (11) and flank pain (9); 66% (12) presented with severe sepsis and 2 had septic shock. Acute renal injury developed in 61%. Nine patients were treated exclusively with conservative management; 5 had double J stenting, 3 had CT-guided PCD and 1 required nephrectomy after unsuccessful medical management. Mortality was 11%. Altered consciousness (P=.0001), multiple organ failure (P=.0004), hyperglycemia (P=.003) and elevated leukocyte count (> 20000 K) (P=.01) were more frequent among patients dying from EPN. No difference in mortality was found between patients managed conservatively and those undergoing invasive therapy. Although rare, EPN should be suspected in patients with multiple comorbidities presenting with severe sepsis. Altered consciousness, multiple organ failure, hyperglycemia and elevated leukocyte count are poor prognosis indicators. Invasive management should be used judiciously and medical treatment can be a safe strategy in selected cases. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. [A retrospective analysis of clinic-pathological characteristics and prognostic factor for 137 cases of breast cancer brain metastasis].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-chang; Liu, Hong; Lu, Su; Zhuang, Xin-rong; Wang, Yun-xiang; Wang, Tong; Wu, Ya-yuan; Chen, Mei-xuan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis in breast cancer with brain metastasis (BCBM). The clinical data of 137 BCBM from June 2002 to June 2008 was reviewed and analyzed. Their molecular subtypes were categorized based on detection of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) expression. The focal area included 35 cases of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), 38 cases of HR (ER and PR) (-)/HER-2(+), 40 cases of HR(+)/HER-2(-), 24 cases of HR(+)/HER-2(+). The clinical characteristics and the outcome in patients with influence were analyzed. In 137 BCBM, the median overal survival after brain metastasis was 6.5 month. The median survivals of TNBC, HR(-)/HER-2(+), HR(+)/HER-2(-) and HR(+)/HER-2(+) were 5.0, 5.5, 10.0 and 9.5 months, respectively. The median survivals after brain metastasis of the breast cancer patients who received the combination therapy of whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and neurosurgery and/or stereotactic radiosurgery, received WBRT but not combination therapy and didn't receive WBRT were 15.0, 9.5 and 4.0 months, respectively. In univariate survival analysis, substyle, number of brain metastasis, brain metastasis as initial recurrence or not, brain-only metastases or not, the combination therapy status after brain metastasis were obviously correlated with the prognosis (χ(2) = 6.891 to 29.414, P < 0.05). Substyle (RR = 1.234, 95%CI: 1.057 to 1.440) and the combination therapy status after brain metastasis (RR = 1.838, 95%CI: 1.389 to 2.431) were independent prognostic factor in multivariable analysis (P < 0.05). TNBC confers a high risk of death after brain metastases. Systemic treatment via combined modalities are helpful for breast cancer patients, even after the detection of brain metastases.

  14. Prognostic Influence of Clinical and Pathological Factors in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Study of 53 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Lenine G.; Cavalheiro, Beatriz G.; Junqueira, Consuelo R.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND INTRODUCTION Medullary thyroid carcinoma, a neoplasia of intermediate prognosis and differentiation, does not always respond predictably to known treatments. This study aimed to correlate the clinical progression of surgically treated patients with clinical and pathological data. METHODS A total of 53 patients were followed for 75 months (mean average) in tertiary-care hospital. The clinical status of patients at the end of the study period was characterized to determine correlations with a range of disease aspects. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Twenty-two patients (41.5%) were alive and disease-free at the end of the follow-up period; twenty-three patients (43.4%) had persistent disease; and eight patients (15.1%) had recurrent disease. Four patients (7.6%) died from medullary thyroid carcinoma with clinical and/or imaging evidence of neoplasia. The following aspects demonstrated statistically significant correlations with the final medical condition: positive initial cervical examination (p = 0.002); neoplastic extensions to the thyroid capsule (p = 0.004) and adjacent tissues (p = 0.034); cervical lymph node metastases (p < 0.001); diameter of neoplasia (p = 0.018); TNM (tumor, node and metastasis) Stage (p = 0.001) and evidence of distant and/or cervical diseases in the absence of a cure (p = 0.011). Through logistic regression, the presence of cervical lymph node metastases was considered an independent variable (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Clinical and pathological aspects of patients with surgically treated medullary thyroid carcinomas are predictors of disease progression. Specifically, even treated cervical lymph node metastases are significantly correlated with disease progression. PMID:19759878

  15. Clinical Features, Treatment, and Prognostic Factors of Chordoid Meningioma: Radiological and Pathological Features in 60 Cases of Chordoid Meningioma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Da; Cao, Xiao-Yu; Hao, Shu-Yu; Wang, Liang; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Jun-Ting

    2016-09-01

    As one subtype of meningiomas, chordoid meningiomas (CMs) are rarely described. In this study, the authors aimed to analyze the incidence, clinical features, treatment, and prognostic factors of CMs. Among 9873 cases of meningioma surgically treated between 2003 and 2013 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, cases of CM were chosen for analysis and were reviewed retrospectively. To ascertain which factors were related with progression-free survival (PFS), statistical analysis was performed. Sixty cases of pathologically confirmed and surgically treated CMs were identified. They accounted for 0.61 % of the entire series of meningioma. Simpson Grade I, II, III, and IV resection was performed in 26, 19, 9, and 6 patients, respectively. Fifty-four patients were followed up for 25-141 months after operation. Of these patients, 19 received postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. Seventeen patients experienced tumor progression, and median PFS was 54 months. The 3- and 5-year PFS rates were 89.7% and 57.1%, respectively. Two patients died of tumor recurrence and 1 died of unrelated reason. Univariate analysis demonstrated tumor shape and extent of resection were significantly associated with prognosis. Multivariate analysis revealed only extent of resection was an independent prognosis factor for PFS. CM is a rare subtype of World Health Organization grade II meningioma. It more frequently involved the adult patients and was without sex predilection. The confirmed diagnosis relied on pathological validation. Total resection whenever possible is recommended to prolong PFS of patients. The value of adjuvant radiotherapy for CM need to be further studied. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in early-onset alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Hee; Jo, Seong Jin; Paik, Seung Hwan; Jeon, Hye Chan; Kim, Kyu Han; Eun, Hee Chul; Kwon, Oh Sang

    2012-07-01

    Alopecia totalis (AT) and alopecia universalis (AU), severe forms of alopecia areata (AA), show distinguishable clinical characteristics from those of patch AA. In this study, we investigated the clinical characteristics of AT/AU according to the onset age. Based on the onset age around adolescence (< or ≥ 13 yr), 108 patients were classified in an early-onset group and the other 179 patients in a late-onset group. We found that more patients in the early-onset group had a family history of AA, nail dystrophy, and history of atopic dermatitis than those in the late-onset group. These clinical differences were more prominent in patients with AU than in those with AT. In addition, significantly more patients with concomitant medical disorders, especially allergic diseases were found in the early-onset group (45.8%) than in the late-onset group (31.2%). All treatment modalities failed to show any association with the present hair condition of patients. In the early-onset group, patients with AU or a family history of AA showed worse prognosis, whereas this trend was not observed in the late-onset group. Systemic evaluations might be needed in early-onset patients due to the higher incidence of comorbid diseases. It is suggested that patients with AU or family history of AA make worse progress in the early-onset group than in the late-onset group.

  17. Bacterial pneumonia following cytotoxic chemotherapy for lung cancer: clinical features, treatment outcome and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Soo; Cha, Seung-Ick; Shin, Kyung-Min; Lee, Shin-Yup; Kim, Chang-Ho; Park, Jae-Yong; Jung, Tae-Hoon

    2010-10-01

    Data regarding treatment outcomes and prognosis in pneumonia that occurs after lung cancer chemotherapy are lacking. We performed a retrospective study of 84 patients with clinically suspected bacterial pneumonia after cytotoxic chemotherapy for lung cancer. Small cell carcinoma was the most common histological type (36.9%, n = 31), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (35.7%, n = 30) and adenocarcinoma (21.4%, n = 18). The most frequent pathogen was Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 14), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 10), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 8), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 7). Of 84 patients, treatment outcome was determined for 80; the outcome was success in 52 (61.9%) and failure in 28 (33.3%); outcome remained undetermined for 4 patients (4.8%). Based on multivariate analysis, tachypnoea (respiratory rate ≥20/min) was the only significant predictor of treatment failure (odds ratio 4.79, 95% confidence interval 1.17-19.70; p = 0.030). In conclusion, bacterial pneumonia after cytotoxic chemotherapy for lung cancer was found to be caused more often by S. pneumoniae and K. pneumoniae than P. aeruginosa, and treatment failure leading to death was found to be high. Tachypnoea was independently associated with treatment failure in this population.

  18. Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Factors in Childhood Bacterial Meningitis: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Türel, Özden; Yıldırım, Canan; Yılmaz, Yüksel; Külekçi, Sezer; Akdaş, Ferda; Bakır, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical features and sequela in children with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM). Study Design: Multicenter retrospective study. Material and Methods: Study includes retrospective chart review of children hospitalised with ABM at 11 hospitals in İstanbul during 2005. Follow up visits were conducted for neurologic examination, hearing evaluation and neurodevelopmental tests. Results: Two hundred and eighty three children were included in the study. Median age was 12 months and 68.6% of patients were male. Almost all patients had fever at presentation (97%). Patients younger than 6 months tended to present with feeding difficulties (84%), while patients older than 24 months were more likely to present with vomitting (93%) and meningeal signs (84%). Seizures were present in 65 (23%) patients. 26% of patients were determined to have at least one major sequela. The most common sequelae were speech or language problems (14.5%). 6 patients were severely disabled because of meningitis. Presence of focal neurologic signs at presentation and turbid cerebrospinal fluid appearance increased sequelae significantly. Childen under 24 months of age developed neurologic sequelae more commonly than older children. Conclusion: Symptoms and signs were largely depending on the age of the patient. Speech or language problems were the most common sequelae following meningitis. PMID:25207074

  19. Breast cancer in young women: clinical, histological and morphometric prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, M; Lipponen, P; Aaltomaa, S; Kosma, V M; Syrjänen, K; Alhava, E

    1992-01-01

    Clinical features, 8 histological features, 7 nuclear morphometric variables and 2 mitotic indices were entered in a univariate and in a multivariate survival analysis to assess their independent predictive value in 56 breast cancer patients under the age of 40 years who were followed up for over 10 years. The most important predictor of recurrence-free survival (RFS) in univariate analysis was the SD of nuclear perimetry (p = 0.003) followed by SD of nuclear area (p = 0.006), M/V index (p = 0.036), pN status (p = 0.046), nuclear area of 10 largest nuclei (p = 0.07), nuclear perimetry (p = 0.09) and nuclear area (p = 0.09) in that order. In pN(-) patients, SDPE (p = 0.04), SDNA (p = 0.07) and NA10 (p = 0.07) predicted RFS. In pN+ patients the most important predictor of RFS was the SDNA (p = 0.001) followed by NA 10 (p = 0.003), SDPE (p = 0.009), PE (p = 0.01), NA (p = 0.01) and Dmin (shortest diameter) (p = 0.04). In multivariate analysis the pN-status independently predicted RFS. Tumour size (p = 0.001), pN status (p = 0.002) and M/V-index (p = 0.079) were related to BS (breast cancer survival). In pN-patients, NA 10 (p = 0.097) predicted BS, whereas in pN+ tumours tumour size (p = 0.06) was the most important predictor of BS. In a multivariate analysis, tumour size (p = 0.02) and pN-status (p = 0.016) were independent predictors of BS.

  20. Isolated pachymeningeal metastasis from breast cancer: Clinical features and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Heo, Mi Hwa; Cho, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Park, Yeon Hee

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical features and prognoses of patients with isolated pachymeningeal metastasis (IPM) from breast cancer. We reviewed the medical records of all patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) treated from January 2009 to August 2016. Eligibility criteria included diagnosis of pachymeningeal metastasis based on brain magnetic resonance imaging and histologic diagnosis of primary breast cancer. We excluded patients with concomitant parenchymal or leptomeningeal metastases. Thirty-eight patients who matched our inclusion criteria were included in this study. The incidence of IPM in breast cancer was 1.5% of all patients with MBC. The molecular subtype distribution was: triple negative, 29.0%; ER+/HER2-, 44.7%; ER+/HER2+, 18.4%; and ER-/HER2+, 7.9%. All isolated pachymeningeal involvement resulted from the direct extension of skull metastases. The median time to IPM from systemic metastasis was 28.6 (95% CI: 23.6-33.6) months. The median time to IPM from skull metastasis was 5.2 (95% CI: 0-10.9) months. The median overall survival (OS) from IPM was 4.0 (95% CI: 2.5-5.5) months. In patients who received chemotherapy the OS was longer than for those who received radiotherapy or supportive care only [median OS 8.9 (95% CI: 0.0-18.4), 2.8 (95% CI: 0.5-5.0), and 0.8 (95% CI: 0.6-1.1) months, respectively (p = 0.006)]. Multivariate analysis revealed that good performance status and chemotherapy were associated with better survival outcomes. Stratified evaluation is required for patients with skull metastasis from breast cancer, as pachymeningeal involvement can develop and be associated with unsuspected outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Clinical Features, Short-Term Mortality, and Prognostic Risk Factors of Septic Patients Admitted to Internal Medicine Units

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Antonino; Dentali, Francesco; La Regina, Micaela; Foglia, Emanuela; Gambacorta, Maurizia; Garagiola, Elisabetta; Bonardi, Giorgio; Clerici, Pierangelo; Concia, Ercole; Colombo, Fabrizio; Campanini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Only a few studies provided data on the clinical history of sepsis within internal Medicine units. The aim of the study was to assess the short-term mortality and to evaluate the prognostic risk factors in a large cohort of septic patients treated in internal medicine units. Thirty-one internal medicine units participated to the study. Within each participating unit, all admitted patients were screened for the presence of sepsis. A total of 533 patients were included; 78 patients (14.6%, 95%CI 11.9, 18.0%) died during hospitalization; mortality rate was 5.5% (95% CI 3.1, 9.6%) in patients with nonsevere sepsis and 20.1% (95%CI 16.2, 28.8%) in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Severe sepsis or septic shock (OR 4.41, 95%CI 1.93, 10.05), immune system weakening (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.12, 3.94), active solid cancer (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.16, 3.94), and age (OR 1.03 per year, 95% CI 1.01, 1.06) were significantly associated with an increased mortality risk, whereas blood culture positive for Escherichia coli was significantly associated with a reduced mortality risk (OR 0.46, 95%CI 0.24, 0.88). In-hospital mortality of septic patients treated in internal medicine units appeared similar to the mortality rate obtained in recent studies conducted in the ICU setting. PMID:26825876

  2. Retrospective analysis of hepatitis B virus chronic infection in 247 patients: clinical stages, response to treatment and poor prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Silva, Marlone; Marinho, Fábio R T; Oliveira, Paulo F; Lopes, Tirzah M; Sevá-Pereira, Tiago; Lorena, Sonia L S; Almeida, Jazon R S

    Chronic hepatitis B is a major cause of cirrhosis, and the natural history of the disease has several clinical stages that should be thoroughly understood for the implementation of proper treatment. Nonetheless, curing the disease with antiviral treatment remains a challenge. To describe the clinical course, response to treatment, and poor prognostic factors in 247 hepatitis B virus chronic infection patients treated in a tertiary hospital in Brazil. This was a retrospective and observational study, by analyzing the medical records of HBV infected patients between January 2000 and January 2015. Most patients were male (67.2%) and 74.1% were HBeAg negative. Approximately 41% had cirrhosis and 8.5% were hepatitis C virus coinfected. The viral load was negative after two years on lamivudine, entecavir and tenofovir in 86%, 90.6%, and 92.9% of the patients, respectively. The five-year resistance rates for lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, and tenofovir were 57.5%, 51.8%, 1.9%, and 0%, respectively. The overall seroconversion rates were 31.2% for HBeAg and 9.4% for HBsAg. Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed in 9.7% of patients, liver transplantation was performed in 9.7%, and overall mortality was 10.5%. Elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase (p=0.0059) and viral load (p<0.0001) were associated with progression to liver cirrhosis. High viral load was associated with progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (p<0.0001). Significant risk factors associated with death were elevated alanine aminotransferase (p=0.0039), liver cirrhosis (p<0.0001), high viral load (p=0.007), and hepatocellular carcinoma (p=0.0008). HBeAg positive status was not associated with worse outcomes, and treatment may have been largely responsible. Elevations of viral load and serum alanine aminotransferase may select patients with worse prognosis, especially progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which were strongly association with death. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira

  3. Specimen banks for cancer prognostic factor research.

    PubMed

    Burke, H B; Henson, D E

    1998-10-01

    Prognostic factors are necessary for determining whether a patient will require therapy, for selecting the optimal therapy, and for evaluating the effectiveness of the therapy chosen. Research in prognostic factors has been hampered by long waiting times and a paucity of outcomes. Specimen banks can solve these problems, but their implementation and use give rise to many important and complex issues. This paper presents an overview of some of the issues related to the use of specimen banks in prognostic factor research.

  4. Clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in gastric cancer patients aged ≥85 years undergoing endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Masau; Oda, Ichiro; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Abe, Seiichiro; Nonaka, Satoru; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Sekine, Shigeki; Saito, Yutaka

    2017-05-01

    Although the number of gastric cancer patients aged ≥85 years indicated for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has increased, little is known about the outcomes and prognostic factors. This study aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) of patients aged ≥85 years who underwent ESD for gastric cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients aged ≥85 years with 149 gastric cancers treated by ESD between 1999 and 2014 at our institution. The clinical outcomes and prognosis were evaluated. Furthermore, the relationships between patient and lesion characteristics with OS were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and a Cox proportional hazards model. All patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) of 0 to 1. En bloc, R0, and curative resections were achieved in 98.0%, 91.3%, and 72.7%, respectively, without severe adverse events requiring surgery. During a median follow-up period of 40.2 months (range, 1.8-108.7 months), 23 patients died, including 2 of gastric cancer. The 3-year (54.3% vs 95.9%) and 5-year (54.3% vs 76.3%) OS rates were significantly lower in patients with a low (<44.6) as opposed to a higher (≥44.6) prognostic nutritional index (PNI) (P < .001). The PNI was independently prognostic of OS (hazard ratio, 7.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-22.9; P = .001). ESD is feasible for gastric cancer patients aged ≥85 years with good PS. However, low PNI was found to be prognostic of reduced OS, indicating the need to evaluate the PNI in determining whether to perform ESD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical implications of multifocality as a prognostic factor in breast carcinoma - a multivariate analysis study comprising 460 cases

    PubMed Central

    Boros, Monica; Voidazan, Septimiu; Moldovan, Cosmin; Georgescu, Rares; Toganel, Cornelia; Moncea, Denisa; Molnar, Claudiu V; Podoleanu, Cristian; Eniu, Alexandru; Stolnicu, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multifocality is not listed among prognostic factors in international breast cancer guidelines. This study aims to analyze survival in multiple breast carcinomas (MFMC cc) compared to unifocal ones (UF cc), in order to assess the prognostic impact of multifocality. Methods: The study included 460 breast carcinomas (2002-2006) with a median follow-up time of 104 months (74-134 months). We assessed mortality rates, overall survival at 5 years and 10 years in general, overall survival at 5 and 10 years in MFMC cc compared to UF cc, as well as median survival and survival rate according to age, T status and axillary lymph node status in MFMC cc compared to UF cc. We carried out a multivariate analysis in order to identify independent predictor factors for survival. Results: 69/460 (15%) of cases were MFMC cc. Mortality rates were 56.5% in MFMC cc versus 45.1% (UF cc) (P = 0.08). 5-year overall survival was 55.9% in MFMC cc vs. 64.7% UF cc, and the 10-year overall survival was 34.9% MFMC cc vs. 52.7% UF cc (P = 0.27). Median survival in MFMC cc was 78 months (6.5 years), whereas in UF cc it was 126 months (10.5 years). However, in the multivariate analysis, survival was independently influenced only by tumor size and the presence of axillary lymph node metastases (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Breast cancer multifocality is associated with higher general mortality rates, lower 5 and 10-year overall survival, yields a lower median survival, but it does not constitute an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis. PMID:26309666

  6. [Anatomo-clinical prognostic factors of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Multivariate analysis: report of a series of 52 cases].

    PubMed

    Patey, M; Menzies, D; Theobald, S; Delisle, M J; Flament, J B; Pluot, M

    1998-02-01

    A retrospective study about 52 cases of papillary thyroid carcinomas was carried out with emphasis on histopathological features. The mean follow up period was 10 years. The survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log rank test. The multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox's regression model. In univariate analysis, age, Tp (histopathological extension of the tumor), histological differentiation, VAN score (Vascular invasion nuclear Atypia tumor Necrosis) of Akslen and the LeuM1 expression were significant prognostic factors. In multivariate analysis, the Tp and histological differentiation were associated with high risks of poor outcome.

  7. Clinical and laboratory characterization of 114 cases of Castleman disease patients from a single centre: paraneoplastic pemphigus is an unfavourable prognostic factor.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yujun; Wang, Mingyue; Nong, Lin; Wang, Lihong; Cen, Xinan; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Sainan; Sun, Yuhua; Liang, Zeyin; Li, Yuan; Ou, Jinping; Qiu, Zhixiang; Ren, Hanyun

    2015-06-01

    This study retrospectively collected the clinical and laboratory data of 114 patients with Castleman disease (CD) from a single medical centre. Clinical classification identified 62 patients (54·4%) with unicentric Castleman disease and 52 (45·6%) with multi-centric Castleman disease. Pathological classification revealed 68 cases (59·6%) of hyaline vascular variant, 16 (14·1%) mixed cellular variant (Mix) and 30 (26·3%) plasmacytic variant. Clinical complications occurred in 69 CD patients, including 37 cases of paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) and 25 cases with renal complications. Haematological involvement, pleural effusion and/or ascites and POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes) were also found. Univariate analysis showed that presence of clinical complications and PNP were both risk factors relating to CD patient survival. Prognostic factors showing P < 0·15 in univariate analysis and those with clinical significance were subjected to multivariate analysis using a Cox regression model. PNP presence and age over 40 years both significantly adversely affected survival. Thus, only presence of PNP was identified as an independent unfavourable survival risk factor in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Overall, the present data provide a panoramic description of CD cases and emphasize that the presence of PNP is an adverse prognostic factor. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prognostic intraoperative factors in severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Popa, CC

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a serious disease. Triggered by the local inflammation of the pancreas, it can cause inflammation in various organs and systems in the body. It is important to identify severe forms of acute pancreatitis with an increased morbidity and mortality rate. Lately, internationally, numerous clinical and paraclinical factors predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis have been proposed. The purpose of the study is to identify the prognostic intraoperative factors of severity. The prospective study was conducted over a period of four years, between 2007 and 2010 and included 238 patients treated in a surgical clinic in Bucharest. 103 patients experienced a severe form of acute pancreatitis, which means 67.95% of all operations practiced. We monitored intraoperative factors, in particular: the presence and/ or the extent of pancreatic necrosis, common bile duct lithiasis and intraperitoneal fluid, parameters proposed to become statistically prognostic factors in the development and long-term morbidity of acute pancreatitis. The presence and/ or extension of necrosis was identified in the histopathology only in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. 71.43% of the patients with common bile duct lithiasis and 73.91% of the patients with inflammatory intraperitoneal fluid had severe acute pancreatitis. Most patients who developed postoperative complications (86.49%) or who required a surgical intervention (85.71%), presented a severe form of the disease. Conclusions: pancreatic necrosis, common bile duct lithiasis and intraperitoneal fluid may contribute to a more precise prediction of severity, as confirmed by international literature. PMID:25870691

  9. [Uterine Carcinosarcoma: Clinicopathological Features and Prognostic Factors].

    PubMed

    Luz, Rita; Ferreira, Joana; Rocha, Mara; Jorge, Ana Francisca; Félix, Ana

    2016-10-01

    Uterine carcinosarcoma is a rare and aggressive biphasic malignancy and is currently included in the high risk endometrial carcinoma group. The aims of this study were to determine the clinicopathological profile, treatment, recurrence/progression patterns, survival and prognostic factors. Retrospective study of 42 patients, surgically staged and followed-up at a cancer centre, between 2005 and 2013. Clinical data was retrieved from records and pathological characteristics were reviewed for this study. Median age was 72 years (61 - 78) and the majority presented comorbid diseases. Stage distribution as follows: 13 (31.0%) stage I; eight (19.0%) stage II; nine (21.4%) stage III; and 12 (28.6%) stage IV. Chemotherapy was instituted in 12 patients and 21 received radiotherapy. Disease progressed in 16 patients and recurred in nine after a short interval. Median overall survival was 18 months (6.8 - 40) and median disease-free survival was 6 months (0 - 22.8). The only independent prognostic factor related with poor survival was serosal invasion (p = 0.02; HR adjusted 4.22; IC 95% 1.29 - 13.79). In accordance to other studies, diagnosis of uterine carcinosarcoma is frequently done with advanced disease and presents a high rate of progression/recurrence. The variable which has been consistently identified as main prognostic factor is stage, but in this study the only independent factor was serosal invasion. The present study represents the larger series of uterine carcinosarcoma studied in Portugal and reflects the clinical presentation, histopathological characteristics and stage at diagnosis and confirms the aggressiveness of this rare tumor.

  10. Tumor histologic grade is the most important prognostic factor in patients with penile cancer and clinically negative lymph nodes not submitted to regional lymphadenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Aita, Giuliano Amorim; Zequi, Stênio de Cássio; da Costa, Walter Henriques; Guimarães, Gustavo Cardoso; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Giuliangelis, Thais Safranov

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The presence and extension of inguinal lymph node metastasis are the main prognostic factors in patients with penile cancer. Physical exam and image exams are not adequate to evaluate inguinal lymph nodes and many patients are submitted to non-therapeutic lymphadenectomies. However, it is known that not all patients with clinically or histologically negative inguinal lymph nodes evolve favorably. Casuistic and Methods: the authors evaluated the clinical and pathologic characteristics of 163 patients with penile carcinoma and clinically negative inguinal lymph nodes followed for three or more years and their impact on global survival (GS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in the 10-year follow-up. Primary pathologic tumor stage (p=0.025) and the presence of high grade of tumor differentiation (p=0.018) were predictive of CSS. The presence of high grade tumor was an independent specific prognostic factor of death risk (RR 14.08; p=0.019). Conclusion: high histologic grade was an independent predictive factor of specific death risk in patients with penile carcinoma and clinically negative lymph nodes followed for three or more years. PMID:27813383

  11. Leukemia: genetics and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Hamerschlak, Nelson

    2008-08-01

    To present the implications of genetics, particularly of cytogenetic techniques, for the diagnosis and prognosis of leukemia. A survey of articles selected from MEDLINE, American Society of Hematology educational programs, the CAPES web portal, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and textbook chapters. Since the discovery in 1960 by Peter C. Nowel and David Hungerford of the 9:22 translocation (the Philadelphia chromosome), genetics has come to play an important role in hematology, in this case making it possible to diagnose chronic myeloid leukemia and opening doors to research avenues for the whole field of oncology. One point of great interest refers to the implications of these findings for the prognosis of a range of types of leukemia. In acute myeloid leukemia, the karyotype is of fundamental importance to postremission treatment decisions, and molecular factors determine the treatment of individuals with normal karyotypes. In chronic myeloid leukemia, clonal evolution is associated with progression to the blast crisis. Patients on imatinib who cease responding may have mutations on their ABL gene. Finally, in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, factors such as hyperdiploidy and t 12:21 are associated with good prognosis, whereas carriers of t 4:11 and t 9:22 are considered high risk patients. Genetics has come to stay as far as hematology and, in particular, the management of leukemia and its prognostic factors are concerned. These tests should always be carried out and the appropriate treatment adopted in the light of their results, so that optimal patient outcomes can be achieved.

  12. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of patients with mature T-cell lymphoid malignancies: a single-institution study of 225 cases.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wen; Sheng, Yan; Weng, Xiangqin; Zhu, Yongmei; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Pengpeng; Fei, Xiaochun; Chen, Xiaoyan; Wang, Li; Zhao, Weili

    2015-12-01

    Mature T-cell lymphoid malignancies comprise a group of heterogeneous diseases that vary in clinicopathological features, biological behavior, treatment response, and prognosis. Bone marrow (BM) infiltration is more commonly present in mature T-cell lymphoid malignancies compared with their B-cell counterparts and hence important for differential diagnosis. In this study, clinical characteristics and prognostic factors were analyzed in 225 patients with mature T-cell lymphoid malignancies treated in a single institution. These included 29 cases of T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (T-LPD, all with BM infiltration) and 196 cases of T-/natural-killer-cell lymphoma (T/NKCL, 56 with BM infiltration and 140 without BM infiltration). The estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of T-LPD and T/NKCL were 96.6% and 37.3%, respectively. T-LPD patients were less likely to exhibit poor performance status, advanced disease stage, presence of B symptoms, or abnormal level of serum β-2 microglobulin. With similar pathological characteristics, T/NKCL patients with BM infiltration showed significantly lower response rates and shorter OS than those without BM infiltration (P = 0.0264 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Multivariate analysis indicated that poor performance status, advanced disease stage, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level, and BM involvement were independent unfavorable prognostic factors. The Glasgow Prognostic Score may be more efficient than the International Prognostic Index in predicting disease outcome in T/NKCL. In conclusion, clinical characteristics may be useful in more effectively stratifying patients with mature T-cell lymphoid malignancies.

  13. [Prognostic factors in acute nonlymphoid leukemias].

    PubMed

    Capelli, D; Tedeschi, A; Montillo, M; Corvatta, L; Bartocci, C; Montroni, M; Leoni, P

    1996-10-01

    Our retrospective study was aimed at assessing parameters affecting the prognosis of acute non lymphoid leukemia (ANLL). Since 1988 to 1994 we observed 84 patients: 52 males, 32 females. For each patient we considered at diagnosis: age, fever, performance status, platelets, hemoglobin and white blood cell count, extramidollary disease, bone marrow blastosis, phenotype and cytogenetic abnormalities of blasts cells. All the parameters listed above were correlated with the time to achieve the complete remission (CR), CR duration and the overall survival. Statistical tests as t-student and chi square test were used. Statistical analysis of the parameters considered revealed that the only value affecting the achievement of a CR was the age. The prognostic significance of immunophenotyping in ANLL has been a controversial issue, with a number of conflicting reports. In our study only the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase was significantly associated with prognosis. Our study, as data reported in literature, confirms that the prognostic impact of the various parameters in ANLL is controversial. The study of prognostic factors and of the immunophenotype is important to identify the clinical and the biologic profile of the disease and to evaluate the optimal post-remission treatment.

  14. Incorporating prognostic imaging biomarkers into clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A prognostic imaging biomarker can be defined as an imaging characteristic that is objectively measurable and provides information on the likely outcome of the cancer disease in an untreated individual and should be distinguished from predictive imaging biomarkers and imaging markers of response. A range of tumour characteristics of potential prognostic value can be measured using a variety imaging modalities. However, none has currently been adopted into routine clinical practice. This article considers key examples of emerging prognostic imaging biomarkers and proposes an evaluation framework that aims to demonstrate clinical efficacy and so support their introduction into the clinical arena. With appropriate validation within an established evaluation framework, prognostic imaging biomarkers have the potential to contribute to individualized cancer care, in some cases reducing the financial burden of expensive cancer treatments by facilitating their more rational use. PMID:24060808

  15. [Biases in the study of prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Delgado-Rodríguez, M

    1999-01-01

    The main objective is to detail the main biases in the study of prognostic factors. Confounding bias is illustrated with social class, a prognostic factor still discussed. Within selection bias several cases are commented: response bias, specially frequent when the patients of a clinical trial are used; the shortcomings in the formation of an inception cohort; the fallacy of Neyman (bias due to the duration of disease) when the study begins with a cross-sectional study; the selection bias in the treatment of survivors for the different treatment opportunity of those living longer; the bias due to the inclusion of heterogeneous diagnostic groups; and the selection bias due to differential information losses and the use of statistical multivariate procedures. Within the biases during follow-up, an empiric rule to value the impact of the number of losses is given. In information bias the Will Rogers' phenomenon and the usefulness of clinical databases are discussed. Lastly, a recommendation against the use of cutoff points yielded by bivariate analyses to select the variable to be included in multivariate analysis is given.

  16. Prognostic Factors in Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Atay, Gamze; Kayahan, Bahar; çınar, Betül çiçek; Saraç, Sarp; Sennaroğlu, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is still a complex and challenging process which requires clinical evidence regarding its etiology, treatment and prognostic factors. Therefore, determination of prognostic factors might aid in the selection of proper treatment modality. Aims: The aim of this study is to analyze whether there is correlation between SSNHL outcomes and (1) systemic steroid therapy, (2) time gap between onset of symptoms and initiation of therapy and (3) audiological pattern of hearing loss. Study Design: Retrospective chart review. Methods: Patients diagnosed at our clinic with SSNHL between May 2005 and December 2011 were reviewed. A detailed history of demographic features, side of hearing loss, previous SSNHL and/or ear surgery, recent upper respiratory tract infection, season of admission, duration of symptoms before admission and the presence of co-morbid diseases was obtained. Radiological and audiological evaluations were recorded and treatment protocol was assessed to determine whether systemic steroids were administered or not. Treatment started ≤5 days was regarded as “early” and >5 days as “delayed”. Initial audiological configurations were grouped as “upward sloping”, “downward sloping”, “flat” and “profound” hearing loss. Significant recovery was defined as thresholds improved to the same level with the unaffected ear or improved ≥30 dB on average. Slight recovery was hearing improvement between 10–30dB on average. Hearing recovery less than 10 dB was accepted as unchanged. Results: Among the 181 patients who met the inclusion criteria, systemic steroid was administered to 122 patients (67.4%), whereas 59 (32.6%) patients did not have steroids. It was found that steroid administration did not have any statistically significant effect in either recovered or unchanged hearing groups. Early treatment was achieved in 105 patients (58%) and 76 patients (42%) had delayed treatment. Recovery

  17. Clinical value of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 as a prognostic marker in patients with digestive system cancers: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Long; Zhu, Qin; Wang, Xiaowei; Wu, Jindao; Wang, Xuehao

    2017-03-01

    The role of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) has been implicated in the clinical prognosis of various kinds of digestive system cancers, but the results remain controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to assess the potential role of Oct4 as a prognostic marker in digestive system tumors. Relevant articles were retrieved from Pubmed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library up to July 2016. The software Stata 12.0 was used to analyze the outcomes, including overall survival (OS), disease-free survival, recurrence-free survival, and clinicopathological characteristics. A total of 13 eligible studies with 1538 patients were included. Elevated Oct4 expression was significantly associated with poor OS (pooled hazard ratio [HR] = 2.183, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.824-2.612), disease-free survival (pooled HR = 1.973, 95% CI: 1.538-2.532), and recurrence-free survival (pooled HR = 2.209, 95% CI: 1.461-3.338) of digestive system malignancies. Subgroup analyses showed that cancer type, sample size, study quality, and laboratory detection method did not alter the significant prognostic value of Oct4. Additionally, Oct4 expression was found to be an independent predictive factor for OS (HR = 2.068, 95% CI: 1.633-2.619). No significant association was found between Oct4 and clinicopathological features of digestive system malignancies. This study provided evidence of Oct4 and/or its closely related homolog protein as a predictive factor for patients with digestive system cancers. More large-scale clinical studies on the prognostic value of Oct4 are warranted. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Examining prognostic factors and patterns of failure in nasopharyngeal carcinoma following concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy: impact on future clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S H; Yen, K L; Jian, J J; Tsai, S Y; Chu, N M; Leu, S Y; Chan, K Y; Tan, T D; Cheng, J C; Hsieh, C Y; Huang, A T

    2001-07-01

    Concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (CCRT), followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, has improved the outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the prognosis and patterns of failure after this combined-modality treatment are not yet clear. In this report, the prognostic factors and failure patterns we observed with CCRT may shed new light in the design of future trials. One hundred forty-nine (149) patients with newly diagnosed and histologically proven NPC were prospectively treated with CCRT followed by adjuvant chemotherapy between April 1990 and December 1997. One hundred and thirty-three (89.3%) patients had MRI of head and neck for primary evaluation before treatment. Radiotherapy was delivered either at 2 Gy per fraction per day up to 70 Gy or 1.2 Gy per fraction, 2 fractions per day, up to 74.4 Gy. Chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. According to the AJCC 1997 staging system, 32 patients were in Stage II, 53 in Stage III, and 64 in Stage IV (M0). Univariate analysis revealed that WHO (World Health Organization) Type II histology, T4 classification, and parapharyngeal extension were poor prognostic factors for locoregional control. Multivariate analysis revealed that T4 disease was the most important adverse factor that affects locoregional control, the risk ratio being 5.965 (p = 0.02). Univariate analysis for distant metastasis revealed that T4 and N3 classifications, serum LDH level > 410 U/L (normal range, 180-460), parapharyngeal extension, and infiltration of the clivus were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Multivariate analysis, however, revealed that T4 classification and N3 category were the only two factors that predicted distant metastasis; the risk ratios were 3.994 (p = 0.02) and 3.390 (p = 0.01), respectively. Therefore, based on the risk factor analysis, we were able to identify low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients. Low-risk patients were those without the risk factors mentioned above. They

  19. [Pathophysiology and Prognostic Factors of Autoimmune Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Prüß, H

    2016-05-01

    More and more forms of autoimmune encephalitis are being identified with the clinical spectrum ranging from epilepsy over movement disorders to psychosis. The increasing appreciation of clinical symptoms raises questions about the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and prognostic factors. Numerous novel findings on the aetiology demonstrate that diverse tumours, but also infections of the central nervous system such as Herpes encephalitis can trigger autoimmune encephalitis. Antibodies against neuronal surface epitopes are directly pathogenic in the majority of cases. They act via binding and internalization of target proteins, receptor blockage, or activation of complement. Most relevant for the patients' prognosis are the type and titer of antibodies (e. g. against NMDA, GABA, AMPA receptors or voltage-gated potassium channel complexes), associated tumours, sufficiently aggressive immunotherapies, and imaging as well as cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Prognostic Factors in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Revisited.

    PubMed

    Glikson, Eran; Alon, Eran; Bedrin, Lev; Talmi, Yoav P

    2017-02-01

    More than 90% of all thyroid cancers are differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) with a 10 year survival rate greater than 90%. The commonly used risk stratification systems for DTC include: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), AGES (Age, histologic Grade, Extent of tumor, Size), AMES (Metastasis) and MACIS (Completeness of resection, local Invasion). Other systems are also utilized. Several new factors that may be involved in DTC risk stratification have emerged in recent studies, with other "traditional" factors being challenged. To present recent updates in the literature on new potential prognostic factors for DTC. We conducted a literature review and analysis of publications regarding DTC prognostic factors or risk stratification published in the last 10 years. Several new factors with potential prognostic implications for DTC were noted, including family history, lymph node involvement parameters, positive PET-CT findings, multifocal disease, thyroglobulin level and several molecular markers including BRAF. Increasing age is associated with poorer outcome in DTC; however, recent studies suggest that the cutoff point of 45 years may be contested. Furthermore, several studies have shown contradictory results regarding male gender as a negative prognostic factor, thus questioning its prognostic significance. A number of new factors with potential prognostic implications for DTC have emerged and should be addressed. However, their role and possible inclusion in new staging systems has yet to be determined.

  1. Clinical features and prognostic factors of spinal cord sarcoidosis: a multicenter observational study of 20 BIOPSY-PROVEN patients.

    PubMed

    Durel, Cécile-Audrey; Marignier, Romain; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Iwaz, Jean; Berthoux, Emilie; Ruivard, Marc; André, Marc; Le Guenno, Guillaume; Pérard, Laurent; Dufour, Jean-François; Turcu, Alin; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Camdessanche, Jean-Philippe; Delboy, Thierry; Sève, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Sarcoidosis of the spinal cord is a rare disease. The aims of this study are to describe the features of spinal cord sarcoidosis (SCS) and identify prognostic markers. We analyzed 20 patients over a 20-year period in 8 French hospitals. There were 12 men (60 %), mostly Caucasian (75 %). The median ages at diagnosis of sarcoidosis and myelitis were 34.5 and 37 years, respectively. SCS revealed sarcoidosis in 12 patients (60 %). Eleven patients presented with motor deficit (55 %) and 9 had sphincter dysfunction (45 %). The median initial Edmus Grading Scale (EGS) score was 2.5. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed elevated protein level (median: 1.00 g/L, interquartile range (IQR) 0.72-1.97), low glucose level (median 2.84 mmol/L, IQR 1.42-3.45), and elevated white cell count (median 22/mm(3), IQR 6-45). The cervical and thoracic cords were most often affected (90 %). All patients received steroids and an immunosuppressive drug was added in 10 cases (50 %). After a mean follow-up of 52.1 months (range 8-43), 18 patients had partial response (90 %), 7 displayed functional impairment (35 %), and the median final EGS score was 1. Six patients experienced relapse (30 %). There was an association between the initial and the final EGS scores (p = 0.006). High CSF protein level showed a trend toward an association with relapse (p = 0.076). The spinal cord lesion was often the presenting feature of sarcoidosis. Most patients experienced clinical improvement with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive treatment. The long-term functional prognosis was correlated with the initial severity.

  2. Translating biomarkers into clinical practice: prognostic implications of cyclophilin A and macrophage migratory inhibitory factor identified from protein expression profiles in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Howard, Brandon A; Zheng, Zhong; Campa, Michael J; Wang, Michael Z; Sharma, Anupama; Haura, Eric; Herndon, James E; Fitzgerald, Michael C; Bepler, Gerold; Patz, Edward F

    2004-12-01

    Biomarkers have the potential to significantly change diagnostic strategies and influence therapeutic management. We developed a MALDI-TOF protein expression profiling platform for biomarker discovery and a proof-of-principle study identified two proteins, cyclophilin A (CyPA) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), that were overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The current study focused on evaluating the potential of CyPA and MIF as prognostic markers in patients with a new diagnosis of lung cancer for rapid translation into clinical practice. Two hundred and thirty-four primary NSCLC specimens reflecting a broad range of histologies and stages were examined for CyPA and MIF reactivity by tissue microarray immunohistochemistry (TMA-IHC). The percent tumor cell reactivity, staining intensity and a composite staining score were compared with overall patient survival by Kaplan-Meier curves, log rank test and Cox model statistics. Although both proteins were overexpressed in most NSCLC tumors, neither CypA nor MIF showed a correlation with outcome. This pilot project approach can expedite integration of newly discovered biomarkers into clinical practice, with the goal of improving stratification of patients into appropriate treatment regimens. While both proteins considered in this study were overexpressed in the vast majority of NSCLCs, they were not found to be of prognostic significance.

  3. [Treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration with ranibizumab in clinical practice: results and prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Muriel, M A; Fatela, B; Valdivia, A; Clement, F

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ranibizumab in wet age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), and to identify prognostic factors. A retrospective longitudinal study of 79 eyes treated with intravitreal Ranibizumab in our hospital due to wet ARMD, with an initial regimen of three consecutive monthly injections, followed by injections on demand based on the exploratory findings. We conducted a descriptive study of the baseline examination (n=79), and 3 (n=79), 6 (n=67) and 12 months (n=49) after starting treatment. The characteristics of the baseline examination and annual examination results were compared using univariate and multivariate analysis. After the three initial injections, the 93.67% of patients lost fewer than 15 letters, and 19% gained 15 points or more. This result remained similar at 1 year (83.67% and 20.40%, respectively). After 1 year of treatment 40.82% had a VA ≥ 0.3 and 22'45% had a VA ≤ 0.1. We used a median of 5 injections per year. The increased AV at the beginning and the persistence of large intraretinal cysts at 3 months (P=.0013), as well as the development of fibrosis during evolution (P=.0005), are associated with visual deterioration. The guidelines used here stabilised or improved visual acuity in most patients. The most favourable cases are those with initially lower VA or large intraretinal cysts resolved after the loading phase. The appearance of fibrosis implies a poor long-term visual prognosis. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Prognostic factors of successful on-purpose tumor biopsies in metastatic cancer patients included in the SHIVA prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Desportes, Emilie; Wagner, Mathilde; Kamal, Maud; Salomon, Anne Vincent; Deniziaut, Gabrielle; Pierron, Gaëlle; Rouleau, Etienne; Jouffroy, Thomas; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Paoletti, Xavier; Servois, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE To identify patient/tumor characteristics associated with success of biopsy in patients who received multiple lines of chemotherapy. METHODS Patients with refractory cancer from our center, who were included in a prospective randomized phase II trial comparing targeted therapies based on molecular profile of tumors versus conventional chemotherapy, were retrospectively included in this IRB-approved study. All patients had a biopsy of a tumor lesion performed during surgery, or using CT/palpation/endoscopic guidance. A biopsy was considered successful if the neoplastic cellularity was greater than 30%. Primary lesion, size and location of biopsied lesion, on-going chemotherapy and the differential attenuation between non-enhanced and venous phase (HU) for CT-guided biopsied lesions were recorded. RESULTS 228 patients (age=59±15yo; M/F=1.9) were included. One hundred and sixty biopsies (72%) of the 221 biopsies performed were successful. Prognostic factors of biopsy success were: no ongoing chemotherapy, surgical or palpation-guided biopsy, lymph nodes/soft tissue location(P <0.01). Among the 221 performed biopsies, 122 (55%) were performed using CT guidance and 82 (67%) were successful. In this subgroup, biopsied lesions located in lymph nodes/soft tissue were associated with a higher success rate while lung location was associated with failure (P <0.01). The mean differential attenuation was significantly higher in lesions with a successful biopsy (P <0.001). CONCLUSION Success of biopsy was less frequent with CT guidance than with surgical or palpation-guided biopsy and was higher in soft tissues and lymph nodes than that in visceral metastasis. Ongoing chemotherapy decreased tumor cell content and consequently the success of the biopsy samples for molecular profiling. PMID:27655703

  5. Phosphohistone-H3 (PHH3) is prognostic relevant in Merkel cell carcinomas but Merkel cell polyomavirus is a more powerful prognostic factor than AJCC clinical stage, PHH3, Ki-67 or mitotic indices.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Takeshi; Matsushita, Michiko; Nonaka, Daisuke; Kato, Masako; Nagata, Keiko; Murakami, Ichiro; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs) associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) have better prognosis than those without MCPyV. The relationship between mitotic index (MI) and MCC outcome has remained elusive because of the difficulty in differentiating mitotic cells from apoptotic ones. We evaluated the role of phosphohistone-H3 (PHH3) (Ser10), a new mitotic count biomarker, in MCPyV-positive or -negative MCC patients, and assessed its prognostic value in comparison to Ki-67 labeling index or MI using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. We compared the prognostic value of PHH3 mitotic index with that of MI by HE in 19 MCPyV-positive and 9 MCPyV-negative MCC patients. PHH3-positive immunoreactivity was mostly observed in mitotic figures. Multivariate analysis significantly showed that MCPyV status (HR, 0.004; 95% CI 0.0003-0.058) and the American Joint Committee of Cancer (AJCC) stage (HR, 5.02; 95% CI 1.23-20.51) were observed as significantly independent prognostic factors for OS. PHH3-positive cell counts/10 HPF was a slightly significant independent prognostic factor for OS (HR, 4.96; 95% CI 0.93-26.55). PHH3-positive MI and MCPyV status in MCC patients are useful in prognostication, although MCPyV-infection is a more powerful prognostic factor in MCCs than the AJCC scheme on proliferation or mitotic indices.

  6. Clinical spectrum and survival analysis of 145 cases of HIV-negative Castleman’s disease: renal function is an important prognostic factor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Li, Zhiyuan; Cao, Xinxin; Feng, Jun; Zhong, Dingrong; Wang, Shujie; Zhou, Daobin; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Castleman’s disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder with clinical features and prognostic factors that are incompletely characterized. This retrospective single-center study reviewed the largest HIV-negative CD patient cohort (n = 145) to date. By clinical classification, we identified 69 patients (47.6%) as unicentric CD (UCD) and 76 patients (52.4%) as multicentric CD (MCD). Pathological classification identified 74 patients (51.0%) with the hyaline-vascular variant, 51 patients (35.2%) with the plasma-cell variant, and 20 patients (13.8%) with a mixed variant. After a median follow-up duration of 58 months (range, 1–180 months), the 1-year and 5-year survival rates were 95.1% and 91.0%, respectively. UCD patients exhibited significantly better survival (1-year and 5-year survival rates of 98.5% and 97.1%, respectively) compared with MCD patients (1-year and 5-year survival rates of 92.1% and 85.5%, respectively; p = 0.005). By univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses, the estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min (with the MDRD equation; hazard ratio = 4.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.50–14.12; p = 0.008) was clinically significant and represented an independent predictor for death in MCD patients. In summary, this large-scale study suggests that UCD patients enjoy better survival than MCD patients and that renal function is an important prognostic factor for MCD patients. PMID:27029894

  7. Clinical and histopathologic independent prognostic factors in oral squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective study of 334 cases.

    PubMed

    Arduino, Paolo G; Carrozzo, Marco; Chiecchio, Andrea; Broccoletti, Roberto; Tirone, Federico; Borra, Eleonora; Bertolusso, Giorgio; Gandolfo, Sergio

    2008-08-01

    This retrospective hospital-based study reviewed and evaluated the outcome of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with the aim of identifying factors affecting the clinical course and survival rate. Patients with a follow-up of at least 12 months were included. The data collected were statistically analyzed for the presence of factors valuable for prognosis; survival curves were processed in accordance with the Kaplan-Meier method. Differences in the expression of variables in different grading levels were investigated. Cox's proportional hazard model for Z(i) covariates (grading, age, T, N) also was calculated. Mean patient age was 67.7 years in women (n = 152) and 62.4 years in men (n = 182). A total of 98 patients were identified with Broder's/World Health Organization grade 1 histology, 176 with grade 2, and 55 with grade 3; 5 patients were identified as grade 4 (carcinoma in situ). Gender and risk factors seemed to be unrelated to prognosis, whereas a significant increase in mortality was seen in patients over age 70. Histological grading, tumor size, and neck involvement were related, as independent factors, in predicting survival in patients with OSCC (QM-H > 3.9). Gender, age, and risk factors had no statistical relationship with cancer histological differentiation. Our analysis reveals a statistically significant relationship among histological Broder's grading of malignancy, tumor size, locoregional involvement, and survival rates, underscoring the utility of tumor differentiation in predicting the clinical course and outcome of OSCC.

  8. Integration of genetic and clinical risk factors improves prognostication in relapsed childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Julie A. E.; Enshaei, Amir; Parker, Catriona A.; Sutton, Rosemary; Kuiper, Roland P.; Erhorn, Amy; Minto, Lynne; Venn, Nicola C.; Law, Tamara; Yu, Jiangyan; Schwab, Claire; Davies, Rosanna; Matheson, Elizabeth; Davies, Alysia; Sonneveld, Edwin; den Boer, Monique L.; Love, Sharon B.; Harrison, Christine J.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Revesz, Tamas; Saha, Vaskar

    2016-01-01

    Somatic genetic abnormalities are initiators and drivers of disease and have proven clinical utility at initial diagnosis. However, the genetic landscape and its clinical utility at relapse are less well understood and have not been studied comprehensively. We analyzed cytogenetic data from 427 children with relapsed B-cell precursor ALL treated on the international trial, ALLR3. Also we screened 238 patients with a marrow relapse for selected copy number alterations (CNAs) and mutations. Cytogenetic risk groups were predictive of outcome postrelapse and survival rates at 5 years for patients with good, intermediate-, and high-risk cytogenetics were 68%, 47%, and 26%, respectively (P < .001). TP53 alterations and NR3C1/BTG1 deletions were associated with a higher risk of progression: hazard ratio 2.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.51-3.70, P < .001) and 2.15 (1.32-3.48, P = .002). NRAS mutations were associated with an increased risk of progression among standard-risk patients with high hyperdiploidy: 3.17 (1.15-8.71, P = .026). Patients classified clinically as standard and high risk had distinct genetic profiles. The outcome of clinical standard-risk patients with high-risk cytogenetics was equivalent to clinical high-risk patients. Screening patients at relapse for key genetic abnormalities will enable the integration of genetic and clinical risk factors to improve patient stratification and outcome. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.org as #ISCRTN45724312. PMID:27229005

  9. Clinical stage I endometrial cancer: prognostic factors for local control and distant metastasis and implications of the new FIGO surgical staging system.

    PubMed

    Grigsby, P W; Perez, C A; Kuten, A; Simpson, J R; Garcia, D M; Camel, H M; Kao, M S; Galakatos, A E

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective analysis is reported in 858 patients with clinical Stage I carcinoma of the endometrium treated definitively with combined irradiation and total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH-BSO) from January 1960 through December 1986. Most patients received a preoperative intracavitary insertion (3500-4000 mgh to the uterus and a 6500 cGy surface dose to the upper vagina) followed by a TAH-BSO within 1-2 weeks. Some patients received postoperative external beam irradiation (2000 cGy whole pelvis and an additional 3000 cGy to the parametria, with a midline stepwedge) when factors such as deep myometrial invasion were present. Occasionally patients were treated with a preoperative intracavitary insertion and preoperative external beam irradiation (2000 cGy whole pelvis). The 5-year progression-free survivals by FIGO (1988) surgical stage were 93% for IA, 90% for IB, and 91% for Stage IC. An analysis of multiple variables was performed to ascertain their prognostic significance. Factors that significantly affected the 5-year progression-free survivals by univariate analysis were grade (grade 1 = 95%, grade 2 = 88%, grade 3 = 73%; p less than 0.0001), histology (adenoacanthoma = 96%, clear cell = 89%, adenocarcinoma = 89%, papillary = 81%, adenosquamous = 80%; p = 0.04), lower uterine segment involvement (uninvolved = 89%, involved = 73%; p = 0.006), depth of myometrial invasion (no residual tumor = 91%, limited to the endometrium = 96%, less than 1/3 myometrial penetration = 92%, 1/3 - 2/3 = 100%, greater than 2/3 = 50%; p = 0.02), peritoneal cytology (negative = 92%, positive = 56%, p less than 0.0001), uterine serosal involvement (uninvolved = 89%, involved = 55%; p less than 0.0001), vascular space invasion (absent = 89%, present = 75%; p = 0.001), and the presence of extrauterine disease (absent = 90%, present = 64%; p less than 0.0001). A multivariate analysis of these prognostic variables showed that histological grade (p = 0

  10. [Prognostic factors in head injuries].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Céspedes, J M; Paúl Laprediza, N M; Pelegrín-Valero, C; Tirapu-Ustarroz, J

    Establishment of the prognosis after traumatic brain damage is an important question for doctors, patients and their families, as well as for health organizations and insurers. The precision of the prognosis varies markedly according to the final objective of the prediction (mortality, severity and type of residual defects, return to work), apart from consideration of the many factors which may affect the clinical course after this type of lesion. Our study considers the current state of this question. We consider the main methodological difficulties in carrying out such studies and review the main variables affecting the prognosis in head injuries, divided into three general groups (severity and type of lesion, characteristics of the individual and variables depending on the context). Finally, we make general comments on the effect of multidisciplinary rehabilitation in relation to the functional prognosis and level of social and employment integration attained by the injured persons.

  11. Heredity: a prognostic factor for acne.

    PubMed

    Ballanger, F; Baudry, P; N'Guyen, J M; Khammari, A; Dréno, B

    2006-01-01

    The role of heredity in acne severity and therapeutic response remains unclear. A prospective epidemiologic study was performed to compare clinical and evolutive features of acne and response to treatment in 151 patients with acne with (A+) or without (A-) family history of acne. A+ and A- patients were compared on clinical and therapeutic criteria. A+ patients were then distributed into subgroups (M+, F+, M+F+) following the origin of family history (father: F, mother: M). The clinical profile was similar in the A+ and A- populations. Acne occurred earlier and more often before puberty in the A+ population, in which oral treatments and relapse after isotretinoin were more frequent. Retentional lesions (number and extent) were more important in the M+ and M+F+ populations. This study confirms the importance of heredity as a prognostic factor for acne. Family history of acne is associated with earlier occurrence of acne, increased number of retentional lesions and therapeutic difficulties. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Prognostic Factors in Severe Chagasic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sandra de Araújo; Rassi, Salvador; Freitas, Elis Marra da Madeira; Gutierrez, Natália da Silva; Boaventura, Fabiana Miranda; Sampaio, Larissa Pereira da Costa; Silva, João Bastista Masson

    2017-01-01

    Background Prognostic factors are extensively studied in heart failure; however, their role in severe Chagasic heart failure have not been established. Objectives To identify the association of clinical and laboratory factors with the prognosis of severe Chagasic heart failure, as well as the association of these factors with mortality and survival in a 7.5-year follow-up. Methods 60 patients with severe Chagasic heart failure were evaluated regarding the following variables: age, blood pressure, ejection fraction, serum sodium, creatinine, 6-minute walk test, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, QRS width, indexed left atrial volume, and functional class. Results 53 (88.3%) patients died during follow-up, and 7 (11.7%) remained alive. Cumulative overall survival probability was approximately 11%. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (HR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.04 - 4.31; p<0.05) and indexed left atrial volume ≥ 72 mL/m2 (HR = 3.51; 95% CI: 1.63 - 7.52; p<0.05) were the only variables that remained as independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions The presence of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia on Holter and indexed left atrial volume > 72 mL/m2 are independent predictors of mortality in severe Chagasic heart failure, with cumulative survival probability of only 11% in 7.5 years. PMID:28443956

  13. Prognostic Factors in Childhood Leukemia (ALL or AML)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosis, and Types Prognostic Factors in Childhood Leukemia (ALL or AML) Certain factors that can affect a ... myelogenous leukemia (AML). Prognostic factors for children with ALL Children with ALL are often divided into risk ...

  14. Critical Assessment of Clinical Prognostic Tools in Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Mahar, Alyson L; Compton, Carolyn; Halabi, Susan; Hess, Kenneth R; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Scolyer, Richard A; Groome, Patti A

    2016-09-01

    The 7th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) melanoma staging system classifies patients according to prognosis. Significant within-stage heterogeneity remains and the inclusion of additional clinicopathologic and other host- and tumor-based prognostic factors have been proposed. Clinical prognostic tools have been developed for use in clinical practice to refine survival estimates. Little is known about the comparative features of tools in melanoma. We performed a systematic search of the scientific published literature for clinical prognostic tools in melanoma and web-based resources. A priori criteria were used to evaluate their quality and clinical relevance, and included intended clinical use, model development approaches, validation strategies, and performance metrics. We identified 17 clinical prognostic tools for primary cutaneous melanoma. Patients with stages I-III and T1 or thin melanoma were the most frequently considered populations. Seventy-five percent of tools were developed using data collected from patients diagnosed in 2006 or earlier, and the well-established factors of tumor thickness, ulceration, and age were included in 70 % of tools. Internal validity using cross-validation or bootstrapping techniques was performed for two tools only. Fewer than half were evaluated for external validity; however, when done, the appropriate statistical methodology was applied and results indicated good generalizability. Several clinical prognostic tools have the potential to refine survival estimates for individual melanoma patients; however, there is a great opportunity to improve these tools and to foster the development of new, validated tools by the inclusion of contemporary clinicopathological covariates and by using improved statistical and methodological approaches.

  15. [Retinoblastoma in Kenya: survival and prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Gichigo, E N; Kariuki-Wanyoike, M M; Kimani, K; Nentwich, M M

    2015-03-01

    In industrialized nations a curative therapy of retinoblastoma can be achieved in a large number of patients due to timely diagnosis and therapy. In developing countries the survival rates are much lower and very little data have been published especially from Africa. This study was performed to investigate the survival and prognostic factors of retinoblastoma patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral hospital in Kenya. In this study all records of patients admitted with retinoblastoma from January 2000 to December 2004 were reviewed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, intraoperative findings and histology reports were recorded and the patients or their relatives were contacted during follow-up to investigate the outcome and survival. Files of 160 patients (86 males and 74 females) were retrieved for this study. Data on 3-year survival could be acquired from 105 patients and the cumulative 3-year survival rate was 26.6 %. Factors significantly influencing survival were age at presentation less than 12 months, early disease at presentation (leukocoria only), no extraocular growth and total delay of management ≤ 5 months. Proptosis and tumor recurrence were associated with a 3-year mortality of 100 %. The main reasons for poor outcome were late presentation and recurrent disease after initial treatment elsewhere, extraocular growth and delay between initial presentation and treatment. Awareness of the public and of healthcare workers should be increased in order to reduce the time delay until diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Medium-term follow-up of clinically insignificant residual fragments after minimal invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy: prognostic features and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; He, Long; Li, Jianzhong; Duan, Zhongyang; Gao, Zijian; Liu, Long

    2015-01-01

    Minimal invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) has been commonly used in removing urinary stones. However, the detrimental effects of clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRF) after MPCNL have not been entirely clarified. This study is aimed at investigating the clinical outcomes of CIRF after MPCNL. From July 2004 to June 2010, 1862 cases of urolithiasis underwent MPCNL. 185 cases of CIRF were subsequently diagnosed using CT scanning and followed up. During follow-ups, medical history, physical examination, routine blood and urine tests, subjective symptoms were recorded. A multiple-variable Cox regression was performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of different factors for CIRF after MPCNL. Of 185 cases of CIRF followed up for 31.4 months on average, 58 cases (31.4%) suffered symptomatic episodes, including 30 cases of hematuresis, 21 cases of low urinary tract symptoms and 7 cases of hematuresis complicated with renal colic. The results of Cox regression showed that past history of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), CIRF size, hypercalcuria and CIRF located in ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) are independent risk factors for medium-term symptomatic episodes of CIRF after MPCNL. We suggest that regular follow-ups should be considered for patients with CIRFs after MPCNL for timely treatments, especially for those who are hypercalcuria-complicated, have history of ESWL, or suffer relatively large CIRFs located in the UPJ. PMID:26885122

  17. [Prognostic factors in head and neck mucoepidermoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Villavicencio-Ayala, Beatriz; Reséndiz-Colosia, Jaime Alonso; Labastida-Almendaro, Sonia; Torres-Núñe, María Guadalupe; Peña-Torres, Leandro Miguel; Gallegos-Hernández, José Francisco

    2008-01-01

    In patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) originating in salivary glands, because of the relative rarity of these tumors and the remarkable variability in their biological behavior, opinions differ about appropriate classification, grading, and treatment. We undertook this study to analyze clinical and histological prognostic factors in a series of patients with MEC using univariate and multivariate survival analyses. We reviewed 47 patients with MEC treated at our institution from 1985 to 2000. Clinical, epidemiological, treatment and follow-up data were obtained from medical records. All cases were histologically reviewed. The influence of prognostic factors on 5- and 10-year disease-specific survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier actuarial method and log-rank test. Cox regression tests were used to analyze the impact of the prognostic factors on survival. Females represented 59.6% of the patients. The major salivary glands were affected in 74.5%. Overall survival at 5 and 10 years was 78.3% and 69.3%, respectively. Disease-free survival at 5 years was 73.9% and at 10 years was 67.5%. Multivariate survival analysis revealed that tumor size (T4) (p = 0.0008), regional metastasis (p = 0.000), high histological grade (p = 0.0002), perineural invasion (p = 0.000), positive margin (p = 0.000), necrosis (p = 0.005), and intracystic component <20% (p = 0.0002) were all correlated with a poor prognosis. Clinical stage and histological grade are the main prognostic factors in mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Nevertheless, our univariate and multivariate analyses showed that other clinical and histological prognostic factors are independent significant indicators.

  18. [In vitro fertilization. Prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Alpüstün, S; al-Hasani, S; Diedrich, K; Bauer, O; Werner, A; Krebs, D

    1993-05-01

    Multiple factors influence the outcome of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). In our prospective study different factors have been subject of examination concerning their effect on the outcome of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer. 1237 couples undergoing 1675 consecutive treatment cycles between 1.1.1990-31.12.1991 were included in this study. Prior to treatment, couples were divided into "good" and "poor" prognosis groups. Cycles were prospectively labelled as carrying a potentially "poor prognosis", if one or more of the following factors were noted: 1) female age > 35; 2) an existence of male factor; 3) couples with more than 3 previous unsuccessful treatment cycles. Couples with none of these factors were assigned to the "good" prognosis group. The pregnancy rate per cycle in the "poor" prognosis group was 5.96%, compared with 17.92% per cycle in the "good" prognosis group (p < 0.001). The most important factors determining pregnancy rates were female age and male factor, and we observed that the rate of pregnancy declined after the third treatment cycle. An explanation may be seen in lower fertilisation rates after the age of 35 and cases of poor semen quality. Both will result in poor embryo quality.

  19. Factors Considered by Clinicians when Prognosticating Intracerebral Hemorrhage Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, David Y; Chu, Stacy Y; Dell, Cameron A; Sparks, Mary J; Watson, Tiffany D; Langefeld, Carl D; Comeau, Mary E; Rosand, Jonathan; Battey, Thomas W K; Koch, Sebastian; Perez, Mario L; James, Michael L; McFarlin, Jessica; Osborne, Jennifer L; Woo, Daniel; Kittner, Steven J; Sheth, Kevin N

    2017-07-25

    The early subjective clinical judgment of clinicians outperforms formal prognostic scales for accurate determination of outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), with the judgment of physicians and nurses having equivalent accuracy. This study assessed specific decisional factors that physicians and nurses incorporate into early predictions of functional outcome. This prospective observational study enrolled 121 ICH patients at five US centers. Within 24 h of each patient's admission, one physician and one nurse on the clinical team were each surveyed to predict the patient's modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months and to list up to 10 subjective factors used in prognostication. Factors were coded and compared between (1) physician and nurse and (2) accurate and inaccurate surveys, with accuracy defined as an exact prediction of mRS. Aside from factors that are components of the ICH or FUNC scores, surveys reported pre-existing comorbidities (40.0%), other clinical or radiographic factors not in clinical scales (43.0%), and non-clinical/radiographic factors (21.9%) as important. Compared to physicians, nurses more frequently listed neurologic examination components (Glasgow Coma Scale motor, 27.3 vs. 5.8%, p < 0.0001; GCS verbal, 12.4 vs. 0.0%, p < 0.0001) and non-clinical/radiographic factors (31.4 vs. 12.4%, p = 0.0005). Physicians more frequently listed neuroimaging factors (ICH location, 33.9 vs. 7.4%, p < 0.0001; intraventricular hemorrhage, 13.2 vs. 2.5%, p = 0.003). There was no difference in listed factors between accurate versus inaccurate surveys. Clinicians frequently utilize factors outside of the components of clinical scales for prognostication, with physician and nurses focusing on different factors despite having similar accuracy.

  20. A multicentre study of 513 Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. II. Disease mortality and clinical factors of prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, S; Petersen, J; Ullman, S; Junker, P; Voss, A; Rasmussen, J M; Tarp, U; Poulsen, L H; van Overeem Hansen, G; Skaarup, B; Hansen, T M; Pødenphant, J; Halberg, P

    1998-01-01

    In this Danish multicentre study, predictive clinical factors of mortality and survival were calculated for 513 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 122 of whom died within a mean observation period of 8.2 years equalling a mortality rate of 2.9% per year. Survival rates were 97%, 91%, 76% and 64% after 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, respectively. The direct causes of death included SLE (n = 35), infections (n = 25), malignancy (n = 9), cardiovascular disease (n = 32) and other causes (n = 21). Uni- and multivariate analyses of survival and mortality were performed for all deaths and for SLE-related deaths. Azotaemia (one-fifth of the patients) was a strong predictor of increased overall and SLE-related mortality, but nephropathy per se (one-half of the patients) and large proteinuria (one-sixth of the patients) were unrelated to survival. Haemolytic anaemia had a significant negative influence on survival related to mortality caused by infections. Diffuse central nervous system disease and myocarditis were related to increased SLE-related mortality, whereas photosensitivity predicted a decreased mortality. Non-fatal infections and thrombotic events predicted a decreased overall survival. Since 1980 the mortality caused by SLE manifestations has decreased significantly.

  1. Prognostic factors in pleuro-pulmonary blastoma.

    PubMed

    Indolfi, Paolo; Bisogno, Gianni; Casale, Fiorina; Cecchetto, Giovanni; De Salvo, Gianluca; Ferrari, Andrea; Donfrancesco, Alberto; Donofrio, Vittoria; Martone, Antonio; Di Martino, Martina; Di Tullio, Maria T

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the prognostic factors in a series of children affected by pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB). Clinicopathological findings, treatment, and outcome of 22 PPB cases observed in 13 Italian Associations for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology centers are reported. Clinical data, surgical notes, pathologic findings, and summaries of treatment were taken from the charts and correlated with outcome by standard statistical methods. The series included 22 patients (14 males) with a median age of 30.5 months followed up for a median of 22 months (range 2-176 months). In nine patients the PPB developed with lung involvement only. Congenital lung cysts were recorded in five cases. Nine patients had recurrences. Gender, side, tumor size, pre-existing lung cysts, and extent of surgical resection at diagnosis did not significantly affect survival by univariate analysis. Achieving total resection of the tumor at any time of treatment resulted in a significantly better prognosis (P = 0.01), whereas extrapulmonary involvement at diagnosis resulted in a significantly worse prognosis (P = 0.01). Estimated 15-year event-free and overall survival rates were 44 and 49% for all patients, respectively. PPB is an aggressive neoplasm. Total resection of PPB performed at any time of treatment appears to provide a better outcome, whereas extrapulmonary involvement at diagnosis worsens the prognosis. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. [Prognostic factors of early breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Almagro, Elena; González, Cynthia S; Espinosa, Enrique

    2016-02-19

    Decision about the administration of adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer depends on the evaluation of prognostic factors. Lymph node status, tumor size and grade of differentiation are classical variables in this regard, and can be complemented by hormonal receptor status and HER2 expression. These factors can be combined into prognostic indexes to better estimate the risk of relapse or death. Other factors are less important. Gene profiles have emerged in recent years to identify low-risk patients who can forgo adjuvant chemotherapy. A number of profiles are available and can be used in selected cases. In the future, gene profiling will be used to select patients for treatment with new targeted therapies.

  3. Clinical features and prognostic factors in patients with head and neck cancer: Results from a multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Leoncini, Emanuele; Vukovic, Vladimir; Cadoni, Gabriella; Pastorino, Roberta; Arzani, Dario; Bosetti, Cristina; Canova, Cristina; Garavello, Werner; La Vecchia, Carlo; Maule, Milena; Petrelli, Livia; Pira, Enrico; Polesel, Jerry; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Serraino, Diego; Simonato, Lorenzo; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether demographics, lifestyle habits, clinical data and alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphisms rs1229984 and rs1573496 associated with first primary head and neck (HNC) are associated with overall survival, recurrence, and second primary cancer (SPC). We conducted a follow-up study in five centres including 801 cases. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for overall survival, recurrence and SPC. Five-years overall survival was 62% for HNC cases, 55% for oral cavity, 53% for oropharynx, 41% for hypopharynx, and 71% for larynx. Predictors of survival were older ages (HR=1.18 for 5 years increase; CI: 1.07-1.30), higher tumour stage (HR=4.16; CI: 2.49-6.96), and high alcohol consumption (HR=3.93; CI: 1.79-8.63). A combined therapy (HR=3.29; CI: 1.18-9.13) was associated with a worst prognosis for oral cavity cancer. The only predictor was higher tumour stage (HR=2.25; CI: 1.26-4.03) for recurrence, and duration of smoking (HR=1.91; CI: 1.00-3.68) for SPC. ADH1B rs1229984 polymorphism HRs for HNC and oesophageal cancer death and for alcohol related cancer death were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.42-1.08), and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.40-1.03), respectively. The survival expectation differs among HNC sites. Increasing age and stage, and high alcohol consumption were unfavourable predictors of HNC survival overall. Duration of tobacco consumption before the first primary tumour was a risk factor for SPC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prognostic factor of mortality and its clinical implications in patients with necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yao-Chou; Hor, Lien-I; Chiu, Haw-Yen; Lee, Jing-Wei; Shieh, Shyh-Jou

    2014-06-01

    In Taiwan, the aquatic environment and endemic hepatitis contribute to the high susceptibility of Vibrio vulnificus infection. A multidisciplinary treatment protocol for necrotizing fasciitis caused by V. vulnificus was developed in our institute, namely, ceftriaxone or ceftazidime combined with doxycycline or minocycline followed by an emergency fasciotomy and intensive care unit admission. We retrospectively reviewed 100 cases to evaluate the effectiveness of our treatment protocol and identify independent predictors of mortality to improve clinical outcomes. Cases of culture-confirmed V. vulnificus infection between January 1996 and December 2011 were reviewed. Necrotizing fasciitis was surgically diagnosed if these criteria were met: necrotic fascia, "dishwater discharge", and loss of resistance while doing finger dissection along the fascia plane. One hundred cases met these criteria and were included for analysis. Eighteen patients died (18 % mortality). Unknown injury events, presence of multiple skin lesions, leukocytes < 10,000 cells/mm(3), platelets < 100,000/mm(3), serum creatinine ≥1.3 mg/dL, serum albumin < 2.5 mg/dL, and delayed treatment beyond 3 days post-injury or symptom onset were associated with significantly higher mortality. Multivariate analysis showed that treatment delayed beyond 3 days is an independent factor indicating a poor prognosis (OR 10.75, 95 % CI 1.02-113.39, p = 0.048). Early diagnosis and prompt treatment within 3 days post-injury or symptom onset should be the goal for treating patients with necrotizing fasciitis caused by V. vulnificus. Additional investigations to rescue patients with a prolonged disease course of necrotizing fasciitis (≥3 days) may be important.

  5. Prognostic factors in bunion surgery.

    PubMed

    Scranton, P E; McDermott, J E

    1995-11-01

    Between 1977 and 1992, 42 patients were seen who had 51 feet operated upon for bunions in which the surgery failed. A total of 105 procedures were done on these 51 feet until the patients either achieved satisfactory correction (N = 28) or they declined (N = 14) further surgery. An analysis of these failures and review of literature revealed 12 anatomic variations and 7 secondary factors that were seen in association with surgical failure. These findings were correlated with published criteria and our experience with various bunion procedures to advance general indications and contraindications for specific bunion procedures.

  6. Prognostic nutritional index is an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Runcong; Yuan, Shuqiang; Chen, Shi; Chen, Xiaojiang; Chen, Yongming; Zhu, Baoyan; Qiu, Haibo; Zhou, Zhiwei; Peng, Junsheng; Chen, Yingbo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The predictive and prognostic role of prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination remains unclear. This study aims to explore the role of the PNI in predicting outcomes of gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination. Methods A total of 660 patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma with peritoneal metastasis between January 2000 and April 2014 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center and the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were retrospectively analyzed. The clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with peritoneal dissemination were analyzed. Results Compared with PNI-high group, PNI-low group was correlated with advanced age (P=0.036), worse performance status (P<0.001), higher frequency of ascites (P<0.001) and higher frequency of multisite distant metastasis (P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that PNI-high group had a significantly longer median overall survival than PNI-low group (13.13 vs. 9.03 months, P<0.001). Multivariate survival analysis revealed that Borrmann type IV (P=0.014), presence of ascites (P=0.017) and lower PNI (P=0.041) were independent poor prognostic factors, and palliative surgery (P<0.001) and first-line chemotherapy (P<0.001) were good prognostic factors. For patients receiving palliative surgery, the postoperative morbidity rates in the PNI-low group and PNI-high group were 9.1% and 9.9%, respectively (P=0.797). The postoperative mortality rate was not significantly different between PNI-low and PNI-high groups (2.3% vs. 0.9%, P=0.362). Conclusions PNI is a useful and practical tool for evaluating the nutritional status of gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination, and is an independent prognostic factor for these patients. PMID:28174485

  7. The Correlation Between Pre-treatment Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Parameters and Clinical Prognostic Factors in Pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Tatcı, Ebru; Uslu Biner, İnci; Emir, Suna; Tanyıldız, Hikmet Gülşah; Özmen, Özlem; Alagöz, Engin; Gökçek, Atila; Şahin, Gürses

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare standardized uptake values (SUV) derived from pre-treatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging and clinical prognostic factors in pediatric patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Methods: Pre-treatment FDG PET/CT findings of 28 children with HL were evaluated in this retrospective study. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV), SUVmax normalized by weight (SUVweight), lean body mass (SUVlbm), body surface area (SUVbsa) and plasma glucose levels of tumors (SUVglucose) were calculated using pre-treatment FDG PET/CT scan images. These metabolic parameters were correlated with clinical factors [age, sex, number of lymph node groups, presence of splenic involvement, bulky mediastinal disease, Ann Arbor stage, serum white blood cell (WBC) count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum albumin and hemoglobin levels]. Results: SUVbsa, SUVlbm, SUVweight, SUVglucose and MTV were higher in patients with stage III-IV disease, bulky tumor and ≥3 lymph node groups (p<0.05). SUVbsa and SUVglucose were higher in patients with splenic involvement (p<0.05). There was no significant correlation between these metabolic parameters and sex, ESR, levels of albumin and WBC (p>0.05). SUVbsa and SUVlbm were higher in patients with anemia (p<0.05). Additionally, significant increases were detected in SUVweight, MTV, and SUVglucose with increasing age (p=0.005, p=0.027, and p=0.009, respectively). SUVbsa and SUVlbm had no significant correlation with age (p>0.05). Conclusion: Metabolic parameters derived from pre-treatment FDG PET/CT may have an important role in predicting high-risk disease in patients with HL. Also, SUVbsa and SUVlbm may be better markers than SUVweight in the quantitative evaluation of FDG PET/CT scans in pediatric patients. PMID:28291005

  8. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in early stage Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tubiana, M.; Henry-Amar, M.; van der Werf-Messing, B.; Henry, J.; Abbatucci, J.; Burgers, M.; Hayat, M.; Somers, R.; Laugier, A.; Carde, P.

    1985-01-01

    A multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors was carried out with a Cox model on 1,139 patients with clinical Stage I + II Hodgkin's disease included in three controlled clinical trials. The following indicators had been prospectively registered: aged, sex, systemic symptoms, erythrocyte sedimentation, results of staging laparotomy when performed, as well as the date and type of treatment. A linear logistic analysis showed that most of the indicators are interrelated. This emphasizes the necessity of a multivariate analysis in order to assess the independent influence of each of them. The two main prognostic indicators for relapse-free survival are systemic symptoms and/or ESR and number of involved areas. The only significant factor for survival after relapse is age. Sex has a small but significant influence on relapse-free survival. The relative influence of each indicator varies with the type of treatment and these variations may help in understanding the biologic significance of the indicators.

  9. Clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with breast diffuse large B cell lymphoma; Consortium for Improving Survival of Lymphoma (CISL) study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The breast is a rare extranodal site of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and primary breast lymphoma (PBL) has been arbitrarily defined as disease localized to one or both breasts with or without regional lymph nodes involvement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and breast involvement, and to find the criteria of PBL reflecting the outcome and prognosis. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 68 patients, newly diagnosed with DLBCL and breast involvement at 16 Korean institutions between January 1994 and June 2009. Results Median age at diagnosis was 48 years (range, 20-83 years). Forty-three (63.2%) patients were PBL according to previous arbitrary criteria, sixteen (23.5%) patients were high-intermediate to high risk of international prognostic index. The patients with one extranodal disease in the breast (OED) with or without nodal disease were 49 (72.1%), and those with multiple extranodal disease (MED) were 19 (27.9%). During median follow-up of 41.5 months (range, 2.4-186.0 months), estimated 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 53.7 ± 7.6%, and overall survival (OS) was 60.3 ± 7.2%. The 5-year PFS and OS was significantly higher for patients with the OED group than those with the MED group (5-year PFS, 64.9 ± 8.9% vs. 27.5 ± 11.4%, p = 0.001; 5-year OS, 74.3 ± 7.6% vs. 24.5 ± 13.0%, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, MED (hazard ratio [HR], 3.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-12.2) and fewer than four cycles of systemic chemotherapy with or without local treatments (HR, 4.47; 95% CI, 1.54-12.96) were independent prognostic factors for worse OS. Twenty-five (36.8%) patients experienced progression, and the cumulative incidence of progression in multiple extranodal sites or other than breasts and central nervous system was significantly different between the OED group and the MED group (5-year cumulative incidence, 9.7 ± 5.4% vs. 49.0 ± 15.1%, p = 0

  10. Osteosarcoma: Diagnostic dilemmas in histopathology and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS), the commonest malignancy of osteoarticular origin, is a very aggressive neoplasm. Divergent histologic differentiation is common in OS; hence triple diagnostic approach is essential in all cases. 20% cases are atypical owing to lack of concurrence among clinicoradiologic and pathologic features necessitating resampling. Recognition of specific anatomic and histologic variants is essential in view of better outcome. Traditional prognostic factors of OS do stratify patients for short term outcome, but often fail to predict their long term outcome. Considering the negligible improvement in the patient outcome during the last 20 years, search for novel prognostic factors is in progress like ezrin vascular endothelial growth factor, chemokine receptors, dysregulation of various micro ribonucleic acid are potentially promising. Their utility needs to be validated by long term followup studies before they are incorporated in routine clinical practice. PMID:24932029

  11. Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy Using Concurrent S-1 and Irinotecan in Rectal Cancer: Impact on Long-Term Clinical Outcomes and Prognostic Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Takatoshi; Yamashita, Keishi; Sato, Takeo; Ema, Akira; Naito, Masanori; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the long-term outcomes of patients with rectal cancer who received neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NCRT) with concurrent S-1 and irinotecan (S-1/irinotecan) therapy. Methods and Materials: The study group consisted of 115 patients with clinical stage T3 or T4 rectal cancer. Patients received pelvic radiation therapy (45 Gy) plus concurrent oral S-1/irinotecan. The median follow-up was 60 months. Results: Grade 3 adverse effects occurred in 7 patients (6%), and the completion rate of NCRT was 87%. All 115 patients (100%) were able to undergo R0 surgical resection. Twenty-eight patients (24%) had a pathological complete response (ypCR). At 60 months, the local recurrence-free survival was 93%, disease-free survival (DFS) was 79%, and overall survival (OS) was 80%. On multivariate analysis with a proportional hazards model, ypN2 was the only independent prognostic factor for DFS (P=.0019) and OS (P=.0064) in the study group as a whole. Multivariate analysis was additionally performed for the subgroup of 106 patients with ypN0/1 disease, who had a DFS rate of 85.3%. Both ypT (P=.0065) and tumor location (P=.003) were independent predictors of DFS. A combination of these factors was very strongly related to high risk of recurrence (P<.0001), which occurred most commonly in the lung. Conclusions: NCRT with concurrent S-1/irinotecan produced high response rates and excellent long-term survival, with acceptable adverse effects in patients with rectal cancer. ypN2 is a strong predictor of dismal outcomes, and a combination of ypT and tumor location can identify high-risk patients among those with ypN0/1 disease.

  12. Prognostic Factors After Extraneural Metastasis of Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mazloom, Ali; Zangeneh, Azy H.; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To review the existing literature regarding the characteristics, prognostic factors, treatment, and survival of patients with medulloblastoma, who develop extraneural metastasis (ENM). Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English language articles from 1961 to 2007 was performed, yielding 47 articles reporting on 119 patients. Factors analyzed included age, time interval to development of ENM, ENM location, central nervous system (CNS) involvement, treatment, and outcome. Results: Sites of ENM included bone in 84% of patients, bone marrow in 27% of patients, lymph nodes in 15% of patients, lung in 6% of patients, and liver in 6% of patients. Median survival was 8 months after diagnosis of ENM. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates after diagnosis of ENM were 41.9%, 31.0%, and 26.0%, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates after diagnosis of ENM were 34.5%, 23.2%, and 13.4%, respectively. For patients without CNS involvement at the time of ENM diagnosis, the 1-, 2-, and 5-year OS rates for those treated with and without radiotherapy (RT) were 82.4%, 64.8%, and 64.8% vs. 51.0%, 36.6%, and 30.5%, respectively (p = 0.03, log-rank test). RT did not significantly improve OS or PFS rates for those with CNS involvement. Concurrent CNS involvement, ENM in the lung or liver, a time interval of <18 months to development of ENM, and a patient age of <16 years at ENM diagnosis were found to be negative prognostic factors for both OS and PFS. Conclusions: Several prognostic factors were identified for patients with ENM from medulloblastoma. Patients without concurrent CNS involvement, who received RT after ENM diagnosis had an OS and PFS benefit compared to those who did not receive RT.

  13. Clinical prognostic markers in stage IIIC melanoma.

    PubMed

    Madu, Max F; Schopman, Jaap H H; Berger, Danique M S; Klop, Willem M C; Jóźwiak, Katarzyna; Wouters, Michel W J M; van der Hage, Jos A; van Akkooi, Alexander C J

    2017-08-01

    Although the EORTC 18071-trial has shown a clear survival benefit for adjuvant ipilimumab, accurately selecting patients for this toxic adjuvant therapy is important. We aimed to identify prognostic factors for death and disease recurrence in AJCC stage IIIC melanoma patients. Retrospective analysis of patients who underwent lymph node dissection (LND) for stage IIIC melanoma in our institution between 2000 and 2016. Baseline characteristics, melanoma-specific survival (MSS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed, and prognostic factors for recurrence and survival were analyzed using uni- and multivariable analysis. A total of 205 patients were included. Median follow-up was 20 months (interquartile range 11-43 months), median MSS was 28 months, and median DFS was 11 months. Five-year MSS was 33% and 5-year DFS was 23%. N3 (≥4 involved lymph nodes) and extracapsular extension (ECE) carried an increased risk of disease recurrence after LND and death by melanoma. Patients with both N3 and ECE had virtually no long-term survival. Although survival for patients with stage IIIC is poor in general, patients with both N3 disease and ECE constitute the group with the worst prognosis and should be considered for adjuvant therapy with ipilimumab or any other future effective adjuvant therapy (study). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Clinicopathological Features and Prognostic Factors of Colorectal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Mengjie; Tan, Yinuo; Li, Xiaofen; Fu, Jianfei; Hu, Hanguang; Ye, Xianyun; Cao, Ying; Xu, Jinghong

    2017-01-01

    Background. Limited research is available regarding colorectal NENs and the prognostic factors remain controversial. Materials and Methods. A total of 68 patients with colorectal NENs were studied retrospectively. Clinical characteristics and prognosis between colonic and rectal NENs were compared. The Cox regression models were used to evaluate the predictive capacity. Results. Of the 68 colorectal NENs patients, 43 (63.2%) had rectal NENs, and 25 (36.8%) had colonic NENs. Compared with rectal NENs, colonic NENs more frequently exhibited larger tumor size (P < 0.0001) and distant metastasis (P < 0.0001). Colonic NENs had a worse prognosis (P = 0.027), with 5-year overall survival rates of 66.7% versus 88.1%. NET, NEC, and MANEC were noted in 61.8%, 23.5%, and 14.7% of patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that tumor location was not an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.081), but tumor size (P = 0.037) and pathological classification (P = 0.012) were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion. Significant differences exist between colonic and rectal NENs. Multivariate analysis indicated that tumor size and pathological classification were associated with prognosis. Tumor location was not an independent factor. The worse outcome of colonic NENs observed in clinical practice might be due not only to the biological differences, but also to larger tumor size in colonic NENs caused by the delayed diagnosis. PMID:28194176

  15. Prognostic factors of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for tendinopathies.

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, A; Maccagnano, G; Tafuri, S; Fiore, A; Margiotta, C; Pesce, V; Moretti, B

    2016-04-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy is very widely used for the management of tendinopathies and plantar fasciitis. The aim of the study is to determine whether there are prognostic factors that may influence the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for these diseases. Three hundred fifty-five patients were analyzed 2 months after shock wave treatment for rotator cuff tendinitis, epicondylitis, Achilles tendinopathy, trocanteritis, jumper's knee or plantar fasciitis. We recorded the epidemiological, clinical and treatment protocol, and these data were correlated with treatment outcome. Clinical improvement was achieved in 45.9 % of these patients. We discovered that laterality different to the dominant limb (p < 0.0001) and repeated shock wave treatments (p = 0.004) are prognostic factors in an unsuccessful therapy, while being male (p = 0.015) and a high body mass index (p = 0.004) are factors for success. We found no differences in relation to age, diet, blood type, work or sport activity, presence of co-morbidities, drugs, type of tendinopathy, density of energy delivered and other physiotherapy treatment. Knowledge of these prognostic factors may lead to improved insight for physicians and physiotherapists to predict the extent of the recovery and adjust rehabilitation and patient expectations accordingly.

  16. Periodicity in the levels of serum plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is a robust prognostic factor for embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy in ongoing IVF cycles

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bindu N.; Nath, Nirmalendu; Chimote, Natachandra

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been inversely correlated to proteolytic extracellular-matrix degradation exerted by urokinase-type (u-PA) and tissue-type plasminogen activators (t-PA). Any pathological disturbance in PAI-1 levels may lead to several pregnancy complications. AIMS: To assess the influence of periodicity in serum PAI-1 levels on embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy outcome in IVF cycles SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective study of 120 IVF cycles at private infertility centre. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Endometrial response (ER) assessment by measuring Endometrial thickness (cm) and echopattern (grade). Serum PAI-1(ng/ml) measurement by ELISA method on day of hCG, day of ET and days 7 and 14 of ET. Main outcome measure was clinical pregnancy. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Student “t” test, ANOVA, Post-test for linear trend, Pearson Correlation. RESULTS: PAI-1 levels declined from dhCG to dET (318.8 ± 36.1 to 176.1 ± 28.4) whereas they increased steadily from dET to d7 to d14ET (176.1 ± 28.4 to 285.2 ± 30.4 to 353.5 ± 150.4; P = 0.0004) in pregnant group (n = 31). Conversely, dhCG to dET levels increased in both nonpregnant (n = 75; 173.8 ± 18.3 to 280.8 ± 26.1) and biochemical pregnancy BCP (n = 14; 172.7 ± 31.1 to 216 ± 30.1) groups. The rising pattern from dET to d7 to d14ET was not observed in non-pregnant and BCP groups. ER thickness and grade shared significant correlation with serum PAI-1 on dET (Pearson r: ER = 0.28, Grade = 0.29) and d7ET (Pearson r: ER = 0.40, Grade = 0.23). CONCLUSIONS: Periodicity in serum PAI-1 levels offers a robust prognostic factor for predicting clinical pregnancy outcome. The dhCG to dET PAI-1 transition is a decisive factor for either transferring embryos in same/ongoing cycle or cryopreserving them and postponing ET to subsequent natural cycle. PMID:25395746

  17. Clinical Features, Short-Term Mortality, and Prognostic Risk Factors of Septic Patients Admitted to Internal Medicine Units: Results of an Italian Multicenter Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, Antonino; Dentali, Francesco; La Regina, Micaela; Foglia, Emanuela; Gambacorta, Maurizia; Garagiola, Elisabetta; Bonardi, Giorgio; Clerici, Pierangelo; Concia, Ercole; Colombo, Fabrizio; Campanini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Only a few studies provided data on the clinical history of sepsis within internal Medicine units. The aim of the study was to assess the short-term mortality and to evaluate the prognostic risk factors in a large cohort of septic patients treated in internal medicine units. Thirty-one internal medicine units participated to the study. Within each participating unit, all admitted patients were screened for the presence of sepsis. A total of 533 patients were included; 78 patients (14.6%, 95%CI 11.9, 18.0%) died during hospitalization; mortality rate was 5.5% (95% CI 3.1, 9.6%) in patients with nonsevere sepsis and 20.1% (95%CI 16.2, 28.8%) in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Severe sepsis or septic shock (OR 4.41, 95%CI 1.93, 10.05), immune system weakening (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.12, 3.94), active solid cancer (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.16, 3.94), and age (OR 1.03 per year, 95% CI 1.01, 1.06) were significantly associated with an increased mortality risk, whereas blood culture positive for Escherichia coli was significantly associated with a reduced mortality risk (OR 0.46, 95%CI 0.24, 0.88). In-hospital mortality of septic patients treated in internal medicine units appeared similar to the mortality rate obtained in recent studies conducted in the ICU setting.

  18. Refining prognosis in lung cancer: A report on the quality and relevance of clinical prognostic tools

    PubMed Central

    Mahar, Alyson L.; Compton, Carolyn; McShane, Lisa M.; Halabi, Susan; Asamura, Hisao; Rami-Porta, Ramon; Groome, Patti A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Accurate, individualized prognostication for lung cancer patients requires the integration of standard patient and pathologic factors, biologic, genetic, and other molecular characteristics of the tumor. Clinical prognostic tools aim to aggregate information on an individual patient to predict disease outcomes such as overall survival, but little is known about their clinical utility and accuracy in lung cancer. Methods A systematic search of the scientific literature for clinical prognostic tools in lung cancer published Jan 1, 1996-Jan 27, 2015 was performed. In addition, web-based resources were searched. A priori criteria determined by the Molecular Modellers Working Group of the American Joint Committee on Cancer were used to investigate the quality and usefulness of tools. Criteria included clinical presentation, model development approaches, validation strategies, and performance metrics. Results Thirty-two prognostic tools were identified. Patients with metastases were the most frequently considered population in non-small cell lung cancer. All tools for small cell lung cancer covered that entire patient population. Included prognostic factors varied considerably across tools. Internal validity was not formally evaluated for most tools and only eleven were evaluated for external validity. Two key considerations were highlighted for tool development: identification of an explicit purpose related to a relevant clinical population and clear decision-points, and prioritized inclusion of established prognostic factors over emerging factors. Conclusions Prognostic tools will contribute more meaningfully to the practice of personalized medicine if better study design and analysis approaches are used in their development and validation. PMID:26313682

  19. Clinical prognostic factors and grading system for rib fracture following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with peripheral lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Ssan; Song, Si Yeol; Kwak, Jungwon; Ahn, Seung Do; Kim, Jong Hoon; Lee, Jung Shin; Kim, Woo Sung; Kim, Sang-We; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2013-02-01

    Several studies reported rib fractures following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for peripheral lung tumors. We tried to investigate risk factors and grading system for rib fractures after SBRT. Of 375 primary or metastatic lung tumors (296 patients) which were treated with SBRT at the Asan Medical Center (2006-2009), 126 lesions (118 patients) were adjacent to the chest-wall (<1cm) and followed-up with chest computed tomography (CT) for >6 months; these were investigated in the present retrospective study. Three to four fractional doses of 10-20 Gy were delivered to 85-90% iso-dose volume of the isocenter dose. Rib fracture grade was defined from follow-up CT scans as the appearance of a fracture line (Gr1), dislocation of the fractured rib by more than half the rib diameter (Gr2), or the appearance of adjacent soft tissue edema (Gr3). Chest wall pain was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v3.0. Correlations between dose-volume data and the development of rib fracture were then analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank tests, and chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The median age of the patients was 69 years (range: 19-90). Over a median follow-up period of 22 months (range: 7-62), 48 cases of rib fracture were confirmed. Median time to rib fracture was 17 months (range: 4-52). The 2-year actuarial risk of rib fracture was 42.4%. Maximal grade was Gr1 (n=28), Gr2 (n=8), or Gr3 (n=15). The incidence of moderate to severe chest wall pain (CTCAE Gr ≥ 2) increased with maximal fracture grade (17.5% for Gr0-1 and 60.9% for Gr2-3; p<0.001). Multivariate analysis identified female gender, lateral location, and the dose to the 8cc of the chest wall as significant prognostic factors. Female gender and lateral tumor location were clinical risk factors for rib fracture in the present study. Efforts to decrease chest wall dose should be made to reduce the risk of the rib fracture, particularly in

  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor and intratumoral microvessel density as prognostic factors in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Topolovec, Zlatko; Corusić, Ante; Babić, Damir; Mrcela, Milanka; Sijanović, Sinisa; Müller-Vranjes, Andrijana; Curzik, Darko

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the VEGF A expression in tumor cells and the intratumoral microvessel density and their prognostic significance in the survival of the subjects. 87 subjects were monitored retrospectively for a period of 60 to 132 months. The subjects were treated at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Osijek University Hospital Center, Croatia. We analysed standard clinical, pathohistological and therapeutical prognostic factors, intratumoral microvessel density and expression of VEGF A. Five-year survival was calculated by the life chart method and presented graphically by Kaplan-Meier curves. Reaching conclusions on statistical hypotheses in this paper was done with a reliability level p < 0.05. Of the analyzed clinical prognostic factors, those which proved to be statistically significant and independent prognostic factors were age and clinical stage of the disease, and of pathohistologic ones it was the depth of myometrial invasion and VEGF expression. An elevated VEGF expression is associated with deep myometrial invasion, poorly differentiated tumors, histologic type and intratumoral microvessel density to a statistically significant degree. Elevated VEGF expression, age, FIGO stage and depth of myometrial invasion play a significant prognostic role in patients with endometrial cancer. VEGF receptors could be a target for adjuvant therapy in VEGF positive endometrial cancer.

  1. Evaluation of clinical and biological prognostic factors in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients after previous treatment with rituximab and chemotherapy: results of the PRO-R-IPI study.

    PubMed

    Panizo, Carlos; Rodríguez, Anny Jaramillo; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Díaz, Francisco Javier; González-Barca, Eva; de Oña, Raquel; Grande, Carlos; Sancho, Juan Manuel; García-Álvarez, María Flor; Sánchez-González, Blanca; Peñalver, Francisco Javier; Cannata, Jimena; Espeso, Manuel; Requena, María José; Gardella, Santiago; Durán, Soledad; González, Ana Pilar; Alfonso, Ana; Caballero, María Dolores

    2015-07-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous entity, showing a highly variable outcome. In patients with DLBCL relapsed/refractory to first-line treatment with rituximab the usefulness of the revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI) as a prognostic tool remains unexplored. Some biological parameters (B-cell lymphoma 6 [Bcl-6], Bcl-2, p53, and multiple myeloma 1 [MUM1]) and blood populations (lymphocyte and monocyte counts) have been described as International Prognostic Index-independent prognostic factors. The objective was to evaluate the R-IPI to predict the outcome of DLBCL patients at the time of relapse after a front-line treatment with chemotherapy and rituximab and to establish in this population the relationship between biological parameters and outcome. We included patients with refractory/relapsed DLBCL after first-line treatment with rituximab-containing regimens; patients must have already finished a rescue treatment also including rituximab. Immunohistochemical assessment of Bcl-2, Bcl-6, p53, and MUM1 expression were undertaken in available biopsies. R-IPI factors were identified from the clinical data at diagnosis and at relapse. Response was assessed using National Cancer Institute-sponsored Working Group guidelines. R-IPI prognosis at relapse was not significantly associated with overall response rate (ORR) after Rituximab-chemotherapy rescue therapy. None of the immunohistochemical parameters analyzed correlated with rescue therapy results. In contrast, patients with absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ≥ 1 × 10(9)/L at relapse were more likely to respond than patients with ALC < 1 × 10(9)/L (P = .05). The R-IPI score calculated at relapse could not predict the ORR to second-line treatment. Lymphopenia is a simple and useful predictor for outcome in relapsed/refractory DLBCL and the only prognostic factor that in our hands could predict the overall response to a second-line treatment with rituximab and chemotherapy. Copyright

  2. Prognostic factors in soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Maretty-Nielsen, Katja

    2014-11-01

    Despite major advances in the knowledge of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) during the last decades, no significant improvement in survival has been observed. Detailed data on the prognosis of STS are crucial in order to identify patients who might benefit from more aggressive treatment. Such data can be obtained from properly designed databases; however, the validation of data is crucial in order to obtain valid, reliable results. Furthermore, the majority of prognostic studies in STS have been limited by potential selection bias, low power, and biased estimates due to the statistical methods used, e.g., dichotomizing continuous variables, censoring competing events, as well as not adjusting for important confounders. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the prognosis of STS patients using data from the Aarhus Sarcoma Registry (ASR), covering western Denmark in the period from 1979 to 2008. In study I, we systematically validated data in the ASR and evaluated the validity, including completeness of patient registration and accuracy of data. In study II, we investigated the prognostic impact of patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors on local recurrence and disease-specific mortality. These were analyzed in a competing risk model in which continuous variables were included as cubic splines and possible confounders were selected based on directed acyclic graphs. In study III, we examined the impact of comorbidity on overall and disease-specific mortality. In study IV, we compared mortality in patients with abnormal biomarkers to those with normal values, assessed the significance of adjusting for comorbidity, as well as constructed a prognostic biomarker score. In study V, we described the relative mortality, i.e., the mortality in STS patients compared with the mortality in a general population, and compared relative and disease-specific estimates. The mortality in the general population was determined using an individually age- and sex

  3. Exo70 is an independent prognostic factor in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Zheng, Kaifeng; Lv, Xia; Hou, Jihuan; Xu, Liang; Zhao, Yujie; Song, Fei; Fan, Yaqiong; Cao, Hanwei; Zhang, Wenqing; Hong, Xiaoting; Zhan, Yan-Yan; Hu, Tianhui

    2017-07-11

    Exo70, a key component of the Exocyst complex, plays important roles in human cancer progression beyond exocytosis. However, the expression of Exo70 and its prognostic value for patients with colon cancer has not been well investigated to date. In this study, we observed that the mRNA and protein levels of Exo70 were upregulated in 11 of 13 colon cancer tissues, compared with their normal counterparts, which was validated by immunohistochemical analysis in a tissue microarray containing 89 pairs of colon cancer tissues and the matched adjacent normal tissues. Statistical analysis revealed that Exo70 expression is positively correlated with tumor size, invasion depth, TNM stage and distant metastasis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that colon cancer patients with higher Exo70 expression have a poorer clinical outcome than those with lower Exo70 expression. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that Exo70, age and distant metastasis were there independent prognostic factors for overall survival rate of colon cancer patients. Through gain- and loss of Exo70 in colon cancer cells, we found that Exo70 could enhance the migration ability of colon cancer cells. Taken together, our studies revealed that Exo70 might be a promising negative prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  4. The value of prognostic clinical data in Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Kasse, Cristiane A; Cruz, Oswaldo Laércio M; Leonhardt, Fernando D; Testa, José Ricardo G; Ferri, Ricardo G; Viertler, Erika Y

    2005-01-01

    Electroneurography (ENoG) and clinical staging are currently the methods of choice to indicate prognosis in Bell's palsy, although ENoG is an electrophysiological test not universally available. Identify other options of prognostic evaluation based upon clinical aspects and minimal electrical stimulation test allowing prognostic measurement in almost any circumstances. Historic cohort. Chart review of 1,521 cases of IPFP, analyzing the following clinical aspects: gender, age, paralyzed side, installation mode, previous symptoms, associated symptoms and minimal electrical stimulation test (Hilger test) and its statistical correlation to facial palsy evolution after 6 months. Data indicated that patients above 60 years old had worse prognosis in comparison with patients under 30 years old. A progressive mode of paralysis installation, absence of previous symptoms, concomitant vertigo and response superior to 3.5 mA at minimum electrical stimulation test were also related to worse prognosis. On the other hand, the absence of concomitant symptoms, diminished tearing and sudden onset were related to better prognosis. Clinical factors and Hilger's test can accurately indicate the prognosis in cases of Bell's palsy when ENoG is not available.

  5. Clinical and prognostic significance of hyperfibrinogenemia in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    D'Erasmo, E; Pisani, D; Romagnoli, S; Ragno, A; Acca, M

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the clinical and prognostic significance of early hyperfibrinogenemia in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and ischemic cerebral infarction (ICI), we analyzed the relationships between plasma fibrinogen, brain damage severity, clinical status on admission and intra-hospital mortality. Vascular damage severity was estimated by measuring the necrotic area by computed axial tomography (CT) and indirectly by means of changes in some plasma enzymes (CK, LDH, GPT/ALT, and GOT/AST). Plasma fibrinogen levels were statistically higher in ICI than in TIA and control subjects (p < 0.0005; analysis of variance). Moreover, plasma fibrinogen was directly related to the extension of the necrotic area at CT scan (p < 0.05) and in ICI patients was positively correlated with CK (r = 0.50, p < 0.01), LDH (r = 0.41, p < 0.05) and GOT/AST (r = 0.42, p < 0.05) serum levels, but not with GPT/ALT. A higher plasma fibrinogen value was observed in patients with stupor or coma compared with those with alert consciousness (p < 0.05). In patients who died during hospitalization, fibrinogen levels were higher than those of subjects who were discharged (p < 0.005). The results indicate that in the early phase of cerebral ischemia, plasma fibrinogen levels are related to the severity of the clinical status and to the extension of the brain vascular damage, thus representing a negative clinical and prognostic factor of the disease.

  6. Prognostic factors of sciatica in the Canon of Avicenna.

    PubMed

    Minaee, Bagher; Abbassian, Alireza; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Rostamian, Abdorrahman

    2013-12-01

    Prognosis studies are fast developing and very practical types of medical research. Sciatica is one of the common types of low back pain and identifying prognostic factors of the illness can help physicians and patients to choose best method of practice. The prognostic factors of sciatica are presented from the Canon of Avicenna, one of the most famous physicians in the history of medicine.

  7. Efficacy and safety of nedaplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy for FIGO Stage IB2–IVA cervical cancer and its clinical prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Masateru; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Mabuchi, Seiji; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Seo, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Sumida, Iori; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Tadashi; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is a standard treatment for cervical cancer, but nedaplatin-based CCRT is not routinely administered. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nedaplatin-based CCRT (35 mg/m2 weekly) and analyzed prognostic factors for survival among 52 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage IB2–IVA cervical cancer treated from 1999 to 2009. Patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy of 40–56 Gy (in 20–28 fractions) and 13.6–28.8 Gy (in 2–4 fractions) of high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy or 18 Gy (in 3 fractions) of HDR interstitial brachytherapy. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. The Cox proportional hazard model was used for multivariate analysis. Acute and late toxicities were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. The median follow-up period was 52 months. The median patient age was 63 years. The 5-year OS, PFS and LC rates were 78%, 57% and 73%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that histologic type, maximum tumor diameter, and pretreatment hemoglobin level were independent risk factors for PFS. Regarding adverse effects, 24 patients (46%) had acute Grade 3–4 leukopenia and 5 (10%) had late Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicities. No patient experienced renal toxicity. Nedaplatin-based CCRT for FIGO Stage IB2–IVA cervical cancer was efficacious and safe, with no renal toxicity. Histologic type, maximum tumor diameter, and pretreatment hemoglobin level were statistically significant prognostic factors for PFS. PMID:25428244

  8. [Prognostic factors of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children].

    PubMed

    Li, Fengjiao; Xue, Xijun; Wang, Li; Yang, Fengbo; Wang, Hongyang; Guan, Jing; Du, Wan; Xiong, Wenping; Wu, Kaiwen; Wu, Mukun; Yin, Zifang; Lan, Lan; Wang, Dayong; Wang, Qiuju

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the recovery rate of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children, and explore the prognostic factors in order to guide the clinical diagnosis and treatment. A retrospective review was conducted for the prognosis of children with sudden sensorineural hearing loss during the past 5 years (from November 2010 to May 2015) in Chinese PLA General Hospital. This paper have a complete clinical data of 101 patients (113 ears)with sudden hearing loss, ranging from 0 to 18 years old Patients were divided into four groups according to hearing recovery and eight putative prognostic factors were analyzed. Among 101 patients (113 ears), the ratio of male and female was 60:53. Treatment was initiated from 1 to 183 days after disease onset, with an average of (18.5 ± 22.1) d. Bilateral and unilateral hearing loss were 24 ears and 89 ears, respectively. The proportion of mild hearing loss, moderate hearing loss, severe hearing loss and profound hearing loss were 7.1%, 6.2%, 23.9% and 62.8%, respectively. Vertigo and tinnitus occurred in 54.9% and 77.9% of the patients, respectively. After the treatment, the complete recovery rate was 9.7% and the overall recovery rate was 36.3%. The degree of hearing loss, earlier treatment onset, sex and bilateral involvement were significantly associated with hearing recovery (P < 0.05). Sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children was generally identified as severe and profound hearing loss, but after positive and timely treatment, it can be improved or even cured. The mild hearing loss, earlier treatment onset, unilateral hearing loss and female were positive prognostic factors. The concurrence of tinnitus or vertigo, the results of ABR and DPOAE had no significant influence on prognosis.

  9. Mortality prognostic factors in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Popa, CC; Badiu, DC; Rusu, OC; Grigorean, VT; Neagu, SI; Strugaru, CR

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to present the biological prognostic factors of mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods: Several usual laboratory values were monitored: glucose, urea, partial pressure of oxygen, WBC count, hemoglobin, total bilirubin, and cholesterol. A statistical analysis was performed by using ROC curves and AUC interpretation. Results: The overall mortality rate was 21.1% and was different depending on the severity of the disease. Only 2.22% of the patients with a mild disease died, as opposed to 45.63% of the patients with a severe form. All the analyses studied were significantly elevated in the deceased patients. A close correlation between blood glucose, urea, partial pressure of oxygen, WBC, hemoglobin, total bilirubin, and cholesterol and mortality was objectified by measuring the AUC, which was of 97.1%, 95.5%, 93.4%, 92.7%, 87.4%, 82.2%, and 79.0%. Conclusions: The usual, easy to use, fast, and cheap tests were useful in predicting mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis. Our study confirmed that the combination of several factors led to an accurate mortality prediction. PMID:27928447

  10. Prognostic factors and course for successful clinical outcome quality of life and patients' perceived effect after a cognitive behavior therapy for chronic non-specific low back pain: A 12-months prospective study.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, Karin; Luijsterburg, Pim A J; Heymans, Martijn W; Ronchetti, Inge; Miedema, Harald S; Koes, Bart W; Pool-Goudzwaard, Annelies

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the clinical course of and prognostic factors for quality of life (Short Form 36 items Health survey (SF-36)) and global perceived effect (GPE) in patients treated for chronic non-specific low back pain at 5 and 12-months follow-up. Data from a prospective cohort (n = 1760) of a rehabilitation center were used, where patients followed a 2-months cognitive behavior treatment. The outcome 'improvement in quality of life (SF-36)' was defined as a 10% increase in score on the SF-36 at follow-up compared with baseline. On the GPE scale, patients who indicated to be 'much improved' were coded as 'clinically improved'. Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 23 baseline characteristics. At 5-months follow-up, scores on the SF-36 Mental Component Scale (SF-36; MCS) and the Physical Component Scale (SF-36; PCS) had increased from 46.6 (SD 10.3) to 50.4 (SD 9.8) and from 31.9 (SD 7.1) to 46.6 (SD 10.3), respectively. At 5-months follow-up, 53.0% of the patients reported clinical improvement (GPE) which increased to 60.3% at 12-months follow-up. The 10% improvement in quality of life (SF-36 MCS) at 5-months follow-up was associated with patient characteristics and psychological factors. At 5-months follow-up, the 10% improvement in quality of life (SF-36 PCS) and GPE was associated with patient characteristics, physical examination, work-related factors and psychological factors; for GPE, an association was also found with clinical status. At 12-months follow-up GPE was associated with patient characteristics, clinical status, physical examination and work-related factors. The next phase in this prognostic research is external validation of these results.

  11. Prognostic factors of severe infectious purpura in children.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, F; Beuscart, R; Guillois, B; Diependaele, J F; Krim, G; Devictor, D; Bompard, Y; van Albada, T

    1985-01-01

    The French Club of Pediatric Intensive Care has prospectively studied 90 cases of infectious purpura which were hospitalized in 1981; the purpose of this study was to determine prognostic factors. The statistical study (X2 test) of all these cases is in agreement with data in the literature and shows that the mortality is significantly higher when there is: shock (p less than 0.001), coma (p less than 0.05), ecchymotic or necrotic purpura (p less than 0.01), temperature less than 36 degrees C (p less than 0.05), no clinical meningism (p less than 0.001), white cell count less than 10,000/mm3 (p less than 0.05), thrombocytopenia less than 100,000 (p less than 0.01), fibrinogen less than 1.5 g/l (p less than 0.001), kalemia greater than 5 mEq/l (p less than 0.01), spinal fluid cell count less than 20/mm3 (p less than 0.01). Because shock is one of the main prognostic factors (23 deaths in 55 shocked patients, versus 2 in 35 non-shocked) we have performed another statistical study (with the Benzecri method) to determine a prognostic index for patients in shock. For its determination, five initial parameters are used: age, kalemia, white cell count, clinical meningism, platelet count. The predictive value for survival is 91%. The predictive value for death is 87%. The score was applied on the patients hospitalized in shock in 1982: the predictive value for survival is 75%, the predictive value for death is 61%.

  12. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS AND SURVIVAL ANALYSIS IN ESOPHAGEAL CARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    TUSTUMI, Francisco; KIMURA, Cintia Mayumi Sakurai; TAKEDA, Flavio Roberto; UEMA, Rodrigo Hideki; SALUM, Rubens Antônio Aissar; RIBEIRO-JUNIOR, Ulysses; CECCONELLO, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment, esophageal cancer still has high mortality. Prognostic factors associated with patient and with disease itself are multiple and poorly explored. Aim: Assess prognostic variables in esophageal cancer patients. Methods: Retrospective review of all patients with esophageal cancer in an oncology referral center. They were divided according to histological diagnosis (444 squamous cell carcinoma patients and 105 adenocarcinoma), and their demographic, pathological and clinical characteristics were analyzed and compared to clinical stage and overall survival. Results: No difference was noted between squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma overall survival curves. Squamous cell carcinoma presented 22.8% survival after five years against 20.2% for adenocarcinoma. When considering only patients treated with curative intent resection, after five years squamous cell carcinoma survival rate was 56.6 and adenocarcinoma, 58%. In patients with squamous cell carcinoma, poor differentiation histology and tumor size were associated with worse oncology stage, but this was not evidenced in adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: Weight loss (kg), BMI variation (kg/m²) and percentage of weight loss are factors that predict worse stage at diagnosis in the squamous cell carcinoma. In adenocarcinoma, these findings were not statistically significant. PMID:27759773

  13. Prognostic factors in cancer of unknown primary site.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Cotarelo, Maria Jose; Guerra-Vales, Juan Manuel; Colina, Francisco; de la Cruz, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Patients with cancer of an unknown primary site (CUP) usually have a poor outcome. The identification of prognostic factors that affect survival can help clinicians find a better approach to such cases in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic management. We conducted a retrospective study including the cases of CUP recorded at the University Hospital 12 de Octubre Tumor Registry between 1999 and 2003. CUP was diagnosed in 265 patients during the analyzed period. One hundred and seventy-one were men (64.5%) and the mean age of the patients was 66.9 years (range 32-98 years). The median survival was 2.5 months, and the survival rate was 35.1% 6 months from diagnosis (95% CI: 28.9-41.3) and 24.5% 1 year from diagnosis (95% CI: 18.7-30.3). Univariate analysis revealed as significant predictive variables of a better outcome age under 70 years; involvement of a single organ; normal serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and albumin; normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate; normal levels of the serum tumor markers CEA, CA 19.9 and CA 15.3; squamous carcinoma histology; clinical presentation as lymph node enlargement; and the administration of treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that albumin and alkaline phosphatase levels, squamous carcinoma histology, age and treatment were the most important prognostic factors. Other variables analyzed (liver, bone or lung involvement, lactate dehydrogenase levels, gender) did not affect survival. CUP has a poor prognosis. Some prognostic factors that affect survival in these patients, however, may be identified.

  14. Prognostic factors and survival in patients with gastric stump cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hua; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhong; Jin, Jie-Jie; Long, Zi-Wen; Cai, Hong; Liu, Xiao-Wen; Zhou, Ye; Wang, Ya-Nong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors of gastric stump cancer (GSC). METHODS: The clinical data for 92 patients with GSC were collected at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. The prognostic factors were analyzed with Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: GSC tended to occur within 25 years following the primary surgery, when the initial disease is benign, whereas it primarily occurred within the first 15 years post-operation for gastric cancer. Patients with regular follow-up after primary surgery had a better survival rate. The multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that Borrmann type I/II (HR = 3.165, 95%CI: 1.055-9.500, P = 0.040) and radical resection (HR = 1.780, 95%CI: 1.061-2.987, P = 0.029) were independent prognostic factors for GSC. The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of the 92 patients were 78.3%, 45.6% and 27.6%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of those undergoing radical resection were 79.3%, 52.2%, and 37.8%, respectively. The 5-year survival rates for stages I, II, III, and IV were 85.7%, 47.4%, 16.0%, and 13.3%, respectively (P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: The appearance of GSC occurs sooner in patients with primary malignant cancer than in patients with a primary benign disease. Therefore, close follow-up is necessary. The overall survival of patients with GSC is poor, and curative resection can improve their prognosis. PMID:25684953

  15. Prognostic factors on periapical surgery: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Giménez, Mireia; Sánchez-Torres, Alba

    2015-01-01

    Background Analyze the most important prognostic factors when performing periapical surgery and compare the success rates of distinct authors. Introduction Periapical surgery is an approach to treat non-healing periapical lesions and it should be viewed as an extension of endodontic treatment and not as a separate entity. Material and Methods A search of articles published in Cochrane, PubMed (MEDLINE) and Scopus was conducted with the key words “prognostic factors”, “prognosis”, “periapical surgery”, “endodontic surgery” and “surgical endodontic treatment”. The inclusion criteria were articles including at least 10 patients, published in English, for the last 10 years. The exclusion criteria were nonhuman studies and case reports. Results 33 articles were selected from 321 initially found. Ten articles from 33 were excluded and finally the systematic review included 23 articles: 1 metaanalysis, 1 systematic review, 2 randomized clinical trials, 6 reviews, 12 prospective studies and 1 retrospective study. They were stratified according to their level of scientific evidence using the SORT criteria. Conclusions Factors associated with a better outcome of periapical surgery are patients ≤45 years old, upper anterior or premolar teeth, ≤10 sized lesions, non cystic lesions, absence of preoperative signs and symptoms, lesions without periodontal involvement, teeth with an adequate root-filling length, MTA as root-end filling material, uniradicular teeth, absence of perforating lesions, apical resection < 3 mm, teeth not associated to an oroantral fistula and teeth with only one periapical surgery. Key words:Prognostic factors, prognosis, periapical surgery, endodontic surgery and surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:26449431

  16. Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Kai; Vachtsevanos, George; Orchard, Marcos E.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge discovery, statistical learning, and more specifically an understanding of the system evolution in time when it undergoes undesirable fault conditions, are critical for an adequate implementation of successful prognostic systems. Prognosis may be understood as the generation of long-term predictions describing the evolution in time of a particular signal of interest or fault indicator, with the purpose of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a failing component/subsystem. Predictions are made using a thorough understanding of the underlying processes and factor in the anticipated future usage.

  17. [Prognostic factors of pregnancy in intrauterine insemination].

    PubMed

    Barros Delgadillo, Juan Carlos; Rojas Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Molina Munguía, Ana Cecilia; Villalobos Acosta, Sergio; Sánchez Solís, Víctor; Barroso Villa, Gerardo; Gaviño Gaviño, Fernando

    2006-12-01

    The artificial insemination is the introduction of spermatozoa in the feminine genital tract without carrying out sexual contact and with the purpose of obtaining the pregnancy. The insemination intrauterine has improved its rate of success thanks to the technological advances and the best knowledge of human reproductive physiology. To evaluate the prognostic factors for the pregnancy success and calculate the cumulative rate per cycle in IUI (intrauterine insemination). This study was descriptive, retrospective, analytic, and longitudinal. The cycles of IUI were analyzed from January 1st 2003 to December 31st 2005. Couples 24-41 years old with primary and secondary infertility were included. The following variables were studied: age of participant, type of infertility, length of infertility, aetiology, postcapacitation sperm density and motility, number of follicles, endometrial thickness, and the cycle number in which the IUI was performed. Patients carried out a protocol of ovarian stimulation and follicular follow up. The results were analyzed with 11.0 SPSS, continuous variables were analyzed and reported as means +/- SD with univariate logistic regression to determine statistic significance. Categoric variables were reported in frequencies and percentages. ROC curves were calculated to determine optimal cutting points. 668 cycles were analyzed in 391 couples. The pregnancy rate per cycle and couple was of 13.0 and 21.7% respectively. Means +/- SD patient age was 33.5 +/- 3.4 years old. The three variables with p < 0.05 were: the infertility duration, sperm motility and the cycle number in which IUI was performed. No statistical significance was found in the remaining variables. The greatest success in IUI will be achieved with infertility of 4 years or less, with sperm motility of 77.6% and in the first two cycles of treatment.

  18. mRNA expression levels of the biological factors uPAR, uPAR-del4/5, and rab31, displaying prognostic value in breast cancer, are not clinically relevant in advanced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kotzsch, Matthias; Dorn, Julia; Doetzer, Kristina; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Krol, Janna; Baretton, Gustavo; Kiechle, Marion; Schmitt, Manfred; Magdolen, Viktor

    2011-11-01

    High tumor tissue mRNA expression of the tumor biological factors uPAR, uPAR-del4/5, or rab31 is associated with shorter distant metastasis-free and overall survival in breast cancer patients. To evaluate whether these factors are also clinically relevant in ovarian cancer, we quantified the respective mRNA levels in primary tumor tissue of advanced ovarian cancer patients (n=103) and evaluated their association with clinicopathological parameters and patients' prognosis. mRNA expression levels of all three markers did not show any significant association with overall or progression-free survival, demonstrating that these factors have no prognostic value in advanced ovarian cancer.

  19. Retrospective study of prognostic factors in pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chun-Chih; Chang, Hung-Yang; Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning; Chang, Lung; Lei, Wei-Te

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the leading causative pathogen in pediatric pneumonia and bacteremia throughout the world. The invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is known as isolation of S. pneumoniae from a normally sterile site (e.g., blood, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pericardial fluid, pleural fluid, or peritoneal fluid). The aim of this study is to survey the clinical manifestations and laboratory results of IPD and identify the prognostic factors of mortality. From January 2001 to December 2006, a retrospective review of chart was performed in a teaching hospital in Taipei. The hospitalized pediatric patients with the diagnosis of pneumonia, arthritis, infectious endocarditis, meningitis or sepsis were recruited. Among them, 50 patients were pneumococcal infections proved by positive culture results or antigen tests. Clinical manifestations, laboratory data and hospitalization courses were analyzed. The median age was 3.5-year-old and there were 30 male patients (60%). Eight patients (16%) had underlying disease such as leukemia or congenital heart disease. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) was observed in ten patients and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was performed in three patients. Leukocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein and AST level were noted in most of the patients. The overall mortality rate was 10%. We found that leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and high CRP level were significant predictors for mortality. In conclusion, S. pneumoniae remains an important health threat worldwide and IPD is life-threatening with high mortality rate. We found leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and high CRP levels to be associated with mortality in pediatric IPD, and these factors are worthy of special attention at admission. Although we failed to identify a statistically significant prognostic factor in multivariate analysis due to relatively small sample size, we suggest an aggressive antibiotic treatment in patients with these factors at admission

  20. Prognostic aspects, survival rate, and predisposing risk factors in patients with Fournier's gangrene and necrotizing soft tissue infections: evaluation of clinical outcome of 55 patients.

    PubMed

    Martinschek, A; Evers, B; Lampl, L; Gerngroß, H; Schmidt, R; Sparwasser, C

    2012-01-01

    To determine predisposing or prognostic factors and mortality rates of patients with Fournier's gangrene compared to other necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI). Data of 55 intensive care patients (1981-2010) with NSTI were evaluated. Data were collected prospectively. 43.4% of the patients were in septic condition and 27.3% were hemodynamically unstable. Half of the patients showed predisposing factors (52.7%). The lower extremity (63.2%), abdomen (30.9%), and perineum (14.5%) were most affected. Polymicrobial infections were frequent (65.5%, mean 2.8, range: 1-4). The mortality rate was 16.4% (n = 9). An increase was shown for diabetes mellitus (20%), cardiac insufficiency (22.3%), septic condition at presentation (33.3%), abdominal affection (47.1%), and hemodynamic instability (46.7%). Comparing survivors and nonsurvivors, statistical significance was seen with age (p < 0.001), septic condition at admission (p < 0.001), hemodynamic instability (p < 0.001), low blood pressure (p < 0.001), and abdominal affection (p < 0.001). In laboratory findings, an increase of creatine kinase (p < 0.001) and lactate (p < 0.001) and a decrease of antithrombin III (p < 0.007) and the Quick value (p < 0.01) proved to be significant. Patients with Fournier's gangrene do not differ in all aspects from those with other NSTI. Successful treatment consists of immediate surgical debridement, broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, and critical care management. Supportive hyperbaric oxygen therapy should be considered. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Evaluation of prognostic factors and establishment of a prognostic scoring system for canine primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Fujino, Yasuhito; Setoguchi, Asuka; Takahashi, Masashi; Nakashima, Ko; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2010-04-01

    Clinical courses of primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (pIMHA) in dogs are highly variable, however, limited information is available to predict their accurate prognoses. To evaluate the prognostic significance of clinical factors and to propose a scoring system to predict prognoses, the medical records of seventy-one dogs with pIMHA were reviewed. Overall mortality rate of dogs with pIMHA was 39% and most of the dogs died within 3 months from diagnosis. Sex, body weight, seasonality, packed corpuscular volume (PCV), platelet count (PLT), total plasma protein (TP), blood urea nitrogen, albumin, total bilirubin, sodium ion, prothrombin time, and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products before immunosuppressive treatment can influence on survival time in dogs with pIMHA. A prognostic scoring system using a combination of sex, seasonality, PCV, PLT and TP can be statistically significant for raising the accuracy of prognostic prediction. Using the scoring system for prognostication in dogs with pIMHA may enable veterinarians to predict a prognosis easily and accurately.

  2. [Analyses prognostic factors relevant to sudden sensorineural hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Xiao, Shuifang; Zeng, Zhengang; Zhen, Zhen; Zhang, Xuexi; Lin, Feng; Dong, Mingmin; Lu, Wei; Qin, Zhaobing; Zuo, Bin; Bai, Xianfeng

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the prognostic factors relevant to sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The internationally accepted standardized clinical research methods, unified design, and unified program were adopted to conduct the prospective clinical multi-center study. The sudden deafness patients between 18 to 65 years old, with the course of this disorder less than two weeks, and without any medical treatments were collected, and then, divided into four types according to the hearing curve: type A, acute sensorineural hearing loss in low tone frequencies; type B, acute sensorineural hearing loss in high tone frequencies; type C, acute sensorineural hearing loss in all frequencies; and type D, total deafness. The factors, in terms of age, gender, type of initial audiogram, time delay before the first visit, and severity of hearing loss, were included in the analyses. A total of 1 024 cases with single side sudden deafness were collected in the study from 33 hospitals in China from August 2007 to October 2011, inclusive of for 492 males (48.05%) and 532 females (51.95%). The average age was (41.2 ± 12.8) years old. There were 553 cases (54.00%) in left ear, and 471 cases (46.00%) in right ear. The curative effects of different types were shown as follows: the type in low tone frequencies had the highest rate of 90.73%, the type in all frequencies was 82.59%; the type of total deafness was 70.29%; and the type in high tone frequencies had the lowest rate of 65.96%. It had significant difference of the effective rate between different types (χ(2) = 231.58, P = 0.000). Age, time delay before first visit, and severity of initial hearing loss were significantly correlated with hearing improvement. Initial audiogram of SSNHL might predict hearing recovery. The young in age and a short time delay before starting treatment are positive prognostic factors for hearing recovery in SSNHL. The initial severity of hearing loss is negative prognostic factor of hearing recovery.

  3. Clinical epidemiology, treatment and prognostic factors of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Tsioutis, Constantinos; Kritsotakis, Evangelos I; Karageorgos, Spyridon A; Stratakou, Soultana; Psarologakis, Charalambos; Kokkini, Sofia; Gikas, Achilleas

    2016-11-01

    Limited data exist regarding prognostic factors and optimal antimicrobial treatment of infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB). This retrospective cohort study included 93 adult patients who developed ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to XDR-AB in the ICU of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Greece, from October 2012 to April 2015. XDR-AB isolates were mainly susceptible to colistin (93.5%) and tigecycline (25.8%), whereas 6 (6.5%) were pandrug-resistant. Prior to infection, patients had long durations of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay and multiple exposures to antibiotics. Median Charlson co-morbidity and APACHE II scores were 2 and 17, respectively. Mortality at 28 days of infection onset was high (34.4%) despite high rates of in-vitro-active empirical (81.7%) and definitive (90.3%) treatment. Active colistin-based combination therapy (n = 55) and monotherapy (n = 29) groups had similar 28-day mortality (27.6% vs. 30.9%, respectively) and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates over time. In multivariable Cox regression, advanced age (aHR = 1.05 per year increase, 95% CI 1.02-1.09), rapidly fatal underlying disease (aHR = 2.64, 95% CI 0.98-9.17) and APACHE II score (aHR = 1.06 per unit increase, 95% CI 0.99-1.14) were identified as independent predictors of 28-day mortality, but no difference in mortality hazards between the active colistin-based combination therapy and monotherapy groups was produced (aHR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.35-2.38). These results support the use of colistin as a first-line agent against VAP in settings where XDR-AB is endemic, but oppose the introduction of colistin-based combination therapy as standard treatment.

  4. Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Progression: Prognostic Factors and Basic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sirica, Alphonse E.; Dumur, Catherine I.; Campbell, Deanna J. W.; Almenara, Jorge A.; Ogunwobi, Olorunseun O.; Dewitt, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we will examine various molecular biomarkers for their potential to serve as independent prognostic factors for predicting survival outcome in postoperative patients with progressive intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Specific rodent models of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma that mimic relevant cellular, molecular, and clinical features of the human disease are also described, not only in terms of their usefulness in identifying molecular pathways and mechanisms linked to cholangiocarcinoma development and progression, but also for their potential value as preclinical platforms for suggesting and testing novel molecular strategies for cholangiocarcinoma therapy. Last, recent studies aimed at addressing the role of desmoplastic stroma in promoting intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma progression are highlighted in an effort to underline the potential value of targeting tumor stromal components together with that of cholangiocarcinoma cells as a novel therapeutic option for this devastating cancer. PMID:19896103

  5. Prognostic factors in young Japanese women with breast cancer: prognostic value of age at diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Miwa; Shimizu, Chikako; Fukutomi, Takashi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Akashi-Tanaka, Sadako; Ando, Masashi; Hojo, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2011-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to verify whether breast cancer patients aged <35 at diagnosis have poorer prognoses than those aged 35-39, in other words, to identify the prognostic value of age in younger premenopausal patients under 40 years old. The secondary objective was to assess prognostic factors specific for younger premenopausal patients. We identified 242 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer before the age of 40 and underwent surgery between 1990 and 2004. We compared disease-free survival and overall survival in patients aged <35 years and those aged 35-39 years, and evaluated clinicopathological factors associated with disease-free survival or overall survival in each age group and in all patients under the age of 40. Ninety-nine (41%) patients were younger than 35 years and 143 (59%) were between 35 and 39 years. No significant difference in disease-free survival or overall survival was found between the two groups. In our cohort of patients under the age of 40, the independent factors associated with poor disease-free survival and overall survival included positive axillary lymph nodes and triple-negative status, but not age at diagnosis. Adverse prognostic factors also did not differ considerably between the two age groups. Age at diagnosis was not an independent prognostic factor in our study. Our findings suggest that other clinicopathological features rather than age should be used to determine individualized treatment courses for breast cancer patients younger than 40 years.

  6. Fear of knowledge: Clinical hypotheses in diagnostic and prognostic reasoning.

    PubMed

    Chiffi, Daniele; Zanotti, Renzo

    2017-10-01

    Patients are interested in receiving accurate diagnostic and prognostic information. Models and reasoning about diagnoses have been extensively investigated from a foundational perspective; however, for all its importance, prognosis has yet to receive a comparable degree of philosophical and methodological attention, and this may be due to the difficulties inherent in accurate prognostics. In the light of these considerations, we discuss a considerable body of critical thinking on the topic of prognostication and its strict relations with diagnostic reasoning, pointing out the distinction between nosographic and pathophysiological types of diagnosis and prognosis, underlying the importance of the explication and explanation processes. We then distinguish between various forms of hypothetical reasoning applied to reach diagnostic and prognostic judgments, comparing them with specific forms of abductive reasoning. The main thesis is that creative abduction regarding clinical hypotheses in diagnostic process is very unlikely to occur, whereas this seems to be often the case for prognostic judgments. The reasons behind this distinction are due to the different types of uncertainty involved in diagnostic and prognostic judgments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Prognostic factors relating to the outcome of endodontic microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Lui, Jeen-Nee; Khin, Ma-Ma; Krishnaswamy, Gita; Chen, Nah-Nah

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the outcome of endodontic microsurgery and to examine prognostic factors related to healing. The clinical records of all patients who had undergone endodontic microsurgery from 1997-2003 at the National Dental Centre of Singapore were examined. Teeth with a recall period of 1-2 years were selected. All surgical procedures, except for flap raising and suturing, were performed under a surgical operating microscope. Root-end cavities prepared with ultrasonic tips were filled with Intermediate Restorative Material (Caulk, Milford, DE) or mineral trioxide aggregate. Teeth were evaluated for clinical signs and symptoms after surgery. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs were evaluated independently by 2 endodontists. Of 243 root-end surgeries performed, 93 were eligible for the study. Outcomes were categorized as healed, healing, or persistent disease; 78.5% of teeth were assessed to be healed or healing, and 21.5% had persistent disease. The percentages of healed and healing teeth for anterior and posterior root-end surgeries were 76.5% and 80.4%, respectively, with no significant difference in the procedures (P = .8). Ordinal logistic regression showed a higher likelihood of healing in females compared with males (P = .001) and maxillary anterior teeth compared with mandibular anterior teeth (P = .03). Preoperative probing depths of ≤3 mm were significantly associated with healing (P = .05). The use of modern endodontic surgical techniques resulted in 78.5% healed and healing teeth with a recall period of 1-2 years. Prognostic factors affecting successful healing include sex, tooth type, and preoperative probing depths. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prognostic factors for recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prognostic study.

    PubMed

    Fermont, Anouk J; Wolterbeek, Nienke; Wessel, Ronald N; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; de Bie, Rob A

    2015-08-01

    Studies concerning prognostic factors of recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair mostly focus on tendon integrity or functional recovery as an outcome. Little is known about how they influence quality of life after surgery. We therefore tried to identify prognostic factors having an impact on quality of life after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. This study included 30 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. We assessed Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index as primary outcome and RAND-36, Constant-Murley score, and a shoulder hindrance score as secondary outcomes. Patients were repeatedly measured: once preoperatively and 4 times postoperatively. Preoperative range of motion, obesity, fatty infiltration, and cuff retraction were preselected as prognostic factors. Patients were significantly improved at 3 months and 6 months after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. In multiple regression analysis, none of the preselected factors could be identified as a prognostic factor influencing quality of life after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (measured with the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index). For the outcome variables RAND-36 (6 months, 1 year) and shoulder hindrance score (1 year), fatty infiltration Goutallier stages 1 and 2 and retraction grades II, III, and IV were significant predictors. Although fatty infiltration and retraction grade predict the RAND-36 and shoulder hindrance score, this study could not support preoperative range of motion, obesity, fatty infiltration, or retraction of the cuff as a prognostic factor for quality of life after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. This study shows that if selection of patients is done properly, these factors do not influence a successful outcome. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Generic prognostic factors for musculoskeletal pain in primary care: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Artus, Majid; Campbell, Paul; Mallen, Christian D; van der Windt, Danielle A W

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To summarise the evidence for generic prognostic factors across a range of musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions. Setting primary care. Methods and outcomes Comprehensive systematic literature review. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO and EMBASE were searched for prospective cohort studies, based in primary care (search period—inception to December 2015). Studies were included if they reported on adults consulting with MSK conditions and provided data on associations between baseline characteristics (prognostic factors) and outcome. A prognostic factor was identified as generic when significantly associated with any outcome for 2 or more different MSK conditions. Evidence synthesis focused on consistency of findings and study quality. Results 14 682 citations were identified and 78 studies were included (involving more than 48 000 participants with 18 different outcome domains). 51 studies were on spinal pain/back pain/low back pain, 12 on neck/shoulder/arm pain, 3 on knee pain, 3 on hip pain and 9 on multisite pain/widespread pain. Total quality scores ranged from 5 to 14 (mean 11) and 65 studies (83%) scored 9 or more. Out of a total of 78 different prognostic factors for which data were provided, the following factors are considered to be generic prognostic factors for MSK conditions: widespread pain, high functional disability, somatisation, high pain intensity and presence of previous pain episodes. In addition, consistent evidence was found for use of pain medications not to be associated with outcome, suggesting that this factor is not a generic prognostic factor for MSK conditions. Conclusions This large review provides new evidence for generic prognostic factors for MSK conditions in primary care. Such factors include pain intensity, widespread pain, high functional disability, somatisation and movement restriction. This information can be used to screen and select patients for targeted treatment in clinical research as well as to inform the

  10. Prognostic factors for survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: update 2008.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2009-05-15

    A variety of prognostic factor models to predict survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma have been developed. Diverse populations of patients with variable treatments have been used for these analyses. A variety of clinical, pathologic, and molecular factors have been studied, but current models use predominantly easily obtained clinical factors. These approaches are reviewed, and current approaches to further refine and develop these techniques are reviewed.

  11. [Prognostic factors in Guillain-Barré syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kaida, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is not as good as might be expected. Among GBS patients, 30% do not respond to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg) and 10% may worsen after initial treatment (treatment-related fluctuation). Recent prospective trials show that 16% of GBS patients are unable to walk independently a year after onset of the disease. The prognosis of GBS is influenced by clinical, electrophysiological and biological factors, of which the clinical factors are most important. The Erasmus GBS Respiratory Insufficiency Score (EGRIS) and the modified EGOS (Erasmus GBS Outcome Score) are very useful for prediction of mechanical ventilation or aided walking. A small increase in serum IgG (delta IgG) two weeks after IVIg treatment is useful as a biological prognostic marker that is significantly associated with slow recovery and aided walking at 6 months. Use of these factors makes it possible to predict the prognosis of GBS patients, and to identify patients with a poor prognosis in the early phase of the disease and provide these patients with intensive treatment. An accurate prediction of the level of disability is important for improvement of the prognosis of GBS.

  12. Chitinase 3-like 1: prognostic biomarker in clinically isolated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Cantó, Ester; Tintoré, Mar; Villar, Luisa M; Costa, Carme; Nurtdinov, Ramil; Álvarez-Cermeño, José C; Arrambide, Georgina; Reverter, Ferran; Deisenhammer, Florian; Hegen, Harald; Khademi, Mohsen; Olsson, Tomas; Tumani, Hayrettin; Rodríguez-Martín, Eulalia; Piehl, Fredrik; Bartos, Ales; Zimova, Denisa; Kotoucova, Jolana; Kuhle, Jens; Kappos, Ludwig; García-Merino, Juan Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio José; Saiz, Albert; Blanco, Yolanda; Hintzen, Rogier; Jafari, Naghmeh; Brassat, David; Lauda, Florian; Roesler, Romy; Rejdak, Konrad; Papuc, Ewa; de Andrés, Clara; Rauch, Stefan; Khalil, Michael; Enzinger, Christian; Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Teunissen, Charlotte; Sánchez, Alex; Rovira, Alex; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) has been proposed as a biomarker associated with the conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis in patients with clinically isolated syndromes, based on the finding of increased cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels in clinically isolated syndrome patients who later converted to multiple sclerosis compared to those who remained as clinically isolated syndrome. Here, we aimed to validate CHI3L1 as a prognostic biomarker in a large cohort of patients with clinically isolated syndrome. This is a longitudinal cohort study of clinically isolated syndrome patients with clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid data prospectively acquired. A total of 813 cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with clinically isolated syndrome were recruited from 15 European multiple sclerosis centres. Cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to investigate the association between cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels and time to conversion to multiple sclerosis and time to reach Expanded Disability Status Scale 3.0. CHI3L1 levels were higher in patients who converted to clinically definite multiple sclerosis compared to patients who continued as clinically isolated syndrome (P = 8.1 × 10(-11)). In the Cox regression analysis, CHI3L1 levels were a risk factor for conversion to multiple sclerosis (hazard ratio = 1.7; P = 1.1 × 10(-5) using Poser criteria; hazard ratio = 1.6; P = 3.7 × 10(-6) for McDonald criteria) independent of other covariates such as brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities and presence of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands, and were the only significant independent risk factor associated with the development of disability (hazard ratio = 3.8; P = 2.5 × 10(-8)). High CHI3L1 levels were associated with shorter time to multiple sclerosis (P = 3.2 × 10(-9) using Poser criteria; P = 5.6 × 10(-11) for McDonald criteria

  13. Gene expression-based prognostic signatures in lung cancer: ready for clinical use?

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Jyothi; Simon, Richard

    2010-04-07

    A substantial number of studies have reported the development of gene expression-based prognostic signatures for lung cancer. The ultimate aim of such studies should be the development of well-validated clinically useful prognostic signatures that improve therapeutic decision making beyond current practice standards. We critically reviewed published studies reporting the development of gene expression-based prognostic signatures for non-small cell lung cancer to assess the progress made toward this objective. Studies published between January 1, 2002, and February 28, 2009, were identified through a PubMed search. Following hand-screening of abstracts of the identified articles, 16 were selected as relevant. Those publications were evaluated in detail for appropriateness of the study design, statistical validation of the prognostic signature on independent datasets, presentation of results in an unbiased manner, and demonstration of medical utility for the new signature beyond that obtained using existing treatment guidelines. Based on this review, we found little evidence that any of the reported gene expression signatures are ready for clinical application. We also found serious problems in the design and analysis of many of the studies. We suggest a set of guidelines to aid the design, analysis, and evaluation of prognostic signature studies. These guidelines emphasize the importance of focused study planning to address specific medically important questions and the use of unbiased analysis methods to evaluate whether the resulting signatures provide evidence of medical utility beyond standard of care-based prognostic factors.

  14. Breast tumor subgroups reveal diverse clinical prognostic power

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaoqi; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Zhang, Shihua

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of cancer therapies using molecular features and clinical observations is a key goal of cancer biology, which has been addressed comprehensively using whole patient datasets without considering the effect of tumor heterogeneity. We hypothesized that molecular features and clinical observations have different prognostic abilities for different cancer subtypes, and made a systematic study using both clinical observations and gene expression data. This analysis revealed that (1) gene expression profiles and clinical features show different prognostic power for the five breast cancer subtypes; (2) gene expression data of the normal-like subgroup contains more valuable prognostic information and survival associated contexts than the other subtypes, and the patient survival time of the normal-like subtype is more predictable based on the gene expression profiles; and (3) the prognostic power of many previously reported breast cancer gene signatures increased in the normal-like subtype and reduced in the other subtypes compared with that in the whole sample set. PMID:24499868

  15. Analysis of Prognostic Factors in Malignant External Otitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Kuk; Lee, Se A; Seon, Sang Woo; Jung, Jae Hyun; Lee, Jong Dae; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Bo Gyung

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Malignant external otitis (MEO) is a potentially fatal infection of the external auditory canal, temporal bone, and skull base. Despite treatment with modern antibiotics, MEO can lead to skull base osteomyelitis. Until now, there have been few studies on the prognostic factors of MEO. Methods We performed a retrospective study to identify prognostic factors of MEO, and a meta-analysis of other articles investigating MEO. On the basis of disease progression the 28 patients in our study were divided into ‘controlled’ and ‘uncontrolled’ groups, consisting of 12 and 16 patients, respectively. We identified three categories of prognostic factors: those related to patient, disease, and treatment. We compared these prognostic factors between the controlled and uncontrolled groups. Results In our study, the duration of diabetes mellitus (DM), presence of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate), and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging findings influenced the prognosis of MEO. In contrast, prognosis was unrelated to age, gender, mean glucose level, hemoglobin A1c level, pathogen, comorbidity, or cranial nerve involvement. No factor related to treatment modality was correlated with prognosis, such as surgery, steroid therapy, or interval to the first appropriate treatment. Cranial nerve involvement has been proven to be associated with disease progression, but the relationship between cranial nerve involvement and the prognosis of MEO remains controversial. As a part of this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of cranial nerve involvement as a prognostic factor of MEO. We found that cranial nerve involvement has a statistically significant influence on the prognosis of MEO. Conclusion We found that glycemic control in diabetes mellitus, cranial nerve involvement, and the extent of disease determined from various imaging modalities influence the prognosis of MEO. We suggest that significant prognostic

  16. [Prognostic factors for mortality in elderly patients with hip fracture].

    PubMed

    Reguant, F; Bosch, J; Montesinos, J; Arnau, A; Ruiz, C; Esquius, P

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the population of patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture, to assess the incidence of mortality and identify associated prognostic factors, and to evaluate functionality at one year after surgery. A retrospective cohort study, with follow-up during the first year after hospital discharge, of patients over 64 years old undergoing surgery for non-traumatic hip fracture during 2008. Variables studied were sociodemographic parameters, clinical complications, functionality and mortality. A total of 240 patients were included, with a mean age of 83.8 years (SD 7.3), of whom 75.8% were women, 51.7% were ASA III-IV and 28.3% had a Charlson index greater than 2. Surgical delay was greater than 48 h in 61.7% of patients, and the mean hospital stay was 19.6 days (SD 15.9). Over three-quarters (76.3%) of the patients had some postoperative complications, the most frequent being cardiovascular and the cognitive disorders. At one year from surgery, 38.4% were able to walk on their own. In hospital mortality was 7.9%, and was 16.7, 20.4 and 24.6% at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Independent prognostic factors of mortality at one year after surgery were: age, ASA score, Charlson index and post-operative cardiovascular and renal complications. Hip fracture is associated with a high post-operative morbidity and mortality rate with important limitations in gait and functional status at one year after surgery. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Results of chemo-radiotherapy and prognostic factors of small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shikaura, S; Kawa, S; Yoshida, M; Yonezu, S

    1991-01-01

    We studied the therapeutic results and prognostic factors in 63 cases of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) experienced in our hospital over the past eight years. In the group initially treated with combination chemotherapy using COMP-VAD, the survival period was significantly prolonged. Use of adjuvant radiotherapy from the beginning had no effect on improvement in the survival period, but the period until local recurrences tended to be prolonged. Prognostic factors influencing survival were analyzed by the log rank test and generalized Wilcoxon test and multivariate analysis by the proportional hazard model of Cox. Statistical significance using univariate analysis was found for six factors (PS, clinical stage, LDH, albumin, treatment protocols, treatment response). The strong prognostic factors determined by multivariate analysis were, in the order of importance, chemotherapy protocol, initial PS, and treatment response.

  18. Endometrial adenocarcinoma, adjuvant radiotherapy tailored to prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, J H; Hoekstra, C J; van Putten, W L; Tjokrowardojo, A J; Koper, P C

    1990-02-01

    The optimal adjuvant radiotherapy for surgically treated endometrial cancer has not yet been defined. We report on 389 patients treated between 1970 and 1985 with adjuvant radiotherapy. The treatment was tailored to the known prognostic factors: myometrial invasion and grade of differentiation of the tumor. Ten-year overall survival was 67%, 10-year relapse-free survival 77%; 23% relapse, of which 21% distant and 6% locoregional relapse. In a multivariate analysis, stage (pT), grade, and myometrial invasion were prognostic factors. The number of locoregional failures was very small (n = 23). This small number, the fact that radiation treatment was tailored to prognostic factors, and the absence of a nontreated control group precluded an analysis of the effect of the adjuvant irradiation. Large randomized studies with a control (no treatment) arm should be performed to determine the value of adjuvant radiotherapy.

  19. Prognostic factors for occult inguinal lymph node involvement in penile carcinoma and assessment of the high-risk EAU subgroup: a two-institution analysis of 342 clinically node-negative patients.

    PubMed

    Graafland, Niels M; Lam, Wayne; Leijte, Joost A P; Yap, Tet; Gallee, Maarten P W; Corbishley, Cathy; van Werkhoven, Erik; Watkin, Nick; Horenblas, Simon

    2010-11-01

    The European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines advise an elective bilateral lymphadenectomy in clinically node-negative (cN0) patients with high-risk penile carcinoma (≥pT2, G3, or lymphovascular invasion [LVI]). Our aim was to assess prognostic factors for occult metastasis and to determine whether current EAU guidelines accurately stratify patients at high risk. Data of 342 cN0 patients with histologically proven invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma who had undergone the current dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) protocol were analysed. A complete ipsilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy was only done if the sentinel node was tumour positive. The presence of occult metastasis was established by preoperative ultrasound and tumour-positive fine-needle aspiration cytology, tumour-positive sentinel nodes, and groin metastases during follow-up after a negative DSNB procedure. Median follow-up was 31 mo. Sixty-eight of 342 patients (20%) and 87 of 684 groins (13%) had occult nodal involvement including 6 patients (2%) with a groin metastasis after negative DSNB. Corpus spongiosum invasion, corpus cavernosum invasion, histologic grade, and LVI were each significant prognosticators for occult metastasis on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, grade (odds ratio [OR]: 3.3 for intermediate and 4.9 for poor, respectively) and LVI (OR: 2.2) remained predictive factors. In total, 245 patients (72%) were classified high risk according to EAU guidelines. Among them, the incidence of occult metastasis was 23% (57 of 245). A potential limitation of this study is the lack of external review. Histologic grade and LVI are independent prognostic factors for occult metastasis in penile carcinoma. Although both predictors are incorporated into the current EAU guidelines, the stratification of patients needing a lymph node dissection is inaccurate. Approximately 77% of high-risk patients (188 of 245) would have had a negative bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy. For the

  20. [Prognostic factors in elderly patient meningioma].

    PubMed

    Villalpando-Navarrete, Edgar; Rosas-Peralta, Víctor Hugo; Sandoval-Balanzario, Miguel Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: frecuentemente debe tomarse una decisión terapéutica para el manejo del meningioma en el paciente geriátrico. El presente estudio analiza factores pronósticos, así como la escala Clinical- Radiological Grading Score (CRGS) como auxiliar para la decisión terapéutica. Métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo entre 2009 y 2010. La población estudiada fue de 28 pacientes mayores de 65 años de edad. Se analizaron factores clínicos, imagenológicos e histopatológicos. Se utilizó la prueba chi cuadrada y la exacta de Fisher para variables cuantitativas y U de Mann-Whitney para variables cualitativas. Resultados: la mortalidad global a los 3, 6 y 12 meses de seguimiento fue del 7.14, 10.71 y 14.28 %, respectivamente. El análisis reveló que el estado funcional con la escala de Karnofsky (p = 0.02), la localización de la lesión (p = 0.002), el grado de malignidad histopatológico (p = 0.038) y una puntuación menor de 10 en la escala CRGS (p = 0.003) se asocian con un mal pronóstico. Conclusión: el manejo neuroquirúrgico del paciente geriátrico es una posibilidad terapéutica con un pronóstico favorable en pacientes con una puntuación igual o mayor de 10 y en aquellos con un adecuado estado funcional.

  1. Clinicopathological prognostic factors of superficial non-small round cell soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Tsukushi, Satoshi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Shido, Yoji; Wasa, Junji; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2012-06-01

    We undertook this study to assess the therapeutic results of superficial soft tissue sarcomas as related to the presence of microscopic invasion, and to identify prognostic factors so as to optimize the therapeutic strategy. From 1995 to 2008, 105 patients who were treated surgically for superficial non-small round cell soft tissue sarcoma were investigated with regard to clinical results and microscopic invasion, and the influence exerted on prognosis was analyzed. We analyzed overall, metastasis-free, and local recurrence-free survival rates and determined the difference in survivorship between with and without fascia invasion. The 5-year overall survival rate and 5-year disease-free survival rate were 95.3% and 81.8%. For overall survival, age (P < 0.05), grade (P < 0.05), tumor size (P < 0.05), and fascial invasion (P < 0.0001) were significant unfavorable prognostic factors, while for metastasis-free survival, grade (P < 0.01) and fascial invasion (P < 0.001) were significant unfavorable prognostic factors. For local recurrence-free survival, fascial invasion alone (P < 0.01) was a significant unfavorable prognostic factor. Fascial invasion on pathological examination of resected specimens was identified as a significant unfavorable prognostic factor. Selecting the postoperative adjuvant therapy based on a detailed evaluation of any fascial invasion is an important part of the therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus (NPI+): a modern clinical decision making tool in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rakha, E A; Soria, D; Green, A R; Lemetre, C; Powe, D G; Nolan, C C; Garibaldi, J M; Ball, G; Ellis, I O

    2014-01-01

    Background: Current management of breast cancer (BC) relies on risk stratification based on well-defined clinicopathologic factors. Global gene expression profiling studies have demonstrated that BC comprises distinct molecular classes with clinical relevance. In this study, we hypothesised that molecular features of BC are a key driver of tumour behaviour and when coupled with a novel and bespoke application of established clinicopathologic prognostic variables can predict both clinical outcome and relevant therapeutic options more accurately than existing methods. Methods: In the current study, a comprehensive panel of biomarkers with relevance to BC was applied to a large and well-characterised series of BC, using immunohistochemistry and different multivariate clustering techniques, to identify the key molecular classes. Subsequently, each class was further stratified using a set of well-defined prognostic clinicopathologic variables. These variables were combined in formulae to prognostically stratify different molecular classes, collectively known as the Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus (NPI+). The NPI+ was then used to predict outcome in the different molecular classes. Results: Seven core molecular classes were identified using a selective panel of 10 biomarkers. Incorporation of clinicopathologic variables in a second-stage analysis resulted in identification of distinct prognostic groups within each molecular class (NPI+). Outcome analysis showed that using the bespoke NPI formulae for each biological BC class provides improved patient outcome stratification superior to the traditional NPI. Conclusion: This study provides proof-of-principle evidence for the use of NPI+ in supporting improved individualised clinical decision making. PMID:24619074

  3. The Evolution of Prognostic Factors in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Hassanein, Mona; Rasheed, Walid; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Alsharif, Fahad

    2017-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a heterogeneous hematologic malignancy involving the proliferation of plasma cells derived by different genetic events contributing to the development, progression, and prognosis of this disease. Despite improvement in treatment strategies of MM over the last decade, the disease remains incurable. All efforts are currently focused on understanding the prognostic markers of the disease hoping to incorporate the new therapeutic modalities to convert the disease into curable one. We present this comprehensive review to summarize the current standard prognostic markers used in MM along with novel techniques that are still in development and highlight their implications in current clinical practice. PMID:28321258

  4. [Prognostic factors of community acquired pneumonia in very old patients].

    PubMed

    Cabré, Mateu; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Bolíbar, Ignasi; Pallarés, Román

    2006-07-08

    To determine whether there are differences between the prognostic factors associated with 30-days mortality in patients 65-84 year-old and patients over 84 years hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). An observational study with retrospective data collection was carried out in a representative sample of all CAP in-patients of 27 general hospitals. Data regarding comorbidities, signs and symptoms on admission, radiological and laboratory examinations, and complications during hospitalization were recorded. 1,191 CAP patients were studied, 80.1% in the 65-84 age group and 19.9% in the over 84 age group. Mortality during the first 30 days was 11.9% in the younger group and 20.7% in the older (p < 0.001). In the younger group, the multivariate analysis showed the following independent prognostic factors: general discomfort (odds ratio [OR] = 3.93), respiratory rate > 30/min (OR = 5.02), atrial fibrillation (OR = 3.57), dementia (OR = 9.18), and hospitalization during the previous year (OR = 3.74). In the older group, independent prognostic factors were cancer (OR = 8.4) and renal failure (3.32). Age significantly modified the effect of altered mental state, tachypnea, tachycardia, hyperglycemia, and dementia on mortality. In people over 84 years, except cancer and renal failure, classic CAP prognostic factors used in severity indexes do not distinguish those who will die from those who will not. Therefore, these factors must be interpreted with caution.

  5. Diabetic foot lesions: etiologic and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Benotmane, A; Mohammedi, F; Ayad, F; Kadi, K; Azzouz, A

    2000-04-01

    The clinical characteristics of 132 diabetic patients referred for treatment of foot lesions were surveyed. One hundred and sixty three lesions (n=163) concerned 88 men and 44 women during a five-year period (from January 1989 to December 1993). Hospitalisation rate equalled 9.16%, i.e. 11.17% for men and 6.82% for women (p <0.001); the men/women ratio was 1.64. Eighty nine per cent (89%) of patients presented type 2 diabetes and 11% of patients type 1 diabetes. Mean age at the first foot lesion was 59.64 +/- 11.74 years. The mean duration of diabetes was 10.95 +/- 6.80 years. The patients had a high prevalence of diabetic complications, particularly peripheral neuropathy (84.85%) and obvious peripheral arteriopathy (78.78%). Infection was almost constant. There was no significant difference between men and women as far as the prevalence of complications was concerned. Smoking habits were noticed only in men. Inadequate footwear was considered as the major exogenous risk factor leading to a foot lesion. The definitive results 6 months after hospitalisation were as follows: the death rate was 9.09% (n=2; 11 men and 1 women, NS); 15.90% of patients (n=12) underwent a major amputation (4 at the level of the thigh, 17 at the level of the leg), 14.39% of patients (n=19) underwent a minor amputation; in 59.09% of patients (n=78) there was no amputation. Two patients (1.51%) underwent two consecutive amputations, left hospital against medical advice during their second hospitalisation, and then were lost sight. The prevalence of foot lesions was more important in men. Moreover, seriousness of the lesions and consequently the rate of amputations were important in men; this was probably due to smoking habits. The factors that influence the outcome seem to be: male gender, delay of management, quality of medical treatment, surgical attitude, inadequate level of amputation and finally lack of structured prevention. Prevention then should be based on the patient's education

  6. Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia: natural history and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Falloon, Judith; Bennett, John E.; Shaw, Pamela A.; Chaitt, Doreen; Baseler, Michael W.; Adelsberger, Joseph W.; Metcalf, Julia A.; Polis, Michael A.; Kovacs, Stephen J.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Davey, Richard T.; Lane, H. Clifford; Masur, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare non–HIV-related syndrome with unclear natural history and prognosis. This prospective natural history cohort study describes the clinical course, CD4 T lymphocyte kinetics, outcome, and prognostic factors of ICL. Thirty-nine patients (17 men, 22 women) 25 to 85 years old with ICL were evaluated between 1992 and 2006, and 36 were followed for a median of 49.5 months. Cryptococcal and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections were the major presenting opportunistic infections. Seven patients presented with no infection. In 32, CD4 T-cell counts remained less than 300/mm3 throughout the study period and in 7 normalized after an average of 31 months. Overall, 15 (41.6%) developed an opportunistic infection in follow-up, 5 (13.8%) of which were “AIDS-defining clinical conditions,” and 4 (11.1%) developed autoimmune diseases. Seven patients died, 4 from ICL-related opportunistic infections, within 42 months after diagnosis. Immunologic analyses revealed increased activation and turnover in CD4 but not CD8 T lymphocytes. CD8 T lymphocytopenia (< 180/mm3) and the degree of CD4 T cell activation (measured by HLA-DR expression) at presentation were associated with adverse outcome (opportunistic infection-related death; P = .003 and .02, respectively). This trial is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00001319. PMID:18456875

  7. Gender differences in prognostic factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Honorato, J; Rebelo, M S; Dias, F L; Camisasca, D R; Faria, P A; Azevedo e Silva, G; Lourenço, S Q C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess gender differences in prognostic factors among patients treated surgically for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The medical records of 477 eligible patients (345 males, 132 females) obtained from the Brazilian Cancer Institute were reviewed. Survival was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression models were used to obtain adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for males and females. Multivariate analysis showed that past tobacco use (aHR 0.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1-0.7) and regional metastasis (aHR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5) in males, and regional metastasis (aHR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.3), distant metastasis (aHR 6.7, 95% CI 1.3-32.7), and hard palate tumours (aHR 11.8, 95% CI 3.3-47.7) in females, were associated with a higher risk of death. There were no differences in survival between males and females. Regional metastasis was found to be a negative prognostic factor in OSCC for both genders. Past tobacco use was an independent prognostic factor for worse survival among males, while distant metastasis and hard palate tumours were independent prognostic factors for worse survival among females. Further studies are necessary to corroborate the relationships found in this study.

  8. Histoplasmosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a study of prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Couppié, Pierre; Sobesky, Milko; Aznar, Christine; Bichat, Saravane; Clyti, Emmanuel; Bissuel, François; El Guedj, Myriam; Alvarez, Fernand; Demar, Magali; Louvel, Dominique; Pradinaud, Roger; Carme, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to identify prognostic factors for AIDS-associated disseminated histoplasmosis. In a multivariate analysis, we found that dyspnea, a platelet count of <100,000 platelets/mm3, and lactate dehydrogenase levels of >2 times the upper limit of the normal range were significantly independently associated with the death of the patient during the first 30 days of antifungal treatment.

  9. Prognostic factors for gastrectomy in elderly patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Hideo; Kubota, Hisako; Higashida, Masaharu; Akiyama, Takashi; Shiotani, Akiko; Hirai, Toshihiro

    2017-03-11

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the age-specific prognostic factors in patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The medical records of 366 patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgical resection at our hospital between January 2007 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 366 patients, 117 were aged 75 years or older and 249 were aged 74 years or younger. All factors that were identified as significant using univariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis. The median follow-up duration was 52.9 months (range, 1.0-117.5 months). We found that in patients aged 75 years or older, postoperative complications and the extent of cancer were independent prognostic factors of overall survival and disease-free survival. In contrast, in patients aged 74 years or younger, only the lymph node status and postoperative chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors for overall survival and disease-free survival, respectively. Pathological outcomes and postoperative complications are important prognostic factors for survival in patients aged 75 years or older with gastric cancer, whereas pathological outcomes and postoperative chemotherapy are important prognostic factors for survival in patients aged 74 years or younger. Because the prevention of postoperative complications may contribute to improvements in the prognosis of elderly patients with gastric cancer, we suggest that it is necessary to consider limited surgery instead of radical surgery, depending on the patient's general condition and co-morbidities.

  10. Prognostic Factors for Myositis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Tomoyuki; Hozumi, Hironao; Kono, Masato; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Hashimoto, Dai; Nakamura, Yutaro; Inui, Naoki; Yokomura, Koshi; Koshimizu, Naoki; Toyoshima, Mikio; Shirai, Toshihiro; Yasuda, Kazumasa; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Suda, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    Background Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common manifestation of polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM); however, little is known about the factors influencing the prognosis for PM/DM/CADM-associated ILD. (PM/DM/CADM-ILD). The aim of the present study is to assess prognostic factors for PM/DM/CADM-ILD. Methods The clinical features and survival of 114 consecutive patients diagnosed with PM/DM/CADM-ILD (39 men and 75 women; median age, 56 years) were analyzed retrospectively. Results The study group included 30 PM-associated ILD, 41 DM-associated ILD, and 43 CADM-associated ILD cases. The clinical presentation of ILD was acute/subacute form in 59 patients (51.8%) and chronic form in 55 patients (48.2%). The major pulmonary symptoms were dyspnea, cough, and fever. High-resolution computed tomography frequently revealed ground-glass opacities, traction bronchiectasis, and consolidation. Most of the patients were treated with corticosteroids or corticosteroids in combination with immunosuppressive agents. The all-cause mortality was 27.2%. Acute/subacute form, % forced vital capacity (FVC), age, % of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and a diagnosis of CADM (vs. PM) were significantly associated with poor outcome in univariate Cox proportional hazards models. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis validated acute/subacute ILD, %FVC, age, and diagnosis of CADM (vs. PM) as significant predictors of overall mortality. Patients with acute/subacute ILD had a much lower survival rate than those with the chronic form (p<0.001). Patients with CADM-ILD had a lower survival rate than those with PM-ILD (p = 0.034). Conclusions Acute/subacute form, older age, lower level of FVC and diagnosis of CADM predict poor outcome in PM/DM/CADM-ILD. PMID:24905449

  11. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: Clinical Outcome and Prognostic Correlates1

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Man Leung; Yuen, Hon; Lai, Sik To

    2003-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) poses a major threat to the health of people worldwide. We performed a retrospective case series analysis to assess clinical outcome and identify pretreatment prognostic correlates of SARS, managed under a standardized treatment protocol. We studied 127 male and 196 female patients with a mean age of 41±14 (range 18–83). All patients, except two, received ribavirin and steroid combination therapy. In 115 (36%) patients, the course of disease was limited. Pneumonitis progressed rapidly in the remaining patients. Sixty-seven (21%) patients required intensive care, and 42 (13%) required ventilator support. Advanced age, high admission neutrophil count, and high initial lactate dehydrogenase level were independent correlates of an adverse clinical outcome. SARS-associated coronavirus caused severe illnesses in most patients, despite early treatment with ribavirin and steroid. This study has identified three independent pretreatment prognostic correlates. PMID:14519241

  12. Prognostic value of resident clinical performance ratings.

    PubMed

    Williams, Reed G; Dunnington, Gary L

    2004-10-01

    This study investigated the concurrent and predictive validity of end-of-rotation (EOR) clinical performance ratings. Surgeon EOR ratings of residents were collected and compared with end-of-year (EOY) progress decisions and to EOR and EOY confidential judgments of resident ability to provide patient care without direct supervision. Eighty percent to 85% of EOR ratings were Excellent or Very Good. Five percent or fewer were Fair or Poor. Almost all residents receiving Excellent or Very Good EOR ratings also received positive EOR judgments about ability to provide patient care without direct supervision. Residents rated Fair or Poor received negative EOR judgments about ability to provide patient care without direct supervision. As the cumulative percent of Good, Fair, and Poor EOR ratings increased, the number of residents promoted without stipulations at the end of the year decreased and the percentage of faculty members who judged the residents capable of providing effective patient care without direct supervision at the end of the year declined. All residents receiving 40% or more EOR ratings below Very Good had stipulations associated with their promotion. Despite use of descriptive anchors on the scale, clinical performance ratings have no direct meaning. Their meaning needs to be established in the same manner as is done in setting normal values for diagnostic tests, ie, by establishing the relationship between EOR ratings and practice outcomes.

  13. [Trends in prognostic factors for neuroendocrine lung tumors].

    PubMed

    García-Yuste, Mariano; Molins, Laureano; Matilla, José M; González-Aragoneses, Federico; López-Pujol, Javier; Ramos, Guillermo; de la Torre, Mercedes

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze trends in a variety of prognostic factors for neuroendocrine lung carcinomas through analysis of 2 groups of surgically treated patients. Group A contained the first 361 patients, treated between 1980 and 1997. That group was analyzed retrospectively and contained 261 patients with typical carcinoid tumors, 43 with atypical carcinoid tumors, 22 with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 35 with small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Group B contained 404 patients enrolled prospectively between 1998 and 2002: 308 with typical carcinoid tumors, 49 with atypical carcinoid tumors, 18 with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 29 with small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. The following clinical variables were considered: sex, mean age, tumor site, tumor size, lymph node involvement, stage, metastasis, and local recurrence. The 1997 TNM classification was used for staging of lung cancer and survival analysis was performed along with assessment of factors influencing survival. Statistical analysis of the data involved univariate and multivariate analysis. In both groups, significant differences were observed between patients with typical and atypical carcinoid tumors in terms of mean age, tumor size, node involvement, and recurrence. In group A, female sex, node involvement, and recurrence differed between patients with atypical carcinoid tumors and those with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; the same was true for group B, with the exception of lymph node involvement. Node involvement differed between patients with small-cell versus large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in group A but not group B. Both groups displayed significant differences in overall survival and survival of patients with lymph node involvement between patients with typical and atypical carcinoid tumors and between patients with atypical carcinoid tumors and those with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; no differences were observed between patients with large

  14. Influence of Prognostic Factors for Recurrence of Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Mehmedagic, Indira; Hasukic, Sefik; Agic, Mirha; Kadric, Nedzad; Hasukic, Ismar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Gastric cancer is the second most important neoplasm in the world. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for gastric cancer, and recognized by the International Union against Cancer (International Union Against Cancer – UICC) TNM classification of the parameters of the tumor and lymph node. Prognostic factors related to characteristics of the tumor by histopathologic findings have an impact on the planning of the operation. According to the results of most studies it is possible to predict survival and recurrence based on histological type and TNM classification of tumors on the one hand and the surgical procedure on the other. Aim: The aim of the research was to analyze prognostic factors that influenced the frequency of recurrence in gastric surgery patients. Patients and methods: The five year study covered a population of 100 treated patients of adenocarcinoma of the stomach at the Department of Surgery, University Clinical Center Tuzla. The first group were characteristics of tumors in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Lymphadenectomy and splenectomy, types of surgery were the second group of prognostic factors. Results: Histological type and TNM stage of tumor as prognostic factors had a significant impact on local tumor recurrence. The type of surgery had no statistically significant value for tumor recurrence (p = 0.7520). Conclusion: Statistical analysis of prognostic factors related to histopathologic characteristics of tumors and the type of surgery gave the results that had an impact on recurrence in gastric surgery patients. The most important prognostic factors were TNM stage of tumor and histological type of tumor that influenced the incidence of recurrence. PMID:28210017

  15. Sarcopenia is a prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Takuya; Aoyagi, Yukihiko; Tanaka, Shinichi; Okadome, Jun; Morisaki, Koichi; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2015-04-01

    Sarcopenia has been proposed as a prognostic factor for various diseases. Patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) have a very poor prognosis, but sarcopenia has not been reported as a prognostic factor for CLI patients. If sarcopenia is associated with the prognosis of CLI patients, it could help select the treatment plan. Therefore, we examined whether sarcopenia is a prognostic factor for CLI patients. We performed a retrospective study of CLI patients diagnosed with Fontaine III or IV peripheral artery disease who underwent preoperative computed tomography imaging and revascularization between January 2002 and December 2009. The presence of sarcopenia was defined as skeletal muscle area of <114.0 cm(2) for men or <89.8 cm(2) for women using transverse computed tomography scans at the third lumbar vertebra. We compared the 5-year survival rate and clinical characteristics between patients with or without sarcopenia. We also screened possible prognostic factors for overall survival using hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of 64 eligible patients, 28 patients had sarcopenia and 36 did not. There were significant differences in age, skeletal muscle area, body mass index, and the presence of smoking, cerebrovascular disease, and hemodialysis between patients with and without sarcopenia (all P < .05). The 5-year survival rate was significantly lower in patients with sarcopenia (23.5% vs 77.5%, P = .001). Prognostic factors for overall survival were the presence of sarcopenia (HR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.24-9.11; P = .02), requirement for hemodialysis (HR, 4.30; 95% CI, 1.60-12.2; P = .004), and postoperative complications (HR, 5.02; 95% CI, 1.90-13.7; P = .001). Our results suggest that sarcopenia is a prognostic factor for CLI patients. Exercise and nutritional interventions focusing on improving sarcopenia might be useful treatment options for CLI patients. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. Central nervous system involvement in mantle cell lymphoma: clinical features, prognostic factors and outcomes from the European Mantle Cell Lymphoma Network.

    PubMed

    Cheah, C Y; George, A; Giné, E; Chiappella, A; Kluin-Nelemans, H C; Jurczak, W; Krawczyk, K; Mocikova, H; Klener, P; Salek, D; Walewski, J; Szymczyk, M; Smolej, L; Auer, R L; Ritchie, D S; Arcaini, L; Williams, M E; Dreyling, M; Seymour, J F

    2013-08-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is uncommon, and the manifestations and natural history are not well described. We present the data on 57 patients with MCL who developed CNS involvement, from a database of 1396 consecutively treated patients at 14 institutions. The crude incidence of CNS involvement was 4.1%, with 0.9% having CNS involvement at diagnosis. Blastoid histology, B-symptoms, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, Eastern Cooperative Group performance status ≥2 and a high Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score were enriched in the cohort with CNS involvement, and the presence of ≥1 of these features defined a high-risk subset (an actuarial risk of CNS involvement 15% at 5 years) in a single-institution subset. The median time to CNS relapse was 15.2 months, and the median survival from time of CNS diagnosis was 3.7 months. The white blood cell count at diagnosis <10.9 × 10⁹/l, treatment of CNS involvement with high-dose anti-metabolites, consolidation with stem cell transplant and achievement of complete response were all associated with improved survival. In MCL, CNS involvement is uncommon, although some features may predict risk. Once manifest outlook is poor; however, some patients who receive intensive therapy survive longer than 12 months.

  17. Evaluation of plasma leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and prealbumin as prognostic biomarkers during clinical recovery from acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Anant; Arora, Sneh; Uniyal, Arvind; Poulose, Rosemary; Luthra, Kalpana; Pandey, RM; Guleria, Randeep

    2017-01-01

    Background: Inflammatory and nutritional biomarkers have an important bearing on outcomes of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD), but the temporal profile of these compounds during an acute episode is unclear. Patients and Methods: Plasma leptin, prealbumin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were estimated at baseline and before hospital discharge in patients with AECOPD. Results: A total of 82 patients were evaluated (66 males; mean (standard deviation) age, 61.6 (10.1) years. Of these, 74 subjects (90.2%) were current or former smokers, with median (range) pack-years of 15 (0–96), duration of COPD of 8 years (range, 2–25 years) and duration of current symptoms being 5 days (range, 1–30 days). Majority (41.5%) had type I (severe) exacerbation. During the current episode, 46 patients (58.9%) required mechanical ventilation for a median of 6 days (range, 1–34). The median duration of hospital stay was 13 days, (range, 1–110). At discharge, significant reduction was observed in dyspnea, total leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), partial pressure of carbon dioxide, hemoglobin, urea, creatinine, potassium, aspartate transferase, and TNF-α levels compared to baseline, whereas arterial pH, PO2, serum albumin, prealbumin, and leptin significantly improved. No difference was seen in leptin, prealbumin, and TNF-α between patients with mild/moderate and severe exacerbation, or between patients who required or did not require mechanical ventilation. Change in leptin correlated with body mass index and change in ESR; no associations were observed between leptin, prealbumin, and TNF-α with other clinico-laboratory variables. Conclusion: Plasma levels of novel inflammatory and nutritional biomarkers, i.e., leptin, TNF-α, and prealbumin are altered in AECOPD episodes and lag behind other parameters during recovery. These biomarkers are not reliable predictors of clinical outcomes in these patients. PMID

  18. Analysis of stage and clinical/prognostic factors for colon and rectal cancer from SEER registries: AJCC and collaborative stage data collection system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vivien W; Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Charlton, Mary E; Ruiz, Bernardo A; Karlitz, Jordan; Altekruse, Sean F; Ries, Lynn A G; Jessup, J Milburn

    2014-12-01

    The Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System enables multiple cancer registration programs to document anatomic and molecular pathology features that contribute to the Tumor (T), Node (N), Metastasis (M) - TNM - system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). This article highlights changes in CS for colon and rectal carcinomas as TNM moved from the AJCC 6th to the 7th editions. Data from 18 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based registries were analyzed for the years 2004-2010, which included 191,361colon and 73,341 rectal carcinomas. Overall, the incidence of colon and rectal cancers declined, with the greatest decrease in stage 0. The AJCC's 7th edition introduction of changes in the subcategorization of T4, N1, and N2 caused shifting within stage groups in 25,577 colon and 10,150 rectal cancers diagnosed in 2010. Several site-specific factors (SSFs) introduced in the 7th edition had interesting findings: 1) approximately 10% of colon and rectal cancers had tumor deposits - about 30%-40% occurred without lymph node metastases, which resulted in 2.5% of colon and 3.3% of rectal cases becoming N1c (stage III A/B) in the AJCC 7th edition; 2) 10% of colon and 12% of rectal cases had circumferential radial margins <1 mm; 3) about 46% of colorectal cases did not have a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) testing or documented CEA information; and 4) about 10% of colorectal cases had perineural invasion. Adoption of the AJCC 7th edition by the SEER program provides an assessment tool for staging and SSFs on clinical outcomes. This evidence can be used for education and improved treatment for colorectal carcinomas. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  19. Analysis of Stage and Clinical/Prognostic Factors for Colon and Rectal Cancer from SEER Registries: AJCC and Collaborative Stage Data Collection System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Vivien W.; Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Charlton, Mary E.; Ruiz, Bernardo A.; Karlitz, Jordan; Altekruse, Sean; Ries, Lynn A.; Jessup, J. Milburn

    2014-01-01

    Background The Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System enables multiple cancer registration programs to document anatomic and molecular pathology features that contribute to the Tumor (T), Node (N), Metastasis (M) (TNM) system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). This chapter highlights changes in CS for colon and rectal carcinomas as TNM moved from the AJCC 6th to the 7th edition. Methods Data from 18 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based registries were analyzed for the years 2004-2010, which included 191 361colon and 73 341 rectal carcinomas. Results Overall, the incidence of colon and rectal cancer declined, with the greatest decrease in stage 0. The AJCC's 7th edition introduction of changes in the subcategorization of T4, N1, and N2 caused shifting within stage groups in 25 577 colon and 10 150 rectal cancers diagnosed in 2010. Several site-specific factors (SSFs) introduced in the 7th edition had interesting findings: 1) approximately 10% of colon and rectal cancers had tumor deposits - about 30-40% occurred without lymph node metastases which resulted in 2.5% of colon and 3.3% of rectal cases becoming N1c (stage III A/B) in AJCC 7th edition ; 2) 10% of colon and 12% of rectal cases had circumferential radial margins <1 mm; 3) about 46% of colorectal cases did not have a CEA testing or documented CEA information; and 4) about 10% of colorectal cases had perineural invasion. Conclusion Adoption of AJCC 7th edition by the SEER Program provides an assessment tool for staging and SSFs on clinical outcomes. This evidence can be used for education and improved treatment for colorectal carcinomas. PMID:25412391

  20. Childhood Epilepsy; Prognostic Factors in Predicting the Treatment Failure

    PubMed Central

    TAGHDIRI, Mohammad Mehdi; OMIDBEIGI, Mahmoud; ASAADI, Sina; AZARGASHB, Eznollah; GHOFRANI, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to find the prognostic factors to detect the patients who fail the treatment of epilepsy, in the early stages of the disease Materials &Methods This study was done on the epileptic patients attending the Neurology Clinic of Mofid Children’s Hospital, Tehran, Iran from September 2013 to October 2014. After defining the criteria for exclusion and inclusion, the patients were divided to two groups based on responding to the medical treatment for their epilepsy and indices were recorded for all the patients to be used in the statistical analyses. Results The patients’ age ranged from 1 to 15 yr. There was 188 patients with refractory seizure in group 1 (experimental group) and 178 patient with well controlled seizure in group 2(control group).There was a significant different between serum drug level in both groups and patients with refractory seizure group had a lower serum drug level than control group. In both groups tonic-clonic was the most common type of seizure. Also the prevalence of brain imaging Abnormalityand other neurologic disorders was significantly higher in patients with refractory seizure in compare with control group. Conclusion Children with seizure who suffer from refractory epilepsy need more attention and exact observation by the medical staff. PMID:28277552

  1. Prognostic factors for recovery in Portuguese patients with Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Margarida; Firmino-Machado, João; Marques, Elisa A; Santos, Paula C; Simões, Ana Daniela; Duarte, José A

    2016-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify the prognostic factors that contribute to complete recovery at 6 weeks and 6 months in patients with Bell's palsy. This is a prospective, longitudinal, and descriptive study that included 123 patients diagnosed with facial nerve palsy (FNP) at a hospital in Guimarães, Portugal. However, only 73 patients with Bell's palsy (BP) were included in the assessment of recovery at 6 weeks and 6 months. We analyzed the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, including sex, age, paralyzed side, occupation, previous and associated symptoms, seasonal occurrence, familial facial palsy, patient perception, intervention options, and baseline grade according to the House-Brackmann facial grading system (HB-FGS). Of the 123 cases with FNP, 79 (64.2%) patients had BP. Age, sex, and baseline HB-FGS grades were significant predictors of complete recovery at 6 weeks. Patients with HB-FGS grade III or lower (6 weeks baseline) had significant recovery of function at 6 months. Baseline severity of BP, elderly patients, and male sex were early predictors of poor prognosis. Patients with mild and moderate dysfunction according to the HB-FGS achieved significant normal facial function at 6 months. Further prospective studies with longer observation periods and larger samples are needed to verify the results.

  2. Outcome and Prognostic Factors of Radiation Therapy for Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Stefan; Mohr, Angela; Habermehl, Daniel; Welzel, Thomas; Lindel, Katja; Witt, Olaf; Kulozik, Andreas E.; Wick, Wolfgang; Debus, Juergen; Combs, Stephanie E.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate treatment outcome and prognostic factors after radiation therapy in patients with medulloblastomas (MB). Methods and Materials: Sixty-six patients with histologically confirmed MB were treated at University Hospital of Heidelberg between 1985 and 2009. Forty-two patients (64%) were pediatric ({<=}18 years), and 24 patients (36%) were adults. Tumor resection was performed in all patients and was complete in 47%. All patients underwent postoperative craniospinal irradiation (CSI) delivering a median craniospinal dose of 35.5 Gy with additional boosts to the posterior fossa up to 54.0 Gy. Forty-seven patients received chemotherapy, including 21 in whom chemotherapy was administered before CSI. Statistical analysis was performed using the log-rank test and the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median follow-up was 93 months. Overall survival (OS) and local and distant progression-free survival (LPFS and DPFS) were 73%, 62%, and 77% at 60 months. Both local and distant recurrence predisposed for significantly reduced OS. Macroscopic complete tumor resection, desmoplastic histology and early initiation of postoperative radiation therapy within 28 days were associated with improved outcome. The addition of chemotherapy did not improve survival rates. Toxicity was moderate. Conclusions: Complete resection of MB followed by CSI yields long survival rates in both children and adults. Delayed initiation of CSI is associated with poor outcome. Desmoplastic histology is associated with improved survival. The role of chemotherapy, especially in the adult population, must be further investigated in clinical studies.

  3. Advanced biliary tract cancer: clinical outcomes with ABC-02 regimen and analysis of prognostic factors in a tertiary care center in the United States.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rishi; Sendilnathan, Arun; Siddiqi, Nabeela Iffat; Gulati, Shuchi; Ghose, Abhimanyu; Xie, Changchun; Olowokure, Olugbenga Olanrele

    2016-12-01

    (PS ≥2, CEA >3, and stage IVb), the median survival was 2.9 months (95% CI: 2.6-9.3 months), which was significantly worse compared to rest of the population [median 18 months (95% CI: 5.4-19.5 months), P<0.01]. Our data supports the use of GC as a first line regimen for advance BTC in a non-clinical trial setting. Results are comparable to those reported in ABC-02 trial, despite inclusion of PS 2 patients whom constituted 31% of our population. In the patient population studied, baseline CEA and liver function test appeared able to predict response to GC in advanced BTC. Patients with all three high risk factors (PS ≥2, CEA >3, and stage IVb) did poorly and may need careful selection prior to initiating chemotherapy.

  4. Autoinflammatory diseases in adults. Clinical characteristics and prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    González García, A; Patier de la Peña, J L; Ortego Centeno, N

    2017-03-01

    Autoinflammatory diseases are clinical conditions with inflammatory manifestations that present in a periodic or persistent manner and are caused by acquired or hereditary disorders of the innate immune response. In general, these diseases are more common in childhood, but cases have been reported in adults and are therefore important for all specialists. There are few references on these diseases in adults due to their low prevalence and underdiagnosis. The aim of this study is to review the scientific literature on these disorders to systematise their clinical, prognostic and treatment response characteristics in adults.

  5. Assessing the influence of treating therapist and patient prognostic factors on recovery from axial pain.

    PubMed

    Simon, Corey B; Stryker, Sandra E; George, Steven Z

    2013-11-01

    Limited research exists regarding the influence of a treating physical therapist on patient recovery (deemed therapist effects). Recent randomized clinical trials data provide an indication of small therapist effects for manual therapy; however, the extent to which therapist effects exist in the average outpatient facility is not clear. Moreover, patient-related prognostic factors, like fear-avoidance or pain duration, are important to consider since these may also influence the extent of therapist effects. To assess therapist effects and the influence of patient prognostic factors on recovery from axial pain in an outpatient orthopedic physical therapy facility. Clinical data were collected from consecutive patients with musculoskeletal neck and low back pain. Patient outcomes included pain intensity (visual analog scale) and functional measure (CareConnections functional outcomes index) scores. Therapist effects estimates and the influence of intake fear-avoidance (fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire) and pain duration (days) were examined using multilevel linear or regression modeling. A total of 258 patients (160 females; mean age 46.4±14.9 years) completed physical therapy and the required outcome measures. Five physical therapists (1-13 years of experience, mean 5.8 years) provided treatment. Therapists effects did not exist for discharge pain intensity or function after accounting for intake scores (P > 0.05). Further, therapist experience did not influence patient outcomes. Patient prognostic factors of fear-avoidance and pain duration did not influence therapists effects on the same patient outcome measures (P > 0.05). Preliminary findings suggest that there are no major differences in patient outcome based on either the individual therapist (therapist effect) or therapist experience in this type of PT setting. Established prognostic factors had no influence on therapist effects for this cohort. Future analyses should consider intrinsic therapist factors

  6. Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Goetze, Thorsten Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed ‘‘incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma’’ (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2

  7. Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Thorsten Oliver

    2015-11-21

    The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed ''incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma'' (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2 carcinomas

  8. Dry needling for myofascial pain: prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuan-Ting; Lin, Shun-Yuan; Neoh, Choo-Aun; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2011-08-01

    The study objectives were to evaluate outcomes in patients who have received dry needling treatments and to identify predictors of pain and disability. The study was a prospective cohort follow-up design. The study was conducted at the Pain Clinic at Pingtung Christian Hospital, Taiwan. Ninety-two (92) patients sick-listed for 3 months or longer for myofascial pain syndrome. From February to October 2008, participants were treated at the pain clinic with dry needling of trigger points and muscle stretches of the involved muscles. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires to assess changes in pain intensity and pain interference. Data collection was performed at baseline and after 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Sociodemographic variables, symptom characteristics, and baseline outcome measures were analyzed using generalized estimating equation methodology. The proposed dry-needling protocol reduced pain intensity and pain interference. Long duration of pain symptoms, high pain intensity, poor quality of sleep, and repetitive stress were associated with poor outcomes. Dry needling is an effective treatment for reducing pain and pain interference. However, long pain duration, high pain intensity, poor quality of sleep, and repetitive stress are associated with poor outcomes. Treatment outcome depends not only on the dry needling protocol, but also on disease characteristics and patient demographic profile.

  9. Thoracoscopy in pediatric pleural empyema: a prospective study of prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Kalfa, Nicolas; Allal, Hossein; Lopez, Manuel; Saguintaah, Magali; Guibal, Marie-Pierre; Sabatier-Laval, Edith; Forgues, Dominique; Counil, François; Galifer, René-Benoit

    2006-10-01

    The indications for thoracoscopy remain imprecise in cases of pleural empyema. This study aimed to identify preoperative prognostic factors to help in the surgical decision. From 1996 to 2004, 50 children with parapneumonic pleural empyema underwent thoracoscopy either as the initial procedure (n = 26) or after failure of medical treatment (n = 24). Using multivariate analysis, we tested the prognostic value of clinical and bacteriological data, the ultrasonographic staging of empyema, and the delay before surgery. Outcome measures were technical difficulties, postoperative complications, time to apyrexia, duration of drainage, and length of hospitalization. The clinical and bacterial data did not significantly predict the postoperative course. Echogenicity and the presence of pleural loculations at ultrasonography were not independent significant prognostic factors. A delay between diagnosis and surgery of more than 4 days was significantly correlated (P < .05) with more frequent surgical difficulties, longer operative time, more postoperative fever, longer drainage time, longer hospitalization, and more postoperative complications, such as bronchopleural fistula, empyema relapse, and persistent atelectasia. The main prognostic factor for thoracoscopic treatment of pleural empyema is the interval between diagnosis and surgery. A 4-day limit, corresponding to the natural process of empyema organization, is significant. The assessment of loculations by ultrasonography alone is not sufficient to predict the postoperative course.

  10. Prognostic factors for male breast cancer: similarity to female counterparts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Edward; Stitt, Larry; Vujovic, Olga; Joseph, Kurian; Assouline, Avi; Au, Joseph; Younus, Jawaid; Perera, Francisco; Tai, Patricia

    2013-05-01

    To assess whether prognostic factors in male (MBC) and female (FBC) breast cancer have similar impact on survival. Charts for men and women diagnosed with breast cancer referred to the London Regional Cancer Program (LRCP) were reviewed. Patients with distant metastatic diseases were excluded. Data on prognostic factors including age, nodal status, resection margin, use of hormonal therapy, chemotherapy with/without hormone and radiation therapy (RT), overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed. Survival estimates were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier methodology. The Cox regression interaction was used to compare male and female differences in prognostic factors. From 1963-2006 there were 75 cases of MBC and 1,313 of FBC totaling in 1,388 breast cancer cases. The median age of the cohort was 53 (range=23-90) years. The median follow-up was 90 (range=0.4-339) months. Of the prognostic factors considered, nodal status had a significant Cox regression interaction. For OS, p=0.001 with hazard ratios of 0.83 (95% confidence interval CI=0.42-1.64) and 2.88 (95% CI=2.36-3.52) for males and females, respectively. For CSS p=0.041 with hazard ratios of 1.22 (95% CI=0.45-3.27) and 3.52 (95% CI=2.76-4.48) for males and females, respectively. For node-positive cases, distant disease recurrence-free survival was worse for MBC (log rank, p<0.001). This large series showed that the nodal status influences survival differently in MBC and FBC. The findings of this study need confirmation from a more complete prospective database and further investigations on improving high-risk node-positive MBC management are warranted.

  11. Prognostic factors in neonatal acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, R L; Campbell, F; Brenbridge, A N

    1984-08-01

    Sixteen infants, 2 to 35 days of age, had acute renal failure, a diagnosis based on serum creatinine concentrations greater than 1.5 mg/dL for at least 24 hours. Eight infants were oliguric (urine flow less than 1.0 mL/kg/h) whereas the remainder were nonoliguric. To determine clinical parameters useful in prognosis, urine flow rate, duration of anuria, peak serum creatinine, urea (BUN) concentration, and nuclide uptake by scintigraphy were correlated with recovery. Nine infants had acute renal failure secondary to perinatal asphyxia, three had acute renal failure as a result of congenital cardiovascular disease, and four had major renal anomalies. Four oliguric patients died: three of renal failure and one of heart failure. All nonoliguric infants survived with mean follow-up serum creatinine concentration of 0.8 +/- 0.5 (SD) mg/dL whereas that of oliguric survivors was 0.6 +/- 0.3 mg/dL. Peak serum creatinine concentration did not differ between those patients who were dying and those recovering. All infants who were dying remained anuric at least four days and revealed no renal uptake of nuclide. Eleven survivors were anuric three days or less, and renal perfusion was detectable by scintigraphy in each case. However, the remaining survivor (with bilateral renal vein thrombosis) recovered after 15 days of anuria despite nonvisualization of kidneys by scintigraphy. In neonates with ischemic acute renal failure, lack of oliguria and the presence of identifiable renal uptake of nuclide suggest a favorable prognosis.

  12. Prognostic factors in neonatal acute renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Chevalier, R.L.; Campbell, F.; Brenbridge, A.N.

    1984-08-01

    Sixteen infants, 2 to 35 days of age, had acute renal failure, a diagnosis based on serum creatinine concentrations greater than 1.5 mg/dL for at least 24 hours. Eight infants were oliguric (urine flow less than 1.0 mL/kg/h) whereas the remainder were nonoliguric. To determine clinical parameters useful in prognosis, urine flow rate, duration of anuria, peak serum creatinine, urea (BUN) concentration, and nuclide uptake by scintigraphy were correlated with recovery. Nine infants had acute renal failure secondary to perinatal asphyxia, three had acute renal failure as a result of congenital cardiovascular disease, and four had major renal anomalies. Four oliguric patients died: three of renal failure and one of heart failure. All nonoliguric infants survived with mean follow-up serum creatinine concentration of 0.8 +/- 0.5 (SD) mg/dL whereas that of oliguric survivors was 0.6 +/- 0.3 mg/dL. Peak serum creatinine concentration did not differ between those patients who were dying and those recovering. All infants who were dying remained anuric at least four days and revealed no renal uptake of nuclide. Eleven survivors were anuric three days or less, and renal perfusion was detectable by scintigraphy in each case. However, the remaining survivor (with bilateral renal vein thrombosis) recovered after 15 days of anuria despite nonvisualization of kidneys by scintigraphy. In neonates with ischemic acute renal failure, lack of oliguria and the presence of identifiable renal uptake of nuclide suggest a favorable prognosis.

  13. Hepatitis C virus co-infection is a negative prognostic factor for clinical evolution in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Piroth, L; Grappin, M; Cuzin, L; Mouton, Y; Bouchard, O; Raffi, F; Rey, D; Peyramond, D; Gourdon, F; Drobacheff, C; Lombart, M L; Lucht, F; Besnier, J M; Bernard, L; Chavanet, P; Portier, H

    2000-07-01

    A longitudinal study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals followed-up in 13 centres was performed to assess the influence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) on the clinical and immunological evolution of HIV-infected patients. Eight-hundred and twelve HIV-infected patients with known HIV acquisition date, 89 co-infected with HCV, were included in the cohort. Clinical progression was defined as: 30% decrease of Karnofsky's index; and/or 20% body weight loss; and/or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining illness; and/or death (except by accident, suicide, or overdose). Immunological progression was defined as a decrease of initial CD4 count to below 200 mm(-3). If immunological progression was not statistically different between groups (P=0.25), clinical progression was significantly faster in HCV-HIV co-infected patients in univariate (P=0.02) and multivariable survival analysis (hazard ratio=1.63, P=0.03). This argues for active management of hepatitis C chronic infection among HCV-HIV co-infected patients.

  14. Association of Telomere Length with Breast Cancer Prognostic Factors.

    PubMed

    Ennour-Idrissi, Kaoutar; Têtu, Bernard; Maunsell, Elizabeth; Poirier, Brigitte; Montoni, Alicia; Rochette, Patrick J; Diorio, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length, a marker of cell aging, seems to be affected by the same factors thought to be associated with breast cancer prognosis. To examine associations of peripheral blood cell-measured telomere length with traditional and potential prognostic factors in breast cancer patients. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data collected before surgery from 162 breast cancer patients recruited consecutively between 01/2011 and 05/2012, at a breast cancer reference center. Data on the main lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity) were collected using standardized questionnaires. Anthropometric factors were measured. Tumor biological characteristics were extracted from pathology reports. Telomere length was measured using a highly reproducible quantitative PCR method in peripheral white blood cells. Spearman partial rank-order correlations and multivariate general linear models were used to evaluate relationships between telomere length and prognostic factors. Telomere length was positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.17, P = 0.033; Ptrend = 0.069), occupational physical activity (rs = 0.15, P = 0.054; Ptrend = 0.054) and transportation-related physical activity (rs = 0.19, P = 0.019; P = 0.005). Among post-menopausal women, telomere length remained positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.27, P = 0.016; Ptrend = 0.054) and occupational physical activity (rs = 0.26, P = 0.021; Ptrend = 0.056) and was only associated with transportation-related physical activity among pre-menopausal women (rs = 0.27, P = 0.015; P = 0.004). No association was observed between telomere length and recreational or household activities, other lifestyle factors or traditional prognostic factors. Telomeres are longer in more active breast cancer patients. Since white blood cells are involved in anticancer immune responses, these findings suggest that even regular low-intensity physical activity, such as that related to

  15. [Morbidity, mortality and analysis of prognostic factors for colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Clauer, U; Schäfer, J; Roder, J

    2015-06-01

    This study analyzed morbidity, mortality and prognostic factors for patient survival in a single center collective of patients with colorectal cancer and a high follow-up rate. A total of 698 consecutive patients were included in this study. Data were collected prospectively. Descriptive and survival analyses as well as Cox regression analyses were performed to identify factors for morbidity, mortality and prognostic factors for survival. At presentation 78.8 % of the colon cancer patients and 83.5 % of rectal cancer patients showed symptomatic disease and 6.5 % of patients underwent an emergency procedure. Mortality was 3.6 %, morbidity was 42.7 % and 4.3 % of patients developed an anastomotic leakage with the need of reoperation. In spite of the regular application of a fast-track program, 10 % of patients had a prolonged duration of bowel paralysis. In patients with colon cancer there were no differences between overall survival (OAS) and disease-free survival, whereas there was a significant difference in patients with rectal cancer. The mean survival of all patients was 65.39 ± 1.722 months. The ASA score, cardiovascular disease, number of metastatic lymph nodes, lymph node ratio, residual tumor and general or surgery-associated complications were strongly independent influencing factors on OAS. A Cox analysis revealed age at diagnosis and microscopic residual tumor (TNM R1) as highly significant influencing factors on OAS. Other significant factors of influence on OAS were development of general or surgery-associated complications and the presence of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular disease leads to a higher morbidity rate whereas age, International Union Against Cancer (UICC) stage, R-status, lymphatic spread and occurrence of complications are important prognostic factors for survival.

  16. [Prognostic factors for gastric cancer without lymph node involvement].

    PubMed

    Tapia, Oscar; Villaseca, Miguel; Bellolio, Enrique; Araya, Juan Carlos; Roa, Juan Carlos

    2011-04-01

    The absence of lymph node involvement (N0) in gastric cancer is associated with a better survival. However some N0 gastric tumors still have a bad prognosis. To study demographic and morphological variables associated with prognosis in N0 gastric carcinoma. Review of pathological records of a regional general hospital, identifying patients with a N0 gastric cancer surgically excised between 1986 and 2003. In the study period, 459 gastrectomies were performed for gastric cancer and in 32%, the tumor was devoid of lymph node involvement. These later patients were followed for a median of 64 months with a 71% five years actuarial survival. Bivariate analysis identified age, tumor size, gastric wall infiltration, pathological type according to Lauren and Ming, lymphovascular involvement, number of lymph nodes excised and TNM stage as prognostic values Multivariate analysis disclosed the level of gastric wall infiltration, the presence of a poorly differentiated tumor, lymphatic vascular involvement, number of excise lymph nodes and tumor size as independent prognostic factors. N0 gastric tumors are found in 32% of gastrectomies for gastric cancer and have a 71% five years actuarial survival. Gastric wall infiltration, pathological degree of differentiation tumor size and lymphovascular involvement are independent prognostic factors.

  17. LGALS3 as a prognostic factor for classical Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Koh, Young Wha; Jung, Se Jin; Park, Chan-Sik; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Suh, Cheolwon; Huh, Jooryung

    2014-10-01

    LGALS3, a member of the lectin family, has an important role in tumor progression through inhibition of apoptosis. LGALS3 shares several significant structural properties with BCL2. In this study, we examined the prognostic significance of LGALS3 and BCL2 in uniformly treated classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. Diagnostic tissues from 110 patients with uniformly treated classical Hodgkin's lymphoma were evaluated retrospectively by immunohistochemical analysis of LGALS3 and BCL2 expression. The median follow-up time was 6.2 years (range, 0.2-17.3 years). Twenty-seven patients (25%) expressed LGALS3 protein in Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells, which was associated with poor overall survival and event-free survival (P=0.007 and P<0.001). Fifteen patients (14%) expressed BCL2 protein in Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells, which was not associated with overall survival and event-free survival (P=0.928 and P=0.900).There was no correlation between LGALS3 and BCL2 expression (P=0.193). Multivariate analysis identified LGALS3 protein as an independent prognostic factor for event-free survival (P=0.007). Subgroup analysis according to the Ann Arbor stage of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma showed that LGALS3 protein expression had a prognostic value in limited-stage classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (P<0.001). The results of this study suggest that LGALS3 is an independent prognostic factor in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma, and may allow the identification of a subgroup of patients with limited-stage classical Hodgkin's lymphoma who require more intensive therapy.

  18. Comprehensible evaluation of prognostic factors and prediction of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Robnik-Sikonja, Marko; Cukjati, David; Kononenko, Igor

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the data of a controlled clinical study of the chronic wound healing acceleration as a result of electrical stimulation. The study involved a conventional conservative treatment, sham treatment, biphasic pulsed current, and direct current electrical stimulation. Data was collected over 10 years and suffices for an analysis with machine learning methods. So far, only a limited number of studies have investigated the wound and patient attributes which affect the chronic wound healing. There is none to our knowledge to include treatment attributes. The aims of our study are to determine effects of the wound, patient and treatment attributes on the wound healing process and to propose a system for prediction of the wound healing rate. First we analyzed which wound and patient attributes play a predominant role in the wound healing process and investigated a possibility to predict the wound healing rate at the beginning of the treatment based on the initial wound, patient and treatment attributes. Later we tried to enhance the wound healing rate prediction accuracy by predicting it after a few weeks of the wound healing follow-up. Using the attribute estimation algorithms ReliefF and RReliefF we obtained a ranking of the prognostic factors which was comprehensible to experts. We used regression and classification trees to build models for prediction of the wound healing rate. The obtained results are encouraging and may form a basis for an expert system for the chronic wound healing rate prediction. If the wound healing rate is known, then the provided information can help to formulate the appropriate treatment decisions and orient resources towards individuals with poor prognosis.

  19. Prognostic factors for acute encephalopathy with bright tree appearance.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Junji; Nabatame, Shin; Nakano, Sayaka; Iwatani, Yoshiko; Kitai, Yukihiro; Tominaga, Koji; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Okinaga, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Ozono, Keiichi

    2015-02-01

    To determine the prognostic factors for encephalopathy with bright tree appearance (BTA) in the acute phase through retrospective case evaluation. We recruited 10 children with encephalopathy who presented with BTA and classified them into 2 groups. Six patients with evident regression and severe psychomotor developmental delay after encephalopathy were included in the severe group, while the remaining 4 patients with mild mental retardation were included in the mild group. We retrospectively analyzed their clinical symptoms, laboratory data, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings. Patients in the severe group developed subsequent complications such as epilepsy and severe motor impairment. Univariate analysis revealed that higher maximum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (p=0.055) were a weak predictor of poor outcome. Maximum creatinine levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) and minimal platelet counts were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the severe group than in the mild group. Acute renal failure was not observed in any patient throughout the study. MRS of the BTA lesion during the BTA period showed elevated lactate levels in 5 children in the severe group and 1 child in the mild group. MRI performed during the chronic phase revealed severe brain atrophy in all patients in the severe group. Higher creatinine and LDH levels and lower platelet counts in the acute phase correlated with poor prognosis. Increased lactate levels in the BTA lesion during the BTA period on MRS may predict severe physical and mental disability. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic factors and predictive tools for upper tract urothelial carcinoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mbeutcha, Aurélie; Rouprêt, Morgan; Kamat, Ashish M; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Novara, Giacomo; Raman, Jay D; Seitz, Christian; Xylinas, Evanguelos; Shariat, Shahrokh F

    2017-03-01

    Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a rare and heterogeneous disease. Several clinical and biological prognostic factors have been identified in multi-institutional collaborative works with the aim of helping decision-making in pursuit of tailored individual patient care. This review provides an overview of these existing prognostic factors and predictive tools for the management of patients with UTUC. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science and Scopus databases regarding articles published in English between January 2000 and November 2015 according to PRISMA guidelines. Thresholds of 100 and 300 patients were applied for studies on biomarkers and clinical studies, respectively. All the studies on predictive tools were included for analysis. Outcomes of interest were features associated with advanced-stage UTUC, disease recurrence and survival. A total of 116 studies were included in this review. These large and/or multi-institutional studies have confirmed the prognostic value of standard pathological factors (i.e., tumor stage, grade and lymph node metastasis) and identified novel features such as lymphovascular invasion, tumor architecture, multifocality, concomitant CIS, variant histology and biomarker status among others. Based on these variables, several predictive tools have been developed; however, they often lack of validation. The value of these features and tools needs prospective testing. Efforts provided by international collaboration groups have permitted to validate established features and identify new features of biologically and clinically aggressive UTUC. Further investigation on prognostic factors and biomarkers is still needed to assess the benefit of these features and tools on clinical decision-making.

  1. Vasculogenic mimicry is a prognostic factor for postoperative survival in patients with glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Yong; Ke, Yi-Quan; Lu, Guo-Hui; Song, Zhen-Hua; Yu, Li; Xiao, Sha; Sun, Xin-Lin; Jiang, Xiao-Dan; Yang, Zhi-Lin; Hu, Chang-Chen

    2013-05-01

    A previous report has confirmed the existence and clinical significance of vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in glioma. However, its conclusions about the negative clinical significance of VM in glioblastoma are based on a small group of patients and, thus, might be unconvincing. The aim of the present study was to reevaluate the clinical significance of VM in glioblastoma. Patients were classified as VM-positive or VM-negative according to CD34 and periodic acid-Schiff staining. The association between VM and the clinical characteristics of the patients was analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify the independent prognostic factors for overall survival using the Cox regression hazard model. Survival times were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Of all 86 glioblastomas, 23 were found to have VM. The presence of VM in glioblastoma was not associated with gender, age, Karnofsky performance status, hydrocephalus, tumor burden, microvessel density, tumor relapse, or the extent of tumor resection. The univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that VM is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. The median survival time for patients with VM was 11.17 months compared with 16.10 months for those without VM (P = 0.017). In addition to VM, an age of 65 years or older, a KPS of 60 or less, a large tumor burden are significant prognostic factors for patient survival. Our data suggest that VM might be an independent adverse prognostic factor in newly diagnosed GBM, further prospective studies are needed to answer this question.

  2. Individual participant data meta-analysis of prognostic factor studies: state of the art?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prognostic factors are associated with the risk of a subsequent outcome in people with a given disease or health condition. Meta-analysis using individual participant data (IPD), where the raw data are synthesised from multiple studies, has been championed as the gold-standard for synthesising prognostic factor studies. We assessed the feasibility and conduct of this approach. Methods A systematic review to identify published IPD meta-analyses of prognostic factors studies, followed by detailed assessment of a random sample of 20 articles published from 2006. Six of these 20 articles were from the IMPACT (International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in traumatic brain injury) collaboration, for which additional information was also used from simultaneously published companion papers. Results Forty-eight published IPD meta-analyses of prognostic factors were identified up to March 2009. Only three were published before 2000 but thereafter a median of four articles exist per year, with traumatic brain injury the most active research field. Availability of IPD offered many advantages, such as checking modelling assumptions; analysing variables on their continuous scale with the possibility of assessing for non-linear relationships; and obtaining results adjusted for other variables. However, researchers also faced many challenges, such as large cost and time required to obtain and clean IPD; unavailable IPD for some studies; different sets of prognostic factors in each study; and variability in study methods of measurement. The IMPACT initiative is a leading example, and had generally strong design, methodological and statistical standards. Elsewhere, standards are not always as high and improvements in the conduct of IPD meta-analyses of prognostic factor studies are often needed; in particular, continuous variables are often categorised without reason; publication bias and availability bias are rarely examined; and important

  3. Prognostic Factors Affecting Visual Outcome in Acanthamoeba Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Elmer Y.; Joslin, Charlotte E.; Sugar, Joel; Shoff, Megan E.; Booton, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify clinical and demographic factors associated with a worse visual outcome in Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Design Retrospective, case control study. Participants A total of 72 eyes of 65 patients with AK who were diagnosed at the University of Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary between May of 2003 and May of 2007 with treatment complete by October of 2007. The first affected eye was analyzed in bilateral disease. Methods Patient demographic, clinical characteristics, treatment methods, and final visual outcome data were collected through medical record reviews for all patients diagnosed with AK. Cases were defined as patients with AK with a visual outcome worse than 20/25 or those requiring penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). Controls were defined as patients with AK with a visual outcome of 20/25 or better. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) identifying prognostic factors associated with a worse visual outcome. Main Outcome Measures Final visual outcome worse than 20/25. Results AK was confirmed through microbiologic evidence in 48 of 65 eyes (73.8%) or with confocal microscopy in 62 of 65 eyes (95.4%). Final visual acuity data were available in 61 of 65 eyes (93.8%); of these 61 eyes, 40 (65.6%) achieved a final visual acuity of 20/25 or better. In multivariable analysis, deep stromal involvement or the presence of a ring infiltrate at presentation was independently associated with worse visual outcomes (OR, 10.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.91–36.17). Symptom duration before diagnosis was statistically predictive of disease stage at presentation (OR, 4.43; 95% CI, 0.99–19.83; multivariable analysis) but not final visual outcome (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 0.83–7.88; univariate analysis). PKP was performed in 11 of 12 eyes with active disease. Conclusions Corneal disease staging at presentation with slit-lamp examination was highly predictive of worse outcomes, allowing the identification of patients who might benefit from

  4. AEG-1 expression is an independent prognostic factor in rectal cancer patients with preoperative radiotherapy: a study in a Swedish clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Gnosa, S; Zhang, H; Brodin, V P; Carstensen, J; Adell, G; Sun, X-F

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) is widely used to downstage rectal tumours, but the rate of recurrence varies significantly. Therefore, new biomarkers are needed for better treatment and prognosis. It has been shown that astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is a key mediator of migration, invasion, and treatment resistance. Our aim was to analyse the AEG-1 expression in relation to RT in rectal cancer patients and to test its radiosensitising properties. Methods: The AEG-1 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 158 patients from the Swedish clinical trial of RT. Furthermore, we inhibited the AEG-1 expression by siRNA in five colon cancer cell lines and measured the survival after irradiation by colony-forming assay. Results: The AEG-1 expression was increased in the primary tumours compared with the normal mucosa independently of the RT (P<0.01). High AEG-1 expression in the primary tumour of the patients treated with RT correlated independently with higher risk of distant recurrence (P=0.009) and worse disease-free survival (P=0.007). Downregulation of AEG-1 revealed a decreased survival after radiation in radioresistant colon cancer cell lines. Conclusions: The AEG-1 expression was independently related to distant recurrence and disease-free survival in rectal cancer patients with RT and could therefore be a marker to discriminate patients for distant relapse. PMID:24874474

  5. Clinical and prognostic value of hypertensive cardiac damage in the PAMELA Study.

    PubMed

    Cuspidi, Cesare; Sala, Carla; Casati, Anna; Bombelli, Michele; Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2016-11-17

    Because subclinical alterations in cardiovascular structure reflect cumulative damage induced by risk factors and represent an intermediate stage between risk factor exposure and cardiovascular events, this damage is regarded as a marker of increased cardiovascular risk in different clinical settings, including the general population. The Pressioni Monitorate e Loro Associazioni (PAMELA) is an originally designed research study aimed at assessing the normal values and prognostic significance of ambulatory and home blood pressure in a representative sample of the Northern Italian general population. Because the study protocol included the collection of electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic (ECHO) data, the prevalence and clinical correlates, as well as the prognostic value of subclinical cardiac alterations, have been extensively investigated. This article is a review of the findings of the PAMELA study regarding the clinical aspects and prognostic significance of cardiac abnormal phenotypes such as left ventricular hypertrophy, left atrial dilatation and aortic root dilation.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 17 November 2016; doi:10.1038/hr.2016.153.

  6. Prognostic factors predictive of survival for truncal and retroperitoneal soft-tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, S; Corson, J M; Demetri, G D; Healey, E A; Marcus, K; Eberlein, T J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors identified prognostic factors relevant to clinical outcomes (especially survival) in truncal and retroperitoneal soft-tissue sarcoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: These results can be used to optimize surgical management and select patients most likely to benefit from novel therapeutic strategies in future trials. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of a prospectively compiled database of 183 consecutive patients with truncal and retroperitoneal sarcomas seen at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute between 1970 to 1994. RESULTS: For truncal sarcoma, multivariate analysis showed that high-grade histology was associated with an eightfold increased risk of death compared with low-grade histology (p = 0.001). In addition to grade, gross positive margin of resection (p = 0.001), microscopic positive margin (p = 0.023), and tumors greater than 5 cm in size (p = 0.018) were important independent prognostic factors for survival. In this series, postoperative radiation therapy for truncal sarcoma was associated with a 2.4-fold decreased risk of death compared with truncal sarcoma patients receiving no adjuvant radiation therapy, having adjusted for the other prognostic factors (p = 0.030). In contrast, for retroperitoneal sarcoma, multivariate analysis showed that high-grade and intermediate-grade histology were associated with a five- to sixfold increased risk of death compared with low-grade histology (p = 0.009). In addition to grade, gross positive margin of resection (p = 0.001) and microscopic positive margin (p = 0.004) were important independent prognostic factors for survival in retroperitoneal sarcoma. Patients who received either preoperative or postoperative chemotherapy for retroperitoneal sarcoma had a 4.6-fold (p = 0.002) and 3-fold (p = 0.010) increased risk of death, respectively, compared with patients receiving no adjuvant chemotherapy, having adjusted for the other prognostic factors

  7. Clinical and Prognostic Factors for Renal Parenchymal, Pelvis, and Ureter Cancers in SEER Registries: Collaborative Stage Data Collection System, Version 2

    PubMed Central

    Altekruse, Sean F.; Dickie, Lois; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Wu, Manxia; Lee, Richard; Delacroix, Scott

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The American Joint Committee on Cancer’s (AJCC) 7th edition cancer staging manual reflects recent changes in cancer care practices. This report assesses changes from the AJCC 6th to the AJCC 7th edition stage distributions and the quality of site-specific factors (SSFs). METHODS Incidence data for renal parenchyma and pelvis and ureter cancers from 18 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries were examined, including staging trends during 2004–2010, stage distribution changes between the AJCC 6th and 7th editions, and SSF completeness for cases diagnosed in 2010. RESULTS From 2004 to 2010, the percentage of stage I renal parenchyma cancers increased from 50% to 58%, whereas stage IV and unknown stage cases decreased (18% to 15%, and 10% to 6%, respectively). During this period, the percentage of stage 0a renal pelvis and ureter cancers increased from 21% to 25%, and stage IV and unknown stage tumors decreased (20% to 18%, and 7% to 5%, respectively). Stage distributions under the AJCC 6th and 7th editions were about the same. For renal parenchymal cancers, 71%–90% of cases had known values for 6 required SSFs. For renal pelvis and ureter cancers, 74% of cases were coded as known for SSF1 (WHO/ISUP grade) and 47% as known for SSF2 (depth of renal parenchymal invasion). SSF values were known for larger proportions of cases with reported resections. CONCLUSIONS Stage distributions between the AJCC 6th and 7th editions were similar. SSFs were known for more than two-thirds of cases, providing more detail in the SEER database relevant to prognosis. PMID:25412394

  8. Long-Term Outcomes and Prognostic Factors in Periampullary Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sunil, Bhanu Jayanand; Seshadri, Ramakrishnan A; Gouthaman, S; Ranganathan, Rama

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the long-term survival and the various prognostic factors that influence overall survival in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) with non-pancreatic periampullary carcinomas. A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients diagnosed with non-pancreatic periampullary carcinomas who underwent PD at a tertiary cancer center was performed. Univariate analysis of various prognostic factors influencing the disease-free survival (DFS) was performed using log-rank test. Factors identified to be significant in univariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis, which was performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The survival estimates were calculated by life-table method. Statistical significance was considered when p value was <0.05. The SPSS v16.0.1 software was used for statistical analysis. Between 1995 and 2010, 78 patients underwent PD with or without (Whipple's operation) pylorus preservation for non-pancreatic periampullary adenocarcinomas. Of these, eight patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. The most common subsite was ampulla (60 patients), followed by the second part duodenum (11 patients), and distal common bile duct (7 patients). The median duration of follow-up of all patients in this study was 50 months. The recurrence rate was 39.7 %. The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival was 57 %. Patients without nodal metastasis had a non-significant trend towards better 5-year disease-free survival when compared to those with nodal metastasis (64 vs 45 %, p = 0.11). On multivariate analysis, it was found that male gender (p = 0.05) and presence of lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.04) predicted a significantly poor 5-year disease-free survival. Periampullary carcinomas have a favorable prognosis after surgery. Male gender and presence of lymphovascular invasion are independent prognostic factors in patients diagnosed with non-pancreatic periampullary carcinomas who underwent

  9. Prognostic factors in neuroendocrine carcinoma: biological markers are more useful than histomorphological markers

    PubMed Central

    Freis, Patricia; Graillot, Emmanuelle; Rousset, Pascal; Hervieu, Valérie; Chardon, Laurence; Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Walter, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (GEP-NEC) are a very aggressive type of cancer, for which prognostic factors are lacking. We analysed clinical and histomorphological prognostic markers of overall survival (OS), completed with a record of biological and haematological data of patients diagnosed between December 2002 and December 2015. The median OS was 16 months (95% CI 13.9–18.1). After univariate analysis, performance status (PS) ≥ 2 and stage IV were associated with a worse outcome (9 months and 14 months, respectively), as well as patients with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels ≥ 2 ULN (9 months and 8 months, respectively). After multivariate analysis, LDH and AST levels were the only factors that remained significantly associated with better survival: HR 0.36 (p = 0.04) and 0.31 (p = 0.03), respectively. When patients had elevated LDH and AST levels, OS was 20 months, when they had high LDH or AST levels, 13 months and 8 months in the group with low LDH and AST levels (p < 0.001). Therefore, biological data appeared to be more relevant prognostic factors than usual factors described in other studies (PS, stage, and Ki-67). Considering LDH and AST levels at diagnosis could help physicians to predict survival and to stratify patients for clinical trials. PMID:28074897

  10. Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Development of diagnostic criteria and identification of prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Owen, R G; Barrans, S L; Richards, S J; O'Connor, S J; Child, J A; Parapia, L A; Morgan, G J; Jack, A S

    2001-09-01

    To establish whether a combination of morphologic and immunophenotypic criteria could be developed to more precisely define Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) and prognostic factors, we retrospectively assessed the clinical and laboratory features of 111 cases of WM. Bone marrow infiltration by small lymphocytes was documented in each case; and diffuse, interstitial, nodular, and paratrabecular patterns of infiltration were documented in 58%, 32%, 6%, and 4% of cases, respectively. Ninety percent were characterized by a surface immunoglobulin-positive, CD19+CD20+CD5-CD10-CD23- immunophenotype. The median overall survival from diagnosis was 60 months; univariate analysis revealed the following adverse prognostic factors: older than 60 years, performance status more than 1, platelet count less than 100 x 10(3)/microL (< 100 x 10(9)/L), pancytopenia, and diffuse bone marrow infiltration. Associated median survival was 40, 38, 46, 28, and 59 months, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed age, performance status, and platelet count as prognostically significant, but stratification of patients according to the International Prognostic Index had limited value. We suggest defining WM by the following criteria: IgM monoclonal gammopathy; bone marrow infiltration by small lymphocytes, plasmacytoid cells, and plasma cells in a diffuse, interstitial, or nodular pattern; and a surface immunoglobulin-positive, CD19+CD20+CD5-CD10-CD23- immunophenotype.

  11. Prognostic factors in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. (Gruppo Interregionale Cooperativo di Oncologia Ginecologica (GICOG)).

    PubMed Central

    Marsoni, S.; Torri, V.; Valsecchi, M. G.; Belloni, C.; Bianchi, U.; Bolis, G.; Bonazzi, C.; Colombo, N.; Epis, A.; Favalli, G.

    1990-01-01

    The data on 914 patients enrolled in four randomised trials in advanced ovarian cancer, consecutively conducted by the same cooperative group between 1978 and 1986, were analysed with the aims of: (1) determining the impact of selected prognostic variables on survival; (2) finding, from the interaction of favourable prognostic factors and treatment, an approximate estimate of the magnitude of the survival advantage associated with the use of platinum-based combination chemotherapy. The overall 3-year survival in this series of patients is twice that reported historically (22%; 95% CL 18.7-25.4). The proportional hazard regression model was used to perform the analysis on survival. Residual tumour size, age, FIGO stage and cell type were all independent determinants of survival. Differences in survival from the various prognostic groups were impressive with 5-year survival rates ranging from 7 to 62%. However, these differences were not qualitative (i.e. the kinetics of survival were similar for the best and the worst groups) suggesting that current prognostic factors are of little use for selecting 'biologically' different sub-populations. Platinum-based regimens were associated to an overall prolonged median survival, but this benefit was not observable in the subgroup with most favourable prognosis (less than 2 cm residual tumour size). The implications of these observations for clinical research and ovarian cancer patients care are discussed. PMID:2119684

  12. Prognostic factors in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: the importance of symptomatic stage as an adjunct to the Kiel histopathological classification.

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, R. C.; Cuzick, J.; MacLennan, I. C.; Vanhegan, R. I.; Mackie, P. H.; McCormick, C. V.

    1983-01-01

    A prospective study of prognostic factors for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was carried out based on the Kiel histopathological classification. Other presentation features assessed for prognostic value included clinical features, haematological and biochemical findings, and immunochemical findings. The most powerful factors that emerged were the presence or absence of systemic symptoms and the histopathological grade of malignancy of the lymphoma (whether low or high grade). These 2 factors were largely independent. Clinical Stage I disease also carried a good prognosis, but beyond this, staging gave little further prognostic information. Nine of the group of 15 patients with Stage I high grade lymphoma have achieved prolonged disease-free survival after local therapy only. After allowing for histopathology and symptom assessment in patients with Stage II-IV disease, other factors, with the exception of C-reactive protein levels, were of minor importance. PMID:6821635

  13. Prognostic Factors for Visual Outcome in Traumatic Cataract Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan F.; Zhu, Yu; Wan, Ming G.; Du, Shan S.; Yue, Zhen Z.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the prognostic factors for visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients. Methods. The demographic features of traumatic cataract patients in Central China were studied. The factors that might influence the visual outcome were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of OTS (ocular trauma score) in predicting VA were calculated. Results. The study enrolled 480 cases. 65.5% of patients achieved VA at >20/60. The factors associated with the final VA were initial VA, injury type, wound location, the way of cataract removal, and IOL implantation. The sensitivities of OTS in predicting the VA at NLP (nonlight perception), LP/HM (light perception/hand motion), and ≥20/40 were 100%. The specificity of OTS to predict the final VA at 1/200-19/200 and 20/200-20/50 was 100%. Conclusion. The prognostic factors were initial VA, injury type, wound location, cataract removal procedure, and the way of IOL implantation. The OTS has good sensitivity and specificity in predicting visual outcome in traumatic cataract patients in long follow-up. PMID:27595014

  14. Clinical determinants and prognostic significance of the electrocardiographic strain pattern in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Antonio C; Moraes, Aline A I; Cerutti, Virginia; França, Faustino; Quiroga, Borja; Amodeo, Celso; Picotti, Juliano C; Dutra, Lucas V; Rodrigues, Gabriel D; Amparo, Fernanda C; Lindholm, Bengt; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2014-05-01

    The electrocardiographic (ECG) strain pattern (Strain) is a marker of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) severity that provides additional prognostic information beyond echocardiography (ECHO) in the community level. We sought to evaluate its clinical determinants and prognostic usefulness in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We evaluated 284 non-dialysis-dependent patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 (mean age, 61 years [interquartile range, 53-67 years]; 62% men). Patients were followed for 23 months (range, 13-32 months) for cardiovascular (CV) events and/or death. Strain patients (n = 37; 13%) were using more antihypertensive drugs, had higher prevalence of peripheral vascular disease and smoking, and higher levels of C-reactive protein, cardiac troponin, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). The independent predictors of Strain were: left ventricular mass index (LVMI), BNP, and smoking. During follow-up, there were 44 cardiovascular events (fatal and non-fatal) and 22 non-CV deaths; and Strain was associated with a worse prognosis independently of LVMI. Adding Strain to a prognostic model of LVMI improved in 15% the risk discrimination for the composite endpoint and in 12% for the CV events. Strain associates with CV risk factors and adds prognostic information over and above that of ECHO-assessed LVMI. Its routine screening may allow early identification of high risk CKD patients.

  15. Prognostic Factors for Distress After Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer.

    PubMed

    Voorwinden, Jan S; Jaspers, Jan P C

    2016-06-01

    The psychological impact of an unfavorable genetic test result for counselees at risk for hereditary cancer seems to be limited: only 10-20 % of counselees have psychological problems after testing positive for a known familial mutation. The objective of this study was to find prognostic factors that can predict which counselees are most likely to develop psychological problems after presymptomatic genetic testing. Counselees with a 50 % risk of BRCA1/2 or Lynch syndrome completed questionnaires at three time-points: after receiving a written invitation for a genetic counseling intake (T1), 2-3 days after receiving their DNA test result (T2), and 4-6 weeks later (T3). The psychological impact of the genetic test result was examined shortly and 4-6 weeks after learning their test result. Subsequently, the influence of various potentially prognostic factors on psychological impact were examined in the whole group. Data from 165 counselees were analyzed. Counselees with an unfavorable outcome did not have more emotional distress, but showed significantly more cancer worries 4-6 weeks after learning their test result. Prognostic factors for cancer worries after genetic testing were pre-existing cancer worries, being single, a high risk perception of getting cancer, and an unfavorable test result. Emotional distress was best predicted by pre-existing cancer worries and pre-existing emotional distress. The psychological impact of an unfavorable genetic test result appears considerable if it is measured as "worries about cancer." Genetic counselors should provide additional guidance to counselees with many cancer worries, emotional distress, a high risk perception or a weak social network.

  16. Prognostic factors for stereopsis in refractive accommodative esotropia

    PubMed Central

    Guclu, Hande; Gurlu, Vuslat Pelitli; Ozal, Sadik Altan; Ozkurt, Zeynep Gursel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prognostic factors affecting stereoacuity in patients with refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE) according to the results of long follow- up period. Methods: We reviewed the charts of 70 patients with RAE between the years 1985-2014. Patients were classified into three groups. G-1: Stereoacuity score 40 second/arc. G-2: Stereoacuity score >40 second/arc (50-3000). G-3: No binocular vision. Initiation age of RAE, duration of deviation, refractive error, amblyopia, amblyopia treatment, anisometropia, visual acuity, family history, angle of deviation for distance and near at each group and the prognostic factors affecting stereoacuity were analyzed. Results: The mean initiation age of RAE was 2.7±1.5 years, the mean age at first visit was 6.4±4.2 years. The mean follow up time was 7.3±4.4 years. Seven patients had 40 second/arc, 48 patients had 50 to 3000 second/arc stereoacuity, 15 patients had no binocular vision. Mean deviation for near was statistically higher in group 2 and 3. Visual acuity levels were higher in group 1 and 2 and was statistically significant. Low visual acuity (p=0.001, 0.008), higher angle of deviation at near (p=0.01), increased duration of deviation (p=0.01), presence of amblyopia (p=0.001) and irregularity of amblyopia treatment (p=0.01) were significantly related with poor stereoacuity. Conclusion: According to the prognostic factors low stereoacuity was mostly related with amblyopia as a result the late presentation of the patients in seeking care. Appropriate treatment as full refractive correction and amblyopia treatment during the RAE is important for development of good stereopsis. Also angle of deviation at near and duration of deviation can be a useful predictor for poor stereoacuity levels. PMID:26430408

  17. Symptoms at diagnosis as independent prognostic factors in retroperitoneal liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Satoru; Kume, Haruki; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Morikawa, Teppei; Kakutani, Shigenori; Takeshima, Yuta; Miyazaki, Hideyo; Suzuki, Motofumi; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Tohru; Ishikawa, Akira; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Homma, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    The prognostic factors of retroperitoneal liposarcoma have yet to be clearly determined due to its rarity, whereas the prognostic value of symptoms at diagnosis has never been evaluated to date. In this context, we reviewed 24 consecutive patients with primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma who underwent surgical resection with curative intent at our institution. The Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test were used to estimate progression-free survival (PFS; primary endpoint) and sarcoma-specific survival (SSS; secondary endpoint). The effect of various clinicopathological factors, including symptoms at diagnosis, on these two endpoints was assessed with a Cox proportional hazards model. During the study period, 11 patients (45.8%) developed recurrence after the initial surgery and 8 (33.3%) succumbed to retroperitoneal liposarcoma, with a median follow-up of 64 months. A total of 16 patients (66.7%) had symptoms at diagnosis, while the remaining 8 (33.3%) were diagnosed incidentally. The symptoms were palpability of the tumor (n=8); abdominal pain/fullness (n=3); flank pain/fullness (n=2); lower extremity pain (n=1); testicular pain due to varicocele (n=1); and discomfort on urination (n=1). Patients with symptoms at diagnosis were significantly more likely to develop recurrence (log-rank test, P=0.0196) and were also more likely to succumb to sarcoma (P=0.0778) compared with asymptomatic patients. On the multivariate analysis, symptoms at diagnosis and dedifferentiated components were independent predictors of poor PFS, while positive surgical margins were predictors of poor SSS. Given that symptoms at diagnosis are easily accessible for physicians, they may prove to be useful additional prognostic factors for primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma.

  18. Cartilage ossiculoplasty in cholesteatoma surgery: hearing results and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, N; Taliente, S; Coppola, F; Salonna, I

    2015-10-01

    Cartilage tympanoplasty is an established procedure for tympanic membrane and attic reconstruction. Cartilage has been used as an ossiculoplasty material for many years. The aim of this study was to evaluate hearing results of costal cartilage prostheses in ossicular chain reconstruction procedures in subjects operated on for middle ear cholesteatoma and to determine the presence of prognostic factors. Candidates for this study were patients affected by middle ear cholesteatoma whose ossicular chain was reconstructed with a chondroprosthesis. 67 cases of ossiculoplasty with total (TORP) or partial (PORP) chondroprosthesis were performed between January 2011 and December 2013. Follow-up examination included micro-otoscopy and pure tone audiometry. The guidelines of the Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium of the American Academy of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery were followed and pure-tone average (PTA) was calculated as the mean of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz thresholds. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA tests and regression models. Average air-bone gap (ABG) significantly improved from 39.2 dB HL (SD 9.1 dB HL) to 25.4 dB HL (SD 11 dB HL) (p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis showed that the only prognostic factor was the type of operation (p = 0.02). In fact, patients submitted to ICWT presented better post-operative ABG compared to CWDT. None of the other variables influenced the results. The present study proposes costal cartilage as material of choice when autologous ossicles are not available. The maintenance of the posterior canal wall was the only prognostic factor identified.

  19. [Prognostic factors about morbidity and lethality in head injury].

    PubMed

    Melo, José Roberto Tude; Oliveira Filho, Jamary; da Silva, Ricardo Araújo; Moreira Júnior, Edson Duarte

    2005-12-01

    To define the prognostic factors in head injury victims. Assessment and notification of 555 medical files from victims with head injury assisted at the General Hospital of Bahia during 2001. We verified morbidity rates of 19.6% and lethality rates of 22.9%, with most deaths occurring in men after the third decade of life; the injuries involved traffic accidents that were responsible for 64 (50.4%) deaths. Older age, traffic accidents and fever were predictors of death in the multivariable analysis. Fever was the only significant predictor of morbidity. Fever is an independent and modifiable predictor of death and morbidity in patients with traumatic brain injury.

  20. Infarct volume after glioblastoma surgery as an independent prognostic factor

    PubMed Central

    Bette, Stefanie; Wiestler, Benedikt; Kaesmacher, Johannes; Huber, Thomas; Gerhardt, Julia; Barz, Melanie; Delbridge, Claire; Ryang, Yu-Mi; Ringel, Florian; Zimmer, Claus; Meyer, Bernhard; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Kirschke, Jan S.; Gempt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative ischemia is associated with reduced functional independence measured by karnofsky performance score (KPS), which correlates well with overall survival. Other studies suggest that postoperative hypoxia might initiate infiltrative tumor growth. Therefore, aim of this study was to analyze the impact of infarct volume on overall survival and progression free survival (PFS) of glioblastoma patients. 251 patients with surgery for a newly diagnosed glioblastoma (WHO IV) were retrospectively assessed. Pre- and postoperative KPS, date of death/last follow-up and histopathological markers were recorded. Pre- and postoperative tumor volume and the volume of postoperative infarction were manually segmented. A significant correlation of infarct volume with postoperative KPS decrease (P = 0.001) was observed. Infarct volume showed a significant impact on overall survival (P = 0.014), but not on PFS (P = 0.112) in univariate analysis. This effect increased in the subgroup of patients with near-total tumor resection (> 90%) (overall survival: P = 0.006, PFS: P = 0.066). Infarct volume remained as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in multivariate analysis (HR 1.013 [1.000–1.026], P = 0.042) including other prognostic factors (age, extent of resection, postoperative KPS). Postoperative infarct volume significantly correlates as an independent factor with overall survival after glioblastoma surgery. Besides the influence of perioperative infarction on postoperative KPS, postoperative hypoxia might also have an effect on tumor biology initiating infiltrative growth and therefore impaired survival. PMID:27566556

  1. Primary spinal epidural lymphoma: Patients' profile, outcome, and prognostic factors: A multicenter Rare Cancer Network study

    SciTech Connect

    Monnard, Virginie; Sun, Alex; Epelbaum, Ron; Poortmans, Philip; Miller, Robert C.; Verschueren, Tom; Scandolaro, Luciano; Villa, Salvador; Majno, Sabine Balmer; Ostermann, Sandrine; Ozsahin, Mahmut; Mirimanoff, Rene-Olivier . E-mail: rene-olivier.mirimanoff@chuv.ch

    2006-07-01

    Purpose To assess the clinical profile, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors in primary spinal epidural lymphoma (PSEL). Methods and Materials Between 1982 and 2002, 52 consecutive patients with PSEL were treated in nine institutions of the Rare Cancer Network. Forty-eight patients had an Ann Arbor stage IE and four had a stage IIE. Forty-eight patients underwent decompressive laminectomy, all received radiotherapy (RT) with (n = 32) or without chemotherapy (n = 20). Median RT dose was 36 Gy (range, 6-50 Gy). Results Six (11%) patients progressed locally and 22 (42%) had a systemic relapse. At last follow-up, 28 patients were alive and 24 had died. The 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control were 69%, 57%, and 88%, respectively. In univariate analyses, favorable prognostic factors were younger age and complete neurologic response. Multivariate analysis showed that combined modality treatment, RT volume, total dose more than 36 Gy, tumor resection, and complete neurologic response were favorable prognostic factors. Conclusions Primary spinal epidural lymphoma has distinct clinical features and outcome, with a relatively good prognosis. After therapy, local control is excellent and systemic relapse occurs in less than half the cases. Combined modality treatment appears to be superior to RT alone.

  2. Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Breast: Histopathological Criteria, Prognostic Factors, and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Marinova, Lena; Vicheva, Snezhinka

    2016-01-01

    We present here a case of a 42-year-old woman diagnosed with primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (NECB). We discuss the importance of histological criteria for primary neuroendocrine mammary carcinoma, established by WHO in 2003 and 2012. After an overview of different cases of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast published in the literature, we present information about differential diagnosis, prognostic factors, and surgical and adjuvant treatment. Prognosis of NECB is not different from that of other invasive breast carcinomas and the most important prognostic factor is tumor grade (G). There is no standard treatment and patients should be treated similarly to patients with invasive ductal carcinoma, NOS (not otherwise specified), whose choice of therapy depends on tumor's size, degree of differentiation, clinical stage, and hormonal status. PMID:27840759

  3. Prognostic factors in early glottic carcinoma implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Nur, Demiral Ayse; Oguz, Cetinayak; Kemal, Erdag Taner; Ferhat, Eyiler; Sülen, Sarioglu; Emel, Ada; Münir, Kinay; Ann, Cooper Sen Rachel; Mehmet, Sen

    2005-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the prognostic factors affecting local control (LC) in limited glottic carcinoma treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Between June 1991 and December 2001, 114 patients with early squamous-cell carcinoma of the glottis were treated with definitive RT at our institution. Only four (3.5%) patients were women. The median age was 60 (27-79). Fifteen percent, 72% and 13% of the patients had Tis, T1 and T2 tumors, respectively. Forty-three (37.7%) patients had anterior commissure invasion. Prior to RT 35 (31%) patients had undergone vocal cord stripping and two (2%) cordectomy. A median dose of 66 Gy (50-70.2) was given over a median period of 46 days (20-60). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for LC. The prognostic parameters analyzed for LC were T classification, anterior commissure involvement, total RT dose, and overall treatment time. Five-year local and regional control rates were 84.2% and 97.7%. RTOG grade 3-4 late side effects were observed only in one (0.9%) patient. In 15 patients with local failure, salvage treatment consisted of partial laryngectomy in eight patients and total laryngectomy in five. One of the remaining two patients was medically inoperable, and the other refused salvage surgery. In one of the three patients with regional failure, salvage surgery was applied and the other two were given palliative chemotherapy because of unresectable disease. Following salvage treatments, the ultimate five-year LC rate was 96.9% and the five-year larynx preservation rate was 91.1%. Second primary cancer was diagnosed in 17 (14.9%) patients. Only one patient developed distant metastases and two patients died of laryngeal cancer. While T2 disease and anterior commissure involvement were found to be unfavorable prognostic factors significantly influencing LC in univariate analyses, only T2 disease remained independent in multivariate analysis. In patients with early glottic carcinoma, T classification

  4. Prognostic factors in early-stage ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Germana; Carnazza, Mario; Ragnoli, Monica; Calza, Stefano; Ferrari, Federico; Gambino, Angela; Zizioli, Valentina; Notaro, Sara; Sostegni, Benedetta; Sartori, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the main prognostic factors in patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Data were extracted from 222 patients with initial stage (I–IIA) invasive epithelial ovarian cancer treated with primary surgery followed or not followed by adjuvant therapy, from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008, at the Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy; the median follow-up was 79 months (SD ± 35,945, range 20–250 months). The negative prognostic factors that were statistically significant (p<0.050) in univariate analysis were grade 2, 3, and X (clear cell in our study); stage IB, IC, IIA; positive peritoneal cytology, age equal to/greater than 54; dense adhesions; capsule rupture (pre-operative or intra-operative) and endometrioid histotype (only for disease-free survival (DFS)). Positive cytology was strongly associated with peritoneal relapses, while adhesions were associated with pelvic relapses. A positive prognosis was associated with the mucinous histotype. Conservative treatment had been carried out in 52% of patients under 40 years of age, and we detected only two relapses and three completions of surgery after a few weeks among 31 women in total. Our study indicated a possible execution in patients with patients with cancer stage IA G1–G2 (p=0.030) or IC G1 (p=0.050), provided well staged. Adjuvant chemotherapy improved the survival of cancers that were not IA G1. The positive prognostic role of taxanes must be emphasised, when used in combination with platino. PMID:23781280

  5. Prognostic factors of choroidal melanoma in Slovenia, 1986–2008

    PubMed Central

    Budihna, Marjan; Drnovsek-Olup, Brigita; Andrejcic, Katrina Novak; Zupancic, Irena Brovet; Pahor, Dusica

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary malignancy of the eye, which frequently metastasizes. The Cancer Registry of Slovenia reported the incidence of choroid melanoma from 1983 to 2009 as stable, at 7.8 cases/million for men and 7.4/million for women. The aim of the retrospective study was to determinate the prognostic factors of survival for choroidal melanoma patients in Slovenia. Patients and methods From January 1986 to December 2008 we treated 288 patients with malignant choroidal melanoma; 127 patients were treated by brachytherapy with beta rays emitting ruthenium-106 applicators; 161 patients were treated by enucleation. Results Patients with tumours thickness < 7.2 mm and base diameter < 16 mm were treated by brachytherapy and had 5- and 10-year overall mortality 13% and 32%, respectively. In enucleated patients, 5- and 10-year mortality was higher, 46% and 69%, respectively, because their tumours were larger. Thirty patients treated by brachytherapy developed local recurrence. Twenty five of 127 patients treated by brachytherapy and 86 of 161 enucleated patients developed distant metastases. Patients of age ≥ 60 years had significantly lower survival in both treatment modalities. For patients treated by brachytherapy the diameter of the tumour base and treatment time were independent prognostic factors for overall survival, for patients treated by enucleation age and histological type of tumour were independent prognosticators. In first few years after either of treatments, the melanoma specific annual mortality rate increased, especially in older patients, and then slowly decreased. Conclusions It seems that particularly younger patients with early tumours can be cured, whereby preference should be given to eyesight preserving brachytherapy over enucleation. PMID:27069456

  6. L1 cell adhesion molecule as a novel independent poor prognostic factor in gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Song-Yi; Jo, Young Suk; Huang, Song-Mei; Liang, Zhe Long; Min, Jeong-Ki; Hong, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Jin-Man

    2011-10-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is a lethal malignancy and is hard to cure by current treatment. Thus, identification of molecular prognostic markers to predict gallbladder carcinoma as therapeutic targets is urgently needed. Recent studies have demonstrated that L1 cell adhesion molecule is associated with the prognosis of variable malignancy. Here, we investigated L1 cell adhesion molecule expression in gallbladder carcinoma and its prognostic significance. In this study, we examined L1 cell adhesion molecule expression in tumor specimens from 69 patients with gallbladder carcinoma by immunohistochemistry and analyzed the correlation between L1 cell adhesion molecule expression and clinicopathologic factors or survival. L1 cell adhesion molecule was not expressed in the normal epithelium of the gallbladder but in 63.8% of gallbladder carcinomas, remarkably at the invasive front of the tumors. In addition, L1 cell adhesion molecule expression was significantly associated with high histologic grade, advanced pathologic T stage and clinical stage, and positive venous/lymphatic invasion. Multivariate analyses showed that L1 cell adhesion molecule expression (hazard ratio, 3.503; P = .028) and clinical stage (hazard ratio, 3.091; P = .042) were independent risk factor for disease-free survival. L1 cell adhesion molecule expression in gallbladder carcinoma was significantly correlated with tumor progression and unfavorable clinicopathologic features. L1 cell adhesion molecule expression was an independent poor prognostic factor for disease-free survival in patients with gallbladder carcinoma. Taken together, our findings suggest that L1 cell adhesion molecule expression could be used as a novel prognostic factor for patient survival and might be a potential therapeutic target in gallbladder carcinomas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of sex on prognostic host factors in surgical patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wainer, Zoe; Wright, Gavin M; Gough, Karla; Daniels, Marissa G; Choong, Peter; Conron, Matthew; Russell, Prudence A; Alam, Naveed Z; Ball, David; Solomon, Benjamin

    2016-09-14

    Lung cancer has markedly poorer survival in men. Recognized important prognostic factors are divided into host, tumour and environmental factors. Traditional staging systems that use only tumour factors to predict prognosis are of limited accuracy. By examining sex-based patterns of disease-specific survival in non-small cell lung cancer patients, we determined the effect of sex on the prognostic value of additional host factors. Two cohorts of patients treated surgically with curative intent between 2000 and 2009 were utilized. The primary cohort was from Melbourne, Australia, with an independent validation set from the American Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. Univariate and multivariate analyses of validated host-related prognostic factors were performed in both cohorts to investigate the differences in survival between men and women. The Melbourne cohort had 605 patients (61% men) and SEER cohort comprised 55 681 patients (51% men). Disease-specific 5-year survival showed men had statistically significant poorer survival in both cohorts (P < 0.001); Melbourne men at 53.2% compared with women at 68.3%, and SEER 53.3% men and 62.0% women were alive at 5 years. Being male was independently prognostic for disease-specific mortality in the Melbourne cohort after adjustment for ethnicity, smoking history, performance status, age, pathological stage and histology (hazard ratio = 1.54, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-2.16, P = 0.012). Sex differences in non-small cell lung cancer are important irrespective of age, ethnicity, smoking, performance status and tumour, node and metastasis stage. Epidemiological findings such as these should be translated into research and clinical paradigms to determine the factors that influence the survival disadvantage experienced by men. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  8. Clinical significance and prognostic value of Vav1 expression in Non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yao; Kong, Fan-Ming; Deng, Qi; Li, Jing-Yi; Cui, Rui; Pu, Ye-Di; Zhai, Qiong-Li; Jia, Ying-Jie; Li, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Vav1 has been reported to be involved in human cancers, however, the expression and clinical significance of Vav1 in NSCLC are not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the expression of Vav1 in 170 NSCLC patients who underwent radical resection by the immunohistochemical analyses. The association between the Vav1 expression and clinicopathological variables was analyzed. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was conducted to determine the prognostic value of Vav1 on the long-term survival. The results showed that the elevated Vav1 expression was correlated positively with lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), T stage (P<0.001) and poor histological differentiation (P<0.001). Patients with negative or low Vav1 expression had better prognoses than those with high Vav1 expression (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that Vav1 was independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) (HR 2.079, 95% CI 1.564 to 2.762, P<0.001) and disease-free survival (DFS) (HR 1.810, 95% CI 1.391 to 2.356, P<0.001). Our findings showed that overexpressed Vav1 was correlated with aggressive tumor behavior. Val1 was an independent factor for NSCLC prognosis, which may serve as a novel prognostic factor and potential target to improve the long-term outcome of NSCLC. PMID:26396925

  9. Cutaneous extramedullary plasmacytoma: clinical, prognostic, and interphase cytogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Comfere, Nneka I; Gonzalez Santiago, Tania M; Peters, Margot S; Knudson, Ryan A; Ketterling, Rhett P; Gibson, Lawrence E

    2013-05-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) of the skin is a rare indolent neoplasm that shares morphological and immunophenotypic features with plasma cell myeloma (PCM), but the molecular features that distinguish these two entities have not been defined. We reviewed the clinical characteristics, course, and molecular abnormalities in 7 cases of cutaneous EMP (cEMP); 2 patients had primary cEMP and 5 had secondary cEMP. Two patients died of progressive extramedullary plasmacytoma, 1 without PCM; 1 patient who had only a hyperdiploid clone, died within 17 months of the diagnosis of cEMP; and 3 died of PCM. One patient, who had cEMP with a hyperdiploid clone and a 13q deletion, was alive 28 months after diagnosis. Our findings raise questions about the relative prognostic value of molecular aberrations observed in cEMP and PCM. The role of fluorescence in situ hybridization testing in predicting disease progression of cEMP remains to be defined.

  10. IRINI: random group allocation of multiple prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Kasturi, Jyotsna; Geisler, John G; Liu, Jianying; Kirchner, Thomas; Amaratunga, Dhammika; Lubomirski, Mariusz

    2011-05-01

    Statistically sound experimental design in pharmacology studies ensures that the known prognostic factors, if any, are equally represented across investigational groups to avoid bias and imbalance which could render the experiment invalid or lead to false conclusions. Complete randomization can be effective to reduce bias in the created groups especially in large sample size situations. However, in small studies which involve only few treatment subjects, as in preclinical trials, there is a high chance of imbalance. The effects of this imbalance may be removed through covariate analysis or prevented with stratified randomization, however small studies limit the number of covariates to be analyzed this way. The problem is accentuated when there are multiple baseline covariates with varying scales and magnitudes to be considered in the randomization, and creating a balanced solution becomes a combinatorial challenge. Our method, IRINI, uses an optimization technique to achieve treatment to subject group allocation across multiple prognostic factors concurrently. It ensures that the created groups are equal in size and statistically comparable in terms of mean and variance. This method is a novel application of genetic algorithms to solve the allocation problem and simultaneously ensure quality, speed of the results and randomness of the process. Results from preclinical trials demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prognostic significance of selected lifestyle factors in urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Wakai, K; Ohno, Y; Obata, K; Aoki, K

    1993-12-01

    To examine the prognostic significance of lifestyle factors in urinary bladder cancer, we conducted a follow-up study of 258 incident bladder cancer patients, who were originally recruited in a case-control study in metropolitan Nagoya. Information on individual survivals was obtained from the computer data-file of the tumor registry of the Nagoya Bladder Cancer Research Group. Univariate analyses revealed significant associations of 5-year survivorship with educational attainment, marital status, drinking habits and consumption of green tea in males, and age at first consultation, histological type and grade of tumor, stage and distant metastasis in both sexes. After adjustment for age, stage, histology (histological type and grade) and distant metastasis by means of a proportional hazards model, drinking of alcoholic beverages was significantly associated with the prognosis of bladder cancer in males. Its adjusted hazard ratio was 0.46 (95% confidence interval: 0.26-0.79), favoring patients who had taken alcoholic beverages. In detailed analysis, ex-drinkers and all levels of current drinkers demonstrated hazard ratios smaller than unity, although no clear dose-response relationship was detected. No prognostic significance was found for such lifestyle factors as smoking habit, uses of artificial sweeteners and hairdye, and consumption of coffee, black tea, matcha (powdered green tea) and cola.

  12. Prognostic Factors of Arthroscopic Adhesiolysis for Arthrofibrosis of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Mo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the results of arthroscopic adhesiolysis for arthrofibrosis of the knee and to investigate possible prognostic factors. Materials and Methods Among the patients who developed arthrofibrosis after knee joint surgery, 68 patients who underwent arthroscopic adhesiolysis and were available for at least one-year follow-up were evaluated with regard to the Lysholm knee score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee score, patient satisfaction, and range of motion (ROM) of the knee. The influence of possible prognostic factors including the cause of arthrofibrosis, duration of disease, and age of the patient on the postoperative ROM was analyzed. Results Sixty-one patients (89.7%) obtained an average increase of 48.6° in ROM; however, the remaining seven patients (10.3%) did not show any increase at the final follow-up. The Lysholm knee score and IKDC subjective knee score increased significantly at the final follow-up. Patient satisfaction was high or very high in 89.7% of the patients at the final follow-up. There was no association between the cause of arthrofibrosis and the increase in postoperative ROM. The duration of disease was significantly related to the postoperative recovery of ROM. Age had no significant influence on the postoperative recovery of ROM. Conclusions We believe that arthroscopic adhesiolysis is effective for the treatment of intraarticular arthrofibrosis. In particular, the duration of the disease had significant influence on the postoperative outcome. PMID:24368998

  13. Prognostic factors of arthroscopic adhesiolysis for arthrofibrosis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Mo; Joo, Yong Bum

    2013-12-01

    To assess the results of arthroscopic adhesiolysis for arthrofibrosis of the knee and to investigate possible prognostic factors. Among the patients who developed arthrofibrosis after knee joint surgery, 68 patients who underwent arthroscopic adhesiolysis and were available for at least one-year follow-up were evaluated with regard to the Lysholm knee score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee score, patient satisfaction, and range of motion (ROM) of the knee. The influence of possible prognostic factors including the cause of arthrofibrosis, duration of disease, and age of the patient on the postoperative ROM was analyzed. Sixty-one patients (89.7%) obtained an average increase of 48.6° in ROM; however, the remaining seven patients (10.3%) did not show any increase at the final follow-up. The Lysholm knee score and IKDC subjective knee score increased significantly at the final follow-up. Patient satisfaction was high or very high in 89.7% of the patients at the final follow-up. There was no association between the cause of arthrofibrosis and the increase in postoperative ROM. The duration of disease was significantly related to the postoperative recovery of ROM. Age had no significant influence on the postoperative recovery of ROM. We believe that arthroscopic adhesiolysis is effective for the treatment of intraarticular arthrofibrosis. In particular, the duration of the disease had significant influence on the postoperative outcome.

  14. Favorable prognostic influence of T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin in metastatic renal cell cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Dielmann, Anastasia; Letsch, Anne; Nonnenmacher, Anika; Miller, Kurt; Keilholz, Ulrich; Busse, Antonia

    2016-02-01

    T-box transcription factors, T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) encoded by Tbx21 and Eomesodermin (Eomes), drive the differentiation of effector/memory T cell lineages and NK cells. The aim of the study was to determine the prognostic influence of the expression of these transcription factors in peripheral blood (pB) in a cohort of 41 metastatic (m) RCC patients before receiving sorafenib treatment and to analyze their association with the immunophenotype in pB. In contrast to Tbx21, in the multivariate analysis including clinical features, Eomes mRNA expression was identified as an independent good prognostic factor for progression-free survival (PFS, p = 0.042) and overall survival (OS, p = 0.001) in addition to a favorable ECOG performance status (p = 0.01 and p = 0.008, respectively). Eomes expression correlated positively not only with expression of Tbx21 and TGFβ1 mRNA, but also with mRNA expression of the activation marker ICOS, and with in vivo activated HLA-DR(+) T cells. Eomes expression was negatively associated with TNFα-producing T cells. On protein level, Eomes was mainly expressed by CD56(+)CD3(-) NK cells in pB. In conclusion, we identified a higher Eomes mRNA expression as an independent good prognostic factor for OS and PFS in mRCC patients treated with sorafenib.

  15. Prognostic factors affecting survival in malignant pleural mesothelioma: analysis of 125 subjects.

    PubMed

    Komurcuoglu, Berna; Cirak, A Kadri; Kirakli, S Cenk; Polat, Gulru; Yucel, Nur; Usluer, Ozan; Erer, Onur; Balci, Gunseli; Gayaf, Mine; Guldaval, Filiz; Aktogu, Serir; Guclu, Salih; Ozsoz, Ayse; Halilcolar, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    Determining the pre-treatment prognostic factors in malignant pleural mesothelioma is important in terms of estimating the course of the disease and selecting patients who are candidate for multimodal therapy. The aim of the study was to determine the prognostic factors affecting survival in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. One hundred and twenty-five patients who had been diagnosed histologically as having malignant pleural mesothelioma over the past 5 years were evaluated retrospectively. Relationships of survival of the patients with their age, gender, exposure to asbestos, smoking history, platelet, hemoglobin, leukocyte (WBC) and serum LDH values, histology, performance score and stage of disease were examined. Advanced clinical stage, N2 nodal involvement and the presence of distant metastasis were found to be related to survival. Sarcomatous histology was found to be a poor prognostic factor independently of other factors. We showed that histological subtype and stage of disease were the most important parameters in planning the treatment, especially in determining the patients who were candidate for multimodal treatment and in estimating the prognosis.

  16. [Clinicopathologic features and prognostic factors of malignant phyllodes tumors].

    PubMed

    Jia, Cui; Mei, Fang; Zheng, Jie; You, Jiang-feng; Liu, Jian-ying

    2013-11-01

    To study the clinicopathologic features of malignant phyllodes tumors (PT) by histopathologic analyses, immunohistochemical profiling and DNA content assay, and evaluation of the clinical outcome. Ten patients with malignant PT from 1999 to 2013 who were treated by surgery were enrolled in this study. The morphologic characteristics were studied under light microscope, standard two-step EnVision method of immunohistochemical staining was used to assess the expression of CK5/6, CKpan, 34β E12, desmin, p63, ER-α, PR, Ki-67, CD34, SMA, p53, p16, bcl-2 and CD117 in the tumors. The corresponding paraffin blocks were also used for flow cytometric DNA content assay. These data were correlated with the follow-up results. The median age of onset was 46.5 years old. The mean tumor size was 7.4 cm (2.0-25.0 cm). At the end of the follow-up period (22 to 125 months), there were tumor recurrences in 3/8 patients and the median time of recurrence was 24 months. Metastasis occurred in 3/8 patients who all died of the tumors. PT had heterogeneous histology, with stromal overgrowth with leaf-like projections, periductal stromal overgrowth, and most commonly, diffuse stromal overgrowth with sarcomatous differentiation. The mean positive index of Ki-67 was 11.4%. The stromal tumor cells were positive for CD34, SMA, p53, p16, and bcl-2 in 3/10, 9/10, 6/10, 8/10, and 4/10 cases, respectively. CD117,ER-α and PR were negative. Interpretable DNA histograms were obtained in nine cases with triploidy in two cases. The diagnosis of malignant PT should be considered based on the diversity of growth patterns and heterogeneous histology.Ki-67 and CD34 are valuable diagnostic and prognostic factors in patients with malignant PT. Tumors with diffuse stromal overgrowth, heterologous elements, Ki-67 ≥ 20% or aneuploidy are more likely to metastasize.

  17. Prognostic Factors in Arthroplasty in the Rheumatoid Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Nagels, Jochem; Rozing, Maarten P.

    2010-01-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty is commonly considered a good option for treatment of the rheumatoid shoulder. However, when the rotator cuff and glenoid bone stock are not preserved, the clinical outcome of arthroplasty in the rheumatoid patients remains unclear. Aim of the study is to explore the prognostic value of multiple preoperative and peroperative variables in total shoulder arthroplasty and shoulder hemiarthroplasty in rheumatoid patients. Clinical Hospital for Special Surgery Shoulder score was determined at different time points over a mean period of 6.5 years in 66 rheumatoid patients with total shoulder arthroplasty and 75 rheumatoid patients with shoulder hemiarthroplasty. Moreover, radiographic analysis was performed to assess the progression of humeral head migration and glenoid loosening. Advanced age and erosions or cysts at the AC joint at time of surgery were associated with a lower postoperative Clinical Hospital for Special Surgery Shoulder score. In total shoulder arthroplasty, status of the rotator cuff and its repair at surgery were predictive of postoperative improvement. Progression of proximal migration during the period after surgery was associated with a lower clinical score over time. However, in hemiarthroplasty, no relation was observed between the progression of proximal or medial migration during follow-up and the clinical score over time. Status of the AC joint and age at the time of surgery should be taken into account when considering shoulder arthroplasty in rheumatoid patients. Total shoulder arthroplasty in combination with good cuff repair yields comparable clinical results as total shoulder arthroplasty when the cuff is intact. PMID:21423883

  18. Prognostic factors for 1-week survival in dogs diagnosed with meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, I; Volk, H A; Van Ham, L; De Decker, S

    2016-08-01

    Although long-term outcomes of meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology (MUA) in dogs have been evaluated, little is known about short-term survival and initial response to therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible prognostic factors for 7-day survival after diagnosis of MUA in dogs. Medical records were reviewed for dogs diagnosed with MUA between 2006 and 2015. Previously described inclusion criteria were used, as well as 7-day survival data for all dogs. A poor outcome was defined as death within 1 week. Of 116 dogs that met inclusion criteria, 30 (26%) died within 7 days of diagnosis. Assessed variables included age, sex, bodyweight, duration of clinical signs and treatment prior to diagnosis, venous blood glucose and lactate levels, white blood cell count on complete blood count, total nucleated cell count/total protein concentration/white blood cell differentiation on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, presence of seizures and cluster seizures, mentation at presentation, neuroanatomical localisation, imaging findings and treatment after diagnosis. Multivariate analysis identified three variables significantly associated with poor outcome; decreased mentation at presentation, presence of seizures, and increased percentage of neutrophils on CSF analysis. Despite initiation of appropriate treatment, more than a quarter of dogs died within 1 week of diagnosis of MUA, emphasising the need for evaluation of short-term prognostic factors. Information from this study could aid clinical staff to provide owners of affected dogs with prognostic information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic factors of endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in spinal cord injured patients.

    PubMed

    Vírseda, M; Salinas, J; Bolufer, E; Esteban, M; Méndez, S

    2013-10-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is an important complication in patients with spinal cord injury due to its frequency and morbidity. One of the most extended therapeutic options is endoscopic injection of obliteration substances in the urethral meatus. To analyze the prognostic factors of VUR treatment using obliterative substances in patients with spinal cord injury. A prospective study was performed in a cohort of 76 patients (age 48.9±14.4 years), of both genders, with spinal cord injuries, who underwent endoscopic treatment of the VUR during the years 2008 to 2011. In all the patients, a clinical history was obtained and a pre-operative videourodynamic study was performed. Another study was carried out at 7.32 months (standard deviation: 6.28 months) of the intervention. Treatment consisted in endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (62 cases) and polydimethylsiloxane (14). The statistical tests applied were the Fisher's exact test and the Student's T test comparing the means. Bilateral significance level was established at 95%. Resolution of VUR was achieved in 46 cases (61%). The statistically significant prognostic factors were age (younger aging cured patients), bilaterality and reflects great (greater grade in bilaterality in the cases with persistence of reflux) and presence of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (greater percentage in the cases of reflux persistence). Stress urinary incontinence (greater percentage in cured patients), contractile potency (lower percentage in cured patients) and urethral resistance (greater percentage in cured patients) were also statistically significant prognostic factors. Among the prognostic factors that affected the endoscopic treatment results of the VUR in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD), anatomical as well as functional factors were found. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic Factors in Patients Hospitalized with Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Avinash; Yadav, Ambuj; Consul, Shuchi; Kumar, Sukriti; Prakash, Ved; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Annesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is characterized by a biochemical triad of hyperglycemia, acidosis, and ketonemia. This condition is life-threatening despite improvements in diabetic care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and biochemical prognostic markers of DKA. We assessed correlations in prognostic markers with DKA-associated morbidity and mortality. Methods Two hundred and seventy patients that were hospitalized with DKA over a period of 2 years were evaluated clinically and by laboratory tests. Serial assays of serum electrolytes, glucose, and blood pH were performed, and clinical outcome was noted as either discharged to home or death. Results The analysis indicated that significant predictors included sex, history of type 1 diabetes mellitus or type 2 diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total leukocyte count, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, serum magnesium, serum phosphate, serum osmolality, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminases, serum albumin, which were further regressed and subjected to multivariate logistic regression (MLR) analysis. The MLR analysis indicated that males were 7.93 times more likely to have favorable outcome compared with female patients (odds ratio, 7.93; 95% confidence interval, 3.99 to 13.51), while decreases in mean APACHE II score (14.83) and serum phosphate (4.38) at presentation may lead to 2.86- and 2.71-fold better outcomes, respectively, compared with higher levels (APACHE II score, 25.00; serum phosphate, 6.04). Conclusion Sex, baseline biochemical parameters such as APACHE II score, and phosphate level were important predictors of the DKA-associated mortality. PMID:27586452

  1. Prognostic factors for salvage endoscopic resection for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Shinya; Tajika, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kodaira, Takeshi; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hara, Kazuo; Hijioka, Susumu; Imaoka, Hiroshi; Goto, Hidemi; Yamao, Kenji; Niwa, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic resection is one treatment option for residual or locally recurrent esophageal cancer after definitive chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. However, little is known about the clinical benefit of salvage endoscopic resection for these lesions. Therefore, the effectiveness and prognostic factors of salvage endoscopic resection were investigated. Patients and methods: A total of 37 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) who underwent salvage endoscopic resection after definitive chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone were reviewed. The method of salvage endoscopic resection was endoscopic mucosal resection using a cap (EMR-C), strip biopsy, or endoscopic submucosal dissection. The effectiveness and prognostic factors of salvage endoscopic resection were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 37 patients with 49 lesions underwent salvage endoscopic resection. Baseline clinical stages were I in 23 patients, II in 3 patients, III in 9 patients, and IV in 2 patients. The number of locoregional recurrences and residual lesions were 35 and 14, respectively. The curative en bloc resection rate was 53.1 % (26/49). The total incidence of complications was 18.9 % (7/37); all were successfully managed conservatively. The 3-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 72.9 % and 53.3 %, respectively, with a median follow-up period of 54 months. Baseline clinical T1 – 2 and N0 were significant factors for good prognosis in terms of overall survival on univariate analysis. Conclusions: Salvage endoscopic resection, especially EMR-C, is a safe and feasible procedure to control residual or recurrent superficial esophageal SCC after definitive chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. The present results showed that baseline clinical T1 – 2 and N0 before chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy were significant prognostic factors. PMID:27540571

  2. Hypermethylation of apoptotic genes as independent prognostic factor in neuroblastoma disease.

    PubMed

    Grau, Elena; Martinez, Francisco; Orellana, Carmen; Canete, Adela; Yañez, Yania; Oltra, Silvestre; Noguera, Rosa; Hernandez, Miguel; Bermúdez, Jose D; Castel, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is an embryonal tumour of neuroectodermal cells, and its prognosis is based on patient age at diagnosis, tumour stage and MYCN amplification, but it can also be classified according to their degree of methylation. Considering that epigenetic aberrations could influence patient survival, we studied the methylation status of a series of 17 genes functionally involved in different cellular pathways in patients with NB and their impact on survival. We studied 82 primary NB tumours and we used methylation-specific-PCR to perform the epigenetic analysis. We evaluated the putative association among the evidence of hypermethylation with the most important NB prognostic factors, as well as to determine the relationship among methylation, clinical classification and survival. CASP8 hypermethylation showed association with relapse susceptibility and, TMS1 and APAF1 hypermethylation are associated with bad prognosis and showed high influence on NB overall survival. Hypermethylation of apoptotic genes has been identified as a good candidate of prognostic factor. We propose the simultaneous analysis of hypermethylation of APAF1, TMS1 and CASP8 apoptotic genes on primary NB tumour as a good prognostic factor of disease progression.

  3. Breast cancer in men in Cote d'Or (France): epidemiological characteristics, treatments and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Dabakuyo, T S; Dialla, O; Gentil, J; Poillot, M-L; Roignot, P; Cuisenier, J; Arveux, P

    2012-11-01

    Breast cancer in men is rare, and clinical trials are thus not feasible. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics, treatment and prognostic factors of breast cancer in men. A population-based study was performed using data from the Cote d'Or breast and gynaecological cancer registry. Data on male breast cancer diagnosed from 1982 to 2008 were provided. Relative survival rates were estimated at 5 years according to the characteristics of the patient and tumour, and treatment. Prognostic factors of survival in men with breast cancer were identified using a generalised linear model. Seventy-five men with invasive breast cancer were registered. Mean age at diagnosis was 66 years. The use of adjuvant chemotherapy (P= 0.013) and hormone therapy (P < 0.0001) increased over time. Relative survival rate at 5 years was 69% for the whole population. Analysis of relative survival according to the treatment showed that survival was longer for patients treated with surgery + radiotherapy + hormone therapy: 89% at 5 years. Scarff, Bloom and Richardson grade was independent prognostic factor of survival. Male breast cancer is a rare disease with a poor prognosis, and diagnosis is often made at an advanced stage. Early diagnosis and better knowledge of the disease would certainly lead to improvements in the prognosis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. [Prognostic factors for inability to walk independently in patients with multiple system atrophy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z W; Wu, X H; Qiu, F; Liu, J G; Yao, W; Jiang, M; Wang, S S; Chen, Z G; Qi, X K

    2017-02-01

    Objective: To explore the prognostic factors for inability to walk independently in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Methods: A total of 123 patients with clinically confirmed MSA admitted to Navy General Hospital and Dongfang Hospital affiliated to the Second Clinical Medical College of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, from February 2013 to February 2016, were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data and all records were collected and all subjects were followed up by a telephone call in February 2016. The second milestone of activities of daily living scale (ADL), defined as inability to walk independently, was taken as the primary outcome. Eight possible prognostic factors were investigated and the survival analysis was performed with Cox proportional hazards model regression. Results: Of all the MSA patients, 74 subjects were men and 49 were women with a sex radio of 1.51∶1(M∶F). Seventy cases were diagnosed with MSA-cerebellar type (MSA-C) and 53 with MSA-Parkinson type (MSA-P) (C∶P=1.32∶1). Mean age at the onset of first symptom was (53±8) years old. All patients had severe autonomic nervous dysfunction. At the last follow-up, 56 cases (45.5%) were unable to walk independently. The median survival time from the onset of MSA to inability to walk independently was 73 months. The age of onset ≥ 55 years (HR=1.969, 95%CI 1.095-3.542, P=0.024) and the interval time from disease onset to combined motor and autonomic involvement≤3 years (HR=2.308, 95%CI 1.158-4.600, P=0.017) were independent prognostic factors for inability to walk independently, while gender, MSA clinical subtypes, initial symptoms, alcohol intake, smoking and toxic exposure were not indicators for independent walking (P>0.05). Conclusions: The prognostic factors for inability to walk independently in patients with MSA are the age of onset ≥55 years and the interval time from disease onset to combined motor and autonomic involvement≤3 years. Although factors

  5. Treatment outcomes and prognostic factors of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    DHANASEKARAN, RENUMATHY; HEMMING, ALAN W.; ZENDEJAS, IVAN; GEORGE, THOMAS; NELSON, DAVID R.; SOLDEVILA-PICO, CONSUELO; FIRPI, ROBERTO J.; MORELLI, GIUSEPPE; CLARK, VIRGINIA; CABRERA, RONIEL

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the treatment outcome and prognostic factors for survival in patients with peripheral intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). A retrospective chart review was performed for patients diagnosed with ICC between 2000 and 2009 at a single institution. We identified a total of 105 patients with ICC. Among them, 63.8% were older than 60 years of age, 50.5% were male and 88.6% were Caucasian. By preoperative imaging approximately half of the patients (50.5%) were surgical candidates and underwent resection. The other half of the patients (49.5%) were unresectable. The unresectable group received chemoradiotherapy (53%) and transarterial chemoembolization (7.7%) as palliative treatments while 23.0% of the patients (12/52) received best supportive care alone. The median survival rates were 16.1 months (13.1–19.2) for the entire cohort, 27.6 months (17.7–37.6) for curative resection, 12.9 months (6.5–19.2) for palliative chemoradiotherapy and 4.9 months (0.4–9.6) for best supportive care (P<0.001). Independent predictors on multivariate analysis were advanced stage at diagnosis and treatment received. In those patients who underwent resection, advanced AJCC stage and presence of microvascular invasion were also independent predictors of poor survival. We concluded that surgery offers the most beneficial curative option and outcome, emphasizing the importance of resectability as a major prognostic factor. The present study also revealed that use of chemoradiotherapy in the adjuvant setting failed to improve survival but its palliative use in those patients with unresectable ICC offered a modest survival advantage over best supportive care. The overriding factors influencing outcome were stage and the presence of microvascular invasion on pathology. PMID:23426976

  6. Cytokines and Prognostic Factors in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jammal, Millena Prata; Martins-Filho, Agrimaldo; Silveira, Thales Parenti; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido; Nomelini, Rosekeila Simões

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ovarian cancer has a high mortality and delayed diagnosis. Inflammation is a risk factor for ovarian cancer, and the inflammatory response is involved in almost all stages of tumor development. Immunohistochemical staining in stroma and epithelium of a panel of cytokines in benign and malignant ovarian neoplasm was evaluated. In addition, immunostaining was related to prognostic factors in malignant tumors. METHOD The study group comprised 28 ovarian benign neoplasias and 28 ovarian malignant neoplasms. A panel of cytokines was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (Th1: IL-2 and IL-8; Th2: IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10; and TNFR1). Chi-square test with Yates’ correction was used, which was considered significant if less than 0.05. RESULTS TNFR1, IL-5, and IL-10 had more frequent immunostaining 2/3 in benign neoplasms compared with malignant tumors. Malignant tumors had more frequent immunostaining 2/3 for IL-2 in relation to benign tumors. The immunostaining 0/1 of IL 8 was more frequent in the stroma of benign neoplasms compared with malignant neoplasms. Evaluation of the ovarian cancer stroma showed that histological grade 3 was significantly correlated with staining 2/3 for IL-2 (P = 0.004). Women whose disease-free survival was less than 2.5 years had TNFR1 stromal staining 2/3 (P = 0.03) more frequently. CONCLUSION IL-2 and TNFR1 stromal immunostaining are related prognostic factors in ovarian cancer and can be the target of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:27512342

  7. Rectal Adenocarcinoma: Proposal for a Model Based on Pretreatment Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Cabanillas, Fernando; Freire, Viviana; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Quevedo, Gerardo; Echenique, Ignacio A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Currently the choice of chemotherapy regimen in rectal cancer is made prior to surgery in contrast to colon cancer where it is made postoperatively after the pathological stage has been determined. If we could identify which are the important pretreatment prognostic factors in rectal cancer, we could then target those patients with unfavorable features to investigate potentially more effective preoperative chemotherapy regimens aimed at those with unfavorable features. The present study aims to determine pre-treatment prognostic factors that are associated with an unfavorable outcome. Methods A retrospective review of 99 rectal cancer patients operated at the Hospital Auxilio Mutuo and Hospital San Pablo was done. Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical and treatment data was collected. Results 54% were males. The mean ± sd age was 62.2 ± 10.4. In age-adjusted Cox model, male gender [HR (95%CI): 3.32 (1.09–10.13)], mucinous carcinoma [HR (95%CI): 3.67 (1.25–10.77)], and clinical stages II & III [HR (95%CI): 8.19 (1.08–62.08)] were predictors of poor prognosis. In multivariate age-adjusted analysis, a tendency towards a poorer prognosis was observed for male patients [HR: 2.60] CEA level ≥ 5ng/ml [HR: 2.55], mucinous carcinoma [HR:2.96], and clinical stages II & III [HR:4.96], although results were not statistically significant (p>0.05), Conclusion Although current therapeutic results are relatively favorable with preoperative 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) and radiotherapy, future clinical trials should address the management of those cases with adverse pretreatment prognostic factors so that they can be treated with potentially more effective albeit more toxic chemotherapy regimens. PMID:22783696

  8. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and adolescents: prognostic factors and analysis of survival

    PubMed Central

    Lustosa de Sousa, Daniel Willian; de Almeida Ferreira, Francisco Valdeci; Cavalcante Félix, Francisco Helder; de Oliveira Lopes, Marcos Vinicios

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical and laboratory features of children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated at three referral centers in Ceará and evaluate prognostic factors for survival, including age, gender, presenting white blood cell count, immunophenotype, DNA index and early response to treatment. Methods Seventy-six under 19-year-old patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with the Grupo Brasileiro de Tratamento de Leucemia da Infância – acute lymphoblastic leukemia-93 and -99 protocols between September 2007 and December 2009 were analyzed. The diagnosis was based on cytological, immunophenotypic and cytogenetic criteria. Associations between variables, prognostic factors and response to treatment were analyzed using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Overall and event-free survival were estimated by Kaplan–Meier analysis and compared using the log-rank test. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent prognostic factors. Results The average age at diagnosis was 6.3 ± 0.5 years and males were predominant (65%). The most frequently observed clinical features were hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Central nervous system involvement and mediastinal enlargement occurred in 6.6% and 11.8%, respectively. B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia was more common (89.5%) than T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A DNA index >1.16 was found in 19% of patients and was associated with favorable prognosis. On Day 8 of induction therapy, 95% of the patients had lymphoblast counts <1000/μL and white blood cell counts <5.0 × 109/L. The remission induction rate was 95%, the induction mortality rate was 2.6% and overall survival was 72%. Conclusion The prognostic factors identified are compatible with the literature. The 5-year overall and event-free survival rates were lower than those reported for developed countries. As shown by the multivariate analysis, age and baseline white

  9. Uni- and multivariate models for investigating potential prognostic factors in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lionello, Marco; Staffieri, Claudia; Breda, Stefano; Turato, Chiara; Giacomelli, Luciano; Magnavita, Paola; de Filippis, Cosimo; Staffieri, Alberto; Marioni, Gino

    2015-08-01

    With a worldwide incidence estimated at 8-15 per 100,000 population a year, idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is a common clinical finding for otologists. There is a shortage of information on the clinical factors capable of predicting hearing recovery and response to therapy. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the prognostic value of clinical variables in relation to hearing recovery, in a cohort of 117 consecutive patients with ISSHL. Clinical parameters (signs, symptoms, comorbidities and treatments) and audiometric data were analyzed with univariate and multivariate statistical approaches for prognostic purposes to identify any correlation with hearing recovery, also expressed according to the Wilson criteria. Univariate analysis showed that age and hypertension were significantly related to hearing outcome (p = 0.004 and p = 0.015, respectively). Elderly patients and those with hypertension were at higher risk of experiencing no hearing recovery (OR = 3.25 and OR = 2.89, respectively). Age was an independent prognostic factor on multivariate analysis (p = 0.007). Tinnitus as a presenting symptom showed a trend towards an association with hearing recovery (p = 0.07). The treatment regimen, the time elapsing between the onset of symptoms and the start of therapy (p = 0.34), and the duration of the treatment (p = 0.83) were unrelated to recovery on univariate analysis. Among the parameters considered, only age was significantly and independently related to hearing outcome. There is a need for well-designed, randomized clinical trials to enable an evidence-based protocol to be developed for the treatment of ISSHL.

  10. Cancer of the glottis: prognostic factors in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mantravadi, R.V.; Liebner, E.J.; Haas, R.E.; Skolnik, E.M.; Applebaum, E.L.

    1983-10-01

    The authors conducted a multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors in 96 patients with early glottic cancer treated by radiation therapy. Of these, 73 had T1 and 23 had T2 tumor. The primary tumor was controlled in 82% of T1 and 74% of T2 lesions. Actuarial five-year survival rates were 87% for T1 and 74% for T2. Carcinoma of the anterior commissure associated with bilateral vocal cord involvement, subglottic tumor extension, persistent or recurrent laryngeal edema, and impaired cord mobility was found to adversely influence the prognosis. The data suggest that irradiation is the treatment of choice for glottic cancer limited to the vocal cords or with minimal extension to the anterior commissure or supraglottic larynx.

  11. Cancer of the glottis: prognostic factors in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mantravadi, R.V.P.; Liebner, E.J.; Haas, R.E.; Skolnik, E.M.; Applebaum, E.L.

    1983-10-01

    The authors conducted a multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors in 96 patients with early glottic cancer treated by radiation therapy. Of these, 73 had T/sub 1/ and 23 had T/sub 2/ tumor. The primary tumor was controlled in 82% of T/sub 1/ amd 74% for T/sub 2/. Carcinoma of the anterior commissure associated with bilateral vocal cord involvement, subglottic tumor extension, persistent or recurrent laryngeal edema, and impaired cord mobility was found to adversely influence the prognosis. The data suggest that irradiation is the treatment of choice for glottic cancer limited to the vocal cords or with minimal extension to the anterior commissure or gupraglottic larynx.

  12. Correlation between molybdenum target mammography signs and pathological prognostic factors of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Ma, A D; Jia, H X

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the correlation between molybdenum target (mo-target) mammography signs and pathological prognostic factors of breast cancer. We selected 320 breast cancer patients who were treated between January 2014 and January 2016; using single-factor and multiple-factor logistic regression method, we made correlation analysis on their clinical features, pathological features and mo-target mammography signs. Among mo-target mammography signs, lumps accompanied with calcification and blurry edge were associated with high histologic grades; lumps accompanied with calcification and clear edge were associated with Ki-67 positive; compared with the patients who had lumps with non-stellate edges, positive rates of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were significantly higher for the patients who had lumps with stellate edges (p < 0.01), while positive rate of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) and tumor proliferative activity were significantly lower (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). According to the study, we can conclude that mo-target mammography signs mainly include lumps and calcification. Mo-target mammography can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and reduce misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis. Part of mo-target mammography signs are associated with clinical pathology prognostic factors; by grasping the relation, breast cancer patient conditions are expected to be relieved.

  13. Statistical controversies in clinical research: prognostic gene signatures are not (yet) useful in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Michiels, S.; Ternès, N.; Rotolo, F.

    2016-01-01

    With the genomic revolution and the era of targeted therapy, prognostic and predictive gene signatures are becoming increasingly important in clinical research. They are expected to assist prognosis assessment and therapeutic decision making. Notwithstanding, an evidence-based approach is needed to bring gene signatures from the laboratory to clinical practice. In early breast cancer, multiple prognostic gene signatures are commercially available without having formally reached the highest levels of evidence-based criteria. We discuss specific concepts for developing and validating a prognostic signature and illustrate them with contemporary examples in breast cancer. When a prognostic signature has not been developed for predicting the magnitude of relative treatment benefit through an interaction effect, it may be wishful thinking to test its predictive value. We propose that new gene signatures be built specifically for predicting treatment effects for future patients and outline an approach for this using a cross-validation scheme in a standard phase III trial. Replication in an independent trial remains essential. PMID:27634691

  14. Factors prognostic for phonetic development after cleft palate repair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon Seok; Kim, Jae Bong; Lee, Jeong Woo; Yang, Jung Dug; Chung, Ho Yun; Cho, Byung Chae; Choi, Kang Young

    2015-10-01

    Palatoplasty is aimed to achieve normal speech, improve food intake, and ensure successful maxillary growth. However, the velopharyngeal function is harder to control than other functions. Therefore, many studies on the prognostic factor of velopharyngeal insufficiency have been conducted. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between speech outcomes and multimodality based on intraoral and preoperative three-dimensional computerized tomographic (CT) findings. Among 73 children with cleft palate who underwent palatoplasty between April 2011 and August 2014 at Kyungpook National University Hospital (KNUH), 27 were retrospectively evaluated. The 27 cases were non-syndromic, for which successful speech evaluation was conducted by a single speech-language pathologist (Table 1). Successful speech evaluation was defined as performing the test three times in 6-month intervals. Three intraoral parameters were measured before and immediately after operation (Fig. 1). On axial- and coronal-view preoperative facial CT, 5 and 2 different parameters were analyzed, respectively (Figs. 2 and 3). Regression analysis (SPSS IBM 22.0) was used in the statistical analysis. Two-flap palatoplasty and Furlow's double opposing Z-plasty were performed in 15 and 12 patients, respectively. The operation was performed 11 months after birth on average. Children with a higher palatal arch and wider maxillary tuberosity distance showed hypernasality (p < 0.05; Table 2). The useful prognostic factors of velopharyngeal function after palatoplasty were palate width and height, rather than initial diagnosis, treatment method, or palate length. Therefore, a more active intervention is needed, such as orthopedic appliance, posterior pharyngeal wall augmentation, or early speech training. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma: Prognostic Factors and Oncologic Outcome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Magge, Deepa; Zenati, Mazen S.; Austin, Frances; Mavanur, Arun; Sathaiah, Magesh; Ramalingam, Lekshmi; Jones, Heather; Zureikat, Amer H.; Holtzman, Matthew; Ahrendt, Steven; Pingpank, James; Zeh, Herbert J.; Bartlett, David L.; Choudry, Haroon A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Most patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) present with late-stage, unresectable disease that responds poorly to systemic chemotherapy while, at the same time, effective targeted therapies are lacking. We assessed the efficacy of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC) in MPM. Methods We prospectively analyzed 65 patients with MPM undergoing CRS/HIPEC between 2001 and 2010. Kaplan–Meier survival curves and multivariate Cox-regression models identified prognostic factors affecting oncologic outcomes. Results Adequate CRS was achieved in 56 patients (CC-0 = 35; CC-1 = 21), and median simplified peritoneal cancer index (SPCI) was 12. Pathologic assessment revealed predominantly epithelioid histology (81 %) and biphasic histology (8 %), while lymph node involvement was uncommon (8 %). Major postoperative morbidity (grade III/IV) occurred in 23 patients (35 %), and 60-day mortality rate was 6 %. With median follow-up of 37 months, median overall survival was 46.2 months, with 1-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival probability of 77, 57, and 39 %, respectively. Median progression-free survival was 13.9 months, with 1-, 2-, and 5-year disease failure probability of 47, 68, and 83 %, respectively. In a multivariate Cox-regression model, age at surgery, SPCI >15, incomplete cytoreduction (CC-2/3), aggressive histology (epithelioid, biphasic), and postoperative sepsis were joint significant predictors of poor survival (chi square = 42.8; p = 0.00001), while age at surgery, SPCI >15, incomplete cytoreduction (CC-2/3), and aggressive histology (epithelioid, biphasic) were joint significant predictors of disease progression (Chi square = 30.6; p = 0.00001). Conclusions Tumor histology, disease burden, and the ability to achieve adequate surgical cytoreduction are essential prognostic factors in MPM patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC. PMID:24322529

  16. Histopathologic and dietary prognostic factors for canine mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shofer, F S; Sonnenschein, E G; Goldschmidt, M H; Laster, L L; Glickman, L T

    1989-01-01

    Histologic and dietary prognostic factors for survival following naturally occurring breast cancer were studied for 145 pet dogs. Information was collected from the dog's owner and veterinarian regarding medical and reproductive history, nutritional status, treatment, tumor recurrence, and length of survival. The usual intake of all dog and table foods consumed 1 year prior to diagnosis was obtained using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A histologic malignancy score was derived based on 7 histopathologic criteria. The mean age of the dogs was 10.4 +/- 2.5 years; 37% had been ovariohysterectomized prior to diagnosis. Product-limit estimates of survival indicated that 6 factors, namely body conformation 1 year prior to diagnosis (p = 0.03), histologic tumor type (p = 0.004), histologic malignancy score (p = 0.02), histologic invasion (p = 0.002), tumor recurrence (p less than 0.0001), and completeness of surgery (p = 0.01) were of prognostic significance. In addition, when dogs were characterized by the percent of total calories they derived from fat and protein, the median survival time for dogs in the low fat group (less than 39%) with protein greater than 27%, 23-27%, and less than 23% was 3 years, 1.2 years, and 6 months, respectively (p = 0.008). For dogs in the high fat group (greater than or equal to 39%), there was no difference in survival for the different intake levels of dietary protein (p = 0.84). When these data were fitted to a proportional hazards model, recurrence, histologic score, tumor type, percent of calories derived from protein, fat group, and a protein-fat group interaction term were statistically significant. Predicted 1 year survival for dogs on a low fat diet with 15%, 25%, and 35% of total calories derived from protein was 17%, 69%, and 93%, respectively.

  17. Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults With Low-Grade Glioma: A Report Using Intergroup 86-72-51

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Thomas B.; Brown, Paul D.; Felten, Sara J.; Wu, Wenting; Buckner, Jan C.; Arusell, Robert M.; Curran, Walter J.; Abrams, Ross A.; Schiff, David; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-09-01

    histology and tumor size. Co-deletion of 1p19q is a prognostic factor. Future studies are needed to develop a more refined prognostic system that combines clinical prognostic features with more robust molecular and genetic data.

  18. Evaluation of etiologic and prognostic factors in neonatal convulsions.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Edibe Pembegul; Tatlı, Burak; Ekici, Barış; Eraslan, Emine; Aydınlı, Nur; Calışkan, Mine; Ozmen, Meral

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated etiologic and risk factors affecting long-term prognoses of neurologic outcomes in newborns with neonatal seizures. We enrolled patients at chronologic ages of 23-44 months, referred to the Department of Pediatric Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, from January 1, 2007-December 31, 2009, after manifesting seizures in their first postnatal 28 days. Of 112 newborns, 41 were female, 71 were male, 33 were preterm, and 79 were full-term. Perinatal asphyxia (28.6%) and intracranial hemorrhage (17%) were the most common causes of neonatal seizures. Cerebral palsy developed in 27.6% of patients during follow-up. The incidence of epilepsy was 35.7%. Almost 50% of patients manifested developmental delay in one or more areas. Global developmental delay was the most common (50.8%) neurologic disorder. The correlation between gestational age or birth weight and adverse outcomes was nonsignificant. Etiology, Apgar score, need for resuscitation at birth, background electroencephalogram, neonatal status epilepticus, cranial imaging findings, type/duration of antiepileptic treatment, and response to acute treatment were all strong prognostic factors in neurologic outcomes. Neonatal seizures pose a threat of neurologic sequelae for preterm and full-term infants. Although the number of recognized etiologic factors in neonatal seizures has increased because of improvements in neonatology and diagnostic methods, perinatal asphyxia remains the most common factor.

  19. The evolution and clinical relevance of prognostic classification systems in myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bose, Prithviraj; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2016-03-01

    Primary myelofibrosis, the most aggressive of the classic Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), is a clonal disorder characterized by often debilitating constitutional symptoms and splenomegaly, bone marrow fibrosis and resultant cytopenias, extramedullary hematopoiesis, risk of leukemic transformation, and shortened survival. Post-polycythemia vera and post-essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis represent similar entities, although some differences are being recognized. Attempts to classify patients with myelofibrosis into prognostic categories have been made since the late 1980s, and these scoring systems continue to evolve as new information becomes available. Over the last decade, the molecular pathogenesis of MPNs has been elucidated considerably, and the Janus kinase (JAK) 1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib is the first drug specifically approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat patients with intermediate-risk and high-risk myelofibrosis. This article reviews the evolution of prognostic criteria in myelofibrosis, emphasizing the major systems widely in use today, as well as recently described, novel systems that incorporate emerging data regarding somatic mutations. Risk factors for thrombosis and conversion to MPN blast phase also are discussed. Finally, the practical usefulness of the current prognostic classification systems in terms of clinical decision making is discussed, particularly within the context of some of their inherent weaknesses. Cancer 2016;122:681-692. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  20. Skeletal Muscle Depletion and Markers for Cancer Cachexia Are Strong Prognostic Factors in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aust, Stefanie; Knogler, Thomas; Pils, Dietmar; Obermayr, Eva; Reinthaller, Alexander; Zahn, Lisa; Radlgruber, Ilja; Mayerhoefer, Marius Erik; Grimm, Christoph; Polterauer, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Tumor cachexia is an important prognostic parameter in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Tumor cachexia is characterized by metabolic and inflammatory disturbances. These conditions might be reflected by body composition measurements (BCMs) ascertained by pre-operative computed tomography (CT). Thus, we aimed to identify the prognostically most relevant BCMs assessed by pre-operative CT in EOC patients. Methods We evaluated muscle BCMs and well established markers of nutritional and inflammatory status, as well as clinical-pathological parameters in 140 consecutive patients with EOC. Furthermore, a multiplexed inflammatory marker panel of 25 cytokines was used to determine the relationship of BCMs with inflammatory markers and patient’s outcome. All relevant parameters were evaluated in uni- and multivariate survival analysis. Results Muscle attenuation (MA)—a well established BCM parameter—is an independent prognostic factor for survival in multivariate analysis (HR 2.25; p = 0.028). Low MA—reflecting a state of cachexia—is also associated with residual tumor after cytoreductive surgery (p = 0.046) and with an unfavorable performance status (p = 0.015). Moreover, MA is associated with Eotaxin and IL-10 out of the 25 cytokine multiplex marker panel in multivariate linear regression analysis (p = 0.021 and p = 0.047, respectively). Conclusion MA—ascertained by routine pre-operative CT—is an independent prognostic parameter in EOC patients. Low MA is associated with the inflammatory, as well as the nutritional component of cachexia. Therefore, the clinical value of pre-operative CT could be enhanced by the assessment of MA. PMID:26457674

  1. Are there recognized prognostic factors for patients undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy for colorectal carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Tsitsias, Thomas; Toufektzian, Levon; Routledge, Tom; Pilling, John

    2016-12-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether there is a specific subgroup of patients that would benefit from pulmonary metastasectomy for colorectal carcinoma (CRC). A total of 524 papers were identified using the reported search, of which 1 meta-analysis, 1 systematic review and 17 retrospective studies represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date, journal, country, study type, population, outcomes and key results are tabulated. Single pulmonary metastasis (PM) was identified as an independent prognostic favourable factor of survival in 5 of the studies (P = 0.059-0.001), whereas in 2 of the retrospective studies there was linear inverse correlation between the number of PMs and survival (P = 0.005-0.001). The presence of involved hilar and/or mediastinal lymph nodes was reported as a significant negative prognostic factor on multivariate analysis in 7 of the studies (P = 0.042 to <0.001), whereas the level and number of lymph node stations affected were not statistically significant. Seven studies showed an elevated pre-thoracotomy carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA) level (>5 ng/ml) to be a significant predictor of poor survival (P = 0.047-0.0008). In one of the studies, sublobar resection (wedge or segmentectomy) was associated with better survival compared with anatomic resection (P = 0.04). The size of the tumour (maximum diameter >3.75 cm) was associated with worse survival in 1 of the studies (P = 0.04), while another one reported size as a continuous variable to be a prognostic factor of poor survival. Synchronous chemotherapy (P = 0.027) on one study and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy prior to pulmonary metastasectomy (P = 0.0001) on another were found to be favourable prognostic factors, while disease progression during chemotherapy was associated with poor outcome in another paper (P < 0.0001). Patients older than 70 years were shown to have a

  2. Prognostic factors of brain metastases from breast cancer: impact of targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Braccini, Antoine Laurent; Azria, David; Thezenas, Simon; Romieu, Gilles; Ferrero, Jean Marc; Jacot, William

    2013-10-01

    Brain metastases (BM) from breast cancer are associated with poor prognosis. This study was made to determine the prognostic influence of breast cancer biological subtypes, and to define the best therapeutic options in this setting, with a special focus on the HER2-positive population. Breast cancer patients with known hormone receptors (HR) and HER2 status presenting with BM treated between 1995 and 2010 in our two institutions were considered for this retrospective study. 250 patients were included. The study population consisted of 25.6% patients categorized as triple-negative (HR-/HER2-), 30.8% as HR+/HER2- and 43.6% as HER2+ breast cancer. Median overall survival (OS) was 8.9 months (95% CI, 6.9-10.3 months). Cerebral progression remained the most frequent cause of death (57.1%). On multivariate analysis, HER2 positivity and the RPA score were the two most important prognostic factors. Local treatment (surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy) and chemotherapy were significantly associated with an increased survival. On multivariate analysis of the RPA1-2 population, local treatment and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors in addition to biological subtypes, RPA class, liver metastases and clinical signs of intra-cranial hypertension. Anti-HER2 therapies administered after BM diagnosis significantly and independently increased OS. Median OS in patients receiving both trastuzumab and lapatinib after BM diagnosis was significantly better than that the one of patients receiving only one of the 2 targeted therapies (25.7 vs. 9.6 months, p < 0.001). Biological subtypes are independent prognostic determinants. Chemotherapy and targeted therapies positively affect the prognosis after first BM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prognostic factors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia accompanied by cardiovascular malformation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigehiro; Sago, Haruhiko; Kanamori, Yutaka; Hayakawa, Masahiro; Okuyama, Hiroomi; Inamura, Noboru; Fujino, Yuji; Usui, Noriaki; Taguchi, Tomoaki

    2013-08-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is associated with cardiovascular malformation. Many prognostic factors have been identified for isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia; however, reports of concurrent congenital diaphragmatic hernia and cardiovascular malformation in infants are limited. This study evaluated congenital diaphragmatic hernia associated with cardiovascular malformation in infants. Factors associated with prognosis for patients were also identified. This retrospective cohort study was based on a Japanese survey of congenital diaphragmatic hernia patients between 2006 and 2010. Frequency and outcome of cardiovascular malformation among infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia were examined. Severity of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and cardiovascular malformation were compared as predictors of mortality and morbidity. Cardiovascular malformation was identified in 76 (12.3%) of 614 infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Mild cardiovascular malformation was detected in 19 (33.9%) and severe cardiovascular malformation in 37 (66.1%). Their overall survival rate at discharge was 46.4%, and the survival rate without morbidity was 23.2%. Mortality and morbidity at discharge were more strongly associated with severity of cardiovascular malformation (adjusted OR 7.69, 95%CI 1.96-30.27; adjusted OR 7.93, 95%CI 1.76-35.79, respectively) than with severity of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The prognosis for infants with both congenital diaphragmatic hernia and cardiovascular malformation remains poor. Severity of cardiovascular malformation is a more important predictive factor for mortality and morbidity than severity of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. [Epidemiologic and prognostic factors of cancer of the breast].

    PubMed

    Rouëssé, J; Berlie, J; Hacene, K; Brunet, M; Spyratos, F

    1990-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most common of all cancers affecting women in France; its frequency increases in countries with a high standard of living. A family history and certain types of mastosis are unquestionable risk factors, although their weight has not yet been well established, but there is no absolute proof that feeding habits (notably fats and alcohol), which have been blamed by some authors, play a role in the genesis of breast cancer. Among the classical prognostic factors, which are necessary for surgical decisions, the size of the tumour, its histological grade and above all the number of axillary lymph nodes involved are the most important. However, a better knowledge of breast cancer biology has yielded factors that seem to be more promising than hormonal receptors, notably the DNA content of tumoral cells and the presence or absence of a protease, procathepsin 52 K, which reflects tumoral aggressiveness. As for the study of oncogens described elsewhere in this monograph, it will provide a better definition of high risk subjects and more precise information on the progress of the cancer.

  5. The prognostic significance of UCA1 for predicting clinical outcome in patients with digestive system malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zheng-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background Urothelial Carcinoma Associated 1 (UCA1) was an originally identified lncRNA in bladder cancer. Previous studies have reported that UCA1 played a significant role in various types of cancer. This study aimed to clarify the prognostic value of UCA1 in digestive system cancers. Results The meta-analysis of 15 studies were included, comprising 1441 patients with digestive system cancers. The pooled results of 14 studies indicated that high expression of UCA1 was significantly associated with poorer OS in patients with digestive system cancers (HR: 1.89, 95 % CI: 1.52–2.26). In addition, UCA1 could be as an independent prognostic factor for predicting OS of patients (HR: 1.85, 95 % CI: 1.45–2.25). The pooled results of 3 studies indicated a significant association between UCA1 and DFS in patients with digestive system cancers (HR = 2.50; 95 % CI = 1.30–3.69). Statistical significance was also observed in subgroup meta-analysis. Furthermore, the clinicopathological values of UCA1 were discussed in esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer. Materials and methods A comprehensive retrieval was performed to search studies evaluating the prognostic value of UCA1 in digestive system cancers. Many databases were involved, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang database. Quantitative meta-analysis was performed with standard statistical methods and the prognostic significance of UCA1 in digestive system cancers was qualified. Conclusions Elevated level of UCA1 indicated the poor clinical outcome for patients with digestive system cancers. It may serve as a new biomarker related to prognosis in digestive system cancers. PMID:28380443

  6. The prognostic significance of UCA1 for predicting clinical outcome in patients with digestive system malignancies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-Teng; Dong, Qing; Gao, Hui; Zhu, Zheng-Ming

    2017-06-20

    Urothelial Carcinoma Associated 1 (UCA1) was an originally identified lncRNA in bladder cancer. Previous studies have reported that UCA1 played a significant role in various types of cancer. This study aimed to clarify the prognostic value of UCA1 in digestive system cancers. The meta-analysis of 15 studies were included, comprising 1441 patients with digestive system cancers. The pooled results of 14 studies indicated that high expression of UCA1 was significantly associated with poorer OS in patients with digestive system cancers (HR: 1.89, 95 % CI: 1.52-2.26). In addition, UCA1 could be as an independent prognostic factor for predicting OS of patients (HR: 1.85, 95 % CI: 1.45-2.25). The pooled results of 3 studies indicated a significant association between UCA1 and DFS in patients with digestive system cancers (HR = 2.50; 95 % CI = 1.30-3.69). Statistical significance was also observed in subgroup meta-analysis. Furthermore, the clinicopathological values of UCA1 were discussed in esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer. A comprehensive retrieval was performed to search studies evaluating the prognostic value of UCA1 in digestive system cancers. Many databases were involved, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang database. Quantitative meta-analysis was performed with standard statistical methods and the prognostic significance of UCA1 in digestive system cancers was qualified. Elevated level of UCA1 indicated the poor clinical outcome for patients with digestive system cancers. It may serve as a new biomarker related to prognosis in digestive system cancers.

  7. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC): oncological outcomes and prognostic factors in a large multicentre series.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Alessandro; Novara, Giacomo; Antonelli, Alessandro; Bertini, Roberto; Billia, Michele; Carmignani, Giorgio; Cunico, Sergio Cosciani; Longo, Nicola; Martignoni, Guido; Minervini, Andrea; Mirone, Vincenzo; Simonato, Alchiede; Terrone, Carlo; Zattoni, Filiberto; Ficarra, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    Study Type - Outcomes (cohort) Level of Evidence 2b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? About 80% of RCCs have clear cell histology, and consistent data are available about the clinical and histological characteristics of this histological subtype. Conversely, less attention has been dedicated to the study of non-clear cell renal tumours Specifically, published data show that chromophobe RCC (ChRCC) have often favourable pathological stages and better nuclear grades as well as a lower risk of metastasizing compared with clear cell RCC (ccRCC). Patients with ChRCC were shown to have significantly higher cancer-specific survival (CSS) probabilities compared with ccRCC. However, an independent prognostic role of RCC histotype was not confirmed in some large multicenter series and only a few studies have focused on the oncological outcomes of ChRCC. The present study is one of the few to evaluate cancer-related outcomes of ChRCC and represents to our knowledge the largest series of ChRCCs. Consequently, the present findings may assist in elucidating the natural history of surgically treated ChRCC. The present study confirms that ChRCCs have good prognosis and a low tendency to progress and metastasize. Only 1.3% of patients presented with distant metastases at diagnosis, and the 5- and 10-year CSS were 93% and 88.9%, respectively. However, although ChRCCs are generally characterised by an excellent prognosis, we observed that patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancers as well as those with sarcomatoid differentiation have a poor outcome. The study also investigated prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and CSS for this RCC histotype. The definition of outcome predictors can be useful for patient counselling, planning of follow-up strategies, and patient selection for clinical trials. In the present study, gender, clinical T stage, pathological T stage, and presence of sarcomatoid differentiation were significantly

  8. Diagnosis-Specific Prognostic Factors, Indexes, and Treatment Outcomes for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Brain Metastases: A Multi-Institutional Analysis of 4,259 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Sperduto, Paul W.; Chao, Samuel T.; Sneed, Penny K.

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Controversy endures regarding the optimal treatment of patients with brain metastases (BMs). Debate persists, despite many randomized trials, perhaps because BM patients are a heterogeneous population. The purpose of the present study was to identify significant diagnosis-specific prognostic factors and indexes (Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment [DS-GPA]). Methods and Materials: A retrospective database of 5,067 patients treated for BMs between 1985 and 2007 was generated from 11 institutions. After exclusion of the patients with recurrent BMs or incomplete data, 4,259 patients with newly diagnosed BMs remained eligible for analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the prognostic factors and outcomes by primary site and treatment were performed. The significant prognostic factors were determined and used to define the DS-GPA prognostic indexes. The DS-GPA scores were calculated and correlated with the outcomes, stratified by diagnosis and treatment. Results: The significant prognostic factors varied by diagnosis. For non-small-cell lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer, the significant prognostic factors were Karnofsky performance status, age, presence of extracranial metastases, and number of BMs, confirming the original GPA for these diagnoses. For melanoma and renal cell cancer, the significant prognostic factors were Karnofsky performance status and the number of BMs. For breast and gastrointestinal cancer, the only significant prognostic factor was the Karnofsky performance status. Two new DS-GPA indexes were thus designed for breast/gastrointestinal cancer and melanoma/renal cell carcinoma. The median survival by GPA score, diagnosis, and treatment were determined. Conclusion: The prognostic factors for BM patients varied by diagnosis. The original GPA was confirmed for non-small-cell lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer. New DS-GPA indexes were determined for other histologic types and correlated with the outcome, and

  9. Pre-morbid Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is not a prognostic factor in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Paganoni, Sabrina; Hyman, Theodore; Shui, Amy; Allred, Peggy; Harms, Matthew; Liu, Jingxia; Maragakis, Nicholas; Schoenfeld, David; Yu, Hong; Atassi, Nazem; Cudkowicz, Merit; Miller, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether history of pre-morbid type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a prognostic factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods The relationship between DM2 and survival was analyzed in a study population consisting of 1,322 participants from six clinical trials. Results Survival did not differ by diabetes status (Log-Rank Test, p=0.98), but did differ by body mass index (BMI) (Log-Rank Test, p=0.008). In multivariate analysis, there was no significant association between diabetes and survival (p=0.18), but the risk of reaching a survival endpoint decreased by 4% for each unit increase in baseline BMI (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94–0.99, p=0.001). DM2 was less prevalent among ALS clinical trial participants than predicted. Conclusions History of pre-morbid DM2 is not an independent prognostic factor in ALS clinical trial databases. The low DM2 prevalence rate should be examined in a large, prospective study to determine whether DM2 affects ALS risk. PMID:25900666

  10. Prognostic factors of neurological outcomes in late-preterm and term infants with perinatal asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sun Young; Shim, Gyu Hong; Chey, Myoung Jae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to identify prognostic factors of neurological outcomes, including developmental delay, cerebral palsy and epilepsy in late-preterm and term infants with perinatal asphyxia. Methods All late-preterm and term infants with perinatal asphyxia or hypoxic-ischemic insults who admitted the neonatal intensive care unit of Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital between 2006 and 2014 and were followed up for at least 2 years were included in this retrospective study. Abnormal neurological outcomes were defined as cerebral palsy, developmental delay and epilepsy. Results Of the 114 infants with perinatal asphyxia, 31 were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 83 infants, 10 died, 56 had normal outcomes, and 17 had abnormal outcomes: 14 epilepsy (82.4%), 13 cerebral palsy (76.5%), 16 developmental delay (94.1%). Abnormal outcomes were significantly more frequent in infants with later onset seizure, clinical seizure, poor electroencephalography (EEG) background activity, lower Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes and abnormal brain imaging (P<0.05). Infants with and without epilepsy showed significant differences in EEG background activity, clinical and electrographic seizures on EEG, Apgar score at 5 minutes and brain imaging findings. Conclusion We should apply with long-term video EEG or amplitude integrated EEG in order to detect and management subtle clinical or electrographic seizures in neonates with perinatal asphyxia. Also, long-term, prospective studies with large number of patients are needed to evaluate more exact prognostic factors in neonates with perinatal asphyxia. PMID:27895691

  11. Initial absolute lymphocyte count as a prognostic factor for outcome in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Le Jeune, Caroline; Bertoli, Sarah; Elhamri, Mohamed; Vergez, Francois; Borel, Cecile; Huguet, Françoise; Michallet, Mauricette; Dumontet, Charles; Recher, Christian; Thomas, Xavier

    2014-04-01

    The absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at presentation has been associated with survival in various malignancies. However, its prognostic value in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not been established. In a series of 1702 newly diagnosed patients with AML, we evaluated the prognostic value of ALC at diagnosis with regard to induction chemotherapy response, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Low initial ALC (< 1 × 10(9)/L) appeared as a poor prognostic factor for DFS (p = 0.01) and OS (p = 0.02), while higher ALC (> 4.5 × 10(9)/L) showed a lower response rate after one (p = 0.004) or two induction chemotherapy courses (p = 0.01). However, ALC did not appear as an independent predictor of outcome in a multivariate analysis model also including age, cytogenetics and white blood cell count. Examination of lymphocyte subsets is warranted to specify the relationship between ALC at diagnosis and clinical outcome in AML.

  12. Prognostic factors for survival after transarterial chemoembolization combined with microwave ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jia-Yan; Sun, Hong-Liang; Chen, Yao-Ting; Luo, Jiang-Hong; Chen, Dong; Jiang, Xiong-Ying; Xu, Lin-Feng

    2014-12-14

    To analyze prognostic factors for survival after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with microwave ablation (MWA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Clinical data of 86 patients who underwent TACE combined with MWA between January 2006 and December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed in this study. Survival curves were detected using log-rank test. Univariate analysis was performed using log-rank test with respect to 13 prognostic factors affecting survival. All statistically significant prognostic factors identified by univariate analysis were entered into a Cox proportion hazards regression model to identify independent predictors of survival. P values were two-sided and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Median follow-up time was 47.6 mo, and median survival time of enrolled patients was 21.5 mo. The 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 72.1%, 44.1%, 31.4% and 13.9%, respectively. Tumor size(χ(2) = 14.999, P = 0.000), Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage (χ(2) = 29.765, P = 0.000), Child-Pugh class (χ(2) = 51.820, P = 0.000), portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) (χ(2) = 43.086, P = 0.000), arterio-venous fistula (χ(2) = 29.791, P = 0.000), MWA therapy times (χ(2) = 12.920, P = 0.002), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score (χ(2) = 28.660, P = 0.000) and targeted drug usage (χ(2) = 10.901, P = 0.001) were found to be significantly associated with overall survival by univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis identified that tumor size (95%CI: 1.608-4.962, P = 0.000), BCLC stage (95%CI: 1.016-2.208, P = 0.020), PVTT (95%CI: 2.062-9.068, P = 0.000), MWA therapy times (95%CI: 0.402-0.745, P = 0.000), ECOG score (95%CI: 1.012-3.053, P = 0.045) and targeted drug usage (95%CI: 1.335-3.143, P = 0.001) were independent prognostic factors associated with overall survival. Superior performance status, MWA treatment and targeted drug were favorable factors, and large HCC, PVTT and advanced BCLC stage were risk

  13. Prognostic factors for remission in early rheumatoid arthritis: a multiparameter prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Gossec, L; Dougados, M; Goupille, P; Cantagrel, A; Sibilia, J; Meyer, O; Sany, J; Daures, J; Combe, B

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine prognostic factors for remission in early rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: 191 patients with rheumatoid arthritis whose disease duration was less than one year were followed up prospectively for five years. Remission, defined by a disease activity score (DAS) of <1.6, was used as the outcome measure. Baseline clinical, laboratory, genetic, and radiographic data (with radiographic scores determined by Sharp's method, modified by van der Heijde) were obtained. Results: 48 patients (25.1%) fulfilled the remission criteria at the three year follow up visit, and 30 (15.7%) at three and five years. On univariate analysis by Fisher's exact test, remission at three years and persistent remission at five years were closely correlated with baseline DAS values, C reactive protein level, Ritchie score, health assessment questionnaire score, duration of morning stiffness, and to a lesser extent baseline total radiological scores and rheumatoid factor negativity. No significant correlation was found with sex, age, extra-articular manifestations, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anti-cyclic citrullinated protein antibodies, anti-keratin antibodies, anti-HSP 90, anticalpastatin antibodies, antinuclear antibodies, or HLA-DRB1* genotypes. Logistic regression analysis showed that the baseline independent variables predictive of remission were low DAS, Ritchie score, morning stiffness duration, and total radiographic score. Conclusions: Baseline prognostic factors for remission in early rheumatoid arthritis were mainly clinical markers of disease activity and radiological scores. PMID:15140774

  14. [Prognostic significance of serum iron level, hemoglobin and rheumatoid factor titre in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Fischer, H; Häntzschel, H; Winiecki, P; Otto, W

    1977-02-01

    On the basis of the results of a five-year examination of the course on 120 patients with rheumatoid arthritis the authors adopt a definite attitude to the prognostic significance of hypersiderinaemia, anaemia and height of the titre of the rheumatoid factor. With the help of the chi2-test and the rank correlation after Spearman the statistical relations to stage, activity, clinical and radiological progressing as well as to the number of the affected joints were examined. In seropositive patients we found a correlation of the titre of rheumatoid factor and stage. Furthermore a clear correlation existed to clinical and radiological progressing as well as to the number of the affected joints. Early highly positive titres of the rheumatoid factor as an expression of high immunologic activity suggest an unfavourable prognosis in the majority of cases. Constant anaemia and hyposiderinaemia as symptoms of a high basis activity of the disease also showed close relations to the progressing. From this result indications for the early use of important therapeutic measures. For the prognostic judgement of the course of the disease of rheumatoid arthritis it is necessary to have at disposal further methodically simply determinable parameters for the recognition of the basis activity and the immunologic activity.

  15. BIOBEHAVIORAL PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE: Results from the INSPIRE-II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, James A.; Smith, Patrick J.; Durheim, Michael; Mabe, Stephanie; Emery, Charles F.; Martinu, Tereza; Diaz, Philip T.; Babyak, Michael; Welty-Wolf, Karen; Palmer, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the prognostic value of select biobehavioral factors in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a secondary analysis of participants from the INSPIRE-II trial. Methods Three hundred twenty six outpatients with COPD underwent assessments of pulmonary function, physical activity, body mass index, inflammation, pulmonary symptoms, depression, and pulmonary quality of life, and were followed for up to 5.4 years for subsequent clinical events. The prognostic value of each biobehavioral factor, considered individually and combined, also was examined in the context of existing Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2011 risk stratification. Results Sixty-nine individuals experienced a hospitalization or died over a mean follow-up time period of 2.4 (interquartile range = 1.6) years. GOLD classification was associated with an increased risk of clinical events (HR = 2.72 [95% CI 1.63, 4.54], per stage); Six Minute Walk (HR = 0.50 [0.34, 0.73] per 500 feet), total steps (HR = 0.82 [0.71, 0.94] per 1,000 steps), hsC-reactive protein (HR = 1.44 [1.01, 2.06] per 4.5 mg/L), depression (HR = 1.12 [1.01, 1.25] per 4 points), and pulmonary quality of life (HR = 1.73 [1.14, 2.63] per 25 points) were each predictive over and above the GOLD assessment. However, only GOLD group and Six Minute Walk were predictive of all-cause mortality and COPD hospitalization when all biobehavioral variables were included together in a multivariable model. Conclusion Biobehavioral factors provide added prognostic information over and above measures of COPD severity in predicting adverse events in patients with COPD. PMID:26780299

  16. Prognostic factors of renal dysfunction induced by environmental cadmium pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Morikawa, Yuko; Tabata, Masaji; Senma, Masami; Kitagawa, Yumiko; Kawano, Shunichi; Ishizaki, Masao ); Sugita, Naomichi; Nishi, Masami )

    1994-02-01

    To assess the influence of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure on long-term outcome, a follow-up study was conducted from 1981-1982 to March 1991 on 3178 inhabitants living in the Cd-polluted Kakehashi River basin. The standardized mortality ratios of the urinary [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin ([beta]2-MG)-, protein-, and amino acid-positive subjects of both sexes and the urinary glucose-positive female subjects were higher than those of the subjects with urinary-negative findings or the general Japanese population during the observation period. After adjusting for age using Cox's proportional hazards model, significant associations were found between mortality and urinary indices. In multiple comparisons using all of the indices, urinary protein and [beta]2-MG in the women and urinary protein in the men were the factors most contributing to the mortality rates. In the urinary protein-negative female group as well, as significant association was found between urinary [beta]2-MG and mortality. These results suggest that the prognosis of subjects with Cd-induced renal dysfunction is unfavorable, with the mortality rate increasing even in the early stage of proximal tubular dysfunction. Urinary protein and urinary [beta]2-MG are important prognostic factors, with the latter, in particular, considered to be useful as an early index predictive of premature mortality. 30 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. Renal cell carcinoma with vascular invasion: Mortality and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cabello, M A; Laso-García, I; Donis-Canet, F; Gómez-Dos-Santos, V; Varona-Crespo, C; Burgos-Revilla, F J

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of the results of patients who had been operated of renal cell carcinoma with vascular invasion in our institution, evaluation of prognostic factors and complications. Retrospective observational study of 37 patients diagnosed of renal cell carcinoma with vascular invasion operated between May 1999 and July 2013. We used the method of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Mantel-Haenszel's test (log rank) and the Cox's proportional hazards analysis test to analyse the risk factors of mortality. The median age was 60 years. Mean follow-up period was 42.1 months. The median overall survival and disease-free survival were 53.8and 36.3 months, respectively. There was statistical association between overall survival and ASA (p=0.047), tumor stage (p=0.003), lymph node involvement (p=0.024), presence of metastases (p=0.013), level of tumor thrombus (p=0, 05) and histological type (p=0.001). 14 patients had grade IIIb complications or higher according to the Clavien Dindo classification, the most frequent was bleeding. Renal cell carcinoma with vascular invasion is a disease with high rate of mortality. Surgery is a therapeutic option that can be curative. The number of complications is important. Survival is conditioned by the ASA, tumor stage, the level of tumor thrombus, lymph node involvement, metastasis and histological type. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Head and neck sarcomas: prognostic factors and implications for treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Eeles, R. A.; Fisher, C.; A'Hern, R. P.; Robinson, M.; Rhys-Evans, P.; Henk, J. M.; Archer, D.; Harmer, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and thirty patients with soft tissue sarcoma of the head and neck were treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1944 and 1988. Pathological review was possible in 103 of these cases; only pathologically reviewed cases have been analysed. The median age at presentation was 36 years, and 53% were male. Four had neurofibromatosis type I, and one previous bilateral retinoblastoma. Six had undergone previous radiotherapy, 12 to 45 years prior to developing sarcoma. The tumours were < or = 5 cm in 78% of cases and high grade in 48%. Only one patient presented with lymph node metastases and only one with distant metastases (to lung). Malignant fibrous histiocytoma was the commonest histological type, occurring in 30 cases. The overall 5 year survival was 50% (95% CI 39-60). Local tumour was the cause of death in 63% of cases and 5 year local control was only 47% (95% CI 36-58) with local recurrence occurring as late as 15 years after treatment. The only favourable independent prognostic factor for survival was the ability to perform surgery (other than biopsy), with or without radiotherapy, as opposed to radiotherapy alone (hazard ratio 0.39; P = 0.003). Only one patient had a biopsy with no further treatment. Favourable independent prognostic factors for local control at 5 years were site (tumours of the head as opposed to the neck, hazard ratio 0.42; P = 0.02) and modality of treatment (combined surgery and radiotherapy compared to either alone, hazard ratio 0.31; P = 0.002). Patients in the combined modality and single treatment modality groups were well balanced for T stage, grade and tumour site. The patients in the combined treatment group had less extensive surgery, yet their local recurrence-free survival was longer. Unlike soft tissue sarcomas at other sites, those in the head and neck region more often cause death by local recurrence. The addition of radiotherapy to surgery may result in longer local recurrence-free survival. PMID:8318414

  19. [Perforation of hollow organs in the abdominal contusion: diagnostic features and prognostic factors of death].

    PubMed

    Nicolau, A E; Merlan, V; Dinescu, G; Crăciun, M; Kitkani, A; Beuran, M

    2012-01-01

    Blunt hollow viscus perforations (HVP) due to abdominal contusions (AC), although rare, are difficult to diagnose early and are associated with a high mortality. Our paper analyses retrospectively data from patients operated for HVP between January 2005 and January 2009, the efficiency of different diagnostic tools, mortality and prognostic factors for death. There were 62 patients operated for HVP, 14 of which had isolated abdominal contusion and 48 were poly trauma patients. There were 9 women and 53 men, the mean age was 41.5 years (SD: +17,9), the mean ISS was 32.94 (SD: +15,94), 23 patients had associated solid viscus injuries (SVI). Clinical examination was irelevant for 16 of the 62 patients, abdominal Xray was false negative for 30 out of 35 patients and abdominal ultrasound was false negative for 16 out of 60 patients. Abdominal CT was initially false negative for 7 out of 38 patients: for 4 of them the abdominal CT was repeated and was positive for HVP, for 3 patients a diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. Direct signs for HVP on abdominal CT were present for 3 out of 38 patients. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed for 7 patients with suspicion for HVP, and was positive for 6 of them and false negative for a patient with a duodenal perforation. Single organ perforations were present in 55 cases, multi organ perforations were present in 7 cases. There were 15 deaths (15.2%), most of them caused by haemodynamic instability (3 out of 6 patients) and associated lesions: SOL for 9 out of 23 cases, pelvic fracture (PF) for 6 out of 14 patients, craniocerebral trauma (CCT) for 12 out of 33 patients.Multivariate analysis showed that the prognostic factors for death were ISS value (p = 0,023) and associated CCT (odds ratio = 4,95; p = 0,017). The following factors were not confirmed as prognostic factors for death: age, haemodynamic instability, associated SVI, thoracic trauma (TT), pelvic fractures (PF), limbs fractures (LF) and admission-operation interval

  20. Advanced primary peritoneal carcinoma: clinicopathological and prognostic factor analyses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Xiao-ping; Cui, Heng; Shen, Dan-hua; Wei, Li-hui

    2008-01-01

    optimal debulking surgery may not benefit survival. The pathologic subtype, chemotherapy regimen and p53 overexpression were significant prognostic factors. PMID:18543395

  1. Contribution of artificial intelligence to the knowledge of prognostic factors in laryngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zapater, E; Moreno, S; Fortea, M A; Campos, A; Armengot, M; Basterra, J

    2000-11-01

    Many studies have investigated prognostic factors in laryngeal carcinoma, with sometimes conflicting results. Apart from the importance of environmental factors, the different statistical methods employed may have influenced such discrepancies. A program based on artificial intelligence techniques is designed to determine the prognostic factors in a series of 122 laryngeal carcinomas. The results obtained are compared with those derived from two classical statistical methods (Cox regression and mortality tables). Tumor location was found to be the most important prognostic factor by all methods. The proposed intelligent system is found to be a sound method capable of detecting exceptional cases.

  2. Prognostic model for brain metastases from lung adenocarcinoma identified with epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongwei; Wang, Weili; Jia, Haixia; Lian, Jianhong; Cao, Jianzhong; Zhang, Xiaqin; Song, Xing; Jia, Sufang; Li, Zhengran; Cao, Xing; Zhou, Wei; Han, Songye; Yang, Weihua; Xi, Yanfen; Lian, Shenming

    2017-09-01

    Several indices have been developed to predict survival of brain metastases (BM) based on prognostic factors. However, such models were designed for general brain metastases from different kinds of cancers, and prognostic factors vary between cancers and histological subtypes. Recently, studies have indicated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status may be a potential prognostic biological factor in BM from lung adenocarcinoma. Thus, we sought to define the role of EGFR mutation in prognoses and introduce a prognostic model specific for BM from lung adenocarcinoma. Data of 256 patients with BM from lung adenocarcinoma identified with EGFR mutations were collected. Independent prognostic factors were confirmed using a Cox regression model. The new prognostic model was developed based on the results of multivariable analyses. The score of each factor was calculated by six-month survival. Prognostic groups were divided into low, medium, and high risk based on the total scores. The prediction ability of the new model was compared to the three existing models. EGFR mutation and Karnofsky performance status were independent prognostic factors and were thus integrated into the new prognostic model. The new model was superior to the three other scoring systems regarding the prediction of three, six, and 12-month survival by pairwise comparison of the area under the curve. Our proposed prognostic model specific for BM from lung adenocarcinoma incorporating EGFR mutation status was valid in predicting patient survival. Further verification is warranted, with prospective testing using large sample sizes. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. NRF2 immunolocalization in human breast cancer patients as a prognostic factor.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Yoshiaki; Motohashi, Hozumi; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Miki, Yasuhiro; Shibahara, Yukiko; Watanabe, Mika; Ishida, Takanori; Hirakawa, Hisashi; Sasano, Hironobu; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2 (NFE2L2)) is an important transcriptional activator involved in the cellular defense mechanisms against electrophilic and oxidative stress. Recent studies have demonstrated that the expression of NRF2 protein is upregulated in several human malignancies and is associated with worse prognosis in these patients. However, the pathological and clinical significance of NRF2 has remained largely unknown in breast cancer patients. Therefore, in this study, we immunolocalized NRF2 in 106 breast carcinoma cases. NRF2 immunoreactivity was mainly detected in the nucleus of the breast carcinoma cells and it was positive in 44% of the cases. NRF2 status was significantly associated with histological grade, Ki-67 labeling index, p62 immunoreactivity, and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) immunoreactivity, and the results of multivariate analyses revealed that NRF2 status was an independent adverse prognostic factor for both recurrence and disease-free survival of the patients. Subsequent in vitro studies demonstrated that the expression of NRF2 significantly increased the proliferation activity of MCF7 and SK-BR-3 breast carcinoma cells. These results indicate that nuclear NRF2 protein plays important roles in the proliferation and/or progression of breast carcinoma, and nuclear NRF2 immunoreactivity is therefore considered a potent prognostic factor in breast cancer patients.

  4. Serum total hCGβ level is an independent prognostic factor in transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelial tract

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, J; Sharp, A; Chau, C; Head, J; Drake, T; Wheater, M; Geldart, T; Mead, G; Crabb, S J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Serum total human chorionic gonadotrophin β subunit (hCGβ) level might have prognostic value in urothelial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) but has not been investigated for independence from other prognostic variables. Methods: We utilised a clinical database of patients receiving chemotherapy between 2005 and 2011 for urothelial TCC and an independent cohort of radical cystectomy patients for validation purposes. Prognostic variables were tested by univariate Kaplan–Meier analyses and log-rank tests. Statistically significant variables were then assessed by multivariate Cox regression. Total hCGβ level was dichotomised at < vs ⩾2 IU l−1. Results: A total of 235 chemotherapy patients were eligible. For neoadjuvant chemotherapy, established prognostic factors including low ECOG performance status, normal haemoglobin, lower T stage and suitability for cisplatin-based chemotherapy were associated with favourable survival in univariate analyses. In addition, low hCGβ level was favourable when assessed either before (median survival not reached vs 1.86 years, P=0.001) or on completion of chemotherapy (4.27 vs 0.42 years, P=0.000002). This was confirmed in multivariate analyses and in patients receiving first- and second-line palliative chemotherapy, and in a radical cystectomy validation set. Conclusions: Serum total hCGβ level is an independent prognostic factor in patients receiving chemotherapy for urothelial TCC in both curative and palliative settings. PMID:24556622

  5. MRI Prognostication Factors in the Setting of Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Secondary to Trauma.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Rafael; Cepeda, Santiago; Paredes, Igor; Alen, Jose F; Lagares, Alfonso

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have looked for an association between radiologic findings and neurologic outcome after cervical trauma. In the current literature, there is a paucity of evidence proving the prognostic role of soft tissue damage or bony integrity. Our objective is to determine radiologic findings related to neurologic prognosis in patients after incomplete acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury, regardless of initial neurologic examination results. We retrospectively reviewed patients with acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury who had a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed within the first 96 hours. Clinical and epidemiologic data were recorded from the medical records along with several radiologic findings from the initial computed tomographic scan and MRI. Data were analyzed using a non-parametric test. Significant prognostic factors were analyzed through a stepwise multivariable logistic regression, adjusted by neurologic status at baseline. The receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to test the discriminative capacity of the model. Eighty-six patients (68 males and 18 females) were included for the analysis. Mean age was 49 years. Ligamentum flavum injury, intramedullary edema larger than 36 mm, and facet dislocation were demonstrated to be associated with a lack of neurologic improvement at follow-up. Multivariable analysis showed that edema larger than 36 mm and facet dislocation were strong predictors of clinical outcome, regardless of the initial neurologic examination result. Early MRI has an intrinsic prognostic value. Ligamentous injury and larger edema are strong predicting factors of a bad neurologic outcome at long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Age as a prognostic factor in carcinoma of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Lybeert, M L; Meerwaldt, J H; van Putten, W L

    1987-06-01

    To investigate whether age is a prognostic factor in patients with carcinoma of the cervix, a retrospective study was undertaken of 261 patients, aged 45 years or less, who were referred to the Rotterdamsch Radio-Therapeutisch Instituut (RRTI) between 1973 and 1982. Patients were referred for either primary treatment--surgery or radiotherapy--or for adjuvant radiotherapy. Overall 5-year survival figures were rather low, which may be explained by negative patient selection as the RRTI is a referral hospital: stage IB, 72%; stage IIA; 61%; stage IIB; 52%; stage III; 29%. A particular poor survival was noted for patients (n = 22) aged 28 or less. Overall 5-year survival of these patients was only 39% in contrast to 67% 5-year survival of older patients. This difference was highly significant (p less than 0.002). Even if corrected for stage, very young patients had a poorer prognosis (stage IB: 45% versus 75% 5-year survival of older patients). Within the older age group, no trend towards a better prognosis with increasing age could be identified. As a treatment was similar for all patients, no explanation is available for this observation.

  7. Prognostic factors relating to outcome of severe malaria among children in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M E; Samad, R; Rahman, M R; Alam, A K; Ferdous, A

    2001-04-01

    This study was done in the Paediatric in-patient department of Chittagong Medical College Hospital (CMCH), Chittagong, Bangladesh to identify and quantify the prognostic factors associated with increased mortality in severe malaria (SM) cases. All the patients with parasitologically confirmed clinical syndromes of SM, admitted between June 1997 and May 1998, were included. A total of 53 consecutive cases were studied. Cerebral malaria (CM) was the commonest type of SM, observed in 36(68%) cases, second commonest type was severe anaemia 13(25%). More than one type of severe manifestations were present in 23(44%) cases. Overall case fatality rate (CFR) was 17% and it was 30% among those who had multi-organ manifestations. Important poor prognostic clinical variables were Blantrye coma score (BCS) score of 0 and 1 on day 1 (OR = 7.78) and day 2(OR = 40.0), multi-organ manifestations (OR = 6.8) and in-hospital complications (OR = 5.18). Important poor prognostic laboratory variables were day 2 parasite count > 50,000/cmm (OR = 5.5), blood glucose < 2.2 mmol/l (OR = 21.5) and raised CSF protein > 50 mg/dl (OR = 7.0). It can be concluded that certain clinical variables e.g. low BCS on day 1 & 2, multi-organ manifestations, in-hospital complications; and laboratory variables e.g. high parasite count, low blood glucose level, raised CSF protein levels are associated with increased mortality rate in SM cases.

  8. [Analysis of prognostic factors of portal hypertension treated with devascularization].

    PubMed

    Cao, Y J; Pan, Y M; Bao, S H; Lu, C L; Xu, B Y; Xie, M

    2016-06-01

    Objective: To explore the prognostic factors of portal hypertension treated with devascularization. Methods: A total of 397 patients with portal hypertension underwent devascularization in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital from February 1993 to April 2014, among which there were 242 male and 155 female patients with median age of 48 years. The perioperative data were retrospectively collected. Logistic regression was used to find the risk factors which affect the operative complications. Follow-up evaluation was in progress regularly. Kaplan-Meier survival curve, Log-rank test and Cox regression model were used to find out factors which affect the long-term results. Results: All together 397 patients underwent devascularization, in whom 8 patients died perioperative, 389 patients discharged successfully. Logistic regression showed that age (≥48 years) (χ(2)=4.559, OR=2.048, P=0.033), red color sign before surgery (χ(2)=4.959, OR=2.129, P=0.026) and without portosystemic collateral vessels reserved (χ(2)=13.348, OR=5.122, P=0.000) were risk factors of perioperative complications. The follow-up time was (5.7±4.6) years. Totally 27 patients were lost from follow-up, 103 patients died for the disease during follow-up. The survival rate at 1-, 3-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 20-years was 93.6%, 86.9%, 80.1%, 59.3%, 54.1% and 38.5% respectively.Univariate analysis showed that gender (male), age (≥48 years), hemorrhage before surgery (≥500 ml per time), hepatitis virus and without portosystemic collateral vessels reserved were risk factors of the long-term survival (P<0.05). Cox regression analysis showed that age (≥48 years) (χ(2)=9.850, RR=1.904, P=0.002), hemorrhage before surgery (≥500 ml per time) (χ(2)=34.402, RR=3.273, P=0.000), hepatitis virus (χ(2)=7.573, RR=2.525, P=0.006) and without portosystemic collateral vessels reserved (χ(2)=5.905, RR=1.889, P=0.015) were independent risk factors that affect the long-term survival. Conclusion: Devascularization with

  9. The prognostic value of long noncoding RNA HOTTIP on clinical outcomes in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Youqun; Chen, Yizuo; Qu, Jinmiao

    2017-01-01

    Although a few studies have assessed the prognostic value of long noncoding RNA HOTTIP in patients with malignant tumors, the relationship between HOTTIP and clinical outcome of breast cancer remains elusive. The aim of this study is to explore the prognostic significance of HOTTIP in breast cancer patients. A meta-analysis was performed to involve the eligible studies to investigate the association of HOTTIP expression level with outcome in cancer patients. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of HOTTIP for cancer survival were calculated. Five relevant articles involving 460 patients with various solid carcinomas were included in this meta-analysis. For overall survival, high HOTTIP expression could significantly predict worse outcome with the pooled HR of 2.29 (95 % CI 1.72–3.03, P < 0.00001). Furthermore, Gene Expression Omnibus was performed to evaluate the association of HOTTIP expression with the prognosis in breast cancer patients. It was also found an indication that high HOTTIP expression was associated with worse survival in breast cancer patients by microarray analysis (GSE20711, GSE16446 and GSE9195). Finally, association between HOTTIP levels and clinicopathological factors and prognosis was also analyzed in an independent validation cohort including 100 breast cancer cases. HOTTIP expression was correlated with tumor size (P=0.025), lymph node status (P=0.009) and TNM stage (P=0.0001) in the breast cancer validation cohort. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that breast cancer patients with high HOTTIP expression had worse overall survival (P=0.0139) and disease-free survival (P=0.0003). Multivariate survival analysis based on the Cox proportional hazards model showed that HOTTP is considered as an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer patients. Together, our combined results suggest that high HOTTIP expression may be serving as an unfavorable prognosis predictor for breast cancer patients. PMID:28036281

  10. FBXW7 missense mutation: a novel negative prognostic factor in metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Korphaisarn, Krittiya; Morris, Van Karlyle; Overman, Michael J.; Fogelman, David R.; Kee, Bryan K.; Kanwal Pratap Singh, Raghav; Manuel, Shanequa; Shureiqi, Imad; Wolff, Robert A.; Eng, Cathy; Menter, David; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Kopetz, Scott; Dasari, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Background FBXW7 functions as a ubiquitin ligase tagging multiple dominant oncogenic proteins and commonly mutates in colorectal cancer. Data suggest missense mutations lead to greater loss of FBXW7 function than other gene aberrations do. However, the clinicopathologic factors and outcomes associated with FBXW7 missense mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) have not been described. Methods Data were obtained from mCRC patients whose tumors were evaluated by next-generation sequencing for hotspot mutations at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Alterations in FBXW7 were identified, and their associations with clinicopathologic features and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Results Of 855 mCRC patients, 571 had data on FBXW7 status; 43 (7.5%) had FBXW7 mutations, including 37 with missense mutations. R465C mutations in exon 9 were the most common missense mutations (18.6%). PIK3CA mutations were associated with FBXW7 missense mutations (p=0.012). On univariate analysis, patients with FBXW7 missense mutations had significantly worse OS (median 28.7 mo) than those with wild-type FBXW7 (median 46.6 mo; p=0.003). On multivariate analysis including other known prognostic factors such as BRAF mutations, FBXW7 missense mutations were the strongest negative prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio 2.0; p=0.003). Conclusions In the largest clinical dataset of mCRC to date, FBXW7 missense mutations showed a strong negative prognostic association. PMID:28424412

  11. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: an international multi-institutional analysis of prognostic factors and lymph node assessment.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Mechteld C; Nathan, Hari; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Paul, Andreas; Alexandrescu, Sorin; Marques, Hugo; Pulitano, Carlo; Barroso, Eduardo; Clary, Bryan M; Aldrighetti, Luca; Ferrone, Cristina R; Zhu, Andrew X; Bauer, Todd W; Walters, Dustin M; Gamblin, T Clark; Nguyen, Kevin T; Turley, Ryan; Popescu, Irinel; Hubert, Catherine; Meyer, Stephanie; Schulick, Richard D; Choti, Michael A; Gigot, Jean-Francois; Mentha, Gilles; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2011-08-10

    To identify factors associated with outcome after surgical management of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and examine the impact of lymph node (LN) assessment on survival. From an international multi-institutional database, 449 patients who underwent surgery for ICC between 1973 and 2010 were identified. Clinical and pathologic data were evaluated using uni- and multivariate analyses. Median tumor size was 6.5 cm. Most patients had a solitary tumor (73%) and no vascular invasion (69%). Median survival was 27 months, and 5-year survival was 31%. Factors associated with adverse prognosis included positive margin status (hazard ratio [HR], 2.20; P < .001), multiple lesions (HR, 1.80; P = .001), and vascular invasion (HR, 1.59; P = .015). Tumor size was not a prognostic factor (HR, 1.03; P = .23). Patients were stratified using the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer T1, T2a, and T2b categories (seventh edition) in a discrete step-wise fashion (P < .001). Lymphadenectomy was performed in 248 patients (55%); 74 of these (30%) had LN metastasis. LN metastasis was associated with worse outcome (median survival: N0, 30 months v N1, 24 months; P = .03). Although patients with no LN metastasis were able to be stratified by tumor number and vascular invasion (N0; P < .001), among patients with N1 disease, multiple tumors and vascular invasion, either alone or together, failed to discriminate patients into discrete prognostic groups (P = .34). Although tumor size provides no prognostic information, tumor number, vascular invasion, and LN metastasis were associated with survival. N1 status adversely affected overall survival and also influenced the relative effect of tumor number and vascular invasion on prognosis. Lymphadenectomy should be strongly considered for ICC, because up to 30% of patients will have LN metastasis.

  12. Prognostic Factors in the Outcome of Invasive Fungal Sinusitis in a Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Green, Katherine K; Barham, Henry P; Allen, Gregory C; Chan, Kenny H

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS) is rare, and its prognosticators are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine important factors affecting outcome. A 10-year retrospective review at a tertiary academic children's hospital was performed using an International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, and a procedure-based search after institutional review board approval. All relevant demographic and clinical information was collected. Fourteen immune-compromised patients (male:female = 7:7, mean age = 10 years, range 2-16 years) were identified who had hematologic malignancies (11), diabetes mellitus (2) and unknown predisposing factors (1). Fungal species included Aspergillus (5), Mucor (5), Alternaria (2), Rhizopus (1) and Scopulariopsis (1). The cohort underwent an average of 6.1 (median = 5) endoscopic sinus surgeries and were treated with aggressive antifungal therapy. Four deaths occurred in the study population: 2 were attributable to IFS and 2 attributable to their underlying malignancies. There was a significant difference in the median absolute neutrophil count (ANC) at follow-up after treatment of IFS between the survival and the mortality subgroups, with ANC being 4290.5 and 169, respectively (P < 0.001). Despite the small sample size, this study represents the largest case series in the medical literature on pediatric IFS. Age, gender, underlying cause for immunodeficiency and mycologic agent were not important prognosticators. ANC appears to be the only factor responsible for survival. The role of endoscopic sinus surgeries in survival is indeterminate.

  13. Clinico-pathological characteristics and prognostic factors of gastrointestinal stromal tumors among a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiehua; Zhang, Haitian; Chen, Zhibai; Su, Ka

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common primary mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. GISTs include a group of heterogeneous tumors with different morphology, biologic behavior, and genetic characteristics, so their epidemiology, clinico-pathological features and prognosis is distinct in different countries. The objective of this study is to analyze clinico-pathological characteristics and prognostic factors of GISTs among Chinese population. We investigated 112 GIST patients were diagnosed between July 2008 and January 2013 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University. Histologic evaluation and immunohistochemistry analysis was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue from the 112 GISTs. Overall survival analysis was carried out using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was performed according to Cox’s proportional hazards model. Three and 5-year OS rates were 71.4 and 58.6% respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the following factors were significant in predicting OS: tumor site, tumor size, metastasis, resection margin status, cell type, invasion of adjacent organ, invasion of smooth muscle, mitotic rate, P53 and adjuvant therapy with imatinib (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size, metastasis, resection margin status, mitotic rate, P53 and adjuvant therapy with imatinib were independent prognostic factors associated with OS. This may aid in the prediction of clinical evolution and guide treatments in patients with GIST in China. PMID:26884871

  14. [Lymph node metastasis and prognostic factors for T1 esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Duan, X F; Shang, X B; Tang, P; Jiang, H J; Gong, L; Yue, J; Ma, M Q; Yu, Z T

    2017-09-01

    Objective: To evaluate the lymph node metastasis (LNM) pattern and related prognostic factors for T1 esophageal cancer. Methods: Clinical data of 143 cases of pT1 esophageal cancer patients (120 male and 23 female patients with median age of 60 years) who underwent esophagectomy and lymph node resection during January 2011 and July 2016 at the Department of Esophageal Cancer of Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital were reviewed, including 50 cases of T1a patients and 93 cases of T1b patients. The LNM pattern was analyzed and the prognostic factors related to LNM were assessed by χ(2) test and Logistic regression analysis. Results: Of 143 patients, 25 patients had LNM. The LNM rates were 17.5% for pT1 tumors, 16.0%(8/50) for pT1a tumors, and 22.6%(21/93) for T1b tumors. Of 25 patients with LNM, one patient had cervical metastasis, 15 patients with thoracic metastasis, and 17 patients with abdominal metastasis. The relatively highest LNM sites were laryngeal recurrent nerve (8 cases), left gastric artery (8 cases), right and left cardiac (6 cases) and thoracic paraesophageal (5 cases). Logistic regression analysis showed that the depth of tumor infiltration (OR=4.641, 95%CI: 1.279 to 16.836, P=0.020), tumor size (OR=5.301, 95%CI: 1.779 to 15.792, P=0.003), tumor location (OR=3.238, 95% CI: 1.248 to 8.401, P=0.016), and tumor differentiation (OR=5.301, 95%CI: 1.719 to 16.347, P=0.004) were independent prognostic factors related to LNM for T1 esophageal cancer. Tumor size (OR=4.117, 95% CI: 1.228 to 13.806, P=0.022) was an independent risk factor related to thoracic LNM, and the vessel invasion (OR=6.058, 95% CI: 1.228 to 29.876, P=0.027) and tumor location (OR=8.113, 95% CI: 1.785-36.872, P=0.007) were independent prognostic factors related to abdominal LNM. Conclusions: T1 esophageal cancer has a relatively high LNM rate, and the depth of tumor infiltration, tumor size, tumor location and tumor differentiation are correlated with LNM. The LNM

  15. Diffusion Weighted MR Imaging of Breast and Correlation of Prognostic Factors in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kızıldağ Yırgın, İnci; Arslan, Gözde; Öztürk, Enis; Yırgın, Hakan; Taşdemir, Nihat; Gemici, Ayşegül Akdoğan; Kabul, Fatma Çelik; Kaya, Eyüp

    2016-05-01

    Through Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI), information related to early molecular changes, changes in the permeability of cell membranes, and early morphologic and physiologic changes such as cell swelling can be obtained. We investigated the correlation between the prognostic factors of breast cancer and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in DWI sequences of malignant lesions. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Patients who were referred to our clinic between September 2012 and September 2013, who underwent dynamic breast MRI before or after biopsy and whose biopsy results were determined as malignant, were included in our study. Before the dynamic analysis, DWI sequences were taken. ADC relationship with all prognostic factors was investigated. Pearson correlation test was used to compare the numerical data, while Spearman correlation and Fisher exact tests were used to compare the categorical data. The advanced relationships were evaluated with linear regression analysis and univariate analysis. The efficiency of the parameters was evaluated using ROC analysis. The significance level (P) was accepted as 0.05. In total, 41 female patients with an average age of 49.4 years (age interval 21-77) and 44 lesions were included into the study. In the Pearson correlation test, no statistically significant difference was determined between ADC and the patient's age and tumor size. In the Spearman correlation test, a statistically significant difference was determined between nuclear grade (NG) and ADC (r=-0.424, p=0.04); no statistically significant correlation was observed between the other prognostic factors with each other and ADC values. In the linear regression analysis, the relationship of NG with ADC was found to be more significant alone than when comparing all parameters (corrected r2=0.196, p=0.005). Further evaluations between the NG and ADC correlation were carried out with ROC analysis. A statistically significant difference was determined when NG 1

  16. Nivolumab for advanced melanoma: pretreatment prognostic factors and early outcome markers during therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yoshio; Takahashi, Akira; Tsutsumida, Arata; Namikawa, Kenjiro; Tanese, Keiji; Abe, Takayuki; Funakoshi, Takeru; Yamamoto, Noboru; Amagai, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Background An anti-programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibody, nivolumab, is one of the most effective drugs for advanced melanoma. Tumor cell-derived or immune cell-derived markers and clinical predictors such as serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cutaneous adverse events, have already been described as prognostic factors for advanced melanoma treated with nivolumab. We sought to identify further clinical predictors that can be determined in routine clinical practice. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical findings of 98 consecutive patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma treated with nivolumab, at the National Cancer Center Hospital or at Keio University Hospital, in Tokyo, Japan, between July 2014 and July 2016. These patients had been administered nivolumab at a dose of 2mg/kg every 3 weeks. Results As for pretreatment prognostic factors, ECOG performance status (PS) ≥1, maximum tumor diameters of ≥30mm, elevated LDH and elevated C-reactive protein were significantly associated with poor overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.29 [P<0.001], HR 0.40 [p=0.003], HR 0.29 [P<0.001], HR 0.42 [P=0.004], respectively) on univariate analysis. Among these factors, PS and LDH were identified as independent variables by multivariate analysis. As for early markers examined during therapy, patients with absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ≥ 1000/μl (Week3: HR 0.40 [P=0.004], Week6: HR 0.33 [P=0.001]) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) <4000/μl (Week3: HR 0.46 [P=0.014], Week6: HR 0.51 [P=0.046]) had significantly better OS. Conclusion ALC≥1000/μl and ANC<4000/μl during treatment appear to be early markers associated with OS. Nivolumab might have minimal efficacy in patients with a massive tumor burden. PMID:27764805

  17. Depth of remission is a prognostic factor for survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Grünwald, Viktor; McKay, Rana R.; Krajewski, Katherine M.; Kalanovic, Daniel; Lin, Xun; Perkins, Julia J.; Simantov, Ronit; Choueiri, Toni K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Response remains an important endpoint in clinical cancer trials. However, the prognostic utility of best tumor response in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) remains vague. Objective To define the prognostic relevance of the depth of remission in mRCC Design, setting, and participants Pooled data of 2,749 patients from phase II and III clinical trials of the Pfizer data-base in mRCC was analyzed. Tumor-shrinkage was categorized by fractions of best percent change in the sum of the largest diameter of target lesions. Outcome was computed by Kaplan-Meier curves and correlation was assessed by Cox regression, including a 6-month landmark. Intervention Sunitinib, sorafenib, axitinib, temsirolimus, temsirolimus and/or IFN-α. Outcome Measurements and Statistical Analysis Categorized tumor-shrinkage, overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS). Results and limitations Major tumor shrinkage of 60% or more occurred in about 10% of patients and was associated with a median overall survival (OS) of 54.5 months. With depth of remission, OS expectations declined steadily (26.4, 16.6, 10.4, and 7.3 months). The association was maintained when stratified by type of therapy, line of therapy, and performance status. The 6-month landmark Cox proportional regression analyses confirmed the prognostic relevance of major tumor shrinkage (HR 0.29; CI 95% 0.22–0.39; p<0.001). The major limitation of our study is the variability of imaging intervals among studies. Conclusions This is the first and largest analysis of best tumor response in mRCC. We demonstrate that depth of remission is an independent prognostic factor in mRCC. Patient summary It remains unknown whether tumor shrinkage during therapy is needed to achieve clinical activity in mRCC. Our analysis shows that the magnitude of tumor shrinkage correlates with a better survival in patients. This observation may be used as a clinical research tool in future trials. Trial registration NCT00054886, NCT

  18. Defining high, medium and low impact prognostic factors for developing multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tintore, Mar; Rovira, Àlex; Río, Jordi; Otero-Romero, Susana; Arrambide, Georgina; Tur, Carmen; Comabella, Manuel; Nos, Carlos; Arévalo, María Jesús; Negrotto, Laura; Galán, Ingrid; Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Castilló, Joaquin; Palavra, Filipe; Simon, Eva; Mitjana, Raquel; Auger, Cristina; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Montalban, Xavier

    2015-07-01

    Natural history studies have identified factors that predict evolution to multiple sclerosis or risk of disability accumulation over time. Although these studies are based on large multicentre cohorts with long follow-ups, they have limitations such as lack of standardized protocols, a retrospective data collection or lack of a systematic magnetic resonance imaging acquisition and analysis protocol, often resulting in failure to take magnetic resonance and oligoclonal bands into account as joint covariates in the prediction models. To overcome some of these limitations, the aim of our study was to identify and stratify baseline demographic, clinical, radiological and biological characteristics that might predict multiple sclerosis development and disability accumulation using a multivariate approach based on a large prospective cohort of patients with clinically isolated syndromes. From 1995 to 2013, 1058 patients with clinically isolated syndromes were included. We evaluated the influence of baseline prognostic factors on the risk for developing clinically definite multiple sclerosis, McDonald multiple sclerosis, and disability accumulation (Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 3.0) based on univariate (hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals) and multivariate (adjusted hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals) Cox regression models. We ultimately included 1015 patients followed for a mean of 81 (standard deviation = 57) months. Female/male ratio was 2.1. Females exhibited a similar risk of conversion to multiple sclerosis and of disability accumulation compared to males. Each younger decade at onset was associated with a greater risk of conversion to multiple sclerosis and with a protective effect on disability. Patients with optic neuritis had a lower risk of clinically definite multiple sclerosis [hazard ratio 0.6 (0.5-0.8)] and disability progression [hazard ratio 0.5 (0.3-0.8)]; however, this protective effect remained marginal only for disability

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification and protein expression in glioblastoma multiforme: prognostic significance and relationship to other prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Layfield, Lester J; Willmore, Carlynn; Tripp, Sheryl; Jones, Claudia; Jensen, Randy L

    2006-03-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression occurs in a significant percentage of cases of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and amplification has been found in approximately 40% of these neoplasms. Controversy exists as to the prognostic significance of EGFR gene amplification: some reports have indicated that amplification is associated with a poor prognosis, while other authors have reported no relationship between gene amplification and prognosis. Some reports have found a poor prognosis to be associated with amplification of the EGFR gene in patients of all ages with GBM, while other authors have found EGFR amplification to be an independent predictor of prolonged survival in patients with GBM who are older than 60 years of age. The authors studied a series of 34 specimens (32 patients) with histologically proven GBM by immunohistochemistry for the presence of EGFR overexpression and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for gene amplification of the EGFR gene. Results of these studies and data on patient age, sex, functional status, therapy, and survival were correlated to determine which variables were predictive of survival. p53 expression was also determined by immunohistochemistry and correlated with the other variables and survival.

  20. Prognosis factors in the treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw - Prognostic factors in the treatment of BRONJ

    PubMed Central

    Nakamichi, Ikuo; Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Nogami, Shinnosuke; Kaneuji, Takeshi; Mitsugi, Sho; Tanaka, Kenkou; Kataoka, Yoshihiro; Sakurai, Takuma; Kiyomiya, Hiroyasu; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a relatively rare but serious side effect of bisphosphonate (BP)-based treatments. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the risk factors and predictive markers in cases where patients were refractory to a recommended conservative treatment offered in our hospital. Patients and Methods: This single-center study collated the medical records of all patients treated for BRONJ between 2004 and 2011. A complete medical history, including detailed questionnaires, was collected for all patients, focusing on identifying underlying risk factors, clinical features, location and bone marker levels of BRONJ. Results: The mean BRONJ remission rate was 57.6%, and the median duration of remission was seven months. Eighteen patients (34.6%) had persistent or progressive disease with a recommended conservative treatment for BRONJ. Notably, urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX) levels in those resistant to conservative treatment tended to be lower than in patients that healed well. Conclusions: We confirm that a significant proportion of BRONJ sufferers are refractory to a recommended conservative treatment and find that anticancer drugs, periodontal disease, the level of bone exposure and the dosage of intravenous BPs (e.g. zoledronate) represent specific risk factors in BRONJ that may determine the success of a recommended conservative treatment. Additionally, the NTX levels might be able to be a prognostic factor for the conservative treatment of BRONJ; additional research is necessary. Key words:Bisphosphonate, osteonecrosis, jaw, prognostic, retrospective. PMID:24596631

  1. Clinical and prognostic significance of coagulation assays in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Ciftci, Rumeysa; Kilic, Leyla; Bilgin, Elif; Keskin, Serkan; Sen, Fatma; Yildiz, Ibrahim; Yasasever, Vildan

    2012-10-01

    The activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently found among cancer patients. Such tumors are considered to be associated with a higher risk of invasion, metastases, and eventually worse outcome. The aim of this study is to explore the clinical and prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for melanoma patients. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin activity (PTA), international normalized ratio (INR), D-dimer (DD), fibrinogen (F) levels, and platelet (PLT) counts were carried out. This prospective study included 61 melanoma patients [stage I-II (n=10), stage III (n=14), stage IV (n=37), M1c (n=26) disease], and 50 healthy controls. It included 34 (56%) men, median age 53 years, range 16-88 years. Over half of the patients (54%) were in the metastatic stage and most of them (70%) had M1c. The plasma level of pretreatment blood coagulation tests including DD, F, APTT, INR levels, and PLT counts showed a statistically significant difference between the patient and the control group (P<0.001 for all, but P=0.049 for INR). The levels of INR, DD, F, and PLT counts were higher and APTT was lower in the melanoma group, whereas the PT and PTA levels did not show any significant difference. There was a significant association between PT, PTA, INR, and PLT levels and the age of the patient. Patients with node metastasis in M0 disease had higher levels of PTA and PLT counts (P=0.002 and 0.048, respectively) and lower levels of PT and INR (P=0.056 and 0.046, respectively). The M1c patients tended to have higher plasma F levels (437 vs. 297 mg/dl, P=0.055) than M1a and M1b patients. The 1-year survival rate for all patients was 70%. In association with distant metastasis, advanced metastatic stage (M1c), elevated lactate dehydrogenase, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, only elevated plasma F levels had a significantly adverse effect on survival among the coagulation

  2. Additive prognostic value of subjective assessment with respect to clinical cardiological data in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Majani, Giuseppina; Pierobon, Antonia; Pinna, Gian Domenico; Giardini, Anna; Maestri, Roberto; La Rovere, Maria Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Health-related quality of life tools that better reflect the unique subjective perception of heart failure (HF) are needed for patients with this disorder. The aim of this study was to explore whether subjective satisfaction of HF patients about daily life may provide additional prognostic information with respect to clinical cardiological data. One hundred and seventy-eight patients (age 51 ± 9 years) with moderate to severe HF [New York Heart Association (NYHA) class 2.0 ± 0.7; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 29 ± 8%] in stable clinical condition underwent a standard clinical evaluation and compiled the Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P) questionnaire focusing on subjective satisfaction with daily life. Cox regression analysis was used to assess whether SAT-P factors (psychological functioning, physical functioning, work, sleep/eating/leisure, social functioning) had any prognostic value. Forty-six cardiac deaths occurred during a median of 30 months. Patients who died had higher NYHA class, more depressed left ventricular function, reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP), increased heart rate (HR), and worse biochemistry (all p < 0.05). Among the SAT-P factors, only physical functioning (PF) was significantly reduced in the patients who died (p = 0.003). Using the best subset selection procedure, resistance to physical fatigue (RPF) was selected from among the items of the PF factor. RPF showed independent predictive value when entered into a prognostic model including NYHA class, LVEF, SBP, and HR with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.86 per 10 units increase (95% CI 0.75-0.98, p = 0.02). Patients' dissatisfaction with physical functioning is associated with reduced long-term survival, after adjustment for known risk factors in HF. Given its user-friendly structure, simplicity, and significant prognostic value, the RPF score may represent a useful instrument in clinical practice.

  3. Prognostic factors, predictive markers and cancer biology: the triad for successful oral cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Monteiro de Oliveira Novaes, Jose Augusto; William, William N

    2016-10-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas represent a significant cancer burden worldwide. Unfortunately, chemoprevention strategies investigated to date have failed to produce an agent considered standard of care to prevent oral cancers. Nonetheless, recent advances in clinical trial design may streamline drug development in this setting. In this manuscript, we review some of these improvements, including risk prediction tools based on molecular markers that help select patients most suitable for chemoprevention. We also discuss the opportunities that novel preclinical models and modern molecular profiling techniques will bring to the prevention field in the near future, and propose a clinical trials framework that incorporates molecular prognostic factors, predictive markers and cancer biology as a roadmap to improve chemoprevention strategies for oral cancers.

  4. [Genetic prognostic factors in childhood acute myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, D; Von Neuhoff, C; Sander, A; Creutzig, U

    2012-10-01

    The survival rate of children and adolescents suffering acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been significantly improved within the last decades. This has been achieved by a continuously intensified therapy and progress in supportive care to prevent and treat complications. In Germany, the AML-BFM trials 98 (n=413) and 2004 (n=499) enrolled 912 children and adolescents as protocol patients (1998-2010). The 5-year-overall survival was 71±2%. In the previous studies prognosis and subsequent treatment stratification based on morphology, cytochemistry and white blood cell count. Today, the identification of new genetic aberrations in AML enables a genetically determined estimation of prognosis, although treatment response must be considered for treatment stratification. The group with a favorable prognosis summarized AML with t(8;21), inv(16), t(15;17), t(1;11), and AML with normal karyotype and NPM1-mutation (n=253; EFS 74±3%, OS 88±2%). A poor prognosis (HR-group) must be expected in AML with t(4;11), t(5;11), t(6;11), t(6;9), t(7;12), t(9;22), Monosomy 7, combined FLT3/WT1-mutation, and AML with der(12p)-aberration (n=101; EFS 30±5%; OS 56±5%). The intermediate group summarizes all other subgroups especially AML with normal karyotyp, AML with FLT3-ITD or t(9;11) (n=558; EFS 43±2%; OS 64±2%). The validation of the internationally identified, genetically determined prognostic factors within the AML-BFM (Germany) study population will support treatment recommendations.

  5. Family history in breast cancer is not a prognostic factor?

    PubMed

    Jobsen, J J; Meerwaldt, J H; van der Palen, J

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if breast conservative treatment is justified for patients with a positive family history of breast cancer and to investigate whether they have a worse prognosis. We performed a prospective cohort study of breast cancer patients, treated with breast conservative treatment with radiotherapy at the Radiotherapy Department of the Medisch Spectrum Twente. Between 1984 and 1996, 1204 patients with T1 and T2 < or =3 cm were treated. Family history (FH) was recorded according to first degree relative (FDR). Treatment consisted of lumpectomy with axillary dissection followed by radiotherapy to the whole breast with a boost to the primary area. Adjuvant systemic therapy was given to patients with positive nodes. A positive FH was noted in 243 (20.5%) patients, of whom 208 (17.6%) had one FDR, and 35 (3.0%) > or =2 FDRs. The local recurrence rate was 4.1%, with similar rates for all groups. In young patients, < or =40 years, a significant relation between local recurrence and FH was found. The distant metastasis rate was 15.5%, with the lowest rate (5.7%) among patients with > or =2 FDRs. Patients with a positive FH had significantly more contralateral tumours. The 5-year corrected survival was 91.3%. Among patients with a positive FH, a 5-year corrected survival of 91% was observed and the survival 100% among patients with one and > or =2 FDR. Family history is not a contraindication for breast conservative treatment and is not associated with a worse prognosis. Family history is not a prognostic factor for local recurrence rate in patients older than 40 years.

  6. Serum HE4 is correlated to prognostic factors and survival in patients with endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Stiekema, A; Lok, Car; Korse, C M; van Driel, W J; van der Noort, V; Kenter, G G; Van de Vijver, K K

    2017-04-11

    The extent of surgery and the decision for adjuvant treatment in patients with endometrial cancer (EC) depend on the presence of risk factors for lymph node metastases and disease recurrence. Postoperative markers such as myometrial infiltration and specific mutations can select patients for adjuvant treatment but will not influence surgical planning. A biomarker stratifying patients into low-risk and high-risk groups before surgery could identify patients who benefit from more extensive surgery. Therefore, we evaluated the correlation of serum biomarker HE4 with clinical and recently identified prognostic pathological variables and survival. Patients treated for endometrial cancer between 1994 and 2014 were included. Serum HE4 concentration was measured in preoperatively obtained samples. A total of 88 patients were eligible for analysis. The majority (64%) was diagnosed with endometrioid-type adenocarcinoma. Serum HE4 concentration is significantly associated with stage of disease (p = 0.001), deep myometrial invasion (p < 0.001), exact depth of myometrial invasion (≥4 mm) (p = 0.01), tumour-free distance to serosa (≤7 mm) (p < 0.001), extensive lymph vascular space invasion (p = 0.04) and cervical involvement (p = 0.001). HE4 concentration and nodal involvement were correlated, although not significant (p = 0.17). Serum HE4 is an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival (HR 5.12 per 10-fold increase in HE4, 95% CI 1.54-17.1) and overall survival (HR 7.48 per 10-fold increase in HE4, 95% CI 1.76-31.7). HE4 is a prognostic marker in endometrial cancer and is helpful in addition to other variables for the preoperative risk stratification of patients with endometrial cancer.

  7. [Prognostic factors in community acquired pneumonia. Prospective multicenter study in internal medical departments].

    PubMed

    Apolinario Hidalgo, R; Suárez Cabrera, M; Geijo Martínez, M P; Bernabéu-Wittel, M; Falguera Sacrest, M; Limiñana Cañal, J M

    2007-10-01

    the aims of the present study were to evaluate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients suffering from community-acquired pneumonia attended in the Internal Medical Departments of several Spanish institutions and to analyze those prognostic factors predicting thirty-day mortality in such patients. Past medical history, symptoms and signs, radiological pattern and blood parameters including albumin and C Reactive Protein, were recorded for each patient. Time from admission to starting antibiotics (in hours) and follow-up (in days) were also recorded. Patients were stratified by the Pneumonia Severity Index in five risk classes. 389 patients were included in the study, most of them in Fine categories III to V. Mortality rate for all patients was 12.1% (48 patients), increasing up to 40% in Fine Class V. Neither age, sex nor time from admission to the start of antibiotic treatment predicted survival rates. Plasmatic levels of PCR or microbiologic diagnosis were not related to clinical outcome. In the Cox regression analysis, oriented patients (OR 0.138, IC95% 0.055-0.324), and those with normal albuminemia (OR 0.207, IC95% 0.103-0.417) showed better survival rates. On the contrary, those with active carcinoma (OR 3.2, IC95% 1.181-8.947) significantly showed a reduced life expectancy. Besides the fully accepted Fine scale criteria, albumin measurements should be included in routine evaluation in order to improve patient s prognostic classification.

  8. Long-Term Results and Prognostic Factors of Gastric Cancer Patients with Microscopic Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaowen; Cai, Hong; Sheng, Weiqi; Wang, Yanong

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical significance of microscopic peritoneal carcinomatosis remained unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of microscopic peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer. Methods From 1996 to 2007, 4426 patients underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. The clinical and pathological data were reviewed to identify patients with microscopic peritoneal carcinomatosis (group 1). The clinicopathological features and prognosis were examined. Additionally, 242 stage-matched gastric cancer patients without microscopic peritoneal carcinomatosis (group 2) and 118 with macroscopic peritoneal carcinomatosis (group 3) were selected as control groups. Results Microscopic peritoneal carcinomatosis was found in 121 patients. There were 85 males and 36 females (2.36:1). There was a higher incidence rate of large size tumor (≥5 cm) (P = 0.045), Borrmann IV (P = 0.000), and serosal invasion (P = 0.000) in gastric cancer with microscopic peritoneal carcinomatosis compared with the control group. The 5-year survival rate of gastric cancer with microscopic peritoneal carcinomatosis was 24%, significantly poorer than that of the stage-matched control group but better than that of patients with macroscopic peritoneal carcinomatosis. The independent prognostic factors identified included pathological stage and operative curability. Conclusions The presence of microscopic peritoneal carcinomatosis was associated with worse prognosis for gastric cancer, but curative surgery showed potential to improve prognosis. PMID:22615966

  9. Prognostic factors of laryngeal solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yong; Qiu, Jun; Zhou, Min-Li; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Bao, Yang-Yang; Wang, Qin-Ying; Zheng, Zhou-Jun

    2015-01-01

    A paucity of data exists concerning the presentation, natural course and outcome of extramedullary plasmcytoma (EMP). It is difficult to determine the optimal treatment strategy and prognostic factors for EMP. We present an additional case of laryngeal EMP and systemic review relevant reports in the English and Chinese literature. We found, to our knowledge, 147 cases in larynx in the English-language literature and Chinese-literature. The most common treatment modality was radiotherapy alone. The mean survival duration was ~184 months, and the 5- and 10- year survival rates were 76.1% and 67.4%, respectively. The univariate analysis suggested that progression to multiple myeloma and amyloid deposits may be poor prognostic factors. The multivariate analysis suggested that only progression to multiple myeloma may be a poor prognostic factor. Laryngeal EMP is uncommon. Progression to multiple myeloma may be a poor prognostic factor. PMID:26045749

  10. Dyspnea as a Prognostic Factor in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Wooho; Lee, Jong Min; Ha, Jick Hwan; Yeo, Chang Dong; Kang, Hyeon Hui; Rhee, Chin Kook; Moon, Hwa Sik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate associations between dyspnea and clinical outcomes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods From 2001 to 2014, we retrospectively reviewed the prospective lung cancer database of St. Paul's Hospital at the Catholic University of Korea. We enrolled patients with NSCLC and evaluated symptoms of dyspnea using modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scores. Also, we estimated pulmonary functions and analyzed survival data. Results In total, 457 NSCLC patients were enrolled, and 259 (56.7%) had dyspnea. Among those with dyspnea and whose mMRC scores were available (109 patients had no mMRC score), 85 (56.6%) patients had an mMRC score <2, while 65 (43.3%) had an mMRC score ≥2. Significant decreased pulmonary functions were observed in patients with dyspnea. In multivariate analysis, aging, poor performance status, advanced stage, low forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%), and an mMRC score ≥2 were found to be significant prognostic factors for patient survival. Conclusion Dyspnea could be a significant prognostic factor in patients with NSCLC. PMID:27401635

  11. Hexokinase 2 in colorectal cancer: a potent prognostic factor associated with glycolysis, proliferation and migration.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Munetoshi; Karasawa, Hideaki; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Nakayama, Shun; Yabuuchi, Shinichi; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Watanabe, Mika; Suzuki, Takashi; Unno, Michiaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that proliferating carcinoma cells preferentially use aerobic glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation for energy production. Hexokinase 2 (HK2) plays a pivotal role in the glycolytic pathway. Previous studies have demonstrated that HK2 activity is markedly increased in various malignant neoplasms, but the clinical and biological significance of HK2 remain largely unclear in the colorectal carcinoma. We performed immunohistochemistry for HK2 in 195 colorectal carcinoma tissues. We also used HCT8 and HT29 colon carcinoma cells in in vitro studies. HK2 immunoreactivity was detected in 100 out of 195 (51%) colorectal carcinoma tissues, and the immunohistochemical HK2 status was significantly associated with tumor size, depth of invasion, liver metastasis and TNM stage in these cases. Moreover, the HK2 status was significantly associated with increased incidence of recurrence and overall mortality of the patients, and multivariate analyses demonstrated that HK2 status was an independent prognostic factor for both disease-free and overall survival. Subsequent in vitro experiments revealed that both HCT8 and HT29 colon carcinoma cells transfected with specific siRNA for HK2 significantly decreased the lactate production, proliferation activity and migration property. These results suggest that HK2 plays important roles in the glycolytic, proliferation and migration properties of colorectal carcinoma and, therefore, HK2 status is a potent worse prognostic factor in colorectal cancer patients.

  12. Degree of Keratinization Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wolfer, Susanne; Elstner, Stefan; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2017-06-30

    Keratinization is a routinely reported histologic feature in head and neck cancer. In contrast to numerous clinicopathologic parameters, the prognostic value of keratinization in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is rarely reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review the outcome of patients with OSCC with a special focus on the degree of keratinization. In this retrospective cohort study, we evaluated the medical records at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Jena University Hospital, and investigated the outcome of patients with OSCC with disease-free survival and disease-specific survival according to the degree of keratinization. This research also analyzed common clinical and histologic parameters such as age, gender, tumor site, T category, N category, resection margin, lymphovascular invasion, and extracapsular spread. Descriptive statistics were performed, and survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were analyzed by multivariate Cox analysis. In the sample of 151 OSCC patients, with a median age of 57.5 years and a male-female ratio of 4.03:1, 119 had tumors with no or low keratinization (K0 to K2) and 32 had tumors with good or high keratinization (K3 or K4). More recurrences were seen in patients with OSCC with low keratinization (P = .0008). The 5-year disease-free survival rate was significantly decreased for OSCC with low keratinization (52.9%) compared with good or high keratinization (93.2%) (P = .0008). The 5-year disease-specific survival rate was reduced to 66.1% (P = .0136) for patients with OSCC with low keratinization. Multivariate analysis showed that extracapsular spread (P = .001) and keratinization (P = .002) are independent, significant prognostic factors for recurrence in OSCC. Besides extracapsular spread, the degree of keratinization seems to be an important prognostic factor for recurrence and survival in OSCC. Our results indicate that the degree of

  13. Prognostic factors for elderly patients with primary malignant bone and soft tissue tumors

    PubMed Central

    IWAI, TADASHI; HOSHI, MANABU; TAKADA, JUN; OEBISU, NAOTO; AONO, MASANARI; TAKAMI, MASATSUGU; IEGUCHI, MAKOTO; NAKAMURA, HIROAKI

    2015-01-01

    The number of patients with primary malignant bone and soft tissue tumors in Japan is increasing in line with the increasing size of the elderly population. The aim of the present study was to determine the prognostic factors of primary malignant bone or soft tissue tumors in elderly patients. Clinical data was obtained from 90 patients, aged ≥65 years, with primary malignant bone or soft tissue tumors (bone, 20 cases; and soft tissue, 70 cases), treated at the Osaka City University Hospital between 1993 and 2013. Clinical information prior to treatment and tumor type, location, size, depth, grade and American Society of Anesthesiologists-Physical Status (ASA-PS) score were evaluated in order to identify prognostic factors using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. In addition, 5-year survival rates were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The average follow-up period was 44.8 months and the 5-year overall survival rate was 77.5%. In the multivariate analysis, ASA-PS score and high-grade sarcoma were found to be associated with a poorer overall survival. No significant differences were observed between the patient group aged 65–74 years and that aged ≥75 years. In general, aging is associated with physically reduced function and an increased prevalence of comorbidities. It was therefore expected that increasing age may be a predictive factor for poor prognosis. However, the results of the present study suggested that ASA-PS score and tumor grade were significant factors associated with poor prognosis, whereas increasing age was not. Therefore, the treatment of elderly patients with primary bone and soft tissue tumors should not be based on age. PMID:26622753

  14. Clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of the uterine sarcomas: 20 years of experience at Cukurova University.

    PubMed

    Khatib, G; Guzel, A B; Gulec, U K; Gumurdulu, D; Vardar, M A; Altintas, A

    2014-01-01

    Uterine sarcomas (US) are rare, malignant, and aggressive tumors of the uterus. In this study the authors aimed to evalu- ate retrospectively the clinical and pathologic features and to investigate the prognostic factors of the U.S. patients who were treated in their department in the last 20 years. The archive files, medical, and pathological records of the 132 US patients who were operated on and regularly followed up in the clinic between March 1991-March 2011 were reviewed. Clinical features, operation characteristics, pathological findings, adjuvant therapies, and follow-up data of the patients and their effects on survival were investigated. Analysis of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression tests. Thep value was taken <0.05 to maintain the statistical significance level for all results. Results: Seventy of the patients were diagnosed with leiomyosarcomas (LMS), 33 were with carcinosarcomas, 12 were with endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS), nine were with undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas, five were with adenosarcomas, and three were with botryoid rhabdomyosarcomas. The average patients' age was 53.7 +/- 12.6 (17-78). About two-thirds of the patients were in postmenopausal and one-third were in pre- menopausal period. Vaginal bleeding was detected as the most common reason for patients' admission (68.9%). All cases underwent surgery and a procedure of total abdominal hysterectomy + bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH + BSO) was performed for most of them (88%). The mean duration of follow-up was 36 months (4-198). The two- and five-year OS rates were 65% and 36%, respectively, with a median time of 37 months (95% CI, 28-45). The two- and five-year DFS rates were 59% and 33%, respectively, with a median time of 29 months (95% CI, 18-40). As a result of multivariate analysis, while age, stage, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), and lymphadenectomy were found to be independent prognostic

  15. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in ecuador: analysis of prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Ojeda, L A; Martínez, A L; Alvarez, M

    2001-01-01

    The highest incidence of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has been reported in countries with endemic goiter, such as in Ecuador. In this country, ATC is the third most common histologic type of thyroid cancer, following papillary and follicular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to review the clinical presentation and the results of treatment of a large consecutive series of ATC patients treated at the oncological department of a general hospital in Quito, Ecuador. This is a retrospective study of 30 patients diagnosed with ATC at the Social Security Hospital, from 1982 to 1998. Symptomatic rapidly growing neck masses were generally present. All the patients had histological diagnosis of ATC. Two patients with pulmonary metastases and pleural effusion died before treatment could be instituted. Twenty-eight patients received at least one type of treatment: surgery, radiation therapy (RT), or chemotherapy (CT). The two most frequently employed therapeutic modalities were surgery followed by RT and/or CT in 14 patients and surgery alone in 9 patients. Surgery was performed in 23 patients but a complete resection was possible in only 14 patients. RT, postoperatively or alone, was given to 17 patients. Only 5 patients received doses ranging from 4,000 to 5,000 cGy and 4 patients more than 5,000 cGy. CT was administered to 17 patients. Doxorubicin alone was given to 10 patients and different combinations to the remaining patients. Local control was obtained in 8 of 14 complete resections. The prognostic value of the following parameters was studied by univariate analysis: duration of symptoms, size of the tumor, extent of glandular involvement, type of treatment, and surgical margins. A statistically longer survival was found in cases of differentiated carcinoma with areas of ATC or tumor limited to one lobe, those patients who received a complete treatment of chemotherapy, and those patients with tumors smaller than 10 cm and with duration of symptoms longer than 4

  16. Krüppel-like factor 5 in human breast carcinoma: a potent prognostic factor induced by androgens.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Kiyoshi; Miki, Yasuhiro; Onodera, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Takanori; Watanabe, Mika; Inoue, Satoshi; Sasano, Hironobu; Suzuki, Takashi

    2012-12-01

    Krüppel-like factor 5 (intestinal) or Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) is a zinc finger-containing transcription factor and involved in important biological processes including cell proliferation and differentiation. However, clinical significance of KLF5 protein has remained largely unknown in breast cancer. Therefore, in this study, we immunolocalized KLF5 in 113 human breast carcinoma cases. KLF5 immunoreactivity was frequently detected in the nuclei of breast carcinoma cells, and median value of the ratio of KLF5-positive carcinoma cells was 30% and was positively associated with the status of androgen receptor. KLF5 immunoreactivity was also significantly associated with increased risk of recurrence and worse clinical outcome in breast cancer patients by univariate analyses, and subsequent multivariate analyses demonstrated that KLF5 immunoreactivity was an independent prognostic factor for both disease-free and breast cancer-specific survival of the patients. We then examined possible regulation of KLF5 by androgen using MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. KLF5 mRNA was induced by biologically active androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone in a dose- and time-dependent manner in MCF-7 cells. In addition, results of transfection experiments demonstrated that proliferation activity of MCF-7 cells was significantly associated with the KLF5 expression level. These findings suggest that KLF5 is an androgen-responsive gene in human breast carcinomas and play important roles in the progression of breast carcinomas. KLF5 immunoreactivity is therefore considered a potent prognostic factor in human breast cancers.

  17. Elevated lactic acid is a negative prognostic factor in metastatic lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Vlachostergios, Panagiotis J; Oikonomou, Katerina G; Gibilaro, Eugene; Apergis, George

    2015-01-01

    Hyperlactatemia with or without type B lactic acidosis is a rare complication of cancer, previously observed most often in hematological malignancies. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of lactic acid (LA) in patients with metastatic lung cancer. Patients diagnosed with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and extensive stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), were included in this single center retrospective study. Arterial and venous LA level, anion gap (AG), serum LDH and presence of urine ketones were recorded for each patient and their associations with demographic and clinical data and overall survival (OS) were examined. Eighty-five patients (43 males, median age 74, range 45-96 years) were studied. The maximal levels of arterial or venous LA were significantly associated with presence of ≥ 2 metastatic sites (p= 0.001), ICU admission or transfer (p= 0.016), intubation (p= 0.029), elevated serum anion gap (p< 0.001) and LDH levels (p< 0.001). Hyperlactatemia (≥ 1.4 mmol/L) was associated with shorter OS (log-rank p< 0.001). In a multivariate model including LA, ICU, intubation, AG as well as other known prognostic factors of NSCLC and SCLC, including age, sex, smoking status, number and location of metastases, histologic type, performance status (PS), chemotherapy and LDH, LA retained its prognostic value (OR: 1.3; 95%CI: 1.082-1.561; p= 0.005), along with PS (p= 0.039) and chemotherapy (p= 0.039). The results of the study suggest that a high lactic acid level (≥ 1.4 mmol/L) is associated with significantly shorter overall survival in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer and extensive stage small cell lung cancer. Hyperlactatemia is an independent predictor of poor survival in metastatic lung cancer patients.

  18. Predictive and prognostic factors in definition of risk groups in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sorbe, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim was to evaluate predictive and prognostic factors in a large consecutive series of endometrial carcinomas and to discuss pre- and postoperative risk groups based on these factors. Material and Methods. In a consecutive series of 4,543 endometrial carcinomas predictive and prognostic factors were analyzed with regard to recurrence rate and survival. The patients were treated with primary surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. Two preoperative and three postoperative risk groups were defined. DNA ploidy was included in the definitions. Eight predictive or prognostic factors were used in multivariate analyses. Results. The overall recurrence rate of the complete series was 11.4%. Median time to relapse was 19.7 months. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, FIGO grade, myometrial infiltration, and DNA ploidy were independent and statistically predictive factors with regard to recurrence rate. The 5-year overall survival rate was 73%. Tumor stage was the single most important factor with FIGO grade on the second place. DNA ploidy was also a significant prognostic factor. In the preoperative risk group definitions three factors were used: histology, FIGO grade, and DNA ploidy. Conclusions. DNA ploidy was an important and significant predictive and prognostic factor and should be used both in preoperative and postoperative risk group definitions.

  19. Evaluation of Breast Cancer Stem Cells and Intratumor Stemness Heterogeneity in Triple-negative Breast Cancer as Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fang; Cao, Lulu; Sun, Zijia; Jin, Juan; Fang, Hehui; Zhang, Wenwen; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a tumor subtype with aggressive behavior and poor clinical outcome for lacking effective therapies. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been suggested to have tumor-initiating properties, but it remains unclear whether their presence contributes to the increased aggressiveness and poor prognosis of TNBC. Also, the breast cancers display frequent inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity, which adds the complexity in diagnosis and predicting prognosis. Here we investigated the clinical relevance and prognostic value of the BCSC markers, CD44+/CD24-, aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A1 (ALDH1A1) and CD133 in 88 TNBC cases. We found that a few patients displayed spatial heterogeneity of the BCSC markers in expression, which was defined as intratumor stemness heterogeneity (ITSH) below. There was no significant correlation between any BCSC marker alone or ITSH and progression-free survival (PFS). Interestingly, the combined BCSC phenotype by CD44+/CD24- and ALDH1A1 was significantly associated with worse PFS (P = 0.009). Further stratification analysis revealed that this combined BCSC phenotype was an independent prognostic factor for PFS in some subgroups. In conclusion, we demonstrated the existence of ITSH in TNBC and found that the ITSH as well as a single BCSC marker was not significantly associated with survival, whereas combing the analysis of BCSC markers could improve prognostic value. Our findings may lead to an improvement of prognostic indicators in TNBC. PMID:27994520

  20. [Lymphatic metastasis in the neck from unknown primary. Analysis of treatment results and prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Szutkowski, Zbigniew; Kawecki, Andrzej; Wasilewska-Teśluk, Ewa; Kraszewska, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the results of treatment results and prognostic factors related to clinical and treatment characteristics in patients with neck lymph nodes metastases from the unknown primary site. 90 patients with pathology proven cancer metastases in the neck lymph nodes from the unknown primary site were treated between 1984-1998. Most of them (58 patients--63%) had advanced disease in lymph nodes N3. The rest had stage N2abc before initial treatment. 40 patients underwent combined treatment--surgery and definitive radiotherapy. 3 patients had induction chemotherapy followed by resection and radiotherapy. 30 patients received radiotherapy alone or radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In 7 cases chemotherapy after surgical resection were used. Curves of overall survival were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Analysis of the prognostic factors was performed using Cox's multivariate proportional risk model. 5 years overall survival probability was 24%. In the group of patients who underwent surgery and radiotherapy probability of 5 years overall survival was 43%. In patients who received radiotherapy alone or radiotherapy and chemotherapy probability of 5 year overall survival was 2%. Multivariate analysis showed significant influence of the performance status (PS--WHO scale), sex and stage N3 on overall survival. The patients with PS 0-1 had better prognosis comparing with PS 2-3 (p < 0.001). Male had worse prognosis then female (p = 0.05). N3 stage reduced overall survival in comparison to N2abc (p = 0.06). In the analysis of disease free survival N3-stage was the only independent factor concerning with poor outcome (p = 0.03). Patients who had surgery followed by radiotherapy had better prognosis. Poor performance status, sex-male and N3 stage were identified as the important factors influencing overall survival. N3-stage was an independent factor influencing disease free survival.

  1. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome identification of prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Robert, Th; Kawkabani Marchini, A; Oumarou, G; Uské, A

    2013-11-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is described as a clinical and radiological entity characterized by thunderclap headaches, a reversible segmental or multifocal vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries with or without focal neurological deficits or seizures. The purpose of this study is to determine risk factors of poor outcome in patients presented a RCVS. A retrospective multi-center review of invasive and non-invasive neurovascular imaging between January 2006 and January 2011 has identified 10 patients with criterion of reversible segmental vasoconstriction syndrome. Demographics data, vascular risks and evolution of each of these patients were analyzed. Seven of the ten patients were females with a mean age of 46 years. In four patients, we did not found any causative factors. Two cases presented RCVS in post-partum period between their first and their third week after delivery. The other three cases were drug-induced RCVS, mainly vaso-active drugs. Cannabis was found as the causative factor in two patient, Sumatriptan identified in one patient while cyclosporine was the causative agent in also one patient. The mean duration of clinical follow-up was 10.2 months (range: 0-28 months). Two patients had neurological sequelae: one patient kept a dysphasia and the other had a homonymous lateral hemianopia. We could not find any significant difference of the evolution between secondary RCVS and idiopathic RCVS. The only two factors, which could be correlated to the clinical outcome were the neurological status at admission and the presence of intraparenchymal abnormalities (ischemic stroke, hematoma) in brain imaging. Fulminant vasoconstriction resulting in progressive symptoms or death has been reported in exceptional frequency. Physicians had to remember that such evolution could happen and predict them by identifying all factors of poor prognosis (neurological status at admission, the presence of intraparenchymal abnormalities). Published by

  2. Highly aligned stromal collagen is a negative prognostic factor following pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma resection

    PubMed Central

    Drifka, Cole R.; Loeffler, Agnes G.; Mathewson, Kara; Keikhosravi, Adib; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Liu, Yuming; Weber, Sharon M.

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) progression after surgery are unclear, and additional prognostic factors are needed to inform treatment regimens and therapeutic targets. PDAC is characterized by advanced sclerosis of the extracellular matrix, and interactions between cancer cells, fibrillar collagen, and other stromal components play an integral role in progression. Changes in stromal collagen alignment have been shown to modulate cancer cell behavior and have important clinical value in other cancer types, but little is known about its role in PDAC and prognostic value. We hypothesized that the alignment of collagen is associated with PDAC patient survival. To address this, pathology-confirmed tissues from 114 PDAC patients that underwent curative-intent surgery were retrospectively imaged with Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy, quantified with fiber segmentation algorithms, and correlated to patient survival. The same tissue regions were analyzed for epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT), α-SMA, and syndecan-1 using complimentary immunohistostaining and visualization techniques. Significant inter-tumoral variation in collagen alignment was found, and notably high collagen alignment was observed in 12% of the patient cohort. Stratification of patients according to collagen alignment revealed that high alignment is an independent negative factor following PDAC resection (p = 0.0153, multivariate). We also found that epithelial expression of EMT and the stromal expression of α-SMA and syndecan-1 were positively correlated with collagen alignment. In summary, stromal collagen alignment may provide additional, clinically-relevant information about PDAC tumors and underscores the importance of stroma-cancer interactions. PMID:27776346

  3. Prognostic factors and treatment effect in the CHIMES study.

    PubMed

    Chankrachang, Siwaporn; Navarro, Jose C; de Silva, Deidre A; Towanabut, Somchai; Chua, Carlos L; Lee, Chun Fan; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Wong, K S Lawrence; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Chen, Christopher L H

    2015-04-01

    Stroke trials often analyze patients with heterogeneous prognoses using a single definition of outcome, which may not be applicable to all subgroups. We aimed to evaluate the treatment effects of MCL601 among patients stratified by prognosis in the Chinese Medicine Neuroaid Efficacy on Stroke Recovery (CHIMES) study. Analyses were performed using data from the CHIMES study, an international, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial comparing MLC601 with placebo in patients with ischemic stroke of intermediate severity in the preceding 72 hours. All subjects with baseline data and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months were included. Data from 1006 subjects were analyzed. The predictive variables for mRS score greater than 1 at month 3 were age older than 60 years (P < .001), baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 10-14 (P < .001), stroke onset to initiation of study treatment of more than 48 hours (P < .001), and female sex (P = .026). A higher number of predictors was associated with poorer mRS score at month 3 for both placebo (P < .001) and treatment (P < .001) groups. The odds ratio (OR) for achieving a good outcome increased with the number of predictors and reached statistical significance in favor of MLC601 among patients with 2 to 4 predictors combined (unadjusted OR = 1.44, 95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.03; adjusted OR = 1.60, 95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.34). Age, sex, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and time to first dose are predictors of functional outcome in the CHIMES study. Stratification by prognosis showed that patients with 2 or more predictors of poorer outcome have better treatment effect with MLC601 than patients with single or no prognostic factor. These results have implications on designing future stroke trials. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical and pathological prognostic markers for survival in adult patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in solid transplant.

    PubMed

    Oton, Ana B; Wang, Hong; Leleu, Xavier; Melhem, Mona F; George, Diane; Lacasce, Ann; Foon, Kenneth; Ghobrial, Irene M

    2008-09-01

    We sought to determine the clinical and immunohistopathological prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in adult patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs). Eighty-four patients diagnosed with PTLDs between 1980 and 2004 at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center were identified. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on tumor tissue at the time of diagnosis for the following proteins: Bcl-2, Bcl-6, c-myc and p53. The median survival for all patients was 20.8 months, 95% CI: (7.4-77.6). On univariate analysis for OS, the following poor prognostic factors were identified: age at transplant >60 years (p = 0.024), multiorgan transplant (p = 0.019), ECOG > 2 (p < 0.0001), grafted organ involvement (p < 0.0001), extranodal disease (p = 0.011), early (<1 year) PTLDs (p < 0.0001), stage IV (p = 0.0017), EBV positive (p = 0.012) and elevated white blood count (p = 0.010). Good prognostic factors included ECOG<2 (p < 0.0001), late (>1 year) PTLDs (p = 0.002), early stage at diagnosis (stages I and II, p = 0.005), nodal disease (p = 0.0053), monomorphic disease (0.0034), initial immunosuppression reduction (p = 0.0015) and use of rituximab (p = 0.045). Bcl-2 but not Bcl-6, c-myc, or p53 correlated with poor survival, p = 0.0036. This study identifies new clinical and pathological markers for poor survival in PTLDs.

  5. The relationship of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome with known breast cancer prognostic factors in postmenopausal breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Can, A; Alacacioglu, A; Kucukzeybek, Y; Erten, C; Cokmert, S; Demir, L; Dirican, A; Vedat Bayoglu, I; Akyol, M; Aslan, F; Oktay Tarhan, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance at the time of diagnosis on the known prognostic factors of breast cancer in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. The study included 71 patients with a recent diagnosis of postmenopausal breast cancer, admitted at the Medical Oncology outpatient clinic of the Izmir Ataturk Training and Research Hospital between June 2010 and June 2011. We determined whether the patients had metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance at diagnosis, and recorded known prognostic factors, such as tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, presence of distant metastasis, tumor grade, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and CerbB-2 status. Among 71 patients, 25 (35%) had metabolic syndrome at the time of diagnosis, and 33 (46%) had insulin resistance with Homeostasis Model of Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)>2.7. No statistically significant difference was found in the prognostic values of breast cancer, i.e. tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, distant metastasis, tumor grade, ER, PR, and CerbB-2 status between the patients with and without metabolic syndrome. There was no statistically significant difference in the prognostic factors of breast cancer at the time of diagnosis between 33 patients with insulin resistance and 38 patients without insulin resistance. Several previous studies showed a negative relationship between metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance and prognostic factors of breast cancer in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. However, our study failed to show such a relationship. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance and postmenopausal breast cancer was not well demonstrated due to the small number of patients, unknown duration of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, and shorter follow-up period. Further studies are required to demonstrate the effect of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance on

  6. Peripheral blood lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio as a prognostic factor in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: a multicenter retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jia-yu; Liu, Cheng-cheng; Wang, Liang; Zhong, Mei; Tang, Hai-lin; Wang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    The lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), as a surrogate marker of systemic inflammation, has been found to be a novel prognostic indicator in various malignancies. Data from 672 advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by debulking surgery were analyzed, and the prognostic value of LMR were evaluated. The optimal cutoff point of LMR in prediction of survival was defined as 3.45 through receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. Patients with low LMR (≤3.45) at diagnosis tended to have more adverse clinical features, such as higher histological grade, chemotherapy resistance, and residual tumor >1cm after debulking surgery. No significant correlation was found between LMR level and age and histological type. Moreover, after NAC, the complete remission (CR) rate for the low-LMR group was lower than those for the high-LMR group (P<0.05). Patients with low LMR had poorer progression-free survival (PFS; P<0.001) and overall survival (OS; P<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that low LMR was an independent adverse predictor for PFS and OS. Results indicated that low LMR at diagnosis is a novel independent prognostic factor for advanced EOC. However, prospective study is needed to validate this prognostic factor and biological studies should further investigate the mechanisms underlying the correlation between low LMR and poor prognosis in advanced EOC.

  7. [Clinical application value of prognostic nutritional index for predicting survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Xu, W J; Kang, Y M; Zhou, L; Chen, F F; Song, Y H; Zhang, C Q

    2017-02-23

    Objective: To explore the clinical application value of prognostic nutritional index(PNI) for predicting overall survival(OS) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: 123 patients with histologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled in this study, and their clinical and laboratory data were reviewed. The PNI was calculated as 10×serum albumin value+ 5×total lymphocyte countin peripheral blood.Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the potential prognostic factors for advanced NSCLC. Results: PNI of the 123 NSCLC patients was 46.24±6.56. PNI was significantly associated with age, weight loss and pleural effusion (P<0.05). However, it showed no relationship with sex, smoking, hemoptysis, chest pain, dyspnea, histological type, clinical stage, and administration of chemotherapy (P>0.05). The median OS of the 123 patients was 19.5 months. The median OS in the higher PNI group (PNI≥46.24) and lower PNI group(PNI<46.24) were 25.2 months and 16.4 months, respectively.The 1-year survival rates were 80.6% and 63.9%, and 2-year survival rates were 54.8% and 19.6%, respectively (P<0.01). Univariate analysis showed that PNI, age, dyspnea, and weight loss were related to the OS of the advanced NSCLC patients (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis identified PNI as an independent prognostic factor for OS of advanced NSCLC (P<0.001). Conclusion: PNI can be easily calculated, and may be used as a relatively new prognostic indicator for advanced NSCLC in clinical practice.

  8. Causes of Death and Prognostic Factors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Uehara, Hirotsugu; Berna, Marc J.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    literature series, the main causes of MEN1-related deaths were due to the malignant nature of the PETs, followed by the malignant nature of thymic carcinoid tumors. These results differ from the results of a number of the literature series, especially those reported before the 1990s. The causes of non-MEN1-related death for the 2 series, in decreasing frequency, were cardiovascular disease, other nonendocrine tumors > lung diseases, cerebrovascular diseases. The most frequent non-MEN1-related tumor deaths were colorectal, renal > lung > breast, oropharyngeal. Although both overall and disease-related survival are better than in the past (30-yr survival of NIH series: 82% overall, 88% disease-related), the mean age at death was 55 years, which is younger than expected for the general population. Detailed analysis of causes of death correlated with clinical, laboratory, and tumor characteristics of patients in the 2 series allowed identification of a number of prognostic factors. Poor prognostic factors included higher fasting gastrin levels, presence of other functional hormonal syndromes, need for >3 parathyroidectomies, presence of liver metastases or distant metastases, aggressive PET growth, large PETs, or the development of new lesions. The results of this study have helped define the causes of death of MEN1 patients at present, and have enabled us to identify a number of prognostic factors that should be helpful in tailoring treatment for these patients for both short- and long-term management, as well as in directing research efforts to better define the natural history of the disease and the most important factors determining long-term survival at present. PMID:23645327

  9. Circulating Haptoglobin Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in the Sera of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changqing; Annamalai, Loganath; Guo, Changfa; Kothandaraman, Narasimhan; Koh, Stephen Chee Liang; Zhang, Huoming; Biswas, Arijit; Choolani, Mahesh

    2007-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of haptoglobin levels in the overall survival of patients presenting with various stages of epithelial ovarian cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS We employed an in-house sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to determine the concentrations of preoperative haptoglobin and C-reactive protein (CRP) in sera samples obtained from 66 malignant tumors, 60 benign tumors, and 10 normal healthy women. RESULTS Levels of serum haptoglobin significantly correlated with tumor type (P < .001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P < .05). A significant correlation was observed between clinical stage and patient survival (r = 5.99, P = .026). Our data also indicated that elevated serum haptoglobin levels were associated with poor outcome for overall survival using both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = .048 and P = .036 respectively). Using Pearson's correlation, we have noted that serum CRP concentrations significantly correlated with haptoglobin levels (r2 = 0.22, P < .001). Immunohistochemical findings and Western blot analyses were compatible with sera levels of haptoglobin in which a higher intensity of staining occurred in late-stage epithelial ovarian cancers. CONCLUSION This study provides evidence that preoperative serum levels of haptoglobin could serve as an independent prognostic factor in patients presenting with epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:17325738

  10. Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (Fgf21) as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker in Renal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Knott, ME; Minatta, JN; Roulet, L; Gueglio, G; Pasik, L; Ranuncolo, SM; Nuñez, M; Puricelli, L; De Lorenzo, MS

    2016-01-01

    Background The finding of new biomarkers is needed to have a better sub-classification of primary renal tumors (RCC) as well as more reliable predictors of outcome and therapy response. In this study, we evaluated the role of circulating FGF21, an endocrine factor, as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for ccRCC. Materials and Methods Serum samples from healthy controls (HC), clear cell and chromophobe RCC cancer patients were obtained from the serum biobank “Biobanco Público de Muestras Séricas Oncológicas” (BPMSO) of the “Instituto de Oncología “Ángel H. Roffo”. Serum FGF21 and leptin were measured by ELISA while other metabolic markers were measured following routinely clinical procedures. Results One of our major findings was that FGF21 levels were significantly increased in ccRCC patients compared with HC. Moreover, we showed an association between the increased serum FGF21 levels and the shorter disease free survival in a cohort of 98 ccRCC patients, after adjustment for other predictors of outcome. Conclusion Our results suggest that higher FGF21 serum level is an independent prognostic biomarker, associated with worse free-disease survival. PMID:27358750

  11. GATA3 Expression Is a Poor Prognostic Factor in Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Haraguchi, Toshiaki; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Hiraoka, Koji; Yokoyama, Shintaro; Ishibashi, Yukinao; Hashiguchi, Toshihiro; Matsuda, Koutaro; Hamada, Tetsuya; Okawa, Takahiro; Shiba, Naoto; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have investigated the significance of GATA3 expression in patients with various malignant tumors. However, no previous studies have evaluated the clinicopathological importance of GATA3 expression in soft tissue sarcomas (STS) patients. Methods We evaluated GATA3 expression in 76 STS cases using immunohistochemical analysis, and statistically compared clinicopathological characteristics between GATA3-positive and GATA3-negative cases. Result GATA3-positive expression was significantly associated with a higher mitotic count (P < 0.0001). Disease-free survival (DFS) of GATA3-positive cases was significantly shorter than that of cases without GATA3 expression (P = 0.0104). Overall survival (OS) of GATA3-positive cases was significantly shorter than that of cases without GATA3 expression (P = 0.0006). GATA3-positive expression was significantly associated with shorter DFS in both univariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 2.719; P = 0.012) and multivariate analysis (HR, 2.711; P = 0.014). GATA3-positive expression was also significantly associated with worse OS in both univariate analysis (HR, 5.730; P = 0.0007) and multivariate analysis (HR, 5.789; P = 0.0008). Conclusion These results indicate that GATA3 is an independent prognostic factor and suggest that evaluation of GATA3 expression might enable more effective clinical follow-up using prognostic stratification of STS patients. PMID:27249072

  12. Alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems: a brief review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Masayo

    2012-12-17

    The number of articles on alexithymia has been steadily increasing since the word "alexithymia" was coined in the 1970s to denote a common characteristic that is observed among classic psychosomatic patients in whom therapy was unsuccessful. Alexithymia, a disorder of affect regulation, has been suggested to be broadly associated with various mental and physical health problems. However, most available evidence is based on anecdotal reports or cross-sectional observations. To clarify the predictive value of alexithymia for health problems, a systematic review of prospective studies was conducted. A search of the PubMed database identified 1,507 articles on "alexithymia" that were published by July 31, 2011. Among them, only 7 studies examined the developmental risks of alexithymia for health problems among nonclinical populations and 38 studies examined the prognostic value of alexithymia among clinical populations. Approximately half of the studies reported statistically significant adverse effects, while 5 studies demonstrated favorable effects of alexithymia on health outcomes; four of them were associated with surgical interventions and two involved cancer patients. The studies that showed insignificant results tended to have a small sample size. In conclusion, epidemiological evidence regarding alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems remains un-established. Even though alexithymia is considered to be an unfavorable characteristic for disease control and health promotion overall, some beneficial aspects are suggested. More prospective studies with sufficient sample sizes and follow-up period, especially those involving life course analyses, are needed to confirm the contribution of alexithymia to health problems.

  13. Runt-related transcription factor 2 in human colon carcinoma: a potent prognostic factor associated with estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Sase, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miura, Koh; Shiiba, Kenichi; Sato, Ikuro; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Onodera, Yoshiaki; Miki, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Mika; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Ohnuma, Shinobu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Sato, Ryuichiro; Karasawa, Hideaki; Shibata, Chikashi; Unno, Michiaki; Sasaki, Iwao; Sasano, Hironobu

    2012-11-15

    Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) belongs to the RUNX family of heterodimeric transcription factors, and is mainly associated with osteogenesis. Previous in vitro studies demonstrated that RUNX2 increased the cell proliferation of mouse and rat colon carcinoma cells but the status of RUNX2 has remained unknown in human colon carcinoma. Therefore, we examined clinical significance and biological functions of RUNX2 in colon carcinoma. RUNX2 immunoreactivity was examined in 157 colon carcinoma tissues using immunohistochemistry. RUNX2 immunoreactivity was evaluated as percentage of positive carcinoma cells [i.e., labeling index (LI)]. We used SW480 and DLD-1 human colon carcinoma cells, expressing estrogen receptor-β (ER) in subsequent in vitro studies. RUNX2 immunoreactivity was detected in colon carcinoma cells, and the median value of RUNX2 LI was 67%. RUNX2 LI was significantly associated with Dukes' stage, liver metastasis and ERβ status. In addition, RUNX2 LI was significantly associated with adverse clinical outcome of the colon carcinoma patients, and turned out an independent prognostic factor following multivariate analysis. Results of in vitro studies demonstrated that both SW480 and DLD-1 cells transfected with small interfering RNA against RUNX2 significantly decreased their cell proliferation, migration and invasive properties. In addition, RUNX2 mRNA level was significantly decreased by ER antagonist in these two cells. These findings all suggest that RUNX2 is a potent prognostic factor in human colon carcinoma patients through the promotion of cell proliferation and invasion properties, and is at least partly upregulated by estrogen signals through ERβ of carcinoma cells.

  14. [Multiple system atrophy: prognostic factors in the "MSA-Aquitaine" cohort].

    PubMed

    Krim, E; Yekhlef, F; Chrysostome, V; Ghorayeb, I; Tison, F

    2007-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a common cause of atypical parkinsonism, of poor prognosis. MSA is associated with short survival but data stemming from clinical or pathological studies are sparse and contrasted. Factors predicting survival in MSA are not fully established. We investigated the survival and prognostic factors of MSA in the cohort "MSA-Aquitaine". This was a retrospective study of an unselected cohort of patients included throughout Aquitaine based on the Consensus Conference statement concerning MSA diagnostic criteria, with prospective follow-up on mortality. All patients received a standard clinical examination and disease history was collected through medical records and interviews of patients. Survival was ascertained by telephonic calls. From 1 November 1998 to 1 April 2002, we diagnosed 86 patients (43 men and 43 women) with "probable" or "possible" MSA. Median survival from study inclusion was 2.4 years and was 10.2 years from clinical onset, very similar to the other series. Low age at study, diabetes, dysphagia, Hoehn and Yahr stage 5 can predict shorter survival in patients with MSA. We confirm that the prognosis for MSA patients is poor and that some factors may predict shorter survival.

  15. Prognostic implications of imaging in atrophic macular degeneration and its use in clinical practice and clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Lim, Paul Cc; Layton, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Clinical prognostic markers in atrophic age-related macular degeneration include the extent of existing atrophy, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) patterns and optical coherence tomography changes in the outer retina/retinal pigment epithelium interface. The prognostic implications of these findings may be used to determine not just the rate of disease progression but also influence the likelihood, magnitude and clinical relevance of therapy responses. FAF phenotypes have been extensively investigated; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind their appearance have not been fully elucidated. Optical coherence tomography imaging is additive to FAF imaging in atrophic age-related macular degeneration, allowing the visualization of detail not available through FAF imaging whilst also displaying subtle changes correlating with the FAF phenotypes themselves, thereby giving clues to their histological determinates. The developing understanding of these imaging modalities and consequent development of prognostically useful classification systems have widespread implication in clinical care and clinical trial design.

  16. Loss of RhoGDI is a novel independent prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weidong; Wang, Hui; Jin, Xuejun; Zhao, Liang

    2013-01-01

    RhoGDI (Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor alpha or RhoGDIα) has been identified as a regulator of Rho GTPases, which are essential for tumor progression, but its role in cancer remains controversial and little is known in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using immunohistochemistry, we analyzed RhoGDI expression in 147 clinicopathologically characterized HCC cases. RhoGDI expression was detected in cytoplasm of HCC tissues. Statistical analysis showed that there was no relationship between RhoGDI expression and clinicopathological features. Importantly, a significant trend was identified between loss of RhoGDI expression in HCC and worsening clinical prognosis. Multivariate survival analysis showed that negative RhoGDI expression was recognized as an independent prognostic factor of patient’s survival. Our results suggest that RhoGDI protein is a valuable marker of prognosis for patients with HCC. PMID:24228117

  17. Merkel Cell Carcinoma: An Update of Key Imaging Techniques, Prognostic Factors, Treatment, and Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Llombart, B; Kindem, S; Chust, M

    2017-03-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma, though rare, is one of the most aggressive tumors a dermatologist faces. More than a third of patients with this diagnosis die from the disease. Numerous researchers have attempted to identify clinical and pathologic predictors to guide prognosis, but their studies have produced inconsistent results. Because the incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma is low and it appears in patients of advanced age, prospective studies have not been done and no clear treatment algorithm has been developed. This review aims to provide an exhaustive, up-to-date account of Merkel cell carcinoma for the dermatologist. We describe prognostic factors and the imaging techniques that are most appropriate for evaluating disease spread. We also discuss current debates on treating Merkel cell carcinoma.

  18. Validation of prognostic scoring and assessment of clinical benefit for patients with bone sarcomas enrolled in phase I clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, J. Andrew; Hess, Kenneth R.; Naing, Aung; Hong, David S.; Patel, Shreyaskumar; Benjamin, Robert S.; Ludwig, Joseph A.; Conley, Anthony; Herzog, Cynthia E.; Anderson, Pete; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kurzrock, Razelle; Subbiah, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to validate the Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) and MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) prognostic scoring systems for the selection of bone sarcoma patients for phase I clinical trials and to identify additional risk factors related to survival. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the baseline characteristics and outcomes of 92 bone sarcoma patients who were referred to MDACC's Phase I Clinical Trials Program. Results Ninety-two patients with Ewing sarcoma (N = 47), osteosarcoma (N = 22), chondrosarcoma (N = 16), and other tumors (N = 7) were evaluated; 78 were enrolled in at least 1 of 43 different phase I trials. The median overall survival (OS) was 8.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.8–13.7 months). Independent factors that predicted shorter survival were male sex, >2 metastatic sites, >3 previous therapies, hemoglobin level <10.5 g/dL, platelet count >200 x103/L, creatinine level ≥1.3 mg/dL, and lactate dehydrogenase level >ULN. Patients with good RMH scores (0-1) had longer OS than patients with poor RMH scores (2-3) (HR = 5.8, 95% CI = 2.9–11.0; P < 0.0001), as did patients with low MDACC scores (0-1) as compared to patients with higher MDACC scores (2–4) (HR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.9–5.6; P < 0.0001). Conclusion The RMH prognostic score can be used to predict the OS of bone cancer patients referred for phase I trials. The MDACC score added no value to the RMH score and therefore does not have a role in assessment of patients with bone tumors. Patients with advanced bone sarcomas should be considered for phase I trials. PMID:27486883

  19. Global hypomethylation is an independent prognostic factor in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jakob Werner; Garde, Christian; Asmar, Fazila; Tholstrup, Dorte; Kristensen, Søren Sommer; Munch-Petersen, Helga D; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth; Brown, Peter; Grønbaek, Kirsten; Kristensen, Lasse Sommer; Wedge, Eileen

    2017-04-05

    Global hypomethylation has been linked to disease progression in several cancers, but has not been reported for Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). This study aimed to assess global methylation in DLBCL and describe its prognostic value. Mean LINE1 methylation, a validated surrogate measure for global methylation, was measured in DNA from 67 tumor biopsies. Additionally, cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) in plasma samples from 74 patients was tested to assess the feasibility of global hypomethylation as a biomarker in liquid biopsies. LINE1 methylation was assessed using a commercially available kit, based on pyrosequencing of PCR amplified bisulfite-treated DNA. Global hypomethylation was detected in a subset of cases and was associated with poor overall survival in both tumor biopsies (P=0.001) and cfDNA (P=0.009). It was the strongest risk factor in multivariate analysis in both biopsies (HR: 10.65, CI: 2.03-55.81, P=0.005) and cfDNA (HR: 11.87, CI: 2.80-50.20, P=0.001), outperforming conventional clinical risk factors. Finally, hierarchical cluster analyses were performed for the cfDNA samples using previously published gene-specific methylation data. This analysis shows that global hypomethylation co-occurs with other epigenetic abnormalities, including DAPK1 promoter hypermethylation. In conclusion, we have shown that global hypomethylation is strongly associated with poor survival in DLBCL both when present in tumor biopsy DNA and when detected in plasma cfDNA, and has potential for clinical application as a prognostic biomarker. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparing outcomes of pediatric and adult external dacryocystorhinostomy in Nepal: Is age a prognostic factor?

    PubMed

    Limbu, Ben; Katwal, Sulaxmi; Lim, Nicole S; Faierman, Michelle L; Gushchin, Anna G; Saiju, Rohit

    2017-03-31

    We determine whether age is a prognostic factor for surgical outcomes of external dacryocystorhinostomy (Ex-DCR). This retrospective cohort study conducted at Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology (Kathmandu, Nepal) compared pediatric Ex-DCR procedures (age ≤ 15 years) to adult Ex-DCR procedures (age > 15 years) and was performed between January 2013 and December 2013, with a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. Primary outcome measure was rate of success, defined as complete resolution of subjective symptom(s) of epiphora (subjective success), combined with patent lacrimal passage on syringing (anatomical success) at last follow-up visit. Other outcome measures included clinical presentation, diagnosis, intraoperative complications and post-operative complications. In total, 154 Ex-DCR procedures were included, with an age range of 8 months to 81 years (mean age 36.4 ± 21.0 years). In all, 38 pediatric Ex-DCR procedures were compared to 116 adult procedures. Success rates were 97% in the pediatric group and 95% in the adult group, with no clinically or statistically significant difference in success rate or complication rate between groups (p > 0.05). Our study yielded high success rates of Ex-DCR in both pediatric and adult age groups suggesting that Ex-DCR remains an optimal treatment choice for all age groups. With no difference in surgical outcomes between pediatric and adult patients, including complication rate, we conclude that age is not a prognostic factor for Ex-DCR failure. We do not recommend adjuvant therapy for pediatric patients.

  1. Obstructive Jaundice in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Response after Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Prognostic Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon Woo; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Seong Ho; Ko, Young Hwan; Yoon, Chang Jin; Yeon, Kyung-Mo

    2002-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by biliary involvement of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and to determine the prognostic factors. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 22 consecutive patients (M:F = 20:2, mean age 52.8 years).Inclusion criteria were the patient having obstructive jaundice caused by HCC that invaded the bile ducts and having at least 4 weeks of follow-up data after the PTBD. We defined 'good response' and 'poor response' as whether the level of total bilirubin decreased more than 50% in 4 weeks or not. Total bilirubin level (T-bil),Child-Pugh score and the location of biliary obstruction for the two groups were compared. In addition, the interval between clinical onset of jaundice and PTBD, the degree of parenchymal atrophy and the size of the primary tumor were compared. Results: Of the 22 patients, 13 (59.1%) showed good response. T-bil was significantly lower in the good response group than in the poor (14.2 {+-} 6 mg/dlvs 25.9 {+-} 13.8 mg/dl, p = .017). In the five patients with T-bil <10 mg/dl, four (80%) showed good response,while in nine patients with T-bil > 20 mg/dl, only three (33%)showed good response. Although statistically not significant, patients with Child score <10 showed better results [good response rate of 66.7% (12/18)] than patients with Child score ?10 [good response rate of 25% (1/4)]. Involvement of secondary confluence of the bile duct also served as a poor prognostic factor (p =0.235). The interval between clinical onset of jaundice and PTBD, the presence of parenchymal atrophy and the size of the tumor did not show significant effect. Conclusion: Early and effective biliary drainage might be necessary in this group of patients with limited hepatic function.

  2. Interleukin-4 promoter polymorphisms: a genetic prognostic factor for survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kleinrath, Thomas; Gassner, Christoph; Lackner, Peter; Thurnher, Martin; Ramoner, Reinhold

    2007-03-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is considered a cytokine-responsive tumor. The clinical course of a patient may thus be influenced by the patient's capacity to produce distinct cytokines. Therefore, cytokine gene polymorphisms in RCC patients were analyzed to determine haplotype combinations with prognostic significance. A selection of 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms within the promoter regions of 13 cytokine genes were analyzed in a cross-sectional single-center study of 80 metastatic RCC patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses and the Cox forward-stepwise regression model were chosen to assess genetic risk factors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed by a bootstrap technique identified the heterozygous IL4 genotype -589T-33T/-589C-33C as an independent prognostic risk factor (risk ratio, 3.1; P < .01; 95% CI, 1.4 to 6.9; adjusted for age, sex, and nuclear grading) in metastatic RCC patients. IL4 haplotype -589T-33T and -589C-33C were found with a frequency of 0.069 and 0.925, respectively, which represents a two-fold decrease of IL4 haplotype -589T-33T (P < .01) and an increase of IL4 haplotype -589C-33C frequency (P < .05) in metastatic RCC compared with other white reference study populations. The median overall survival was decreased 3.5-fold (P < .05) in heterozygote patients carrying IL4 haplotype -589T-33T and -589C-33C (3.78 months) compared with patients homozygote for IL4 haplotype -589C-33C (13.44 months). In addition, a linkage disequilibrium between the IL4 gene and the KIF3A gene was detected. Our findings indicate that IL4 promoter variants influence prognosis in patients with metastatic RCC and suggest that genetically determined interleukin-4 (IL-4) production affects the clinical course of the disease possibly through regulation of immune surveillance.

  3. Prognostic factors differ by tumor stage for Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) Trials

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Nathan R.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Schild, Steven E.; Nelson, Garth D.; Rowland, Kendrith M.; Deming, Richard L.; Kozelsky, Timothy F.; Marks, Randolph S.; Jett, James R.; Adjei, Alex A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND An analysis of 14 Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) trials was performed to improve our understanding of potential prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in limited-stage (LD-SCLC) and extensive disease (ED-SCLC) groups separately. METHODS Data on 688 pts with LD-SCLC and 910 pts with ED-SCLC disease were included. Clinical and laboratory factors were tested for prognostic significance using Cox regression models, stratified by protocol. A recursive partitioning and amalgamation (RPA) analyses was used for identification of prognostic subgroups. RESULTS Poorer PS led to worse OS and PFS within ED-SCLC, but not within LD-SCLC. The prognostic impact of PS was strong in males, but weak in females within ED-SCLC (interaction p-value < 0.012 for OS, PFS). Other negative prognostic factors included increased age and male sex for LD-SCLC, and increased age, male sex, increased number of metastatic sites at baseline, and increased creatinine levels for ED-SCLC. For ED-SCLC patients, the RPA analyses identified 5 subgroups with different prognosis: based on baseline PS, creatinine levels, sex, and number of metastatic sites. CONCLUSIONS This pooled analysis identified baseline creatinine levels and the number of metastatic sites as important prognostic factors within ED-SCLC, in addition to the well established factors of sex, age, and PS. There was a significant interaction between sex and PS within ED-SCLC, suggesting that PS is highly prognostic in males, with no significant impact in females. Within LD-SCLC, only age and sex were important prognostic factors. The RPA analyses confirmed many of these findings. PMID:19402175

  4. Tailored skills training for practitioners to enhance assessment of prognostic factors for persistent and disabling back pain: four quasi-experimental single-subject studies.

    PubMed

    Demmelmaier, Ingrid; Denison, Eva; Lindberg, Per; Åsenlöf, Pernilla

    2012-07-01

    The well-known gap between guidelines and behaviour in clinical practice calls for effective behaviour change interventions. One example showing this gap is physiotherapists' insufficient assessment of psychosocial prognostic factors in back pain (i.e., yellow flags). The present study aimed to evaluate an educational model by performing a tailored skills training intervention for caregivers and studying changes over time in physiotherapists' assessment of prognostic factors in telephone consultations. A quasi-experimental single-subject design over 36 weeks was used, with repeated measurements during baseline, intervention, and postintervention phases. Four physiotherapists in primary health care audiorecorded a total of 63 consultations with patients. The tailored intervention included individual goal setting, skills training, and feedback on performance. The primary outcome was the number of assessed prognostic factors (0-10). Changes were seen in all four participants. The amount of assessed prognostic factors increased from between 0 and 2 at baseline to between 6 and 10 at postintervention. Time spent on assessment of psychosocial factors increased, and time spent on discussions about biomedical pain symptoms decreased. Knowledge and biopsychosocial attitudes toward back pain were congruent with guidelines at inclusion and did not change markedly during the intervention. Self-efficacy for assessment of cognitive and emotional prognostic factors increased during the study phases. The results suggest that a tailored skills training intervention using behaviour change techniques, such as individual goal setting, skills training, and feedback on performance, is effective in producing change in specific clinical behaviours in physiotherapists.

  5. Prognostic stratification of patients with vasospastic angina: a comprehensive clinical risk score developed by the Japanese Coronary Spasm Association.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yusuke; Takahashi, Jun; Yasuda, Satoshi; Miyata, Satoshi; Tsunoda, Ryusuke; Ogata, Yasuhiro; Seki, Atsushi; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Matsui, Motoyuki; Goto, Toshikazu; Tanabe, Yasuhiko; Sueda, Shozo; Sato, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Satoshi; Kubo, Norifumi; Momomura, Shin-Ichi; Ogawa, Hisao; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2013-09-24

    The present study aimed to develop a comprehensive clinical risk score for vasospastic angina (VSA) patients. Previous studies demonstrated various prognostic factors of future adverse events in VSA patients. However, to apply these prognostic factors in clinical practice, the assessment of their accumulation in individual patients is important. The patient database of the multicenter registry study by the Japanese Coronary Spasm Association (JCSA) (n = 1,429; median 66 years; median follow-up 32 months) was utilized for score derivation. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard model selected 7 predictors of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The integer score was assigned to each predictors proportional to their respective adjusted hazard ratio; history of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (4 points), smoking, angina at rest alone, organic coronary stenosis, multivessel spasm (2 points each), ST-segment elevation during angina, and beta-blocker use (1 point each). According to the total score in individual patients, 3 risk strata were defined; low (score 0 to 2, n = 598), intermediate (score 3 to 5, n = 639) and high (score 6 or more, n = 192). The incidences of MACE in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients were 2.5%, 7.0%, and 13.0%, respectively (p < 0.001). The Cox model for MACE between the 3 risk strata also showed prognostic utility of the scoring system in various clinical subgroups. The average prediction rate of the scoring system in the internal training and validation sets were 86.6% and 86.5%, respectively. We developed a novel scoring system, the JCSA risk score, which may provide the comprehensive risk assessment and prognostic stratification for VSA patients. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A study of prognostic factors in 45 cases of atypical meningioma.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toshiki; Narisawa, Ayumi; Ali, Hosam Shata Mohamed; Murakami, Kensuke; Watanabe, Takashi; Watanabe, Mika; Jokura, Hidefumi; Endo, Hidenori; Fujimura, Miki; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-09-01

    Atypical meningioma differs from Grade I meningioma in terms of high recurrence rate and short life expectancy. We evaluated the clinical course of atypical meningioma and investigated prognostic factors affecting its outcomes. We reviewed 45 patients with atypical meningioma who underwent surgical intervention between January 2000 and December 2013. The mean age of the patients and mean follow-up period was 58.7 years and 81.0 months, respectively. Analyses included factors such as patient age, gender, location and size of tumor, extent of surgical resection (Simpson Grading System), and MIB-1 labeling index (LI). Univariate analysis was used to detect prognostic factors associated with recurrence and survival. The 5-year recurrence-free rate for all 45 patients was 58.4 %; 5- and 10-year survival rates were 83.2 % and 79.9 %, respectively. In univariate analyses, age >60 years, and MIB-1 LI correlated with disease recurrence, whereas age >60 years, subtotal surgical resection, MIB-1 LI, and indication for radiotherapy correlated with death. MIB-1 LI levels higher than 12.8 % and 19.7 % predicted recurrence and death, respectively. In our cohort, 26 patients received postoperative radiotherapy including conventional radiation (n = 21) or gamma knife radiosurgery (n = 5). Postoperative radiotherapy did not decrease recurrence rates in our cohort (p = 0.63). Six and two patients who died during the study period underwent conventional radiation and radiosurgery, respectively. Age, male gender, extent of surgical resection, and higher MIB-1 LI influenced the outcome of atypical meningioma. In our cohort, postoperative radiotherapy failed to provide long-term tumor control. Following incomplete surgical resection of atypical meningioma in elderly patients, adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy may not be an ideal treatment option, particularly when MIB-1 LI is higher than 19.7 %.

  7. Malnutrition is a prognostic factor in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    PubMed

    Schütte, Kerstin; Tippelt, Bernadett; Schulz, Christian; Röhl, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Feneberg, Anja; Seidensticker, Ricarda; Arend, Jörg; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Malnutrition is a common, hence frequently underdiagnosed condition in patients with liver cirrhosis as well as in patients with cancer and has been shown to have a negative impact on survival in these patients. Frequently applied screening tools including anthropometric measurements or laboratory parameters to screen for malnutrition are not suitable for patients with liver cirrhosis with additional pathophysiological mechanisms leading to hypoalbuminemia and edema. Prospective data on the prevalence and prognostic impact of malnutrition in patients with HCC are scarce. Fifty-one consecutive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were prospectively enrolled into this study and screened for malnutrition by anthropometric measurements, the MNA score, the NRS score, laboratory work-up, and BIA measurement. The results of the different screening tools were compared to each other and with the BIA assessment and correlated with the outcome of patients. The calculation of a body mass index (BMI) was not suitable to identify malnourished patients with HCC. The MNA identified 19, the NRS score 17 patients at a risk for malnutrition. BIA revealed a reduction in relative body cell mass in 12 patients. Univariate Cox regression analyses identified tumor stage, MNA score, and phase angle obtained by BIA as significant factors with influence on survival. Multivariate analyses confirmed the phase angle at a cut-off of 4.8 to be an independent factor. A significant proportion of patients with HCC is malnourished or at risk for malnutrition. Screening questionnaires and BIA measurement are superior to pure anthropometric measurements to identify the condition that negatively influences survival. The phase angle derived from body impedance analysis is an independent prognostic factor in patients with HCC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. An investigation into the effects and prognostic factors of cognitive decline following subthalamic nucleus stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Nimura, Taro; Nagamatsu, Ken-Ichi; Ando, Tadashi; Matsumoto, Arifumi; Hisanaga, Kinya; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-10-01

    We retrospectively investigated the effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation (STN-DBS) on new postoperative onset of cognitive decline and prognostic factors for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). We studied 39 PD patients who had received bilateral STN-DBS. Clinical symptoms, cognitive function, psychiatric function, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were assessed before and six months after surgery. Based on the results of neuropsychological examinations six months after the surgery, the subjects were divided into those with and those without cognitive decline. We compared pre- and post-operative assessments between the two groups. Prognostic factors were investigated using multiple logistic regression analyses. Seven patients had cognitive decline six months after the operation (17.9%); they were significantly older than those without cognitive decline. Preoperative neuropsychological examinations revealed impairments in language and executive function. No differences were found in clinical symptoms. Patients with cognitive decline had significantly worse apathy scale scores. The HRQOL revealed significant declines in the Mental Component Summary (MCS), vitality, and mental health (MH) domains. Postoperative comparisons revealed novel significant differences in activities of daily living in the "on" and "off" states and in daytime drowsiness. Preoperative differences seen in the MCS and vitality indices were no longer present. Word fluency, and apathy scale and MH scores were independent preoperative prognostic factors for cognitive decline. New postoperative onset of cognitive decline due to STN-DBS affected activities of daily living and psychiatric function. Preoperative non-motor symptoms may be prognostic factors for new onset of cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Functional prognostic factors in older adults with hip fracture].

    PubMed

    Infante-Castro, Celia Itxelt; Rojano-Mejía, David; Ayala-Vázquez, Graciela; Aguilar-Esparza, Grushenka

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture is common in elderly people who fall. We now describe clinical and social factors independently associated with incomplete functional recovery. to identify clinical and social factors associated with postoperative function in elderly hip fracture. A prospective, analytical study of elderly postoperative hip fracture, using non-probability sample of cases including consecutive patients older than 60 years with postoperative hip fracture, excluding those with hyperactive and hypoactive delirium or noy independent in activities of daily life before the injury. Data were collected on age, sex, number of comorbidities, type of fracture and surgery. Within the first 24 to 48 hours we evaluated the cognitive and emotional status, family status, with a final assessment of the Katz index at 3 months after the fracture. Statistical analysis was done using logistic regression. We obtained adjusted odds ratios (ORA) associated functionality, for age < 85 years: 7.21 (95% CI, 1.79-28.98), normal cognitive status 10.74 (95% CI, 3.13-38.83), and functional family situation 8.5 (95% CI, 1.97-32.76). Age, cognitive status, and family status are important predictors of functional recovery in the short term elderly postoperative hip fracture.

  10. Long Term Surgical Outcome and Prognostic Factors of Atypical and Malignant Meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Chi; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Chang, Cheng-Nen; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Hsu, Yung-Hsin; Lin, Tzu-Kan; Hsu, Peng-Wei; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Chen, Yao-Liang; Chen, Pin-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Atypical and malignant meningiomas are rare. Our aim was to examine the treatment outcomes following surgical resection, and analyze associations between clinical characteristics and overall survival (OS) or relapse free survival (RFS). 102 patients with atypical or malignant meningiomas underwent microsurgical resection between June 2001 and November 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. We compared demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment, and complications. The five-year and ten-year overall survival rates were 93.5% and 83.4%, respectively. Three factors significantly reduced OS: Malignant meningiomas (p < 0.001), which also decreased RFS (p < 0.001); female patients (p = 0.049), and patients with Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) < 70 at diagnosis (p = 0.009). Fifty two patients (51%) experienced tumor relapse. Total resection of tumors significantly impacted RFS (p = 0.013). Tumors located at parasagittal and posterior fossa area lead to higher relapse rate (p = 0.004). Subtotal resection without adjuvant radiotherapy lead to the worst local control of tumor (p = 0.030). An MIB-1 index <8% improved OS and RFS (p = 0.003). Total resection of atypical and malignant meningiomas provided better outcome and local control. Adjuvant radiation therapy is indicated for patients with malignant meningiomas, with incompletely excised tumors; or with tumors in the parasagittal or posterior fossa area. The MIB-1 index of the tumor is an independent prognostic factor of clinical outcome. PMID:27760993

  11. Prognostic factors predictive of survival and local recurrence for extremity soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, S; Corson, J M; Gonin, R; Labow, B; Eberlein, T J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to identify prognostic factors in the management of extremity soft tissue sarcoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The surgical management of soft tissue sarcoma has evolved because of advances in therapy, resulting in increased limb preservation and quality of life. However, identifying a subset of patients most likely to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy has been difficult to achieve. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a prospective data base of 182 patients with extremity sarcomas from 1970 to 1992 was performed. RESULTS: A histologic diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and angiosarcoma was associated with a 13-fold increased risk of death compared with liposarcoma, fibrosarcoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath histologic types after having adjusted for the other prognostic factors (p < 0.001). In addition to histologic type, high-grade sarcomas (p = 0.018), sarcomas greater than 10 cm in size (p = 0.006), and age at diagnosis (p = 0.016) were found to be important prognostic factors for survival but not for local recurrence. For the first time to their knowledge, the authors showed that mean mitotic activity has prognostic value after having adjusted for other prognostic factors, such as grade (p = 0.005). The only prognostic factors predictive for local recurrence were whether the patient presented with locally recurrent disease (p = 0.0001) or had microscopically positive margins (p = 0.052). CONCLUSIONS: The use of mitotic activity along with grade, size, histologic type, and age at diagnosis is prognostic for survival in extremity soft tissue sarcoma. The use of an objective pathologic feature, such as mean mitotic activity, is also useful in selecting patients for future systemic neoadjuvant or adjuvant trials and primary therapy. PMID:8129487

  12. Clinical and prognostic significance of coagulation assays in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Serilmez, Murat; Keskin, Serkan; Sen, Fatma; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2013-03-01

    Activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently encountered among cancer patients. Such tumors are supposed to be associated with higher risk of invasion, metastases and eventually worse outcome. The aim of this study is to explore the prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for lung cancer patients. The study comprised 110 lung cancer patients. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, aPTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels and platelet counts were evaluated. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group (p < 0.001). There was a significant association between D-Dimer levels and histological subtypes of NSCLC, pointing an elevated plasma D-dimer level in squamous cell cancer (p = 0.035). Patients with extensive stage SCLC exhibited evidently higher levels of D-Dimer, INR and PLT (p = 0.037, p = 0.042, p = 0.04, respectively). Prolongation of PT and INR had statistically significant adverse effect on survival (p = 0.05 and p = 0.014, respectively). Although prolonged aPTT and high levels of D-dimer was associated with worse survival, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.117, p = 0.104). Multivariate analysis revealed INR as the sole independent prognostic variable among coagulation parameters (p = 0.05). In conclusion, elevation of PT and INR are associated with decreased survival in lung cancer patients.

  13. Rheumatoid Factors: Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid factors are antibodies directed against the Fc region of immunoglobulin G. First detected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 70 years ago, they can also be found in patients with other autoimmune and nonautoimmune conditions, as well as in healthy subjects. Rheumatoid factors form part of the workup for the differential diagnosis of arthropathies. In clinical practice, it is recommended to measure anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factors together because anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies alone are only moderately sensitive, and the combination of the two markers improves diagnostic accuracy, especially in the case of early rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, different rheumatoid factor isotypes alone or in combination can be helpful when managing rheumatoid arthritis patients, from the time of diagnosis until deciding on the choice of therapeutic strategy. PMID:24324289

  14. Prognostic factors in canine appendicular osteosarcoma – a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Appendicular osteosarcoma is the most common malignant primary canine bone tumor. When treated by amputation or tumor removal alone, median survival times (MST) do not exceed 5 months, with the majority of dogs suffering from metastatic disease. This period can be extended with adequate local intervention and adjuvant chemotherapy, which has become common practice. Several prognostic factors have been reported in many different studies, e.g. age, breed, weight, sex, neuter status, location of tumor, serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), infection, percentage of bone length affected, histological grade or histological subtype of tumor. Most of these factors are, however, only reported as confounding factors in larger studies. Insight in truly significant prognostic factors at time of diagnosis may contribute to tailoring adjuvant therapy for individual dogs suffering from osteosarcoma. The objective of this study was to systematically review the prognostic factors that are described for canine appendicular osteosarcoma and validate their scientific importance. Results A literature review was performed on selected studies and eligible data were extracted. Meta-analyses were done for two of the three selected possible prognostic factors (SALP and location), looking at both survival time (ST) and disease free interval (DFI). The third factor (age) was studied in a qualitative manner. Both elevated SALP level and the (proximal) humerus as location of the primary tumor are significant negative prognostic factors for both ST and DFI in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Increasing age was associated with shorter ST and DFI, however, was not statistically significant because information of this factor was available in only a limited number of papers. Conclusions Elevated SALP and proximal humeral location are significant negative prognosticators for canine osteosarcoma. PMID:22587466

  15. Presence and extent of histological tumour necrosis is an adverse prognostic factor in papillary type 1 but not in papillary type 2 renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Martin; Hutterer, Georg C; Chromecki, Thomas F; Pummer, Karl; Mannweiler, Sebastian; Zigeuner, Richard

    2013-01-01

      To date, only limited information is available on the prognostic significance of the presence and extent of histological tumour necrosis with regard to papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) types 1 and 2 subclassification. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of these pathological features on the clinical outcome in papillary subtypes.   The influence of histological tumour necrosis on the clinical outcome in 177 patients with papillary RCC was evaluated. For papillary subtype 1, the presence of histological tumour necrosis was an independent negative prognostic factor for disease-free survival (P = 0.039), and a greater extent of necrosis (>20%) was significantly associated with both poor disease-free and overall survival (P = 0.033 and P = 0.041, respectively). Regarding papillary subtype 2, neither the presence nor extent of histological tumour necrosis was a statistically significant negative prognostic factor.   Our findings suggest that the presence and extent of histological tumour necrosis are independent prognosticators in papillary RCC subtype 1, but not in papillary subtype 2. Thus, previously reported conflicting data regarding the prognostic impact of tumour necrosis in papillary RCC might be explained, in part, by heterogeneous subtypes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  16. Retrospective cohort study of prognostic factors in patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, José F; Carrillo, Liliana C; Cano, Ana; Ramirez-Ortega, Margarita C; Chanona, Jorge G; Avilés, Alejandro; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Corona-Rivera, Jaime; Ochoa-Carrillo, Francisco J; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis F

    2016-04-01

    Prognostic factors in oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are debated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of prognostic factors with oncologic outcomes. Patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal SCC treated from 1997 to 2012 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Associations of prognostic factors with locoregional recurrence (LRR) or overall survival (OS) were analyzed using the logistic regression and the Cox models. Six hundred thirty-four patients were included in this study; tumor size, surgical margins, and N classification were associated with LRR (p < .0001); considering histopathology: perineural invasion, lymphocytic infiltration, infiltrative borders, and N classification were significant determinants of LRR. Tumor size, N classification, alcoholism, and surgical margins were associated with OS (p < .0001); considering pathologic prognostic factors, perivascular invasion, islands borders, and surgical margins were independently associated with OS (p < .0001). Surgical margins, perineural and perivascular invasion, lymphocytic infiltration, and infiltrative patterns of tumor invasion are significant prognostic factors in oral cavity and oropharyngeal SCC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Prognostic factors for schizophrenia during first psychotic episode].

    PubMed

    Cano, Juan F; Fierro-Urresta, Marco; Vanegas, Claudia R; Alzate, Marcela; Olarte, Ana; Cendales, Ricardo; Córdoba, Rodrigo N

    2007-01-01

    Reviewing the available literature regarding prognosis for first psychotic episode for developing schizophrenia. A systematic review of studies which have evaluated prognostic determinants for the first psychotic episode and its relationship to schizophrenia was made. 161 articles were reviewed which fulfilled the search criteria and which were adjusted to the purpose of the study. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), pre-morbid functioning level, the presence or predominance of negative symptoms, co-morbid consumption of psychoactive substances and psychosocial state were the most influential characteristics for developing schizophrenia in patients presenting a first psychotic episode.

  18. Prognostic value and clinical significance of halo naevi regarding vitiligo.

    PubMed

    van Geel, N; Vandenhaute, S; Speeckaert, R; Brochez, L; Mollet, I; De Cooman, L; Lambert, J

    2011-04-01

    Vitiligo and halo naevi can present together or separately. Whether they are different entities remains unclear. To assess the clinical significance of halo naevi, both with respect to the future development of vitiligo, and to the clinical profile and course of vitiligo. In total, 291 patients were included in this study: patients with only halo naevi (group 1; n=40), patients with generalized vitiligo without halo naevi (group 2; n=173) and patients with generalized vitiligo with halo naevi (group 3; n=78). Patients with only halo naevi (group 1) reported significantly less associated autoimmune disease (P=0·001), were less likely to have a family history of vitiligo (P=0·013) and were less likely to have presence of Koebner phenomenon (P<0·001) compared with patients with generalized vitiligo (groups 2+3). Multiple halo naevi (≥3) were significantly more frequently observed (P=0·002) in patients from group 1 compared with patients from group 3. In group 3, halo naevi were reported prior to the development of vitiligo in 61% (mean±SD time interval of 33·7±5·17months). No significant correlation was observed between the presence of halo naevi and the extent, activity or subtype of vitiligo. However, halo naevi in patients with vitiligo significantly reduced the risk for associated autoimmune diseases, and age at onset of vitiligo was significantly lower compared with patients with vitiligo without halo naevi (P<0·001). Our results support the hypothesis that halo naevi can represent a distinct condition. In a subset of patients, the occurrence of halo naevi may be an initiating factor in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Contribution of artificial intelligence to the knowledge of prognostic factors in Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Buciński, Adam; Marszałł, Michał Piotr; Krysiński, Jerzy; Lemieszek, Andrzej; Załuski, Jerzy

    2010-07-01

    Hodgkin's lymphoma is one of the most curable malignancies and most patients achieve a lasting complete remission. In this study, artificial neural network (ANN) analysis was shown to provide significant factors with regard to 5-year recurrence after lymphoma treatment. Data from 114 patients treated for Hodgkin's disease were available for evaluation and comparison. A total of 31 variables were subjected to ANN analysis. The ANN approach as an advanced multivariate data processing method was shown to provide objective prognostic data. Some of these prognostic factors are consistent or even identical to the factors evaluated earlier by other statistical methods.

  20. Low-Level Microsatellite Instability as a Potential Prognostic Factor in Sporadic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Duck-Woo; Lee, Hye Seung; Ihn, Myong Hoon; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Min, Byung Soh; Kim, Woo Ram; Huh, Jung Wook; Yun, Jung-A.; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Nam Kyu; Lee, Woo Yong; Kim, Hee Cheol; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) colorectal cancers (CRCs) have been shown to exhibit a distinct phenotype, the clinical value of MSI-low (MSI-L) in CRC remains unclear. We designed this study to examine the clinicopathologic characteristics and oncologic implications associated with MSI-L CRCs. We retrospectively reviewed data of CRC patients from 3 tertiary referral hospitals in Korea, who underwent surgical resection between January 2003 and December 2009 and had available MSI testing results. MSI testing was performed using the pentaplex Bethesda panel. Clinicopathologic features and oncologic outcomes were compared between MSI-L and microsatellite stable (MSS) CRCs; prognostic factors for survival were also examined. Of the 3019 patients reviewed, 2621 (86.8%) were MSS, and 200 (6.6%) were MSI-L; the remaining 198 (6.6%) were MSI-H. MSI-L and MSS CRCs were comparable in terms of their clinicopathologic features, with the exception of proximal tumor location (MSI-L 30.0% vs MSS 22.1%, P = 0.024) and tumor size (MSI-L 5.2 ± 2.6 cm vs MSS 4.6 ± 2.1 cm, P = 0.001). No differences were detected in either 3-year disease-free survival (MSI-L 87.2% vs MSS 82.6%, P = 0.121) or 5-year overall survival (OS) (MSI-L 74.2% vs MSS 78.3%, P = 0.131) by univariable analysis. However, MSI-L was an independent prognostic factor for poor OS by Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio 1.358, 95% confidence interval 1.014–1.819, P = 0.040). MSI-L may be an independent prognostic factor for OS in sporadic CRCs despite their clinicopathologic similarity to MSS. Further studies investigating the significance of MSI-L in the genesis and prognosis of CRCs are needed. PMID:26683947

  1. The GNAS1 T393C polymorphism and lack of clinical prognostic value in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kaderi, Mohd Arifin; Murray, Fiona; Jansson, Mattias; Merup, Mats; Karlsson, Karin; Roos, Göran; Aleskog, Anna; Tobin, Gerard

    2008-06-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a clinically heterogeneous disease with no known single predisposing genetic factor shown in all cases. Recently, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) T393C in the GNAS1 gene has been reported to have a clinical impact on CLL progression and overall survival. In order to further investigate the T393C SNP in CLL, we have genotyped 279 CLL cases and correlated the genotypes to clinical outcome and other known prognostic factors such as the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) gene mutation status and CD38 expression. In the present study, no difference in overall survival or time to treatment was observed in the CLL patients with the different genotypes in contrast to the previous report. Furthermore, no correlation was observed with the T393C genotypes and IGHV mutational status, Binet stage or CD38 in this cohort. In summary, our data does not support the use of the T393C GNAS SNP as a clinical prognostic factor in CLL.

  2. Supratentorial hemispheric ependymomas: an analysis of 109 adults for survival and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Hollon, Todd; Nguyen, Vincent; Smith, Brandon W; Lewis, Spencer; Junck, Larry; Orringer, Daniel A

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Survival rates and prognostic factors for supratentorial hemispheric ependymomas have not been determined. The authors therefore designed a retrospective study to determine progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and prognostic factors for hemispheric ependymomas. METHODS The study population consisted of 8 patients from our institution and 101 patients from the literature with disaggregated survival information (n = 109). Patient age, sex, tumor side, tumor location, extent of resection (EOR), tumor grade, postoperative chemotherapy, radiation, time to recurrence, and survival were recorded. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox proportional hazard models were completed to determine survival rates and prognostic factors. RESULTS Anaplastic histology/WHO Grade III tumors were identified in 62% of cases and correlated with older age. Three-, 5-, and 10-year PFS rates were 57%, 51%, and 42%, respectively. Three-, 5-, and 10-year OS rates were 77%, 71%, and 58%, respectively. EOR and tumor grade were identified on both Kaplan-Meier log-rank testing and univariate Cox proportional hazard models as prognostic for PFS and OS. Both EOR and tumor grade remained prognostic on multivariate analysis. Subtotal resection (STR) predicted a worse PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 4.764, p = 0.001) and OS (HR 4.216, p = 0.008). Subgroup survival analysis of patients with STR demonstrated a 5- and 10-year OS of 28% and 0%, respectively. WHO Grade III tumors also had worse PFS (HR 10.2, p = 0.004) and OS (HR 9.1, p = 0.035). Patients with WHO Grade III tumors demonstrated 5- and 10-year OS of 61% and 46%, respectively. Postoperative radiation was not prognostic for PFS or OS. CONCLUSIONS A high incidence of anaplastic histology was found in hemispheric ependymomas and was associated with older age. EOR and tumor grade were prognostic factors for PFS and OS on multivariate analysis. STR or WHO Grade III pathology, or both, predicted worse overall prognosis in patients

  3. Outcomes and prognostic factors of surgical treatments for brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in 3 breeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nai-Chieh; Oechtering, Gerhard U; Adams, Vicki J; Kalmar, Lajos; Sargan, David R; Ladlow, Jane F

    2017-02-01

    To determine prognostic indicators for the surgical treatment of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) and to compare the prognosis of 2 multilevel surgical procedures. Prospective clinical study. Client-owned pugs, French bulldogs, and bulldogs (n = 50). Noninvasive whole-body barometric plethysmography (WBBP) was used to assess respiratory function before, 1 month and 6 months after upper airway corrective surgery. Postoperatively, BOAS indices (ie, ascending severity score generated from WBBP data, 0%-100%) that equaled to or exceeded the cut-off values of BOAS in the diagnostic models were considered to have a "poor prognosis." A multivariate logistic regression was used to assess predictors for prognosis. The median BOAS indices decreased after surgery (from 76% to 63%, P < .0001), although dogs with indices in this range would still be considered clinically affected. Age (odds ratios [OR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-0.99, P < .05), body condition (OR = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01-0.39, P < .01), laryngeal collapse (OR = 6.1, 95% CI: 1-37.22, P < .05), and surgical techniques (OR = 7.94, 95% CI: 1.17-54.01, P < .05) were associated with postoperative prognosis. The multivariate model suggests modified multilevel surgery (MMS) may have a better outcome than traditional multilevel surgery (TMS) (P = .034). The positive predictive value of the logistic model was 84% (95% CI: 68-94%) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 89% (95% CI: 78-99%, P <.0001). Younger age, normal body condition, presence of laryngeal collapse, and treatment with TMS were negative prognostic factors after surgical treatment of BOAS. MMS is recommended, particularly in dogs with a higher probability of poor prognosis. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. Predictive and prognostic value of antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor in primary Sjogren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huo, An-Ping; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Chou, Chung-Tei

    2010-02-01

    To assess the predictive and prognostic value of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and rheumatoid factor (RF) in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). This retrospective study includes 201 patients that fulfilled the 1993 European preliminary classification criteria for pSS. The patients were further categorized by the 2002 revised criteria, with or without the inclusion of ANA and RF as classification criteria, and were further subgrouped by the presence of ANA, RF, anti-SS-A, and anti-SS-B, and different ANA titers. The clinical manifestations, serological markers, and results of lip biopsies among these subgroups were compared. Our results showed pSS patients who are seropositive for one of the following markers: ANA, RF, anti-SS-A, or anti-SS-B are younger, predominantly female, and had more serological abnormalities than those with seronegativity of ANA, RF, anti-SS-A, or anti-SS-B. Higher ANA titers (> or = 1:640) correlated with higher frequency of serum anti-SS-A+ and anti-SS-B+, and elevations of serum immunoglobulin G and A in all three different classification criteria groups. The clinical manifestations and laboratory results in the 2002 revised criteria groups with or without the inclusion of ANA and RF as classification criteria items were highly concordant. Regardless of the classification criteria for pSS, patients who are seropositive for one of the ANA, RF, anti-SS-A and anti-SS-B biomarkers are more likely to have autoimmune-related Sjögren's syndrome. ANA and RF have shown to possess the predictive and prognostic values for those who do not fulfill the higher stringent 2002 revised criteria but are indicated for immunomodulatory therapy. Thus we suggest that ANA and RF should be reconsidered as items of classification criteria for pSS.

  5. [Depressive onset episode of bipolar disorder: clinical and prognostic considerations].

    PubMed

    Besnier, N; Fakra, E; Kaladjian, A; Adida, M; Maurel, M; Azorin, J-M

    2010-01-01

    Both retrospective and high-risk individuals prospective studies show that a high percentage of patients experience one or more depressive episodes previous the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Depressive onset bipolar disorders begin earlier than the ones with a manic onset, have a higher duration, a chronic course with frequent recurrences, a depressive dominant polarity, a higher lifetime rate of suicidal behaviour, less psychotic symptoms and more rapid cycling. A relation between frequent rapid cycling and previous prescription of antidepressants was suggested but not rigorously demonstrated. Thus, a high percentage of patients presenting a first depressive episode will later develop bipolar disorder. Several risk factors of bipolarity have been identified and might be detected during each depressive episode by using standardised evaluations and family interviews, if necessary. Among them, an early age at first episode, frequent recurrences, a family history of bipolar disorder, atypical features and hypomanic symptoms are particularly associated with the subsequent development of a bipolar disorder. The impact of a high risk of bipolarity on drug prescription is unclear ; however, one can strongly recommend to intensifying clinical monitoring and to proposing adjunctive psychoeducation.

  6. Complex karyotype in mantle cell lymphoma is a strong prognostic factor for the time to treatment and overall survival, independent of the MCL international prognostic index.

    PubMed

    Sarkozy, Clémentine; Terré, Christine; Jardin, Fabrice; Radford, Isabelle; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Penther, Dominique; Bastard, Christian; Rigaudeau, Sophie; Pilorge, Sylvain; Morschhauser, Franck; Bouscary, Didier; Delarue, Richard; Farhat, Hassan; Rousselot, Philippe; Hermine, Olivier; Tilly, Hervé; Chevret, Sylvie; Castaigne, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is usually an aggressive disease. However, a few patients do have an "indolent" evolution (iMCL) defined by a long survival time without intensive therapy. Many studies highlight the prognostic role of additional genetic abnormalities, but these abnormalities are not routinely tested for and do not yet influence the treatment decision. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of these additional abnormalities detected by conventional cytogenetic testing, as well as their relationships with the clinical characteristics and their value in identifying iMCL. All consecutive MCL cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 at four institutions were retrospectively selected on the basis of an informative karyotype with a t(11;14) translocation at the time of diagnosis. A total of 125 patients were included and followed for an actual median time of 35 months. The median overall survival (OS) and survival without treatment (TFS) were 73.7 and 1.3 months, respectively. In multivariable Cox models, a high mantle cell lymphoma international prognostic index score, a complex karyotype, and blastoid morphology were independently associated with a shortened OS. Spleen enlargement, nodal presentation, extra-hematological involvement, and complex karyotypes were associated with shorter TFS. A score based on these factors allowed for the identification of "indolent" patients (median TFS 107 months) from other patients (median TFS: 1 month). In conclusion, in this multicentric cohort of MCL patients, a complex karyotype was associated with a shorter survival time and allowed for the identification of iMCL at the time of diagnosis.

  7. Long-term survival in glioblastoma: methyl guanine methyl transferase (MGMT) promoter methylation as independent favourable prognostic factor

    PubMed Central

    Smrdel, Uros; Zwitter, Matjaz; Bostjancic, Emanuela; Zupan, Andrej; Kovac, Viljem; Glavac, Damjan; Bokal, Drago; Jerebic, Janja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In spite of significant improvement after multi-modality treatment, prognosis of most patients with glioblastoma remains poor. Standard clinical prognostic factors (age, gender, extent of surgery and performance status) do not clearly predict long-term survival. The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate immuno-histochemical and genetic characteristics of the tumour as additional prognostic factors in glioblastoma. Patients and methods Long-term survivor group were 40 patients with glioblastoma with survival longer than 30 months. Control group were 40 patients with shorter survival and matched to the long-term survivor group according to the clinical prognostic factors. All patients underwent multimodality treatment with surgery, postoperative conformal radiotherapy and temozolomide during and after radiotherapy. Biopsy samples were tested for the methylation of MGMT promoter (with methylation specific polymerase chain reaction), IDH1 (with immunohistochemistry), IDH2, CDKN2A and CDKN2B (with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification), and 1p and 19q mutations (with fluorescent in situ hybridization). Results Methylation of MGMT promoter was found in 95% and in 36% in the long-term survivor and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001). IDH1 R132H mutated patients had a non-significant lower risk of dying from glioblastoma (p = 0.437), in comparison to patients without this mutation. Other mutations were rare, with no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions Molecular and genetic testing offers additional prognostic and predictive information for patients with glioblastoma. The most important finding of our analysis is that in the absence of MGMT promoter methylation, longterm survival is very rare. For patients without this mutation, alternative treatments should be explored. PMID:27904447

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma in Lebanon: Etiology and prognostic factors associated with short-term survival

    PubMed Central

    Yaghi, César; Sharara, Ala l; Rassam, Paul; Moucari, Rami; Honein, Khalil; BouJaoude, Joseph; Slim, Rita; Noun, Roger; Abdul-Baki, Heitham; Khalifeh, Mohamad; Ramia, Sami; Sayegh, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the epidemiology of HCC in Lebanon and prognostic factors predictive of early mortality. METHODS: An observational follow-up cohort study of HCC cases diagnosed over a five-year period was carried out. Multivariate analysis was conducted to identify prognostic factors in comparison to Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score. Multiple variables including the etiology of underlying liver disease, the demographic characteristics of patients, and the severity of liver disease evaluated by the Child-Pugh score were studied. Tumor parameters included the time of diagnosis of HCC, alpha-fetoprotein level, number and size of nodules, presence of portal vein thrombosis, and treatment modalities. Death or loss of follow-up was considered as an end-point event. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients (mean 60.5 ± 22.3 years) were included. Etiology of underlying disease was hepatitis B, C, and alcohol in 67%, 20%, and 23.5% respectively. Child-Pugh class at diagnosis was A, B, and C in 34.8%, 39.3% and 25.8% respectively. Overall survival was 44.8%, 32.8% and 17.6% at 1, 2 and 3 years respectively (mean F/U 40.2 ± 23.5 mo). Multivariate analysis identified three predictors of early mortality (< 6 mo): bilirubin > 3.2 mg/dL (P < 0.01), HCC as first presentation of liver disease (P = 0.035), and creatinine > 1 mg/dL (P = 0.017). A score based on these variables outperformed the CLIP score by Cox proportional hazard. ROC curve showed both models to be equivalent and moderately accurate. CONCLUSION: HBV is the leading cause of HCC in Lebanon. Independent predictors of early mortality are elevated bilirubin, creatinine and HCC as first manifestation of disease. Prospective validation of a score based on these clinical parameters in predicting short-term survival is needed. PMID:16773714

  9. Prognostic factors and sites of metastasis in unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Renata D’Alpino; Speers, Caroline; McGahan, Colleen E; Renouf, Daniel J; Schaeffer, David F; Kennecke, Hagen F

    2015-01-01

    Due to differences in natural history and therapy, clinical trials of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer have recently been subdivided into unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and metastatic disease. We aimed to evaluate prognostic factors in LAPC patients who were treated with first-line chemotherapy and describe patterns of disease progression. Patients with LAPC who initiated first-line palliative chemotherapy, 2001–2011 at the BC Cancer Agency were included. A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify clinicopathologic variables, treatment, and subsequent sites of metastasis. Kaplan–Meier and Cox-regression survival analyses were performed. A total of 244 patients were included in this study. For the majority of patients (94.3%), first-line therapy was single-agent gemcitabine. About 144 (59%) patients developed distant metastatic disease and the most frequent metastatic sites included peritoneum/omentum (42.3%), liver (41%), lungs (13.9%), and distant lymph nodes (9%). Median overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort was 11.7 months (95% CI, 10.6–12.8). Development of distant metastases was associated with significantly inferior survival (HR 3.56, 95% CI 2.57–4.93), as was ECOG 2/3 versus 0/1 (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.28–2.23), CA 19.9 > 1000 versus ≤1000 (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.19–2.14) and female gender, (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19–2.08). In this population-based study, 41% of LAPC patients treated with first-line chemotherapy died without evidence of distant metastases. Prognostic factors for LAPC were baseline performance status, elevated CA 19.9, gender, and development of distant metastasis. Results highlight the heterogeneity of LAPC and the importance of locoregional tumor control. PMID:25891650

  10. Prognostic factors and sites of metastasis in unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Renata D'Alpino; Speers, Caroline; McGahan, Colleen E; Renouf, Daniel J; Schaeffer, David F; Kennecke, Hagen F

    2015-08-01

    Due to differences in natural history and therapy, clinical trials of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer have recently been subdivided into unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and metastatic disease. We aimed to evaluate prognostic factors in LAPC patients who were treated with first-line chemotherapy and describe patterns of disease progression. Patients with LAPC who initiated first-line palliative chemotherapy, 2001-2011 at the BC Cancer Agency were included. A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify clinicopathologic variables, treatment, and subsequent sites of metastasis. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression survival analyses were performed. A total of 244 patients were included in this study. For the majority of patients (94.3%), first-line therapy was single-agent gemcitabine. About 144 (59%) patients developed distant metastatic disease and the most frequent metastatic sites included peritoneum/omentum (42.3%), liver (41%), lungs (13.9%), and distant lymph nodes (9%). Median overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort was 11.7 months (95% CI, 10.6-12.8). Development of distant metastases was associated with significantly inferior survival (HR 3.56, 95% CI 2.57-4.93), as was ECOG 2/3 versus 0/1 (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.28-2.23), CA 19.9 > 1000 versus ≤ 1000 (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.19-2.14) and female gender, (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19-2.08). In this population-based study, 41% of LAPC patients treated with first-line chemotherapy died without evidence of distant metastases. Prognostic factors for LAPC were baseline performance status, elevated CA 19.9, gender, and development of distant metastasis. Results highlight the heterogeneity of LAPC and the importance of locoregional tumor control.

  11. Prognostic Factors and Treatment Outcomes of Parotid Gland Cancer: A 10-Year Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jae Won; Hong, Hyun Jun; Ban, Myung Jin; Shin, Yoo Seob; Kim, Won Shik; Koh, Yoon Woo; Choi, Eun Chang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the treatment outcomes of parotid gland cancer at a single center over a 10-year period and to evaluate the prognostic significance of maximum standardized uptake value. Retrospective case series with chart review. Academic care center. Ninety-eight patients with primary parotid gland cancer who were surgically treated at Yonsei University Head & Neck Cancer Clinic between January 1999 and December 2008 were analyzed. Patient data were collected retrospectively from medical charts. The investigators analyzed the association of clinicopathological factors and maximum standardized uptake value on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan with disease-specific survival. Mean patient age was 49.7 years. Mean follow-up was 48.8 months. Thirty-three, 40, 30, and 23 patients had stage I, II, III, and IVA disease, respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common histologic type (34.7%), followed by acinic cell carcinoma (27.6%). Eighteen patients (18.4%) experienced recurrences (mean recurrence gap, 20.6 months; range, 2-87 months). Five- and 10-year disease-specific survival rates were 93.6% and 81.8%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, pathologic T stage, pathologic lymph node status, resection margin, external parenchymal extension, and maximum standardized uptake value were significantly associated with disease-specific survival. Pathologic lymph node status and maximum standardized uptake value were independent prognostic factors in the multivariate analysis. Our single-center experience with parotid gland cancer treatment is consistent with the literature. Cervical lymph node metastasis and high maximum standardized uptake value are associated with poor survival in parotid gland cancer. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  12. Aspiration pneumonia in old patients with dementia. Prognostic factors of mortality.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Xavier; Formiga, Francesc; Cuerpo, Sandra; Torres, Berta; Rosón, Beatriz; López-Soto, Alfons

    2012-12-01

    Prognostic factors of mortality in elderly patients with dementia with aspiration pneumonia (AP) are scarcely known. We determined the mortality rate and prognostic factors in old patients with dementia hospitalized due to AP. We prospectively studied 120 consecutive patients aged ≥ 75 years with dementia admitted with AP to two tertiary university hospitals. We collected data on demographic and clinical variables and comorbidities. Oropharyngeal swallowing was assessed by the water swallow test. Sixty-one (50.8%) patients were female, and mean age was 86 ± 9 years. The swallow test was performed in 68 patients, revealing aspiration in 92.6%. Patients with repeat AP (28.3%) were more-frequently taking thickeners (61.8% vs.11.6%, p<0.0001) and were less-frequently prescribed angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (8.8% vs. 27.9%, p<0.001) than patients with a first episode. Hospital mortality was 33.3%; these patients had lower lymphocyte counts and higher percentage of multilobar involvement. In the multivariate model, involvement of ≥ 2 pulmonary lobes was associated with hospital mortality (OR 3.051, 95% CI 1.248 to 7.458, p<0.01). Six-month mortality was 50.8%; these patients were older and had worse functional capacity and laboratory data indicative of malnutrition. In the multivariate model, lower albumin levels were associated with six-month mortality (OR 1.129, 95% CI 1.008 to 1.265, p<0.03). In-hospital and 6-month mortality were high (one-third and one-half patients, respectively). Multilobar involvement and lower lymphocyte counts were associated with hospital mortality, and older age, greater dependence and malnutrition with six-month mortality. Copyright © 2012 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Significance of T stadium and grading as prognostic factors in transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Enrico; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Paparelli, Claudia; Decesare, Alessandro; Bononi, Marco; Galati, Gaspare; Tiziano, Giuseppe; Cavallaro, Antonino; Cangemi, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Surgery is nowadays the standard treatment for carcinoma of the ureter, even if adjuvant therapies can modify the prognosis in selected patients. Because of the small number of patients in the literature series, the significance of prognostic factors that can be used in clinical practice is still controversial, as is the choice of the most suitable surgical and adjuvant treatment. We considered 27 consecutive patients (Ta-T2 N0 M0) who underwent radical surgery (nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision and lymphoadenectomy) for transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter, from 1982 through 1992. Seven patients (25.9%) had Ta tumors, 7 patients (25.9%) had T1 tumors and 13 patients (48.2%) had T2 tumors. In 4 cases (14.8%) the tumor was well-differentiated (G1), in 14 cases (51.8%) it was mildly-differentiated (G2), and in 9 cases (33.4%) it was poorly-differentiated. Thirteen of the 14 patients affected by Ta-T1 tumors were alive 10 years after surgery (one patient lost at follow-up); in the T2 tumor group the 5-year survival rate was 84.6% and 10-year survival rate was 69.2%. According to grading, the 10-year survival rate was 100% for G1 tumors, the 3, 5 and 10-year survival rates were, respectively, 100%, 92.8% G3 tumors. Data from our study show the significance of the T stage and grading as prognostic factors.

  14. Indications for frontolateral laryngectomy and prognostic factors of failure.

    PubMed

    Fiorella, R; Di Nicola, V; Mangiatordi, F; Fiorella, M L

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was a retrospective analysis of the oncological results in a group of patients treated by frontolateral laryngectomy using clinical and histopathological correlations in order to review the indications for surgery. In all, 150 patients underwent frontolateral laryngectomy as described by Leroux-Robert. All were staged according to the 1992 UICC TNM classification. Factors examined were clinical T, histopathological T, tumor infiltration of the anterior commissure and the vocal cord muscle, survival without disease and the percentage of local relapses. Twenty-one patients had local relapses (14%), while four patients developed second primary tumors (2.7%). Among the different correlations examined, microscopic infiltration of the anterior commissure was related to a greater number of local relapses (25.5% vs 5%) and a 55% survival with with no evidence of disease (NED). The crude 5-year NED survival was 66% and was influenced by second primary tumors and metastases (7.4%) and non-oncological diseases (14.6%). These data show the need for a re-evaluation of the indications for frontolateral laryngectomy because subtotal reconstructive laryngectomy could be performed more safely in the more advanced cases. In contrast, cases with more limited tumors might be better treated by laser for a more functional and cost-beneficial result.

  15. Factor Structure of the Rorschach Prognostic Rating Scale and Its Relation to Therapeutic Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Stephen M.; Edinger, Jack D.

    1976-01-01

    This study evaluated the factor structure of the Rorschach Prognostic Rating Scale (RPRS) in order to: (a) test the assumption that the RPRS represents a unitary response system and (b) determine the efficacy of employing population specific factor scores as predictors of therapy outcome. (Author/NG)

  16. The effect of symptom duration in epithelial ovarian cancer on prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Menczer, Joseph; Chetrit, Angela; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2009-06-01

    To assess the association between duration of symptoms and main prognostic factors of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The data of all histologically confirmed EOC patients diagnosed in Israel during the period 1994-1999 (n = 1,005) were retrieved from discharge summaries and admission records. Of the 371 (36.9%) patients with known presenting symptoms, the durations of 187 (50.4%) were recorded. The most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (65.2%). The percentage of patients with three or more symptoms increased significantly with stage (P = 0.001). No statistically significant association between duration of symptoms and prognostic factors was found. Our findings did not show an association between duration of symptoms and prognostic factors in EOC patients and may indicate that prognosis is not a function of delay in diagnosis.

  17. Prognostic factors for the evolution and reversibility of chronic rejection in pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tannuri, Ana Cristina Aoun; Lima, Fabiana; Mello, Evandro Sobroza de; Tanigawa, Ryan Yukimatsu; Tannuri, Uenis

    2016-04-01

    Chronic rejection remains a major cause of graft failure with indication for re-transplantation. The incidence of chronic rejection remains high in the pediatric population. Although several risk factors have been implicated in adults, the prognostic factors for the evolution and reversibility of chronic rejection in pediatric liver transplantation are not known. Hence, the current study aimed to determine the factors involved in the progression or reversibility of pediatric chronic rejection by evaluating a series of chronic rejection cases following liver transplantation. Chronic rejection cases were identified by performing liver biopsies on patients based on clinical suspicion. Treatment included maintaining high levels of tacrolimus and the introduction of mofetil mycophenolate. The children were divided into 2 groups: those with favorable outcomes and those with adverse outcomes. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors in these groups. Among 537 children subjected to liver transplantation, chronic rejection occurred in 29 patients (5.4%). In 10 patients (10/29, 34.5%), remission of chronic rejection was achieved with immunosuppression (favorable outcomes group). In the remaining 19 patients (19/29, 65.5%), rejection could not be controlled (adverse outcomes group) and resulted in re-transplantation (7 patients, 24.1%) or death (12 patients, 41.4%). Statistical analysis showed that the presence of ductopenia was associated with worse outcomes (risk ratio=2.08, p=0.01). The presence of ductopenia is associated with poor prognosis in pediatric patients with chronic graft rejection.

  18. Prognostic factors for the evolution and reversibility of chronic rejection in pediatric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tannuri, Ana Cristina Aoun; Lima, Fabiana; de Mello, Evandro Sobroza; Tanigawa, Ryan Yukimatsu; Tannuri, Uenis

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic rejection remains a major cause of graft failure with indication for re-transplantation. The incidence of chronic rejection remains high in the pediatric population. Although several risk factors have been implicated in adults, the prognostic factors for the evolution and reversibility of chronic rejection in pediatric liver transplantation are not known. Hence, the current study aimed to determine the factors involved in the progression or reversibility of pediatric chronic rejection by evaluating a series of chronic rejection cases following liver transplantation. METHODS: Chronic rejection cases were identified by performing liver biopsies on patients based on clinical suspicion. Treatment included maintaining high levels of tacrolimus and the introduction of mofetil mycophenolate. The children were divided into 2 groups: those with favorable outcomes and those with adverse outcomes. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors in these groups. RESULTS: Among 537 children subjected to liver transplantation, chronic rejection occurred in 29 patients (5.4%). In 10 patients (10/29, 34.5%), remission of chronic rejection was achieved with immunosuppression (favorable outcomes group). In the remaining 19 patients (19/29, 65.5%), rejection could not be controlled (adverse outcomes group) and resulted in re-transplantation (7 patients, 24.1%) or death (12 patients, 41.4%). Statistical analysis showed that the presence of ductopenia was associated with worse outcomes (risk ratio=2.08, p=0.01). CONCLUSION: The presence of ductopenia is associated with poor prognosis in pediatric patients with chronic graft rejection. PMID:27166772

  19. The latest progress in research on triple negative breast cancer (TNBC): risk factors, possible therapeutic targets and prognostic markers.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Qingli; Wu, Aiguo; Shao, Guoli; Peng, Haoyu; Wang, Mengchuan; Ji, Shufeng; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Jian

    2014-09-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one type of breast cancer (BC), which is defined as negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her2). Its origins and development seem to be elusive. And for now, drugs like tamoxifen or trastuzumab which specifically apply to ER, PR or Her2 positive BC seem unforeseeable in TNBC clinical treatment. Due to its extreme malignancy, high recurrence rate and poor prognosis, a lot of work on the research of TNBC is needed. This review aims to summarize the latest findings in TNBC in risk factors, possible therapeutic targets and possible prognostic makers.

  20. MET and MST1R as prognostic factors for classical Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wha Koh, Young; Park, Chansik; Hyun Yoon, Dok; Suh, Cheolwon; Huh, Jooryung

    2013-09-01

    MST1R (RON) and MET are receptor tyrosine kinase gene family members that form a noncovalent complex on the cell surface, a critical step in tumor progression. A recent study suggested a prognostic role of MET expression in Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL). The purpose of this study was to examine the prognostic significance of MET and MST1R expression in cHL. The prognostic impact of MET and MST1R was examined in 100 patients with cHL (median age: 32 years) by immunohistochemistry and mRNA in situ hybridization. The median follow-up time was 95 months (interquartile range: 42-126 months). MET or MST1R protein expression was associated with high MET or MST1R mRNA expression, respectively. Thirty-eight patients (38%) expressed MET protein in HRS cell, which was associated with better overall survival (P=0.004). Twenty-six patients (26%) expressed MST1R protein, which was associated with better overall survival (P=0.022) and event-free survival (P=0.021). Multivariate analysis identified MET protein as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival and MST1R protein as an independent prognostic factor for event-free survival. Subgroup analysis according to Ann Arbor stage showed that expressions of MET and MST1R protein have prognostic impact in the advanced stage only. In particular, coexpression of MST1R and MET protein was associated with a better survival outcome than MET or MST1R expression alone or no expression. This study suggests that MET and MST1R are independent prognostic factors in classical cHL, and may allow the identification of a subgroup of cHL patients who require more intensive therapy.

  1. Prognostic factors in cats with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    King, Jonathan N; Tasker, Séverine; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; Strehlau, Günther

    2007-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in cats. Some baseline variables are associated with shorter survival times in cats with CKD. Client-owned cats. Cats with CKD with initial plasma creatinine concentration > or =2.0 mg/dL and urine specific gravity (USG) < or = 1.025 were recruited into a prospective clinical trial that compared benazepril with a placebo. We describe baseline variables in 190 cats and their influence on renal survival time in the placebo group (95 cats), which was followed for up to 1,097 days. Renal survival time was defined as the time from initiation of therapy to the need for parenteral fluid therapy, euthanasia, or death related to renal failure. Of the 95 cats treated with a placebo, 58 were censored and 37 reached the renal survival end point (died, n = 0; euthanized, n = 17; parenteral fluids, n = 12; parenteral fluids followed by euthanasia, n = 8). Increased plasma creatinine concentration, increased urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC), and increased blood leukocyte count were significantly (P < .01) associated with a shorter renal survival time and were independent risk factors. Increased concentrations of plasma phosphate or urea, and lower blood hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit were significantly (P < .01) associated with a shorter renal survival time and were dependent risk factors, because they also were significantly (P < .01) correlated with plasma creatinine concentration at baseline. Several variables were significantly associated with a shorter renal survival time in cats with CKD.

  2. Prognostic factors for return-to-work following surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peters, Susan; Johnston, Venerina; Hines, Sonia; Ross, Mark; Coppieters, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common problem, that can be effectively managed by surgery. Screening for prognostic factors is important to identify workers who are at a greater risk of a poor work outcome in order to implement tailored interventions to facilitate their return-to-work. To synthesize the best available evidence on the association of preoperative prognostic factors with work-related outcomes in people who have undergone carpal tunnel surgery. Participants included those who were employed at the time of surgery, underwent carpal tunnel surgery and planned to return-to-work. The primary outcome was return-to-work. Quantitative studies investigating at least one prognostic factor for a work-related outcome in studies of workers who had carpal tunnel surgery were considered. Eleven electronic databases were searched from their respective inception date up to July 2015. A total of 3893 publications were reviewed. The quality of the included studies was assessed by two reviewers using a modified version of an appraisal tool (Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-analysis of Statistical Assessment and Review Instrument [JBI-MAStARI]). The following criteria were evaluated: study population representativeness, clearly defined prognostic factors and outcomes, potential confounding variables and appropriate statistical analysis. Data extraction was performed using a modified version of the standardized extraction tool from JBI-MAStARI. Statistical pooling was not possible. Findings are presented in tables and narrative format. Eleven studies (13 publications) investigating 93 prognostic factors for delayed return-to-work or prolonged work disability outcomes and 27 prognostic factors for work role functioning in 4187 participants were identified.Prognostic factors associated with workers' increased likelihood of an earlier return-to-work in a moderate-to-high-quality study included worker expected or desired fewer days off work, occupation, lower pain anxiety and if

  3. The biological, clinical and prognostic implications of p53 transcriptional pathways in breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M; Powe, Desmond G; Agboola, Johnson; Adamowicz-Brice, Martyna; Blamey, Roger W; Lopez-Garcia, Maria A; Green, Andrew R; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Ellis, Ian O

    2010-03-01

    We hypothesized that the functional status of p53 transcriptional pathways, rather than p53 protein expression alone, could accurately discriminate between low- and high-risk breast carcinoma (BC) and inform about individuals' tumour biological behaviour. To test this, we studied a well-characterized series of 990 BCs with long-term follow-up, immunohistochemically profiled for p53, its main regulators and downstream genes. Results were validated in an independent series of patients (n = 245) uniformly treated with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Eleven p53 transcriptional phenotypes were identified with just two main clinical outcomes. (a) Low risk/good prognosis group (active/partially inactive p53 pathways), defined as p53(+/-)/MDM4(+)/MDM2(+/-)/Bcl2(+/-)/p21(+/-), p53(-)/MDM4(-)/MDM2(+)/Bcl2(+)/p21(+/-) and p53(+/-)/MDM4(-)/MMD2(-)/Bcl2(+)/p21(+/-). These tumours had favourable clinicopathological characteristics, including ER(+) and long survival after systemic adjuvant-therapy (AT). (b) High risk/poor prognosis group (completely inactive p53 pathways), defined as p53(+/-)/MDM4(-) MDM2(-)/Bcl2(-)/p21(-), p53(-)/MDM4(-) MDM2(+)/Bcl2(-)/p21(-) and p53(+/-)/MDM4(-)/MDM2(-)/Bcl2(-)/p21(+). These tumours were characterized by aggressive clinicopathological characteristics and showed shortened survival when treated with AT. Completely inactive p53 pathways but intact p21 axis p53(+/-)/MDM4(-)/MDM2(-)/Bcl2(-)/p21(+) had the worst prognosis, particularly patients who received AT. Multivariate Cox regression models, including validated prognostic factors for both test and validation series, revealed that the functional status of p53 transcriptional pathways was an independent prognosticator for BC-specific survival (HR 2.64 and 4.5, p < 0.001, respectively) and disease-free survival (HR 1.93 and 2.5, p < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, p53 functional status determined by assessment of p53 regulatory and downstream targets provides independent prognostic

  4. Polysomy of chromosomes 1 and 19: an underestimated prognostic factor in oligodendroglial tumors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haihui; Ren, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zhe; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Junmei; Lin, Song

    2014-10-01

    The clinical significance of chromosomes 1 and 19 deletion was well established in oligodendroglial tumors (ODGs). This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic implication of chromosomes 1 and 19 polysomy in gliomas. 584 patients with histological diagnosis of primary gliomas enrolled in the study. Chromosomes 1 and 19 status was detected with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Of the 584 cases, the frequency of 1q and 19p polysomy in mixed gliomas was significantly higher than ODGs or astrocytic tumors (1q P = 0.032 and P = 0.044; 19p P = 0.024 and P = 0.027); the frequency of 1q and 19p polysomy in low-grade gliomas (WHO II) was relatively lower compared with WHO III or WHO IV (1q P = 0.097 and P = 0.026; 19p P = 0.04 and P = 0.002). 1q, 19p and co-polysomy were confirmed as risk factors conveyed unfavo