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Sample records for clinically relevant subtypes

  1. Clinically relevant molecular subtypes in leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiangqian; Jo, Vickie Young; Mills, Anne M.; Zhu, Shirley X.; Lee, Cheng-Han; Espinosa, Inigo; Nucci, Marisa Rose; Varma, Sushama; Forgó, Erna; Hastie, Trevor; Anderson, Sharon; Ganjoo, Kristen; Beck, Andrew H.; West, Robert B.; Fletcher, Christopher; van de Rijn, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a malignant neoplasm with smooth muscle differentiation. Little is known about its molecular heterogeneity and no targeted therapy currently exists for LMS. Recognition of different molecular subtypes is necessary to evaluate novel therapeutic options. In a previous study on 51 LMS, we identified three molecular subtypes in LMS. The current study was performed to determine whether the existence of these subtypes could be confirmed in independent cohorts. Experimental Design 99 cases of LMS were expression profiled with 3′end RNA-Sequencing (3SEQ). Consensus Clustering was conducted to determine the optimal number of subtypes. Results We identified 3 LMS molecular subtypes and confirmed this finding by analyzing publically available data on 82 LMS from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We identified two new FFPE tissue-compatible diagnostic immunohistochemical markers; LMOD1 for subtype I LMS and ARL4C for subtype II LMS. An LMS tissue microarray with known clinical outcome was used to show that subtype I LMS is associated with good outcome in extrauterine LMS while subtype II LMS is associated with poor prognosis in both uterine and extrauterine LMS. The LMS subtypes showed significant differences in expression levels for genes for which novel targeted therapies are being developed, suggesting that LMS subtypes may respond differentially to these targeted therapies. Conclusion We confirm the existence of 3 molecular subtypes in LMS using two independent datasets and show that the different molecular subtypes are associated with distinct clinical outcomes. The findings offer an opportunity for treating LMS in a subtype-specific targeted approach. PMID:25896974

  2. Cell of origin determines clinically relevant subtypes of MLL-rearranged AML

    PubMed Central

    Krivtsov, Andrei V.; Figueroa, Maria E.; Sinha, Amit U.; Stubbs, Matthew C.; Feng, Zhaohui; Valk, Peter J.M.; Delwel, Ruud; Döhner, Konstanze; Bullinger, Lars; Kung, Andrew L.; Melnick, Ari M.; Armstrong, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary MLL-fusion proteins can induce acute myeloid leukemias (AML) from either hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) or granulocyte macrophage progenitors (GMP), but it remains unclear if the cell of origin influences the biology of the resultant leukemia. MLL-AF9 transduced single HSC or GMP could be continuously replated, but HSC-derived clones were more likely than GMP-derived clones to initiate AML in mice. Leukemia stem cells derived from either HSC or GMP had a similar immunophenotype consistent with a maturing myeloid cell (LGMP). Gene expression analyses demonstrated that LGMP inherited gene expression programs from the cell of origin including high-level Evi-1 expression in HSC derived LGMP. The gene expression signature of LGMP derived from HSC was enriched in poor prognosis human MLL-rearranged AML in three independent data sets. Moreover, global 5’-mC levels were elevated in HSC-derived leukemias as compared to GMP-derived leukemias. This mirrored a difference seen in 5-mC between MLL-rearranged human leukemias that are either EVI1-positive or EVI1-negative. Finally, HSC derived leukemias were more resistant to chemotherapy than GMP-derived leukemias. These data demonstrate that the cell of origin influences the gene expression profile, the epigenetic state, and the drug response in AML, and that these differences can account for clinical heterogeneity within a molecularly defined group of leukemias. Significance Human AMLs are heterogeneous even within subtype defined by a specific genetic lesion such as MLL-translocations and this leads to variable clinical outcomes. The developmental stage (or epigenetic state) of the cell in which leukemogenic transformation is initiated may contribute to the ultimate disease phenotype. We used a well established model of MLL-AF9 mediated AML and transformation of single cells to test the relevance of the leukemia cell of origin on AML development, gene expression profiles, DNA methylation and chemotherapy response. We

  3. Integrated Genomic Analysis Identifies Clinically Relevant Subtypes of Glioblastoma Characterized by Abnormalities in PDGFRA, IDH1, EGFR, and NF1

    SciTech Connect

    Verhaak, Roel GW; Hoadley, Katherine A; Purdom, Elizabeth; Wang, Victoria; Qi, Yuan; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Miller, C Ryan; Ding, Li; Golub, Todd; Mesirov, Jill P; Alexe, Gabriele; Lawrence, Michael; O'Kelly, Michael; Tamayo, Pablo; Weir, Barbara A; Gabriel, Stacey; Winckler, Wendy; Gupta, Supriya; Jakkula, Lakshmi; Feiler, Heidi S; Hodgson, J Graeme; James, C David; Sarkaria, Jann N; Brennan, Cameron; Kahn, Ari; Spellman, Paul T; Wilson, Richard K; Speed, Terence P; Gray, Joe W; Meyerson, Matthew; Getz, Gad; Perou, Charles M; Hayes, D Neil; Network, The Cancer Genome Atlas Research

    2009-09-03

    The Cancer Genome Atlas Network recently cataloged recurrent genomic abnormalities in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We describe a robust gene expression-based molecular classification of GBM into Proneural, Neural, Classical, and Mesenchymal subtypes and integrate multidimensional genomic data to establish patterns of somatic mutations and DNA copy number. Aberrations and gene expression of EGFR, NF1, and PDGFRA/IDH1 each define the Classical, Mesenchymal, and Proneural subtypes, respectively. Gene signatures of normal brain cell types show a strong relationship between subtypes and different neural lineages. Additionally, response to aggressive therapy differs by subtype, with the greatest benefit in the Classical subtype and no benefit in the Proneural subtype. We provide a framework that unifies transcriptomic and genomic dimensions for GBM molecular stratification with important implications for future studies.

  4. Non-negative matrix factorization for the analysis of complex gene expression data: identification of clinically relevant tumor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Frigyesi, Attila; Höglund, Mattias

    2008-01-01

    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is a relatively new approach to analyze gene expression data that models data by additive combinations of non-negative basis vectors (metagenes). The non-negativity constraint makes sense biologically as genes may either be expressed or not, but never show negative expression. We applied NMF to five different microarray data sets. We estimated the appropriate number metagens by comparing the residual error of NMF reconstruction of data to that of NMF reconstruction of permutated data, thus finding when a given solution contained more information than noise. This analysis also revealed that NMF could not factorize one of the data sets in a meaningful way. We used GO categories and pre defined gene sets to evaluate the biological significance of the obtained metagenes. By analyses of metagenes specific for the same GO-categories we could show that individual metagenes activated different aspects of the same biological processes. Several of the obtained metagenes correlated with tumor subtypes and tumors with characteristic chromosomal translocations, indicating that metagenes may correspond to specific disease entities. Hence, NMF extracts biological relevant structures of microarray expression data and may thus contribute to a deeper understanding of tumor behavior.

  5. Functional genomics identifies five distinct molecular subtypes with clinical relevance and pathways for growth control in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Tuan Zea; Miow, Qing Hao; Huang, Ruby Yun-Ju; Wong, Meng Kang; Ye, Jieru; Lau, Jieying Amelia; Wu, Meng Chu; Bin Abdul Hadi, Luqman Hakim; Soong, Richie; Choolani, Mahesh; Davidson, Ben; Nesland, Jahn M; Wang, Ling-Zhi; Matsumura, Noriomi; Mandai, Masaki; Konishi, Ikuo; Goh, Boon-Cher; Chang, Jeffrey T; Thiery, Jean Paul; Mori, Seiichi

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is hallmarked by a high degree of heterogeneity. To address this heterogeneity, a classification scheme was developed based on gene expression patterns of 1538 tumours. Five, biologically distinct subgroups — Epi-A, Epi-B, Mes, Stem-A and Stem-B — exhibited significantly distinct clinicopathological characteristics, deregulated pathways and patient prognoses, and were validated using independent datasets. To identify subtype-specific molecular targets, ovarian cancer cell lines representing these molecular subtypes were screened against a genome-wide shRNA library. Focusing on the poor-prognosis Stem-A subtype, we found that two genes involved in tubulin processing, TUBGCP4 and NAT10, were essential for cell growth, an observation supported by a pathway analysis that also predicted involvement of microtubule-related processes. Furthermore, we observed that Stem-A cell lines were indeed more sensitive to inhibitors of tubulin polymerization, vincristine and vinorelbine, than the other subtypes. This subtyping offers new insights into the development of novel diagnostic and personalized treatment for EOC patients. PMID:23666744

  6. MYC immunohistochemical and cytogenetic analysis are required for identification of clinically relevant aggressive B cell lymphoma subtypes.

    PubMed

    Raess, Philipp W; Moore, Stephen R; Cascio, Michael J; Dunlap, Jennifer; Fan, Guang; Gatter, Ken; Olson, Susan B; Braziel, Rita M

    2017-09-03

    Accurate subclassification of aggressive B cell lymphomas (ABCLs) requires integration of morphologic, immunohistochemical (IHC), and cytogenetic information. Optimal strategies have not been well defined for diagnosis of high grade B cell lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements (HGBLwR) and double expressor lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 protein overexpression. One hundred and eighty seven ABCLs were investigated with complete IHC and FISH analysis. Morphologic and IHC analysis was insufficient to identify clinically relevant HGBLwR. Approximately, 75% of cases classified as HGBLwR showed conventional DLBCL morphologic features. Fourteen percent of MYC-rearranged cases were negative by IHC. Conversely, 60% of cases positive for MYC by IHC did not demonstrate a MYC rearrangement. Analysis by FISH without MYC and BCL2 IHC would miss 41 cases of double expressor lymphoma. Complete IHC and FISH analysis is recommended in the evaluation of all ABCLs.

  7. Spanish validation of the adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS): relevance of clinical subtypes.

    PubMed

    Richarte, Vanesa; Corrales, Montserrat; Pozuelo, Marian; Serra-Pla, Juanfran; Ibáñez, Pol; Calvo, Eva; Corominas, Margarida; Bosch, Rosa; Casas, Miquel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2017-08-24

    : sensitivity (81.9%), specificity (87.3%), PPV (78.6%), NPV (89.4%), kappa coefficient .88 and AUC .94, and 21 point is the best cut-off for ADHD predominantly inattentive presentation: sensitivity (70.2%), specificity (76.1%), PPV (71.7%), NPV (74.8%), kappa coefficient .88 and AUC .94. In this study, the Spanish version of the ADHD-RS is a valid scale to discriminate between ADHD adults and controls. The new proposed score strategy suggests the relevance of clinical presentations in the different cut-offs selected. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. An imprinted non-coding genomic cluster at 14q32 defines clinically relevant molecular subtypes in osteosarcoma across multiple independent datasets.

    PubMed

    Hill, Katherine E; Kelly, Andrew D; Kuijjer, Marieke L; Barry, William; Rattani, Ahmed; Garbutt, Cassandra C; Kissick, Haydn; Janeway, Katherine; Perez-Atayde, Antonio; Goldsmith, Jeffrey; Gebhardt, Mark C; Arredouani, Mohamed S; Cote, Greg; Hornicek, Francis; Choy, Edwin; Duan, Zhenfeng; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Spentzos, Dimitrios

    2017-05-15

    A microRNA (miRNA) collection on the imprinted 14q32 MEG3 region has been associated with outcome in osteosarcoma. We assessed the clinical utility of this miRNA set and their association with methylation status. We integrated coding and non-coding RNA data from three independent annotated clinical osteosarcoma cohorts (n = 65, n = 27, and n = 25) and miRNA and methylation data from one in vitro (19 cell lines) and one clinical (NCI Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments (TARGET) osteosarcoma dataset, n = 80) dataset. We used time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (tdROC) analysis to evaluate the clinical value of candidate miRNA profiles and machine learning approaches to compare the coding and non-coding transcriptional programs of high- and low-risk osteosarcoma tumors and high- versus low-aggressiveness cell lines. In the cell line and TARGET datasets, we also studied the methylation patterns of the MEG3 imprinting control region on 14q32 and their association with miRNA expression and tumor aggressiveness. In the tdROC analysis, miRNA sets on 14q32 showed strong discriminatory power for recurrence and survival in the three clinical datasets. High- or low-risk tumor classification was robust to using different microRNA sets or classification methods. Machine learning approaches showed that genome-wide miRNA profiles and miRNA regulatory networks were quite different between the two outcome groups and mRNA profiles categorized the samples in a manner concordant with the miRNAs, suggesting potential molecular subtypes. Further, miRNA expression patterns were reproducible in comparing high-aggressiveness versus low-aggressiveness cell lines. Methylation patterns in the MEG3 differentially methylated region (DMR) also distinguished high-aggressiveness from low-aggressiveness cell lines and were associated with expression of several 14q32 miRNAs in both the cell lines and the large TARGET clinical dataset

  9. Identification and Subtyping of Clinically Relevant Human and Ruminant Mycoplasmas by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Renaudin, H.; Cauvin, E.; Del Prá Netto Machado, L.; Tricot, A.; Benoit, F.; Treilles, M.; Bébéar, C.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) recently emerged as a technology for the identification of bacteria. In this study, we aimed to evaluate its applicability to human and ruminant mycoplasmal identification, which can be demanding and time-consuming when using phenotypic or molecular methods. In addition, MALDI-TOF MS was tested as a subtyping tool for certain species. A total of 29 main spectra (MSP) from 10 human and 13 ruminant mycoplasma (sub)species were included in a mycoplasma MSP database to complete the Bruker MALDI Biotyper database. After broth culture and protein extraction, MALDI-TOF MS was applied for the identification of 119 human and 143 ruminant clinical isolates that were previously identified by antigenic or molecular methods and for subcultures of 73 ruminant clinical specimens that potentially contained several mycoplasma species. MALDI-TOF MS resulted in accurate (sub)species-level identification with a score of ≥1.700 for 96% (251/262) of the isolates. The phylogenetically closest (sub)species were unequivocally distinguished. Although mixtures of the strains were reliably detected up to a certain cellular ratio, only the predominant species was identified from the cultures of polymicrobial clinical specimens. For typing purposes, MALDI-TOF MS proved to cluster Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates by their year of isolation and genome profiles, respectively, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates by their adhesin P1 type. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective method for the routine identification of high-density growing mycoplasmal species and shows promising prospects for its capacity for strain typing. PMID:23903545

  10. Development and Validation of a Quantitative PCR Assay Using Multiplexed Hydrolysis Probes for Detection and Quantification of Theileria orientalis Isolates and Differentiation of Clinically Relevant Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Bogema, D. R.; Deutscher, A. T.; Fell, S.; Collins, D.; Eamens, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    Theileria orientalis is an emerging pathogen of cattle in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. This organism is a vector-borne hemoprotozoan that causes clinical disease characterized by anemia, abortion, and death, as well as persistent subclinical infections. Molecular methods of diagnosis are preferred due to their sensitivity and utility in differentiating between pathogenic and apathogenic genotypes. Conventional PCR (cPCR) assays for T. orientalis detection and typing are laborious and do not provide an estimate of parasite load. Current real-time PCR assays cannot differentiate between clinically relevant and benign genotypes or are only semiquantitative without a defined clinical threshold. Here, we developed and validated a hydrolysis probe quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay which universally detects and quantifies T. orientalis and identifies the clinically associated Ikeda and Chitose genotypes (UIC assay). Comparison of the UIC assay results with previously validated universal and genotype-specific cPCR results demonstrated that qPCR detects and differentiates T. orientalis with high sensitivity and specificiy. Comparison of quantitative results based on percent parasitemia, determined via blood film analysis and packed cell volume (PCV) revealed significant positive and negative correlations, respectively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that blood samples from animals with clinical signs of disease contained statistically higher concentrations of T. orientalis DNA than animals with subclinical infections. We propose clinical thresholds to assist in classifying high-, moderate-, and low-level infections and describe how parasite load and the presence of the Ikeda and Chitose genotypes relate to disease. PMID:25588653

  11. Suicide by cop: clinical risks and subtypes.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Lauren; Allwood, Maureen; Fava, Joanna; Arias, Elizabeth; Pinizzotto, Anthony; Schlesinger, Louis

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether clinical classification schemes from general suicide research are applicable for cases of suicide by cop (SbC) and whether there are indicators as to why the police might be engaged in the suicide. Using archival law enforcement data, 13 clinical risks were examined among 68 cases of SbC using exploratory factor analysis and k-means cluster analysis. Three subtypes of SbC cases emerged: Mental Illness, Criminality, and Not Otherwise Specified. The subtypes varied significantly on their levels of mental illness, substance use, and criminal activity. Findings suggest that reducing fragmentation between law enforcement and mental health service providers might be a crucial goal for suicide intervention and prevention, at least among cases of SbC.

  12. Clinical implications of the intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Prat, Aleix; Pineda, Estela; Adamo, Barbara; Galván, Patricia; Fernández, Aranzazu; Gaba, Lydia; Díez, Marc; Viladot, Margarita; Arance, Ana; Muñoz, Montserrat

    2015-11-01

    Gene-expression profiling has had a considerable impact on our understanding of breast cancer biology. During the last 15 years, 5 intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer (Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2-enriched, Basal-like and Claudin-low) have been identified and intensively studied. In this review, we will focus on the current and future clinical implications of the intrinsic molecular subtypes beyond the current pathological-based classification endorsed by the 2013 St. Gallen Consensus Recommendations. Within hormone receptor-positive and HER2-negative early breast cancer, the Luminal A and B subtypes predict 10-year outcome regardless of systemic treatment administered as well as residual risk of distant recurrence after 5 years of endocrine therapy. Within clinically HER2-positive disease, the 4 main intrinsic subtypes can be identified and dominate the biological and clinical phenotype. From a clinical perspective, patients with HER2+/HER2-enriched disease seem to benefit the most from neoadjuvant trastuzumab, or dual HER2 blockade with trastuzumab/lapatinib, in combination with chemotherapy, and patients with HER2+/Luminal A disease seem to have a relative better outcome compared to the other subtypes. Finally, within triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), the Basal-like disease predominates (70-80%) and, from a biological perspective, should be considered a cancer-type by itself. Importantly, the distinction between Basal-like versus non-Basal-like within TNBC might predict survival following (neo)adjvuvant multi-agent chemotherapy, bevacizumab benefit in the neoadjuvant setting (CALGB40603), and docetaxel vs. carboplatin benefit in first-line metastatic disease (TNT study). Overall, this data suggests that intrinsic molecular profiling provides clinically relevant information beyond current pathology-based classifications.

  13. Rare breast cancer subtypes: histological, molecular, and clinical peculiarities.

    PubMed

    Dieci, Maria Vittoria; Orvieto, Enrico; Dominici, Massimo; Conte, PierFranco; Guarneri, Valentina

    2014-08-01

    Breast cancer encompasses a collection of different diseases characterized by different biological and pathological features, clinical presentation, response to treatments, clinical behavior, and outcome. On the basis of cell morphology, growth, and architecture patterns, breast cancer can be classified in up to 21 distinct histological types. Breast cancer special types, including the classic lobular invasive carcinoma, represent 25% of all breast cancers. The histological diversity of breast carcinomas has relevant prognostic implications. Indeed, the rare breast cancer group includes subtypes with very different prognoses, ranging from the tubular carcinoma, associated with an indolent clinical course, to metaplastic cancer, whose outcome is generally unfavorable. New approaches based on gene expression profiling allow the identification of molecularly defined breast cancer classes, with distinct biological features and clinical behavior. In clinical practice, immunohistochemical classification based on the expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and Ki67 is applied as a surrogate of the intrinsic molecular subtypes. However, the identification of intrinsic molecular subtypes were almost completely limited to the study of ductal invasive breast cancer. Moreover, some good-prognosis triple-negative histotypes, on the basis of gene expression profiling, can be classified among the poor-prognosis group. Therefore, histopathological classification remains a crucial component of breast cancer diagnosis. Special histologies can be very rare, and the majority of information on outcome and treatments derives from small series and case reports. As a consequence, clear recommendations about clinical management are still lacking. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about rare breast cancer histologies.

  14. Clinical investigation of set-shifting subtypes in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Buzzichelli, Sara; Marzola, Enrica; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

    2014-11-30

    While evidence continues to accumulate on the relevance of cognitive inflexibility in anorexia nervosa (AN), its clinical correlates remain unclear. We aimed at examining the relationship between set-shifting and clinical variables (i.e., eating psychopathology, depression, and personality) in AN. Ninety-four individuals affected by AN and 59 healthy controls (HC) were recruited. All participants were assessed using: Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The AN group scored worse than HCs on set-shifting. According to their neuropsychological performances, AN patients were split into two groups corresponding to poor (N=30) and intact (N=64) set-shifting subtypes. Interoceptive awareness, impulse regulation, and maturity fears on the EDI-2 and depression on the BDI differed across all groups (HC, intact, and poor set-shifting subtype). Self-directedness on the TCI differed significantly among all groups. Cooperativeness and reward dependence differed instead only between HC and AN poor set-shifting subtype. After controlling for depression, only interoceptive awareness remained significant with reward dependence showing a trend towards statistical significance. These findings suggest that multiple clinical variables may be correlated with set-shifting performances in AN. The factors contributing to impaired cognitive inflexibility could be more complex than heretofore generally considered.

  15. TP53 mutation spectrum in breast cancer is subtype specific and has distinct prognostic relevance.

    PubMed

    Silwal-Pandit, Laxmi; Vollan, Hans Kristian Moen; Chin, Suet-Feung; Rueda, Oscar M; McKinney, Steven; Osako, Tomo; Quigley, David A; Kristensen, Vessela N; Aparicio, Samuel; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Caldas, Carlos; Langerød, Anita

    2014-07-01

    In breast cancer, the TP53 gene is frequently mutated and the mutations have been associated with poor prognosis. The prognostic impact of the different types of TP53 mutations across the different molecular subtypes is still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the spectrum and prognostic significance of TP53 mutations with respect to the PAM50 subtypes and integrative clusters (IC). TP53 mutation status was obtained for 1,420 tumor samples from the METABRIC cohort by sequencing all coding exons using the Sanger method. TP53 mutations were found in 28.3% of the tumors, conferring a worse overall and breast cancer-specific survival [HR = 2.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-2.48, P < 0.001], and were also found to be an independent marker of poor prognosis in estrogen receptor-positive cases (HR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.39-2.49, P < 0.001). The mutation spectrum of TP53 varied between the breast cancer subtypes, and individual alterations showed subtype-specific association. TP53 mutations were associated with increased mortality in patients with luminal B, HER2-enriched, and normal-like tumors, but not in patients with luminal A and basal-like tumors. Similar observations were made in ICs, where mutation associated with poorer outcome in IC1, IC4, and IC5. The combined effect of TP53 mutation, TP53 LOH, and MDM2 amplification on mortality was additive. This study reveals that TP53 mutations have different clinical relevance in molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and suggests diverse roles for TP53 in the biology underlying breast cancer development. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Vacuum phenomenon: Clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Gohil, Ishan; Vilensky, Joel A; Weber, Edward C

    2014-04-01

    Vacuum phenomenon (VP) is an anatomical entity of potential confusion in the diagnosis and evaluation of joint pathology. Observation of this phenomenon has been demonstrated on basic radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Although VP is most often associated with degenerative joint disease, it is observed with other pathologies. Two problematic scenarios can occur: a false-positive diagnosis of serious pathology instead of benign VP and a false-negative diagnosis of benign VP with a more serious underlying process Despite this potential for confusion, criteria for distinguishing VP from other causes of joint pain and for evaluating a suspected case of VP have not been fully established. We reviewed the literature to determine underlying mechanism, symptomology, associated pathologies, and clinical importance of VP. The formation of VP can be explained by gas solubility, pressure-volume relationships, and human physiology. CT, GRE-MRI, and multipositional views are the best imaging studies to view VP. Although most cases of VP are benign, it can be associated with clinical signs and symptoms. VP outside the spine is an underreported finding on imaging studies. VP should be on the differential diagnosis for joint pain, especially in the elderly. We have proposed criteria for diagnosing VP and generated a basic algorithm for its workup. Underreporting of this phenomenon shows a lack of awareness of VP on the part of physicians. By identifying true anatomic VP, we can prevent harm from suboptimal treatment of patients.

  17. [Clinical research VI. Clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Talavera, Juan O; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    Usually, in clinical practice the maneuver selected is the one that achieves a favorable outcome with a direct percentage of superiority of at least 10 %, or when the number needed to treat is approximately equal to 10. While this percentage difference is practical for estimating the magnitude of an association, we need to differentiate the impact measures (attributable risk, preventable fraction), measures of association (RR, OR, HR), and frequency measures (incidence and prevalence) applicable when the outcome is nominal. And we must identify ways to measure the strength of association and the magnitude of the association when the outcome variable is quantitative. It is not uncommon to interpret the measures of association as if they were impact measures. For example, for a RR of 0.68, it is common to assume a 32 % reduction of the outcome, but we must consider that this is a relative reduction, which comes from relations of 0.4/0.6, 0.04/0.06, or 0.00004/0.00006. However the direct reduction is 20 % (60 % - 40 %), 2 %, and 2 per 100,000, respectively. Therefore, to estimate the impact of a maneuver it is important to have the direct difference and/or NNT.

  18. Molecular analysis of gastric cancer identifies subtypes associated with distinct clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Razvan; Lee, Jeeyun; Nebozhyn, Michael; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Ting, Jason C; Wong, Swee Seong; Liu, Jiangang; Yue, Yong Gang; Wang, Jian; Yu, Kun; Ye, Xiang S; Do, In-Gu; Liu, Shawn; Gong, Lara; Fu, Jake; Jin, Jason Gang; Choi, Min Gew; Sohn, Tae Sung; Lee, Joon Ho; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Seung Tae; Park, Se Hoon; Sohn, Insuk; Jung, Sin-Ho; Tan, Patrick; Chen, Ronghua; Hardwick, James; Kang, Won Ki; Ayers, Mark; Hongyue, Dai; Reinhard, Christoph; Loboda, Andrey; Kim, Sung; Aggarwal, Amit

    2015-05-01

    Gastric cancer, a leading cause of cancer-related deaths, is a heterogeneous disease. We aim to establish clinically relevant molecular subtypes that would encompass this heterogeneity and provide useful clinical information. We use gene expression data to describe four molecular subtypes linked to distinct patterns of molecular alterations, disease progression and prognosis. The mesenchymal-like type includes diffuse-subtype tumors with the worst prognosis, the tendency to occur at an earlier age and the highest recurrence frequency (63%) of the four subtypes. Microsatellite-unstable tumors are hyper-mutated intestinal-subtype tumors occurring in the antrum; these have the best overall prognosis and the lowest frequency of recurrence (22%) of the four subtypes. The tumor protein 53 (TP53)-active and TP53-inactive types include patients with intermediate prognosis and recurrence rates (with respect to the other two subtypes), with the TP53-active group showing better prognosis. We describe key molecular alterations in each of the four subtypes using targeted sequencing and genome-wide copy number microarrays. We validate these subtypes in independent cohorts in order to provide a consistent and unified framework for further clinical and preclinical translational research.

  19. The dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder: rationale, clinical and neurobiological evidence, and implications.

    PubMed

    Lanius, Ruth A; Brand, Bethany; Vermetten, Eric; Frewen, Paul A; Spiegel, David

    2012-08-01

    Clinical and neurobiological evidence for a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has recently been documented. A dissociative subtype of PTSD is being considered for inclusion in the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) to address the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization found among a subset of patients with PTSD. This article reviews research related to the dissociative subtype including antecedent, concurrent, and predictive validators as well as the rationale for recommending the dissociative subtype. The relevant literature pertaining to the dissociative subtype of PTSD was reviewed. Latent class analyses point toward a specific subtype of PTSD consisting of symptoms of depersonalization and derealization in both veteran and civilian samples of PTSD. Compared to individuals with PTSD, those with the dissociative subtype of PTSD also exhibit a different pattern of neurobiological response to symptom provocation as well as a differential response to current cognitive behavioral treatment designed for PTSD. We recommend that consideration be given to adding a dissociative subtype of PTSD in the revision of the DSM. This facilitates more accurate analysis of different phenotypes of PTSD, assist in treatment planning that is informed by considering the degree of patients' dissociativity, will improve treatment outcome, and will lead to much-needed research about the prevalence, symptomatology, neurobiology, and treatment of individuals with the dissociative subtype of PTSD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cryptosporidium Species and Subtypes and Clinical Manifestations in Children, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Cama, Vitaliano A.; Bern, Caryn; Roberts, Jacqueline; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R.; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether clinical manifestations are associated with genotypes or subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp., we studied a 4-year longitudinal birth cohort of 533 children in Peru. A total of 156 infection episodes were found in 109 children. Data from first infections showed that C. hominis was associated with diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, general malaise, and increased oocyst shedding intensity and duration. In contrast, C. parvum, C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. felis were associated with diarrhea only. C. hominis subtype families were identified (Ia, Ib, Id, and Ie); all were associated with diarrhea. Ib was also associated with nausea, vomiting, and general malaise. All C. parvum specimens belonged to subtype family IIc. Analysis of risk factors did not show associations with specific Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes or subtypes. These findings strongly suggest that Cryptosporidium spp. and subtypes are linked to different clinical manifestations in children. PMID:18826821

  1. Response to clozapine in a clinically identifiable subtype of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Nancy J.; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Fitzpatrick, Laura; Guna, Alina; Andrade, Danielle M.; Lang, Anthony E.; Chow, Eva W. C.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic testing in psychiatry promises to improve patient care through advances in personalised medicine. However, there are few clinically relevant examples. Aims To determine whether patients with a well-established genetic subtype of schizophrenia show a different response profile to the antipsychotic clozapine than those with idiopathic schizophrenia. Method We retrospectively studied the long-term safety and efficacy of clozapine in 40 adults with schizophrenia, half with a 22q11.2 deletion (22q11.2DS group) and half matched for age and clinical severity but molecularly confirmed to have no pathogenic copy number variant (idiopathic group). Results Both groups showed similar clinical improvement and significant reductions in hospitalisations, achieved at a lower median dose for those in the 22q11.2DS group. Most common side-effects were similarly prevalent between the two groups, however, half of the 22q11.2DS group experienced at least one rare serious adverse event compared with none of the idiopathic group. Many were successfully retried on clozapine. Conclusions Individuals with 22q11.2DS-schizophrenia respond as well to clozapine treatment as those with other forms of schizophrenia, but may represent a disproportionate number of those with serious adverse events, primarily seizures. Lower doses and prophylactic (for example anticonvulsant) management strategies can help ameliorate side-effect risks. This first systematic evaluation of antipsychotic response in a genetic subtype of schizophrenia provides a proof-of-principle for personalised medicine and supports the utility of clinical genetic testing in schizophrenia. PMID:25745132

  2. [Pharmacogenetics. Clinical relevance in anesthsiology].

    PubMed

    Zeidler, E M; Goetz, A E; Zöllner, C

    2013-11-01

    Pharmacogenetics deals with hereditary factors which influence the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of drugs leading to individual diverse reactions. Also in anesthesiology differences in the pharmacogenetics of patients can lead to relevant alterations in the pharmacodynamics of drugs. This article provides a summary of polymorphisms relevant to commonly used anesthetic agents and the clinical relevance in patients treated with these compounds. It describes the possibilities, the problems and limits of pharmacogenetic diagnostics and therapy and explains how this follows the target of individualized medicine. This article describes in detail the alterations in pharmacodynamics and pharmakokinetics relevant for anesthesia and their clinical significance. Based on the results of current studies, an overview of the most important drugs in anesthesiology with significant polymorphisms is given. These include opioids, muscle relaxants, volatile anesthetic agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), benzodiazepines, antiemetics and cardiovascular drugs as well as platelet aggregation inhibitors, anticoagulants and the so-called new oral anticoagulants. Genetic alterations can lead to substantial modifications in the effectiveness of drugs. Genetic alterations of opioid receptors and the enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 can result in a failure of analgesia after administration of opioids. Alterations in plasma cholinesterase activity are associated with a prolonged effectiveness of muscle relaxants. Polymorphisms in ryanodine receptors can contribute to the development of the feared MH in patients after administration of volatile anesthetics or succinylcholine. The study results presented here emphasize that these days knowledge on pharmacogenetics should not be missing in modern induction of anesthesia. In the future a blood sample could enable physicians to identify pharmacologically relevant markers. And these could guide the decision on the

  3. Unsupervised deep learning reveals prognostically relevant subtypes of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Young, Jonathan D; Cai, Chunhui; Lu, Xinghua

    2017-10-03

    further investigate the disease mechanisms underlying each of these clusters. In summary, we show that a deep learning model can be trained to represent biologically and clinically meaningful abstractions of cancer gene expression data. Understanding what additional relationships these hidden layer abstractions have with the cancer cellular signaling system could have a significant impact on the understanding and treatment of cancer.

  4. The Clinical Utility of Personality Subtypes in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildes, Jennifer E.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Crosby, Ross D.; Ringham, Rebecca M.; Dapelo, Marcela Marin; Gaskill, Jill A.; Forbush, Kelsie T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Elucidation of clinically relevant subtypes has been proposed as a means of advancing treatment research, but classifying anorexia nervosa (AN) patients into restricting and binge-eating/purging types has demonstrated limited predictive validity. This study aimed to evaluate whether an approach to classifying eating disorder patients on…

  5. The Clinical Utility of Personality Subtypes in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildes, Jennifer E.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Crosby, Ross D.; Ringham, Rebecca M.; Dapelo, Marcela Marin; Gaskill, Jill A.; Forbush, Kelsie T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Elucidation of clinically relevant subtypes has been proposed as a means of advancing treatment research, but classifying anorexia nervosa (AN) patients into restricting and binge-eating/purging types has demonstrated limited predictive validity. This study aimed to evaluate whether an approach to classifying eating disorder patients on…

  6. Clinical characteristics of the respiratory subtype in panic disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Hye-Min; Kim, Ji-Hae; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2014-10-01

    Panic disorder has been suggested to be divided into the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes in terms of its clinical presentations. The present study aimed to investigate whether there are any differences in treatment response and clinical characteristics between the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes of panic disorder patients. Among the 48 patients those who completed the study, 25 panic disorder patients were classified as the respiratory subtype, whereas 23 panic disorder patients were classified as the non-respiratory subtype. All patients were treated with escitalopram or paroxetine for 12 weeks. We measured clinical and psychological characteristics before and after pharmacotherapy using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), Albany Panic and Phobic Questionnaire (APPQ), Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T, STAI-S), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). The prevalence of the agoraphobia was significantly higher in the respiratory group than the non-respiratory group although there were no differences in gender and medication between the two groups. The respiratory group showed higher scores on the fear of respiratory symptoms of the ASI-R. In addition, after pharmacotherapy, the respiratory group showed more improvement in panic symptoms than the non-respiratory group. Panic disorder patients with the respiratory subtype showed more severe clinical presentations, but a greater treatment response to SSRIs than those with non-respiratory subtype. Thus, classification of panic disorder patients as respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes may be useful to predict clinical course and treatment response to SSRIs.

  7. Clinical Characteristics of the Respiratory Subtype in Panic Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hye-Min; Kim, Ji-Hae; Heo, Jung-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Objective Panic disorder has been suggested to be divided into the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes in terms of its clinical presentations. The present study aimed to investigate whether there are any differences in treatment response and clinical characteristics between the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes of panic disorder patients. Methods Among the 48 patients those who completed the study, 25 panic disorder patients were classified as the respiratory subtype, whereas 23 panic disorder patients were classified as the non-respiratory subtype. All patients were treated with escitalopram or paroxetine for 12 weeks. We measured clinical and psychological characteristics before and after pharmacotherapy using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), Albany Panic and Phobic Questionnaire (APPQ), Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T, STAI-S), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). Results The prevalence of the agoraphobia was significantly higher in the respiratory group than the non-respiratory group although there were no differences in gender and medication between the two groups. The respiratory group showed higher scores on the fear of respiratory symptoms of the ASI-R. In addition, after pharmacotherapy, the respiratory group showed more improvement in panic symptoms than the non-respiratory group. Conclusion Panic disorder patients with the respiratory subtype showed more severe clinical presentations, but a greater treatment response to SSRIs than those with non-respiratory subtype. Thus, classification of panic disorder patients as respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes may be useful to predict clinical course and treatment response to SSRIs. PMID:25395972

  8. Clinical differences among mild cognitive impairment subtypes in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Jennifer G; Weis, Holly; Stebbins, Glenn; Bernard, Bryan; Goetz, Christopher G

    2012-08-01

    Mild cognitive impairment is increasingly recognized as a construct in Parkinson's disease (PD) and occurs in about 25% of nondemented PD patients. Although executive dysfunction is the most frequent type of cognitive deficit in PD, the cognitive phenotype of PD mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) is broad. PD-MCI subtypes are represented by amnestic and nonamnestic domain impairment as well as single- and multiple-domain impairment. However, it is unclear whether patients with different PD-MCI subtypes also differ in other clinical characteristics in addition to cognitive profile. We studied 128 PD-MCI subjects at our Movement Disorders center, comparing clinical, motor, and behavioral characteristics across the PD-MCI subtypes. We found varying proportions of impairment subtypes: nonamnestic single domain, 47.7%; amnestic multiple domain, 24.2%; amnestic single domain, 18.8%; and nonamnestic multiple domain, 9.5%. Attentional/executive functioning and visuospatial abilities were the most frequently impaired domains. PD-MCI subtypes differed in their motor features, with nonamnestic multiple-domain PD-MCI subjects showing particularly pronounced problems with postural instability and gait. Differences among PD-MCI subtypes in age, PD duration, medication use, mood or behavioral disturbances, and vascular disease were not significant. Thus, in addition to differing cognitive profiles, PD-MCI subtypes differed in motor phenotype and severity but not in mood, behavioral, or vascular comorbidities. Greater postural instability and gait disturbances in the nonamnestic multiple-domain subtype emphasize shared nondopaminergic neural substrates of gait and cognition in PD. Furthermore, increased burden of cognitive dysfunction, rather than type of cognitive deficit, may be associated with greater motor impairment in PD-MCI.

  9. Histopathological and clinical analysis of chronic rhinosinusitis by subtype.

    PubMed

    Czerny, Mary S; Namin, Arya; Gratton, Michael Anne; Antisdel, Jastin L

    2014-06-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) encompasses diverse phenotypic expression. Clinical and histological differences suggest 4 CRS subtypes: eosinophilic CRS with and without nasal polyps (eCRSwNP, eCRSsNP, respectively) and non-eosinophilic CRS with and without nasal polyps (neCRSwNP, neCRSsNP, respectively). The mucosal basement membrane (BM) and cilia are believed to play roles in CRS pathogenesis by impacting mucociliary clearance and immune barriers. This study aimed to identify clinical, surgical, and histopathological subtype differences to further elucidate disease mechanisms. Ethmoid tissue from 33 adult CRS patients and 7 controls was obtained during endoscopic sinus or other sinonasal surgery (controls) and analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy for BM thickness and presence of cilia. CRS patients were categorized into the 4 subtypes, and 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) score, endoscopy, computed tomography (CT), and surgical data were compared and analyzed for association with histopathology measures. CRS subtypes could be distinguished by CT score and surgical data, with eCRSwNP patients exhibiting greatest disease severity. Whereas eosinophilia was associated with absence of cilia, nasal polyposis showed no association with surgical or histopathological measures. No significant difference in BM thickness was found between controls and CRS subtypes, but distinctions were found regarding cilia, which were less common in eosinophilic subgroups compared to controls and neCRSsNP patients. CRS subtypes exhibit some differentiating histopathological and surgical features. The absence of cilia appears to have an important role in the eosinophilic subgroups. Further histologic evaluation is warranted to evaluate for possible subtype-specific treatment targets or prognostic markers. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  10. Clinically-inspired automatic classification of ovarian carcinoma subtypes

    PubMed Central

    BenTaieb, Aïcha; Nosrati, Masoud S; Li-Chang, Hector; Huntsman, David; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2016-01-01

    Context: It has been shown that ovarian carcinoma subtypes are distinct pathologic entities with differing prognostic and therapeutic implications. Histotyping by pathologists has good reproducibility, but occasional cases are challenging and require immunohistochemistry and subspecialty consultation. Motivated by the need for more accurate and reproducible diagnoses and to facilitate pathologists’ workflow, we propose an automatic framework for ovarian carcinoma classification. Materials and Methods: Our method is inspired by pathologists’ workflow. We analyse imaged tissues at two magnification levels and extract clinically-inspired color, texture, and segmentation-based shape descriptors using image-processing methods. We propose a carefully designed machine learning technique composed of four modules: A dissimilarity matrix, dimensionality reduction, feature selection and a support vector machine classifier to separate the five ovarian carcinoma subtypes using the extracted features. Results: This paper presents the details of our implementation and its validation on a clinically derived dataset of eighty high-resolution histopathology images. The proposed system achieved a multiclass classification accuracy of 95.0% when classifying unseen tissues. Assessment of the classifier's confusion (confusion matrix) between the five different ovarian carcinoma subtypes agrees with clinician's confusion and reflects the difficulty in diagnosing endometrioid and serous carcinomas. Conclusions: Our results from this first study highlight the difficulty of ovarian carcinoma diagnosis which originate from the intrinsic class-imbalance observed among subtypes and suggest that the automatic analysis of ovarian carcinoma subtypes could be valuable to clinician's diagnostic procedure by providing a second opinion. PMID:27563487

  11. Statistical significance versus clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Marieke H C; Bech, Anneke; Bouyer, Jean; van den Brand, Jan A J G

    2017-04-01

    In March this year, the American Statistical Association (ASA) posted a statement on the correct use of P-values, in response to a growing concern that the P-value is commonly misused and misinterpreted. We aim to translate these warnings given by the ASA into a language more easily understood by clinicians and researchers without a deep background in statistics. Moreover, we intend to illustrate the limitations of P-values, even when used and interpreted correctly, and bring more attention to the clinical relevance of study findings using two recently reported studies as examples. We argue that P-values are often misinterpreted. A common mistake is saying that P < 0.05 means that the null hypothesis is false, and P ≥0.05 means that the null hypothesis is true. The correct interpretation of a P-value of 0.05 is that if the null hypothesis were indeed true, a similar or more extreme result would occur 5% of the times upon repeating the study in a similar sample. In other words, the P-value informs about the likelihood of the data given the null hypothesis and not the other way around. A possible alternative related to the P-value is the confidence interval (CI). It provides more information on the magnitude of an effect and the imprecision with which that effect was estimated. However, there is no magic bullet to replace P-values and stop erroneous interpretation of scientific results. Scientists and readers alike should make themselves familiar with the correct, nuanced interpretation of statistical tests, P-values and CIs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  12. Ovarian Cancer Cell Line Panel (OCCP): Clinical Importance of In Vitro Morphological Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Beaufort, Corine M.; Helmijr, Jean C. A.; Piskorz, Anna M.; Hoogstraat, Marlous; Ruigrok-Ritstier, Kirsten; Besselink, Nicolle; Murtaza, Muhammed; van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Heine, Anouk A. J.; Smid, Marcel; Koudijs, Marco J.; Brenton, James D.; Berns, Els M. J. J.; Helleman, Jozien

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease and remains the most lethal gynaecological malignancy in the Western world. Therapeutic approaches need to account for inter-patient and intra-tumoural heterogeneity and detailed characterization of in vitro models representing the different histological and molecular ovarian cancer subtypes is critical to enable reliable preclinical testing. There are approximately 100 publicly available ovarian cancer cell lines but their cellular and molecular characteristics are largely undescribed. We have characterized 39 ovarian cancer cell lines under uniform conditions for growth characteristics, mRNA/microRNA expression, exon sequencing, drug response for clinically-relevant therapeutics and collated all available information on the original clinical features and site of origin. We tested for statistical associations between the cellular and molecular features of the lines and clinical features. Of the 39 ovarian cancer cell lines, 14 were assigned as high-grade serous, four serous-type, one low-grade serous and 20 non-serous type. Three morphological subtypes: Epithelial (n = 21), Round (n = 7) and Spindle (n = 12) were identified that showed distinct biological and molecular characteristics, including overexpression of cell movement and migration-associated genes in the Spindle subtype. Comparison with the original clinical data showed association of the spindle-like tumours with metastasis, advanced stage, suboptimal debulking and poor prognosis. In addition, the expression profiles of Spindle, Round and Epithelial morphologies clustered with the previously described C1-stromal, C5-mesenchymal and C4 ovarian subtype expression profiles respectively. Comprehensive profiling of 39 ovarian cancer cell lines under controlled, uniform conditions demonstrates clinically relevant cellular and genomic characteristics. This data provides a rational basis for selecting models to develop specific treatment

  13. Prognostic Relevance of Circulating Tumor Cells in Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Banys-Paluchowski, M.; Schneck, H.; Blassl, C.; Schultz, S.; Meier-Stiegen, F.; Niederacher, D.; Krawczyk, N.; Ruckhaeberle, E.; Fehm, T.; Neubauer, H.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be detected in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients with early and metastatic disease. Recent data suggest that immune pathologic characteristics between the primary tumor, metastatic colonies and CTCs are discordant and that CTCs possess an independent phenotype that is associated with prognosis and treatment efficacy. Large scale gene expression analysis has provided the possibility to stratify breast cancer according to the gene expression fingerprint of primary tumor tissue into five intrinsic molecular subtypes which can be associated with different clinical outcome. As a consequence of the different prognostic power of primary tumorsʼ characteristics and CTCs several groups have started to investigate if CTCs might be disseminated differentially within these breast cancer subtypes. They determined the CTC number in immunohistochemical subtypes to validate if CTCs may provide differential and more specific prognostic information within each subtype. This review provides an overview of the outcome of some recently published data gathered from early and metastatic breast cancer. PMID:25914415

  14. Clinical Outcome From Oxaliplatin Treatment in Stage II/III Colon Cancer According to Intrinsic Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Nan; Pogue-Geile, Katherine L.; Gavin, Patrick G.; Yothers, Greg; Kim, S. Rim; Johnson, Nicole L.; Lipchik, Corey; Allegra, Carmen J.; Petrelli, Nicholas J.; O’Connell, Michael J.; Wolmark, Norman; Paik, Soonmyung

    2016-01-01

    identified patients with poor prognosis (stemlike, CCS-3, and CMS-4) in both stage II and III. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Patients with stemlike tumors may be appropriate for clinical trials testing experimental therapies because stemlike tumors were robustly identified and associated with a poor prognosis regardless of stage or chemotherapy regimen. The clinical utility of using subtyping for the identification of patients for treatment with oxaliplatin requires validation in independent clinical trial cohorts. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00004931 PMID:27270348

  15. [Profilins: allergens with clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Landa-Pineda, César Manuel; Guidos-Fogelbach, Guillermo; Marchat-Marchau, Laurence; López-Hidalgo, Marisol; Arroyo-Becerra, Analilia; Sandino Reyes-López, César Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Profilins are small ubiquitous proteins of 12-19 kDa involved in actin dynamics. These proteins are found in all eukaryotic organisms studied to date. Profilins have aminoacid sequences and tridimensional structure highly conserved. Allergy patients to pollen frequently have symptoms of allergy when ingestion of plant-derived foods like fruits, vegetables, seeds, among others. This phenomenon is known as latex-pollen-fruit allergy and it's the main cause of oral allergy syndrome (OAS) which is attributed to the cross-reactivity. Allergens shared between different sources theses are called panallergens for example are profilins which representing at least 20% of all pollen allergic patients. This cross-reactivity is results from the high amino acid sequence identity of profilin from plants, which is between 70% and 85%, this may explain the exacerbation symptoms of allergic patients to profilins from plants. We described some characteristics which show us the important participation of the profilins in the sensitization of people allergic, especially to plants, fruits and pollen. We looked research aminoacid sequences of all allergenic profilins reported to date and these were analyzed. Profilins are important allergens that are underrated in clinical practice and contribute to cross-reactivity in sensitized individuals by profilins from other sources.

  16. Metabolism of psilocybin and psilocin: clinical and forensic toxicological relevance.

    PubMed

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2017-02-01

    Psilocybin and psilocin are controlled substances in many countries. These are the two main hallucinogenic compounds of the "magic mushrooms" and both act as agonists or partial agonists at 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A subtype receptors. During the last few years, psilocybin and psilocin have gained therapeutic relevance but considerable physiological variability between individuals that can influence dose-response and toxicological profile has been reported. This review aims to discuss metabolism of psilocybin and psilocin, by presenting all major and minor psychoactive metabolites. Psilocybin is primarily a pro-drug that is dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase to active metabolite psilocin. This last is then further metabolized, psilocin-O-glucuronide being the main urinary metabolite with clinical and forensic relevance in diagnosis.

  17. The clinical usefulness of the new LPE specifier for subtyping adolescents with conduct disorder in the DSM 5.

    PubMed

    Jambroes, Tijs; Jansen, Lucres M C; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Colins, Olivier F; Popma, Arne

    2016-08-01

    In DSM 5, conduct disorder (CD) has been expanded with a new specifier 'with Limited Prosocial Emotions' (LPE) in addition to the age-of-onset (AoO) subtyping, and is thought to identify a severe antisocial subgroup of CD. However, research in clinical practice has been scarce. Therefore, the current study will examine differences in clinical symptoms between subtypes of CD, based on both subtyping schemes. Subsequently, it will investigate whether the LPE specifier explains unique variance in aggression, added to the AoO subtyping. A sample of 145 adolescents with CD (51 % male, mean age 15.0) from a closed treatment institution participated in this study. CD diagnoses and AoO subtype were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. The LPE specifier was assessed using the callous-unemotional dimension of the Youth Psychopathy Traits Inventory (YPI). Self-reported proactive and reactive aggression, rule-breaking behavior and internalizing problems within the subtypes were compared. Youth with childhood-onset CD and LPE showed significantly more aggression than adolescent-onset CD without LPE (proactive aggression: F = 3.1, p < 0.05, reactive aggression: F = 3.7, p < 0.05). Hierarchical regression revealed that the LPE specifier uniquely explained 7 % of the variance in reactive aggression, additionally to the AoO subtyping. For proactive aggression, the interaction between AoO and the LPE added 4.5 % to the explained variance. Although the LPE specifier may help to identify a more aggressive subtype of CD in adolescents, the incremental utility seems to be limited. Therefore, clinical relevance of the LPE specifier in high-risk adolescent samples still needs to be investigated thoroughly.

  18. Difference of achalasia subtypes based on clinical symptoms, radiographic findings, and stasis scores.

    PubMed

    Meillier, A; Midani, D; Caroline, D; Saadi, M; Parkman, H; Schey, R

    2017-05-31

    Three subtypes of achalasia have been defined through high-resolution esophageal manometry: subtype i shows no pressurization with swallows, subtype ii has increased isobaric panesophageal pressure, and subtype iii has distal esophageal spastic non-isobaric contractions. Studies describing the subtypes based on radiographic findings, clinical symptoms, and stasis scores are limited. To determine the differences in clinical symptoms, radiographic findings, and stasis scores for the 3 achalasia subtypes. Patients undergoing high-resolution esophageal manometry received a questionnaire about current symptoms and previous treatments. The questions included the presence of symptoms and their severity. Barium swallow tests were performed before the high-resolution esophageal manometry study to evaluate the maximum esophageal diameter. Stasis scores were calculated using the transit patterns on high-resolution esophageal manometry. One hundred and eight patients with high-resolution esophageal manometry diagnosis of achalasia (n=8, subtype i; n=84, subtype ii; n=16, subtype iii) within the time frame of 1/2012-6/2015 were included in the study. Sex distribution was similar between the subtypes. Patient age was younger for subtype i (38±16 years), compared with subtypes ii (55±17 years) and iii (63±17 years) (P=.03). Esophageal symptoms did not differ between subtypes regarding the severity of nausea, chest pain, coughing, and heartburn, except for increased vomiting severity in subtype i (2.8±1.4 vs. 1.4±1.4 vs. 1.2±1.2, P<.01). A significant radiographic difference in esophageal dilation was seen between subtypes ii and iii (35.1±14.4 vs. 24.0±7.2mm, P=.023). Stasis scores did not significantly differ between the subtypes. Achalasia subtypes had similar clinical symptoms, except for increased vomiting severity in subtype i. The maximum esophageal diameter in subtype ii was significantly greater than in subtype iii. Esophageal stasis scores were similar. Thus

  19. A CLINICAL STUDY OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SUBTYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Suresh K.; Kulhara, Parmanand

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY Using a cross-sectional phenomenological approach, 40 schizophrenic patients satisfying Research Diagnostic Criteria were divided into positive, negative and mixed subtypes. On variables like age, duration of illness, and premorbid adjustment significant differences emerged between positive and negative subtypes. No significant differences were found when positive and negative subtypes were compared on variables like intelligence, memory, history of treatment with neuroleptics and electroconvulsive therapy and past and family history of schizophrenia. The results are compared with other studies. PMID:21927337

  20. Clinical Relevance of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mahruqi, Sara H.; Al-Busaidy, Suleiman; Boeree, Martin J.; Al-Zadjali, Samiya; Patel, Arti; Dekhuijzen, P.N. Richard; van Soolingen, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the clinical relevance of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in the Arabian Peninsula. We assessed the prevalence and studied a random sample of isolates at a reference laboratory in Muscat, Oman. NTM cause disease in this region, and their prevalence has increased. PMID:19193276

  1. Valerian: No Evidence for Clinically Relevant Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nieber, Karen; Kraft, Karin

    2014-01-01

    In recent popular publications as well as in widely used information websites directed to cancer patients, valerian is claimed to have a potential of adverse interactions with anticancer drugs. This questions its use as a safe replacement for, for example, benzodiazepines. A review on the interaction potential of preparations from valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L. root) was therefore conducted. A data base search and search in a clinical drug interaction data base were conducted. Thereafter, a systematic assessment of publications was performed. Seven in vitro studies on six CYP 450 isoenzymes, on p-glycoprotein, and on two UGT isoenzymes were identified. However, the methodological assessment of these studies did not support their suitability for the prediction of clinically relevant interactions. In addition, clinical studies on various valerian preparations did not reveal any relevant interaction potential concerning CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. Available animal and human pharmacodynamic studies did not verify any interaction potential. The interaction potential of valerian preparations therefore seems to be low and thereby without clinical relevance. We conclude that there is no specific evidence questioning their safety, also in cancer patients. PMID:25093031

  2. Pfeiffer syndrome update, clinical subtypes, and guidelines for differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M M

    1993-02-01

    Steven Pfeiffer syndrome pedigrees (three 3 generation and four 2 generation) have been recorded to date in addition to at least a dozen sporadic cases. Autosomal dominant inheritance with complete penetrance is characteristic of the 7 familial instances. Variable expressivity has involved mostly the presence or absence of syndactyly and the degree of syndactyly when present. Classic Pfeiffer syndrome is designated type I. Type 2 consists of cloverleaf skull with Pfeiffer hands and feet together with ankylosis of the elbows. Such patients do poorly with an early death. All reported instances to date have been sporadic. Type 3 is similar to type 2 but without cloverleaf skull. Ocular proptosis is severe in degree and the anterior cranial base is markedly short. These patients also do poorly and tend to have an early death. To date all cases have occurred sporadically. Although these 3 clinical subtypes do not have status as separate entities, their diagnostic and prognostic implications are important. Type 1 is commonly associated with normal intelligence, generally good outcome, and can be found dominantly inherited in some families. Types 2 and 3 generally have severe neurological compromise, poor prognosis, early death, and sporadic occurrence. Recognition of type 3 is particularly important because extreme ocular proptosis in the absence of cloverleaf skull but with various visceral anomalies can result in failure to diagnose Pfeiffer syndrome and labeling the patient as an "unknown" or as a "newly recognized entity."(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Translating orthopaedic basic science into clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Madry, Henning

    2014-12-01

    In orthopaedic and trauma surgery, the rapid evolution of biomedical research has fundamentally changed the perception of the musculoskeletal system. Here, the rigor of basic science and the art of musculoskeletal surgery have come together to create a new discipline -experimental orthopaedics- that holds great promise for the causative cure of many orthopaedic conditions. The Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics intends to bridge the gap between orthopaedic basic science and clinical relevance, to allow for a fruitful clinical translation of excellent and important investigations in the field of the entire musculoskeletal system.

  4. Clinical Features Associated with Delirium Motor Subtypes in Older Inpatients: Results of a Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Alessandro; Di Santo, Simona G; Cherubini, Antonio; Mossello, Enrico; Meagher, David; Mazzone, Andrea; Bianchetti, Angelo; Ferrara, Nicola; Ferrari, Alberto; Musicco, Massimo; Trabucchi, Marco; Bellelli, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    To date motor subtypes of delirium have been evaluated in single-center studies with a limited examination of the relationship between predisposing factors and motor profile of delirium. We sought to report the prevalence and clinical profile of subtypes of delirium in a multicenter study. This is a point prevalence study nested in the "Delirium Day 2015", which included 108 acute and 12 rehabilitation wards in Italy. Delirium was detected using the 4-AT and motor subtypes were measured with the Delirium Motor Subtype Scale (DMSS). A multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with delirium subtypes. Of 429 patients with delirium, the DMSS was completed in 275 (64%), classifying 21.5% of the patients with hyperactive delirium, 38.5% with hypoactive, 27.3% with mixed and 12.7% with the non-motor subtype. The 4-AT score was higher in the hyperactive subtype, similar in the hypoactive, mixed subtypes, while it was lowest in the non-motor subtype. Dementia was associated with all three delirium motor subtypes (hyperactive, OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.2-8.7; hypoactive, OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.2-6.5; mixed OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.2). Atypical antipsychotics were associated with hypoactive delirium (OR 0.23, 95% CI: 0.1-0.7), while intravenous lines were associated with mixed delirium (OR 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2-6.9). The study shows that hypoactive delirium is the most common subtype among hospitalized older patients. Specific clinical features were associated with different delirium subtypes. The use of standardized instruments can help to characterize the phenomenology of different motor subtypes of delirium. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical embryology teaching: is it relevant anymore?

    PubMed

    Scott, Karen M; Charles, Antony Robert; Holland, Andrew J A

    2013-10-01

    Embryology finds itself jostling for precious space in the crowded medical curriculum, yet remains important for helping students understand birth defects. It has been suggested that teaching embryology through clinical scenarios can increase its relevance and interest. The aim of this research was to determine the attitudes of final-year medical students to learning embryology and whether clinical scenarios aid understanding. Final-year medical students undertaking their paediatric rotation in 2009 and 2010 were invited to attend an optional lecture on clinical embryology and participate in the research. In the lecture, three clinical scenarios were presented, in which the lecturer traced the normal development of a foetus and the abnormal development that resulted in a birth defect. Outcomes were assessed quantitatively using a paper-based survey. The vast majority of students who valued embryology teaching in their medical programme thought it would assist them with clinical management, and believed learning through case scenarios helped their understanding. Students were divided in their beliefs about when embryology should be taught in the medical programme and whether it would increase their workload. Embryology teaching appears to be a valuable part of the medical curriculum. Embryology teaching was valued when taught in the clinical environment in later years of the medical programme. Students, clinicians and medical educators should be proactive in finding clinical learning opportunities for embryology teaching. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  6. Clinical Manifestations of Cryptosporidiosis and Identification of a New Cryptosporidium Subtype in Patients From Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Urrea-Quezada, Alejandro; González-Díaz, Mariana; Villegas-Gómez, Isaac; Durazo, María; Hernández, Jesús; Xiao, Lihua; Valenzuela, Olivia

    2017-08-26

    The aim of this study was to identify the clinical manifestations of cryptosporidiosis, and the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in children in Sonora, Mexico. Two subtypes of C. parvum, including IIaA15G2R1 and IIcA5G3a, and six subtypes of C. hominis, including IaA14R3, IaA15R3, IbA12G3, IdA23, IeA11G3T3, and a new subtype IaA14R11, were identified. Cryptosporidium as an etiologic agent for acute gastroenteritis is discussed.

  7. Clinical Implications of DSM-IV Subtyping of Bipolar Disorders in Referred Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masi, Gabriele; Perugi, Giulio; Millepiedi, Stefania; Mucci, Maria; Pari, Cinzia; Pfanner, Chiara; Berloffa, Stefano; Toni, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Objective: According to DSM-IV, bipolar disorders (BDs) include four subtypes, BD I, BD II, cyclothymic disorder, and BD not otherwise specified (NOS). We explore the clinical implications of this subtyping in a naturalistic sample of referred youths with BD I, BD II, and BD-NOS. Method: The sample consisted of 217 patients, 135 males and 82…

  8. Clinical Implications of DSM-IV Subtyping of Bipolar Disorders in Referred Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masi, Gabriele; Perugi, Giulio; Millepiedi, Stefania; Mucci, Maria; Pari, Cinzia; Pfanner, Chiara; Berloffa, Stefano; Toni, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Objective: According to DSM-IV, bipolar disorders (BDs) include four subtypes, BD I, BD II, cyclothymic disorder, and BD not otherwise specified (NOS). We explore the clinical implications of this subtyping in a naturalistic sample of referred youths with BD I, BD II, and BD-NOS. Method: The sample consisted of 217 patients, 135 males and 82…

  9. Clinically relevant drug interactions with antiepileptic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Perucca, Emilio

    2006-01-01

    Some patients with difficult-to-treat epilepsy benefit from combination therapy with two or more antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Additionally, virtually all epilepsy patients will receive, at some time in their lives, other medications for the management of associated conditions. In these situations, clinically important drug interactions may occur. Carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and primidone induce many cytochrome P450 (CYP) and glucuronyl transferase (GT) enzymes, and can reduce drastically the serum concentration of associated drugs which are substrates of the same enzymes. Examples of agents whose serum levels are decreased markedly by enzyme-inducing AEDs, include lamotrigine, tiagabine, several steroidal drugs, cyclosporin A, oral anticoagulants and many cardiovascular, antineoplastic and psychotropic drugs. Valproic acid is not enzyme inducer, but it may cause clinically relevant drug interactions by inhibiting the metabolism of selected substrates, most notably phenobarbital and lamotrigine. Compared with older generation agents, most of the recently developed AEDs are less likely to induce or inhibit the activity of CYP or GT enzymes. However, they may be a target for metabolically mediated drug interactions, and oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, felbamate and, at high dosages, topiramate may stimulate the metabolism of oral contraceptive steroids. Levetiracetam, gabapentin and pregabalin have not been reported to cause or be a target for clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Pharmacodynamic interactions involving AEDs have not been well characterized, but their understanding is important for a more rational approach to combination therapy. In particular, neurotoxic effects appear to be more likely with coprescription of AEDs sharing the same primary mechanism of action. PMID:16487217

  10. TDP-43 and pathological subtype of Alzheimer’s disease impact clinical features

    PubMed Central

    Josephs, Keith A.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Weigand, Stephen D.; Murray, Melissa E.; Serie, Amanda M.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Senjem, Matthew L.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Dickson, Dennis W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the frequency of TDP-43 deposition in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) differs across pathologically defined AD subtypes (Hippocampal sparing [HpSp]; Typical and Limbic), and to further examine the relationship between TDP-43, pathological subtype, and clinical features in AD. Methods We identified all cases with pathologically-confirmed AD (NIA-Reagan intermediate-high probability, Braak stage IV–VI) independent of cognitive status (n=188). Neurofibrillary tangle counts were performed using thioflavin-S microscopy in hippocampus and three neocortical regions, and all cases were subtyped: HpSp AD Pathology (n=19); Typical AD Pathology (n=136); Limbic AD Pathology (n=33). TDP-43 immunoreactivity was performed in multiple brain regions to assess for the presence of TDP-43 and TDP-43 stage. All cases were clinically sub-classified at presentation as Amnestic AD Dementia versus Atypical AD Dementia. Statistical analysis was performed using linear and penalized logistic regression to assess associations with pathological subtype, and the effects of TDP-43, accounting for possible interactions between pathological subtype and TDP-43. Results TDP-43 deposition was frequent in Typical (59%) and Limbic AD pathologies (67%), but not HpSp AD Pathology (21%) (p=0.003). The observed associations of TDP-43 with greater memory loss, naming and functional decline, and smaller hippocampal volumes, closest to death, did not differ across AD pathological subtype. Clinical presentation was associated with pathological subtype (p=0.01), but not TDP-43 (p=0.69). Interpretation Although the frequency of TDP-43 deposition in AD varies by pathological subtype, the observed effects of TDP-43 on clinical/MRI features are consistent across pathological subtypes. Clinical presentation in AD is driven by pathological subtype, not by TDP-43. PMID:26224156

  11. [Clinical relevance of cardiopulmonary reflexes in anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Guerri-Guttenberg, R A; Siaba-Serrate, F; Cacheiro, F J

    2013-10-01

    The baroreflex, chemoreflex, pulmonary reflexes, Bezold-Jarisch and Bainbridge reflexes and their interaction with local mechanisms, are a demonstration of the richness of cardiovascular responses that occur in human beings. As well as these, the anesthesiologist must contend with other variables that interact by attenuating or accentuating cardiopulmonary reflexes such as, anesthetic drugs, surgical manipulation, and patient positioning. In the present article we review these reflexes and their clinical relevance in anesthesiology. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Women with epilepsy: clinically relevant issues

    PubMed Central

    Bangar, Santosh; Shastri, Abhishek; El-Sayeh, Hany; Cavanna, Andrea E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Women with epilepsy (WWE) face specific challenges throughout their lifespan due to the effects of seizures and antiepileptic drugs on hormonal function, potentially affecting both sexual and reproductive health. This review article addresses the most common issues of practical relevance to clinicians treating WWE: epidemiology and clinical presentations (including catamenial epilepsy), contraception, reproductive and sexual dysfunction, pregnancy, lactation, menopause-related issues (including bone health), and mental health aspects. Awareness of these gender-specific issues and implementation/adaptation of effective interventions for WWE results in significantly improved health-related quality of life in this patient population. PMID:27678205

  13. Clinical relevance of the ESKAPE pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Jack N; Gorman, Sean P; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, the Infectious Diseases Society of America has highlighted a faction of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp.) - acronymically dubbed 'the ESKAPE pathogens' - capable of 'escaping' the biocidal action of antibiotics and mutually representing new paradigms in pathogenesis, transmission and resistance. This review aims to consolidate clinically relevant background information on the ESKAPE pathogens and provide a contemporary summary of bacterial resistance, alongside pertinent microbiological considerations necessary to face the mounting threat of antimicrobial resistance.

  14. Annotation and retrieval of clinically relevant images.

    PubMed

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Antani, Sameer; Simpson, Matthew; Thoma, George R

    2009-12-01

    Medical images are a significant information source for clinical decision-making. Currently available information retrieval and decision support systems rely primarily on the text of scientific publications to find evidence in support of clinical information needs. The images and illustrations are available only within the full text of a scientific publication and do not directly contribute evidence to such systems. Our first goal is to explore whether image features facilitate finding relevant images that appear in publications. Our second goal is to find promising approaches for providing clinical evidence at the point of service, leveraging information contained in the text and images. We studied two approaches to finding illustrative evidence: a supervised machine-learning approach, in which images are classified as being relevant to an information need or not, and a pipeline information retrieval approach, in which images were retrieved using associated text and then re-ranked using content-based image retrieval (CBIR) techniques. Our information retrieval approach did not benefit from combining textual and image information. However, given sufficient training data for the machine-learning approach, we achieved 56% average precision at 94% recall using textual features, and 27% average precision at 86% recall using image features. Combining these classifiers resulted in improvement up to 81% precision at 96% recall (74% recall at 85% precision, on average) for the requests with over 180 positive training examples. Our supervised machine-learning methods that combine information from image and text are capable of achieving image annotation and retrieval accuracy acceptable for providing clinical evidence, given sufficient training data.

  15. Annotation and retrieval of clinically relevant images

    PubMed Central

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Antani, Sameer; Simpson, Matthew; Thoma, George R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Medical images are a significant information source for clinical decision making. Currently available information retrieval and decision support systems rely primarily on the text of scientific publications to find evidence in support of clinical information needs. The images and illustrations are available only within the full text of a scientific publication and do not directly contribute evidence to such systems. Our first goal is to explore whether image features facilitate finding relevant images that appear in publications. Our second goal is to find promising approaches for providing clinical evidence at the point of service, leveraging information contained in the text and images. Methods We studied two approaches to finding illustrative evidence: a supervised machine learning approach, in which images are classified as being relevant to an information need or not, and a pipeline information retrieval approach, in which images were retrieved using associated text and then re-ranked using content-based image retrieval (CBIR) techniques. Results Our information retrieval approach did not benefit from combining textual and image information. However, given sufficient training data for the machine learning approach, we achieved 56% average precision at 94% recall using textual features, and 27% average precision at 86% recall using image features. Combining these classifiers resulted in improvement up to 81% precision at 96% recall (74% recall at 85% precision, on average) for the requests with over 180 positive training examples. Conclusions Our supervised machine learning methods that combine information from image and text are capable of achieving image annotation and retrieval accuracy acceptable for providing clinical evidence, given sufficient training data. PMID:19546026

  16. The clinical relevance of Tarlov cysts.

    PubMed

    Langdown, Andrew John; Grundy, Julian R B; Birch, Nicholas C

    2005-02-01

    The sacral perineural cyst was first described by Tarlov in 1938 as an incidental finding at autopsy. There are very few data in the literature regarding the role of Tarlov cysts in causing symptoms, however. Most studies report low numbers, and consequently, the recommendations for treatment are vague. Our aim, therefore, is to present further detail regarding the clinical relevance of Tarlov cysts and to identify whether or not they are a cause of lumbosacral spinal canal stenosis symptoms. Over a 5-year period, 3535 patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan for lumbosacral symptoms. Fifty-four patients were identified as having Tarlov cysts, and their clinical picture was correlated with the findings on MRI. The majority of Tarlov cysts (n = 38) cannot be held responsible for patients' symptoms and are clinically unimportant. However, we encountered several patients in whom Tarlov cysts (n = 9) occurred at the same level as another pathology. In these cases, the cyst itself did not require any specific therapy; treatment was directed at the other pathology, and uneventful symptom resolution occurred. A smaller subgroup of cysts (n = 7) are the main cause of patients' symptoms and may require specific treatment to facilitate local decompression. The majority of Tarlov cysts are incidental findings on MRI. Where confusion exists as to the clinical relevance of a Tarlov cyst, treatment of the primary pathology (ie, non-Tarlov lesion) is usually sufficient. Tarlov cysts may, however, be responsible for a patient's symptoms; possible mechanisms by which this may occur and treatment strategies are discussed.

  17. Clinical REM sleep behavior disorder and motor subtypes in Parkinson's disease: a questionnaire-based study.

    PubMed

    Aygun, Dursun; Turkel, Yakup; Onar, Musa Kazım; Sunter, Tevfik

    2014-04-01

    Studies documenting the association between rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and motor subtypes in Parkinson's disease (PD) are rare. Our hypothesis is that RBD may be more severe in non-tremor dominant (NTD) patients with RBD than those tremor dominant (TD) with RBD. In this study, we investigated the association between motor subtypes and clinical RBD in PD. We evaluated 104 consecutive patients older than 18 years presenting with PD to the Neurology Clinic of the University Hospital for one year in this study. The clinical diagnosis of RBD was based on the minimal diagnostic criteria of International Classification of Sleep Disorders, revised. The Stavanger Sleepiness Questionnaire was used to rate the severity of clinical RBD. The patients were divided into two subgroups as TD and NTD. The patient and control groups were compared with each other for severity and frequency of clinical RBD, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn-Yahr stage scores. The correlation between severity of clinical RBD and clinical severity of PD was analyzed in the patient groups. Of the patients, 45.2% (n=47) had the NTD subtype of PD and 54.8% (n=57) had the TD subtype of PD. There was no significant difference among the groups in terms of frequency and severity of clinical RBD. For the NTD patients, there was a weak positive correlation between severity of clinical RBD and clinical severity of PD. However, there was no correlation in the TD subgroup. In our study, frequency of clinical RBD was unrelated to motor subtypes of PD. However, in the present study, we found a weak correlation between clinical severity (UPDRS and the Hoehn-Yahr) of PD and severity of clinical RBD in the NTD subtype but not in the TD subtype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Validating a new clinical subtyping scheme for delirium with electronic motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Alan; Leonard, Maeve; Donnelly, Sinead; Conroy, Marion; Olaighin, Gearóid; Meagher, David

    2010-06-30

    The usefulness of motor subtypes of delirium is unclear due to inconsistency in sub-typing methods and a lack of validation with objective measures of activity. The activity of 40 patients was measured with 24 h accelerometry monitoring. Patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) delirium (n=30) were allocated into hyperactive, hypoactive and mixed motor subtypes. Delirium subtypes differed in relation to overall amount of activity, including movement in both sagittal and transverse planes. Differences were greater in the daytime and during the early evening 'sundowning' period. Frequency of postural changes was the most discriminating measure examined. Clinical subtypes of delirium defined by observed motor behaviour on the ward differ in electronically measured activity levels.

  19. Clinical Significance of Four Molecular Subtypes of Gastric Cancer Identified by The Cancer Genome Atlas Project.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Bo Hwa; Hwang, Jun-Eul; Jang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Sung; Oh, Sang Cheul; Shim, Jae-Jun; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Eui Hyun; Yim, Sun Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Jeong, Woojin; Cho, Jae Yong; Kim, Joohee; Chae, Jungsoo; Lee, Jeeyun; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Sung; Noh, Sung Hoon; Ajani, Jaffer A; Lee, Ju-Seog

    2017-07-26

    Purpose: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project recently uncovered four molecular subtypes of gastric cancer: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), microsatellite instability (MSI), genomically stable (GS), and chromosomal instability (CIN). However, their clinical significances are currently unknown. We aimed to investigate the relationship between subtypes and prognosis of patients with gastric cancer.Experimental Design: Gene expression data from a TCGA cohort (n = 262) were used to develop a subtype prediction model, and the association of each subtype with survival and benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy was tested in 2 other cohorts (n = 267 and 432). An integrated risk assessment model (TCGA risk score) was also developed.Results: EBV subtype was associated with the best prognosis, and GS subtype was associated with the worst prognosis. Patients with MSI and CIN subtypes had poorer overall survival than those with EBV subtype but better overall survival than those with GS subtype (P = 0.004 and 0.03 in two cohorts, respectively). In multivariate Cox regression analyses, TCGA risk score was an independent prognostic factor [HR, 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-1.9; P = 0.001]. Patients with the CIN subtype experienced the greatest benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.94; P = 0.03) and those with the GS subtype had the least benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.36-1.89; P = 0.65).Conclusions: Our prediction model successfully stratified patients by survival and adjuvant chemotherapy outcomes. Further development of the prediction model is warranted. Clin Cancer Res; 23(15); 1-9. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Fetal magnetocardiography: clinical relevance and feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ter Brake, H. J. M.; Rijpma, A. P.; Stinstra, J. G.; Borgmann, J.; Holland, H. J.; Krooshoop, H. J. G.; Peters, M. J.; Flokstra, J.; Quartero, H. W. P.; Rogalla, H.

    2002-03-01

    We investigated the feasibility of a high- Tc SQUID system for fetal magnetocardiography (fetal MCG) aiming at a system without a magnetically shielded room and cooled by a cryocooler. The targeted SQUID resolution was 50 fT/√Hz (1-100 Hz). The research was performed along three lines: environmental noise suppression, cooling and low- Tc experiments. Environmental noise can be suppressed by forming second-order gradiometers from individual magnetometers. Concerning cooling, we investigated the applicability of commercially available coolers. In the low- Tc experiments, the medical relevance of fetal MCG was clearly shown. However, they also indicated that, in order to fully exploit the medical potential, the targeted resolution has to be 10 fT/√Hz. This increased resolution, in combination with the required high reliability of the sensors, will be hard to realize in high- Tc technology. This paper describes the results of the project and discusses the feasibility of a clinical system.

  1. Mirror neurons and their clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Cattaneo, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    One of the most exciting events in neurosciences over the past few years has been the discovery of a mechanism that unifies action perception and action execution. The essence of this 'mirror' mechanism is as follows: whenever individuals observe an action being done by someone else, a set of neurons that code for that action is activated in the observers' motor system. Since the observers are aware of the outcome of their motor acts, they also understand what the other individual is doing without the need for intermediate cognitive mediation. In this Review, after discussing the most pertinent data concerning the mirror mechanism, we examine the clinical relevance of this mechanism. We first discuss the relationship between mirror mechanism impairment and some core symptoms of autism. We then outline the theoretical principles of neurorehabilitation strategies based on the mirror mechanism. We conclude by examining the relationship between the mirror mechanism and some features of the environmental dependency syndromes.

  2. [Sports cardiology : Overview of relevant clinical topics].

    PubMed

    Laszlo, R; Scharhag, J; Burgstahler, C; Striegel, H; Steinacker, J M

    2017-01-23

    Physical activity is nowadays an established therapeutic principle concerning primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases; therefore, in internal sports medicine various aspects go beyond basic cardiological knowledge and require special medical expertise (sports cardiology). Acute cardiac risk is increased during physical activity; therefore, physical activity should be individually phased under consideration of the whole clinical situation. Physical training results in a functional adaptation of the cardiovascular system. Moreover, a structural adaptation can also be observed in competitive athletes but a differentiation between athlete's heart and cardiomyopathy is sometimes challenging. Preparticipation screening verifiably reduces the incidence of sudden cardiac death in athletes. Respective recommendations for the required diagnostics have been published and statutory health insurances are increasingly more willing to bear the incurred costs. Statistically, doping is more frequent in performance-orientated leisure time sports than in competitive sports. Drugs which are relevant for doping have partially irreversible cardiac side effects.

  3. HUPO initiatives relevant to clinical proteomics.

    PubMed

    Hanash, Sam

    2004-04-01

    The past few years have seen a tremendous interest in the potential of proteomics to address unmet needs in biomedicine. Such unmet needs include more effective strategies for early disease detection and monitoring and more effective therapies, in addition to developing a better understanding of disease pathogenesis. Proteomics is particularly suited for investigating biological fluids to identify disease-related alterations and to develop molecular signatures for disease processes. However, much of the effort undertaken in clinical proteomics to date represents either demonstrations of principles or relatively small-scale studies when compared with genomics effort and accomplishments or more pertinently when contrasted with the tremendous untapped potential of clinical proteomics. Clearly, we are in the early stages. What seems to be urgently needed is an organized effort to build a solid foundation for proteomics that includes developing a much needed infrastructure with adequate resources. The Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) is fostering an organized international effort in proteomics that includes initiatives around organ systems and biological fluids that have disease relevance as well as development of proteomics resources.

  4. Identifying ultrasound and clinical features of breast cancer molecular subtypes by ensemble decision

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Jing; Xiao, Yun; Cui, Hao; Du, Guoqing; Wang, Ying; Li, Ziyao; Wu, Tong; Li, Xia; Tian, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is molecularly heterogeneous and categorized into four molecular subtypes: Luminal-A, Luminal-B, HER2-amplified and Triple-negative. In this study, we aimed to apply an ensemble decision approach to identify the ultrasound and clinical features related to the molecular subtypes. We collected ultrasound and clinical features from 1,000 breast cancer patients and performed immunohistochemistry on these samples. We used the ensemble decision approach to select unique features and to construct decision models. The decision model for Luminal-A subtype was constructed based on the presence of an echogenic halo and post-acoustic shadowing or indifference. The decision model for Luminal-B subtype was constructed based on the absence of an echogenic halo and vascularity. The decision model for HER2-amplified subtype was constructed based on the presence of post-acoustic enhancement, calcification, vascularity and advanced age. The model for Triple-negative subtype followed two rules. One was based on irregular shape, lobulate margin contour, the absence of calcification and hypovascularity, whereas the other was based on oval shape, hypovascularity and micro-lobulate margin contour. The accuracies of the models were 83.8%, 77.4%, 87.9% and 92.7%, respectively. We identified specific features of each molecular subtype and expanded the scope of ultrasound for making diagnoses using these decision models. PMID:26046791

  5. Epidemiology of constipation (EPOC) study in the United States: relation of clinical subtypes to sociodemographic features.

    PubMed

    Stewart, W F; Liberman, J N; Sandler, R S; Woods, M S; Stemhagen, A; Chee, E; Lipton, R B; Farup, C E

    1999-12-01

    Constipation is a common heterogeneous condition, possibly encompassing different clinical subtypes. Little is known about the comparative epidemiology of constipation subtypes. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of constipation subtypes and determine whether subtypes differ by sociodemographic factors. Between June and September 1997, a telephone interview was conducted with individuals about their bowel habits in the preceding 3 months. Survey data on 15 constipation-related symptoms were used to identify individuals who met prespecified symptom criteria for the following mutually exclusive subgroups: functional constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), outlet obstruction or delay (outlet), both IBS and outlet (IBS-outlet), and frequent laxative users (i.e., at least every other day). A total of 10,018 eligible individuals in the United States 18 yr of age or older completed the interview. Test-retest reliability of reporting symptoms was assessed in a separate national survey. The Spearman's correlation coefficient for reporting symptoms ranged from 0.54 to 0.83; all but three symptoms had correlations above 0.68. The overall prevalence of constipation was 14.7%. By subtype, prevalence was 4.6% for functional, 2.1% for IBS, 4.6% for outlet, and 3.4% for IBS-outlet. An additional 1.8% of respondents reported laxative use at least every other day. Outlet was the most common subtype among women, whereas functional constipation was the most common subtype among men. The gender ratio varied by subtype, with elevated ratios for outlet (F/M = 1.65) and IBS-outlet (F/M = 2.27) subtypes. The age pattern differed among each of the four subtypes. Prevalence of functional subtype decreased with increasing age. In contrast, outlet subtype did not seem to vary by age, and IBS (both men and women) and IBS-outlet (women only) subtypes increased to age 35 yr and declined thereafter. Prevalence of functional constipation increased with increasing education

  6. Clinical Evaluation of 168 Korean Patients with Rosacea: The Sun Exposure Correlates with the Erythematotelangiectatic Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Bae, You In; Yun, Sook-Jung; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Seong-Jin; Won, Young Ho

    2009-01-01

    Background Although rosacea is a chronic cutaneous inflammatory disorder that's commonly seen in adults, the etiology and pathogenesis of the illness remain unclear. A well established diagnostic classification and grading system may play a critical role in performing research and it would serve as a diagnostic reference in the clinical field. Objective We sought to classify the patients with the new standard classification and grading system and we wanted determine the peculiar features and relationships of each subtype. We also analyzed the relationships between the degree of sun exposure and each subtype. Methods We reviewed the medical records and clinical photos of 168 patients who were diagnosed with rosacea from 2002 to 2007 at our hospital. The standard classification and grading system suggested by the National Rosacea Society (NRS) Expert Committee was adopted to evaluate each patient's subtype and the severity. Results The male:female ratio was 1:2.29. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 47.8 years. The mean duration of disease was 3.5 years. Sun exposure and hot baths/exercise were the two most common precipitating factors, while the majority of patients did not have any specific factor that relieved their symptoms. According to the NRS classification and grading system, the patients were classified into four subtypes. One hundred sixty two (96.4%) patients were diagnosed with the erythematotelangiectatic subtype irrespective of severity. Eighty five (50.6%) patients had the papulopustular subtype and 24 (14.3%) patients had ocular rosacea. Eight (4.8%) patients displayed mild phymatous change. The degree of sun exposure had significant correlation with the development and severity of the erythematotelangiectatic subtype (p<0.05), while it had no correlation with the papulopustular, ocular and phymatous subtypes. Conclusion Although the erythematotelangiectatic subtype was the most common subtype of rosacea, many patients also had other subtypes

  7. Clinical Relevance of Microparticles from Platelets and Megakaryocytes

    PubMed Central

    Italiano, Joseph E.; Mairuhu, Albert T.A.; Flaumenhaft, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review Platelet microparticles were identified more than forty years ago and are the most abundant circulating microparticle subtype. Yet fundamental questions about their formation and role in human disease are just beginning to be understood at the cellular and molecular level. This review will address mechanisms of platelet microparticle generation and evaluate our current understanding of their clinical relevance. Recent findings New evidence indicates that the majority of CD41+ microparticles circulating in healthy individuals derive directly from megakaryocytes. CD41+ microparticles also form from activated platelets upon loss of cytoskeleton-membrane adhesion, which occurs in a multitude of disease states characterized by elevated platelet microparticle levels. More recent studies have demonstrated that platelet microparticles function as a transport and delivery system for bioactive molecules, participating in hemostasis and thrombosis, inflammation, malignancy infection transfer, angiogenesis, and immunity. The mechanism of platelet microparticle participation in specific disease entities such as rheumatoid arthritis has been elucidated. Summary Continued research into how platelet microparticles are generated and function as a transcellular delivery system will advance our basic understanding of microparticle physiology and may enable new strategies for treatment of select disease entities. PMID:20739880

  8. Association of candidate gene polymorphisms with clinical subtypes of preterm birth in a Latin American population.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Lucas G; Momany, Allison M; Poletta, Fernando A; Krupitzki, Hugo B; Gili, Juan A; Busch, Tamara D; Saleme, Cesar; Cosentino, Viviana R; Pawluk, Mariela S; Campaña, Hebe; Gadow, Enrique C; Murray, Jeffrey C; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S

    2017-09-01

    BackgroundPreterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. PTB is often classified according to clinical presentation as follows: idiopathic (PTB-I), preterm premature rupture of membranes (PTB-PPROM), and medically induced (PTB-M). The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between specific candidate genes and clinical subtypes of PTB.MethodsTwenty-four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 18 candidate genes in 709 infant triads. Of them, 243 were PTB-I, 256 were PTB-PPROM, and 210 were PTB-M. These data were analyzed with a Family-Based Association.ResultsPTB was nominally associated with rs2272365 in PON1, rs883319 in KCNN3, rs4458044 in CRHR1, and rs610277 in F3. Regarding clinical subtypes analysis, three SNPs were associated with PTB-I (rs2272365 in PON1, rs10178458 in COL4A3, and rs4458044 in CRHR1), rs610277 in F3 was associated with PTB-PPROM, and rs883319 in KCNN3 and rs610277 in F3 were associated with PTB-M.ConclusionOur study identified polymorphisms potentially associated with specific clinical subtypes of PTB in this Latin American population. These results could suggest a specific role of such genes in the mechanisms involved in each clinical subtype. Further studies are required to confirm our results and to determine the role of these genes in the pathophysiology of clinical subtypes.

  9. Clinically relevant diaphragmatic dysfunction after cardiac operations.

    PubMed

    Diehl, J L; Lofaso, F; Deleuze, P; Similowski, T; Lemaire, F; Brochard, L

    1994-02-01

    Phrenic nerve injury and diaphragmatic dysfunction can be induced by cardiac operation. The clinical consequences are not well-established. We evaluated 13 consecutive patients over a 2-year period with unexplained and prolonged difficulties in weaning from mechanical ventilation. The mean time of measurement from the operation day was 31 +/- 19 days (range 8 to 78). With the same technique we also evaluated 12 control patients: four patients at day 1 after cardiac operation while they were still intubated; four normally convalescing patients at day 7 or 8 after cardiac operation; and four patients who required prolonged mechanical ventilation because of another identified cause after cardiac operation. Diaphragmatic function was evaluated at the bedside from esophageal and gastric pressure measurements. A low or negative ratio of gastric pressure swing to transdiaphragmatic pressure swing, indicative of diaphragm dysfunction, was found in all 13 patients (mean -0.39 +/- 0.64). The difference between the 13 patients and all control groups was found to be highly significant. Transdiaphragmatic pressure measured during a maximal voluntary inspiratory effort and transdiaphragmatic pressure measured during a short, sharp sniff were markedly diminished (28 +/- 18 cm H2O and 13 +/- 15 cm H2O, respectively) in the 13 patients, significantly different from values in the four control patients studied at day 7 or 8. Transdiaphragmatic pressure measured after magnetic stimulation in four patients was also markedly reduced (7 +/- 5 cm H2O) as compared with normal theoretic values. Aminophylline infusion had no effect on any of these parameters. In one of two patients evaluated a second time, about 5 weeks later, a marked improvement was observed. Estimating the prevalence of clinically relevant diaphragmatic dysfunction, we found it to be 0.5% when no topical cooling was used and 2.1% when iced slush with no insulation pad was added for myocardial protection (p < 0.005). The

  10. Delirium clinical motor subtypes: a narrative review of the literature and insights from neurobiology.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, James M

    2017-04-10

    Clinical motor subtypes have been long recognised in delirium and, despite a growing body of research, a lack of clarity exists regarding the importance of these motor subtypes. The aims of this review are to (1) examine how the concept of motor subtypes has evolved, (2) explore their relationship to the clinical context, (3) discuss the relationship between the phenomenology of delirium and motor activity, (4) discuss the application of neurobiology to the theory of delirium motor subtypes, and (5) identify methodological issues and provide solutions for further studies. The following databases were searched: PubMed, PsychInfo, EBSCO, Medline, BioMed central and Science Direct. Inclusion criteria specified peer-reviewed research assessing delirium motor subtypes published between 1990 and 2016. Sixty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies (n = 50) were found to use validated psychometric tools, while the remainder (n = 11) used clinical criteria. The majority of studies (n = 45) were conducted in the medical setting, while the remainder were in the ICU/post-operative setting (n = 17). Although host sensitivities (e.g. frailty) and exogenous factors (e.g. medication exposure) may determine the type of motor disturbance, it remains unclear to what extent motor subtypes are influenced by other features of delirium. The use of more specialised tools (e.g. delirium motor subtyping scale), may enable researchers to develop an approach to delirium that has a greater nosological consistency. Future studies investigating delirium motor subtypes may benefit from enhanced theoretical considerations of the dysfunctional neural substrate of the delirious state.

  11. Clinical implications of the molecular subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hill, Brian T; Sweetenham, John

    2012-05-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of lymphoma and responds to standard treatment with chemoimmunotherapy in most patients. Standard prognostic scoring systems such as the International Prognostic Index (IPI) are useful for risk stratification, but are unreliable in predicting outcomes in individual patients because of the biologic heterogeneity of this disease. Gene expression profiling has revealed molecular subtypes of DLBCL: those derived from the lymph node germinal center (GCB) and others derived from an activated B-cell (ABC). A third entity, primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (unclassifiable DLBCL), displays pathobiologic features distinct from ABC and GCB subtypes. Patients with ABC-DLBCL have inferior progression-free survival and overall survival relative to those with the GCB subtype. In conclusion, molecular subtyping is a powerful tool for discriminating cases of DLBCL into groups that display very disparate biology and clinical outcomes. Although immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based algorithms predict both the molecular subtype as defined by gene expression profiling and clinical outcomes with reasonable concordance, not all experienced centers have been able to reproduce these findings. As techniques to subclassify DLBCL become universally adopted, large prospective trials will be needed to confirm the benefit of therapy tailored to molecular subtype.

  12. Clinical characteristics of parkinsonism in frontotemporal dementia according to subtypes.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Kyung; Park, Kee Hyung; Yoon, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hong; Choi, Seong Hye; Joung, Jee H; Yoon, Soo Jin; Kim, Byeong C; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Eun-Joo; Na, Duk L; Park, Kyung Won

    2017-01-15

    We investigated the prevalence of parkinsonism in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) subtypes and the cognitive and behavioral differences between FTD with and without parkinsonism in a well-structured, prospective cohort. One hundred and ninety-one FTD patients were enrolled and all patients underwent comprehensive neurological evaluations, neuropsychological tests, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. The prevalence of parkinsonism was 38.7% (74 patients), and included 33 (46.5%) behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD), 16 (24.2%) semantic dementia (SD), 19 (45.2%) progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), and 6 (50%) FTD associated with motor neuron disease (FTD-MND). SD patients with parkinsonism had higher CDR sum of boxes scores (9.7±4.5 vs 6.2±4.5, p=0.024), frontal behavioral inventory total score (33.7±20.5 vs 24.3±14.5, p=0.045), and executive function score of frontal executive dysfunction, disinhibition, and apathy (28.9±13.7 vs 19.2±12.9, p=0.021) than those without parkinsonism. Seoul Instrumental Activities of Daily Living score (bvFTD: 23.5±11.7 vs 17.3±11.3, p=0.031, SD: 23.1±11.1 vs 11.3±9.3, p=0.005) was higher for bvFTD and SD with parkinsonism than for those without parkinsonism. Parkinsonism is found to be more common in patients with bvFTD, PNFA, and FTD-MND patients than those with SD. Behavioral disturbances were more prominent in SD with parkinsonism than without. Additional studies are needed to determine the pathomechanism and optimal treatment of parkinsonism in different FTD subtypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III Subtypes of Opioid Dependence: Validity and Matching to Behavioral Therapies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Samuel A.; Nich, Charla; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Eagan, Dorothy; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    The concurrent and predictive validity of 2 different methods of Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III subtyping (protocol sorting, cluster analysis) was evaluated in 125 recently detoxified opioid-dependent outpatients in a 12-week randomized clinical trial. Participants received naltrexone and relapse prevention group counseling and were…

  14. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III Subtypes of Opioid Dependence: Validity and Matching to Behavioral Therapies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Samuel A.; Nich, Charla; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Eagan, Dorothy; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    The concurrent and predictive validity of 2 different methods of Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III subtyping (protocol sorting, cluster analysis) was evaluated in 125 recently detoxified opioid-dependent outpatients in a 12-week randomized clinical trial. Participants received naltrexone and relapse prevention group counseling and were…

  15. Distribution and clinical manifestations of Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in HIV/AIDS patients in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Adamu, Haileeyesus; Petros, Beyene; Zhang, Guoqing; Kassa, Hailu; Amer, Said; Ye, Jianbin; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is an important cause for chronic diarrhea and death in HIV/AIDS patients. Among common Cryptosporidium species in humans, C. parvum is responsible for most zoonotic infections in industrialized nations. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of C. parvum and role of zoonotic transmission in cryptosporidiosis epidemiology in developing countries remain unclear. In this cross-sectional study, 520 HIV/AIDS patients were examined for Cryptosporidium presence in stool samples using genotyping and subtyping techniques. Altogether, 140 (26.9%) patients were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. by PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene, belonging to C. parvum (92 patients), C. hominis (25 patients), C. viatorum (10 patients), C. felis (5 patients), C. meleagridis (3 patients), C. canis (2 patients), C. xiaoi (2 patients), and mixture of C. parvum and C. hominis (1 patient). Sequence analyses of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene revealed a high genetic diversity within the 82 C. parvum and 19 C. hominis specimens subtyped, including C. parvum zoonotic subtype families IIa (71) and IId (5) and anthroponotic subtype families IIc (2), IIb (1), IIe (1) and If-like (2), and C. hominis subtype families Id (13), Ie (5), and Ib (1). Overall, Cryptosporidium infection was associated with the occurrence of diarrhea and vomiting. Diarrhea was attributable mostly to C. parvum subtype family IIa and C. hominis, whereas vomiting was largely attributable to C. hominis and rare Cryptosporidium species. Calf contact was identified as a significant risk factor for infection with Cryptosporidium spp., especially C. parvum subtype family IIa. Results of the study indicate that C. parvum is a major cause of cryptosporidiosis in HIV-positive patients and zoonotic transmission is important in cryptosporidiosis epidemiology in Ethiopia. In addition, they confirm that different Cryptosporidium species and subtypes are linked to different clinical manifestations.

  16. Clinical subtypes and genetic heterogeneity: of lumping and splitting in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    von Coelln, Rainer; Shulman, Lisa M

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies on clinical, genetic and pathological heterogeneity of Parkinson disease have renewed the old debate whether we should think of Parkinson disease as one disease with variations, or as a group of independent diseases that happen to present with similar phenotypes. Here, we provide an overview of where the debate is coming from, and how recent findings in clinical subtyping, genetics and clinico-pathological correlation have shaped this controversy over the last few years. New and innovative clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson disease have been proposed and await validation. Studies using functional imaging or wearable biosensors, as well as biomarker studies, provide new support for the validity of the traditional clinical subtypes of Parkinson disease (tremor-dominant versus akinetic-rigid or postural instability/gait difficulty). A recent cluster analysis (as unbiased data-driven approach to subtyping) included a wide spectrum of nonmotor variables, and showed correlation of the proposed subtypes with disease progression in a longitudinal analysis. New genetic factors contributing to Parkinson disease susceptibility continue to be identified, including rare mutations causing monogenetic disease, common variants with small effect size and risk factors (like mutations in the gene for glucocerebrosidase) that fall in between the two other categories. Recent studies show some limited correlation between genetic factors and clinical heterogeneity. Despite some variations in patterns of pathology, Lewy bodies are still the hallmark of Parkinson disease, including the vast majority of genetic subgroups. Evidence of clinical, genetic and pathological heterogeneity of Parkinson disease continues to emerge, but clearly defined subtypes that hold up in more than one of these domains remain elusive. For research to identify such subtypes, splitting is likely the way forward; until then, for clinical practice, lumping remains the more pragmatic approach.

  17. Clinical manifestations of geriatric depression in a memory clinic: toward a proposed subtyping of geriatric depression.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Carol; Machnicki, Gerardo; Serrano, Cecilia M; Rojas, Galeno; Vazquez, Gustavo; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2011-11-01

    As the older population increases so does the number of older psychiatric patients. Elderly psychiatric patients manifest certain specific and unique characteristics. Different subtypes of depressive syndromes exist in late-life depression, and many of these are associated with cognitive impairment. A total of 109 depressive patients and 30 normal subjects matched by age and educational level were evaluated using a neuropsychiatric interview and an extensive neuropsychological battery. Depressive patients were classified into four different groups by SCAN 2.1 (schedules for clinical assessment in Neuropsychiatry): major depression disorder (n: 34), dysthymia disorder (n: 29), subsyndromal depression (n: 28), and depression due to mild dementia of Alzheimer's type (n: 18). We found significant associations (p<.05) between depressive status and demographic or clinical factors that include marital status (OR: 3.4, CI: 1.2-9.6), level of daily activity (OR: 5.3, CI: 2-14), heart disease (OR: 12.5, CI: 1.6-96.3), and high blood cholesterol levels (p:.032). Neuropsychological differences were observed among the four depressive groups and also between depressive patients and controls. Significant differences were observed in daily life activities and caregivers' burden between depressive patients and normal subjects. Geriatric depression is associated with heart disease, high cholesterol blood levels, marital status, and daily inactivity. Different subtypes of geriatric depression have particular clinical features, such as cognitive profiles, daily life activities, and caregivers' burden, that can help to differentiate among them. The cohort referred to a memory clinic with memory complaints is a biased sample, and the results cannot be generalized to other non-memory symptomatic cohorts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Clinical relevance of cerebral microbleeds--update].

    PubMed

    Yakushjii, Yusuke; Tanaka, Jun; Hara, Hideo

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) on paramagnetic-sensitive magnetic resonance sequences correspond pathologically to clusters of hemosiderin-laden macrophages and have emerged as an important new imaging marker of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), including intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The prevalence of CMBs varies according to the specific disease settings (stroke subtypes and demented disorders) and is highest in ICH patients. The associations of CMBs with aging, hypertension and apolipoprotein E genotype are consistent with the two major underlying pathogenesis of CMBs: hypertensive arteriopathy and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The distributional patterns of CMBs might help us understand the predominant SVD pathogenesis of the brain; the strictly lobar type of CMBs often reflects the presence of advanced CAA, while the other types of CMBs, such as "deep or infratentorial CMBs", including the mixed type, are strongly associated with hypertension.

  19. Endothelin receptor subtypes and their functional relevance in human small coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Lisa N; Davenport, Anthony P

    1998-01-01

    The potent constrictor peptide endothelin (ET) has been implicated in various cardiovascular disorders including myocardial infarction and atherosclerosis. We have investigated the nature of ET receptor subtypes present on human small coronary arteries.Small coronary arteries were mounted in a wire-myograph for in vitro pharmacology. To investigate the ET receptor subtypes present in different segments of the coronary vascular tree, arteries were grouped according to internal diameter. Responses in arteries with small internal diameters (mean 316.7±7.9 μm; Group B) were compared to those in larger arteries (mean 586.2±23.1 μm; Group A).ET-1 consistently and potently contracted arteries from Group A and B, with EC50 values of 1.7 (0.9–3.2) nM (n=15) and 2.3 (1.4–4.2) nM (n=14), respectively. No correlation was observed between ET-1 potency and internal diameter. The response to ET-1 was potently antagonized by the selective ETA receptor antagonist PD156707 in both Group A and Group B, yielding pA2 values of 8.60±0.12 (n=4–6) and 8.38±0.17 (n=4–6), respectively. Slopes from Schild regression were not significantly different from unity.In contrast to ET-1, individual responses to ET-3 were variable. While all arteries from Group A responded to ET-3 (EC50∼69 (23–210) nM) (n=12), no response was obtained in 5 of the 14 tested in Group B. Of those responding, many failed to reach a maximum at concentrations up to 1 μM. ET-1 was more potent than ET-3 in all arteries tested. A biphasic ET-3 response was observed in 8 arteries suggesting that a small ETB population was also present in some patients. The selective ETB receptor agonist sarafotoxin S6c had little or no effect up to 10 nM (n=4–6).Responses to ET-1 and ET-3 were unaffected by removal of the endothelium in arteries from both groups suggesting a lack of functional, relaxant ETB receptors on endothelial cells (n=5).Using autoradiography, specific high density binding of the non

  20. Clinical relevance of host immunity in breast cancer: from TILs to the clinic.

    PubMed

    Savas, Peter; Salgado, Roberto; Denkert, Carsten; Sotiriou, Christos; Darcy, Phillip K; Smyth, Mark J; Loi, Sherene

    2016-04-01

    The clinical relevance of the host immune system in breast cancer has long been unexplored. Studies developed over the past decade have highlighted the biological heterogeneity of breast cancer, prompting researchers to investigate whether the role of the immune system in this malignancy is similar across different molecular subtypes of the disease. The presence of high levels of lymphocytic infiltration has been consistently associated with a more-favourable prognosis in patients with early stage triple-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer. These infiltrates seem to reflect favourable host antitumour immune responses, suggesting that immune activation is important for improving survival outcomes. In this Review, we discuss the composition of the immune infiltrates observed in breast cancers, as well as data supporting the clinical relevance of host antitumour immunity, as represented by lymphocytic infiltration, and how this biomarker could be used in the clinical setting. We also discuss the rationale for enhancing immunity in breast cancer, including early data on the efficacy of T-cell checkpoint inhibition in this setting.

  1. MRI phenotype in renal cancer: is it clinically relevant?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Naomi; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2014-04-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is most commonly diagnosed as an incidental finding on cross-sectional imaging and represents a significant clinical challenge. Although most patients have a surgically curable lesion at the time of diagnosis, the variability in the biologic behavior of the different histologic subtypes and tumor grade of RCC, together with the increasing array of management options, creates uncertainty for the optimal clinical approach to individual patients. State-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a comprehensive assessment of renal lesions that includes multiple forms of tissue contrast as well as functional parameters, which in turn provides information that helps to address this dilemma. In this article, we review this evolving and increasingly comprehensive role of MRI in the detection, characterization, perioperative evaluation, and assessment of the treatment response of renal neoplasms. We emphasize the ability of the imaging "phenotype" of renal masses on MRI to help predict the histologic subtype, grade, and clinical behavior of RCC.

  2. CAsubtype: An R Package to Identify Gene Sets Predictive of Cancer Subtypes and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hualei; Tong, Pan; Zhao, Xiaodong; Sun, Jielin; Li, Hua

    2017-01-21

    In the past decade, molecular classification of cancer has gained high popularity owing to its high predictive power on clinical outcomes as compared with traditional methods commonly used in clinical practice. In particular, using gene expression profiles, recent studies have successfully identified a number of gene sets for the delineation of cancer subtypes that are associated with distinct prognosis. However, identification of such gene sets remains a laborious task due to the lack of tools with flexibility, integration and ease of use. To reduce the burden, we have developed an R package, CAsubtype, to efficiently identify gene sets predictive of cancer subtypes and clinical outcomes. By integrating more than 13,000 annotated gene sets, CAsubtype provides a comprehensive repertoire of candidates for new cancer subtype identification. For easy data access, CAsubtype further includes the gene expression and clinical data of more than 2000 cancer patients from TCGA. CAsubtype first employs principal component analysis to identify gene sets (from user-provided or package-integrated ones) with robust principal components representing significantly large variation between cancer samples. Based on these principal components, CAsubtype visualizes the sample distribution in low-dimensional space for better understanding of the distinction between samples and classifies samples into subgroups with prevalent clustering algorithms. Finally, CAsubtype performs survival analysis to compare the clinical outcomes between the identified subgroups, assessing their clinical value as potentially novel cancer subtypes. In conclusion, CAsubtype is a flexible and well-integrated tool in the R environment to identify gene sets for cancer subtype identification and clinical outcome prediction. Its simple R commands and comprehensive data sets enable efficient examination of the clinical value of any given gene set, thus facilitating hypothesis generating and testing in biological and

  3. Characterization of Rheumatoid Arthritis Subtypes Using Symptom Profiles, Clinical Chemistry and Metabolomics Measurements

    PubMed Central

    van der Kooij, Anita J.; Reijmers, Theo H.; Schroën, Yan; Wang, Mei; Xu, Zhiliang; Wang, Xinchang; Kong, Hongwei; Xu, Guowang; Hankemeier, Thomas; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; van der Greef, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim is to characterize subgroups or phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using a systems biology approach. The discovery of subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis patients is an essential research area for the improvement of response to therapy and the development of personalized medicine strategies. Methods In this study, 39 RA patients are phenotyped using clinical chemistry measurements, urine and plasma metabolomics analysis and symptom profiles. In addition, a Chinese medicine expert classified each RA patient as a Cold or Heat type according to Chinese medicine theory. Multivariate data analysis techniques are employed to detect and validate biochemical and symptom relationships with the classification. Results The questionnaire items ‘Red joints’, ‘Swollen joints’, ‘Warm joints’ suggest differences in the level of inflammation between the groups although c-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factor (RHF) levels were equal. Multivariate analysis of the urine metabolomics data revealed that the levels of 11 acylcarnitines were lower in the Cold RA than in the Heat RA patients, suggesting differences in muscle breakdown. Additionally, higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in Heat patients compared to Cold patients were found suggesting that the Cold RA group has a more suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Conclusion Significant and relevant biochemical differences are found between Cold and Heat RA patients. Differences in immune function, HPA axis involvement and muscle breakdown point towards opportunities to tailor disease management strategies to each of the subgroups RA patient. PMID:22984493

  4. [The relevance of clinical risk management].

    PubMed

    Gulino, Matteo; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Frati, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Medical activity includes a risk of possible injury or complications for the patients, that should drive the Health Care Institutions to introduce and/ or improve clinical Risk management instruments. Although Italy is still lacking a National project of Clinical Risk Management, a number of efforts have been made by different Italian Regions to introduce instruments of risk management. In addition, most of National Health Care Institutions include actually a Department specifically in charge to manage the clinical risk. Despite the practical difficulties, the results obtained until now suggest that the risk management may represent a useful instrument to contribute to the reduction of errors in clinical conduct. Indeed, the introduction of adequate instruments of prevention and management of clinical risk may help to ameliorate the quality of health care Institution services.

  5. Maternal and neonatal epidemiological features in clinical subtypes of preterm-birth

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Lucas G.; Krupitzki, Hugo B.; Momany, Allison M.; Gili, Juan A.; Poletta, Fernando A.; Campaña, Hebe; Cosentino, Viviana R.; Saleme, César; Pawluk, Mariela; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Gadow, Enrique C.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to characterize and compare the maternal and newborn epidemiological characteristics through analysis of environmental factors, socio-demographic characteristics, and clinical characteristics between the different clinical subtypes of preterm birth (PTB): Idiopathic (PTB-I), premature rupture of the membranes (PTB-PPROM) and medically indicated (PTB-M). The two subtypes PTB-I and PTB-PPROM grouped are called spontaneous preterm births (PTB-S). Methods A retrospective, observational study was conducted in 1.291 preterm non-malformed singleton live-born children to nulliparous and multiparous mother’s in Tucumán-Argentina between 2005 and 2010. Over 50 maternal variables and ten newborn variables were compared between the different clinical subtypes. The comparisons were done to identify heterogeneity between subtypes of preterm birth: (PTB-S) vs. (PTB-M), and within spontaneous subtype: (PTB-I) vs. (PTB-PPROM). In the same way, two conditional logistic multivariate regressions were used to compare the odds ratio (OR) between PTB-S and PTB-M, as well as PTB-I and PTB-PPROM. We matched for maternal age when comparing maternal variables and gestational age when comparing infant variables. Results The PTB-I subtype was characterized by younger mothers of lower socioeconomic status, PTB-PPROM was characterized by environmental factors resulting from inflammatory processes, and PTB-M was characterized by increased maternal or fetal risk pregnancies. Conclusions The main risk factor for PTB-I and PTB-M was having had a prior preterm delivery, however previous spontaneous abortion was not a risk factor, suggesting a reproductive selection mechanism. PMID:26701680

  6. Towards a brief definition of burnout syndrome by subtypes: Development of the "Burnout Clinical Subtypes Questionnaire" (BCSQ-12)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Burnout has traditionally been described by means of the dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism and lack of eficacy from the "Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey" (MBI-GS). The "Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire" (BCSQ-12), comprising the dimensions of overload, lack of development and neglect, is proposed as a brief means of identifying the different ways this disorder is manifested. The aim of the study is to test the construct and criterial validity of the BCSQ-12. Method A cross-sectional design was used on a multi-occupational sample of randomly selected university employees (n = 826). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on half of the sample using the maximum likelihood (ML) method with varimax orthogonal rotation, while confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed on the other half by means of the ML method. ROC curve analysis was preformed in order to assess the discriminatory capacity of BCSQ-12 when compared to MBI-GS. Cut-off points were proposed for the BCSQ-12 that optimized sensitivity and specificity. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were used to estimate effect size as an odds ratio (OR) adjusted for sociodemographic and occupational variables. Contrasts for sex and occupation were made using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis tests on the dimensions of both models. Results EFA offered a solution containing 3 factors with eigenvalues > 1, explaining 73.22% of variance. CFA presented the following indices: χ2 = 112.04 (p < 0.001), χ2/gl = 2.44, GFI = 0.958, AGFI = 0.929, RMSEA = 0.059, SRMR = 0.057, NFI = 0.958, NNFI = 0.963, IFI = 0.975, CFI = 0.974. The area under the ROC curve for 'overload' with respect to the 'exhaustion' was = 0.75 (95% CI = 0.71-0.79); it was = 0.80 (95% CI = 0.76-0.86) for 'lack of development' with respect to 'cynicism' and = 0.74 (95% CI = 0.70-0.78) for 'neglect' with respect to 'inefficacy'. The presence of 'overload' increased the likelihood of suffering from

  7. Predicting Subtype Selectivity for Adenosine Receptor Ligands with Three-Dimensional Biologically Relevant Spectrum (BRS-3D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Song-Bing; Ben Hu; Kuang, Zheng-Kun; Wang, Dong; Kong, De-Xin

    2016-11-01

    Adenosine receptors (ARs) are potential therapeutic targets for Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, pain, stroke and cancers. Prediction of subtype selectivity is therefore important from both therapeutic and mechanistic perspectives. In this paper, we introduced a shape similarity profile as molecular descriptor, namely three-dimensional biologically relevant spectrum (BRS-3D), for AR selectivity prediction. Pairwise regression and discrimination models were built with the support vector machine methods. The average determination coefficient (r2) of the regression models was 0.664 (for test sets). The 2B-3 (A2B vs A3) model performed best with q2 = 0.769 for training sets (10-fold cross-validation), and r2 = 0.766, RMSE = 0.828 for test sets. The models’ robustness and stability were validated with 100 times resampling and 500 times Y-randomization. We compared the performance of BRS-3D with 3D descriptors calculated by MOE. BRS-3D performed as good as, or better than, MOE 3D descriptors. The performances of the discrimination models were also encouraging, with average accuracy (ACC) 0.912 and MCC 0.792 (test set). The 2A-3 (A2A vs A3) selectivity discrimination model (ACC = 0.882 and MCC = 0.715 for test set) outperformed an earlier reported one (ACC = 0.784). These results demonstrated that, through multiple conformation encoding, BRS-3D can be used as an effective molecular descriptor for AR subtype selectivity prediction.

  8. Predicting Subtype Selectivity for Adenosine Receptor Ligands with Three-Dimensional Biologically Relevant Spectrum (BRS-3D)

    PubMed Central

    He, Song-Bing; Ben Hu; Kuang, Zheng-Kun; Wang, Dong; Kong, De-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine receptors (ARs) are potential therapeutic targets for Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, pain, stroke and cancers. Prediction of subtype selectivity is therefore important from both therapeutic and mechanistic perspectives. In this paper, we introduced a shape similarity profile as molecular descriptor, namely three-dimensional biologically relevant spectrum (BRS-3D), for AR selectivity prediction. Pairwise regression and discrimination models were built with the support vector machine methods. The average determination coefficient (r2) of the regression models was 0.664 (for test sets). The 2B-3 (A2B vs A3) model performed best with q2 = 0.769 for training sets (10-fold cross-validation), and r2 = 0.766, RMSE = 0.828 for test sets. The models’ robustness and stability were validated with 100 times resampling and 500 times Y-randomization. We compared the performance of BRS-3D with 3D descriptors calculated by MOE. BRS-3D performed as good as, or better than, MOE 3D descriptors. The performances of the discrimination models were also encouraging, with average accuracy (ACC) 0.912 and MCC 0.792 (test set). The 2A-3 (A2A vs A3) selectivity discrimination model (ACC = 0.882 and MCC = 0.715 for test set) outperformed an earlier reported one (ACC = 0.784). These results demonstrated that, through multiple conformation encoding, BRS-3D can be used as an effective molecular descriptor for AR subtype selectivity prediction. PMID:27812030

  9. Identification of clinically relevant Trichosporon species.

    PubMed

    Middelhoven, W J

    2003-02-01

    A dichotomous identification key to pathogenic species of the basisiomycetous genus Trichosporon Behrend is provided. It is based on growth tests with carbon sources not traditionally used in yeast taxonomy, viz. uric acid, ethylamine, L-4-hydroxyproline, tyramine and L-phenylalanine as sources of carbon and nitrogen, and polygalacturonate, quinate, 4-ethylphenol, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate and orcinol as sole carbon sources. Of the standard growth tests, assimilation of L-rhamnose and the maximum growth temperature proved to be useful. In addition to medically relevant species, other species able to grow at 37 degrees C were treated as well.

  10. Emotion Modulation in PTSD: Clinical and Neurobiological Evidence for a Dissociative Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Lanius, Ruth A.; Vermetten, Eric; Loewenstein, Richard J.; Brand, Bethany; Schmahl, Christian; Bremner, J. Douglas; Spiegel, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors present evidence regarding a dissociative subtype of PTSD, with clinical and neurobiological features that can be distinguished from nondissociative PTSD. The dissociative subtype is characterized by overmodulation of affect, while the more common undermodulated type involves the predominance of reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms. This article focuses on the neural manifestations of the dissociative subtype in PTSD and compares it to those underlying the reexperiencing/hyperaroused subtype. A model that includes these two types of emotion dysregulation in PTSD is described. In this model, reexperiencing/hyperarousal reactivity is viewed as a form of emotion dysregulation that involves emotional undermodulation, mediated by failure of prefrontal inhibition of limbic regions. In contrast, the dissociative subtype of PTSD is described as a form of emotion dysregulation that involves emotional overmodulation mediated by midline prefrontal inhibition of the same limbic regions. Both types of modulation are involved in a dynamic interplay and lead to alternating symptom profiles in PTSD. These findings have important implications for treatment of PTSD, including the need to assess patients with PTSD for dissociative symptoms and to incorporate the treatment of dissociative symptoms into stage-oriented trauma treatment. PMID:20360318

  11. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics of thienopyridines: clinically relevant?

    PubMed

    Close, Sandra L

    2012-02-01

    Pharmacogenetics have been touted as the future of personalized medicine where genetic biomarkers will guide therapeutic approach. The currently approved thienopyridines, prasugrel and clopidogrel, are prodrugs requiring conversion to active metabolite through the cytochrome P450 system. Genetic variation has been associated with the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and clinical response to clopidogrel, but not to prasugrel. This review aims to summarize the recent pharmacogenetic findings associated with the response to thienopyridine treatment. Additionally, considerations for the incorporation of genetic biomarkers into clinical practice will be discussed in the context of thienopyridines. © 2011 The Author Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  12. DENDRITIC CELLS: ARE THEY CLINICALLY RELEVANT?

    PubMed Central

    Palucka, Karolina; Ueno, Hideki; Roberts, Lee; Fay, Joseph; Banchereau, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Cancer vaccines have undergone a renaissance due to recent clinical trials showing promising immunological data and some clinical benefit to patients. Current trials exploiting dendritic cells (DCs) as vaccines have shown durable tumor regressions in a fraction of patients. Clinical efficacy of current vaccines is hampered by myeloid-derived suppressor cells, inflammatory type 2 T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), all of which prevent the generation of effector cells. To improve the clinical efficacy of DC vaccines, we need to design novel and improved strategies that can boost adaptive immunity to cancer, help overcome Tregs and allow the breakdown of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. This can be achieved by exploiting the fast increasing knowledge about the DC system, including the existence of distinct DC subsets. Critical to the design of better vaccines is the concept of distinct DC subsets and distinct DC activation pathways, all contributing to the generation of unique adaptive immune responses. Such novel DC vaccines will be used as monotherapy in patients with resected disease and in combination with antibodies and/or drugs targeting suppressor pathways and modulation of the tumor environment in patients with metastatic disease. PMID:20693842

  13. Clinical Relevance of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Frijhoff, Jeroen; Winyard, Paul G.; Zarkovic, Neven; Davies, Sean S.; Stocker, Roland; Cheng, David; Knight, Annie R.; Taylor, Emma Louise; Oettrich, Jeannette; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Gasparovic, Ana Cipak; Cuadrado, Antonio; Weber, Daniela; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Grune, Tilman; Schmidt, Harald H.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress is considered to be an important component of various diseases. A vast number of methods have been developed and used in virtually all diseases to measure the extent and nature of oxidative stress, ranging from oxidation of DNA to proteins, lipids, and free amino acids. Recent Advances: An increased understanding of the biology behind diseases and redox biology has led to more specific and sensitive tools to measure oxidative stress markers, which are very diverse and sometimes very low in abundance. Critical Issues: The literature is very heterogeneous. It is often difficult to draw general conclusions on the significance of oxidative stress biomarkers, as only in a limited proportion of diseases have a range of different biomarkers been used, and different biomarkers have been used to study different diseases. In addition, biomarkers are often measured using nonspecific methods, while specific methodologies are often too sophisticated or laborious for routine clinical use. Future Directions: Several markers of oxidative stress still represent a viable biomarker opportunity for clinical use. However, positive findings with currently used biomarkers still need to be validated in larger sample sizes and compared with current clinical standards to establish them as clinical diagnostics. It is important to realize that oxidative stress is a nuanced phenomenon that is difficult to characterize, and one biomarker is not necessarily better than others. The vast diversity in oxidative stress between diseases and conditions has to be taken into account when selecting the most appropriate biomarker. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 1144–1170. PMID:26415143

  14. Locus heterogeneity for Waardenburg syndrome is predictive of clinical subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Farrer, L.A.; Hoth, C.; Arnos, K.S.; Asher, J.H. Jr.; Friedman, T.B.; Grundfast, K.M.; Lalwani, A.K.; Greenberg, J.; Diehl, S.R.

    1994-10-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a dominantly inherited and clinically variable syndrome of deafness, pigmentary changes, and distinctive facial features. Clinically, WS type I (WS1) is differentiated from WS type II (WS2) by the high frequency of dystopia canthorum in the family. In some families, WS is caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene on chromosome 2q. We have typed microsatellite markers within and flanking PAX3 in 41 WS1 kindreds and 26 WS2 kindreds in order to estimate the proportion of families with probable mutations in PAX3 and to study the relationship between phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. Evaluation of heterogeneity in location scores obtained by multilocus analysis indicated that WS is linked to PAX3 in 60% of all WS families and in 100% of WS1 families. None of the WS2 families were linked. In those families in which equivocal lod scores (between -2 and +1) were found, PAX3 mutations have been identified in 5 of the 15 WS1 families but in none of the 4 WS2 families. Although preliminary studies do not suggest any association between the phenotype and the molecular pathology in 20 families with known PAX3 mutations and in four patients with chromosomal abnormalities in the vicinity of PAX3, the presence of dystopia in multiple family members is a reliable indicator for identifying families likely to have a defect in PAX3. 59 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Locus Heterogeneity for Waardenburg Syndrome is Predictive of Clinical Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, Lindsay A.; Arnos, Kathleen S.; Asher, James H.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Diehl, Scott R.; Friedman, Thomas B.; Greenberg, Jacquie; Grundfast, Kenneth M.; Hoth, Christopher; Lalwani, Anil K.; Landa, Barbara; Leverton, Kate; Milunsky, Aubrey; Morell, Robert; Nance, Walter E.; Newton, Valerie; Ramesar, Rajkumar; Rao, Valluri S.; Reynolds, Jennifer E.; Agustin, Theresa B. San; Wilcox, Edward R.; Winship, Ingrid; Read, Andrew P.

    1994-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a dominantly inherited and clinically variable syndrome of deafness, pigmentary changes, and distinctive facial features. Clinically, WS type I (WS1) is differentiated from WS type II (WS2) by the high frequency of dystopia canthorum in the family. In some families, WS is caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene on chromosome 2q. We have typed microsatellite markers within and flanking PAX3 in 41 WS1 kindreds and 26 WS2 kindreds in order to estimate the proportion of families with probable mutations in PAX3 and to study the relationship between phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. Evaluation of heterogeneity in location scores obtained by multilocus analysis indicated that WS is linked to PAX3 in 60% of all WS families and in 100% of WS1 families. None of the WS2 families were linked. In those families in which equivocal lod scores (between −2 and +1) were found, PAX3 mutations have been identified in 5 of the 15 WS1 families but in none of the 4 WS2 families. Although preliminary studies do not suggest any association between the phenotype and the molecular pathology in 20 families with known PAX3 mutations and in four patients with chromosomal abnormalities in the vicinity of PAX3, the presence of dystopia in multiple family members is a reliable indicator for identifying families likely to have a defect in PAX3. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7942851

  16. Engineering clinically relevant volumes of vascularized bone

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Brianna M; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Brey, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Vascularization remains one of the most important challenges that must be overcome for tissue engineering to be consistently implemented for reconstruction of large volume bone defects. An extensive vascular network is needed for transport of nutrients, waste and progenitor cells required for remodelling and repair. A variety of tissue engineering strategies have been investigated in an attempt to vascularize tissues, including those applying cells, soluble factor delivery strategies, novel design and optimization of bio-active materials, vascular assembly pre-implantation and surgical techniques. However, many of these strategies face substantial barriers that must be overcome prior to their ultimate translation into clinical application. In this review recent progress in engineering vascularized bone will be presented with an emphasis on clinical feasibility. PMID:25877690

  17. Transitional Hemodynamics in Preterm Neonates: Clinical Relevance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tai-Wei; Azhibekov, Timur; Seri, Istvan

    2016-02-01

    Each newborn enters this world facing tremendous respiratory, hemodynamic and neuroendocrine challenges while going through drastic physiological changes during the process of adaption from fetal to postnatal life. Even though the vast majority of term infants transition smoothly without apparent consequences, this task becomes increasingly arduous for the extremely preterm infant. This article reviews the physiology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular adaptation of the very preterm neonate. In particular it describes the physiology of fetal circulation, summarizes the hemodynamic changes occurring during preterm births and discusses the impact of the most frequently seen clinical scenarios that place additional burden on the premature infant during immediate transition. Finally an emphasis is placed on discussing common clinical dilemmas and practical aspects of developmental hemodynamics such as neonatal hypotension and patent ductus arteriosus; clinical presentations the neonatologist encounters on a daily basis. The review provides a physiology-based view on the hemodynamics of the immediate postnatal transitional period. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. [Breast cancer brain metastases: clinical and prognostic characteristics of different biological subtypes].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tongtong; Li, Qing; Xu, Binghe; Zhang, Pin; Yuan, Peng; Ma, Fei; Wang, Jiayu; Fan, Ying

    2014-09-01

    To analyze the clinical characteristics and survival depending on biological subtypes in breast cancer patients with brain metastases (BM). A retrospective analysis was performed on 152 breast cancer patients with BM admitted to the Cancer Institute & Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 2003 to December 2012. Depending on the biological characteristics, these patients were divided into three subtypes: Luminal, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-overexpressing, and triple-negative subtypes. The clinicopathological characteristics, recurrence status, and prognostic factors were analyzed at the initial diagnosis. The systemic therapy after BM was further studied. Among the 152 patients, the number of Luminal, HER-2-overexpressing, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes were 60, 53, and 39 cases, respectively. The median time from first recurrence to BM of all patients was 7.3 months, the median time of Luminal, HER-2-overexpressing, and TNBC subtypes was 11.0 months, 9.6 months, and 5.5 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Compared with the TNBC subtype, BM occurred later in the HER-2-overexpressing subtype (P < 0.001). In the HER-2-overexpressing subtype, trastuzumab could delay the occurrence of BM in advanced breast cancer patients (17.1 vs. 1.7 months, P < 0.001, 95%CI 5.21-13.98). The median time of overall survival (OS) in the whole group was 56.5 months (7.5-240.2 months, 95%CI 52.6-60.4). The median survival time of Luminal, HER-2-overexpressing and TNBC subtypes was 70.9 months, 53.9 months, and 40.9 months, respectively (P = 0.013). The median survival time of after BM was 11.5 months in the whole group, and the median survival time of Luminal, HER-2-overexpressing and TNBC subtypes was 11.2 months, 12.7 months, and 11.6 months, respectively, with a difference of no statistical significance. Compared with non-BM as the first site, the patients with BM as the first site had a longer survival (14.8 months vs. 8

  19. [Detection of circulating tumor cells and its clinical value for different stages and various subtypes of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Shaohua; Wang, Tao; Bian, Li; Wu, Shikai; Song, Santai; Liu, Bing; Jiang, Zefei

    2014-09-30

    To explore the prognostic value of applying a semi-automated detection system for detecting circulating tumor cells (CTC) for different stages and various subtypes of breast cancer. Immunomagnetic separation and immunofluorescent staining were employed to detect the expressions of CTC and CTC HER-2. Chi-square test, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the correlations between CTC and clinical characteristics. CTC was detected in 57.5% (138/240) of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). CTC enumeration, HER-2 status, number of metastasis and bone metastasis were relevant (P < 0.05). CTC was detected in 23.1% (6/26) of early-stage breast cancer (EBC). CTC enumeration, pathological type, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Ki-67, tumor size and lymph node metastasis were irrelevant (P > 0.05). HER-2-positive MBC detected less CTC than HER-2-negative (χ(2) = 12.296, P < 0.001) . CTC HER-2 expression was different between HER-2-positive and negative patients in 99 MBC cases (χ(2) = 8.082, P = 0.004). CTC enumeration is different for various stages and different subtypes of breast cancer. CTC enumeration and bone metastasis are relevant. CTC detection in EBC may predict tumor relapse. And CTC HER-2 expression is different between HER-2-positive and negative MBC patients.

  20. [Fragmented QRS. Relevance in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Steger, Alexander; Sinnecker, Daniel; Berkefeld, Anna; Müller, Alexander; Gebhardt, Josef; Dommasch, Michael; Huster, Katharina M; Barthel, Petra; Schmidt, Georg

    2015-09-01

    The QRS complex represents the electrical depolarization of ventricular myocardium. In the case of an undisturbed depolarization, the QRS complex has a normal configuration and duration, but abnormal electrical conduction leads to widening of the QRS complex. The block of one of the Tawara branches results in a typical bundle branch block pattern. A QRS complex that cannot be classified as bundle branch block due to an atypical configuration and contains notched R or S waves is called a fragmented QRS. The underlying pathophysiologies are manifold and include myocardial scars induced by ischemic heart disease, myocardial fibrosis due to other diseases, primary cardiac pathologies as well as systemic diseases with cardiac involvement. Pathologies on the cellular level, such as ion channel dysfunctions, also correlate with fragmented QRS. Besides the diagnostic relevance, fragmented QRS is known to have prognostic properties, for example in identifying high risk patients with coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, Brugada syndrome and acquired long QT syndrome; however, fragmented QRS may also be detected in ECGs of healthy individuals.

  1. Clinical Relevance Of Systematic CRT Device Optimization.

    PubMed

    Lunati, Maurizio; Magenta, Giovanni; Cattafi, Giuseppe; Moreo, Antonella; Falaschi, Giacomo; Contardi, Danilo; Locati, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) is known as a highly effective therapy in advanced heart failure patients with cardiac dyssynchrony. However, still one third of patients do not respond (or sub-optimally respond) to CRT. Among the many contributors for the high rate of non-responders, the lack of procedures dedicated to CRT device settings optimization (parameters to regulate AV synchrony and VV synchrony) is known as one of the most frequent. The most recent HF/CRT Guidelines do not recommend to carry-out optimization procedures in every CRT patient; they simply state those procedures "could be useful in selected patients", even though their role in improving response has not been proven. Echocardiography techniques still remain the gold-standard reference method to the purpose of CRT settings optimization. However, due to its severe limitations in the routine of CRT patients management (time and resource consuming, scarce reproducibility, inter and intra-operator dependency), echocardiography optimization is widely under-utilized in the real-world of CRT follow-up visits. As a consequence, device-based techniques have been developed to by-pass the need for repeated echo examinations to optimize CRT settings. In this report the available device-based optimization techniques onboard on CRT devices are shortly reviewed, with a specific focus on clinical outcomes observed in trials comparing these methods vs. clinical practice or echo-guided optimization methods. Particular emphasis is dedicated to hemodynamic methods and automaticity of optimization algorithms (making real the concept of "ambulatory CRT optimization"). In fact a hemodynamic-based approach combined with a concept of frequent re-optimization has been associated - although retrospectively - with a better clinical outcome on the long-term follow-up of CRT patients. Large randomized trials are ongoing to prospectively clarify the impact of automatic optimization procedures.

  2. Comprehensive characterization of cancer subtype associated long non-coding RNAs and their clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weihong; Luo, Jiancheng; Jiao, Shunchang

    2014-10-13

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a kind of RNAs with regulation that participate fundamental cellular processes via diverse mechanisms. Despite the potential importance of lncRNAs in multiple kinds of cancer has been well studied, no comprehensive survey of cancer subtype associated lncRNAs. Here, we performed an array-based transcriptional survey of lncRNAs across 150 lung cancer samples comprising both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, and 306 breast cancer patients with clear clinical information. In lung cancer, 72 lncRNAs are identified to be associated with tumor subtypes and their functions as well as the associated proteins are predicted by constructing coding-non-coding co-expression network. The results suggest that they are mostly related with epidermis development, cell adhesion and response to stimulus. The validation results show the high concordance and confirmed the robust of the identification results. In breast cancer, we found 3 lncRNA genes are associated with estrogen receptor α (ER) positive and ER negative subtypes and tumor histologic grade. Survival (Kaplan-Meier) analysis results suggest that the expression pattern of the 3 lncRNAs is significantly correlated with clinical outcomes. The current study provides the first large-scale survey of lncRNAs within cancer subtypes, and may offer new targets for their diagnosis, therapy and prognosis.

  3. Panic disorder among Vietnamese refugees attending a psychiatric clinic: Prevalence and subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Devon; Chau, Ha; Nguyen, Lim; Nguyen, Mai; Pham, Thang; Quinn, Sarah; Tran, Minh

    2009-01-01

    This study surveys Vietnamese refugees attending two psychiatric clinics to determine both the prevalence of panic disorder (PD) as well as panic attack subtypes in those suffering PD. A culturally valid adaptation of the SCID-panic module (the Vietnamese Panic Disorder Survey or VPDS) was administered to 100 Vietnamese refugees attending two psychiatric clinics. Utilizing culturally sensitive panic probes, the VPDS provides information regarding both the presence of PD and panic attack subtypes during the month prior to interview. Of 100 patients surveyed, 50 (50%) currently suffered PD. Among the 50 patients suffering PD, the most common panic attack subtypes during the previous month were the following: “orthostatic dizziness” (74% of the 50 panic disorder patients [PDPs]), headache (50% of PDPs), wind-induced/temperature-shift-induced (24% of PDPs), effort-induced (18% of PDPs), gastro-intestinal (16% of PDPs), micturition-induced (8% of PDPs), out-of-the-blue palpitations (24% of PDPs), and out-of-the-blue shortness of breath (16% of PDPs). Five mechanisms are adduced to account for this high PD prevalence as well as the specific profile of subtypes: 1) a trauma-caused panic attack diathesis; 2) trauma-event cues; 3) ethnic differences in physiology; 4) catastrophic cognitions generated by cultural syndromes; and 5) a modification of Clark’s spiral of panic. PMID:11738465

  4. Panic disorder among Vietnamese refugees attending a psychiatric clinic: prevalence and subtypes.

    PubMed

    Hinton, D; Chau, H; Nguyen, L; Nguyen, M; Pham, T; Quinn, S; Tran, M

    2001-01-01

    This study surveys Vietnamese refugees attending two psychiatric clinics to determine both the prevalence of panic disorder (PD) as well as panic attack subtypes in those suffering PD. A culturally valid adaptation of the SCID-panic module (the Vietnamese Panic Disorder Survey or VPDS) was administered to 100 Vietnamese refugees attending two psychiatric clinics. Utilizing culturally sensitive panic probes, the VPDS provides information regarding both the presence of PD and panic attack subtypes during the month prior to interview. Of 100 patients surveyed, 50 (50%) currently suffered PD. Among the 50 patients suffering PD, the most common panic attack subtypes during the previous month were the following: "orthostatic dizziness" (74% of the 50 panic disorder patients [PDPs]), headache (50% of PDPs), wind-induced/temperature-shift-induced (24% of PDPs), effort-induced (18% of PDPs), gastro-intestinal (16% of PDPs), micturition-induced (8% of PDPs), out-of-the-blue palpitations (24% of PDPs), and out-of-the-blue shortness of breath (16% of PDPs). Five mechanisms are adduced to account for this high PD prevalence as well as the specific profile of subtypes: 1) a trauma-caused panic attack diathesis; 2) trauma-event cues; 3) ethnic differences in physiology; 4) catastrophic cognitions generated by cultural syndromes; and 5) a modification of Clark's spiral of panic.

  5. Clinically relevant pharmacogenomic testing in pediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Korbel, Lindsey; George, Mathew; Kitzmiller, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Clinicians and patients continue to convey interest in personalized medicine. The objective of personalized medicine is to improve healthcare by tailoring disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment strategies for individuals based on their unique clinical history and genetic composition. This article offers an overview of pharmacogenomics, discusses caveats specific to pharmacogenomics in pediatric populations, provides evidence-based recommendations for pediatric clinicians, and offers insight regarding the future role of pharmacogenomics testing in pediatric medicine. Reviews of the current literature and thoughtful discussions are presented regarding the pharmacogenomics of antidepressants, codeine and oncologic, asthma, and immunomodulatory pharmacotherapies.

  6. Clinical evaluation of 368 patients with nasal rosacea: subtype classification and grading of nasal rosacea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Jin; Jung, Joon Min; Won, Kwang Hee; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Lee, Mi Woo

    2015-01-01

    The clinical features of nasal rosacea have not been described in detail. To describe the clinical features of nasal rosacea. 599 patients were classified into those with rosacea in both the nasal and extra-nasal areas (group A), localized nasal rosacea (group B) and rosacea without nasal involvement (group C). The mixed subtype was more common in group A (n = 337) than in group C (n = 231). The severity score was higher in group A than in group C. Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea was the most common subtype in group B (n = 31) and was more common in group B than in group A. Rosacea mainly affected the lower half of the nose in group B, but affected the entire nose in group A. Nasal involvement may be an index of severe rosacea. Localized nasal rosacea is a separate spectrum with different clinical features. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Aberrant expression of DNA damage response proteins is associated with breast cancer subtype and clinical features

    PubMed Central

    Guler, Gulnur; Himmetoglu, Cigdem; Jimenez, Rafael E.; Geyer, Susan M.; Wang, Wenle P.; Costinean, Stefan; Pilarski, Robert T.; Morrison, Carl; Suren, Dinc; Liu, Jianhua; Chen, Jingchun; Kamal, Jyoti; Shapiro, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Landmark studies of the status of DNA damage checkpoints and associated repair functions in preneoplastic and neoplastic cells has focused attention on importance of these pathways in cancer development, and inhibitors of repair pathways are in clinical trials for treatment of triple negative breast cancer. Cancer heterogeneity suggests that specific cancer subtypes will have distinct mechanisms of DNA damage survival, dependent on biological context. In this study, status of DNA damage response (DDR)-associated proteins was examined in breast cancer subtypes in association with clinical features; 479 breast cancers were examined for expression of DDR proteins γH2AX, BRCA1, pChk2, and p53, DNA damage-sensitive tumor suppressors Fhit and Wwox, and Wwox-interacting proteins Ap2α, Ap2γ, ErbB4, and correlations among proteins, tumor subtypes, and clinical features were assessed. In a multivariable model, triple negative cancers showed significantly reduced Fhit and Wwox, increased p53 and Ap2γ protein expression, and were significantly more likely than other subtype tumors to exhibit aberrant expression of two or more DDR-associated proteins. Disease-free survival was associated with subtype, Fhit and membrane ErbB4 expression level and aberrant expression of multiple DDR-associated proteins. These results suggest that definition of specific DNA repair and checkpoint defects in subgroups of triple negative cancer might identify new treatment targets. Expression of Wwox and its interactor, ErbB4, was highly significantly reduced in metastatic tissues vs. matched primary tissues, suggesting that Wwox signal pathway loss contributes to lymph node metastasis, perhaps by allowing survival of tumor cells that have detached from basement membranes, as proposed for the role of Wwox in ovarian cancer spread. PMID:21069451

  8. Clinically relevant advances in rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

    PubMed

    Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Neumann, Elena; Tarner, Ingo H

    2009-09-14

    Owing to the success of biologics in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), several novel drugs have been introduced in the therapeutic armamentarium, although not all of them have been approved in all countries worldwide. Among the drugs are tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors such as certolizumab pegol and golimumab (the latter of which was the first TNF blocker shown to be effective in patients who had been unsuccessfully treated with other TNF blockers and which can be applied only once a month), and the interleukin-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab, which not only opens up a completely new field of anti-inflammatory modulation of RA pathophysiology, but also highlights the challenge of novel potential side effects. Moreover, aside from clinical studies showing efficacy in the inhibition of osteoclast activation by the anti-RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand) antibody denosumab, an improved form of steroid application known as slow-release 'tempus tablet' for treatment of RA and several developments in the small-molecule area have been addressed by clinical trials.

  9. Clinical relevance of fascial tissue and dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Klingler, W; Velders, M; Hoppe, K; Pedro, M; Schleip, R

    2014-01-01

    Fascia is composed of collagenous connective tissue surrounding and interpenetrating skeletal muscle, joints, organs, nerves, and vascular beds. Fascial tissue forms a whole-body, continuous three-dimensional viscoelastic matrix of structural support. The classical concept of its mere passive role in force transmission has recently been disproven. Fascial tissue contains contractile elements enabling a modulating role in force generation and also mechanosensory fine-tuning. This hypothesis is supported by in vitro studies demonstrating an autonomous contraction of human lumbar fascia and a pharmacological induction of temporary contraction in rat fascial tissue. The ability of spontaneous regulation of fascial stiffness over a time period ranging from minutes to hours contributes more actively to musculoskeletal dynamics. Imbalance of this regulatory mechanism results in increased or decreased myofascial tonus, or diminished neuromuscular coordination, which are key contributors to the pathomechanisms of several musculoskeletal pathologies and pain syndromes. Here, we summarize anatomical and biomechanical properties of fascial tissue with a special focus on fascial dysfunctions and resulting clinical manifestations. Finally, we discuss current and future potential treatment options that can influence clinical manifestations of pain syndromes associated with fascial tissues.

  10. Idioms of distress among trauma survivors: subtypes and clinical utility.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    In this introduction to the Special Issue on Trauma and Idioms of Distress, we provide an overview of the concept and typology of "idioms of distress," focusing particularly on their clinical utility. This includes the role of idioms as indicators of trauma exposure, of various types of psychopathology and of levels of distress, risk and functioning. It likewise includes the fact that idioms of distress may profoundly influence the personal meaning of having a trauma-related disorder, may shape the interpersonal course of the disorder and may pattern help-seeking and self-treatment. Finally, it illustrates the fact that idioms may also help clinicians understand sufferers' views of the causes of their distress, constitute key therapeutic targets and help increase therapeutic empathy and treatment adherence. This special issue focuses on the role played by idioms of distress in the local trauma ontology, the associations between the idioms and psychiatric disorders occurring in the context of trauma and the mechanisms by which the idioms profoundly influence the personal and interpersonal course of trauma-related disorders.

  11. GliomaPredict: a clinically useful tool for assigning glioma patients to specific molecular subtypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Aiguo; Bozdag, Serdar; Kotliarov, Yuri; Fine, Howard A

    2010-07-15

    Advances in generating genome-wide gene expression data have accelerated the development of molecular-based tumor classification systems. Tools that allow the translation of such molecular classification schemas from research into clinical applications are still missing in the emerging era of personalized medicine. We developed GliomaPredict as a computational tool that allows the fast and reliable classification of glioma patients into one of six previously published stratified subtypes based on sets of extensively validated classifiers derived from hundreds of glioma transcriptomic profiles. Our tool utilizes a principle component analysis (PCA)-based approach to generate a visual representation of the analyses, quantifies the confidence of the underlying subtype assessment and presents results as a printable PDF file. GliomaPredict tool is implemented as a plugin application for the widely-used GenePattern framework. GliomaPredict provides a user-friendly, clinically applicable novel platform for instantly assigning gene expression-based subtype in patients with gliomas thereby aiding in clinical trial design and therapeutic decision-making. Implemented as a user-friendly diagnostic tool, we expect that in time GliomaPredict, and tools like it, will become routinely used in translational/clinical research and in the clinical care of patients with gliomas.

  12. Biofilms: Survival Mechanisms of Clinically Relevant Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Donlan, Rodney M.; Costerton, J. William

    2002-01-01

    Though biofilms were first described by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, the theory describing the biofilm process was not developed until 1978. We now understand that biofilms are universal, occurring in aquatic and industrial water systems as well as a large number of environments and medical devices relevant for public health. Using tools such as the scanning electron microscope and, more recently, the confocal laser scanning microscope, biofilm researchers now understand that biofilms are not unstructured, homogeneous deposits of cells and accumulated slime, but complex communities of surface-associated cells enclosed in a polymer matrix containing open water channels. Further studies have shown that the biofilm phenotype can be described in terms of the genes expressed by biofilm-associated cells. Microorganisms growing in a biofilm are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents by one or more mechanisms. Biofilm-associated microorganisms have been shown to be associated with several human diseases, such as native valve endocarditis and cystic fibrosis, and to colonize a wide variety of medical devices. Though epidemiologic evidence points to biofilms as a source of several infectious diseases, the exact mechanisms by which biofilm-associated microorganisms elicit disease are poorly understood. Detachment of cells or cell aggregates, production of endotoxin, increased resistance to the host immune system, and provision of a niche for the generation of resistant organisms are all biofilm processes which could initiate the disease process. Effective strategies to prevent or control biofilms on medical devices must take into consideration the unique and tenacious nature of biofilms. Current intervention strategies are designed to prevent initial device colonization, minimize microbial cell attachment to the device, penetrate the biofilm matrix and kill the associated cells, or remove the device from the patient. In the future, treatments may be based on inhibition of genes

  13. HDL cholesterol: reappraisal of its clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    März, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E; Scharnagl, Hubert; Speer, Timotheus; Zewinger, Stephen; Ritsch, Andreas; Parhofer, Klaus G; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Landmesser, Ulf; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-03-24

    While several lines of evidence prove that elevated concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) causally contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences, high-density lipoproteins are still widely believed to exert atheroprotective effects. Hence, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is in general still considered as "good cholesterol". Recent research, however, suggests that this might not always be the case and that a fundamental reassessment of the clinical significance of HDL-C is warranted. This review article is based on a selective literature review. In individuals without a history of cardiovascular events, low concentrations of HDL-C are inversely associated with the risk of future cardiovascular events. This relationship may, however, not apply to patients with metabolic disorders or manifest cardiovascular disease. The classical function of HDL is to mobilise cholesterol from extrahepatic tissues for delivery to the liver for excretion. These roles in cholesterol metabolism as well as many other biological functions of HDL particles are dependent on the number as well as protein and lipid composition of HDL particles. They are poorly reflected by the HDL-C concentration. HDL can even exert negative vascular effects, if its composition is pathologically altered. High serum HDL-C is therefore no longer regarded protective. In line with this, recent pharmacological approaches to raise HDL-C concentration have not been able to show reductions of cardiovascular outcomes. In contrast to LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C correlates with cardiovascular risk only in healthy individuals. The calculation of the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C is not useful for all patients. Low HDL-C should prompt examination of additional metabolic and inflammatory pathologies. An increase in HDL-C through lifestyle change (smoking cessation, physical exercise) has positive effects and is recommended. However, HDL-C is currently not a valid target for drug therapy.

  14. Trustworthiness and relevance in web-based clinical question answering.

    PubMed

    Cruchet, Sarah; Boyer, Célia; van der Plas, Lonneke

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems try to give precise answers to a user's question posed in natural language. It is of utmost importance that the answers returned are relevant to the user's question. For clinical QA, the trustworthiness of answers is another important issue. Limiting the document collection to certified websites helps to improve the trustworthiness of answers. On the other hand, limited document collections are known to harm the relevancy of answers. We show, however, in a comparative evaluation, that promoting trustworthiness has no negative effect on the relevance of the retrieved answers in our clinical QA system. On the contrary, the answers found are in general more relevant.

  15. Automated subtyping of HIV-1 genetic sequences for clinical and surveillance purposes: performance evaluation of the new REGA version 3 and seven other tools.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Peña, Andrea-Clemencia; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Imbrechts, Stijn; Libin, Pieter; Abecasis, Ana Barroso; Deforche, Koen; Gómez-López, Arley; Camacho, Ricardo J; de Oliveira, Tulio; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2013-10-01

    To investigate differences in pathogenesis, diagnosis and resistance pathways between HIV-1 subtypes, an accurate subtyping tool for large datasets is needed. We aimed to evaluate the performance of automated subtyping tools to classify the different subtypes and circulating recombinant forms using pol, the most sequenced region in clinical practice. We also present the upgraded version 3 of the Rega HIV subtyping tool (REGAv3). HIV-1 pol sequences (PR+RT) for 4674 patients retrieved from the Portuguese HIV Drug Resistance Database, and 1872 pol sequences trimmed from full-length genomes retrieved from the Los Alamos database were classified with statistical-based tools such as COMET, jpHMM and STAR; similarity-based tools such as NCBI and Stanford; and phylogenetic-based tools such as REGA version 2 (REGAv2), REGAv3, and SCUEAL. The performance of these tools, for pol, and for PR and RT separately, was compared in terms of reproducibility, sensitivity and specificity with respect to the gold standard which was manual phylogenetic analysis of the pol region. The sensitivity and specificity for subtypes B and C was more than 96% for seven tools, but was variable for other subtypes such as A, D, F and G. With regard to the most common circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), the sensitivity and specificity for CRF01_AE was ~99% with statistical-based tools, with phylogenetic-based tools and with Stanford, one of the similarity based tools. CRF02_AG was correctly identified for more than 96% by COMET, REGAv3, Stanford and STAR. All the tools reached a specificity of more than 97% for most of the subtypes and the two main CRFs (CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG). Other CRFs were identified only by COMET, REGAv2, REGAv3, and SCUEAL and with variable sensitivity. When analyzing sequences for PR and RT separately, the performance for PR was generally lower and variable between the tools. Similarity and statistical-based tools were 100% reproducible, but this was lower for phylogenetic

  16. Chronic HCV infection: epidemiological and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Zaltron, S; Spinetti, A; Biasi, L; Baiguera, C; Castelli, F

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), first recognized as a cause of transfusion-associated acute and chronic hepatitis in 1989, plays a major role as a cause of chronic liver injury, with potential for neoplastic degeneration. It is mainly transmitted by the parenteral route. However, although with lower efficiency, it may be also transmitted by sexual intercourses and by the mother-to-child route. Epidemiological evidence shows that a wave of infection occurred in the 1945-65 period (baby boomers) in western countries. After acute infection, as many as 50-85% of the patients fail to clear the virus resulting in chronic liver infection and/or disease. It is estimated that, on a global scale, about 170 million people are chronically infected with HCV, leading to about 350.000 deaths yearly. Among western countries southern Europe, and particularly Italy, is among the most affected areas. The impact on the public health systems is noteworthy, with high number of hospitalizations due to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. While waiting for a safe and effective vaccine to be made available, new promising direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs offer a better therapeutic scenario than in the past even for the poor responder genotypes 1 and 4, provided that effective screening and care is offered. However, the long and aspecific prodromic period before clinical symptoms develop is a major obstacle to early detection and treatment. Effective screening strategies may target at-risk groups or age specific groups, as recently recommended by the CDC.

  17. Chronic HCV infection: epidemiological and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), first recognized as a cause of transfusion-associated acute and chronic hepatitis in 1989, plays a major role as a cause of chronic liver injury, with potential for neoplastic degeneration. It is mainly transmitted by the parenteral route. However, although with lower efficiency, it may be also transmitted by sexual intercourses and by the mother-to-child route. Epidemiological evidence shows that a wave of infection occurred in the 1945-65 period (baby boomers) in western countries. After acute infection, as many as 50-85% of the patients fail to clear the virus resulting in chronic liver infection and/or disease. It is estimated that, on a global scale, about 170 million people are chronically infected with HCV, leading to about 350.000 deaths yearly. Among western countries southern Europe, and particularly Italy, is among the most affected areas. The impact on the public health systems is noteworthy, with high number of hospitalizations due to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. While waiting for a safe and effective vaccine to be made available, new promising direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs offer a better therapeutic scenario than in the past even for the poor responder genotypes 1 and 4, provided that effective screening and care is offered. However, the long and aspecific prodromic period before clinical symptoms develop is a major obstacle to early detection and treatment. Effective screening strategies may target at-risk groups or age specific groups, as recently recommended by the CDC. PMID:23173556

  18. Molecular Subtyping of Pancreatic Cancer: Translating Genomics and Transcriptomics into the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yongxing; Zhao, Bangbo; Liu, Ziwen; Ren, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenjing; Li, Zongze; You, Lei; Zhao, Yupei

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most lethal malignancies, and insights into both personalized diagnosis and intervention of this disease are urgently needed. The rapid development of sequencing technologies has enabled the successive completion of a series of genetic and epigenetic sequencing studies of pancreatic cancer. The mutational landscape of pancreatic cancer is generally portrayed in terms of somatic mutations, structural variations, epigenetic alterations and the core signaling pathways. In recent years, four significant molecular subtype classifications of pancreatic cancer have been proposed based on the expression of transcription factors and downstream targets or the distribution of structural rearrangements. Increasing researches focus on the identification of somatic mutations and other genetic aberrations that drive pancreatic cancer has led to a new era of precision medicine based on molecular subtyping. However, few known molecular classifications are used to guide clinical strategies. Specific scientific, regulatory and ethical challenges must be overcome before genomic and transcriptomic discoveries can be translated into the clinic. PMID:28367231

  19. [Subtype distribution of Blastocystis isolates and evaluation of clinical symptoms detected in Aydin province, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Ertuğ, Sema; Malatyalı, Erdoğan; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Özlem Çalışkan, Serçin; Bozdoğan, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenic potential and genetic diversity of Blastocystis are poorly understood despite being one of the most frequent intestinal parasites in routine fecal examination all around the world as well as Turkey. There are numerous defined subtypes (ST) of Blastocystis which infect animals and nine of them were isolated from human fecal samples. Blastocystis is an anaerobic parasite and generally recognized as nonpathogenic microorganism that colonizes the colon. However recent studies have indicated that the genotypes may be related with the pathogenicity and clinical symptoms of the infection. The aims of this study were to investigate the subtypes of Blastocystis isolates obtained from stool samples submitted to the parasitology laboratory of Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, and to evaluate the clinical symptoms of infected cases. A total of 61 cases (40 male, 21 female; age range: 5-69 years, mean age: 35 ± 19.1 years) were included in the study. Stool samples that were positive for Blastocystis cysts in direct microscopic examination, were inoculated in Jones medium and incubated at 37°C for 72 hours for the growth of parasite. Genomic DNAs were isolated from Jones medium directly or frozen samples with a commercial kit (DNAzol, Invitrogen, USA). The subtypes of Blastocystis were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using ST-specific primers and the symptoms of patients were evaluated retrospectively. Forty-four (72.1%) out of 61 isolates were subtyped by PCR, while 17 (27.9%) could not be typed. The distribution of Blastocystis subtypes were found as follows; ST3 in 17 (38.6%), ST2 in 13 (29.5%), ST1 in 9 (20.5%), ST1 + ST3 in 4 (9.1%), and ST1 + ST2 in one (2.3%) of the samples. The most common symptoms among Blastocystis infected cases were abdominal pain (n= 24, 39.4%), pruritus (n= 22, 36.1%), diarrhea (n= 4, 6.6%) and constipation (n= 2, 3.3%), respectively. This is the first study investigating the genotypes of Blastocystis in

  20. Subtyping Stuttering II

    PubMed Central

    Seery, Carol Hubbard; Watkins, Ruth V.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Shigeto, Aya

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series of two articles exploring subtypes of stuttering, and it addresses the question of whether and how language ability and temperament variables may be relevant to the study of subtypes within the larger population of children who stutter. Despite observations of varied profiles among young children who stutter, efforts to identify and characterize subtypes of stuttering have had limited influence on theoretical or clinical understanding of the disorder. This manuscript briefly highlights research on language and temperament in young children who stutter, and considers whether the results can provide guidance for efforts to more effectively investigate and elucidate subtypes in childhood stuttering. Issues from the literature that appear relevant to research on stuttering subtypes include: (a) the question of whether stuttering is best characterized as categorical or continuous; (b) interpretation of individual differences in skills and profiles; and (c) the fact that, during the preschool years, the interaction among domains such as language and temperament are changing very rapidly, resulting in large differences in developmental profiles within relatively brief chronological age periods. PMID:17825669

  1. Somatostatin receptor subtypes, octreotide scintigraphy, and clinical response to octreotide treatment in patients with neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Kölby, L; Wängberg, B; Ahlman, H; Tisell, L E; Fjälling, M; Forssell-Aronsson, E; Nilsson, O

    1998-07-01

    Several types of neuroendocrine tumor express high numbers of somatostatin receptors (sstr). We have compared the expression of sstr subtypes with the outcome of octreotide scintigraphy in patients with carcinoids and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in comparison with Hürthle cell tumors. The effect of sstr activation (octreotide treatment) on tumor markers was also studied in patients with disseminated carcinoid tumors. Six patients with carcinoid tumors (four midgut and two foregut), and three patients with thyroid tumors (one MTC, one Hürthle cell carcinoma, and one Hürthle cell adenoma) were studied. Octreotide scintigraphy visualized tumor sites in all nine patients. Macroscopic tumor was verified at these sites at subsequent surgical exploration. Using Northern blotting and subtype-specific riboprobes, sstr could be detected in all tumors examined. All five sstr subtypes were detected in most of the carcinoid tumors. All six carcinoids expressed sstr2. This was in contrast to the findings for the thyroid tumors analyzed, which also expressed several sstr subtypes but in some cases lacked expression of sstr2. This was also the case for normal thyroid tissue. Clinically, octreotide treatment of the patients with midgut carcinoid tumors resulted in palliation of hormonal symptoms accompanied by a significant reduction of urinary 5-HIAA levels (28-71%). These results indicate that carcinoid tumors frequently express all five sstr subtypes. The thyroid tumors also expressed multiple sstr but could lack expression of sstr2. Nevertheless, these tumors were visualized by octreotide scintigraphy, indicating that sstr2 expression is not a prerequisite for tumor imaging.

  2. Quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory observer performance paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, D P; Haygood, T M; Ryan, J; Marom, E M; Evanoff, M; Mcentee, M F; Brennan, P C

    2012-01-01

    Objective Laboratory observer performance measurements, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and free-response ROC (FROC) differ from actual clinical interpretations in several respects, which could compromise their clinical relevance. The objective of this study was to develop a method for quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory paradigm and apply it to compare the ROC and FROC paradigms in a nodule detection task. Methods The original prospective interpretations of 80 digital chest radiographs were classified by the truth panel as correct (C=1) or incorrect (C=0), depending on correlation with additional imaging, and the average of C was interpreted as the clinical figure of merit. FROC data were acquired for 21 radiologists and ROC data were inferred using the highest ratings. The areas under the ROC and alternative FROC curves were used as laboratory figures of merit. Bootstrap analysis was conducted to estimate conventional agreement measures between laboratory and clinical figures of merit. Also computed was a pseudovalue-based image-level correctness measure of the laboratory interpretations, whose association with C as measured by the area (rAUC) under an appropriately defined relevance ROC curve, is as a measure of the clinical relevance of a laboratory paradigm. Results Low correlations (e.g. κ=0.244) and near chance level rAUC values (e.g. 0.598), attributable to differences between the clinical and laboratory paradigms, were observed. The absolute width of the confidence interval was 0.38 for the interparadigm differences of the conventional measures and 0.14 for the difference of the rAUCs. Conclusion The rAUC measure was consistent with the traditional measures but was more sensitive to the differences in clinical relevance. A new relevance ROC method for quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory paradigm is proposed. PMID:22573296

  3. Quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory observer performance paradigm.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, D P; Haygood, T M; Ryan, J; Marom, E M; Evanoff, M; McEntee, M F; Brennan, P C

    2012-09-01

    Laboratory observer performance measurements, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and free-response ROC (FROC) differ from actual clinical interpretations in several respects, which could compromise their clinical relevance. The objective of this study was to develop a method for quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory paradigm and apply it to compare the ROC and FROC paradigms in a nodule detection task. The original prospective interpretations of 80 digital chest radiographs were classified by the truth panel as correct (C=1) or incorrect (C=0), depending on correlation with additional imaging, and the average of C was interpreted as the clinical figure of merit. FROC data were acquired for 21 radiologists and ROC data were inferred using the highest ratings. The areas under the ROC and alternative FROC curves were used as laboratory figures of merit. Bootstrap analysis was conducted to estimate conventional agreement measures between laboratory and clinical figures of merit. Also computed was a pseudovalue-based image-level correctness measure of the laboratory interpretations, whose association with C as measured by the area (rAUC) under an appropriately defined relevance ROC curve, is as a measure of the clinical relevance of a laboratory paradigm. Low correlations (e.g. κ=0.244) and near chance level rAUC values (e.g. 0.598), attributable to differences between the clinical and laboratory paradigms, were observed. The absolute width of the confidence interval was 0.38 for the interparadigm differences of the conventional measures and 0.14 for the difference of the rAUCs. The rAUC measure was consistent with the traditional measures but was more sensitive to the differences in clinical relevance. A new relevance ROC method for quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory paradigm is proposed.

  4. Typing and subtyping of influenza viruses in clinical samples by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K E; Wilson, G A; Novosad, D; Dimock, C; Tan, D; Weber, J M

    1995-01-01

    Type A and B influenza viruses can cause a wide spectrum of illness, and these viruses are responsible for considerable mortality and morbidity. Rapid typing of isolates is desirable when amantadine treatment or prophylaxis of contacts of type A influenza virus carriers is considered, but the available rapid techniques lack sensitivity and standard diagnostic methods require expansion of virus in tissue culture or embryonated hens' eggs. We developed a series of oligonucleotide primers able to detect, type, and subtype type A influenza viruses in a single reverse transcription-PCR. RNA was isolated from clinical specimens, and cDNA was generated with random primers. PCR was carried out with a mixture of primers specific for influenza viruses of types B, A/H1 and A/H3, and subtyping of the neuraminidase was carried out on the same cDNA template under identical conditions. Amplified products were detected by ethidium bromide staining of amplified products after agarose gel electrophoresis. When it was used to test 98 clinical specimens, this method was comparable to standard culture techniques in the detection, typing, and subtyping of influenza viruses. PMID:7615726

  5. Prognosis of 234 rosacea patients according to clinical subtype: The significance of central facial erythema in the prognosis of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Jin; Lee, Ye Jin; Lee, Mi Hye; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Choi, Jee Ho; Lee, Mi Woo

    2016-05-01

    Rosacea has a wide spectrum of clinical features, which include persistent facial redness, flushing, telangiectasia, inflammatory papules/pustules, hypertrophy and/or ocular features. The prognosis of rosacea according to clinical subtype has not been evaluated. We analyzed the prognosis of rosacea in 234 patients, which included 120 patients with mixed subtype, 75 with the erythematotelangiectatic rosacea subtype and 39 with the papulopustular rosacea (PPR) subtype. The prognosis of rosacea was classified as: (i) no improvement; (ii) partial remission; and (iii) complete remission. The frequencies of complete remission, time to complete remission and 1-year complete remission rate were compared between subtypes. Follow-up periods ranged 2-72 months (median follow-up, 17.5). Aggravation of the disease was found in 50.4% of patients during follow up. Partial or complete remission was noted in 61.5% and 20.9% of patients, respectively. The median time to complete remission was 56.0 months. The prognosis of disease was more favorable for patients with the PPR subtype than for patients with other subtypes with respect to the frequency of complete remission, median time to complete remission and the 2-year complete remission rate. In conclusion, papulopustular rosacea without remarkable centrofacial erythema showed a more favorable prognosis than other subtypes. Erythematotelangiectatic lesions in rosacea patients present a challenge for the treatment of rosacea. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  6. GWAS of clinically defined gout and subtypes identifies multiple susceptibility loci that include urate transporter genes

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Ken; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Shaukat, Amara; Toyoda, Yu; Okada, Yukinori; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Takahiro; Takada, Tappei; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Yasujima, Tomoya; Yuasa, Hiroaki; Shirahama, Yuko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Seiko; Higashino, Toshihide; Kawamura, Yusuke; Ogata, Hiraku; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Danjoh, Inaho; Tokumasu, Atsumi; Ooyama, Keiko; Ito, Toshimitsu; Kondo, Takaaki; Wakai, Kenji; Stiburkova, Blanka; Pavelka, Karel; Stamp, Lisa K; Dalbeth, Nicola; Sakurai, Yutaka; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hosoyamada, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Yokoo, Takashi; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Inoue, Ituro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Merriman, Tony R; Matsuo, Hirotaka

    2017-01-01

    Objective A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gout and its subtypes was performed to identify novel gout loci, including those that are subtype-specific. Methods Putative causal association signals from a GWAS of 945 clinically defined gout cases and 1213 controls from Japanese males were replicated with 1396 cases and 1268 controls using a custom chip of 1961 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also first conducted GWASs of gout subtypes. Replication with Caucasian and New Zealand Polynesian samples was done to further validate the loci identified in this study. Results In addition to the five loci we reported previously, further susceptibility loci were identified at a genome-wide significance level (p<5.0×10−8): urate transporter genes (SLC22A12 and SLC17A1) and HIST1H2BF-HIST1H4E for all gout cases, and NIPAL1 and FAM35A for the renal underexcretion gout subtype. While NIPAL1 encodes a magnesium transporter, functional analysis did not detect urate transport via NIPAL1, suggesting an indirect association with urate handling. Localisation analysis in the human kidney revealed expression of NIPAL1 and FAM35A mainly in the distal tubules, which suggests the involvement of the distal nephron in urate handling in humans. Clinically ascertained male patients with gout and controls of Caucasian and Polynesian ancestries were also genotyped, and FAM35A was associated with gout in all cases. A meta-analysis of the three populations revealed FAM35A to be associated with gout at a genome-wide level of significance (pmeta=3.58×10−8). Conclusions Our findings including novel gout risk loci provide further understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of gout and lead to a novel concept for the therapeutic target of gout/hyperuricaemia. PMID:27899376

  7. CSF Proteomics Identifies Specific and Shared Pathways for Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Avsar, Timucin; Durası, İlknur Melis; Uygunoğlu, Uğur; Tütüncü, Melih; Demirci, Nuri Onat; Saip, Sabahattin; Sezerman, O. Uğur; Siva, Aksel; Tahir Turanlı, Eda

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated, neuro-inflammatory, demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with a heterogeneous clinical presentation and course. There is a remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity in MS, and the molecular mechanisms underlying it remain unknown. We aimed to investigate further the etiopathogenesis related molecular pathways in subclinical types of MS using proteomic and bioinformatics approaches in cerebrospinal fluids of patients with clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing remitting MS and progressive MS (n=179). Comparison of disease groups with controls revealed a total of 151 proteins that are differentially expressed in clinically different MS subtypes. KEGG analysis using PANOGA tool revealed the disease related pathways including aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption (p=8.02x10-5) which is important in the immune cell migration, renin-angiotensin (p=6.88x10-5) system that induces Th17 dependent immunity, notch signaling (p=1.83x10-10) pathway indicating the activated remyelination and vitamin digestion and absorption pathways (p=1.73x10-5). An emerging theme from our studies is that whilst all MS clinical forms share common biological pathways, there are also clinical subtypes specific and pathophysiology related pathways which may have further therapeutic implications. PMID:25942430

  8. Colon cancer molecular subtypes identified by expression profiling and associated to stroma, mucinous type and different clinical behavior

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Colon cancer patients with the same stage show diverse clinical behavior due to tumor heterogeneity. We aimed to discover distinct classes of tumors based on microarray expression patterns, to analyze whether the molecular classification correlated with the histopathological stages or other clinical parameters and to study differences in the survival. Methods Hierarchical clustering was performed for class discovery in 88 colon tumors (stages I to IV). Pathways analysis and correlations between clinical parameters and our classification were analyzed. Tumor subtypes were validated using an external set of 78 patients. A 167 gene signature associated to the main subtype was generated using the 3-Nearest-Neighbor method. Coincidences with other prognostic predictors were assesed. Results Hierarchical clustering identified four robust tumor subtypes with biologically and clinically distinct behavior. Stromal components (p < 0.001), nuclear β-catenin (p = 0.021), mucinous histology (p = 0.001), microsatellite-instability (p = 0.039) and BRAF mutations (p < 0.001) were associated to this classification but it was independent of Dukes stages (p = 0.646). Molecular subtypes were established from stage I. High-stroma-subtype showed increased levels of genes and altered pathways distinctive of tumour-associated-stroma and components of the extracellular matrix in contrast to Low-stroma-subtype. Mucinous-subtype was reflected by the increased expression of trefoil factors and mucins as well as by a higher proportion of MSI and BRAF mutations. Tumor subtypes were validated using an external set of 78 patients. A 167 gene signature associated to the Low-stroma-subtype distinguished low risk patients from high risk patients in the external cohort (Dukes B and C:HR = 8.56(2.53-29.01); Dukes B,C and D:HR = 1.87(1.07-3.25)). Eight different reported survival gene signatures segregated our tumors into two groups the Low-stroma-subtype and

  9. Relevance of pathologic classifications and diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia to clinical trials and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Tallman, Martin S

    2004-01-01

    Many new insights into the diagnosis, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, treatment and prognosis of patients with AML reflect the heterogeneity of the disease. The initial descriptions of the various subtypes of AML, established by the FAB classification, were based on morphology and cytochemical stains. Although morphology remains the foundation for the diagnosis, additional diagnostic studies including immunophenotyping, cytogenetic evaluation, and molecular genetic studies have become critical, and in some specific cases, mandatory, complementary tools. Several specific subtypes of AML are now treated with directed or targeted therapy. Acute promyelocytic leukemia is currently the only example of a subtype of AML to which specific therapy targeted to a molecular genetic abnormality is available and this subtype now is highly curable. Future studies will address newly identified prognostic factors and gene mutations such as FLT3, Wilm's tumor (WTI), and CEBPA which will enable the further pathologic classification of patients with AML. Finally, microarray analysis will likely identify genes critically involved in the pathogenesis of specific pathologic subtypes.

  10. Histopathological characterization of the oral lichenoid disease subtypes and the relation with the clinical data

    PubMed Central

    Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Lartitegui-Sebastián, María-José; Gainza-Cirauqui, María-Luisa; Echebarria-Goikouria, María-Ángeles; Aguirre-Urizar, José-Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to analyze the histopathological characteristics of samples with a diagnosis of oral lichenoid disease (OLD) and their link with the location and the type of clinical lesion, and the clinicopathological subtypes. Material and Methods Retrospective study on 85 consecutive patients diagnosed with OLD (58 women and 27 men, mean age of 57.7 years). Clinical and histopathological characterization of each case (modified WHO criteria). Collection of the clinical and histopathological data of the lesions. Descriptive and comparative statistical analysis of the results. Results The 78.8% of the cases were considered clinically typical while the 21.2% were considered compatible. Histologically, 52.9% were classified as typical and 47.1% as compatible. Biopsies from “plaque-like” lesions presented hyperkeratosis (p<0.001) and epithelial dysplasia (p=0.06) more frequently. Furthermore, acute inflammation was more evident in erosive-ulcerative lesions (p=0.001). Differences regarding the location of the biopsy were statistically non-significant. However, 42.9% of the tongue biopsies showed epithelial dysplasia. Conclusions The histopathological aspect of this disorder is not specific and does not allow us to differentiate between the main subtypes. Therefore, the main reasons to perform a biopsy in this disorder are to define the differential diagnosis and to rule out epithelial dysplasia or a carcinoma. The final histopathological result may be subject to the type of lesion that is biopsied. Key words:Oral lichenoid disease, histopathology, subtypes, characterization, oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesion, epithelial dysplasia. PMID:28390133

  11. Histopathological characterization of the oral lichenoid disease subtypes and the relation with the clinical data.

    PubMed

    Alberdi-Navarro, J; Marichalar-Mendia, X; Lartitegui-Sebastián, M-J; Gainza-Cirauqui, M-L; Echebarria-Goikouria, M-A; Aguirre-Urizar, J-M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the histopathological characteristics of samples with a diagnosis of oral lichenoid disease (OLD) and their link with the location and the type of clinical lesion, and the clinicopathological subtypes. Retrospective study on 85 consecutive patients diagnosed with OLD (58 women and 27 men, mean age of 57.7 years). Clinical and histopathological characterization of each case (modified WHO criteria). Collection of the clinical and histopathological data of the lesions. Descriptive and comparative statistical analysis of the results. The 78.8% of the cases were considered clinically typical while the 21.2% were considered compatible. Histologically, 52.9% were classified as typical and 47.1% as compatible. Biopsies from "plaque-like" lesions presented hyperkeratosis (p>0.001) and epithelial dysplasia (p=0.06) more frequently. Furthermore, acute inflammation was more evident in erosive-ulcerative lesions (p=0.001). Differences regarding the location of the biopsy were statistically non-significant. However, 42.9% of the tongue biopsies showed epithelial dysplasia. The histopathological aspect of this disorder is not specific and does not allow us to differentiate between the main subtypes. Therefore, the main reasons to perform a biopsy in this disorder are to define the differential diagnosis and to rule out epithelial dysplasia or a carcinoma. The final histopathological result may be subject to the type of lesion that is biopsied.

  12. Subtyping Escherichia coli Virulence Genes Isolated from Feces of Beef Cattle and Clinical Cases in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Renata; Goji, Noriko; Amoako, Kingsley; Chui, Linda; Kastelic, John; DeVinney, Rebekah; Stanford, Kim; Reuter, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of Shiga toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli infection are largely determined by virulence gene subtypes. This study used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-pyrosequencing assay to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms for subtyping three major virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae) of pathogenic E. coli (O157, O26, O111, and O103) isolated from cattle over a 2-year interval (n = 465) and human clinical cases (n = 42) in western Canada. Most bovine isolates were PCR positive for at least one target virulence gene (367/465), whereas 100% of human isolates harbored eae in combination with at least one stx gene. Four Shiga toxin (1a, 2a, 2c, and 2e) and four eae (λ/γ1-eae, ɛ-eae, θ/γ2-eae, and β-eae) subtypes were identified in over 25 distinct virulence genotypes. Among cattle isolates, every serogroup, but O103, presented a dominant genotype (O157: stx1a+stx2a+λ/γ1-eae, O26: β-eae alone, and O111: stx1a+θ/γ2-eae). Similar patterns were found in human isolates, although it was not possible to establish a clear genotypic association between the two sources. Many O157 and non-O157 cattle isolates lacked stx genes; the absence was greater in non-O157 (75/258) and O157:non-H7 (19/40) than in O157:H7 strains (1/164). In addition, there was a greater diversity of virulence genotypes of E. coli isolated from cattle than those of human diseases, which could be due to sample characteristics (e.g., source and clinical condition). However, the majority of cattle strains had virulence profiles identical to those of clinical cases. Consequently, determining the presence of certain stx (stx1a and stx2a) and eae (λ/γ1-eae) subtypes known to cause human disease would be a valuable tool for risk assessment and prediction of disease outcome along the farm-to-fork continuum.

  13. Differential clinical effects of different mutation subtypes in CALR-mutant myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Pietra, D; Rumi, E; Ferretti, V V; Buduo, C A Di; Milanesi, C; Cavalloni, C; Sant'Antonio, E; Abbonante, V; Moccia, F; Casetti, I C; Bellini, M; Renna, M C; Roncoroni, E; Fugazza, E; Astori, C; Boveri, E; Rosti, V; Barosi, G; Balduini, A; Cazzola, M

    2016-01-01

    A quarter of patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis carry a driver mutation of CALR, the calreticulin gene. A 52-bp deletion (type 1) and a 5-bp insertion (type 2 mutation) are the most frequent variants. These indels might differentially impair the calcium binding activity of mutant calreticulin. We studied the relationship between mutation subtype and biological/clinical features of the disease. Thirty-two different types of CALR variants were identified in 311 patients. Based on their predicted effect on calreticulin C-terminal, mutations were classified as: (i) type 1-like (65%); (ii) type 2-like (32%); and (iii) other types (3%). Corresponding CALR mutants had significantly different estimated isoelectric points. Patients with type 1 mutation, but not those with type 2, showed abnormal cytosolic calcium signals in cultured megakaryocytes. Type 1-like mutations were mainly associated with a myelofibrosis phenotype and a significantly higher risk of myelofibrotic transformation in essential thrombocythemia. Type 2-like CALR mutations were preferentially associated with an essential thrombocythemia phenotype, low risk of thrombosis despite very-high platelet counts and indolent clinical course. Thus, mutation subtype contributes to determining clinical phenotype and outcomes in CALR-mutant myeloproliferative neoplasms. CALR variants that markedly impair the calcium binding activity of mutant calreticulin are mainly associated with a myelofibrosis phenotype. PMID:26449662

  14. Clinical Relevance of Discourse Characteristics after Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Margaret Lehman

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Discourse characteristics of adults with right hemisphere brain damage are similar to those reported for healthy older adults, prompting the question of whether changes are due to neurological lesions or normal aging processes. The clinical relevance of potential differences across groups was examined through ratings by speech-language…

  15. Clinical Relevance of Discourse Characteristics after Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Margaret Lehman

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Discourse characteristics of adults with right hemisphere brain damage are similar to those reported for healthy older adults, prompting the question of whether changes are due to neurological lesions or normal aging processes. The clinical relevance of potential differences across groups was examined through ratings by speech-language…

  16. Clinically relevant pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions in antiretroviral therapy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For healthcare professionals, the volume of literature available on herb-drug interactions often makes it difficult to separate experimental/potential interactions from those deemed clinically relevant. There is a need for concise and conclusive information to guide pharmacotherapy in HIV/AIDS. In t...

  17. [Clinical relevance of immunotyping of oncologic and hematologic diseases].

    PubMed

    Diehl, V; Pfreundschuh, M

    1987-06-01

    Progress in immunology and molecular biology have provided a better understanding of etiology, pathogenesis and biology of many oncological and hematological diseases. In clinical practice, certain new methods of immunotyping (IT) are of diagnostic importance in assigning undifferentiated tumors to lymphoid, epithelial or mesenchymal origin and in defining subgroups of leukemias and lymphomas. The demonstration of rearrangements of gene coding for immunoglobulins or T-cell receptors assigns hematological malignancies of early differentiation to the B- or T-cell lineage, discriminates between reactive lymphoid changes and clonal lymphoid expansion and detects persistent clonal growth after therapy. In certain clinical entities (e.g. ALL) the immunological subtypes are of importance for differential therapy. By means of IT new clinical entities have been defined (Ki-1-lymphoma, T gamma-lymphoproliferative, LFA-1-deficiency) and the pathomechanisms of others have been elucidated (Bernard-Soulier-disease Syndrome, Glanzmann-Nägeli thrombasthenia). Of immediate therapeutic importance is the identification by IT of receptors for specific hormones or biological response modifiers on malignant cells. In-vivo diagnosis by monoclonal antibodies opens a way to define more exactly the extent of malignant disease by scintigrams or NMR.

  18. Subtypes of chronic urticaria in patients attending allergy clinics in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borges, M; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Capriles-Hulett, A

    2014-11-01

    Chronic urticaria (CU) is one of the most puzzling clinical entities confronted by the medical profession. It is a common motive for consultation, and in a sizable proportion of patients no identifiable cause is evident. Since there are relatively few publications regarding CU in developing countries, we performed a prospective 3-year study on the demographic and clinical features of patients with CU. Four hundred and twenty-three subjects were studied, 52 children and 371 adults, 295 females (69.7%), with a mean age of 38.4 ± 17.8 years. More often, wheals and angioedema (AE) were present on the head, upper and lower limbs and the trunk. AE was present in 162 patients (38.4%). The most frequent subtypes were chronic spontaneous urticaria, aspirin-exacerbated cutaneous disease, dermographic urticaria, and combinations of various subtypes. A better understanding of the characteristics of patients suffering CU is helpful for clinicians dealing with this ailment, and provides guidance for new investigations on its pathogenesis, which will hopefully result in a better management of this vexing condition.

  19. GFAP mutations, age at onset, and clinical subtypes in Alexander disease

    PubMed Central

    Prust, M.; Wang, J.; Morizono, H.; Messing, A.; Brenner, M.; Gordon, E.; Hartka, T.; Sokohl, A.; Schiffmann, R.; Gordish-Dressman, H.; Albin, R.; Amartino, H.; Brockman, K.; Dinopoulos, A.; Dotti, M.T.; Fain, D.; Fernandez, R.; Ferreira, J.; Fleming, J.; Gill, D.; Griebel, M.; Heilstedt, H.; Kaplan, P.; Lewis, D.; Nakagawa, M.; Pedersen, R.; Reddy, A.; Sawaishi, Y.; Schneider, M.; Sherr, E.; Takiyama, Y.; Wakabayashi, K.; Gorospe, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To characterize Alexander disease (AxD) phenotypes and determine correlations with age at onset (AAO) and genetic mutation. AxD is an astrogliopathy usually characterized on MRI by leukodystrophy and caused by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mutations. Methods: We present 30 new cases of AxD and reviewed 185 previously reported cases. We conducted Wilcoxon rank sum tests to identify variables scaling with AAO, survival analysis to identify predictors of mortality, and χ2 tests to assess the effects of common GFAP mutations. Finally, we performed latent class analysis (LCA) to statistically define AxD subtypes. Results: LCA identified 2 classes of AxD. Type I is characterized by early onset, seizures, macrocephaly, motor delay, encephalopathy, failure to thrive, paroxysmal deterioration, and typical MRI features. Type II is characterized by later onset, autonomic dysfunction, ocular movement abnormalities, bulbar symptoms, and atypical MRI features. Survival analysis predicted a nearly 2-fold increase in mortality among patients with type I AxD relative to those with type II. R79 and R239 GFAP mutations were most common (16.6% and 20.3% of all cases, respectively). These common mutations predicted distinct clinical outcomes, with R239 predicting the most aggressive course. Conclusions: AAO and the GFAP mutation site are important clinical predictors in AxD, with clear correlations to defined patterns of phenotypic expression. We propose revised AxD subtypes, type I and type II, based on analysis of statistically defined patient groups. PMID:21917775

  20. GFAP mutations, age at onset, and clinical subtypes in Alexander disease.

    PubMed

    Prust, M; Wang, J; Morizono, H; Messing, A; Brenner, M; Gordon, E; Hartka, T; Sokohl, A; Schiffmann, R; Gordish-Dressman, H; Albin, R; Amartino, H; Brockman, K; Dinopoulos, A; Dotti, M T; Fain, D; Fernandez, R; Ferreira, J; Fleming, J; Gill, D; Griebel, M; Heilstedt, H; Kaplan, P; Lewis, D; Nakagawa, M; Pedersen, R; Reddy, A; Sawaishi, Y; Schneider, M; Sherr, E; Takiyama, Y; Wakabayashi, K; Gorospe, J R; Vanderver, A

    2011-09-27

    To characterize Alexander disease (AxD) phenotypes and determine correlations with age at onset (AAO) and genetic mutation. AxD is an astrogliopathy usually characterized on MRI by leukodystrophy and caused by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mutations. We present 30 new cases of AxD and reviewed 185 previously reported cases. We conducted Wilcoxon rank sum tests to identify variables scaling with AAO, survival analysis to identify predictors of mortality, and χ(2) tests to assess the effects of common GFAP mutations. Finally, we performed latent class analysis (LCA) to statistically define AxD subtypes. LCA identified 2 classes of AxD. Type I is characterized by early onset, seizures, macrocephaly, motor delay, encephalopathy, failure to thrive, paroxysmal deterioration, and typical MRI features. Type II is characterized by later onset, autonomic dysfunction, ocular movement abnormalities, bulbar symptoms, and atypical MRI features. Survival analysis predicted a nearly 2-fold increase in mortality among patients with type I AxD relative to those with type II. R79 and R239 GFAP mutations were most common (16.6% and 20.3% of all cases, respectively). These common mutations predicted distinct clinical outcomes, with R239 predicting the most aggressive course. AAO and the GFAP mutation site are important clinical predictors in AxD, with clear correlations to defined patterns of phenotypic expression. We propose revised AxD subtypes, type I and type II, based on analysis of statistically defined patient groups.

  1. Clinical relevance of pharmacist intervention in an emergency department.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Moreno, Maria Antonia; Rodríguez-Camacho, Juan Manuel; Calderón-Hernanz, Beatriz; Comas-Díaz, Bernardino; Tarradas-Torras, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical relevance of pharmacist intervention on patient care in emergencies, to determine the severity of detected errors. Second, to analyse the most frequent types of interventions and type of drugs involved and to evaluate the clinical pharmacist's activity. A 6-month observational prospective study of pharmacist intervention in the Emergency Department (ED) at a 400-bed hospital in Spain was performed to record interventions carried out by the clinical pharmacists. We determined whether the intervention occurred in the process of medication reconciliation or another activity, and whether the drug involved belonged to the High-Alert Medications Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) list. To evaluate the severity of the errors detected and clinical relevance of the pharmacist intervention, a modified assessment scale of Overhage and Lukes was used. Relationship between clinical relevance of pharmacist intervention and the severity of medication errors was assessed using ORs and Spearman's correlation coefficient. During the observation period, pharmacists reviewed the pharmacotherapy history and medication orders of 2984 patients. A total of 991 interventions were recorded in 557 patients; 67.2% of the errors were detected during medication reconciliation. Medication errors were considered severe in 57.2% of cases and 64.9% of pharmacist intervention were considered relevant. About 10.9% of the drugs involved are in the High-Alert Medications ISMP list. The severity of the medication error and the clinical significance of the pharmacist intervention were correlated (Spearman's ρ=0.728/p<0.001). In this single centre study, the clinical pharmacists identified and intervened on a high number of severe medication errors. This suggests that emergency services will benefit from pharmacist-provided drug therapy services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  2. GWAS of clinically defined gout and subtypes identifies multiple susceptibility loci that include urate transporter genes.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Ken; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Shaukat, Amara; Toyoda, Yu; Okada, Yukinori; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Takahiro; Takada, Tappei; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Yasujima, Tomoya; Yuasa, Hiroaki; Shirahama, Yuko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Seiko; Higashino, Toshihide; Kawamura, Yusuke; Ogata, Hiraku; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Danjoh, Inaho; Tokumasu, Atsumi; Ooyama, Keiko; Ito, Toshimitsu; Kondo, Takaaki; Wakai, Kenji; Stiburkova, Blanka; Pavelka, Karel; Stamp, Lisa K; Dalbeth, Nicola; Sakurai, Yutaka; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hosoyamada, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Yokoo, Takashi; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Inoue, Ituro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Merriman, Tony R; Matsuo, Hirotaka

    2017-05-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gout and its subtypes was performed to identify novel gout loci, including those that are subtype-specific. Putative causal association signals from a GWAS of 945 clinically defined gout cases and 1213 controls from Japanese males were replicated with 1396 cases and 1268 controls using a custom chip of 1961 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also first conducted GWASs of gout subtypes. Replication with Caucasian and New Zealand Polynesian samples was done to further validate the loci identified in this study. In addition to the five loci we reported previously, further susceptibility loci were identified at a genome-wide significance level (p<5.0×10(-8)): urate transporter genes (SLC22A12 and SLC17A1) and HIST1H2BF-HIST1H4E for all gout cases, and NIPAL1 and FAM35A for the renal underexcretion gout subtype. While NIPAL1 encodes a magnesium transporter, functional analysis did not detect urate transport via NIPAL1, suggesting an indirect association with urate handling. Localisation analysis in the human kidney revealed expression of NIPAL1 and FAM35A mainly in the distal tubules, which suggests the involvement of the distal nephron in urate handling in humans. Clinically ascertained male patients with gout and controls of Caucasian and Polynesian ancestries were also genotyped, and FAM35A was associated with gout in all cases. A meta-analysis of the three populations revealed FAM35A to be associated with gout at a genome-wide level of significance (p meta =3.58×10(-8)). Our findings including novel gout risk loci provide further understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of gout and lead to a novel concept for the therapeutic target of gout/hyperuricaemia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Assay Platform for Clinically Relevant Metallo-β-lactamases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are a growing threat to the use of almost all clinically used β-lactam antibiotics. The identification of broad-spectrum MBL inhibitors is hampered by the lack of a suitable screening platform, consisting of appropriate substrates and a set of clinically relevant MBLs. We report procedures for the preparation of a set of clinically relevant metallo-β-lactamases (i.e., NDM-1 (New Delhi MBL), IMP-1 (Imipenemase), SPM-1 (São Paulo MBL), and VIM-2 (Verona integron-encoded MBL)) and the identification of suitable fluorogenic substrates (umbelliferone-derived cephalosporins). The fluorogenic substrates were compared to chromogenic substrates (CENTA, nitrocefin, and imipenem), showing improved sensitivity and kinetic parameters. The efficiency of the fluorogenic substrates was exemplified by inhibitor screening, identifying 4-chloroisoquinolinols as potential pan MBL inhibitors. PMID:23898798

  4. Antidrug Antibody Formation in Oncology: Clinical Relevance and Challenges.

    PubMed

    van Brummelen, Emilie M J; Ros, Willeke; Wolbink, Gertjan; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M

    2016-10-01

    : In oncology, an increasing number of targeted anticancer agents and immunotherapies are of biological origin. These biological drugs may trigger immune responses that lead to the formation of antidrug antibodies (ADAs). ADAs are directed against immunogenic parts of the drug and may affect efficacy and safety. In other medical fields, such as rheumatology and hematology, the relevance of ADA formation is well established. However, the relevance of ADAs in oncology is just starting to be recognized, and literature on this topic is scarce. In an attempt to fill this gap in the literature, we provide an up-to-date status of ADA formation in oncology. In this focused review, data on ADAs was extracted from 81 clinical trials with biological anticancer agents. We found that most biological anticancer drugs in these trials are immunogenic and induce ADAs (63%). However, it is difficult to establish the clinical relevance of these ADAs. In order to determine this relevance, the possible effects of ADAs on pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety parameters need to be investigated. Our data show that this was done in fewer than 50% of the trials. In addition, we describe the incidence and consequences of ADAs for registered agents. We highlight the challenges in ADA detection and argue for the importance of validating, standardizing, and describing well the used assays. Finally, we discuss prevention strategies such as immunosuppression and regimen adaptations. We encourage the launch of clinical trials that explore these strategies in oncology.

  5. A newer and broader definition of burnout: Validation of the "Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-36)"

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Burnout syndrome has been clinically characterised by a series of three subtypes: frenetic, underchallenged and worn-out, with reference to coping strategies for stress and frustration at work with different degrees of dedication. The aims of the study are to present an operating definition of these subtypes in order to assess their reliability and convergent validity with respect to a standard burnout criterion and to examine differences with regard to sex and the temporary nature of work contracts. Method An exploratory factor analysis was performed by the main component method on a range of items devised by experts. The sample was composed of 409 employees of the University of Zaragoza, Spain. The reliability of the scales was assessed with Cronbach's α, convergent validity in relation to the Maslach Burnout Inventory with Pearson's r, and differences with Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Results The factorial validity and reliability of the scales were good. The subtypes presented relations of differing degrees with the criterion dimensions, which were greater when dedication to work was lower. The frenetic profile presented fewer relations with the criterion dimensions while the worn-out profile presented relations of the greatest magnitude. Sex was not influential in establishing differences. However, the temporary nature of work contracts was found to have an effect: temporary employees exhibited higher scores in the frenetic profile (p < 0.001), while permanent employees did so in the underchallenged (p = 0.018) and worn-out (p < 0.001) profiles. Conclusions The classical Maslach description of burnout does not include the frenetic profile; therefore, these patients are not recognised. The developed questionnaire may be a useful tool for the design and appraisal of specific preventive and treatment approaches based on the type of burnout experienced. PMID:20525178

  6. Clinical and life style variables in functional dyspepsia and its sub-types.

    PubMed

    Chithra, P; Chandrikha, C; Kannan, Arun Srinivasan; Srinath, S; Srinivasan, Vijaya; Jayanthi, V

    2012-01-01

    Several definitions and classifications have been designed to characterize functional dyspepsia (FD), the recent one being the ROME III criteria. There have been many studies in the western population which aimed at identifying the risk factors involved in functional dyspepsia. There are fewer studies from south Asian countries. To determine the clinical and life style variables influencing functional dyspepsia and its sub-types in patients attending a tertiary care referral centre in the Indian subcontinent. Consecutive patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms including, epigastric pain/burning, early satiety, postprandial fullness, heartburn and/or chest discomfort, alone or in combination, on more than 3 occasions a week, within the preceding 6 months and with a normal endoscopy were included in the study. Demographic details and the symptom profile including frequency of symptoms were recorded in a pre-structured, validated, modified proforma as per the ROME III criteria and analyzed to test the study hypothesis. Of the 170 patients, the median age of presentation was 49 yrs and the male to female ratio was 0.62 (65:105). The mean BMI was 23.8 kg/m2. Women had a higher BMI than men. More than half of the study subjects were from the low socio-economic groups.77.6% had ulcer type symptoms and showed a decreasing trend with age. It was more common in patients with higher per capita income. Reflux type comprised of 60.6% with predominance in women. 7% had early satiety and 13.5% had postprandial fullness. Nausea and belch as an isolated (associated) phenomenon comprised of 18.8% and 17.1% respectively. None of the lifestyle variables or demographic characteristics showed a significant influence on symptom occurrence. There was a considerable overlap of various sub-types of dyspepsia. There were no differences in life style characteristics or significant risk factors in the various subtypes of dyspepsia.

  7. Characterization of molecular subtypes of Korean breast cancer: An ethnically and clinically distinct population

    PubMed Central

    HAN, WONSHIK; NICOLAU, MONICA; NOH, DONG-YOUNG; JEFFREY, STEFANIE S.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the molecular characteristics of Korean breast cancer. A cDNA microarray study (>42k clones) was performed on 69 breast cancers and three normal breast tissues. The subjects had a high percentage of HER-2 expression, hormone receptor negativity, and young onset. Molecular subtypes according to gene expression profiles were determined and their correlations to the clinicopathologic characteristics and patients outcome were analyzed. The tumors were subdivided into luminal-, normal breast-like, ERBB2+, and basal-like subtypes according to the correlations to the previously described intrinsic genes and five centroids. Only a few tumors were highly correlated to the luminal B and normal-like centroids. The high grade tumors with high p53 and Ki-67 were found more commonly in non-luminal tumors. Distant recurrence-free survival was worse in ERBB2+ and basal-like subgroups than luminal tumors. In an unsupervised clustering with 864 genes, many interesting gene clusters were observed, some of which had not been previously described. Although the Korean breast cancers showed generally similar molecular phenotypes as Western studies, some distinct gene expression patterns and their association to clinical outcomes were observed. PMID:20514396

  8. Characterization of molecular subtypes of Korean breast cancer: an ethnically and clinically distinct population.

    PubMed

    Han, Wonshik; Nicolau, Monica; Noh, Dong-Young; Jeffrey, Stefanie S

    2010-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the molecular characteristics of Korean breast cancer. A cDNA microarray study (>42k clones) was performed on 69 breast cancers and three normal breast tissues. The subjects had a high percentage of HER-2 expression, hormone receptor negativity, and young onset. Molecular subtypes according to gene expression profiles were determined and their correlations to the clinicopathologic characteristics and patients outcome were analyzed. The tumors were subdivided into luminal-, normal breast-like, ERBB2+, and basal-like subtypes according to the correlations to the previously described intrinsic genes and five centroids. Only a few tumors were highly correlated to the luminal B and normal-like centroids. The high grade tumors with high p53 and Ki-67 were found more commonly in non-luminal tumors. Distant recurrence-free survival was worse in ERBB2+ and basal-like subgroups than luminal tumors. In an unsupervised clustering with 864 genes, many interesting gene clusters were observed, some of which had not been previously described. Although the Korean breast cancers showed generally similar molecular phenotypes as Western studies, some distinct gene expression patterns and their association to clinical outcomes were observed.

  9. Generation of an algorithm based on minimal gene sets to clinically subtype triple negative breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ring, Brian Z; Hout, David R; Morris, Stephan W; Lawrence, Kasey; Schweitzer, Brock L; Bailey, Daniel B; Lehmann, Brian D; Pietenpol, Jennifer A; Seitz, Robert S

    2016-02-23

    Recently, a gene expression algorithm, TNBCtype, was developed that can divide triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) into molecularly-defined subtypes. The algorithm has potential to provide predictive value for TNBC subtype-specific response to various treatments. TNBCtype used in a retrospective analysis of neoadjuvant clinical trial data of TNBC patients demonstrated that TNBC subtype and pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy were significantly associated. Herein we describe an expression algorithm reduced to 101 genes with the power to subtype TNBC tumors similar to the original 2188-gene expression algorithm and predict patient outcomes. The new classification model was built using the same expression data sets used for the original TNBCtype algorithm. Gene set enrichment followed by shrunken centroid analysis were used for feature reduction, then elastic-net regularized linear modeling was used to identify genes for a centroid model classifying all subtypes, comprised of 101 genes. The predictive capability of both this new "lean" algorithm and the original 2188-gene model were applied to an independent clinical trial cohort of 139 TNBC patients treated initially with neoadjuvant doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide and then randomized to receive either paclitaxel or ixabepilone to determine association of pathologic complete response within the subtypes. The new 101-gene expression model reproduced the classification provided by the 2188-gene algorithm and was highly concordant in the same set of seven TNBC cohorts used to generate the TNBCtype algorithm (87%), as well as in the independent clinical trial cohort (88%), when cases with significant correlations to multiple subtypes were excluded. Clinical responses to both neoadjuvant treatment arms, found BL2 to be significantly associated with poor response (Odds Ratio (OR) =0.12, p=0.03 for the 2188-gene model; OR = 0.23, p < 0.03 for the 101-gene model). Additionally, while the BL1 subtype

  10. Mycobacterium xenopi Clinical Relevance and Determinants, the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Boeree, Martin J.; de Lange, Wiel C.M.; Hoefsloot, Wouter; Bendien, Saar A.; Magis-Escurra, Cecile; Dekhuijzen, Richard; van Soolingen, Dick

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands, isolation of Mycobacterium xenopi is infrequent, and its clinical relevance is often uncertain. To determine clinical relevance and determinants, we retrospectively reviewed medical files of all patients in the Netherlands in whom M. xenopi was isolated from January 1999 through March 2005 by using diagnostic criteria for nontuberculous mycobacterial infection published by the American Thoracic Society. We found 49 patients, mostly white men, with an average age of 60 years and pre-existing pulmonary disease; of these patients, 25 (51%) met the diagnostic criteria. Mycobacterial genotype, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, was associated with true infection. Most infections were pulmonary, but pleural and spinal infections (spinal in HIV-infected patients) were also noted. Treatment regimens varied in content and duration; some patients were overtreated and some were undertreated. PMID:18325251

  11. [Subtype-specific clinically important effects of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors].

    PubMed

    Shishkina, G T; Dygalo, N N

    2002-01-01

    A- B- and C-subtypes of alpha 2-adrenoreceptors present in all mammals are involved in responses to currently existing subtype-nonselective ligands of these receptors widely used in medicine. Each of the subtypes has its own specific distribution in tissue and cells, onthogenetic pattern, specific regulation of activity and expression, and, as result, specific physiological functions. The latter suggests opportunities of using the subtype-specific for correction of the functions depending on this receptor. The article reviews the role of individual subtypes of alpha 2-adrenoreceptors in regulation of neurochemical transmission of cardiovascular system, psychoemotional state and development of psychic disorders, and also male sexual behaviour.

  12. Juxtaposed atrial appendages: A curiosity with some clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Pradhan, Priya; Agarwal, Ravi; Sivakumar, Kothandum

    2016-01-01

    If the atrial appendages lie adjacent to each other on same side of the great arteries, instead of encircling their roots, they are referred as juxtaposed. Right juxtaposition of atrial appendages is less common than left juxtaposition. The images demonstrate the classical radiological, echocardiographic, and surgical images of juxtaposed atrial appendages. Their clinical incidence, associations, and relevance during interventional and surgical procedures are discussed. PMID:27212860

  13. Walnut allergens: molecular characterization, detection and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Costa, J; Carrapatoso, I; Oliveira, M B P P; Mafra, I

    2014-03-01

    Food-induced allergies have been regarded as an emergent problem of public health. Classified as important allergenic ingredients, the presence of walnut and other nuts as hidden allergens in processed foods constitutes a risk for sensitized individuals, being a real problem of allergen management. Attending to the increasing importance dedicated to walnut allergy, this review intends to provide the relevant and up-to-date information on main issues such as the prevalence of walnut allergy, the clinical threshold levels, the molecular characterization of walnut allergens and their clinical relevance, as well as the methodologies for walnut allergen detection in foods. As the walnut used in human diet comes from Juglans regia and Juglans nigra, the molecular characterization of the allergens from both species included in the prolamins (Jug r 1, Jug n 1 and Jug r 3), cupins (Jug r 2, Jug n 2 and Jug r 4) and profilins (Jug r 5), together with respective clinical relevance, were compiled in this review. The most recent progresses on walnut allergen detection techniques (protein- and DNA-based) are described and critically compared, including the emergent multitarget approaches.

  14. [Clinical features and prognosis of patients with first-episode liver metastasis of different molecular subtypes of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Wu, S Y; Tan, Y; Guan, Y S

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the clinical features and prognosis of patients with first-episode liver metastasis of different molecular subtypes of breast cancer and risk factors for liver metastasis of breast cancer. A retrospective analysis was performed for 122 breast cancer patients with first-episode liver metastasis from January 2009 to January 2014. According to the cell surface receptors of breast cancer, these patients were divided into the four molecular subtypes of Luminal A, Luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The association of patients' age at initial diagnosis, body mass index (BMI), menstruation status, clinical TNM (cTNM) stage, levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at recurrence, liver metastasis, and treatment condition with the patients' prognosis were analyzed. The chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for categorical data, the Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis, the log-rank test was used for univariate analysis of influencing factors, and the Cox regression model was used for multivariate analysis. Among the 122 patients, 12 had Luminal A subtype, 61 had Luminal B subtype, 30 had HER2 overexpression subtype, and 19 had TNBC subtype. In the patients with Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2 overexpression, and TNBC subtypes, the median disease-free survival (DFS) was 32, 23, 16, and 10 months, respectively (P = 0.001), the median overall survival (OS) was 54, 35, 26, and 13 months, respectively (P = 0.003), and the median OS after liver metastasis was 30, 16, 10, and 9 months, respectively (P = 0.019). In HER2-positive patients, the application of trastuzumab in the past significantly prolonged the patients' DFS by 11 months and OS by 18 months (P < 0.05). The results of the multivariate analysis showed that cTNM stage, molecular subtype, and targeted therapy were independent influencing factors for DFS of breast cancer patients

  15. Symptoms and clinical relevance: a dilemma for clinical trials on prevention of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Bounameaux, Henri; Agnelli, Giancarlo

    2013-04-01

    The outcomes of thromboprophylactic trials have been debated for decades. Recently, the 9th edition of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) evidence-based clinical practice guidelines based their strong recommendations only on patient-important outcomes. Practically, symptoms were considered the crucial element. Consequently, studies that primarily aimed at reducing venographic thrombi were considered less pertinent than studies that focused on symptomatic thrombosis. In the present viewpoint, we challenge the argument that "symptomatic" and "clinically relevant" are interchangeable. In particular, the case is made that asymptomatic events may be clinically relevant and that asymptomatic venographically detected thrombosis is a clinically relevant surrogate outcome for fatal pulmonary embolism.

  16. Blastocystis and urticaria: Examination of subtypes and morphotypes in an unusual clinical manifestation.

    PubMed

    Casero, Rodolfo Daniel; Mongi, Florencia; Sánchez, Angie; Ramírez, Juan David

    2015-08-01

    Blastocystis is a human common enteric protist that may colonize a large variety of non-human hosts linked to symptoms and diseases such as abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, urticaria, flatulence and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Blastocystis exhibits remarkable genetic diversity and multiple subtypes (STs) within the genus with no absolute associations with clinical symptomatology. Here we analyzed fecal samples from Argentinean patients (n=270) belonging to symptomatic (urticaria and non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms, n=39) and asymptomatic control (n=28). Those patients infected with Blastocystis (n=67) were submitted for morphological analysis, DNA extraction, 18S PCR, sequencing and STs identification according to DNA barcoding. Blastocystis vacuolar forms were the predominant morphotype (75%), ameboid-like forms were evidenced in 1.5% of samples. Blastocystis ST3 was detected in 71.6% (n=48), of which 71.4%, (n=35) and 28.6% (n=14) belonged to symptomatic and asymptomatic respectively. Other subtypes identified were ST1 (14.9%), ST6 (7.5%) and ST2 (5.9%). Blastocystis 18S barcoding evidenced in non-urticaria symptomatic patients and asymptomatic control group the presence of allele 134 (ST3) (p<0.0001), while allele 34 (ST3) was detected in 85.7% (18/21) of symptomatic uricaria as compared with control group (1/21) (p<0.0001). The presence of a particular allele (a34) significantly associated with urticaria patients was detected and the clinical implications of these findings are herein discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Childhood maltreatment and psychopathology: A case for ecophenotypic variants as clinically and neurobiologically distinct subtypes.

    PubMed

    Teicher, Martin H; Samson, Jacqueline A

    2013-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment increases risk for psychopathology. For some highly prevalent disorders (major depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder) a substantial subset of individuals have a history of maltreatment and a substantial subset do not. The authors examined the evidence to assess whether those with a history of maltreatment represent a clinically and biologically distinct subtype. The authors reviewed the literature on maltreatment as a risk factor for these disorders and on the clinical differences between individuals with and without a history of maltreatment who share the same diagnoses. Neurobiological findings in maltreated individuals were reviewed and compared with findings reported for these disorders. Maltreated individuals with depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders have an earlier age at onset, greater symptom severity, more comorbidity, a greater risk for suicide, and poorer treatment response than nonmaltreated individuals with the same diagnoses. Imaging findings associated with these disorders, such as reduced hippocampal volume and amygdala hyperreactivity, are more consistently observed in maltreated individuals and may represent a maltreatment-related risk factor. Maltreated individuals also differ from others as a result of epigenetic modifications and genetic polymorphisms that interact with experience to increase risk for psychopathology. Phenotypic expression of psychopathology may be strongly influenced by exposure to maltreatment, leading to a constellation of ecophenotypes. While these ecophenotypes fit within conventional diagnostic boundaries, they likely represent distinct subtypes. Recognition of this distinction may be essential in determining the biological bases of these disorders. Treatment guidelines and algorithms may be enhanced if maltreated and nonmaltreated individuals with the same diagnostic labels are differentiated.

  18. Childhood maltreatment and psychopathology: A case for ecophenotypic variants as clinically and neurobiologically distinct subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Teicher, Martin H.; Samson, Jacqueline A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Childhood maltreatment increases risk for psychopathology. For some highly prevalent disorders (i.e., major depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder) there is a substantial subset of individuals with maltreatment histories and a substantial subset without. Do those with maltreatment histories represent a clinically and biologically distinct subtype? Method The authors review literature on maltreatment as a risk factor for these disorders and on the clinical differences between individuals with and without maltreatment who share the same diagnoses. Neurobiological findings in maltreated individuals are reviewed and compared to findings reported for these disorders. Results Maltreated individuals with depressive, anxiety and substance use disorders show an earlier age of onset, greater symptom severity, more comorbidity, increased risk for suicide and poorer treatment response than non-maltreated individuals with the same diagnoses. Imaging findings associated with these disorders, such as reduced hippocampal volume and amygdala hyperreactivity are more consistently observed in maltreated individuals and may represent a maltreatment-related risk factor. Maltreated individuals also differ from others due to epigenetic modifications and genetic polymorphisms that interact with experience to increase risk for psychopathology. Conclusions Phenotypic expression of psychopathology may be strongly influenced by exposure to maltreatment leading to a constellation of ecophenotypes. While these ecophenotypes fit within conventional diagnostic boundaries, they likely represent distinct subtypes. Recognition of this distinction may be essential in determining the biological bases of these disorders. Further, treatment guidelines and algorithms may be enhanced if maltreated and non-maltreated individuals with the same diagnostic labels are differentiated. PMID:23982148

  19. Therapeutic strategies in male breast cancer: clinical implications of chromosome 17 gene alterations and molecular subtypes.

    PubMed

    Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Schroeder, Lars; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Binot, Elke; Büttner, Reinhard; Kuhn, Walther; Rudlowski, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease. To date, therapy is mainly based on studies and clinical experiences with breast cancer in women. Only little is known about molecular typing of MBC, particularly with regard to potential biological predictors for adjuvant therapy. In female breast cancer tumors with chromosome 17 centromere (CEP17) duplication, HER2 and/or Topoisomerase II alpha (Topo II-α) gene alterations have been suggested to be associated with poor prognosis and increased sensitivity to anthracycline-containing regimens. In a well characterized cohort of 96 primary invasive MBC, we studied CEP17, HER2 and Topo II-α alterations by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), and expression of hormone receptors (HR), HER2 and Ki67 by immunohistochemistry to define molecular subtypes. Tumor characteristics and follow-up data were available and correlated with molecular findings. HER2 amplification and Topo II-α amplification/deletion were exceptionally rare in MBC (6.3% and 3.1%, respectively). CEP17 polysomy were found in 9.4% of tumors. HER2, Topo II-α and CEP17 gene alterations were not correlated to patients outcome. 96.9% of our cases were HR positive. Triple negative tumors were found in only 3.1% of the cases. In nodal negative tumors luminal A subtypes were significantly associated with better overall survival. Our results provide evidence for a predominant male breast cancer phenotype, characterized by HR expression and a lack of HER2/Topo II-α alterations and CEP17 duplicates. Therefore, the impact of anthracycline sensitivity linked to HER2/Topo II-α alterations as found in female breast cancer has low clinical significance for this specific male breast cancer phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Systematic Approach for Discovering Novel, Clinically Relevant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Simmon, Keith E.; Fisher, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (16S) is a reference method for bacterial identification. Its expanded use has led to increased recognition of novel bacterial species. In most clinical laboratories, novel species are infrequently encountered, and their pathogenic potential is often difficult to assess. We reviewed partial 16S sequences from >26,000 clinical isolates, analyzed during February 2006–June 2010, and identified 673 that have <99% sequence identity with valid reference sequences and are thus possibly novel species. Of these 673 isolates, 111 may represent novel genera (<95% identity). Isolates from 95 novel taxa were recovered from multiple patients, indicating possible clinical relevance. Most repeatedly encountered novel taxa belonged to the genera Nocardia (14 novel taxa, 42 isolates) and Actinomyces (12 novel taxa, 52 isolates). This systematic approach for recognition of novel species with potential diagnostic or therapeutic relevance provides a basis for epidemiologic surveys and improvement of sequence databases and may lead to identification of new clinical entities. PMID:22377371

  1. Differences in Clinical Manifestations of Acute and Early HIV-1 Infection between HIV-1 Subtypes in African Women

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Richard R.; Morrison, Charles S.; Kwok, Cynthia; Chipato, Tsungai; Musoke, Robert; Arts, Eric J.; Nankya, Immaculate; Salata, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the differences in clinical manifestations between women with various HIV-1 subtypes during acute (AI) and early (EI) HIV infection. In a longitudinal cohort study, clinical signs and symptoms among Uganda and Zimbabwe women with AI and EI were compared with HIV-negative controls; symptoms were assessed quarterly for 15 to 24 months. Early HIV infection was defined as the first visit during which a woman tested HIV antibody positive. Women who were HIV negative serologically but DNA polymerase chain reaction positive were considered AI. In all, 26 women were classified AI and 192 EI, with 654 HIV-negative controls. Primary HIV infection (AI and EI) was associated with unexplained fever (P <.01), weight loss (P <.01), fatigue (P <.01), inguinal adenopathy (P <.01), and cervical friability (P =.01). More women with subtype C infection had unexplained fever, fatigue, and abnormal vaginal discharge compared to subtype A or D infection. Inguinal adenopathy occurred less often in women with subtype A infection than those with subtype C or D infection. PMID:24106054

  2. Differences in Clinical Manifestations of Acute and Early HIV-1 Infection between HIV-1 Subtypes in African Women.

    PubMed

    Lemonovich, Tracy L; Watkins, Richard R; Morrison, Charles S; Kwok, Cynthia; Chipato, Tsungai; Musoke, Robert; Arts, Eric J; Nankya, Immaculate; Salata, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the differences in clinical manifestations between women with various HIV-1 subtypes during acute (AI) and early (EI) HIV infection. In a longitudinal cohort study, clinical signs and symptoms among Uganda and Zimbabwe women with AI and EI were compared with HIV-negative controls; symptoms were assessed quarterly for 15 to 24 months. Early HIV infection was defined as the first visit during which a woman tested HIV antibody positive. Women who were HIV negative serologically but DNA polymerase chain reaction positive were considered AI. In all, 26 women were classified AI and 192 EI, with 654 HIV-negative controls. Primary HIV infection (AI and EI) was associated with unexplained fever (P <.01), weight loss (P <.01), fatigue (P <.01), inguinal adenopathy (P <.01), and cervical friability (P =.01). More women with subtype C infection had unexplained fever, fatigue, and abnormal vaginal discharge compared to subtype A or D infection. Inguinal adenopathy occurred less often in women with subtype A infection than those with subtype C or D infection.

  3. Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Associations between subtype and lifetime substance use – a clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Liebrenz, Michael; Gamma, Alex; Ivanov, Iliyan; Buadze, Anna; Eich, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    ADHD is the one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has been associated with impairments persisting into adulthood. Specifically, childhood ADHD is an independent clinical risk factor for the development of later substance use disorders (SUD). Moreover, adults who meet diagnostic criteria for ADHD have shown high rates of comorbid SUDs. Few studies, however, have reported on the relationship between ADHD subtypes and SUD in adult samples. The purpose of this study was to characterize a clinical sample of adults with ADHD and to identify possible associations between ADHD subtypes, lifetime substance use, and if ADHD subtypes may be preferentially associated with specific substances of abuse. We recruited 413 adult ADHD patients, performed an evaluation of their ADHD and conducted an interview on their use of psychotropic substances. Complete data was obtained for 349 patients. Lifetime substance abuse or dependence was 26% and occasional use was 57% in this sample. The inattentive subtype was significantly less likely to abuse or be dependent on cocaine than the combined subtype. Our findings underscore the high rate of comorbidity between substance use and ADHD in adults. The more frequent abuse/dependence of cocaine by adult patients with hyperactive-impulsive symptoms should be kept in mind when treating this patient group. PMID:27853503

  4. A comparative clinical investigation of the "How" and "Charlie" MMPI subtypes.

    PubMed

    DiFrancesca, K R; Meloy, J R

    1989-01-01

    We studied the thought and affective disturbance of Megargee and Bohn's (1979) most psychopathological Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) subtypes, the "How" and "Charlie" profiles. 75 subjects, consisting of three groups of How and Charlie subtypes in inpatient and outpatient forensic settings and two control groups, are tested using the Whitaker Index of Schizophrenic Thinking (WIST) and Profile of Mood States (POMS). Results indicate both How and Charlie subtypes have mild formal thought disorder, with the former showing greater variance of thought disorder. Charlie subtypes, however, are more angry, less depressed, more vigorous, and more constricted and defensive than the How subtypes. We conclude that the How subtype needs further actuarial refinement to be diagnostically useful.

  5. Clinically relevant drug–drug interactions in oncology

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Howard L

    1998-01-01

    Although anticancer agents are one of the most toxic classes of medication prescribed today, there is relatively little information available about clinically relevant drug–drug interactions. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions have been described, including alterations in absorption, catabolism, and excretion. For example, an increased bioavailability of 6-mercaptopurine has been observed when combined with either allopurinol or methotrexate, leading to increased toxicity in some patients. Induction of etoposide or teniposide clearance by anticonvulsants has also been described, resulting in a lower systemic exposure and risk for lower anticancer activity. Alterations in elimination of methotrexate has been observed with probenecid, presumably through competition for renal secretion. There are also several examples of pharmacodynamic interactions. The combination of 5-fluorouracil plus folinic acid results in more efficient inhibition of thymidylate synthase, a finding which is now utilized routinely in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Improvements in the in vitro and early clinical testing now allow a relatively high degree of prediction of potential clinical drug interactions, prior to observations of untoward drug effects. In conclusion, drug interactions among commonly used anticancer agents have been identified. Their clinical significance can have more impact than many other classes of medications due to the narrow therapeutic index of antineoplastic agents and the potential for lethal side-effects. It is only through prospective, preclinical and early clinical evaluation that the presence of clinically significant drug interactions can be identified and the information used to provide better therapy for this significant health problem. PMID:9663808

  6. Clinically-Relevant Cell Sources for TMJ Disc Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Johns, D.E.; Wong, M. E.; Athanasiou, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue-engineering of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc aims to provide patients with TMJ disorders an option to replace diseased tissue with autologous, functional tissue. This study examined clinically-relevant cell sources by comparing costal chondrocytes, dermal fibroblasts, a mixture of the two, and TMJ disc cells in a scaffoldless tissue-engineering approach. It was hypothesized that all constructs would produce matrix relevant to the TMJ disc, but the mixture constructs were expected to appear most like the TMJ disc constructs. Costal chondrocyte and mixture constructs were morphologically and biochemically superior to the TMJ disc and dermal fibroblast constructs, and their compressive properties were not significantly different. Costal chondrocyte constructs produced almost 40 times more collagen and 800 times more glycosaminoglycans than TMJ constructs. This study demonstrates the ability of costal chondrocytes to produce extracellular matrix that may function in a TMJ disc replacement. PMID:18502963

  7. Real time and label free profiling of clinically relevant exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sina, Abu Ali Ibn; Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Dey, Shuvashis; Carrascosa, Laura G.; Shiddiky, Muhammad J. A.; Trau, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-derived exosomes possess significant clinical relevance due to their unique composition of genetic and protein material that is representative of the parent tumor. Specific isolation as well as identification of proportions of these clinically relevant exosomes (CREs) from biological samples could help to better understand their clinical significance as cancer biomarkers. Herein, we present a simple approach for quantification of the proportion of CREs within the bulk exosome population isolated from patient serum. This proportion of CREs can potentially inform on the disease stage and enable non-invasive monitoring of inter-individual variations in tumor-receptor expression levels. Our approach utilises a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) platform to quantify the proportion of CREs in a two-step strategy that involves (i) initial isolation of bulk exosome population using tetraspanin biomarkers (i.e., CD9, CD63), and (ii) subsequent detection of CREs within the captured bulk exosomes using tumor-specific markers (e.g., human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)). We demonstrate the isolation of bulk exosome population and detection of as low as 10% HER2(+) exosomes from samples containing designated proportions of HER2(+) BT474 and HER2(−) MDA-MB-231 cell derived exosomes. We also demonstrate the successful isolation of exosomes from a small cohort of breast cancer patient samples and identified that approximately 14–35% of their bulk population express HER2. PMID:27464736

  8. Clinically Relevant Pharmacokinetic Herb-drug Interactions in Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fasinu, Pius S; Gurley, Bill J; Walker, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    For healthcare professionals, the volume of literature available on herb-drug interactions often makes it difficult to separate experimental/potential interactions from those deemed clinically relevant. There is a need for concise and conclusive information to guide pharmacotherapy in HIV/AIDS. In this review, the bases for potential interaction of medicinal herbs with specific antiretroviral drugs are presented, and several botanicals are discussed for which clinically relevant interactions in humans are established. Such studies have provided, in most cases, sufficient ground to warrant the avoidance of concurrent administration of antiretroviral (ARVs) drugs with St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), black pepper (Piper species) and grapefruit juice. Other botanicals that require caution in the use with antiretrovirals include African potato (Hypoxis hemerocallidea), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), ginseng (Panax species), garlic (Allium sativum), goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and kava kava (Piper methysticum). The knowledge of clinically significant herb-drug interaction will be important in order to avoid herb-induced risk of sub-therapeutic exposure to ARVs (which can lead to viral resistance) or the precipitation of toxicity (which may lead to poor compliance and/or discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy).

  9. Real time and label free profiling of clinically relevant exosomes.

    PubMed

    Sina, Abu Ali Ibn; Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Dey, Shuvashis; Carrascosa, Laura G; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Trau, Matt

    2016-07-28

    Tumor-derived exosomes possess significant clinical relevance due to their unique composition of genetic and protein material that is representative of the parent tumor. Specific isolation as well as identification of proportions of these clinically relevant exosomes (CREs) from biological samples could help to better understand their clinical significance as cancer biomarkers. Herein, we present a simple approach for quantification of the proportion of CREs within the bulk exosome population isolated from patient serum. This proportion of CREs can potentially inform on the disease stage and enable non-invasive monitoring of inter-individual variations in tumor-receptor expression levels. Our approach utilises a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) platform to quantify the proportion of CREs in a two-step strategy that involves (i) initial isolation of bulk exosome population using tetraspanin biomarkers (i.e., CD9, CD63), and (ii) subsequent detection of CREs within the captured bulk exosomes using tumor-specific markers (e.g., human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)). We demonstrate the isolation of bulk exosome population and detection of as low as 10% HER2(+) exosomes from samples containing designated proportions of HER2(+) BT474 and HER2(-) MDA-MB-231 cell derived exosomes. We also demonstrate the successful isolation of exosomes from a small cohort of breast cancer patient samples and identified that approximately 14-35% of their bulk population express HER2.

  10. Hazelnut Allergens: Molecular Characterization, Detection, and Clinical Relevance.

    PubMed

    Costa, Joana; Mafra, Isabel; Carrapatoso, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2016-11-17

    In last few years, special attention has been given to food-induced allergies, in which hazelnut allergy is highlighted. Hazelnut is one of the most commonly consumed tree nuts, being largely used by the food industry in a variety of processed foods. It has been regarded as a food with potential health benefits, but also as a source of allergens capable of inducing mild to severe allergic reactions in sensitized individuals. Considering the great number of reports addressing hazelnut allergens, with an estimated increasing trend, this review intends to assemble all the relevant information available so far on the following main issues: prevalence of tree nut allergy, clinical threshold levels, molecular characterization of hazelnut allergens (Cor a 1, Cor a 2, Cor a 8, Cor a 9, Cor a 10, Cor a 11, Cor a 12, Cor a 14, and Cor a TLP) and their clinical relevance, and methodologies for detection of hazelnut allergens in foods. A comprehensive overview of the current data about the molecular characterization of hazelnut allergens is presented, relating to biochemical classification and biological function with clinical importance. Recent advances in hazelnut allergen detection methodologies are summarized and compared, including all the novel protein-based and DNA-based approaches.

  11. Identification, quantification and subtyping of Gardnerella vaginalis in noncultured clinical vaginal samples by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Balashov, Sergey V; Mordechai, Eli; Adelson, Martin E; Gygax, Scott E

    2014-02-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is an important component of the human vaginal microflora. It is proposed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV), the most common vaginal condition. Here we describe the development, validation and comparative analysis of a novel molecular approach capable of G. vaginalis identification, quantification and subtyping in noncultured vaginal specimens. Using two quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays, we analysed G. vaginalis bacterial loads and clade distribution in 60 clinical vaginal-swab samples. A very high pathogen prevalence was revealed by species-specific qPCR not only among BV patients (100 %), but also in healthy women (97 %), although the G. vaginalis concentration was significantly lower in non-BV samples. G. vaginalis clades identified in vaginal specimens by subtyping multiplex qPCR, which targets four clade-specific genetic markers, had frequencies of 53 % for clade 1, 25 % for clade 2, 32 % for clade 3 and 83 % for clade 4. Multiple clades were found in 70 % of samples. Single G. vaginalis clades were represented by clade 1 and clade 4 in 28 % of specimens. A positive association with BV was shown for clade 1 and clade 3, while clade 2 was positively associated with intermediate vaginal microflora, but not with BV. Clade 4 demonstrated no correlation with the disorder. The presence of multiple clades had a high positive association with BV, whereas G. vaginalis identified as a single clade was negatively linked with the condition. Polyclonal G. vaginalis infection may be a risk factor for BV.

  12. Cervical ribs: identification on MRI and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Walden, Michael J; Adin, Mehmet E; Visagan, Ravindran; Viertel, Valentina G; Intrapiromkul, Jarunee; Maluf, Fernando; Patel, Neil V; Alluwaimi, Fatma; Lin, Doris; Yousem, David M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of cervical ribs on cervical spine MRI and clinical relevance, we reviewed 2500 studies for cervical ribs and compression of neurovascular structures and compared to CT, when available. Brachial plexus or subclavian artery contact by cervical rib was identified on MRI and/or CT in 12 cases with diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome in one. Cervical ribs were identified on 1.2% (25/2083) of examinations, lower than on CT (2%), but MRI may offer equivalent anatomic explanation for patient symptoms.

  13. Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease in 2012: Relevant Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Anne Marie; Jutras, Marie France; Czernecki, Virginie; Corvol, Jean Christophe; Vidailhet, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Nonmotor symptoms (NMSs) of Parkinson's disease (PD) are common, but they are often underrecognized in clinical practice, because of the lack of spontaneous complaints by the patients, and partly because of the absence of systematic questioning by the consulting physician. However, valid specific instruments for identification and assessment of these symptoms are available in 2012. The administration of the self-completed screening tool, NMSQuest, associated with questioning during the consultation, improves the diagnosis of NMSs. NMSs play a large role in degradation of quality of life. More relevant NMSs are described in this review, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, cognitive deficits, hallucinations, pain, sleep disorders, and dysautonomia. PMID:22888466

  14. Clinical relevance and biology of circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Most breast cancer patients die due to metastases, and the early onset of this multistep process is usually missed by current tumor staging modalities. Therefore, ultrasensitive techniques have been developed to enable the enrichment, detection, isolation and characterization of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow and circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood of cancer patients. There is increasing evidence that the presence of these cells is associated with an unfavorable prognosis related to metastatic progression in the bone and other organs. This review focuses on investigations regarding the biology and clinical relevance of circulating tumor cells in breast cancer. PMID:22114869

  15. [FeLV infection in the cat: clinically relevant aspects].

    PubMed

    Boretti, F S; Lutz, H; Hofmann-Lehmann, R

    2011-11-01

    The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus of the domestic cat that was described almost 50 years ago. The FeLV-infection may lead to fatal diseases in domestic and small wild cats. The use of efficacious diagnostics assays and vaccines led to a reduction of the FeLV prevalence; however, FeLV still poses a problem for the cat presented with the infection. This article aims to describe recent developments in diagnostics and findings in the infection pathogenesis that are clinically relevant.

  16. Characteristics of DSM-IV Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined and Predominantly Inattentive Subtypes in a Turkish Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oner, Ozgur; Oner, Pinar; Cop, Esra; Munir, Kerim M.

    2012-01-01

    Consecutively referred subjects (N = 537) to an outpatient clinic were evaluated to compare the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined (ADHD-C) and predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI) subtypes using parent and teacher ratings and neuropsychological variables. Statistical significance was at P less than 0.002 adjusted for multiple…

  17. Relationships between a Dissociative Subtype of PTSD and Clinical Characteristics in Patients with Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mergler, Michaela; Driessen, Martin; Lüdecke, Christel; Ohlmeier, Martin; Chodzinski, Claudia; Weirich, Steffen; Schläfke, Detlef; Wedekind, Dirk; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula; Renner, Walter; Schäfer, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    The increasing support for a dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD-D) has led to its inclusion in DSM-5. We examined relationships between PTSD-D and relevant variables in patients with substance use disorders (SUD). The sample comprised N = 459 patients with SUD. The International Diagnostic Checklist and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale were used to diagnose PTSD. In addition, participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The course of SUD was assessed by means of the European Addiction Severity Index. One-fourth of participants fulfilled a diagnosis of PTSD (25.3%). Patients with PTSD-D (N = 32, 27.6% of all patients with PTSD) reported significantly more current depressive symptoms, more current suicidal thoughts, more lifetime anxiety/tension, and more suicide attempts. The PTSD-D group also showed a significantly higher need for treatment due to drug problems, higher current use of opiates/analgesics, and a higher number of lifetime drug overdoses. In a regression model, symptoms of depression in the last month and lifetime suicide attempts significantly predicted PTSD-D. These findings suggest that PTSD-D is related to additional psychopathology and to a more severe course of substance-related problems in patients with SUD, indicating that this group also has additional treatment needs.

  18. Genome-wide association study of clinically defined gout identifies multiple risk loci and its association with clinical subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Ken; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Chiba, Toshinori; Takahashi, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takada, Yuzo; Danjoh, Inaho; Shimizu, Seiko; Abe, Junko; Kawamura, Yusuke; Terashige, Sho; Ogata, Hiraku; Tatsukawa, Seishiro; Yin, Guang; Okada, Rieko; Morita, Emi; Naito, Mariko; Tokumasu, Atsumi; Onoue, Hiroyuki; Iwaya, Keiichi; Ito, Toshimitsu; Takada, Tappei; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Kato, Yukio; Nakamura, Yukio; Sakurai, Yutaka; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Ituro; Kubo, Michiaki; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Gout, caused by hyperuricaemia, is a multifactorial disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of gout have been reported, they included self-reported gout cases in which clinical information was insufficient. Therefore, the relationship between genetic variation and clinical subtypes of gout remains unclear. Here, we first performed a GWAS of clinically defined gout cases only. Methods A GWAS was conducted with 945 patients with clinically defined gout and 1213 controls in a Japanese male population, followed by replication study of 1048 clinically defined cases and 1334 controls. Results Five gout susceptibility loci were identified at the genome-wide significance level (p<5.0×10−8), which contained well-known urate transporter genes (ABCG2 and SLC2A9) and additional genes: rs1260326 (p=1.9×10−12; OR=1.36) of GCKR (a gene for glucose and lipid metabolism), rs2188380 (p=1.6×10−23; OR=1.75) of MYL2-CUX2 (genes associated with cholesterol and diabetes mellitus) and rs4073582 (p=6.4×10−9; OR=1.66) of CNIH-2 (a gene for regulation of glutamate signalling). The latter two are identified as novel gout loci. Furthermore, among the identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we demonstrated that the SNPs of ABCG2 and SLC2A9 were differentially associated with types of gout and clinical parameters underlying specific subtypes (renal underexcretion type and renal overload type). The effect of the risk allele of each SNP on clinical parameters showed significant linear relationships with the ratio of the case–control ORs for two distinct types of gout (r=0.96 [p=4.8×10−4] for urate clearance and r=0.96 [p=5.0×10−4] for urinary urate excretion). Conclusions Our findings provide clues to better understand the pathogenesis of gout and will be useful for development of companion diagnostics. PMID:25646370

  19. Genome-wide association study of clinically defined gout identifies multiple risk loci and its association with clinical subtypes.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Ken; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Chiba, Toshinori; Takahashi, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takada, Yuzo; Danjoh, Inaho; Shimizu, Seiko; Abe, Junko; Kawamura, Yusuke; Terashige, Sho; Ogata, Hiraku; Tatsukawa, Seishiro; Yin, Guang; Okada, Rieko; Morita, Emi; Naito, Mariko; Tokumasu, Atsumi; Onoue, Hiroyuki; Iwaya, Keiichi; Ito, Toshimitsu; Takada, Tappei; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Kato, Yukio; Nakamura, Yukio; Sakurai, Yutaka; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Ituro; Kubo, Michiaki; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Gout, caused by hyperuricaemia, is a multifactorial disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of gout have been reported, they included self-reported gout cases in which clinical information was insufficient. Therefore, the relationship between genetic variation and clinical subtypes of gout remains unclear. Here, we first performed a GWAS of clinically defined gout cases only. A GWAS was conducted with 945 patients with clinically defined gout and 1213 controls in a Japanese male population, followed by replication study of 1048 clinically defined cases and 1334 controls. Five gout susceptibility loci were identified at the genome-wide significance level (p<5.0×10(-8)), which contained well-known urate transporter genes (ABCG2 and SLC2A9) and additional genes: rs1260326 (p=1.9×10(-12); OR=1.36) of GCKR (a gene for glucose and lipid metabolism), rs2188380 (p=1.6×10(-23); OR=1.75) of MYL2-CUX2 (genes associated with cholesterol and diabetes mellitus) and rs4073582 (p=6.4×10(-9); OR=1.66) of CNIH-2 (a gene for regulation of glutamate signalling). The latter two are identified as novel gout loci. Furthermore, among the identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we demonstrated that the SNPs of ABCG2 and SLC2A9 were differentially associated with types of gout and clinical parameters underlying specific subtypes (renal underexcretion type and renal overload type). The effect of the risk allele of each SNP on clinical parameters showed significant linear relationships with the ratio of the case-control ORs for two distinct types of gout (r=0.96 [p=4.8×10(-4)] for urate clearance and r=0.96 [p=5.0×10(-4)] for urinary urate excretion). Our findings provide clues to better understand the pathogenesis of gout and will be useful for development of companion diagnostics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetes: New insights of clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanyam, Muthuswamy; Lenin, Raji; Monickaraj, Finny

    2010-04-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular compartment responsible for multiple important cellular functions including the biosynthesis and folding of newly synthesized proteins destined for secretion, such as insulin. A myriad of pathological and physiological factors perturb ER function and cause dysregulation of ER homeostasis, leading to ER stress. Accumulating evidence suggests that ER stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes, contributing to pancreatic β-cell loss and insulin resistance. ER stress may also link obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. In this review, we address the transition from physiology to pathology, namely how and why the physiological UPR evolves to a proapoptotic ER stress response in diabetes and its complications. Special attention was given to elucidate how ER stress could explain some of the 'clinical paradoxes' such as secondary sulfonylurea failure, initial worsening of retinopathy during tight glycemic control, insulin resistance induced by protease inhibitors and other clinically relevant observations.

  1. Clinically Relevant Drug Interactions with Anti-Alzheimer's Drugs.

    PubMed

    Caraci, Filippo; Sultana, Janet; Drago, Filippo; Spina, Edoardo

    2017-01-01

    The aging world population had led to an increase in the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The drugs used to slow down the onset of AD, galantamine, donepezil, rivastigmine and memantine, are generally well-tolerated. However, drug interactions between these drugs and other drugs are an important aspect of patient safety that should be borne in mind, particularly given the high burden of polypharmacy in the elderly. The aim of this review is to provide an updated review of clinically significant drug-drug interactions concerning drugs approved for AD. PubMed was searched for relevant keywords. No time limit was imposed but only articles in English published in peer-reviewed journals were selected. Relevant literature was also identified from the references of identified articles. Further information was obtained from drug summary of product characteristics. The major pharmacokinetic interactions identified concerned fluoxetine, paroxetine and ketoconazole when used with galantamine or donepezil. On the other hand, the major potential pharmacodynamic interactions concerned anti-dementia drugs and general anesthesia agents, anti-cholinergic drugs, conventional antipsychotics and bradycardia-inducing drugs. In clinical practice memantine shows a lower potential for pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) compared to other drug classes. The concomitant use of anti-dementia drugs with other drugs can have variable clinical effects, making appropriate prescribing of these drugs very challenging. A simple and coherent way of presenting evidence on complex drug interaction information from heterogenous sources to clinicians is needed in order for the voluminous data available to have an impact on clinical practice. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Quantifying Clinical Relevance in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Correll, Christoph U.; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Nielsen, Jimmi; Kane, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Background To optimize the management of patients with schizophrenia, quantification of treatment effects is crucial. While in research studies, the use of quantitative assessments is ubiquitous; this is not the case in routine clinical practice, creating an important translational practice gap. Objective To examine the relevance, methodology, reporting and application of measurement based approaches in the management of schizophrenia. Methods We summarize methodological aspects in the assessment of therapeutic and adverse antipsychotic effects in schizophrenia, including definitions and methods of measurement based assessments and factors that can interfere with the valid quantification of treatment effects. Finally, we propose pragmatic and clinically meaningful ways to measure and report treatment outcomes. Results While rating scales are ubiquitous in schizophrenia research and provide the evidence base for treatment guidelines, time constraints, lack of familiarity with and/or training in validated assessment tools limits their routine clinical use. Simple, but valid assessment instruments need to be developed and implemented to bridge this research-practice gap. Moreover, results from research trials need to be communicated in clinically meaningful ways. This includes the reporting of effect sizes, numbers-needed-to-treat and -harm, confidence intervals and absolute risk differences. Some important outcomes, such as treatment response, should be reported in escalating intervals using incrementally more stringent psychopathology improvements. Nevertheless, even with quantification, it remains challenging to weigh individual efficacy and adverse effect outcomes against each other and to decide on the targeted/desired improvement or outcome, while also incorporating that in patient-centered and shared decision methods. Conclusions Quantification of treatment effects in schizophrenia is relevant for patient management, research, and the evaluation of health care

  3. Clinical relevance of dissolution testing in quality by design.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Paul A; Lee, Wang Wang; Stott, Paul W; Townsend, Andy I; Smart, John P; Ghahramani, Parviz; Hammett, Tracey; Billett, Linda; Behn, Sheena; Gibb, Ryan C; Abrahamsson, Bertil

    2008-06-01

    Quality by design (QbD) has recently been introduced in pharmaceutical product development in a regulatory context and the process of implementing such concepts in the drug approval process is presently on-going. This has the potential to allow for a more flexible regulatory approach based on understanding and optimisation of how design of a product and its manufacturing process may affect product quality. Thus, adding restrictions to manufacturing beyond what can be motivated by clinical quality brings no benefits but only additional costs. This leads to a challenge for biopharmaceutical scientists to link clinical product performance to critical manufacturing attributes. In vitro dissolution testing is clearly a key tool for this purpose and the present bioequivalence guidelines and biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) provides a platform for regulatory applications of in vitro dissolution as a marker for consistency in clinical outcomes. However, the application of these concepts might need to be further developed in the context of QbD to take advantage of the higher level of understanding that is implied and displayed in regulatory documentation utilising QbD concepts. Aspects that should be considered include identification of rate limiting steps in the absorption process that can be linked to pharmacokinetic variables and used for prediction of bioavailability variables, in vivo relevance of in vitro dissolution test conditions and performance/interpretation of specific bioavailability studies on critical formulation/process variables. This article will give some examples and suggestions how clinical relevance of dissolution testing can be achieved in the context of QbD derived from a specific case study for a BCS II compound.

  4. Sensitization to lupine flour: is it clinically relevant?

    PubMed

    de Jong, N W; van Maaren, M S; Vlieg-Boersta, B J; Dubois, A E J; de Groot, H; Gerth van Wijk, R

    2010-10-01

    Lupinus angustifolius (blue lupine) is used for human and animal consumption. Currently, the lupine content in bread varies from 0% to 10% and from 0.5% to 3% in pastry. Although lupine flour is present in many products, anaphylaxis on lupine flour is rarely seen. The aim of our study was to determine the clinical relevance of sensitization to lupine flour. From October 2004 until October 2005, we performed skin prick tests (SPT) with lupine flour, peanut and soy extracts in consecutive patients attending our allergy clinic with a suspected food allergy. In patients sensitized to lupine flour, double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC) were performed and specific IgE was measured. We tested 372 patients. SPTs with peanut, soy and lupine flour were positive in 135, 58 and 22 patients, respectively. Nine patients with sensitization to lupine flour underwent DBPCFC, which was negative in eight cases. In contrast, one patient experienced significant symptoms. Four of these nine patients suspected lupine by history. Two other patients with a positive history to lupine declined from challenges. In these patients, a 3-day dietary record showed that they could consume lupine without symptoms. Specific IgE in the serum was positive for L. angustifolius, peanut and soy in all nine patients. These results demonstrate that clinical lupine allergy is very uncommon, even in the presence of sensitization to lupine flour. The estimated prevalence of lupine allergy, among patients with a suspected food allergy, referred to a tertiary allergy centre in the Netherlands is 0.27-0.81%. In most, although not all cases, sensitization is not clinically relevant and is most likely caused by cross-sensitization to peanut. In selected cases, eliciting doses are low, making significant reactions possible. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The pharmacological activity of nicotine and nornicotine on nAChRs subtypes: relevance to nicotine dependence and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Papke, Roger L; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2007-04-01

    Cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco use deliver an array of pharmacologically active alkaloids, including nicotine and ultimately various metabolites of these substances. While nornicotine is a significant component in tobacco as well as a minor systemic metabolite of nicotine, nornicotine appears to be N-demethylated locally in the brain where it accumulates at relatively high levels after chronic nicotine administration. We have now examined the effects of nornicotine on specific combinations of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits expressed in Xenopus oocytes and compared these responses to those evoked by acetylcholine and nicotine. Of the nAChR subtypes studied, we have found that alpha7 receptors are very responsive to nornicotine (EC50 approximately 17 micromol/L I(max) 50%, compared with acetylcholine (ACh)). nAChRs containing the ligand-binding domain of the alpha6 subunits (in the form of an alpha6/alpha3 chimera) are also strongly responsive to nornicotine (EC50 approximately 4 micromol/L I(max) 50%, compared with ACh). Alpha7-type nAChRs have been suggested to be potential therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and possibly other pathologies. nAChRs containing alpha6 subunits have been suggested to have a role in nicotine-evoked dopamine release. Thus, understanding the actions of nornicotine in the brain may have significance for both emerging therapeutics and the management of nicotine dependence.

  6. Cutaneous and Mucosal Lichen Planus: A Comprehensive Review of Clinical Subtypes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that most often affects middle-aged adults. LP can involve the skin or mucous membranes including the oral, vulvovaginal, esophageal, laryngeal, and conjunctival mucosa. It has different variants based on the morphology of the lesions and the site of involvement. The literature suggests that certain presentations of the disease such as esophageal or ophthalmological involvement are underdiagnosed. The burden of the disease is higher in some variants including hypertrophic LP and erosive oral LP, which may have a more chronic pattern. LP can significantly affect the quality of life of patients as well. Drugs or contact allergens can cause lichenoid reactions as the main differential diagnosis of LP. LP is a T-cell mediated immunologic disease but the responsible antigen remains unidentified. In this paper, we review the history, epidemiology, and clinical subtypes of LP. We also review the histopathologic aspects of the disease, differential diagnoses, immunopathogenesis, and the clinical and genetic correlations. PMID:24672362

  7. Gene-based association studies report genetic links for clinical subtypes of frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Aniket; Ferrari, Raffaele; Heutink, Peter; Hardy, John; Pijnenburg, Yolande; Posthuma, Danielle

    2017-04-05

    Genome-wide association studies in frontotemporal dementia showed limited success in identifying associated loci. This is possibly due to small sample size, allelic heterogeneity, small effect sizes of single genetic variants, and the necessity to statistically correct for testing millions of genetic variants. To overcome these issues, we performed gene-based association studies on 3348 clinically identified frontotemporal dementia cases and 9390 controls (discovery, replication and joint-cohort analyses). We report association of APOE and TOMM40 with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, and ARHGAP35 and SERPINA1 with progressive non-fluent aphasia. Further, we found the ɛ2 and ɛ4 alleles of APOE harbouring protective and risk increasing effects, respectively, in clinical subtypes of frontotemporal dementia against neurologically normal controls. The APOE-locus association with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia indicates its potential risk-increasing role across different neurodegenerative diseases, whereas the novel genetic associations of ARHGAP35 and SERPINA1 with progressive non-fluent aphasia point towards a potential role of the stress-signalling pathway in its pathophysiology.

  8. Inhibitory Functioning across ADHD Subtypes: Recent Findings, Clinical Implications, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Zachary W.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Although growing consensus supports the role of deficient behavioral inhibition as a central feature of the combined subtype of ADHD (ADHD/C; Barkley 1997 "Psychol Bull" 121:65-94; Nigg 2001 "Psychol Bull" 127:571-598), little research has focused on how this finding generalizes to the primarily inattentive subtype (ADHD/I). This question holds…

  9. Inhibitory Functioning across ADHD Subtypes: Recent Findings, Clinical Implications, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Zachary W.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Although growing consensus supports the role of deficient behavioral inhibition as a central feature of the combined subtype of ADHD (ADHD/C; Barkley 1997 "Psychol Bull" 121:65-94; Nigg 2001 "Psychol Bull" 127:571-598), little research has focused on how this finding generalizes to the primarily inattentive subtype (ADHD/I). This question holds…

  10. [The concept of aspirin "resistance": mechanisms and clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Reny, J-L; Bonvini, R F; Barazer, I; Berdagué, P; de Moerloose, P; Schved, J-F; Gris, J-C; Fontana, P

    2009-12-01

    Aspirin, a 110-year-old molecule, is a cornerstone in the treatment of atherothrombotic patients. The concept of aspirin "resistance" emerged approximately 15 years ago and is of growing interest. Aspirin resistance, defined as a lack of inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1), is a rare phenomenon and its clinical relevance can hardly be studied. On the contrary, residual platelet hyperactivity is more common and affects 20 to 30% of aspirin-treated patients. This latter phenomenon corresponds to sustained platelet reactivity despite a proper inhibition of COX-1 by aspirin. Several meta-analyses suggest that residual platelet hyperactivity could be a risk factor for the recurrence of ischemic events in aspirin-treated patients. Causes of biological non-responsiveness to aspirin are discussed, including the role of compliance, drug-drug interactions, genetic polymorphisms and diabetes mellitus. Ongoing studies are designed to find out the mechanisms of residual platelet hyperactivity, determine its potential clinical relevance and delineate the more appropriate assays in order to identify patients who may benefit of a tailored antiplatelet therapy.

  11. Laboratory Exercises to Teach Clinically Relevant Chemistry of Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Chelette, Candace T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To design, implement, and evaluate student performance on clinically relevant chemical and spectral laboratory exercises on antibiotics. Design. In the first of 2 exercises, second-year pharmacy students enrolled in an integrated laboratory sequence course studied the aqueous stability of ß-lactam antibiotics using a spectral visual approach. In a second exercise, students studied the tendency of tetracycline, rifamycins, and fluoroquinolones to form insoluble chelate complexes (turbidity) with polyvalent metals. Assessment. On a survey to assess achievement of class learning objectives, students agreed the laboratory activities helped them better retain important information concerning antibiotic stability and interactions. A significant improvement was observed in performance on examination questions related to the laboratory topics for 2012 and 2013 students compared to 2011 students who did not complete the laboratory. A 1-year follow-up examination question administered in a separate course showed >75% of the students were able to identify rifamycins-food interactions compared with <25% of students who had not completed the laboratory exercises. Conclusion. The use of spectral visual approaches allowed students to investigate antibiotic stability and interactions, thus reinforcing the clinical relevance of medicinal chemistry. Students’ performance on questions at the 1-year follow-up suggested increased retention of the concepts learned as a result of completing the exercises. PMID:24672070

  12. Clinical relevance of discourse characteristics after right hemisphere brain damage.

    PubMed

    Lehman Blake, Margaret

    2006-08-01

    Discourse characteristics of adults with right hemisphere brain damage are similar to those reported for healthy older adults, prompting the question of whether changes are due to neurological lesions or normal aging processes. The clinical relevance of potential differences across groups was examined through ratings by speech-language pathologists. A thinking-out-loud task was used to elicit discourse from 8 individuals with right brain damage and 8 healthy older adults. Speech-language pathologists rated discourse transcripts on content and quantity variables and then classified them as belonging to a participant with or without brain damage. Subjective ratings were validated against corroborating measures. Discourse produced by adults with right brain damage was rated as more tangential and egocentric than that from healthy older adults. Extreme verbosity or paucity of speech was attributed to people with right brain damage. One third of the speech-language pathologists accurately classified discourse samples according to group, whereas the others displayed biases toward one group or the other. Tangentiality, egocentrism, and extremes of quantity are clinically relevant characteristics of discourse produced by adults with right brain damage. Speech-language pathologists must be aware of potential biases that influence their perception of "normal" discourse production.

  13. Selective IgG subclass deficiency: quantification and clinical relevance.

    PubMed Central

    Jefferis, R; Kumararatne, D S

    1990-01-01

    Each of the four human IgG subclasses exhibits a unique profile of effector functions relevant to the clearance and elimination of infecting microorganisms. The quantitative response within each IgG subclass varies with the nature of the antigen, its route of entry and, presumably, the form in which it is presented to the immune system. This results in antibody responses to certain antigens being predominantly or exclusively of a single IgG subclass. An inability to produce antibody of the optimally protective isotype can result in a selective immunodeficiency state. This is particularly apparent for responses to certain bacterial carbohydrate antigens that are normally of IgG2 isotype. A failure to produce the appropriate specific antibody response may result in recurrent upper and/or lower respiratory tract infection. Careful patient investigation can identify such deficiencies and suggest appropriate clinical management. In this review we outline the biology and clinical relevance of the IgG subclasses and summarize current rational treatment approaches. PMID:2204502

  14. Animal models of alcoholic liver disease: Pathogenesis and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bin; Xu, Ming-Jiang; Bertola, Adeline; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Zhou; Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2017-04-14

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD), a leading cause of chronic liver injury worldwide, comprises a range of disorders including simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Over the last five decades, many animal models that have been useful for the study of ALD pathogenesis have been developed. Recently, a chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding model was reported. This model induces significant steatosis, hepatic neutrophil infiltration, and liver injury. A clinically relevant model of high-fat diet feeding plus binge ethanol was also developed, which highlights the risk of excessive binge drinking in obese/overweight individuals. All of these models recapitulate some features of the different stages of ALD and have been widely used by many investigators to study the pathogenesis of ALD and test therapeutic drugs/components. However, these models are somewhat variable, depending on mouse genetic background, ethanol dose, and animal facility environment. This review focuses on these models and discusses these variations and some methods to improve the feeding protocol. The pathogenesis, clinical relevance, and translational studies of these models are also discussed.

  15. Clinical relevance of central blood pressure - a critical review.

    PubMed

    Kostapanos, Michael; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B

    2016-11-01

    Vital organs are exposed to the central rather than the brachial blood pressure. To date, central blood pressure can be assessed noninvasively through the use of several devices. In this review, we critically discuss the clinical relevance of central blood pressure assessment. Considerable evidence suggests that central blood pressure is a better predictor of end-organ damage than brachial blood pressure. However, there is still uncertainty concerning the value of central pressure for predicting cardiovascular outcomes, as the existing studies are underpowered to address this issue. A full synthesis of the available data is needed in this regard. Among the different antihypertensive drug classes, beta-blockers appear to lower central blood pressure less than brachial blood pressure. This difference may, at least in part, explain the reduced efficacy of beta-blockers in the prevention of cardiovascular outcomes compared with the other antihypertensive drug classes, which may lower central and brachial blood pressure to a similar extent. Nevertheless, this differential effect might not be relevant to the newer beta-blockers with vasodilating properties, including nebivolol, celliprolol and carvedilol. However, whether a preferential reduction of central blood pressure results in better outcomes should be further assessed by appropriately powered clinical trials. Other emerging challenges include the assessment of the potential predictive value of central blood pressure variability and the development of new antihypertensive medications based on central blood pressure rather than brachial blood pressure.

  16. Pathobiology of human cerebrovascular malformations: basic mechanisms and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Gault, Judith; Sarin, Hemant; Awadallah, Nabil A; Shenkar, Robert; Awad, Issam A

    2004-07-01

    Cerebrovascular malformations affect more than 3% of the population, exposing them to a lifetime risk of hemorrhagic stroke, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) exhibit an immature vessel wall, a brittle hemorrhagic tendency, and epileptogenesis, whereas arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) lack capillary beds and manifest apoplectic bleeding under high-flow conditions. There are also more benign venous anomalies, capillary malformations, and lesions with mixed and transitional features. Advances have been made toward understanding the natural history, radiological and pathological correlates, and clinical management. Yet, mechanisms of lesion genesis and clinical manifestations remain largely unknown, and the clinical behavior in individual patients is highly unpredictable. Lesion pathogenesis likely involves abnormal assembly or maintenance of blood vessels, resulting in dysmorphic vessel phenotypes. Familial CCM disease is in part caused by mutations in a cytoskeletal-related protein that is likely integral to interendothelial cell connectivity and maturation of the vascular wall. Rare familial forms of AVM disease have been correlated with two different transforming growth factor-beta receptor components, possibly causing disturbance in signaling during vascular assembly. Relevance of these mechanisms to the more common and otherwise identical sporadic CCM and AVM lesions is being explored. In this report, basic mechanisms of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis and how they possibly relate to the common cerebrovascular malformation lesions are reviewed. Novel concepts are discussed related to the cellular, molecular, and genetic substrates in CCM and AVM as well as to how this knowledge can be applied to predict, explain, and possibly modify clinical disease manifestations.

  17. Clinical relevance of abnormal scintigraphic findings of adult equine ribs.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Jessica A; Ross, Michael W; Martin, Benson B; Davidson, Elizabeth J; Leitch, Midge

    2011-01-01

    Horses with cranial rib abnormalities may exhibit severe acute lameness and may have unusual gait deficits characterized by forelimb abduction during protraction at the walk. Horses with caudal rib abnormalities may resent being saddled and ridden. In a retrospective evaluation of 20 horses with a documented rib lesion, 25 sites of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake were found in one or more ribs. Thirteen (52%) scintigraphic lesions involved the first rib; four were located immediately dorsal to the sternal articulation, eight were near the costochondral junction and one was at the costovertebral junction. Six (24%) scintigraphic rib lesions involved ribs 2-8; one was located immediately dorsal to the sternal articulation, three were at the costovertebral junction and two were near the costochondral junction. Six (24%) scintigraphic rib lesions involved the mid-portion (five) or costovertebral junction (one) of ribs 9-18. The 20 horses were divided into three groups based on the clinical relevance of the scintigraphic findings. Group 1 (n=3) horses had clinical signs attributed to a rib abnormality; Group 2 (n=6) horses had a rib abnormality that was a plausible explanation for clinical signs; Group 3 (n=11) horses had clinical signs that could not be attributed to a rib abnormality. For horses with cranial rib abnormalities, a modified lateral scintigraphic image with the ipsilateral limb pulled caudally and a left (right) 45° caudal-right (left) radiograph facilitated the diagnosis.

  18. Epileptic activity in Alzheimer's disease: causes and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Vossel, Keith A; Tartaglia, Maria C; Nygaard, Haakon B; Zeman, Adam Z; Miller, Bruce L

    2017-04-01

    Epileptic activity is frequently associated with Alzheimer's disease; this association has therapeutic implications, because epileptic activity can occur at early disease stages and might contribute to pathogenesis. In clinical practice, seizures in patients with Alzheimer's disease can easily go unrecognised because they usually present as non-motor seizures, and can overlap with other symptoms of the disease. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, seizures can hasten cognitive decline, highlighting the clinical relevance of early recognition and treatment. Some evidence indicates that subclinical epileptiform activity in patients with Alzheimer's disease, detected by extended neurophysiological monitoring, can also lead to accelerated cognitive decline. Treatment of clinical seizures in patients with Alzheimer's disease with select antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), in low doses, is usually well tolerated and efficacious. Moreover, studies in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease suggest that certain classes of AEDs that reduce network hyperexcitability have disease-modifying properties. These AEDs target mechanisms of epileptogenesis involving amyloid β and tau. Clinical trials targeting network hyperexcitability in patients with Alzheimer's disease will identify whether AEDs or related strategies could improve their cognitive symptoms or slow decline.

  19. Behavioural and neuropsychiatric disturbance in three clinical subtypes of frontotemporal dementia: A Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea-FTD Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon Ho; Kim, Eun-Joo; Park, Kyung Won; Kwon, Jae Cheol; Ku, Bon D; Han, Seol-Heui; Kim, SangYun; Yang, Dong Won; Na, Duk L; Choi, Seong Hye

    2017-03-01

    To characterise the behavioural and neuropsychiatric disturbances of patients with three clinical subtypes of frontotemporal dementia (FTD): behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD) and progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA). Consecutive series of 66 patients with bvFTD, 58 patients with SD and 21 patients with PNFA were compared using the Frontal Behavioural Inventory (FBI) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Patients with bvFTD had more behavioural and neuropsychiatric disturbances than patients with PNFA based on the total scores of FBI and NPI. When comparing subtotal and item scores of FBI and NPI, there were some significant differences among three clinical subtypes of FTD. There are some distinct patterns of behavioural and neuropsychiatric disturbance among three clinical subtypes of FTD. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  20. Cerebral infarction in diabetes: Clinical pattern, stroke subtypes, and predictors of in-hospital mortality

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià; Rivas, Antoni; García-Eroles, Luis; de Marcos, Lourdes; Massons, Joan; Oliveres, Montserrat

    2005-01-01

    Background To compare the characteristics and prognostic features of ischemic stroke in patients with diabetes and without diabetes, and to determine the independent predictors of in-hospital mortality in people with diabetes and ischemic stroke. Methods Diabetes was diagnosed in 393 (21.3%) of 1,840 consecutive patients with cerebral infarction included in a prospective stroke registry over a 12-year period. Demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, clinical events, stroke subtypes, neuroimaging data, and outcome in ischemic stroke patients with and without diabetes were compared. Predictors of in-hospital mortality in diabetic patients with ischemic stroke were assessed by multivariate analysis. Results People with diabetes compared to people without diabetes presented more frequently atherothrombotic stroke (41.2% vs 27%) and lacunar infarction (35.1% vs 23.9%) (P < 0.01). The in-hospital mortality in ischemic stroke patients with diabetes was 12.5% and 14.6% in those without (P = NS). Ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia, subacute onset, 85 years old or more, atherothrombotic and lacunar infarcts, and thalamic topography were independently associated with ischemic stroke in patients with diabetes, whereas predictors of in-hospital mortality included the patient's age, decreased consciousness, chronic nephropathy, congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation Conclusion Ischemic stroke in people with diabetes showed a different clinical pattern from those without diabetes, with atherothrombotic stroke and lacunar infarcts being more frequent. Clinical factors indicative of the severity of ischemic stroke available at onset have a predominant influence upon in-hospital mortality and may help clinicians to assess prognosis more accurately. PMID:15833108

  1. (Non-V600) BRAF Mutations Define a Clinically Distinct Molecular Subtype of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeremy C; Renfro, Lindsay A; Al-Shamsi, Humaid O; Schrock, Alexa B; Rankin, Andrew; Zhang, Ben Y; Kasi, Pashtoon M; Voss, Jesse S; Leal, Alexis D; Sun, James; Ross, Jeffrey; Ali, Siraj M; Hubbard, Joleen M; Kipp, Benjamin R; McWilliams, Robert R; Kopetz, Scott; Wolff, Robert A; Grothey, Axel

    2017-08-10

    Purpose Molecular diagnostic testing has become an integral part of the evaluation of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded mutational testing, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), often identifies mutations with unclear clinical or prognostic implications. One such example is BRAF mutations that occur outside of codon 600 ((non-V600) BRAF mutations). Methods We conducted this multicenter, retrospective cohort study to characterize the clinical, pathologic, and survival implications of (non-V600) BRAF mutations in metastatic CRC. We pooled patients in whom (non-V600) BRAF mutations were identified from NGS databases at three large molecular genetics reference laboratories. Results A total of 9,643 patients with metastatic CRC underwent NGS testing. We identified 208 patients with (non-V600) BRAF mutations, which occurred in 2.2% of all patients tested and accounted for 22% of all BRAF mutations identified. Cancers with (non-V600) BRAF mutations, compared with cancers with V600E BRAF ((V600E) BRAF) mutations, were found in patients who were significantly younger (58 v 68 years, respectively), fewer female patients (46% v 65%, respectively), and patients who had fewer high-grade tumors (13% v 64%, respectively) or right-sided primary tumors (36% v 81%, respectively). Median overall survival was significantly longer in patients with (non-V600) BRAF-mutant metastatic CRC compared with those with both (V600E) BRAF-mutant and wild-type BRAF metastatic CRC (60.7 v 11.4 v 43.0 months, respectively; P < .001). In multivariable analysis, (non-V600) BRAF mutation was independently associated with improved overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.18; P < .001). Conclusion (Non-V600) BRAF mutations occur in approximately 2.2% of patients with metastatic CRC and define a clinically distinct subtype of CRC with an excellent prognosis.

  2. Renal involvement in cystic fibrosis: diseases spectrum and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Yahiaoui, Yasmina; Jablonski, Mathieu; Hubert, Dominique; Mosnier-Pudar, Helen; Noël, Laure-Hélène; Stern, Marc; Grenet, Dominique; Grünfeld, Jean-Pierre; Chauveau, Dominique; Fakhouri, Fadi

    2009-05-01

    Clinically relevant kidney involvement is uncommonly described in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We sought to report on a series of patients with CF and kidney biopsy-documented renal involvement. A retrospective study was undertaken in two referral centers for adult patients with CF in Paris, France. Patients who had undergone a biopsy of native kidneys between 1992 and 2008 were identified, and their medical records were reviewed. We identified 13 adult patients with CF and renal disease. Proteinuria was present in all but two cases and was associated with progressive renal impairment in four patients (median serum creatinine 85 micromol/L; range 53 to 144 micromol/L). Renal biopsy disclosed a heterogeneous spectrum of nephropathies including AA amyloidosis (n = 3), diabetic glomerulopathy (n = 3), FSGS (n = 2), minimal-change disease (n = 1), postinfectious glomerulonephritis (n = 1), IgA nephropathy related to Henoch-Schönlein purpura (n = 1), membranous nephropathy (n = 1), and chronic interstitial nephropathy (n = 1). Chronic renal failure occurred in five patients, and one patient reached ESRD. Although rare, clinically significant renal disease may arise in young adult patients with CF. Given the wide spectrum of diseases that may be encountered, definite diagnosis by kidney biopsy is mandatory to optimize clinical treatment of these complex patients, particularly in the perspective of organ transplantation.

  3. Sundowning in Dementia: Clinical Relevance, Pathophysiological Determinants, and Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Canevelli, Marco; Valletta, Martina; Trebbastoni, Alessandro; Sarli, Giuseppe; D’Antonio, Fabrizia; Tariciotti, Leonardo; de Lena, Carlo; Bruno, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Sundowning means the emergence or worsening of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in the late afternoon or early evening. This syndrome has been recognized since a long time in the field of dementing illnesses and is well known among most of health-care providers involved in the assistance of people with dementia. Indeed, it represents a common manifestation among persons with dementia and is associated with several adverse outcomes (such as institutionalization, faster cognitive worsening, and greater caregiver burden). Its occurrence and phenotypic characteristics may be influenced by diverse neurobiological, psychosocial, and environmental determinants. Moreover, it may pose diagnostic challenges in relation to other common causes of behavioral disruptions. Beside these considerations, this phenomenon has so far drawn limited clinical and scientific interest compared to other specific NPS occurring in dementias, as indicated by the lack of commonly agreed definitions, specific screening/assessment tools, and robust estimates on its prevalence. Accordingly, no randomized controlled trial specifically investigating the effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies in managing this condition among demented patients has been yet conducted. In the present narrative review, we present and discuss available evidence concerning sundowning occurring in people with dementia. A special focus is given to its definitions, pathophysiological determinants, and clinical relevance, as well as to the clinical and therapeutic approaches required for its management in the daily practice. PMID:28083535

  4. Sundowning in Dementia: Clinical Relevance, Pathophysiological Determinants, and Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Canevelli, Marco; Valletta, Martina; Trebbastoni, Alessandro; Sarli, Giuseppe; D'Antonio, Fabrizia; Tariciotti, Leonardo; de Lena, Carlo; Bruno, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Sundowning means the emergence or worsening of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in the late afternoon or early evening. This syndrome has been recognized since a long time in the field of dementing illnesses and is well known among most of health-care providers involved in the assistance of people with dementia. Indeed, it represents a common manifestation among persons with dementia and is associated with several adverse outcomes (such as institutionalization, faster cognitive worsening, and greater caregiver burden). Its occurrence and phenotypic characteristics may be influenced by diverse neurobiological, psychosocial, and environmental determinants. Moreover, it may pose diagnostic challenges in relation to other common causes of behavioral disruptions. Beside these considerations, this phenomenon has so far drawn limited clinical and scientific interest compared to other specific NPS occurring in dementias, as indicated by the lack of commonly agreed definitions, specific screening/assessment tools, and robust estimates on its prevalence. Accordingly, no randomized controlled trial specifically investigating the effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies in managing this condition among demented patients has been yet conducted. In the present narrative review, we present and discuss available evidence concerning sundowning occurring in people with dementia. A special focus is given to its definitions, pathophysiological determinants, and clinical relevance, as well as to the clinical and therapeutic approaches required for its management in the daily practice.

  5. Development of Clinically Relevant Implantable Pressure Sensors: Perspectives and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Ingelin; Glott, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This review describes different aspects to consider when developing implantable pressure sensor systems. Measurement of pressure is in general highly important in clinical practice and medical research. Due to the small size, light weight and low energy consumption Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology represents new possibilities for monitoring of physiological parameters inside the human body. Development of clinical relevant sensors requires close collaboration between technological experts and medical clinicians. Site of operation, size restrictions, patient safety, and required measurement range and resolution, are only some conditions that must be taken into account. An implantable device has to operate under very hostile conditions. Long-term in vivo pressure measurements are particularly demanding because the pressure sensitive part of the sensor must be in direct or indirect physical contact with the medium for which we want to detect the pressure. New sensor packaging concepts are demanded and must be developed through combined effort between scientists in MEMS technology, material science, and biology. Before launching a new medical device on the market, clinical studies must be performed. Regulatory documents and international standards set the premises for how such studies shall be conducted and reported. PMID:25248071

  6. Development of clinically relevant implantable pressure sensors: perspectives and challenges.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Ingelin; Glott, Thomas

    2014-09-22

    This review describes different aspects to consider when developing implantable pressure sensor systems. Measurement of pressure is in general highly important in clinical practice and medical research. Due to the small size, light weight and low energy consumption Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology represents new possibilities for monitoring of physiological parameters inside the human body. Development of clinical relevant sensors requires close collaboration between technological experts and medical clinicians.  Site of operation, size restrictions, patient safety, and required measurement range and resolution, are only some conditions that must be taken into account. An implantable device has to operate under very hostile conditions. Long-term in vivo pressure measurements are particularly demanding because the pressure sensitive part of the sensor must be in direct or indirect physical contact with the medium for which we want to detect the pressure. New sensor packaging concepts are demanded and must be developed through combined effort between scientists in MEMS technology, material science, and biology. Before launching a new medical device on the market, clinical studies must be performed. Regulatory documents and international standards set the premises for how such studies shall be conducted and reported.

  7. Virological Surveillance of Influenza A Subtypes Isolated in 2014 from Clinical Outbreaks in Canadian Swine

    PubMed Central

    Grgić, Helena; Gallant, Jackie; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are respiratory pathogens associated with an acute respiratory disease that occurs year-round in swine production. It is currently one of the most important pathogens in swine populations, with the potential to infect other host species including humans. Ongoing research indicates that the three major subtypes of IAV—H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2—continue to expand in their genetic and antigenic diversity. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of 16 IAVs isolated from different clinical outbreaks in Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, and Saskatchewan in 2014. We also examined the genetic basis for probable antigenic differences among sequenced viruses. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, all 13 Canadian H3N2 viruses belonged to cluster IV, eight H3N2 viruses were part of the IV-C cluster, and one virus belonged to the IV-B and one to the IV-D cluster. Based on standards used in this study, three H3N2 viruses could not be clearly classified into any currently established group within cluster IV (A to F). Three H1N2 viruses were part of the H1α cluster. PMID:28335552

  8. Global changes in processing of mRNA 3' untranslated regions characterize clinically distinct cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyam; Alley, Travis L; Wright, Sarah M; Kamdar, Sonya; Schott, William; Wilpan, Robert Y; Mills, Kevin D; Graber, Joel H

    2009-12-15

    Molecular cancer diagnostics are an important clinical advance in cancer management, but new methods are still needed. In this context, gene expression signatures obtained by microarray represent a useful molecular diagnostic. Here, we describe novel probe-level microarray analyses that reveal connections between mRNA processing and neoplasia in multiple tumor types, with diagnostic potential. We now show that characteristic differences in mRNA processing, primarily in the 3'-untranslated region, define molecular signatures that can distinguish similar tumor subtypes with different survival characteristics, with at least 74% accuracy. Using a mouse model of B-cell leukemia/lymphoma, we find that differences in transcript isoform abundance are likely due to both alternative polyadenylation (APA) and differential degradation. While truncation of the 3'-UTR is the most common observed pattern, genes with elongated transcripts were also observed, and distinct groups of affected genes are found in related but distinct tumor types. Genes with elongated transcripts are overrepresented in ontology categories related to cell-cell adhesion and morphology. Analysis of microarray data from human primary tumor samples revealed similar phenomena. Western blot analysis of selected proteins confirms that changes in the 3'-UTR can correlate with changes in protein expression. Our work suggests that alternative mRNA processing, particularly APA, can be a powerful molecular biomarker with prognostic potential. Finally, these findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of gene deregulation in tumorigenesis.

  9. Progression of subcortical atrophy and iron deposition in multiple system atrophy: a comparison between clinical subtypes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Mun, Chi-Woong; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Han, Yong-Hee

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be useful not only for the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA) itself, but also to distinguish between different clinical subtypes. This study aimed to investigate whether there are differences in the progression of subcortical atrophy and iron deposition between two variants of MSA. Two serial MRIs at baseline and follow-up were analyzed in eight patients with the parkinsonian variant MSA (MSA-P), nine patients with cerebellar variant MSA (MSA-C), and fifteen patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The R2* values and volumes were calculated for the selected subcortical structures (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, and thalamus) using an automated region-based analysis. In both volume and R2*, a higher rate of progression was identified in MSA-P patients. Volumetric analysis showed significantly more rapid progression of putamen and caudate nucleus in MSA-P than in MSA-C. With regard to R2* changes, a significant increase at follow-up and a higher rate of progression were identified in the putamen of MSA-P group compared to MSA-C and PD groups. This longitudinal study revealed different progression rates of MRI markers between MSA-P and MSA-C. Iron-related degeneration in the putamen may be more specific for MSA-P.

  10. Clinical and microarray analysis of breast cancers of all subtypes from two prospective preoperative chemotherapy studies

    PubMed Central

    Okuma, H S; Koizumi, F; Hirakawa, A; Nakatochi, M; Komori, O; Hashimoto, J; Kodaira, M; Yunokawa, M; Yamamoto, H; Yonemori, K; Shimizu, C; Fujiwara, Y; Tamura, K

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to analyse clinical and gene expression profiles to predict pathologic complete response and disease-free survival using two consecutive, prospective, preoperative chemotherapy trial cohorts. Methods: Clinicopathological and gene expression data were evaluated in a cohort from two consecutive phase II preoperative studies that included patients with stage IIA–IIIC breast cancer of all subtypes. Analysed specimens were obtained before preoperative chemotherapy, and cDNA microarray analyses were performed using the Affymetrix Gene Chip U133 plus 2.0. Results: Between December 2005 and December 2010, 122 patients were analysed. The pathologic complete response rate was significantly higher in HER2+ and HR−/HER2− cancers. Age, pathologic complete response, HR−/HER2− status, and lymph node positivity (⩾4) were significant poor prognostic factors for disease-free survival. For the cDNA microarray analyses, sufficient tumour samples were available from 78 of the 107 patients (73%). An 8-gene signature predictive of pathologic complete response and a 17-gene signature predictive of prognosis were identified. Patients were categorised into low-risk (n=45) and high-risk groups (n=33) (HR 70.0, P=0.004). Conclusions: This study yielded preliminary data on the expression of specific genes predicting pathologic complete response and disease-free survival in a cohort of chemonaïve breast cancer patients. Further validation may distinguish those who would benefit most from perioperative chemotherapy as well as those needing further intervention. PMID:27415010

  11. Integrative Analysis of Cellular Morphometric Context Reveals Clinically Relevant Signatures in Lower Grade Glioma⋆

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ju; Wang, Yunfu; Cai, Weidong; Borowsky, Alexander; Parvin, Bahram; Chang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Integrative analysis based on quantitative representation of whole slide images (WSIs) in a large histology cohort may provide predictive models of clinical outcome. On one hand, the efficiency and effectiveness of such representation is hindered as a result of large technical variations (e.g., fixation, staining) and biological heterogeneities (e.g., cell type, cell state) that are always present in a large cohort. On the other hand, perceptual interpretation/validation of important multivariate phenotypic signatures are often difficult due to the loss of visual information during feature transformation in hyperspace. To address these issues, we propose a novel approach for integrative analysis based on cellular morphometric context, which is a robust representation of WSI, with the emphasis on tumor architecture and tumor heterogeneity, built upon cellular level morphometric features within the spatial pyramid matching (SPM) framework. The proposed approach is applied to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) lower grade glioma (LGG) cohort, where experimental results (i) reveal several clinically relevant cellular morphometric types, which enables both perceptual interpretation/validation and further investigation through gene set enrichment analysis; and (ii) indicate the significantly increased survival rates in one of the cellular morphometric context subtypes derived from the cellular morphometric context. PMID:28018994

  12. Streptococcus pyogenes biofilms-formation, biology, and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Tomas; Köller, Thomas; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS) is an exclusive human bacterial pathogen. The virulence potential of this species is tremendous. Interactions with humans range from asymptomatic carriage over mild and superficial infections of skin and mucosal membranes up to systemic purulent toxic-invasive disease manifestations. Particularly the latter are a severe threat for predisposed patients and lead to significant death tolls worldwide. This places GAS among the most important Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. Many recent reviews have highlighted the GAS repertoire of virulence factors, regulators and regulatory circuits/networks that enable GAS to colonize the host and to deal with all levels of the host immune defense. This covers in vitro and in vivo studies, including animal infection studies based on mice and more relevant, macaque monkeys. It is now appreciated that GAS, like many other bacterial species, do not necessarily exclusively live in a planktonic lifestyle. GAS is capable of microcolony and biofilm formation on host cells and tissues. We are now beginning to understand that this feature significantly contributes to GAS pathogenesis. In this review we will discuss the current knowledge on GAS biofilm formation, the biofilm-phenotype associated virulence factors, regulatory aspects of biofilm formation, the clinical relevance, and finally contemporary treatment regimens and future treatment options.

  13. Streptococcus pyogenes biofilms—formation, biology, and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Tomas; Köller, Thomas; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS) is an exclusive human bacterial pathogen. The virulence potential of this species is tremendous. Interactions with humans range from asymptomatic carriage over mild and superficial infections of skin and mucosal membranes up to systemic purulent toxic-invasive disease manifestations. Particularly the latter are a severe threat for predisposed patients and lead to significant death tolls worldwide. This places GAS among the most important Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. Many recent reviews have highlighted the GAS repertoire of virulence factors, regulators and regulatory circuits/networks that enable GAS to colonize the host and to deal with all levels of the host immune defense. This covers in vitro and in vivo studies, including animal infection studies based on mice and more relevant, macaque monkeys. It is now appreciated that GAS, like many other bacterial species, do not necessarily exclusively live in a planktonic lifestyle. GAS is capable of microcolony and biofilm formation on host cells and tissues. We are now beginning to understand that this feature significantly contributes to GAS pathogenesis. In this review we will discuss the current knowledge on GAS biofilm formation, the biofilm-phenotype associated virulence factors, regulatory aspects of biofilm formation, the clinical relevance, and finally contemporary treatment regimens and future treatment options. PMID:25717441

  14. Making the history of psychology clinically and philosophically relevant.

    PubMed

    Vande Kemp, Hendrika

    2002-08-01

    The author discusses ways to make the history of psychology course relevant for a clinical psychology doctoral program within a multidenominational Protestant theological seminary. She uses a personalist orientation to emphasize the need to integrate psychology, philosophy, and theology. She differentiates among the intrapersonal, interpersonal, impersonal, and transpersonal dimensions of experience. She illustrates the rich multidisciplinary historical roots of contemporary psychology by tracing the the history of the term psychology and examining its meanings in the existential psychology of Søren Kierkegaard and in the 19th-century novel. She includes brief histories of the "new psychology" and of the unconscious. She describes how she uses the field of psychotheological integration to illustrate principles of historiography and summarizes resources used to supplement traditional textbooks.

  15. Rasamsonia argillacea species complex: taxonomy, pathogenesis and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Sandrine; Favennec, Loïc; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Since 2010, colonizations/infections by Rasamsonia argillacea species complex, previously known as Geosmithia argillacea, have been regularly reported in literature. We reviewed all available cases focusing on pathogenesis and clinical relevance. The number of cases may be underestimated, as these fungi are frequently misidentified as Penicillium or Paecilomyces species. Major underlying conditions that predispose for infections by the R. argillacea species complex include cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). While the pathogenic role of the colonization of CF lungs is still under debate, these molds are the causative agent of pneumonia and/or invasive infections in CGD patients. Given their thermotolerance and their resistance to various antifungals, especially the azole drugs, a special attention should be paid to the chronic colonization of the airways by these fungi in CF and CGD patients.

  16. Clinical relevance of advanced glycation endproducts for vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, R; van der Vaart, M G; van Dam, G M; Tio, R A; Hillebrands, J-L; Smit, A J; Zeebregts, C J

    2008-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is the main contributor to cardiovascular disease and leads to intimal plaque formation, which may progress to plaque rupture with subsequent thromboembolic events and/or occlusion of the arterial lumen. There is increasing evidence that the development or progression of atherosclerosis is associated with advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). AGEs are a heterogeneous group of compounds formed by the non-enzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. An increased understanding of the mechanisms of formation and interaction of AGEs has allowed the development of several potential anti-AGE strategies. This review summarizes AGE formation and biochemistry, the pathogeneic role of AGEs in cardiovascular disease, anti-AGE therapies and clinical relevance to vascular surgery.

  17. A map of human circular RNAs in clinically relevant tissues.

    PubMed

    Maass, Philipp G; Glažar, Petar; Memczak, Sebastian; Dittmar, Gunnar; Hollfinger, Irene; Schreyer, Luisa; Sauer, Aisha V; Toka, Okan; Aiuti, Alessandro; Luft, Friedrich C; Rajewsky, Nikolaus

    2017-08-25

    Cellular circular RNAs (circRNAs) are generated by head-to-tail splicing and are present in all multicellular organisms studied so far. Recently, circRNAs have emerged as a large class of RNA which can function as post-transcriptional regulators. It has also been shown that many circRNAs are tissue- and stage-specifically expressed. Moreover, the unusual stability and expression specificity make circRNAs important candidates for clinical biomarker research. Here, we present a circRNA expression resource of 20 human tissues highly relevant to disease-related research: vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), human umbilical vein cells (HUVECs), artery endothelial cells (HUAECs), atrium, vena cava, neutrophils, platelets, cerebral cortex, placenta, and samples from mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. In eight different samples from a single donor, we found highly tissue-specific circRNA expression. Circular-to-linear RNA ratios revealed that many circRNAs were expressed higher than their linear host transcripts. Among the 71 validated circRNAs, we noticed potential biomarkers. In adenosine deaminase-deficient, severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID) patients and in Wiskott-Aldrich-Syndrome (WAS) patients' samples, we found evidence for differential circRNA expression of genes that are involved in the molecular pathogenesis of both phenotypes. Our findings underscore the need to assess circRNAs in mechanisms of human disease. KEY MESSAGES: circRNA resource catalog of 20 clinically relevant tissues. circRNA expression is highly tissue-specific. circRNA transcripts are often more abundant than their linear host RNAs. circRNAs can be differentially expressed in disease-associated genes.

  18. [Relevance of nutrition knowledge on clinical practice: medical opinion survey].

    PubMed

    Alvares, Luísa; Moreira, Isabel; Oliveira, António

    2007-01-01

    Although previous studies show that physicians generally agree that nutrition knowledge is important for their daily clinical practice, several other studies report their poor knowledge of the subject. One of the strongest reasons given for this is the non-incorporation of Nutrition as a compulsory subject for the medical sciences degree. Dietary counselling and assessment of the patients' nutritional status don't seem to be systematic. The aim of this study is to asses how relevant physicians consider Nutrition to be in the successful running of a good practice. The study was undertaken at the general hospital of Vila Real/Peso da Régua (CHVR/PR) by distribution of a self- administered questionnaire to 153 of the physicians of the clinical body. Mean values were compared with the Student's t test and proportions with the Chi-square test. Of the 153 physicians, 108 replies were received (70,6%). Of these 108 replies, 53,3% consider nutrition knowledge important although 29,6% state their knowledge is poor. More than half say that Clinical Nutrition should be a compulsory subject of the Medical Sciences syllabus, and 99,1% deem it important to assess the patient's nutritional status. About 95% stated they provided written or verbal nutritional guidance, and most of the physicians had already sought the assistance of a nutritionist. This study shows that the clinical body of the CHVR/PR is aware of the importance nutrition knowledge has in their daily practice. It must be noted, though, that although almost one third of the physicians rate their nutrition knowledge poor, most of them provide nutritional guidance to their patients.

  19. Angiotensin receptor subtype mediated physiologies and behaviors: New discoveries and clinical targets

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John W.; Yamamoto, Brent J.; Harding, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) mediates several classic physiologies including body water and electrolyte homeostasis, blood pressure, cyclicity of reproductive hormones and sexual behaviors, and the regulation of pituitary gland hormones. These functions appear to be mediated by the angiotensin II (AngII)/AT1 receptor subtype system. More recently, the angiotensin IV (AngIV)/AT4 receptor subtype system has been implicated in cognitive processing, cerebroprotection, local blood flow, stress, anxiety and depression. There is accumulating evidence to suggest an inhibitory influence by AngII acting at the AT1 subtype, and a facilitory role by AngIV acting at the AT4 subtype, on neuronal firing rate, long-term potentiation, associative and spatial learning, and memory. This review initially describes the biochemical pathways that permit synthesis and degradation of active angiotensin peptides and three receptor subtypes (AT1, AT2 and AT4) thus far characterized. There is vigorous debate concerning the identity of the most recently discovered receptor subtype, AT4. Descriptions of classic and novel physiologies and behaviors controlled by the RAS are presented. This review concludes with a consideration of the emerging therapeutic applications suggested by these newly discovered functions of the RAS. PMID:18160199

  20. Hydrodynamic consequences of glycolysis: thermodynamic basis and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Hans Peter

    2004-09-01

    Since Warburg's original description of aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis in 1924, the biochemical and molecular bases of glucose metabolism in cells have been characterized. However, its thermodynamic implications have found little attention. Van't Hoff's law of thermodynamics was applied here to describe how glucose metabolism affects intracellular osmotic pressure, hence revealing how glucose metabolism provides cells with osmotic energy as well as chemical energy. Ensuing osmosis-driven movement of free water across membranes affects cell volume and shape, hydration of intracellular components, and interactions of cells with their environment. Comparative analysis of extant data revealed strong evidence for clinically relevant glycolysis-driven effects under hypoxic conditions known to occur in cancer, vascular disease as well as intensive care, including critical and preventable ones affecting treatment effectiveness and thus, clinical outcome. These findings provide the first evidence confirming the existence of glycolysis-driven hydrodynamic effects and suggest that high levels of aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis provide a common biophysical basis in seemingly unrelated medical conditions.

  1. Dissociative absorption: An empirically unique, clinically relevant, dissociative factor.

    PubMed

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Lassri, Dana; Soffer-Dudek, Nir; Shahar, Golan

    2015-11-01

    Research of dissociative absorption has raised two questions: (a) Is absorption a unique dissociative factor within a three-factor structure, or a part of one general dissociative factor? Even when three factors are found, the specificity of the absorption factor is questionable. (b) Is absorption implicated in psychopathology? Although commonly viewed as "non-clinical" dissociation, absorption was recently hypothesized to be specifically associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To address these questions, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on 679 undergraduates. Analyses supported the three-factor model, and a "purified" absorption scale was extracted from the original inclusive absorption factor. The purified scale predicted several psychopathology scales. As hypothesized, absorption was a stronger predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than of general psychopathology. In addition, absorption was the only dissociative scale that longitudinally predicted obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We conclude that absorption is a unique and clinically relevant dissociative tendency that is particularly meaningful to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. New Clinically Relevant Findings about Violence by People with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Sheilagh; Klein, Sanja

    2017-02-01

    To review findings with clinical relevance that add to knowledge about antisocial and aggressive behaviour among persons with schizophrenia. Nonsystematic literature review. Recent evidence shows that individuals who develop schizophrenia present cognitive deficits, psychotic-like experiences, and internalizing and externalizing problems from childhood onwards. Many of their relatives present not only schizophrenia-related disorders but also antisocial behaviour. While the increased risk of aggressive behaviour among persons with schizophrenia has been robustly established, recent findings show that by first contact with clinical services for psychosis, most people with schizophrenia who will engage in aggressive behaviour may be identified. At first episode, 2 distinct types are distinguishable: those who present a history of antisocial and aggressive behaviour since childhood and those who began engaging in aggressive behaviour as illness onsets. Antipsychotic medications and other treatments shown to be effective for schizophrenia are needed by both types of patients. Additionally, those with a history of antisocial and aggressive behaviour since childhood require cognitive-behavioural programs aimed at reducing these behaviours and promoting prosocial behaviour. Reducing physical victimisation and cannabis use will likely reduce aggressive behaviour. Evidence suggests that threats to hurt others often precede assaults. At first contact with services, patients with schizophrenia who have engaged in aggressive behaviour should be identified and treated for schizophrenia and for aggression. Research is needed to identify interactions between genotypes and environmental factors, from conception onwards, that promote and that protect against the development of aggressive behaviour among persons with schizophrenia.

  3. Clinically relevant interpretation of solid phase assays for HLA antibody

    PubMed Central

    Bettinotti, Maria P.; Zachary, Andrea A.; Leffell, Mary S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Accurate and timely detection and characterization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies are critical for pre-transplant and post-transplant immunological risk assessment. Solid phase immunoassays have provided increased sensitivity and specificity, but test interpretation is not always straightforward. This review will discuss the result interpretation considering technical limitations; assessment of relative antibody strength; and the integration of data for risk stratification from complementary testing and the patient's immunological history. Recent findings Laboratory and clinical studies have provided insight into causes of test failures – false positive reactions because of antibodies to denatured HLA antigens and false negative reactions resulting from test interference and/or loss of native epitopes. Test modifications permit detection of complement-binding antibodies and determination of the IgG subclasses. The high degree of specificity of single antigen solid phase immunoassays has revealed the complexity and clinical relevance of antibodies to HLA-C, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP antigens. Determination of antibody specificity for HLA epitopes enables identification of incompatible antigens not included in test kits. Summary Detection and characterization of HLA antibodies with solid phase immunoassays has led to increased understanding of the role of those antibodies in graft rejection, improved treatment of antibody-mediated rejection, and increased opportunities for transplantation. However, realization of these benefits requires careful and accurate interpretation of test results. PMID:27200498

  4. Relevance of current guidelines for organizing an anticoagulation clinic.

    PubMed

    Rose, Adam J; Hylek, Elaine M; Ozonoff, Al; Ash, Arlene S; Reisman, Joel I; Callahan, Patricia P; Gordon, Margaret M; Berlowitz, Dan R

    2011-04-01

    To describe variations in the structure of anticoagulation clinic (ACC) care within the Veterans Health Administration (VA) and to identify structures of care that are associated with better site-level anticoagulation control. Questionnaire correlated with automated clinical data. We characterized 90 VA ACCs using a questionnaire administered by the VA Central Office. Site descriptors included staffing levels, provider training, visit modalities, quality improvement programs, documentation, and care coordination. Patient outcomes were measured by site mean risk-adjusted percentage time in therapeutic range, a measure of anticoagulation control over time. Our study was powered to detect a 3% difference in risk-adjusted percentage time in therapeutic range, a small-to-moderate effect size, between sites with and without a certain characteristic. We observed considerable variation in the structure of ACC care. For example, 48 sites had fewer than 400 patients per provider, 25 sites had 400 to 599 patients per provider, and 17 sites had 600 patients or more per provider. However, none of the site characteristics measured were significantly related to anticoagulation control. We found substantial variation in guideline-targeted organizational and management features of ACC care within the VA. However, no single feature was associated with better anticoagulation control. Current guidelines for organizing an ACC may have limited relevance for improving patient outcomes.

  5. Clinical and Imaging Characteristics of Arteriopathy Subtypes in Children with Arterial Ischemic Stroke: Results of the VIPS Study.

    PubMed

    Wintermark, M; Hills, N K; DeVeber, G A; Barkovich, A J; Bernard, T J; Friedman, N R; Mackay, M T; Kirton, A; Zhu, G; Leiva-Salinas, C; Hou, Q; Fullerton, H J

    2017-10-05

    Childhood arteriopathies are rare but heterogenous, and difficult to diagnose and classify, especially by nonexperts. We quantified clinical and imaging characteristics associated with childhood arteriopathy subtypes to facilitate their diagnosis and classification in research and clinical settings. The Vascular Effects of Infection in Pediatric Stroke (VIPS) study prospectively enrolled 355 children with arterial ischemic stroke (2010-2014). A central team of experts reviewed all data to diagnose childhood arteriopathy and classify subtypes, including arterial dissection and focal cerebral arteriopathy-inflammatory type, which includes transient cerebral arteriopathy, Moyamoya disease, and diffuse/multifocal vasculitis. Only children whose stroke etiology could be conclusively diagnosed were included in these analyses. We constructed logistic regression models to identify characteristics associated with each arteriopathy subtype. Among 127 children with definite arteriopathy, the arteriopathy subtype could not be classified in 18 (14%). Moyamoya disease (n = 34) occurred mostly in children younger than 8 years of age; focal cerebral arteriopathy-inflammatory type (n = 25), in children 8-15 years of age; and dissection (n = 26), at all ages. Vertigo at stroke presentation was common in dissection. Dissection affected the cervical arteries, while Moyamoya disease involved the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries. A banded appearance of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery was pathognomonic of focal cerebral arteriopathy-inflammatory type but was present in <25% of patients with focal cerebral arteriopathy-inflammatory type; a small lenticulostriate distribution infarct was a more common predictor of focal cerebral arteriopathy-inflammatory type, present in 76%. It remained difficult to distinguish focal cerebral arteriopathy-inflammatory type from intracranial dissection of the anterior circulation. We observed only secondary forms of diffuse

  6. Clinical relevance for lowering C-reactive protein with statins.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Lorido, José Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The role of statins in the protection of atherosclerosis and reducting cardiovascular (CV) events is well established. On the other hand, the role of inflammation in the propagation and propensity to CV events has also been demonstrated. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) which is involved in the immunologic process of inflammation has received the interest for its use in screening and risk reclassification. However, evidence for its causal relationship with atherothrombosis is lacking, and even more, knowing that statins influence on the reduction of CRP levels, a relevant evidence of their clinical benefits in this regard is also lacking. This article reviews four different key points regarding the issue, to better understand the current state and application of the treatment with statins in order to achieve benefits from lowering CRP's levels regarding CV diseases: (1) the mechanisms of reduction of CRP levels by statins; (2) the role of statin-mediated CRP reduction in the atherosclerotic plaque regression; (3) the role in the prevention of CV diseases; and (4) the role in case of secondary prevention. With this basis, the reduction of CRP levels should be interpreted as a reduction of inflammatory burden thus its clinical benefits could be more interesting in secondary prevention. KEY MESSAGES It could be admitted a role of statin-mediated CRP diminution to reduce the rate of progression in atherosclerotic plaque. In general, and in the absence of specific clinical trials, the role of statins by lowering CRP and consequently, preventing cardiovascular events may be superior in case of secondary prevention because a more pronounced state of inflammation and regardless of its levels at baseline.

  7. Degree of Glutathione Deficiency and Redox Imbalance Depend on Subtype of Mitochondrial Disease and Clinical Status

    PubMed Central

    Enns, Gregory M.; Moore, Tereza; Le, Anthony; Atkuri, Kondala; Shah, Monisha K.; Cusmano-Ozog, Kristina; Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Cowan, Tina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are associated with decreased energy production and redox imbalance. Glutathione plays a central role in redox signaling and protecting cells from oxidative damage. In order to understand the consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction on in vivo redox status, and to determine how this varies by mitochondrial disease subtype and clinical severity, we used a sensitive tandem mass spectrometry assay to precisely quantify whole blood reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione levels in a large cohort of mitochondrial disorder patients. Glutathione redox potential was calculated using the Nernst equation. Compared to healthy controls (n = 59), mitochondrial disease patients (n = 58) as a group showed significant redox imbalance (redox potential −251 mV±9.7, p<0.0001) with an increased level of oxidation by ∼9 mV compared to controls (−260 mV±6.4). Underlying this abnormality were significantly lower whole blood GSH levels (p = 0.0008) and GSH/GSSG ratio (p = 0.0002), and significantly higher GSSG levels (p<0.0001) in mitochondrial disease patients compared to controls. Redox potential was significantly more oxidized in all mitochondrial disease subgroups including Leigh syndrome (n = 15), electron transport chain abnormalities (n = 10), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (n = 8), mtDNA deletion syndrome (n = 7), mtDNA depletion syndrome (n = 7), and miscellaneous other mitochondrial disorders (n = 11). Patients hospitalized in metabolic crisis (n = 7) showed the greatest degree of redox imbalance at −242 mV±7. Peripheral whole blood GSH and GSSG levels are promising biomarkers of mitochondrial dysfunction, and may give insights into the contribution of oxidative stress to the pathophysiology of the various mitochondrial disorders. In particular, evaluation of redox potential may be useful in monitoring of clinical status or response to redox

  8. Fine Mapping Major Histocompatibility Complex Associations in Psoriasis and Its Clinical Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yukinori; Han, Buhm; Tsoi, Lam C.; Stuart, Philip E.; Ellinghaus, Eva; Tejasvi, Trilokraj; Chandran, Vinod; Pellett, Fawnda; Pollock, Remy; Bowcock, Anne M.; Krueger, Gerald G.; Weichenthal, Michael; Voorhees, John J.; Rahman, Proton; Gregersen, Peter K.; Franke, Andre; Nair, Rajan P.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Gladman, Dafna D.; Elder, James T.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) risk is strongly associated with variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, but its genetic architecture has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we conducted a large-scale fine-mapping study of PsV risk in the MHC region in 9,247 PsV-affected individuals and 13,589 controls of European descent by imputing class I and II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes from SNP genotype data. In addition, we imputed sequence variants for MICA, an MHC HLA-like gene that has been associated with PsV, to evaluate association at that locus as well. We observed that HLA-C∗06:02 demonstrated the lowest p value for overall PsV risk (p = 1.7 × 10−364). Stepwise analysis revealed multiple HLA-C∗06:02-independent risk variants in both class I and class II HLA genes for PsV susceptibility (HLA-C∗12:03, HLA-B amino acid positions 67 and 9, HLA-A amino acid position 95, and HLA-DQα1 amino acid position 53; p < 5.0 × 10−8), but no apparent risk conferred by MICA. We further evaluated risk of two major clinical subtypes of PsV, psoriatic arthritis (PsA; n = 3,038) and cutaneous psoriasis (PsC; n = 3,098). We found that risk heterogeneity between PsA and PsC might be driven by HLA-B amino acid position 45 (pomnibus = 2.2 × 10−11), indicating that different genetic factors underlie the overall risk of PsV and the risk of specific PsV subphenotypes. Our study illustrates the value of high-resolution HLA and MICA imputation for fine mapping causal variants in the MHC. PMID:25087609

  9. Clinical Differences between Subtypes of Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter: Cross-Sectional Registry of 407 Patients.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Guimarães, Raphael Boesche; Stephan, Laura Siga; Medeiros, Alexandre Kreling; Foltz, Katia; Santanna, Roberto Tofani; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; Lima, Gustavo Glotz de; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz

    2015-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter account for one third of hospitalizations due to arrhythmias, determining great social and economic impacts. In Brazil, data on hospital care of these patients is scarce. To investigate the arrhythmia subtype of atrial fibrillation and flutter patients in the emergency setting and compare the clinical profile, thromboembolic risk and anticoagulants use. Cross-sectional retrospective study, with data collection from medical records of every patient treated for atrial fibrillation and flutter in the emergency department of Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul during the first trimester of 2012. We included 407 patients (356 had atrial fibrillation and 51 had flutter). Patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were in average 5 years younger than those with persistent atrial fibrillation. Compared to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients, those with persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter had larger atrial diameter (48.6 ± 7.2 vs. 47.2 ± 6.2 vs. 42.3 ± 6.4; p < 0.01) and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (66.8 ± 11 vs. 53.9 ± 17 vs. 57.4 ± 16; p < 0.01). The prevalence of stroke and heart failure was higher in persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter patients. Those with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and flutter had higher prevalence of CHADS2 score of zero when compared to those with persistent atrial fibrillation (27.8% vs. 18% vs. 4.9%; p < 0.01). The prevalence of anticoagulation in patients with CHA2DS2-Vasc ≤ 2 was 40%. The population in our registry was similar in its comorbidities and demographic profile to those of North American and European registries. Despite the high thromboembolic risk, the use of anticoagulants was low, revealing difficulties for incorporating guideline recommendations. Public health strategies should be adopted in order to improve these rates.

  10. Clinical Differences between Subtypes of Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter: Cross-Sectional Registry of 407 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Guimarães, Raphael Boesche; Stephan, Laura Siga; Medeiros, Alexandre Kreling; Foltz, Katia; Santanna, Roberto Tofani; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; de Lima, Gustavo Glotz; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter account for one third of hospitalizations due to arrhythmias, determining great social and economic impacts. In Brazil, data on hospital care of these patients is scarce. Objective To investigate the arrhythmia subtype of atrial fibrillation and flutter patients in the emergency setting and compare the clinical profile, thromboembolic risk and anticoagulants use. Methods Cross-sectional retrospective study, with data collection from medical records of every patient treated for atrial fibrillation and flutter in the emergency department of Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul during the first trimester of 2012. Results We included 407 patients (356 had atrial fibrillation and 51 had flutter). Patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were in average 5 years younger than those with persistent atrial fibrillation. Compared to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients, those with persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter had larger atrial diameter (48.6 ± 7.2 vs. 47.2 ± 6.2 vs. 42.3 ± 6.4; p < 0.01) and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (66.8 ± 11 vs. 53.9 ± 17 vs. 57.4 ± 16; p < 0.01). The prevalence of stroke and heart failure was higher in persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter patients. Those with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and flutter had higher prevalence of CHADS2 score of zero when compared to those with persistent atrial fibrillation (27.8% vs. 18% vs. 4.9%; p < 0.01). The prevalence of anticoagulation in patients with CHA2DS2-Vasc ≤ 2 was 40%. Conclusions The population in our registry was similar in its comorbidities and demographic profile to those of North American and European registries. Despite the high thromboembolic risk, the use of anticoagulants was low, revealing difficulties for incorporating guideline recommendations. Public health strategies should be adopted in order to improve these rates. PMID:26016782

  11. Severity and Patterns of Blood-Nerve Barrier Breakdown in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy: Correlations with Clinical Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Fumitaka; Sawai, Setsu; Sano, Yasuteru; Beppu, Minako; Misawa, Sonoko; Nishihara, Hideaki; Koga, Michiaki; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Kanda, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is currently classified into clinical subtypes, including typical and atypical forms (multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy (MADSAM) and distal acquired demyelinating symmetric neuropathy (DADS)). The aim of this study was to elucidate the patterns and severity of breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) in each CIDP subtype. Methods We evaluated the effects of sera obtained from patients with typical CIDP, MADSAM and DADS and control subjects on the expression levels of tight junction proteins and transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) value in human peripheral nerve microvascular endothelial cells (PnMECs). Results The sera obtained from the patients with the three clinical phenotypes of CIDP decreased the amount of claudin-5 protein levels and TEER values in the PnMECs. In addition, the sera obtained from typical CIDP patients more prominently reduced claudin-5 protein levels and TEER values in the PnMECs than did that obtained from the MADSAM and DADS patients. Furthermore, the severity of BNB disruption after exposure to the sera was associated with higher Hughes grade, lower MRC score, more pronounced slowing of motor nerve conduction in the median nerve and higher frequency of abnormal temporal dispersion. Conclusions Sera derived from typical CIDP patients destroy the BNB more severely than those from MADSAM or DADS patients. The extent of BNB disruption in the setting of CIDP is associated with clinical disability and demyelination in the nerve trunk. These observations may explain the phenotypical differences between CIDP subtypes. PMID:25105500

  12. The clinical relevance of orthostatic hypotension in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Laura; Kleefstra, Nanne; Luigies, Rene; de Rooij, Sophia; Bilo, Henk; van Hateren, Kornelis

    2017-02-22

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is highly prevalent in old age. The impact of OH on orthostatic complaints and falling is questionable. We wondered if the consensus definition of OH plays an essential role in the accuracy and direction of the prediction of these endpoints. We aimed to explore the relation between different definitions of OH, including relative decrease of blood pressure, and orthostatic complaints and falling. A cross-sectional study was performed with 1415 participants aged ≥65 years visiting a mobile fall-prevention team. The CAREFALL Triage Instrument and data on blood pressure, orthostatic complaints and previous fall incidents were collected. Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association of different definitions of OH and orthostatic complaints or falling. Ten different definitions of OH based on different relative declines of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were defined. The 2011 consensus definition of OH was not related to orthostatic complaints (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.07 (95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 0.68-1.69)) or previous fall incidents (OR 1.08 (95%CI 0.83-1.41)). A ≥ 25 % SBP decrease was significantly related to orthostatic complaints (OR 2.81 (95%CI 1.31-6.05)) and a ≥ 25 % DBP decrease was related to previous fall incidents (OR 2.56 (95%CI 1.08-6.09)). With the exception of a decrease of ≥25 % SBP or DBP, the clinical relevance of incidental OH blood pressure measurements seems very limited with respect to orthostatic complaints or fall incidents in elderly patients. Using relative decreases may be more appropriate in clinical practice. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. 3D Culture as a Clinically Relevant Model for Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Fong, Eliza Li Shan; Toh, Tan Boon; Yu, Hanry; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Advances in understanding many of the fundamental mechanisms of cancer progression have led to the development of molecular targeted therapies. While molecular targeted therapeutics continue to improve the outcome for cancer patients, tumor heterogeneity among patients, as well as intratumoral heterogeneity, limits the efficacy of these drugs to specific patient subtypes, as well as contributes to relapse. Thus, there is a need for a more personalized approach toward drug development and diagnosis that takes into account the diversity of cancer patients, as well as the complex milieu of tumor cells within a single patient. Three-dimensional (3D) culture systems paired with patient-derived xenografts or patient-derived organoids may provide a more clinically relevant system to address issues presented by personalized or precision medical approaches. In this review, we cover the current methods available for applying 3D culture systems toward personalized cancer research and drug development, as well as key challenges that must be addressed in order to fully realize the potential of 3D patient-derived culture systems for cancer drug development. Greater implementation of 3D patient-derived culture systems in the cancer research field should accelerate the development of truly personalized medical therapies for cancer patients.

  14. Epileptic Neuronal Networks: Methods of Identification and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, Hermann; Lopes da Silva, Fernando H.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine evidence for the concept that epileptic activity should be envisaged in terms of functional connectivity and dynamics of neuronal networks. Basic concepts regarding structure and dynamics of neuronal networks are briefly described. Particular attention is given to approaches that are derived, or related, to the concept of causality, as formulated by Granger. Linear and non-linear methodologies aiming at characterizing the dynamics of neuronal networks applied to EEG/MEG and combined EEG/fMRI signals in epilepsy are critically reviewed. The relevance of functional dynamical analysis of neuronal networks with respect to clinical queries in focal cortical dysplasias, temporal lobe epilepsies, and “generalized” epilepsies is emphasized. In the light of the concepts of epileptic neuronal networks, and recent experimental findings, the dichotomic classification in focal and generalized epilepsy is re-evaluated. It is proposed that so-called “generalized epilepsies,” such as absence seizures, are actually fast spreading epilepsies, the onset of which can be tracked down to particular neuronal networks using appropriate network analysis. Finally new approaches to delineate epileptogenic networks are discussed. PMID:23532203

  15. Almond allergens: molecular characterization, detection, and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Costa, Joana; Mafra, Isabel; Carrapatoso, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2012-02-15

    Almond ( Prunus dulcis ) has been widely used in all sorts of food products (bakery, pastry, snacks), mostly due to its pleasant flavor and health benefits. However, it is also classified as a potential allergenic seed known to be responsible for triggering several mild to life-threatening immune reactions in sensitized and allergic individuals. Presently, eight groups of allergenic proteins have been identified and characterized in almond, namely, PR-10 (Pru du 1), TLP (Pru du 2), prolamins (Pru du 2S albumin, Pru du 3), profilins (Pru du 4), 60sRP (Pru du 5), and cupin (Pru du 6, Pru du γ-conglutin), although only a few of them have been tested for reactivity with almond-allergic sera. To protect sensitized individuals, labeling regulations have been implemented for foods containing potential allergenic ingredients, impelling the development of adequate analytical methods. This work aims to present an updated and critical overview of the molecular characterization and clinical relevance of almond allergens, as well as review the main methodologies used to detect and quantitate food allergens with special emphasis on almond.

  16. Clinically and pharmacologically relevant interactions of antidiabetic drugs

    PubMed Central

    May, Marcus; Schindler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus often require multifactorial pharmacological treatment due to different comorbidities. An increasing number of concomitantly taken medications elevate the risk of the patient experiencing adverse drug effects or drug interactions. Drug interactions can be divided into pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions affecting cytochrome (CYP) enzymes, absorption properties, transporter activities and receptor affinities. Furthermore, nutrition, herbal supplements, patient’s age and gender are of clinical importance. Relevant drug interactions are predominantly related to sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones and glinides. Although metformin has a very low interaction potential, caution is advised when drugs that impair renal function are used concomitantly. With the exception of saxagliptin, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors also show a low interaction potential, but all drugs affecting the drug transporter P-glycoprotein should be used with caution. Incretin mimetics and sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors comprise a very low interaction potential and are therefore recommended as an ideal combination partner from the clinical–pharmacologic point of view. PMID:27092232

  17. Biology and Clinical Relevance of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reinisch, Andreas; Chan, Steven M.; Thomas, Daniel; Majeti, Ravindra

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for the cancer stem cell model was first demonstrated in xenotransplanted blood and bone marrow samples from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) almost two decades ago, supporting the concept that a rare clonal and mutated leukemic stem cell (LSC) population is sufficient to drive leukemic growth. The inability to eliminate LSCs with conventional therapies is thought to be the primary cause of disease relapse in AML patients, and as such, novel therapies with the ability to target this population are required to improve patient outcomes. An important step towards this goal is the identification of common immunophenotypic surface markers and biological properties that distinguish LSCs from normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) across AML patients. This work has resulted in the development of a large number of potential LSC-selective therapies that target cell-surface molecules, intracellular signaling pathways, and the bone marrow microenvironment. Here, we will review the basic biology, immunophenotypic detection, and clinical relevance of LSCs, as well as emerging biological and small-molecule strategies that either directly target LSCs or indirectly target these cells through modulation of their microenvironment. PMID:26111462

  18. Epileptic neuronal networks: methods of identification and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Hermann; Lopes da Silva, Fernando H

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine evidence for the concept that epileptic activity should be envisaged in terms of functional connectivity and dynamics of neuronal networks. Basic concepts regarding structure and dynamics of neuronal networks are briefly described. Particular attention is given to approaches that are derived, or related, to the concept of causality, as formulated by Granger. Linear and non-linear methodologies aiming at characterizing the dynamics of neuronal networks applied to EEG/MEG and combined EEG/fMRI signals in epilepsy are critically reviewed. The relevance of functional dynamical analysis of neuronal networks with respect to clinical queries in focal cortical dysplasias, temporal lobe epilepsies, and "generalized" epilepsies is emphasized. In the light of the concepts of epileptic neuronal networks, and recent experimental findings, the dichotomic classification in focal and generalized epilepsy is re-evaluated. It is proposed that so-called "generalized epilepsies," such as absence seizures, are actually fast spreading epilepsies, the onset of which can be tracked down to particular neuronal networks using appropriate network analysis. Finally new approaches to delineate epileptogenic networks are discussed.

  19. Clinical Relevance of HLA Gene Variants in HBV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Zou, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Host gene variants may influence the natural history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in humans, is one of the most important host factors that are correlated with the clinical course of HBV infection. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near certain HLA gene loci are strongly associated with not only persistent HBV infection but also spontaneous HBV clearance and seroconversion, disease progression, and the development of liver cirrhosis and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). These variations also influence the efficacy of interferon (IFN) and nucleot(s)ide analogue (NA) treatment and response to HBV vaccines. Meanwhile, discrepant conclusions were reached with different patient cohorts. It is therefore essential to identify the associations of specific HLA allele variants with disease progression and viral clearance in chronic HBV infection among different ethnic populations. A better understanding of HLA polymorphism relevance in HBV infection outcome would enable us to elucidate the roles of HLA SNPs in the pathogenesis and clearance of HBV in different areas and ethnic groups, to improve strategies for the prevention and treatment of chronic HBV infection. PMID:27243039

  20. Different aspects of dysexecutive syndrome in patients with moyamoya disease and its clinical subtypes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lingling; Huang, Jia; Zhang, Qian; Chan, Raymond C K; Wang, Rong; Wan, Weiqing

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Dysexecutive syndrome is common in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD), a chronic cerebrovascular disease that is characterized by stenosis of the bilateral internal carotid arteries and progressive collateral revascularization, and MMD can be classified as ischemic or hemorrhagic according to the disease presentation and history. In this study, the authors aimed to determine which aspects of executive function are impaired in patients with MMD, in addition to the specific dysexecutive functions present among its clinical subtypes and the mechanisms underlying dysexecutive function in these patients. METHODS The authors administered 5 typical executive function tests (the Stroop test, the Hayling Sentence Completion Test [HSCT], the verbal fluency [VF] test, the N-back test, and the Sustained Attention to Response Task [SART]) to 49 patients with MMD and 47 IQ-, age-, education-, and social status-matched healthy controls. The dysexecutive questionnaire (DEX) was also used to assess participants' subjective feelings about their executive function. A total of 39 of the patients were evaluated by CT perfusion (CTP) before the assessments were performed, and the correlations among the performances of the patients on the above tests with the parameters of cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT), and time-to-peak (TTP) in the frontal lobes of these patients were also analyzed. RESULTS Many aspects of executive function in the patients with MMD were significantly poorer than those in the healthy controls, and the patients performed particularly poorer on the VF test, HSCT, N-back test, and SART. The patients with hemorrhagic MMD exhibited worse executive inhibition, executive processing, and semantic inhibition compared with those with ischemic MMD, but the latter group presented a worse working memory and poorer sustained attention. There were no significant differences in the DEX scores between the patients with MMD and

  1. Clinical Psychologists' Judgments of the Scientific Merit and Clinical-Relevance of Psychotherapy Outcome Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Lawrence H.

    1979-01-01

    Result of this study indicated psychologists' judgments of scientific merit were influenced by patient assignment and follow-up but not by therapists' experience. Judgments of clinical relevance were influenced by patient population, the findings' applicability, and nature of therapy. Psychologists were more critical of methodology of studies…

  2. Psychiatric features and parenting stress profiles of subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from a clinically referred Taiwanese sample.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pinchen; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yi; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu

    2007-10-01

    This study attempts to evaluate whether there are attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtype differences regarding psychiatric features, comorbidity pattern and parenting stress profiles in an Asian population. A total of 182 ADHD children and their primary caretakers recruited from a university-affiliated hospital were surveyed. Subjects were two groups of preadolescent (6 to 12 years old) ADHD children: children with ADHD-inattentive subtype (n=58) and ADHD-combined subtype (n=124). Various information was collected and compared, including the child's characteristics (current age, gender, number of family members, age at ADHD diagnosis, duration of pharmaceutical intervention, psychiatric comorbidities, and intelligence quotient); the primary caretaker's characteristics, and profiles obtained with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI). Group comparison showed that these two subtypes were statistically distinguishable from each other in total scores on the PSI, four subscale scores on the PSI, the child's age at diagnosis, and comorbidity profiles (all p<.05). Parents of children of the combined subtype experienced higher parenting stress and felt their children displayed qualities that made it difficult for them to fulfill their parenting roles. School failure (p=.001) and anxiety disorders (p=.022) were significantly more prevalent in the inattentive subtype children, while oppositional defiant disorder was significantly more present in the combined subtype children (p=.000). Our findings supported the cross-cultural equivalence of the nosological distinction in ADHD subtypes. The need for specific clinical intervention according to the subtype difference was stressed.

  3. Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer Are Not Associated with the Clinical Under- or Overstaging of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Espinola, Juliana Pinho; Peres, Raquel Mary Rodrigues; Serra, Kátia Piton; Derchain, Sophie Françoise Mauricette; Sarian, Luis Otávio

    2016-05-01

    Purpose to evaluate the agreement between the clinical and pathological stagings of breast cancer based on clinical and molecular features. Methods this was a cross-sectional study, in which clinical, epidemiological and pathological data were collected from 226 patients who underwent surgery at the Prof. Dr. José Aristodemo Pinotti Women's Hospital (CAISM/Unicamp) from January 2008 to September 2010. Patients were staged clinically and pathologically, and were classified as: understaged, when the clinical staging was lower than the pathological staging; correctly staged, when the clinical staging was the same as the pathological one; and overstaged, when the clinical staging was greater than the pathological staging. Results understaged patients were younger (52.2 years; p < 0.01) and more symptomatic at diagnosis (p = 0.04) when compared with correctly or overstaged patients. Clinicopathological surrogate subtype, menopausal status, parity, hormone replace therapy and histology were not associated with differences in staging. Women under 57 years of age were clinically understaged mainly due to underestimation of T (tumor staging) (p < 0.001), as were the premenopausal women (p < 0.01). Patients whose diagnosis was made due to clinical complaints, and not by screening, were clinically understaged due to underestimation of N (lymph nodes staging) (p < 0.001). Conclusion the study shows that the clinicopathological surrogate subtype is not associated with differences in staging, while younger women diagnosed because of clinical complaints tend to have their breast tumors understaged during clinical evaluation. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  4. Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome: a review focused on clinical and electrophysiological subtypes.

    PubMed

    Uncini, Antonino; Shahrizaila, Nortina; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    In 2016, we have seen a rapid emergence of Zika virus-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) since its first description in a French-Polynesian patient in 2014. Current evidence estimates the incidence of GBS at 24 cases per 100 000 persons infected by Zika virus. This will result in a sharp rise in the number of GBS cases worldwide with the anticipated global spread of Zika virus. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of Zika-associated GBS is crucial to prepare us for the current epidemic. In this review, we evaluate the existing literature on GBS in association with Zika and other flavivirus to better define its clinical subtypes and electrophysiological characteristics, demonstrating a demyelinating subtype of GBS in most cases. We also recommend measures that will help reduce the gaps in knowledge that currently exist.

  5. Clinically relevant investigation of flattening filter-free skin dose.

    PubMed

    Guy, Christopher L; Karki, Kishor; Sharma, Manju; Kim, Siyong

    2016-11-08

    As flattening filter-free (FFF) photon beams become readily available for treat-ment delivery in techniques such as SBRT, thorough investigation of skin dose from FFF photon beams is necessary under clinically relevant conditions. Using a parallel-plate PTW Markus chamber placed in a custom water-equivalent phantom, surface-dose measurements were taken at 2 × 2, 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 6 × 6, 8 × 8, 10 × 10, 20 × 20, and 30 × 30 cm2 field sizes, at 80, 90, and 100 cm source-to-surface distances (SSDs), and with fields defined by jaws and multileaf collimator (MLC) using multiple beam energies (6X, 6XFFF, 10X, and 10XFFF). The same set of measurements was repeated with the chamber at a reference depth of 10cm. Each surface measurement was normalized by its corresponding reference depth measurement for analysis. The FFF surface doses at 100 cm SSD were higher than flattened surface doses by 45% at 2 × 2 cm2 to 13% at 20 × 20 cm2 for 6MV energy. These surface dose differences varied to a greater degree as energy increased, ranging from +63% at 2 × 2 cm2 to -2% at 20 × 20 cm2 for 10 MV. At small field sizes, higher energy increased FFF surface dose relative to flattened surface dose; while at larger field sizes, relative FFF surface dose was higher for lower energies. At both energies investigated, decreasing SSD caused a decrease in the ratios of FFF-to-flattened surface dose. Variability with SSD of FFF-to-flattened surface dose differences increased with field size and ranged from 0% to 6%. The field size at which FFF and flattened beams gave the same skin dose increased with decreasing beam energy. Surface dose was higher with MLC fields compared to jaw fields under most conditions, with the difference reaching its maximum at a field size between 4 × 4 cm2 and 6 × 6 cm2 for a given energy and SSD. This study conveyed the magnitude of surface dose in a clinically meaning-ful manner by reporting results normalized to 10 cm depth dose instead of depth of dose

  6. Burnout syndrome among dental students: a short version of the "Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire" adapted for students (BCSQ-12-SS).

    PubMed

    Montero-Marin, Jesus; Monticelli, Francesca; Casas, Marina; Roman, Amparo; Tomas, Inmaculada; Gili, Margarita; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2011-12-12

    Burnout has been traditionally defined in relation to the dimensions of "exhaustion", "cynicism", and "inefficiency". More recently, the Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-12) further established three different subtypes of burnout: the "frenetic" subtype (related to "overload"), the "under-challenged" subtype (related to "lack of development"), and the "worn-out" subtype (related to "neglect"). However, to date, these definitions have not been applied to students. The aims of this research were (1) to adapt a Spanish version of the BCSQ-12 for use with students, (2) to test its factorial validity, internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and (3) to assess potential socio-demographic and occupational risk factors associated with the development of the subtypes. We used a cross-sectional design on a sample of dental students (n = 314) from Santiago and Huesca universities (Spain). Participants completed the Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire Student Survey (BCSQ-12-SS), the Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey (MBI-SS), and a series of socio-demographic and occupational questions formulated for the specific purpose of this study. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using the principal component method with varimax orthogonal rotation. To assess the relations with the criterion, we calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient (r), multiple correlation coefficient (R(y.123)), and the coefficient of determination (R(2)(y.123)). To assess the association between the subtypes and the socio-demographic variables, we examined the adjusted odds ratio (OR) obtained from multivariate logistic regression models. Factorial analyses supported the theoretical proposition of the BCSQ-12-SS, with α-values exceeding 0.80 for all dimensions. The "overload-exhaustion" relation was r = 0.59 (p < 0.001), "lack of development"-"cynicism", r = 0.49 (p < 0.001), "neglect"-"inefficiency", r = 0.47 (p < 0.001). The "overload

  7. Structure-based prediction of subtype-selectivity of Histamine H3 receptor selective antagonists in clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Fristrup, Peter; Abrol, Ravinder; Goddard, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Histamine receptors (HRs) are excellent drug targets for the treatment of diseases such as schizophrenia, psychosis, depression, migraine, allergies, asthma ulcers, and hypertension. Among them, the human H3 Histamine receptor (hH3HR) antagonists have been proposed for specific therapeutic applications, including treatment of Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, and obesity.1 However, many of these drug candidates cause undesired side effects through the cross-reactivity with other histamine receptor subtypes. In order to develop improved selectivity and activity for such treatments it would be useful to have the three dimensional structures for all four HRs. We report here the predicted structures of four HR subtypes (H1, H2, H3, and H4) using the GEnSeMBLE (GPCR Ensemble of Structures in Membrane BiLayer Environment) Monte Carlo protocol.2 sampling ~ 35 million combinations of helix packings to predict the 10 most stable packings for each of the four subtypes. Then we used these best 10 protein structures with the DarwinDock Monte Carlo protocol to sample ~ 50,000*20 poses to predict the optimum ligand-protein structures for various agonists and antagonists. We find that E2065.46 contributes most in binding H3 selective agonists (5, 6, 7) in agreement with experimental mutation studies. We also find that conserved E5.46/ S5.43 in both of hH3HR and hH4HR are involved in H3/ H4 subtype selectivity. In addition, we find that M3786.55 in hH3HR provides additional hydrophobic interactions different from hH4HR (the corresponding amino acid of T3236.55 in hH4HR) to provide additional subtype bias. From these studies we developed a pharmacophore model based on our predictions for known hH3HR selective antagonists in clinical study [ABT-239 1, GSK-189,254 2, PF-3654746 3, and BF2.649 (Tiprolisant) 4] that suggests critical selectivity directing elements are: the basic proton interacting with D1143.32, the spacer, the aromatic

  8. Breast Cancer Subtype Influences the Accuracy of Predicting Pathologic Response by Imaging and Clinical Breast Exam After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Waldrep, Ashley R; Avery, Eric J; Rose, Ferrill F; Midathada, Madhu V; Tilford, Joni A; Kolberg, Hans-Christian; Hutchins, Mark R

    2016-10-01

    Clinical response evaluation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for breast cancer could include various imaging methods, as well as clinical breast exam (CBE). We assessed the accuracy of CBE and imaging to predict pathologic response after NACT administration according to breast cancer subtype. This retrospective cohort study included 84 patients with records of NACT and subsequent primary breast surgery from 2003-2013. Patients were divided into 4 breast cancer subtypes according to hormone receptor (HR) status and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status. Negative predictive value (NPV), false-negative rate (FNR), false-positive rate (FPR) and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated for CBE and imaging post-NACT and prior to breast cancer surgery. NPV, FNR, FPR and PPV varied by breast cancer subtype and clinical response evaluation method. Imaging resulted in a higher NPV and a lower FNR than CBE among the entire cohort. There was a lower FPR with CBE. Clinical response evaluation by CBE was highly accurate for predicting pathologic residual disease in HR+ tumors (CBE PPV: 95.5% in HR+HER2-, 100.0% in HR+HER2+). In triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), the imaging NPV was 100% and the imaging FNR was 0%. The use of imaging in HR+ tumors post-NACT may provide little to no additional value that is not already garnered by performance of a CBE. For TNBC, imaging may play a critical role in the prediction of pathologic complete response (pCR) post-NACT. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. Ethnic Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Ischemic Stroke Subtypes Among Young Adult Patients With Stroke in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; Ito, Cherisse S; King, Sage L

    2017-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) with ischemic stroke have younger age of stroke onset compared with whites. However, ethnic differences in stroke subtypes in this population have been inadequately studied. Consecutive young adult patients (aged ≤55 years) who were hospitalized for ischemic stroke between 2006 and 2012 at a tertiary center in Honolulu were studied. Clinical characteristics and stroke subtypes based on pathophysiological TOAST classification (Trial of Org 10172) of NHOPI and Asians were compared with whites. A total of 427 consecutive young adult (mean age, 46.7±7.8 years) patients (NHOPI 45%, Asians 38%, and whites 17%) were studied. NHOPI had a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, prosthetic valve, higher body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, and lower high-density lipoprotein than whites (all P<0.05). Stroke subtype distribution was not different between the ethnic groups. Specifically, the prevalence of small-vessel disease was similar between NHOPI (26.6%), whites (28.4%), and Asians (24.8%). In the univariate analyses, the use of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator was lower among NHOPI (4.7%; P=0.01) and Asians (3.1%; P=0.002) than among whites (12.5%). In the multivariable model, NHOPI (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.98) and Asians (odds ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.74) were less likely to be treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator than whites. NHOPI have greater cardiovascular risk factors than whites, but there were no differences in stroke subtypes between the ethnic groups. Furthermore, NHOPI and Asians may be less likely to be treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator than whites. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Clinical Profiles of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Subtypes A and B among Children Hospitalized with Bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Laham, Federico R; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Piedra, Pedro A; Hasegawa, Kohei; Sullivan, Ashley F; Espinola, Janice A; Camargo, Carlos A

    2017-04-05

    In this analysis of a prospective, multicenter study of children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, 925 had RSV-A and 649 had RSV-B. Overall, bronchiolitis severity did not differ by RSV subtype. However, among children with RSV-only bronchiolitis, those children with RSV-A had higher risk of intensive care treatment (OR, 1.31; 95%CI, 1.00-1.71; P=0.048) when compared with those having RSV-B.

  11. Clinical features of human salmonellosis caused by bovine-associated subtypes in New York.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kevin J; Warnick, Lorin D; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Hoelzer, Karin; Root, Timothy P; Siler, Julie D; McGuire, Suzanne M; Wright, Emily M; Zansky, Shelley M; Wiedmann, Martin

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify patient symptoms and case outcomes that were more likely to occur as a result of Salmonella infections caused by bovine-associated subtypes (isolates that matched contemporary bovine isolates from New York by serovar and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern), as compared to salmonellosis caused by non-bovine-associated subtypes. Data were collected in 34 counties of New York that comprise the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) catchment area of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program. Patients with specimen collection dates between March 1, 2008 and March 1, 2010 were included. Symptoms and outcomes of 40 cases infected with bovine-associated Salmonella subtypes were compared to those of 379 control-cases infected with Salmonella isolates that were not bovine-associated. Cases were significantly more likely to have invasive salmonellosis (odds ratio, 3.8; p-value=0.02), after adjusting for age group, gender, and race. In addition, there was a marginal association between case status and the presence of blood in the stool (p-value=0.1) while ill. These findings might have implications for patient management, as a history of consuming undercooked foods of bovine origin or having direct contact with cattle in the few days prior to illness could be useful for suggesting a more proactive diagnostic approach as well as close monitoring for the need to implement more aggressive therapy.

  12. Clinical Features of Human Salmonellosis Caused by Bovine-Associated Subtypes in New York

    PubMed Central

    Warnick, Lorin D.; Gröhn, Yrjö T.; Hoelzer, Karin; Root, Timothy P.; Siler, Julie D.; McGuire, Suzanne M.; Wright, Emily M.; Zansky, Shelley M.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to identify patient symptoms and case outcomes that were more likely to occur as a result of Salmonella infections caused by bovine-associated subtypes (isolates that matched contemporary bovine isolates from New York by serovar and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern), as compared to salmonellosis caused by non-bovine-associated subtypes. Data were collected in 34 counties of New York that comprise the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) catchment area of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program. Patients with specimen collection dates between March 1, 2008 and March 1, 2010 were included. Symptoms and outcomes of 40 cases infected with bovine-associated Salmonella subtypes were compared to those of 379 control-cases infected with Salmonella isolates that were not bovine-associated. Cases were significantly more likely to have invasive salmonellosis (odds ratio, 3.8; p-value=0.02), after adjusting for age group, gender, and race. In addition, there was a marginal association between case status and the presence of blood in the stool (p-value=0.1) while ill. These findings might have implications for patient management, as a history of consuming undercooked foods of bovine origin or having direct contact with cattle in the few days prior to illness could be useful for suggesting a more proactive diagnostic approach as well as close monitoring for the need to implement more aggressive therapy. PMID:22870888

  13. Subtyping clinical specimens of influenza A virus by use of a simple method to amplify RNA targets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Tai, Warren; Angione, Stephanie L; John, Amrita R; Opal, Steven M; Artenstein, Andrew W; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2013-10-01

    This work presents the clinical application of a robust and unique approach for RNA amplification, called a simple method for amplifying RNA targets (SMART), for the detection and identification of subtypes of H1N1 pandemic, H1N1 seasonal, and H3N2 seasonal influenza virus. While all the existing amplification techniques rely on the diffusion of two molecules to complex RNA structures, the SMART achieves fast and efficient amplification via single-molecule diffusion. The SMART utilizes amplifiable single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes, which serve as reporter molecules for capturing specific viral RNA (vRNA) sequences and are subsequently separated on a microfluidic chip under zero-flow conditions. The probe amplification and detection are performed using an isothermal (41°C) amplification scheme via a modified version of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA). In our study, 116 consecutive, deidentified, clinical nasopharyngeal swab samples were analyzed independently in a blinded fashion using the SMART, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), antigen (Ag) testing, and viral culture. The SMART was shown to have a limit of detection (LOD) of approximately 10(5) vRNA copies/ml, corresponding with a time-to-positivity (TTP) value of 70 min for real-time detection. The SMART correctly detected influenza virus in 98.3% of the samples with a subtyping accuracy of 95.7%. This work demonstrates that the SMART represents a highly accurate diagnostic platform for the detection and subtyping of influenza virus in clinical specimens and offers significant advantages over the current commercially available diagnostic tools.

  14. Putative cancer-initiating stem cells in cell culture models for molecular subtypes of clinical breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    TELANG, NITIN

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-initiating stem cells (CISC) represent a minor subpopulation of heterogeneous breast cancer. CISC are responsible for the acquired resistance to conventional chemoendocrine therapy and eventual relapse observed in patients with breast cancer. Certain molecular subtypes of clinical breast cancer that exhibit differential expression of genes coding for hormone and growth factor receptors differ in their response to conventional chemoendocrine therapy and targeted therapeutic inhibitors. Thus, the development of reliable cell culture models for CISC may provide a valuable experimental approach for the study of stem cell-targeted therapy for the treatment of breast cancer. The present study utilized optimized cell culture systems as experimental models for different molecular subtypes of clinical breast cancer, including luminal A, human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2-enriched and triple negative breast cancer. Biomarker end points, including control of homeostatic growth, cancer risk and drug resistance, were quantitatively analyzed in the selected models. The results of the analyses indicated that, compared with the non-tumorigenic controls, the cell models representing the aforementioned molecular subtypes of clinical breast cancer exhibited aberrant cell cycle progression, downregulated cellular apoptosis and loss of control of homeostatic growth, as evidenced by hyperproliferation. Additionally, these models displayed persistent cancer risk, as indicated by their high incidence and frequency of anchorage-independent (AI) colony formation in vitro and their tumor development capacity in vivo. Furthermore, in the presence of maximum cytostatic drug concentrations, the drug-resistant phenotypes isolated from the parental drug-sensitive cell lines representing luminal A, HER-2-enriched and triple negative breast cancer exhibited an 11.5, 5.0 and 6.2 fold increase in cell growth, and a 5.6, 5.4 and 4.4 fold increase in the number of AI colonies

  15. Putative cancer-initiating stem cells in cell culture models for molecular subtypes of clinical breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Telang, Nitin

    2015-12-01

    Cancer-initiating stem cells (CISC) represent a minor subpopulation of heterogeneous breast cancer. CISC are responsible for the acquired resistance to conventional chemoendocrine therapy and eventual relapse observed in patients with breast cancer. Certain molecular subtypes of clinical breast cancer that exhibit differential expression of genes coding for hormone and growth factor receptors differ in their response to conventional chemoendocrine therapy and targeted therapeutic inhibitors. Thus, the development of reliable cell culture models for CISC may provide a valuable experimental approach for the study of stem cell-targeted therapy for the treatment of breast cancer. The present study utilized optimized cell culture systems as experimental models for different molecular subtypes of clinical breast cancer, including luminal A, human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2-enriched and triple negative breast cancer. Biomarker end points, including control of homeostatic growth, cancer risk and drug resistance, were quantitatively analyzed in the selected models. The results of the analyses indicated that, compared with the non-tumorigenic controls, the cell models representing the aforementioned molecular subtypes of clinical breast cancer exhibited aberrant cell cycle progression, downregulated cellular apoptosis and loss of control of homeostatic growth, as evidenced by hyperproliferation. Additionally, these models displayed persistent cancer risk, as indicated by their high incidence and frequency of anchorage-independent (AI) colony formation in vitro and their tumor development capacity in vivo. Furthermore, in the presence of maximum cytostatic drug concentrations, the drug-resistant phenotypes isolated from the parental drug-sensitive cell lines representing luminal A, HER-2-enriched and triple negative breast cancer exhibited an 11.5, 5.0 and 6.2 fold increase in cell growth, and a 5.6, 5.4 and 4.4 fold increase in the number of AI colonies

  16. Clinical significance of psychiatric comorbidity in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: subtyping a complex disorder.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, A E; Morer, A; Moreno, E; Plana, M T; Cordovilla, C; Lázaro, L

    2016-04-01

    A promising approach in relation to reducing phenotypic heterogeneity involves the identification of homogeneous subtypes of OCD based on age of onset, gender, clinical course and comorbidity. This study aims to assess the sociodemographic characteristics and clinical features of OCD patients in relation to gender and the presence or absence of another comorbid disorder. The sample comprised 112 children and adolescents of both sexes and aged 8-18 years, all of whom had a diagnosis of OCD. Overall, 67 % of OCD patients had one comorbid diagnosis, 20.5 % had two such diagnoses and 2.6 % had three comorbid diagnoses. The group of OCD patients with a comorbid neurodevelopmental disorder had significantly more family history of OCD in parents (p = .049), as compared with the no comorbidity group and the group with a comorbid internalizing disorder, and they also showed a greater predominance of males (p = .013) than did the group with a comorbid internalizing disorder. The group of OCD patients with internalizing comorbidity had a later age of onset of OCD (p = .001) compared with both the other groups. Although the initial severity was similar in all three groups, the need for pharmacological treatment and for hospitalization due to OCD symptomatology was greater in the groups with a comorbid neurodevelopmental disorder (p = .038 and p = .009, respectively) and a comorbid internalizing disorder (p = .008 and p = .004, respectively) than in the group without comorbidity. Our findings suggest that two subtypes of OCD can be defined on the basis of the comorbid pathology presented. The identification of different subtypes according to comorbidity is potentially useful in terms of understanding clinical variations, as well as in relation to treatment management and the use of therapeutic resources.

  17. Replication study of the milwaukee inventory for subtypes of trichotillomania-adult version in a clinically characterized sample.

    PubMed

    Keuthen, Nancy J; Tung, Esther S; Woods, Douglas W; Franklin, Martin E; Altenburger, Erin M; Pauls, David L; Flessner, Christopher A

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the Milwaukee Inventory for Subtypes of Trichotillomania-Adult Version (MIST-A) in a replication sample of clinically characterized hair pullers using exploratory factor analysis (EFA; N = 193). EFA eigenvalues and visual inspection of our scree plot revealed a two-factor solution. Factor structure coefficients and internal consistencies suggested a 13-item scale with an 8-item "Intention" scale and a 5-item "Emotion" scale. Both scales displayed good construct and discriminant validity. These findings indicate the need for a revised scale that provides a more refined assessment of pulling phenomenology that can facilitate future treatment advances. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. [EDNOS is an eating disorder of clinical relevance, on a par with anorexia and bulimia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Dingemans, A E; van Furth, E F

    2015-01-01

    The category 'eating disorder 'not otherwise specified'' (EDNOS) in DSM-IV is restricted to eating disorders of clinical severity that do not completely fulfil the criteria for anorexia and bulimia nervosa. The EDNOS category is, by definition, often regarded as a a residual category and in principle designed to incorporate a small group of patients with atypical characteristics. Health insurance companies argue that the treatment of patients diagnosed with EDNOS should not be treated in mental health institutions and therefore should not get their treatment costs reimbursed by the insurance companies. The most important argument of the insurance companies is that patients in the EDNOS category do not display serious psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this paper is to show that EDNOS is an eating disorder category of clinical relevance. The article provides a critical overview of literature on EDNOS which studies the prevalence, severity and course of the disorder. We also discuss to what extent the fifth version of dsm solves the problems relating to this residual category. We reviewed the literature. The classification given in DSM-IV is not an accurate reflection of clinical reality. Half of the patients presenting with an eating disorder and seeking treatment do meet the criteria for EDNOS. The duration and the severity of eating disorder psychopathology, the presence of comorbidity, the mortality, and the use of the mental health care services by individuals with an eating disorder appear to be very similar in EDNOS patients and in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Eating disorder classifications can be regarded as snapshots taken throughout the course of an illness. Over of the years patients can be afflicted with various subtypes of an eating disorder. DSM-5 places fewer patients in the EDNOS category that did DSM-IV. In the latest version of dsm, namely DSM-5, the number of patients with an eating disorder classified as EDNOS has declined. There

  19. First clinical isolates of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) in Argentina: characterization and subtyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Asato, Valeria C; Vilches, Viviana E; Pineda, María G; Casanueva, Enrique; Cane, Alejandro; Moroni, Mirian P; Brengi, Silvina P; Pichel, Mariana G

    2013-01-01

    Cronobacter species are opportunistic pathogens associated with severe infections in neonates and immunocompromised infants. From January 2009 through September 2010, two cases of neonatal infections associated with Cronobacter malonaticus and one case associated with Cronobacter sakazakii, two of them fatal, were reported in the same hospital. These are the first clinical isolates of Cronobacter spp. in Argentina. The objective of this work was to characterize and subtype clinical isolates of Cronobacter spp. in neonate patients, as well as to establish the genetic relationship between these isolates and the foodborne isolates previously identified in the country. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis showed a genetic relationship between the C. malonaticus isolates from two patients. Different results were found when the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of clinical isolates were compared with those deposited in the National Database of Cronobacter spp.

  20. Centrally necrotizing breast carcinoma: a rare histological subtype, which was cause of misdiagnosis in an evident clinical local recurrence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Centrally necrotizing carcinoma is a rare subtype of breast carcinoma, which is characterized by an extensive central necrotic zone accounting for at least 70% of the cross-sectional area of the neoplasm. This central necrotic zone, in turn, is surrounded by a narrow rim of proliferative viable tumor cells. We report an unusual clinical situation in which a patient whose evident breast mass suggested an ipsilateral local recurrence and for which numerous attempts to confirm the histological diagnosis had failed. The patient was treated with a radical mastectomy based on clinical suspicion of breast cancer recurrence after an undesirable delay. In this case, the narrow rim of viable malignant tissue had a thickness of 0.5 to 8 mm, and the centrally necrotizing carcinoma had a central zone with a predominance of fibrosis. The special features of this case led to a misdiagnosis and to an evident clinical local recurrence. PMID:22852765

  1. Severe and anxious depression: combining definitions of clinical sub-types to identify patients differentially responsive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Papakostas, George I; Fan, Hua; Tedeschini, Enrico

    2012-05-01

    Patients with severe major depressive disorder are more likely than those with mild/moderate depression to experience the relative benefits of antidepressant therapy versus placebo. Several studies have, unexpectedly, failed to show a similar antidepressant-placebo discrepancy between patients with versus without anxious depression, although patients with anxious depression are more likely to meet criteria for severe depression than those without. The aim of this study was to confirm the absence of treatment moderating effects for anxious depression in a general clinical trial population, and to examine for the presence of treatment moderating effects in severe depression. Patient-level outcome data from all randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving the use of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram for adults with major depressive disorder sponsored by H. Lundbeck A/S or Forest Laboratories were pooled. Studies focusing on patients with a specific axis-I or -III co-morbidity were excluded. Data from five trials were pooled. Anxious depression was not found to serve as a treatment moderator for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy versus placebo. However, when patients with severe depression were analyzed separately, anxious depression significantly influenced the relative degree of symptom reduction with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus placebo (p=0.0094). In fact, the numbers needed to treat for remission for these two sub-types were the largest and smallest reported to date from analyses of large datasets of antidepressants (22 for severe anxious versus 4 for severe non-anxious depression). Subdividing patients with severe major depressive disorder into those with versus without anxious depression results in the characterization of sub-types that are particularly "responsive" (severe non-anxious) and "unresponsive" (severe anxious) to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy (relative to placebo

  2. Clinical features and the degree of cerebrovascular stenosis in different types and subtypes of cerebral watershed infarction.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Li, Man; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Shuna; Fan, Huimin; Qin, Wei; Yang, Lei; Yuan, Junliang; Hu, Wenli

    2017-08-29

    Whether there are differences in pathogenesis among different types and subtypes of cerebral watershed infarction (WSI) is controversial since they have been combined into a single group in most previous studies. We prospectively identified 340 supratentorial WSI patients at Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, China and classified them based on diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) templates. Baseline characteristics, clinical courses and neuroradiological features were compared among patients with different types and subtypes of WSI. We identified 92 patients with cortical watershed infarction (CWI), 112 with internal watershed infarction (IWI) and 136 with mixed-type infarction. Compared with CWI patients, more IWI patients had critical stenosis of internal carotid artery (ICA) (P < 0.001). For the CWI group, patients with anterior watershed infarction (AWI) were more prone to critical ICA stenosis than those with posterior watershed infarction (PWI) (P = 0.011). For the IWI group, critical ICA stenosis was more prevalent in patients with partial IWI (P-IWI) than in those with confluent IWI (C-IWI) (P = 0.026). IWI patients were more frequently found to have clinical deterioration during the first 7 days of hospitalization and a poor prognosis at the 90th day than in CWI patients (P = 0.003 and P = 0.014, respectively). IWI, especially the P-IWI subtype, is associated with hemodynamic impairment (HDI), whereas CWI has a weaker correlation with ICA steno-occlusion. Furthermore, IWI patients are more prone to poor prognosis.

  3. The nocebo effect and its relevance for clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Colloca, Luana; Miller, Franklin G.

    2011-01-01

    Negative expectations deriving from the clinical encounter can produce negative outcomes, known as nocebo effects. Specifically, research on the nocebo effect indicates that information disclosure about potential side effects can itself contribute to producing adverse effects. Neurobiological processes play a role in the nocebo effect and this paper provides a selective review of mechanistic research on the nocebo effect. Comparatively little attention has been directed to clinical studies and their implications for daily clinical practice. The nocebo response is influenced by the content and the way information is presented to patients in clinical trials in both the placebo as well as active treatment conditions. Nocebo effect adversely influences quality of life and therapy adherence, emphasizing the need for minimizing these responses to the extent possible. Evidence further indicates that the informed consent process in clinical trials may induce nocebo effects. This paper concludes with ethical directions for future patient-oriented research and routine practice. PMID:21862825

  4. Decaying relevance of clinical data towards future decisions in data-driven inpatient clinical order sets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jonathan H; Alagappan, Muthuraman; Goldstein, Mary K; Asch, Steven M; Altman, Russ B

    2017-06-01

    Determine how varying longitudinal historical training data can impact prediction of future clinical decisions. Estimate the "decay rate" of clinical data source relevance. We trained a clinical order recommender system, analogous to Netflix or Amazon's "Customers who bought A also bought B..." product recommenders, based on a tertiary academic hospital's structured electronic health record data. We used this system to predict future (2013) admission orders based on different subsets of historical training data (2009 through 2012), relative to existing human-authored order sets. Predicting future (2013) inpatient orders is more accurate with models trained on just one month of recent (2012) data than with 12 months of older (2009) data (ROC AUC 0.91 vs. 0.88, precision 27% vs. 22%, recall 52% vs. 43%, all P<10(-10)). Algorithmically learned models from even the older (2009) data was still more effective than existing human-authored order sets (ROC AUC 0.81, precision 16% recall 35%). Training with more longitudinal data (2009-2012) was no better than using only the most recent (2012) data, unless applying a decaying weighting scheme with a "half-life" of data relevance about 4 months. Clinical practice patterns (automatically) learned from electronic health record data can vary substantially across years. Gold standards for clinical decision support are elusive moving targets, reinforcing the need for automated methods that can adapt to evolving information. Prioritizing small amounts of recent data is more effective than using larger amounts of older data towards future clinical predictions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Subtyping Somatic Tinnitus: A Cross-Sectional UK Cohort Study of Demographic, Clinical and Audiological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jamie; Vella, Claire; Hoare, Derek J.; Hall, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Somatic tinnitus is the ability to modulate the psychoacoustic features of tinnitus by somatic manoeuvres. The condition is still not fully understood and further identification of this subtype is essential, particularly for the purpose of establishing protocols for both its diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of somatic tinnitus within a large UK cohort using a largely unselected sample. We believe this to be relatively unique in comparison to current literature on the topic. This was investigated by using a total of 608 participant assessments from a set of recognised tinnitus and audiology measures. Results from a set of chi-square tests of association found that amongst the individuals with somatic tinnitus, a higher proportion had pulsatile tinnitus (different from heartbeat), were under the age of 40, reported variation in the loudness of their tinnitus and reported temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. The same pattern of results was confirmed using a multivariate analysis of the data based on logistic regression. These findings have strong implications towards the profiling of somatic tinnitus as a distinct subtype of general tinnitus. PMID:25996779

  6. Clinical reappraisal of vasculobiliary anatomy relevant to laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kuldip; Singh, Ranbir; Kaur, Manjot

    2017-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has many advantages as compared to open cholecystectomy. However, vasculobiliary injuries still continue to be a matter of concern despite advances in laparoscopic techniques. Misidentification and misperception of vasculobiliary structures is considered to be a pivotal factor leading to injuries. Although many studies since time immemorial have stressed on the importance of anatomy, an insight into laparoscopic anatomy is what essentially constitutes the need of the hour. To assess the frequency and the relevance of anatomical variations of extrahepatic biliary system in patients undergoing LC. The present study is an observational study performed for a period of 2 years from August 2014 to August 2016. It included all diagnosed patients of cholelithiasis undergoing routine LC performed by a single surgeon by achieving a critical view of safety. During dissection, vascular and ductal anomalies were noted and assessed for their relevance in LC. Seven hundred forty cases of cholelithiasis, irrespective of pathology, comprising 280 (37.83%) men and 460 (62.16%) females with a mean age of 39.85 ± 18.82 years were included in the study. Photodocumentation and operative recordings were available in 93% of cases. Operative findings revealed 197 (26.62%) vascular anomalies and 90 (12.16%) ductal anomalies. A single cystic artery was seen in 340 cases, and a normal cystic duct was seen in 650 cases. Variations in ductal anatomy were fewer than variations in vascular anatomy. Extra-biliary anatomy relevant to LC is unpredictable and varies from patient to patient. Vascular anomalies are more frequent than the ductal anomalies, and surgeon should be alert regarding their presence.

  7. Pretreatment HIV Drug Resistance and HIV-1 Subtype C Are Independently Associated With Virologic Failure: Results From the Multinational PEARLS (ACTG A5175) Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Rami; Smeaton, Laura; Vardhanabhuti, Saran; Hudelson, Sarah E.; Wallis, Carol L.; Tripathy, Srikanth; Morgado, Mariza G.; Saravanan, Shanmugham; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Reitsma, Marissa; Hart, Stephen; Mellors, John W.; Halvas, Elias; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Kumwenda, Johnstone; La Rosa, Alberto; Lalloo, Umesh G.; Lama, Javier R.; Rassool, Mohammed; Santos, Breno R.; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Hakim, James; Flanigan, Timothy; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Campbell, Thomas B.; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Evaluation of pretreatment HIV genotyping is needed globally to guide treatment programs. We examined the association of pretreatment (baseline) drug resistance and subtype with virologic failure in a multinational, randomized clinical trial that evaluated 3 antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens and included resource-limited setting sites. Methods. Pol genotyping was performed in a nested case-cohort study including 270 randomly sampled participants (subcohort), and 218 additional participants failing ART (case group). Failure was defined as confirmed viral load (VL) >1000 copies/mL. Cox proportional hazards models estimated resistance–failure association. Results. In the representative subcohort (261/270 participants with genotypes; 44% women; median age, 35 years; median CD4 cell count, 151 cells/µL; median VL, 5.0 log10 copies/mL; 58% non-B subtypes), baseline resistance occurred in 4.2%, evenly distributed among treatment arms and subtypes. In the subcohort and case groups combined (466/488 participants with genotypes), used to examine the association between resistance and treatment failure, baseline resistance occurred in 7.1% (9.4% with failure, 4.3% without). Baseline resistance was significantly associated with shorter time to virologic failure (hazard ratio [HR], 2.03; P = .035), and after adjusting for sex, treatment arm, sex–treatment arm interaction, pretreatment CD4 cell count, baseline VL, and subtype, was still independently associated (HR, 2.1; P = .05). Compared with subtype B, subtype C infection was associated with higher failure risk (HR, 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–2.35), whereas non-B/C subtype infection was associated with longer time to failure (HR, 0.47; 95% CI, .22–.98). Conclusions. In this global clinical trial, pretreatment resistance and HIV-1 subtype were independently associated with virologic failure. Pretreatment genotyping should be considered whenever feasible. Clinical Trials

  8. Spectral clustering using Nyström approximation for the accurate identification of cancer molecular subtypes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mingguang; Xu, Guofu

    2017-07-07

    A major challenge in clinical cancer research is the identification of accurate molecular subtype. While unsupervised clustering methods have been applied for class discovery, this clustering method remains a bottleneck in developing accurate method for molecular subtype discovery. In this analysis, we hypothesize that spectral clustering method could identify molecular subtypes in correlation with survival outcomes. We propose an accurate subtype identification method, Cancer Subtype Identification with Spectral Clustering using Nyström approximation (CSISCN), for the discovery of molecular subtypes, based on spectral clustering method. CSISCN could be used to improve gene expression-based identification of breast cancer molecular subtypes. We demonstrated that CSISCN identified the molecular subtypes with distinct clinical outcomes and was valid for the number of molecular subtypes. Furthermore, CSISCN identified molecular subtypes for improving clinical and molecular relevance which significantly outperformed consensus clustering and spectral clustering methods. To test the general applicability of the CSISCN, we further applied it on human CRC datasets and AML datasets and demonstrated superior performance as compared to consensus clustering method. In summary, CSISCN demonstrated the great potential in gene expression-based subtype identification.

  9. [Peripheral blood T lymphocyte subtypes in multiple sclerosis--dependance of clinical course and duration of the disease].

    PubMed

    Vojinović, S; Vojinović, K; Kamenov, B; Vojinović, D; Gocić-Stanković, D

    1994-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a disease mediated by immunological mechanisms, with characteristics of an autoimmune prosses. We registered changes in distribution of immunophenotipisation markers CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56 and DR, by indirect immunoflourescence assay, on immune cells of peripheral blood. We tested 20 patients with clinically definite category of illness, in exacerbation, and 10 healthy individuals. Multiple sclerosis patients had changes in distribution of T cell subtypes in exacerbation, which correlated with clinical course and duration of the disease. Relapsing-remitting course of disease is followed by decrease of activated T lymphocytes and fluctuation of CD4+ T lymphocytes, while there are no changes in studied markers at patients with progressive course. Duration of the disease over 10 years is followed by decreases of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, independent of course of the disease.

  10. [Dose-response relation: relevance for clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Klinkhardt, U; Harder, S

    1998-12-15

    Dose-finding studies are performed routinely in patients and--if appropriate surrogate models exist--also in healthy volunteers. Such studies aim at establishing the optimal dose range for further clinical studies on the efficacy and the risk-benefit ratio of a new drug. The dose-response relationship of a drug is most often described by a sigmoidal curve. Its parameters include the mean effective dose, the maximal effect and the steepness. Interpretation of such curves should be done in the context of the intended clinical indications of the drug. The risk-benefit ratio of a drug can be assessed by overlapping the dose-response curve of wanted and unwanted clinical effects, again, any overlapping (which can be described e.g. by the therapeutic index) should be seen in the context of the indication and available therapeutic alternatives.

  11. Brain white matter tracts: functional anatomy and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Gerrish, Amy C; Thomas, Adam G; Dineen, Robert A

    2014-10-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging is increasingly available on clinical magnetic resonance scanners and can be acquired in a relatively short time. There has been an explosion of applications in the research field but the use to the practicing radiologist may seem obscure. This paper aims to highlight how diffusion tensor imaging can be used to prompt a dedicated neuroanatomical search for white matter lesions in clinical presentations relating to motor, sensory, language, and visuospatial deficits. The enhanced depiction of white matter tracts in the temporal stem is also highlighted, which is a region of importance in epilepsy surgery planning.

  12. Clinical relevance of sonographically estimated amniotic fluid volume: polyhydramnios.

    PubMed

    Sandlin, Adam T; Chauhan, Suneet P; Magann, Everett F

    2013-05-01

    Polyhydramnios is an excessive amount of amniotic fluid within the amniotic cavity. The etiology of polyhydramnios may be idiopathic, the consequence of fetal structural anomalies, or the consequence of various fetal and maternal conditions. The clinical importance of polyhydramnios is found in its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes and the risk of perinatal mortality. The antenatal management of polyhydramnios can be challenging as there are no formalized guidelines on the topic. The purpose of this review is to provide a literature-based overview on the subject of polyhydramnios in singleton pregnancies, demonstrate its clinical implications, and describe a practical approach to its management.

  13. Anomalous course of the extensor pollicis longus: clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Guy; Wolovelsky, Alejandro; Rinott, Micha; Rozen, Nimrod

    2011-11-01

    The extensor pollicis longus (EPL) is a consistent structure with rare anomalies, the most common being a group of different tendon duplications passing through the fourth compartment without symptoms. The second form comprises anomalies in the course of the EPL having significant clinical importance due to the predisposition for creating tenosynovitis of the EPL mimicking other types of tendon tenosynovitis. Clinical symptoms of radial dorsal wrist pain mimicking intersection syndrome or de-Quervain disease with the "absent snuff box" sign should raise suspicions for an anomaly in the course of the EPL.

  14. A Laboratory Course in Clinical Biochemistry Emphasizing Interest and Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Peter L.

    1975-01-01

    Ten laboratory experiments are described which are used in a successful clinical biochemistry laboratory course (e.g. blood alcohol, glucose tolerance, plasma triglycerides, coronary risk index, gastric analysis, vitamin C and E). Most of the experiments are performed on the students themselves using simple equipment with emphasis on useful…

  15. Assessment of relevant fungal species in clinical solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Noman, Efaq Ali; Al-Gheethi, A A; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Nagao, H; Ab Kadir, M O

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the fungal diversity in clinical waste samples from a healthcare facility in Penang Malaysia. Different fungi species were detected in 83.75 % of the 92 clinical waste samples that were screened from different sections of the healthcare facility. One hundred fifty fungal isolates comprising of 8 genera and 36 species were obtained. They were purified by using single spore isolation technique. Subsequently, the isolates were identified by phenotypic method based on morphological and culture characteristics on different culture media. Among all fungal isolates, Aspergillus spp. in section Nigri 10.2 %, Aspergillus niger 9.5 %, Aspergillus fumigatus 8.8 %, Penicillium. simplicissium 8 %, Aspergillus tubingensis 7.3 %, Aspergillus terreus var. terreus 6.6 %, Penicillium waksmanii 5.9 % and Curvularia lunata 6.5 % were the most frequent. Among five sections of the Wellness Centre, the clinical wastes collected from the diagnostic labs of haematology section had the highest numbers of fungal species (29 species). Glove wastes had the highest numbers of fungal species (19 species) among 17 types of clinical wastes screened. Among all fungal species, Aspergillus spp. exhibited higher growth at 37 °C than at 28 °C, indicating the potential of these opportunistic fungi to cause diseases in human. These results indicated the potential of hospital wastes as reservoirs for fungal species.

  16. A Laboratory Course in Clinical Biochemistry Emphasizing Interest and Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Peter L.

    1975-01-01

    Ten laboratory experiments are described which are used in a successful clinical biochemistry laboratory course (e.g. blood alcohol, glucose tolerance, plasma triglycerides, coronary risk index, gastric analysis, vitamin C and E). Most of the experiments are performed on the students themselves using simple equipment with emphasis on useful…

  17. A clinically relevant frailty index for aging rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Frailty is a clinical syndrome that is increasingly prevalent during aging. Frailty involves the confluence of reduced strength, speed, physical activity, and endurance, and it is associated with adverse health outcomes. Frailty indices have been developed to diagnose frailty in older adult populati...

  18. A clinically relevant frailty index for aging rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Frailty is a clinical syndrome that is increasingly prevalent during aging. Frailty involves the confluence of reduced strength, speed, physical activity, and endurance, and it is associated with adverse health outcomes. Frailty indices have been developed to diagnose frailty in older adult populati...

  19. Hepatitis B virus genotypes: epidemiological and clinical relevance in Asia.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qiuju; Jia, Jidong

    2016-11-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is characterized by a high genetic heterogeneity since it replicates via a reverse transcriptase that lacks proofreading ability. Up to now, ten genotypes (A-J) have been described, with genotype A and D being ubiquitous but most prevalent in Europe and Africa, genotype B and C being confined to Asia and Oceania. Infections with other genotypes such as E, F, G and H are also occasionally observed in Asia. Genotype I is rare and can be found in Laos, Vietnam, India and China, whereas genotype J has been described in Japan and Ryukyu. Novel variants generated by recombination and co-infection with other genotypes have gradually gotten worldwide attention and may be correlated with certain clinical features. There are substantial differences in HBV infection regarding prevalence, clinical manifestation, disease progression and response to antiviral therapy. Due to the complex interplay among viral, host and environmental factors, the relationship between HBV genotypes and clinical profiles remains incompletely revealed. In general, genotype A is associated with better response to interferon therapy; genotype C, and to lesser extent B, usually represent a risk factor for perinatal infection and are associated with advanced liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; genotype D may be linked with poor response to interferon therapy. Future studies with better design and larger sample size are warranted to further clarify the controversial issues and guide the day-to-day clinical practice.

  20. Cytotoxic chemotherapy: Still the mainstay of clinical practice for all subtypes metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Twelves, Chris; Jove, Maria; Gombos, Andrea; Awada, Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy remains central to the treatment of all subtypes of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). We review evidence-based chemotherapy options for women with MBC after an anthracycline and a taxane including re-challenge with anthracycline or taxane, capecitabine, eribulin and ixabepilone as a single agent or combination with capecitabine (not approved in the EU); and the vinca alkaloid vinflunine as single agent or combined with either capecitabine/gemcitabine (also not approved EU or USA). Etirinotecan pegol, comprising irinotecan bound to polyethylene glycol by a biodegradable linker, is a new cytotoxic agent for patients with MBC that has achieved encouraging response rates in phase II studies; it has been further evaluated in the phase III BEACON trial. New cytotoxics should address novel targets or modes of delivery, achieve meaningful improvements in outcomes and seek to identify predictive biomarker(s).

  1. [Histological subtypes of ovarian carcinoma and their importance for clinical prognosis].

    PubMed

    Zlatkov, V

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common and most lethal cancers. For Bulgaria (2012) it occupies third place in the structure of gynecological malignancies with a share of 22.6 percent, while regarding mortality is at first place with 35.7 percent. New cases are 838 with crude incidence 22.3 x 10(5), and the deaths are 463 with crude mortality 12.3 x 10(5). Ovarian tumors, even when they are of the same histological type clearly differ in their cellular differentiation, molecular characteristiques and subsequently in their biological behavior. In this review, we discuss the frequency origin, morphology and molecular characteristiques of the five major subtypes of ovarian cancer--serous low and high grade, mucinous, endometroid and and clear cell. The role of different risk and prognostic factors for the efficiency of the treatment and control of disease been discussed.

  2. Clinical relevance of negative initial angiogram in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Moscovici, Samuel; Fraifeld, Shifra; Ramirez-de-Noriega, Fernando; Rosenthal, Guy; Leker, Ronen R; Itshayek, Eyal; Cohen, José E

    2013-03-01

    We aimed to compare the presentation, management, and clinical course in patients with perimesencephalic and nonperimesencephalic (aneurysmal) bleeding patterns on noncontrast CT, but negative initial 4-vessel digital subtraction angiography (DSA). We retrospectively reviewed clinical and imaging data for 280 patients presenting with spontaneous SAH admitted between 2005 and 2011. We identified 56 patients (20%) with SAH diagnosed on high resolution head CT performed within 48 hours of admission, and negative initial DSA, and divided them into perimesencephalic and non-perimesencephalic groups based on hemorrhage patterns. Patients with traumatic subarachnoid bleeding and those with initial positive DSA were excluded from this analysis. Perimesencephalic SAH was seen in 25 patients (45%); non-perimesencephalic bleeding patterns were seen in 31 (55%). All patients with perimesencephalic SAH presented with Hunt and Hess (HH) I, versus 45% HH I and 55% HH II-IV in those with non-perimecenphalic SAH. All patients with perimesencephalic SAH achieved modified Rankin score (mRS) 0 at discharge and 6-month follow-up, compared with 45% mRS 0 at discharge and 68% at 6-month follow-up in non-perimesencephalic SAH. Patients with perimesencephalic SAH presented a uniformly uncomplicated clinical course. Among non-perimesencephalic SAH patients there were 19 neurological/neurosurgical and 10 medical complications, two small aneurysms diagnosed at follow-up DSA, and one death. In this series, perimesencephalic SAH was associated with good clinical grades, consistently negative initial and follow-up angiograms, and an excellent prognosis. In contrast, non-perimesencephalic SAH was associated with a worse clinical presentation, higher complication rates, higher rates of true aneurysm detection on follow-up angiogram, and a poorer outcome.

  3. The potential clinical relevance of visible particles in parenteral drugs.

    PubMed

    Doessegger, Lucette; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Szczesny, Piotr; Rockstroh, Helmut; Kallmeyer, Georg; Langenkamp, Anja; Herrmann, Joerg; Famulare, Joseph

    2012-08-01

    Visible particulates (VP) are one subclass of defects seen during the final visual inspection of parenteral products and are currently one of the top ten reasons for recalls 1,2. The risk posed by particles is still unclear with limited experience reported in humans but remains an important consideration during the manufacture and use of parenteral products. From the experimental and clinical knowledge of the distribution of particulate matter in the body, clinical complications would include events occurring around parenteral administration e.g., as a result of mechanical pulmonary artery obstruction and injection site reaction, or sub-acute or chronic events e.g., granuloma. The challenge is to better understand the implication for patients of single vials with VP and align the risk with the probabilistic detection process used by manufacturers for accept/reject decisions of individual units of product.

  4. Clinical Toxicology and Its Relevance to Asthma and Atopy.

    PubMed

    Joks, Rauno; Bluth, Martin H

    2016-12-01

    Although both the prevalence of asthma and the prescription drug use, notably the opiate analgesic class, epidemics are increasing, there is a complex interplay between both disorders, with both protective and exacerbating factors involved in the effect of opiates on asthma pathogenesis and clinical severity. This review examines the airway effects, both immunologic and neurologic, of opiates, which may interact and result in protection or exacerbation of asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tolerance in liver transplantation: Biomarkers and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Revilla-Nuin, Beatriz; Parrilla, Pascual; Martínez-Alarcón, Laura; Ramírez, Pablo; Pons, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation is the optimal treatment for end-stage organ failure, and modern immunosuppression has allowed important progress in short-term outcomes. However, immunosuppression poorly influences chronic rejection and elicits chronic toxicity in current clinical practice. Thus, a major goal in transplantation is to understand and induce tolerance. It is well established that human regulatory T cells expressing the transcription factor FoxP3 play important roles in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. The major regulatory T cell subsets and mechanisms of expansion that are critical for induction and long-term maintenance of graft tolerance and survival are being actively investigated. Likewise, other immune cells, such as dendritic cells, monocyte/macrophages or natural killer cells, have been described as part of the process known as “operational tolerance”. However, translation of these results towards clinical practice needs solid tools to identify accurately and reliably patients who are going to be tolerant. In this way, a plethora of genetic and cellular biomarkers is raising and being validated worldwide in large multi-center clinical trials. Few of the studies performed so far have provided a detailed analysis of the impact of immunosuppression withdrawal on pre-existing complications derived from the long-term administration of immunosuppressive drugs and the side effects associated with them. The future of liver transplantation is aimed to develop new therapies which increase the actual low tolerant vs non-tolerant recipients ratio. PMID:27678350

  6. The assessment of schizotypy and its clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Mason, Oliver J

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews several approaches to assessing schizotypal traits using a wide variety of self-report and interview measures. It makes a distinction between clinical approaches largely based on syndrome and symptom definitions, and psychometric approaches to measuring personality traits. The review presents a brief description of the content and psychometric properties of both sets of measures; these cover both the broad rubric of schizotypy often, but not exclusively based on DSM conceptions, as well as measures with a more specific focus. Measurement of schizotypy has taken place within clinical and nonclinical research utilizing a range of designs and methodologies. Several of these are elucidated with respect to the assessment choices open to researchers, and the implications of the measures chosen. These paradigms include the case-control study, "high risk"/"ultra-high risk" groups, a variety of nonclinical groups and other groups of interest, large scale epidemiology and "in vivo" designs. Evidence from a wide variety of designs continues to provide evidence of the validity of both clinical and personality approaches to schizotypal assessment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The Clinical Relevance of Beta Blockers in Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hefner, J.; Csef, H.

    2016-01-01

    The last ten years have seen hardly any improvement in the prognosis of ovarian carcinoma. There is a great need for new treatment strategies, and a recent retrospective study showing a survival advantage with the use of beta blockers met with a very positive response. This systematic review summarizes the current state of knowledge and research on the topic: A database analysis identified six clinical studies showing inconsistent results with respect to the administration of beta blockers and disease course. The 13 preclinical studies identified showed almost without exception both that catecholamines had detrimental effects on tumour progression, and that these effects could be influenced by pharmacological blockade. Overall the available evidence does not justify the use of beta blockers in clinical practice for ovarian carcinoma at the present time. This article also outlines details of research design required for further studies needed on the subject. Preclinical research findings are however very impressive: They not only form an important basis for the development of future clinical studies but also, through revealing new pathomechanisms, they already make an important contribution towards the development of new treatment strategies for ovarian carcinoma. PMID:27761025

  8. The Assessment of Schizotypy and Its Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Oliver J.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews several approaches to assessing schizotypal traits using a wide variety of self-report and interview measures. It makes a distinction between clinical approaches largely based on syndrome and symptom definitions, and psychometric approaches to measuring personality traits. The review presents a brief description of the content and psychometric properties of both sets of measures; these cover both the broad rubric of schizotypy often, but not exclusively based on DSM conceptions, as well as measures with a more specific focus. Measurement of schizotypy has taken place within clinical and nonclinical research utilizing a range of designs and methodologies. Several of these are elucidated with respect to the assessment choices open to researchers, and the implications of the measures chosen. These paradigms include the case–control study, “high risk”/“ultra-high risk” groups, a variety of nonclinical groups and other groups of interest, large scale epidemiology and “in vivo” designs. Evidence from a wide variety of designs continues to provide evidence of the validity of both clinical and personality approaches to schizotypal assessment. PMID:25810054

  9. Typing and subtyping of 83 clinical isolates purified from surgically implanted silicone feeding tubes by random amplified polymorphic DNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Dautle, Melanie P; Ulrich, Ricky L; Hughes, Thomas A

    2002-02-01

    In this study, 83 clinical isolates purified from biofilms colonizing 18 silicone gastrostomy devices (12 "buttons" and six tubes converted to skin level devices) were selected for subtype characterization utilizing genetic analysis. The tubes, previously used for feeding, remained in place for 3 to 47 months (mean, 20.0 months) in children ranging in age from 6 months to 17 years. Classification of specific microbes using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis revealed genetic similarities and differences among isolates belonging to the same genus. Both gram-positive and -negative bacteria were investigated, including 2 isolates of Bacillus brevis, 4 isolates of Bacillus licheniformis, 2 isolates of Bacillus pumilus, 3 isolates of Enterococcus durans, 19 isolates of Enterococcus faecalis, 8 isolates of Enterococcus faecium, 2 isolates of Enterococcus hirae, 7 isolates of Escherichia coli, 8 isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum, 19 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 2 isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, and 7 isolates of Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Amplified DNA fragments (amplicons) provided species-specific fingerprints for comparison by agarose gel electrophoresis. A total of 62 distinct RAPD types were categorized from the five genera studied. Typing analysis suggested cross acquisition of E. coli, E. faecalis, and S. aureus in three patient pairs. Genomic polymorphism detection proved efficient and reliable for classifying bacterial subtypes isolated from biofilms adhering to various portions of commonly employed enteral access tubes.

  10. Pharmacogenetics and ethnicity: relevance for clinical implementation, clinical trials, pharmacovigilance and drug regulation in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Macías, Martha; Teran, Enrique; Waters, William; Fors, Martha M; Altamirano, Catalina; Jung-Cook, Helgi; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; López-López, Marisol; Remírez, Diadelis; Moya, Graciela E; Hernández, Francisco; Fariñas, Humberto; Ramírez, Ronald; Céspedes-Garro, Carolina; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; LLerena, Adrián

    2016-10-28

    Congress of Pharmacogenetics and Personalized Medicine. Ethnicity, clinical implementation and regulatory environment (MESTIFAR 2016 Quito). Quito, Ecuador, 19-21 May 2016. The Ibero-American Network of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics (RIBEF) was created in 2006 with the main aim of promoting personalized medicine and collaborative pharmacogenetics research in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries in America and the Iberian Peninsula. The final goal of this initiative was the inclusion of Latin American populations that may benefit from the implementation of personalized medicine in drug therapy. Several initiatives have been promoted including the MESTIFAR project, which aimed to analyze the ethnicity, genotype and/or metabolic phenotype in Ibero-American populations. To date, 6060 healthy volunteers have been analyzed; among them, 2571 were admixed, 1824 were Caucasians, 1395 were Native Americans, 174 were Jews and 96 were Afro-descendants. Due to the large genetic variability within Latin Americans, ethnicity may be a relevant factor for the clinical implementation of personalized medicine. Moreover, the present status of clinical implementation and the future perspectives of pharmacogenetics, pharmacovigilance and clinical trials for drug regulation in Latin America compared with the EMA-Pharmacogenomics Working Party and the US FDA initiatives were analyzed.

  11. Neurocognitive subtypes of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Andrés; Muñoz, Claudia; Ocampo, María V; Quintero, Claudia; Escobar, Marcela; Botero, Sonia; Marín, Catalina; Jaramillo, Luis E; Sánchez, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Losada, Jorge; Ospina-Duque, Jorge; Palacio, Carlos; C Arango, Juan; Valencia, Ana V; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel C; García, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    To empirically identify schizophrenia neurocognitive subtypes and establish their association with clinical characteristics. Sustained attention, executive function, facial emotion recognition, verbal learning, and working memory tests were applied to 253 subjects with schizophrenia. We identified neurocognitive subtypes by a latent class analysis of the tests results. After, we made a search for the association of these subtypes with clinic characteristics. We identified four neurocognitive subtypes: 1) “Global cognitive deficit”, 2) “Memory and executive function deficit”, 3) “Memory and facial emotion recognition deficit,” and 4) “Without cognitive deficit.” In comparison with the subtype “without cognitive deficit,” we found that the “memory and executive function deficit subtype” and the “global cognitive deficit subtype” had a higher frequency of male, unemployed, severe impairment, and adherence to treatment participants. However, in the “global cognitive deficit subtype” the differences were higher and there was also a lower frequency of past major depressive episodes (OR 0.39; 95%CI: 0.16 to 0.97). The “memory and facial recognition deficit subtype” had a higher probability of severe impairment (OR 5.52; 95%CI: 1.89 to 16.14) and unemployed (OR 2.43; 95%CI: 1.06 to 5.55) participants, but also a lower probability of past depressive episodes (OR 0.21; 95%CI: 0.07 to 0.66). Our results suggest the existence of four neurocognitive subtypes in schizophrenia with a spectrum of dysfunction and severity. We found higher dysfunction in those with worse cognitive dysfunction, and higher affective psychopathology and less treatment adherence in those with less cognitive dysfunction.

  12. Taxonomy, Epidemiology, and Clinical Relevance of the Genus Arcobacter

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Luis; Figueras, Maria José

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The genus Arcobacter, defined almost 20 years ago from members of the genus Campylobacter, has become increasingly important because its members are being considered emergent enteropathogens and/or potential zoonotic agents. Over recent years information that is relevant for microbiologists, especially those working in the medical and veterinary fields and in the food safety sector, has accumulated. Recently, the genus has been enlarged with several new species. The complete genomes of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter nitrofigilis are available, with the former revealing diverse pathways characteristic of free-living microbes and virulence genes homologous to those of Campylobacter. The first multilocus sequence typing analysis showed a great diversity of sequence types, with no association with specific hosts or geographical regions. Advances in detection and identification techniques, mostly based on molecular methods, have been made. These microbes have been associated with water outbreaks and with indicators of fecal pollution, with food products and water as the suspected routes of transmission. This review updates this knowledge and provides the most recent data on the taxonomy, species diversity, methods of detection, and identification of these microbes as well as on their virulence potential and implication in human and animal diseases. PMID:21233511

  13. Cashew Nut Allergy: Clinical Relevance and Allergen Characterisation.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Cíntia; Costa, Joana; Vicente, António A; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Cashew plant (Anacardium occidentale L.) is the most relevant species of the Anacardium genus. It presents high economic value since it is widely used in human nutrition and in several industrial applications. Cashew nut is a well-appreciated food (belongs to the tree nut group), being widely consumed as snacks and in processed foods by the majority of world's population. However, cashew nut is also classified as a potent allergenic food known to be responsible for triggering severe and systemic immune reactions (e.g. anaphylaxis) in sensitised/allergic individuals that often demand epinephrine treatment and hospitalisation. So far, three groups of allergenic proteins have been identified and characterised in cashew nut: Ana o 1 and Ana o 2 (cupin superfamily) and Ana o 3 (prolamin superfamily), which are all classified as major allergens. The prevalence of cashew nut allergy seems to be rising in industrialised countries with the increasing consumption of this nut. There is still no cure for cashew nut allergy, as well as for other food allergies; thus, the allergic patients are advised to eliminate it from their diets. Accordingly, when carefully choosing processed foods that are commercially available, the allergic consumers have to rely on proper food labelling. In this sense, the control of labelling compliance is much needed, which has prompted the development of proficient analytical methods for allergen analysis. In the recent years, significant research advances in cashew nut allergy have been accomplished, which are highlighted and discussed in this review.

  14. [Clinical research IV. Relevancy of the statistical test chosen].

    PubMed

    Talavera, Juan O; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    When we look at the difference between two therapies or the association of a risk factor or prognostic indicator with its outcome, we need to evaluate the accuracy of the result. This assessment is based on a judgment that uses information about the study design and statistical management of the information. This paper specifically mentions the relevance of the statistical test selected. Statistical tests are chosen mainly from two characteristics: the objective of the study and type of variables. The objective can be divided into three test groups: a) those in which you want to show differences between groups or inside a group before and after a maneuver, b) those that seek to show the relationship (correlation) between variables, and c) those that aim to predict an outcome. The types of variables are divided in two: quantitative (continuous and discontinuous) and qualitative (ordinal and dichotomous). For example, if we seek to demonstrate differences in age (quantitative variable) among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with and without neurological disease (two groups), the appropriate test is the "Student t test for independent samples." But if the comparison is about the frequency of females (binomial variable), then the appropriate statistical test is the χ(2).

  15. Vitamin E-drug interactions: molecular basis and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Podszun, Maren; Frank, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Vitamin E (α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherol and -tocotrienol) is an essential factor in the human diet and regularly taken as a dietary supplement by many people, who act under the assumption that it may be good for their health and can do no harm. With the publication of meta-analyses reporting increased mortality in persons taking vitamin E supplements, the safety of the micronutrient was questioned and interactions with prescription drugs were suggested as one potentially underlying mechanism. Here, we review the evidence in the scientific literature for adverse vitamin E-drug interactions and discuss the potential of each of the eight vitamin E congeners to alter the activity of drugs. In summary, there is no evidence from animal models or randomised controlled human trials to suggest that the intake of tocopherols and tocotrienols at nutritionally relevant doses may cause adverse nutrient-drug interactions. Consumption of high-dose vitamin E supplements ( ≥  300 mg/d), however, may lead to interactions with the drugs aspirin, warfarin, tamoxifen and cyclosporine A that may alter their activities. For the majority of drugs, however, interactions with vitamin E, even at high doses, have not been observed and are thus unlikely.

  16. Functional and clinical relevance of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4.

    PubMed

    Campoli, Michael; Ferrone, Soldano; Wang, Xinhui

    2010-01-01

    The lack of effective conventional therapies for the treatment of advanced stage melanoma has stimulated interest in the development of novel strategies for the management of patients with malignant melanoma. Among them, immunotherapy has attracted much attention because of the potential role played by immunological events in the clinical course of melanoma. For many years, T cell-based immunotherapy has been emphasized in part because of the disappointing results of the monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based clinical trials conducted in the early 1980s and in part because of the postulated major role played by T cells in tumor growth control. More recently, mAb-based therapies have gained in popularity given their clinical and commercial success for a variety of malignant diseases. As a result, there has been increased interest in identifying and characterizing antibody-defined melanoma antigens. Among them, the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), also known as high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA) or melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP), has attracted much attention in recent years because of the growing experimental evidence that it fulfills two requirements for immunotherapy to be therapeutically effective: (1) targeting of cancer stem cells (CSC) and (2) development of combinatorial therapies to counteract the escape mechanisms driven by the genetic instability of tumor cells. With this in mind, in this chapter, we have reviewed recent information related to the distribution of CSPG4 on various types of tumors, including CSC, its expression on pericytes in the tumor microenvironment, its recognition by T cells, its role in cell biology as well as the potential mechanisms underlying the ability of CSPG4-specific immunity to control malignant cell growth.

  17. Time to Clinically Relevant Fracture Risk Scores in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, Margaret L; Overman, Robert A; Fine, Jason P; Crandall, Carolyn J; Robbins, John; Schousboe, John T; Ensrud, Kristine E; LeBlanc, Erin S; Gass, Margery L; Johnson, Karen C; Womack, Catherine R; LaCroix, Andrea Z

    2017-07-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend use of fracture risk scores for screening and pharmacologic treatment decisions. The timing of occurrence of treatment-level (according to 2014 National Osteoporosis Foundation guidelines) or screening-level (according to 2011 US Preventive Services Task Force guidelines) fracture risk scores has not been estimated in postmenopausal women. We conducted a retrospective competing risk analysis of new occurrence of treatment-level and screening-level fracture risk scores in postmenopausal women aged 50 years and older, prior to receipt of pharmacologic treatment and prior to first hip or clinical vertebral fracture. In 54,280 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 64 years without a bone mineral density test, the time for 10% to develop a treatment-level FRAX score could not be estimated accurately because of rare incidence of treatment-level scores. In 6096 women who had FRAX scores calculated with bone mineral density, the estimated unadjusted time to treatment-level FRAX ranged from 7.6 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.6-8.7) for those aged 65 to 69, to 5.1 years (95% CI, 3.5-7.5) for those aged 75 to 79 at baseline. Of 17,967 women aged 50 to 64 with a screening-level FRAX at baseline, 100 (0.6%) experienced a hip or clinical vertebral fracture by age 65 years. Postmenopausal women with sub-threshold fracture risk scores at baseline were unlikely to develop a treatment-level FRAX score between ages 50 and 64 years. After age 65, the increased incidence of treatment-level fracture risk scores, osteoporosis, and major osteoporotic fracture supports more frequent consideration of FRAX and bone mineral density testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The clinical relevance of sexual dysfunction in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bruni, C; Raja, J; Denton, C P; Matucci-Cerinic, M

    2015-12-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a chronic multi-organ autoimmune disease, leading to important clinical and psychological implications. Among organ complications, sexual dysfunction is a major issue for both male and female gender, with high prevalence and great impact on quality of life, although frequently not addressed by both clinicians and patients. While erectile dysfunction is the most common cause of sexual problems in males, genital tract and general physical changes are major contributors to sexual impairment in females. This review presents current state of the art on this topic, discussing published data on presentation, evaluation and therapeutic options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Patent foramen ovale: echocardiographic detection and clinical relevance in stroke.

    PubMed

    Di Tullio, Marco R

    2010-02-01

    This article reviews the main clinical aspects of patent foramen ovale (PFO), such as its prevalence in the population, the diagnostic techniques to detect its presence, its role as a risk factor for ischemic stroke of otherwise unexplained origin, and its controversial association with migraine. Some cofactors possibly involved in the association between PFO and stroke are discussed, along with the various therapeutic options to prevent recurrent cerebral ischemic events in stroke patients with a PFO. Copyright 2010 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ASCL1 and RET expression defines a clinically relevant subgroup of lung adenocarcinoma characterized by neuroendocrine differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kosari, F; Ida, C M; Aubry, M-C; Yang, L; Kovtun, I V; Klein, J L S; Li, Y; Erdogan, S; Tomaszek, S C; Murphy, S J; Bolette, L C; Kolbert, C P; Yang, P; Wigle, D A; Vasmatzis, G

    2014-07-17

    ASCL1 is an important regulatory transcription factor in pulmonary neuroendocrine (NE) cell development, but its value as a biomarker of NE differentiation in lung adenocarcinoma (AD) and as a potential prognostic biomarker remains unclear. We examined ASCL1 expression in lung cancer samples of varied histologic subtype, clinical outcome and smoking status and compared with expression of traditional NE markers. ASCL1 mRNA expression was found almost exclusively in smokers with AD, in contrast to non-smokers and other lung cancer subtypes. ASCL1 protein expression by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis correlated best with synaptophysin compared with chromogranin and CD56/NCAM. Analysis of a compendium of 367 microarray-based gene expression profiles in stage I lung adenocarcinomas identified significantly higher expression levels of the RET oncogene in ASCL1-positive tumors (ASCL1(+)) compared with ASCL1(-) tumors (q-value <10(-9)). High levels of RET expression in ASCL1(+) but not in ASCL1(-) tumors was associated with significantly shorter overall survival (OS) in stage 1 (P=0.007) and in all AD (P=0.037). RET protein expression by IHC had an association with OS in the context of ASCL1 expression. In silico gene set analysis and in vitro experiments by ASCL1 shRNA in AD cells with high endogenous expression of ASCL1 and RET implicated ASCL1 as a potential upstream regulator of the RET oncogene. Also, silencing ASCL1 in AD cells markedly reduced cell growth and motility. These results suggest that ASCL1 and RET expression defines a clinically relevant subgroup of ∼10% of AD characterized by NE differentiation.

  1. Exercise blood pressure: clinical relevance and correct measurement.

    PubMed

    Sharman, J E; LaGerche, A

    2015-06-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a mandatory safety measure during graded intensity clinical exercise stress testing. While it is generally accepted that exercise hypotension is a poor prognostic sign linked to severe cardiac dysfunction, recent meta-analysis data also implicate excessive rises in submaximal exercise BP with adverse cardiovascular events and mortality, irrespective of resting BP. Although more data is needed to derive submaximal normative BP thresholds, the association of a hypertensive response to exercise with increased cardiovascular risk may be due to underlying hypertension that has gone unnoticed by conventional resting BP screening methods. Delayed BP decline during recovery is also associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Thus, above and beyond being used as a routine safety measure during stress testing, exercise (and recovery) BP may be useful for identifying high-risk individuals and also as an aid to optimise care through appropriate follow-up after exercise stress testing. Accordingly, careful attention should be paid to correct measurement of exercise stress test BP (before, during and after exercise) using a standardised approach with trained operators and validated BP monitoring equipment (manual or automated). Recommendations for exercise BP measurement based on consolidated international guidelines and expert consensus are presented in this review.

  2. Enabling Anyone to Translate Clinically Relevant Ideas to Therapies.

    PubMed

    Ekins, Sean; Diaz, Natalie; Chung, Julia; Mathews, Paul; McMurtray, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    How do we inspire new ideas that could lead to potential treatments for rare or neglected diseases, and allow for serendipity that could help to catalyze them? How many potentially good ideas are lost because they are never tested? What if those ideas could have lead to new therapeutic approaches and major healthcare advances? If a clinician or anyone for that matter, has a new idea they want to test to develop a molecule or therapeutic that they could translate to the clinic, how would they do it without a laboratory or funding? These are not idle theoretical questions but addressing them could have potentially huge economic implications for nations. If we fail to capture the diversity of ideas and test them we may also lose out on the next blockbuster treatments. Many of those involved in the process of ideation may be discouraged and simply not know where to go. We try to address these questions and describe how there are options to raising funding, how even small scale investments can foster preclinical or clinical translation, and how there are several approaches to outsourcing the experiments, whether to collaborators or commercial enterprises. While these are not new or far from complete solutions, they are first steps that can be taken by virtually anyone while we work on other solutions to build a more concrete structure for the "idea-hypothesis testing-proof of concept-translation-breakthrough pathway".

  3. Clinical relevance of molecular diagnosis in pet allergy.

    PubMed

    Uriarte, S A; Sastre, J

    2016-07-01

    We describe the pattern of sensitisation to pet IgE components and its association with clinical symptoms. Hundred and fifty nine consecutive patients with rhinitis/asthma sensitised to dog, cat, and horse were recruited. Specific IgE to whole extracts and to pet recombinant allergens were performed. Only 5% of patients were monosensitised to animal allergens. Specific IgE to Can f 1 was significantly associated with persistent rhinitis, Can f 2 with asthma diagnosis, Can f 3 with moderate/severe rhinitis (M/S-R) and asthma diagnosis (AD), and Can f 5 with persistent and M/S-R. Positive IgE to Fel d 2 was significantly associated with M/S-R and AD, Equ c 1 with M/S-R and Equ c 3 with persistent rhinitis, AD and severe asthma. Sensitisation to ≥2 molecules or to pet albumins was associated with more severe respiratory symptoms. Molecular diagnosis in patients with pet allergy may also help clinicians to predict clinical symptoms and their severity.

  4. A Clinically Relevant Frailty Index for Aging Rats.

    PubMed

    Miller, Marshall G; Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    Frailty is a clinical syndrome that is increasingly prevalent during aging. Frailty involves the confluence of reduced strength, speed, physical activity, and endurance and is associated with adverse health outcomes. The present study adapts existing clinical and preclinical indices of frailty to the Fischer (F344) rat. Male F344 rats (n = 133; 17 mo) completed a battery of behavioral tasks, including forelimb wire suspension (strength), rotarod (speed), open field (physical activity), and inclined screen (endurance). Rats that performed poorly (lowest quintile) on two tasks were considered mildly frail (17.29%, n = 23), and rats that performed poorly on 3-4 tasks were considered frail (2.26%, n = 3). Logistic regression of 100-day survival revealed that mildly frail rats were 3.8 times and frail rats were 27.5 times more likely to die during that period than nonfrail rats (p = .038; 95% confidence interval: 2.030, 372.564). The selected criterion tests, cutoff points, and index provide a potential tool for identifying frailty in aged F344 rats, which is consistent with existing frailty indices for humans and mice. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Anesthesia and neurotoxicity to the developing brain: the clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Andrew J

    2011-07-01

    Laboratory work has confirmed that general anesthetics cause increased neuronal apoptosis and changes to the morphology of dendritic spines in the developing brains of animals. It is an effect seen with most volatile anesthetics as well as with ketamine and propofol. The effects are dose dependent and seen over particular periods of early development. There is some evidence that rodents exposed to anesthesia during infancy have delayed neurobehavioral development. There are inherent limitations in translating the preclinical data to human practice but the data cannot be ignored. Some human clinical studies have found evidence for an association between major surgery and changes in neurobehavioral outcome, although the evidence is less clear for minor surgery. These associations are certainly at least partly because of factors apart from anesthesia, such as coexisting pathology or the effect of surgery itself. Other clinical studies have found no evidence for an association between surgery and outcome. These studies are also not without limitations. Thus it remains unclear what role anesthesia exposure in infancy actually plays in determining neurobehavioral outcome. To date studies can neither confirm that anesthesia plays a role nor rule it out. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Clinically relevant study end points in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Martos, Carlos; Guerrero, Angel; Minsky, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    In rectal cancer currently there are no clearly validated early end points which can serve as surrogates for long-term clinical outcome such as local control and survival. However, the use of a variety of response rates (i.e. pathological complete response, downsizing the primary tumor, tumor regression grade (TRG), radiological response) as endpoints in early (phase II) clinical trials is common since objective response to therapy is an early indication of activity. Disease-free survival (DFS) has been proposed as the most appropriate end point in adjuvant trials and is one of the most frequently used in newer rectal cancer trials. Due to the devastating nature of local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer, local control (which is itself a subset of the overall DFS endpoint) is still considered an important endpoint. Recently, circumferential resection margin (CRM) has been proposed as novel early end point because the CRM status can account for effects on DFS and overall survival after chemoradiation, radiation (RT), or surgery alone. Consensus is needed to define the most appropriate end points in both early and phase III trials in locally advanced cancer.

  7. Update on Eosinophilic Meningoencephalitis and Its Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; da Silva, Ana Cristina Arámburu; Yoshimura, Kentaro

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is caused by a variety of helminthic infections. These worm-specific infections are named after the causative worm genera, the most common being angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, toxocariasis, cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, baylisascariasis, and paragonimiasis. Worm parasites enter an organism through ingestion of contaminated water or an intermediate host and can eventually affect the central nervous system (CNS). These infections are potentially serious events leading to sequelae or death, and diagnosis depends on currently limited molecular methods. Identification of parasites in fluids and tissues is rarely possible, while images and clinical examinations do not lead to a definitive diagnosis. Treatment usually requires the concomitant administration of corticoids and anthelminthic drugs, yet new compounds and their extensive and detailed clinical evaluation are much needed. Eosinophilia in fluids may be detected in other infectious and noninfectious conditions, such as neoplastic disease, drug use, and prosthesis reactions. Thus, distinctive identification of eosinophils in fluids is a necessary component in the etiologic diagnosis of CNS infections. PMID:19366917

  8. The Clinical Relevance of Anti-DFS70 Autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Karsten; Röber, Nadja; Andrade, Luis E C; Mahler, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Despite all the progress in the establishment of specific autoantibody assays, screening for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) by indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells for quality-oriented laboratory diagnosis of ANA associated rheumatic diseases (AARD) remains indispensable but is not without limitations. Recent data on the relevance of the dense fine speckled (DFS) pattern and anti-DFS70 antibodies disclosed novel possibilities to optimize the serological stepwise diagnostics of AARD. The DFS pattern on HEp-2 cells is well differentiated from the classic "homogeneous" ANA pattern associated with dsDNA antibodies. This is the most frequent pattern in high titer ANA-positive healthy persons. The most characteristic ANA specificity associated with DFS pattern is the anti-DFS70 antibody (synonym LEDGF antibody). The prevalence of anti-DFS70 antibodies in AARD patients is significantly lower compared with the prevalence in ANA-positive healthy persons. There is a negative association between anti-DFS70 antibodies and AARD, especially if no concomitant AARD-specific autoantibodies are found. Isolated anti-DFS70 antibodies are detectable in less than 1 % of AARD but are detectable in 2-22 % of healthy persons. In the presence of an isolated anti-DFS70 antibody, the posttest probability for AARD is reduced significantly. The significance of anti-DFS70 antibodies as a criterion that helps to exclude AARD is also confirmed by follow-up studies on anti-DFS70 antibodies of positive, healthy individuals, who did not develop any AARD during a 4 year observation period. Consequently, anti-DFS70 antibodies are valuable novel biomarkers for better interpretation of positive ANA in cases of negative AARD-associated autoantibodies and should be integrated in modified test algorithms to avoid unnecessary referrals and examinations of ANA-positive persons.

  9. [Research training in nutrition: relevance for medical clinical pratice].

    PubMed

    Coronha, Ana Lúcia; Lourenço, Cláudia; Ferreira, Marlene; Reis, Nélia; Almeida, Raquel; Boléo-Tomé, Carolina; Monteiro-Grillo, Isabel; Camilo, Maria Ermelinda; Ravasco, Paula

    2011-01-01

    In oncology, early and individualized nutritional intervention for each patient is essential to improve nutritional intake and status, to reduce morbidity during treatment, enhance tolerance to treatment and improve Quality of Life. For medical students to evaluate nutritional risk and status, analyse the prevalence of undernutrition in a population of patients with diverse types of tumours. We aimed to identify difficulties regarding the use of the MUST tool (Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool) for nutritional risk by the students. This study included 35 cancer patients consecutively referenced for Radiotherapy (RT) in the Radiotherapy Department of the University Hospital of Santa Maria. Nutritional risk was evaluated by MUST; nutritional status by Patient Generated-Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) validated and specific for oncology. Students identified 13 patients (36%) at moderate/high risk of undernutrition. According to PG-SGA, 31,5% (11/35) of patients presented moderate or severe undernutrition, of which 77% of patients needed individualized nutritional counselling. Students successfully detected undernourished patients using these specific methods. Risk of undernutrition and undernutrition are common in oncology, therefore indicating the critical need to educate all health professionals for risk screening and for the relevance of nutritional intervention in the multidisciplinary context. MUST is a simple and quick tool, that demonstrated to be adequate when applied by medical students, well accepted by these health professionals and effectively used. Nutritional risk evaluation can and must be performed by health professionals such as the medical team, as long as they are involved in patient's treatment. Our methodology may be used as a model allowing for early guidance to individualized intervention, human resources' optimization and education for the importance of nutrition care.

  10. Intramuscular preparations of antipsychotics: uses and relevance in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Altamura, A Cario; Sassella, Francesca; Santini, Annalisa; Montresor, Clauno; Fumagalli, Sara; Mundo, Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    Intramuscular formulations of antipsychotics can be sub-divided into two groups on the basis of their pharmacokinetic features: short-acting preparations and long-acting or depot preparations. Short-acting intramuscular formulations are used to manage acute psychotic episodes. On the other hand, long-acting compounds, also called "depot", are administered as antipsychotic maintenance treatment to ensure compliance and to eliminate bioavailability problems related to absorption and first pass metabolism. Adverse effects of antipsychotics have been studied with particular respect to oral versus short- and long-acting intramuscular formulations of the different compounds. For short-term intramuscular preparations the main risk with classical compounds are hypotension and extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). Data on the incidence of EPS with depot formulations are controversial: some studies point out that the incidence of EPS is significantly higher in patients receiving depot preparations, whereas others show no difference between oral and depot antipsychotics. Studies on the strategies for switching patients from oral to depot treatment suggest that this procedure is reasonably well tolerated, so that in clinical practice depot antipsychotic therapy is usually begun while the oral treatment is still being administered, with gradual tapering of the oral dose. Efficacy, pharmacodynamics and clinical pharmacokinetics of haloperidol decanoate, fluphenazine enanthate and decanoate, clopenthixol decanoate, zuclopenthixol decanoate and acutard, flupenthixol decanoate, perphenazine enanthate, pipothiazine palmitate and undecylenate, and fluspirilene are reviewed. In addition, the intramuscular preparations of atypical antipsychotics and clinical uses are reviewed. Olanzapine and ziprasidone are available only as short-acting preparations, while risperidone is to date the only novel antipsychotic available as depot formulation. To date, acutely ill, agitated psychotic patients

  11. Myocardial ischaemia in systemic lupus erythematosus: detection and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Płazak, Wojciech; Gryga, Krzysztof; Sznajd, Jan; Pasowicz, Mieczysław; Musiał, Jacek; Podolec, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Severe cardiovascular complications are among the most important causes of mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. To assess the usefulness of echocardiography, ECG, and coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) in the detection of myocardial ischaemia in SLE patients compared to single photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT) and to assess their five-year follow-up. In 50 consecutive SLE patients (mean age 39.2 ± 12.9 years, 90% female), clinical assessment, resting and exercise ECG and echocardiography, multidetector computed tomography - based CACS and SPECT studies (Tc-99m sestamibi) were performed. Patients were then followed for five years. SPECT revealed perfusion defects in 25 (50%) patients; persistent defects in 18 (36%) and exercise-induced defects in seven (14%) subjects. No typical ischaemic heart disease clinical symptoms, signs of ischaemia in resting ECG, or left ventricular contractility impairment in echocardiography were observed. Signs of ischaemia in exercise ECG were found in 17 (34%) patients. The CACS ranged from 1 to 843.2 (median 23.15), and coronary calcifications were observed in 12 (24%) patients. Compared to the SPECT study, exercise ECG had 68% sensitivity and 100% specificity in detecting myocardial ischaemia, while CACS had only 28% sensitivity and 58% specificity. During follow-up, one patient who showed myocardial perfusion defects and the highest calcium score (843.2) at baseline, developed CCS II class symptoms of myocardial ischaemia. Coronary angiography was not performed because of severe anaemia; the patient died three months later. In two other patients with perfusion defects and calcium deposits at baseline, CCS I class symptoms were observed; coronary angiography showed only thin calcified coronary plaques that were haemodynamically insignificant. In about half of relatively young, mostly female, SLE patients, SPECT shows myocardial perfusion defects, with coronary calcifications present in one

  12. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction: Clinical Relevance and Diagnostic Possibilities.

    PubMed

    Schrover, I M; Spiering, W; Leiner, T; Visseren, F L J

    2016-04-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction is defined as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines, causing insulin resistance, systemic low-grade inflammation, hypercoagulability, and elevated blood pressure. These can lead to cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus type 2. Although quantity of adipose tissue is an important determinant of adipose tissue dysfunction, it can be diagnosed in both obese and lean individuals. This implies that not only quantity of adipose tissue should be used as a measure for adipose tissue dysfunction. Instead, focus should be on measuring quality of adipose tissue, which can be done with diagnostic modalities ranging from anthropometric measurements to tissue biopsies and advanced imaging techniques. In daily clinical practice, high quantity of visceral adipose tissue (reflected in high waist circumference or adipose tissue imaging), insulin resistance, or presence of the metabolic syndrome are easy and low-cost diagnostic modalities to evaluate presence or absence of adipose tissue dysfunction.

  13. MicroRNAs: Clinical Relevance in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joe; Ohtsuka, Masahisa; Pichler, Martin; Ling, Hui

    2015-11-25

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer diagnoses and causes of mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs are a class of small, non-coding regulatory RNAs that have shown strong associations with colorectal cancer. Through the repression of target messenger RNAs, microRNAs modulate many cellular pathways, such as those involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. The utilization of microRNAs has shown significant promise in the diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer, owing to their unique expression profile associations with cancer types and malignancies. Moreover, microRNA therapeutics with mimics or antagonists show great promise in preclinical studies, which encourages further development of their clinical use for colorectal cancer patients. The unique ability of microRNAs to affect multiple downstream pathways represents a novel approach for cancer therapy. Although still early in its development, we believe that microRNAs can be used in the near future as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for colorectal cancer.

  14. Prevalence of the different Axis I clinical subtypes in a sample of patients with orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders in the Andalusian Healthcare Service.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Hungría, Antonio; Blanco-Aguilera, Antonio; Blanco-Aguilera, Elena; Serrano-del-Rosal, Rafael; Biedma-Velázquez, Lourdes; Rodríguez-Torronteras, Alejandro; Segura-Saint-Gerons, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyze the prevalence of each of the different clinical subtypes of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a sample of patients with this pathology. In addition, a second objective was to analyze their distribution according to gender. To this end, the results of 1603 patients who went to the Unit of Temporomandibular Disorders in the Córdoba Healthcare District because they suffered from this pathology were analyzed. In order to diagnose them, the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) were applied, analyzing the different Axis I subtypes (myopathy, discopathy and arthropathy) and obtaining the combined Axis I for each patient and the relation of all these variables according to gender. The null-hypothesis test confirmed the lack of connection between the gender variable and the different subtypes in the clinical analysis, and between the former and the combined Axis I of the RDC/TMD. The prevalence was high for the muscle disorders subtype in general, showing an 88.7% prevalence, while the presence of discopathies or arthropathies was much lower. Among discopathies, the most frequent ones were disc displacements with reduction, with 39.7% and 42.8% for the left and right temporomandibular joints (TMJ), respectively, while the prevalence of arthropathies was 26.3% for the right TMJ and 32.9% for the left TMJ. The bivariate analysis on the connection with gender reveals a p≥ 0.05 value for the muscle and arthralgia subtypes. The patients seen at the TMD Unit where mostly middle-aged women whose main clinical axis subtype was the muscle disorder subtype. For their part, both discopathies and arthropathies, although present, are much less prevalent.

  15. Prevalence of the different Axis I clinical subtypes in a sample of patients with orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders in the Andalusian Healthcare Service

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Aguilera, Antonio; Blanco-Aguilera, Elena; Serrano-del-Rosal, Rafael; Biedma-Velázquez, Lourdes; Rodríguez-Torronteras, Alejandro; Segura-Saint-Gerons, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background The main objective of this paper is to analyze the prevalence of each of the different clinical subtypes of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a sample of patients with this pathology. In addition, a second objective was to analyze their distribution according to gender. Material and Methods To this end, the results of 1603 patients who went to the Unit of Temporomandibular Disorders in the Córdoba Healthcare District because they suffered from this pathology were analyzed. In order to diagnose them, the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) were applied, analyzing the different Axis I subtypes (myopathy, discopathy and arthropathy) and obtaining the combined Axis I for each patient and the relation of all these variables according to gender. The null-hypothesis test confirmed the lack of connection between the gender variable and the different subtypes in the clinical analysis, and between the former and the combined Axis I of the RDC/TMD. Results The prevalence was high for the muscle disorders subtype in general, showing an 88.7% prevalence, while the presence of discopathies or arthropathies was much lower. Among discopathies, the most frequent ones were disc displacements with reduction, with 39.7% and 42.8% for the left and right temporomandibular joints (TMJ), respectively, while the prevalence of arthropathies was 26.3% for the right TMJ and 32.9% for the left TMJ. The bivariate analysis on the connection with gender reveals a p≥ 0.05 value for the muscle and arthralgia subtypes. Conclusions The patients seen at the TMD Unit where mostly middle-aged women whose main clinical axis subtype was the muscle disorder subtype. For their part, both discopathies and arthropathies, although present, are much less prevalent. Key words:RDCTMD, axis I, orofacial pain, temporomandibular disorders, gender. PMID:26615508

  16. [Nitrofurantoin--clinical relevance in uncomplicated urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-07-01

    The nitrofuran derivative nitrofurantoin has been used for more than 60 years for the antibacterial therapy of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI). Despite its long application, this antibiotic retained good activity against Escherichia coli and some other pathogens of uncomplicated urinary tract infections such as Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus species. Nitrofurantoin therapy has been shown to be accompanied by numerous adverse drug effects. Among these, there are also serious side effects such as pulmonary reactions and polyneuropathy, which mainly occur in long-term use. Recent studies, however, have shown a good efficacy and tolerability of short-term nitrofurantoin therapy comparable to previous established standard therapeutic regimens applying cotrimoxazole or quinolones. Because of these data and the alarming resistance rates of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to cotrimoxazole and quinolones that have been increased markedly in several countries, the clinical significance ofnitrofurantoin has been raised again. In many current treatment guidelines, e. g., the international clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women published by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, nitrofurantoin has been recommended as one first-line antibiotic of empiric antibacterial treatment of uncomplicated cystitis in otherwise healthy women. In Germany, however, nitrofurantoin should only be applied if more effective and less risky antibiotics cannot be used. Nitrofurantoin is contraindicated in the last three months of pregnancy and in patients suffering from renal impairment of each degree. Despite compatibility concerns, nitrofurantoin has also been recommended for the re-infection prophylaxis of recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in Germany and several other countries.

  17. Imaging of a clinically relevant stroke model: glucose hypermetabolism revisited.

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Fabian; Grafström, Jonas; Lundberg, Johan; Nikkhou-Aski, Sahar; Little, Philip; Damberg, Peter; Mitsios, Nicholas; Mulder, Jan; Lu, Li; Söderman, Michael; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Holmin, Staffan

    2015-03-01

    Ischemic stroke has been shown to cause hypermetabolism of glucose in the ischemic penumbra. Experimental and clinical data indicate that infarct-related systemic hyperglycemia is a potential therapeutic target in acute stroke. However, clinical studies aiming for glucose control in acute stroke have neither improved functional outcome nor reduced mortality. Thus, further studies on glucose metabolism in the ischemic brain are warranted. We used a rat model of stroke that preserves collateral flow. The animals were analyzed by [2-(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography or magnetic resonance imaging during 90-minute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and during 60 minutes after reperfusion. Results were correlated to magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral blood flow, diffusion of water, lactate formation, and histological data on cell death and blood-brain barrier breakdown. We detected an increased [2-(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake within ischemic regions succumbing to infarction and in the peri-infarct region. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed impairment of blood flow to ischemic levels in the infarct and a reduction of cerebral blood flow in the peri-infarct region. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed lactate in the ischemic region and absence of lactate in the peri-infarct region. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed apoptosis and blood-brain barrier breakdown within the infarct. The increased uptake of [2-(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose in cerebral ischemia most likely reflects hypermetabolism of glucose meeting increased energy needs of ischemic and hypoperfused brain tissue, and it occurs under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions measured by local lactate production. Infarct-related systemic hyperglycemia could serve to facilitate glucose supply to the ischemic brain. Glycemic control by insulin treatment could negatively influence this mechanism. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Nocebo phenomena in medicine: their relevance in everyday clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Häuser, Winfried; Hansen, Ernil; Enck, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Nocebo phenomena are common in clinical practice and have recently become a popular topic of research and discussion among basic scientists, clinicians, and ethicists. We selectively searched the PubMed database for articles published up to December 2011 that contained the key words "nocebo" or "nocebo effect." By definition, a nocebo effect is the induction of a symptom perceived as negative by sham treatment and/or by the suggestion of negative expectations. A nocebo response is a negative symptom induced by the patient's own negative expectations and/or by negative suggestions from clinical staff in the absence of any treatment. The underlying mechanisms include learning by Pavlovian conditioning and reaction to expectations induced by verbal information or suggestion. Nocebo responses may come about through unintentional negative suggestion on the part of physicians and nurses. Information about possible complications and negative expectations on the patient's part increases the likelihood of adverse effects. Adverse events under treatment with medications sometimes come about by a nocebo effect. Physicians face an ethical dilemma, as they are required not just to inform patients of the potential complications of treatment, but also to minimize the likelihood of these complications, i.e., to avoid inducing them through the potential nocebo effect of thorough patient information. Possible ways out of the dilemma include emphasizing the fact that the proposed treatment is usually well tolerated, or else getting the patient's permission to inform less than fully about its possible side effects. Communication training in medical school, residency training, and continuing medical education would be desirable so that physicians can better exploit the power of words to patients' benefit, rather than their detriment.

  19. Subtypes of physical frailty: Latent class analysis and associations with clinical characteristics and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Kuo; Guo, Chao-Yu; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chen, Liang-Yu; Hwang, An-Chun; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Peng, Li-Ning; Chen, Liang-Kung; Liang, Kung-Yee

    2017-01-01

    Frailty is a well-recognized geriatric syndrome with various definitions and conceptual frameworks. This study aimed to use latent class analysis to discover potential subtypes of pre-frail and frail older people. Data from the I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study (ILAS), a community-based cohort study was used for analysis. Latent class analysis was applied to characterize classes or subgroups with different frailty phenotypes among ILAS participants targeting older adults aged 65 and above, capable of completing a 6-meter walk, without severe major or life threatening diseases, and not institutionalized. Latent class analysis identified three distinct subgroups with different frailty phenotypes: non-mobility-type (weight loss and exhaustion), mobility-type frailty (slowness and weakness), and low physical activity. Comparing these groups with the robust group, people with mobility-type frailty had poorer body composition, worse bone health, poorer cognitive function, lower survival (hazard ratio: 6.82, p = 0.019), and poorer overall health outcomes (hazard ratio: 1.67, p = 0.040). People in the non-mobility-type group had poorer bone health and more metabolic serum abnormalities. In conclusion, mobility-type frailty was a better predictor of adverse outcomes. However, further investigation is needed to evaluate how these phenotypic subgroups may help in predicting prognosis or in developing interventions. PMID:28397814

  20. Achromobacter xylosoxidans in cystic fibrosis: prevalence and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    De Baets, Frans; Schelstraete, Petra; Van Daele, Sabine; Haerynck, Filomeen; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is increasingly cultured in sputum from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients; nevertheless, there are few published data on the clinical impact of this infection or chronic colonisation. Relying on DNA fingerprinting techniques we studied the prevalence of A. xylosoxidans in our CF population. In a retrospective case control study the clinical status of patients with at least 3 sputum cultures positive for A. xylosoxidans over at least 9 months, at the moment of the first positive culture and during the period of colonisation were compared to age (+/-1 year), gender and to Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation controlled CF patients who had never A. xylosoxidans positive sputum cultures. The prevalence of patients with at least one positive A. xylosoxidans culture was 17.9%. 5.3% of the patients fulfilled the criteria of our definition of colonisation. Colonised patients had a median age of 20 years (range 11-27 years) and a mean colonisation period of 1.5 (+/-0.9) years. At the moment of the first positive culture we found significantly lower Bhalla scores on HRCT scans of the lungs (11+/-3 versus 16+/-3, p<0.002), lower Brasfield chest X-ray scores (14+/-3 versus 18+/-3, p<0.019), lower FVC values (70%+/-22 versus 94%+/-12, p<0.017) and lower FEV(1) values (55%+/-32 versus 78%+/-23, p=0.123), although the latter did not reach significance. There was no significant difference in body mass index (BMI) (18.7+/-3 kg/m2 versus 19.6+/-3 kg/m2, p=0.8). Over the study period A. xylosoxidans-colonised patients did have more need for intravenous antibiotic treatment courses (19 versus 5, p<0.001); nevertheless, there was no significant difference in lung function decline over the study period (FVC: -6.25+/-12.34% versus -5.62+/-8.30%, p 0.77, FEV1: -5.62+/-8.30% versus -1.87+/-11.58%, p<0.47). The prevalence of A. xylosoxidans infection or colonisation is probably underestimated. Colonised patients are mostly older, with more pronounced lung damage and

  1. Mortality in mild cognitive impairment varies by subtype, sex and lifestyle factors. The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Vassilaki, Maria; Cha, Ruth H.; Aakre, Jeremiah A.; Therneau, Terry M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Roberts, Rosebud O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Etiologic differences in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes may impact mortality. Objective To assess the rate of death in MCI overall, and by subtype, in the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Methods Participants aged 70–89 years at enrollment were clinically evaluated at baseline and 15-month intervals to assess diagnoses of MCI and dementia. Mortality in MCI cases vs. cognitively normal (CN) individuals was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Over a median follow-up of 5.8 years, 331 of 862 (38.4%) MCI cases and 224 of 1292 (17.3%) cognitively normal participants died. Compared to CN individuals, mortality was elevated in persons with MCI (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.61 to 2.55), and was higher for non-amnestic MCI (naMCI; HR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.80 to 3.39) than for amnestic MCI (aMCI; HR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.48 to 2.41) after adjusting for confounders. Mortality varied significantly by sex, education, history of heart disease, and engaging in moderate physical exercise (p for interaction <0.05 for all). Mortality rate estimates were highest in MCI cases who were men, did not exercise, had heart disease, and had higher education vs. CN without these factors, and for naMCI cases vs. aMCI cases without these factors. Conclusions These findings suggest stronger impact of etiologic factors on naMCI mortality. Prevention of heart disease, exercise vigilance, may reduce MCI mortality. Delayed MCI diagnosis in persons with higher education impacts mortality, and higher mortality in men may explain similar dementia incidence by sex in our cohort. PMID:25697699

  2. Complementary feeding: clinically relevant factors affecting timing and composition.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Nancy F; Hambidge, K Michael

    2007-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 mo of life followed by optimal complementary feeding are critical public health measures for reducing and preventing morbidity and mortality in young children. Clinical factors, such as birth weight, prematurity, and illness, that affect the iron and zinc requirements of younger infants are discussed. Maternal diet and nutritional status do not have a strong effect on the mineral content of human milk, but physiologic changes in milk and the infants' status determine the dependence of the infant on complementary foods in addition to human milk to meet iron and zinc requirements after 6 mo. The nature of zinc absorption, which is suitably characterized by saturation response modeling, dictates that plant-based diets, which are low in zinc, are associated with low absolute daily absorbed zinc, which is inadequate to meet requirements. Foods with a higher zinc content, such as meats, are much more likely to be sufficient to meet dietary requirements. Current plant-based complementary feeding patterns for older fully breastfed infants in both developed and developing countries pose a risk of zinc deficiency. The strong rationale for the potential benefits of providing meat as an early complementary food, and the examples of successful intervention programs, provide potent incentives to pursue broader implementation programs, with concurrent rigorous evaluation of both efficacy and effectiveness.

  3. Clinical relevance of FASII bypass in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Gloux, Karine; Guillemet, Mélanie; Soler, Charles; Morvan, Claire; Halpern, David; Pourcel, Christine; Vu Thien, Hoang; Lamberet, Gilles; Gruss, Alexandra

    2017-02-13

    The need for new antimicrobials to treat bacterial infections has led to the use of fatty acid synthesis (FASII) enzymes as front-line targets. However, recent studies suggest that FASII inhibitors may not work against the opportunist pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, as environmental fatty acids favor emergence of multi-anti-FASII resistance. As fatty acids are abundant in the host, and one FASII inhibitor, triclosan, is widespread, we investigated whether fatty acid pools impact resistance in clinical and veterinary S. aureus isolates. Simple addition of fatty acids to screening medium led to a 50% increase in triclosan resistance, as tested in 700 isolates. Moreover, non-culturable triclosan-resistant fatty acid auxotrophs, which escape detection under routine conditions, were uncovered in primary patient samples. FASII bypass in selected isolates correlated with polymorphisms in acc and fabD loci. We conclude that fatty-acid-dependent strategies to escape FASII inhibition are common among S. aureus isolates and correlate with anti-FASII resistance and emergence of non-culturable variants.

  4. Longitudinal Metagenomic Analysis of Hospital Air Identifies Clinically Relevant Microbes

    PubMed Central

    King, Paula; Pham, Long K.; Waltz, Shannon; Sphar, Dan; Yamamoto, Robert T.; Conrad, Douglas; Taplitz, Randy; Torriani, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    We describe the sampling of sixty-three uncultured hospital air samples collected over a six-month period and analysis using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Our primary goals were to determine the longitudinal metagenomic variability of this environment, identify and characterize genomes of potential pathogens and determine whether they are atypical to the hospital airborne metagenome. Air samples were collected from eight locations which included patient wards, the main lobby and outside. The resulting DNA libraries produced 972 million sequences representing 51 gigabases. Hierarchical clustering of samples by the most abundant 50 microbial orders generated three major nodes which primarily clustered by type of location. Because the indoor locations were longitudinally consistent, episodic relative increases in microbial genomic signatures related to the opportunistic pathogens Aspergillus, Penicillium and Stenotrophomonas were identified as outliers at specific locations. Further analysis of microbial reads specific for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia indicated homology to a sequenced multi-drug resistant clinical strain and we observed broad sequence coverage of resistance genes. We demonstrate that a shotgun metagenomic sequencing approach can be used to characterize the resistance determinants of pathogen genomes that are uncharacteristic for an otherwise consistent hospital air microbial metagenomic profile. PMID:27482891

  5. Anaphylaxis: epidemiology, aetiology and relevance for the clinic.

    PubMed

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-09-01

    Anaphylaxis is responsible for considerable morbidity and may in some cases prove fatal. Areas covered: This review summarises the findings from recent studies on the epidemiology and aetiology of anaphylaxis and draws on the insights from this work and recent international guidelines to consider the implications for clinical care. Acute management of anaphylaxis is centred on early recognition, treatment with adrenaline (epinephrine) and other essential life-support measures. The importance of longer-term care of patients with a history of or at risk of anaphylaxis are also considered with a view to minimising the risk of further reactions. Tailored individual anaphylaxis management plans should be a routine component of this longer-term care with provision of adrenaline auto-injectors to those at risk of further episodes of anaphylaxis. More generally, there is a need to ensure that there are standard protocols in place to ensure that risks of triggering anaphylaxis are minimised and appropriate acute and long-term care are provided if reactions occur. Expert commentary: It is important to be aware that anaphylaxis may occur in patients of any age, sex or ethnicity. Early recognition and prompt treatment with adrenaline are potentially life-saving. Careful assessment of risk and appropriate long-term management are key to improving long-term outcomes in those at risk of repeat episodes of anaphylaxis.

  6. [Neurodermatitis and food allergy. Clinical relevance of testing procedures].

    PubMed

    Stiening, H; Szczepanski, R; von Mühlendahl, K E; Kalveram, C

    1990-12-01

    In 132 children with neurodermitis, we measured specific IgG and IgE antibodies against components of cow's milk, soy milk, and egg. In addition we performed epidermal tests by rubbing the nutrients onto the intact skin. The results were compared to the effect of complete omission of milk, egg, and soy during four weeks and with the outcome of subsequent reexposition. We used standardized scales to evaluate the neurodermitis and the skin reactions and for the clinical response to the oral challenge. The best prediction for the outcome of the oral challenge was obtained by the epidermal test which had to be done with whole milk, soy milk and egg white; there was no further advantage in testing egg yolk or soy oil. IgE antibodies followed next in their predictive value. No further precision was gained by the combination of epidermal testing with IgE results, by the measurement of IgE antibodies to the constituents of cow's milk, of IgG antibodies, and of the platelet count during oral challenging. Positive reactions to oral administration after four weeks' omission of allergenic food were relatively frequent in the age group below three years, but rare in school children and adolescents.

  7. A clinically relevant wound assessment method to monitor healing progression.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sharon

    2008-03-01

    One of the most important principles of wound management is periodic assessment and documentation of wound healing. Documentation of healing progress over time allows providers to assess the effectiveness of care to maximize healing. Several methods to determine wound healing progress currently exist and include dimensional, visual, and physiological assessments. However, because existing tools often require correlation of subjective assessments, are time-consuming, and may not consider that wound healing occurs from the "bottom up," a more objective and quicker approach to monitor healing progression was pursued. The purpose of this case study is to describe a once pen-and-paper tool that has now been computerized (the Barber Measuring Tool) that builds a graphical representation of a patient's individual wound healing progress to facilitate clinical decisions regarding the patient's plan of care. The tool, which is currently used for all wound patients in the author's facility, calculates wound volume using a simple formula and tracks this measurement as a percent of baseline over time in the patient's chart. Although formal research to establish validity and reliability of this tool has yet to be conducted, the tool has been used with more than 400 patients and has provided an accurate representation of healing progress. Studies to support proliferating use of this tool are warranted.

  8. Clinically relevant copy number variations detected in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Oskoui, Maryam; Gazzellone, Matthew J.; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Zarrei, Mehdi; Andersen, John; Wei, John; Wang, Zhuozhi; Wintle, Richard F.; Marshall, Christian R.; Cohn, Ronald D.; Weksberg, Rosanna; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J.; Fehlings, Darcy; Shevell, Michael I.; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) represents a group of non-progressive clinically heterogeneous disorders that are characterized by motor impairment and early age of onset, frequently accompanied by co-morbidities. The cause of CP has historically been attributed to environmental stressors resulting in brain damage. While genetic risk factors are also implicated, guidelines for diagnostic assessment of CP do not recommend for routine genetic testing. Given numerous reports of aetiologic copy number variations (CNVs) in other neurodevelopmental disorders, we used microarrays to genotype a population-based prospective cohort of children with CP and their parents. Here we identify de novo CNVs in 8/115 (7.0%) CP patients (∼1% rate in controls). In four children, large chromosomal abnormalities deemed likely pathogenic were found, and they were significantly more likely to have severe neuromotor impairments than those CP subjects without such alterations. Overall, the CNV data would have impacted our diagnosis or classification of CP in 11/115 (9.6%) families. PMID:26236009

  9. Osteoarthritis: an update with relevance for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Johannes W J; Berenbaum, Francis; Lafeber, Floris P J G

    2011-06-18

    Osteoarthritis is thought to be the most prevalent chronic joint disease. The incidence of osteoarthritis is rising because of the ageing population and the epidemic of obesity. Pain and loss of function are the main clinical features that lead to treatment, including non-pharmacological, pharmacological, and surgical approaches. Clinicians recognise that the diagnosis of osteoarthritis is established late in the disease process, maybe too late to expect much help from disease-modifying drugs. Despite efforts over the past decades to develop markers of disease, still-imaging procedures and biochemical marker analyses need to be improved and possibly extended with more specific and sensitive methods to reliably describe disease processes, to diagnose the disease at an early stage, to classify patients according to their prognosis, and to follow the course of disease and treatment effectiveness. In the coming years, a better definition of osteoarthritis is expected by delineating different phenotypes of the disease. Treatment targeted more specifically at these phenotypes might lead to improved outcomes.

  10. MicroRNAs: Clinical Relevance in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Joe; Ohtsuka, Masahisa; Pichler, Martin; Ling, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer diagnoses and causes of mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs are a class of small, non-coding regulatory RNAs that have shown strong associations with colorectal cancer. Through the repression of target messenger RNAs, microRNAs modulate many cellular pathways, such as those involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. The utilization of microRNAs has shown significant promise in the diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer, owing to their unique expression profile associations with cancer types and malignancies. Moreover, microRNA therapeutics with mimics or antagonists show great promise in preclinical studies, which encourages further development of their clinical use for colorectal cancer patients. The unique ability of microRNAs to affect multiple downstream pathways represents a novel approach for cancer therapy. Although still early in its development, we believe that microRNAs can be used in the near future as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for colorectal cancer. PMID:26602923

  11. Clinically relevant drug-drug interactions between antiretrovirals and antifungals

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Patel, Mitesh; Paturi, Durga K; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Complete delineation of the HIV-1 life cycle has resulted in the development of several antiretroviral drugs. Twenty-five therapeutic agents belonging to five different classes are currently available for the treatment of HIV-1 infections. Advent of triple combination antiretroviral therapy has significantly lowered the mortality rate in HIV patients. However, fungal infections still represent major opportunistic diseases in immunocompromised patients worldwide. Areas covered Antiretroviral drugs that target enzymes and/or proteins indispensable for viral replication are discussed in this article. Fungal infections, causative organisms, epidemiology and preferred treatment modalities are also outlined. Finally, observed/predicted drug-drug interactions between antiretrovirals and antifungals are summarized along with clinical recommendations. Expert opinion Concomitant use of amphotericin B and tenofovir must be closely monitored for renal functioning. Due to relatively weak interactive potential with the CYP450 system, fluconazole is the preferred antifungal drug. High itraconazole doses (> 200 mg/day) are not advised in patients receiving booster protease inhibitor (PI) regimen. Posaconazole is contraindicated in combination with either efavirenz or fosamprenavir. Moreover, voriconazole is contraindicated with high-dose ritonavir-boosted PI. Echino-candins may aid in overcoming the limitations of existing antifungal therapy. An increasing number of documented or predicted drug-drug interactions and therapeutic drug monitoring may aid in the management of HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections. PMID:24521092

  12. The Emergence of Clinically Relevant Babesiosis in Southwestern Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Todd J; Jobe, Dean A; Dolan, Emily C; Kessler, Anne; Lovrich, Steven D; Callister, Steven M

    2015-08-01

    To determine the frequency and characteristics of babesiosis cases, and to assess the impact of the introduction of a tick-borne infection diagnostic panel on babesiosis diagnosis in the region surrounding La Crosse, Wisconsin, where babesiosis in non-travelers was previously rare. In the spring of 2013, we conducted a point-in-time survey of Ixodes scopuloris ticks for the presence of Babesia microti. We also conducted a retrospective study of all babesiosis cases diagnosed in our health system between January 1, 2004, and November 1, 2013. Finally, we compared the number of babesiosis cases diagnosed during the study period before and after the June 1, 2012, introduction of a tick-borne infection diagnostic panel in our organization. Babesia microti was present in 5% of ticks surveyed in our region. Twenty-two cases. of babesiosis were diagnosed in our organization during the study period-19 since 2010. The tick-borne infection diagnostic panel was used widely by clinicians, with an attendant increase in babesiosis diagnoses. Babesiosis should be considered endemic in southwestern Wisconsin, and testing should be considered for patients with compatible clinical and laboratory features.

  13. [Drug interactions and clinical relevance: it all began with cheese].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Norte, Juan Antonio

    2012-04-01

    In a drug interaction, the effects of one drug can be increased or decreased or a quite new effect produced by the previous, concurrent or subsequent administration of another substance, including prescription and nonprescription drugs, food, tobacco or alcohol. The effect of the interaction can be desirable, inconsequential, or adverse. The increasing number of drugs available and the increasing use of multidrug therapeutic regimens enhance the potential for drug interactions. However, in clinical practice, most interactions are not significant or rarely of significance. It is when the interaction leads to adverse consequences that it comes to the attention of the patient and physician. Interactions may occur by pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamics mechanisms. Pharmacokinetic interactions represent the modification of one substance (the interacting substance) on the ADME processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism or excretion of a drug (the index drug). Subsequently, it may lead to changes in the concentration of the index drug at the receptor sites. Drug interactions with a pharmacodynamic basis involve actions on the same receptor or physiological systems through either synergism or antagonism. Many drug interactions can be predicted if the pharmacodynamics effects, pharmacokinetic properties and mechanisms of action of the interacting agents are known. The most obvious interactions are those producing altered pharmacokinetic of drugs with a low therapeutic index (oral anticoagulants, antidiabetic drugs, digoxin, benzodiazepines and immunosuppressant and cytotoxic drugs).

  14. The genetic basis of myelodysplasia and its clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Della Porta, Matteo G.; Malcovati, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Myelodysplasia is a diagnostic feature of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) but is also found in other myeloid neoplasms. Its molecular basis has been recently elucidated by means of massive parallel sequencing studies. About 90% of MDS patients carry ≥1 oncogenic mutations, and two thirds of them are found in individuals with a normal karyotype. Driver mutant genes include those of RNA splicing (SF3B1, SRSF2, U2AF1, and ZRSR2), DNA methylation (TET2, DNMT3A, and IDH1/2), chromatin modification (ASXL1 and EZH2), transcription regulation (RUNX1), DNA repair (TP53), signal transduction (CBL, NRAS, and KRAS), and cohesin complex (STAG2). Only 4 to 6 genes are consistently mutated in ≥10% MDS patients, whereas a long tail of ∼50 genes are mutated less frequently. At presentation, most patients typically have 2 or 3 driver oncogenic mutations and hundreds of background mutations. MDS driver genes are also frequently mutated in other myeloid neoplasms. Reliable genotype/phenotype relationships include the association of the SF3B1 mutation with refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts, TET2/SRSF2 comutation with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and activating CSF3R mutation with chronic neutrophilic leukemia. Although both founding and subclonal driver mutations have been shown to have prognostic significance, prospective clinical trials that include the molecular characterization of the patient’s genome are now needed. PMID:24136165

  15. Differential colorectal carcinogenesis: Molecular basis and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Morán, Alberto; Ortega, Paloma; de Juan, Carmen; Fernández-Marcelo, Tamara; Frías, Cristina; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio José; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Iniesta, Pilar; Benito, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CCR) is one of the most frequent cancers in developed countries. It poses a major public health problem and there is renewed interest in understanding the basic principles of the molecular biology of colorectal cancer. It has been established that sporadic CCRs can arise from at least two different carcinogenic pathways. The traditional pathway, also called the suppressor or chromosomal instability pathway, follows the Fearon and Vogelstein model and shows mutation in classical oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes, such as K-ras, adenomatous polyposis coli, deleted in colorectal cancer, or p53. Alterations in the Wnt pathway are also very common in this type of tumour. The second main colorectal carcinogenesis pathway is the mutator pathway. This pathway is present in nearly 15% of all cases of sporadic colorectal cancer. It is characterized by the presence of mutations in the microsatellite sequences caused by a defect in the DNA mismatch repair genes, mostly in hMLH1 or hMSH2. These two pathways have clear molecular differences, which will be reviewed in this article, but they also present distinct histopathological features. More strikingly, their clinical behaviours are completely different, having the “mutator” tumours a better outcome than the “suppressor” tumours. PMID:21160823

  16. Longitudinal Metagenomic Analysis of Hospital Air Identifies Clinically Relevant Microbes.

    PubMed

    King, Paula; Pham, Long K; Waltz, Shannon; Sphar, Dan; Yamamoto, Robert T; Conrad, Douglas; Taplitz, Randy; Torriani, Francesca; Forsyth, R Allyn

    2016-01-01

    We describe the sampling of sixty-three uncultured hospital air samples collected over a six-month period and analysis using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Our primary goals were to determine the longitudinal metagenomic variability of this environment, identify and characterize genomes of potential pathogens and determine whether they are atypical to the hospital airborne metagenome. Air samples were collected from eight locations which included patient wards, the main lobby and outside. The resulting DNA libraries produced 972 million sequences representing 51 gigabases. Hierarchical clustering of samples by the most abundant 50 microbial orders generated three major nodes which primarily clustered by type of location. Because the indoor locations were longitudinally consistent, episodic relative increases in microbial genomic signatures related to the opportunistic pathogens Aspergillus, Penicillium and Stenotrophomonas were identified as outliers at specific locations. Further analysis of microbial reads specific for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia indicated homology to a sequenced multi-drug resistant clinical strain and we observed broad sequence coverage of resistance genes. We demonstrate that a shotgun metagenomic sequencing approach can be used to characterize the resistance determinants of pathogen genomes that are uncharacteristic for an otherwise consistent hospital air microbial metagenomic profile.

  17. Uterine fibroid vascularization and clinical relevance to uterine fibroid embolization.

    PubMed

    Pelage, Jean-Pierre; Cazejust, Julien; Pluot, Etienne; Le Dref, Olivier; Laurent, Alexandre; Spies, James B; Chagnon, Sophie; Lacombe, Pascal

    2005-10-01

    Embolization has become a first-line treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroid tumors. Selective catheterization and embolization of both uterine arteries, which are the predominant source of blood flow to fibroid tumors in most cases, is the cornerstone of treatment. Although embolization for treatment of uterine fibroid tumors is widely accepted, great familiarity with the normal and variant pelvic arterial anatomy is needed to ensure the safety and success of the procedure. The uterine artery classically arises as a first or second branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery and is usually dilated in the presence of a uterine fibroid tumor. Angiography is used for comprehensive pretreatment assessment of the pelvic arterial anatomy; for noninvasive evaluation, Doppler ultrasonography, contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR angiography also may be used. After the uterine artery is identified, selective catheterization should be performed distal to its cervicovaginal branch. For targeted embolization of the perifibroid arterial plexus, injection of particles with diameters larger than 500 mum is generally recommended. Excessive embolization may injure normal myometrium, ovaries, or fallopian tubes and lead to uterine necrosis or infection or to ovarian failure. Incomplete treatment or additional blood supply to the tumor (eg, via an ovarian artery) may result in clinical failure. The common postembolization angiographic end point is occlusion of the uterine arterial branches to the fibroid tumor while antegrade flow is maintained in the main uterine artery.

  18. Clinically Relevant Genetic Variations in Drug Metabolizing Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Navin; Dolan, M. Eileen

    2011-01-01

    In the field of pharmacogenetics, we currently have a few markers to guide physicians as to the best course of therapy for patients. For the most part, these genetic variants are within a drug metabolizing enzyme that has a large effect on the degree or rate at which a drug is converted to its metabolites. For many drugs, response and toxicity are multi-genic traits and understanding relationships between a patient's genetic variation in drug metabolizing enzymes and the efficacy and/or toxicity of a medication offers the potential to optimize therapies. This review will focus on variants in drug metabolizing enzymes with predictable and relatively large impacts on drug efficacy and/or toxicity; some of these drug/gene variant pairs have impacted drug labels by the United States Food and Drug Administration. The challenges in identifying genetic markers and implementing clinical changes based on known markers will be discussed. In addition, the impact of next generation sequencing in identifying rare variants will be addressed. PMID:21453273

  19. Clinical subtypes of chronic traumatic encephalopathy: literature review and proposed research diagnostic criteria for traumatic encephalopathy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Montenigro, Philip H; Baugh, Christine M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Mez, Jesse; Budson, Andrew E; Au, Rhoda; Katz, Douglas I; Cantu, Robert C; Stern, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    The long-term consequences of repetitive head impacts have been described since the early 20th century. Terms such as punch drunk and dementia pugilistica were first used to describe the clinical syndromes experienced by boxers. A more generic designation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), has been employed since the mid-1900s and has been used in recent years to describe a neurodegenerative disease found not just in boxers but in American football players, other contact sport athletes, military veterans, and others with histories of repetitive brain trauma, including concussions and subconcussive trauma. This article reviews the literature of the clinical manifestations of CTE from 202 published cases. The clinical features include impairments in mood (for example, depression and hopelessness), behavior (for example, explosivity and violence), cognition (for example, impaired memory, executive functioning, attention, and dementia), and, less commonly, motor functioning (for example, parkinsonism, ataxia, and dysarthria). We present proposed research criteria for traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES) which consist of four variants or subtypes (TES behavioral/mood variant, TES cognitive variant, TES mixed variant, and TES dementia) as well as classifications of 'probable CTE' and 'possible CTE'. These proposed criteria are expected to be modified and updated as new research findings become available. They are not meant to be used for a clinical diagnosis. Rather, they should be viewed as research criteria that can be employed in studies of the underlying causes, risk factors, differential diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of CTE and related disorders.

  20. Clinical subtypes of chronic traumatic encephalopathy: literature review and proposed research diagnostic criteria for traumatic encephalopathy syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The long-term consequences of repetitive head impacts have been described since the early 20th century. Terms such as punch drunk and dementia pugilistica were first used to describe the clinical syndromes experienced by boxers. A more generic designation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), has been employed since the mid-1900s and has been used in recent years to describe a neurodegenerative disease found not just in boxers but in American football players, other contact sport athletes, military veterans, and others with histories of repetitive brain trauma, including concussions and subconcussive trauma. This article reviews the literature of the clinical manifestations of CTE from 202 published cases. The clinical features include impairments in mood (for example, depression and hopelessness), behavior (for example, explosivity and violence), cognition (for example, impaired memory, executive functioning, attention, and dementia), and, less commonly, motor functioning (for example, parkinsonism, ataxia, and dysarthria). We present proposed research criteria for traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES) which consist of four variants or subtypes (TES behavioral/mood variant, TES cognitive variant, TES mixed variant, and TES dementia) as well as classifications of ‘probable CTE’ and ‘possible CTE’. These proposed criteria are expected to be modified and updated as new research findings become available. They are not meant to be used for a clinical diagnosis. Rather, they should be viewed as research criteria that can be employed in studies of the underlying causes, risk factors, differential diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of CTE and related disorders. PMID:25580160

  1. [Ibogaine - structure, influence on human body, clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Kuszczak, Bartłomiej; Olszak, Natalia

    2016-07-29

    Ibogaine is a natural chemical compound, which belongs to the indole alkaloid family. It can be naturally found within the root bark of african plant Tabernanthe iboga. Ibogaine plays a significant role among tribal cultures. Ibogaine, in small amount, causes reduction of hunger, thirst and exhaustion. In bigger amount, however, it can cause intensive visions. Other effects include reduction or complete disappearance of absitnence symptoms visible in people addicted to the nicotine, alcohol, methamphetamine, cocaine or opioids, what has been scientifically proven after the tests on animals and small groups of people. After oral application, 80% of ibogaine is subjected to the Odemethylation into noribogaine; main catalyzing enzyme is cytochrome CYP2D6. Research suggests, that ibogaine acts in many places within central nervous system. NMDA receptors seem to play main role in its anti-addiction properties. It is important to mention the side effects of the compound, which are cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity, what makes it harder to use its beneficial properties. Because of this, Ibogaine is included among the dangerous substance. However, there are a few clinics in the world which specializes in the use of the compound in order to interrupt the sypmtoms acute opioid withdrawal syndrome as well as a substance benficial in curing other addictions. There is more hope with synthetic derivatives of ibogaine, which although are less toxic still keep their anti-addiction properties. The aim is to collect the available knowledge related to the structure and effects on human body of alkaloid Tabernanthe iboga and consider the possibility of commercial medical use.

  2. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibodies in Pregnancy: Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Ines; Giuliani, Cesidio; Napolitano, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Graves’ disease is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis in women of childbearing age. Approximately 1% of pregnant women been treated before, or are being treated during pregnancy for Graves’ hyperthyroidism. In pregnancy, as in not pregnant state, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) antibodies (TRAbs) are the pathogenetic hallmark of Graves’ disease. TRAbs are heterogeneous for molecular and functional properties and are subdivided into activating (TSAbs), blocking (TBAbs), or neutral (N-TRAbs) depending on their effect on TSHR. The typical clinical features of Graves’ disease (goiter, hyperthyroidism, ophthalmopathy, dermopathy) occur when TSAbs predominate. Graves’ disease shows some peculiarities in pregnancy. The TRAbs disturb the maternal as well as the fetal thyroid function given their ability to cross the placental barrier. The pregnancy-related immunosuppression reduces the levels of TRAbs in most cases although they persist in women with active disease as well as in women who received definitive therapy (radioiodine or surgery) before pregnancy. Changes of functional properties from stimulating to blocking the TSHR could occur during gestation. Drug therapy is the treatment of choice for hyperthyroidism during gestation. Antithyroid drugs also cross the placenta and therefore decrease both the maternal and the fetal thyroid hormone production. The management of Graves’ disease in pregnancy should be aimed at maintaining euthyroidism in the mother as well as in the fetus. Maternal and fetal thyroid dysfunction (hyperthyroidism as well as hypothyroidism) are in fact associated with several morbidities. Monitoring of the maternal thyroid function, TRAbs measurement, and fetal surveillance are the mainstay for the management of Graves’ disease in pregnancy. This review summarizes the biochemical, immunological, and therapeutic aspects of Graves’ disease in pregnancy focusing on the role of the TRAbs in maternal and fetal

  3. Does the dawn phenomenon have clinical relevance in normal pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    Mandujano, Alicia; Thomas, Alicia; Presley, Larraine Huston; Amini, Saeid B.; de Mouzon, Sylvie Hauguel; Catalano, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The dawn phenomenon is a transient rise in blood glucose between 4 and 6 AM that is attributed to the pulsatile release of pituitary growth hormone (GH). In pregnancy, GH is suppressed by placental GH. Hence, we hypothesize that there is no evidence for the dawn phenomenon in late pregnancy in healthy women. STUDY DESIGN Twenty glucose-tolerant women with singleton gestations between 28 weeks and 36 weeks 6 days’ gestation were recruited. The women were admitted overnight to the Clinical Research Unit and had continuous glucose monitoring. Insulin and GH were measured at 2-hour intervals from 8 PM to 8 AM. GH was grouped into times 1A (8–10 PM), 2A (12–2 AM), and 3A (4–8 AM) for changes over time. Further analysis was performed with time 1B (8 PM to 2 AM) and 2B (4–8 AM). Insulin was measured between 4 and 8 AM. RESULTS Plasma glucose decreased over time (P < .001). There were no significant changes in GH among times 1A, 2A, and 3A (P = .45) or times 1B and 2B (P = .12). Insulin concentrations increased after meals, but there were no changes from 4 AM (8.5 ± 1.4 μU/mL) through 8 AM (8.6 ± 1.1 μU/mL; P = .98). CONCLUSION Glucose and insulin concentrations show no increase from 4–8 AM; although there is variability in GH, there is no evidence for the dawn phenomenon in late pregnancy in healthy women. PMID:23583837

  4. Clinical relevance of sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Montano-Loza, Aldo J

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly recognized complications in cirrhotic patients include ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, susceptibility for infections, kidney dysfunction, and hepatocellular carcinoma; however, severe muscle wasting or sarcopenia are the most common and frequently unseen complications which negatively impact survival, quality of life, and response to stressor, such as infections and surgeries. At present, D’Amico stage classification, Child-Pugh, and MELD scores constitute the best tools to predict mortality in patients with cirrhosis; however, one of their main limitations is the lack of assessing the nutritional and functional status. Currently, numerous methods are available to evaluate the nutrition status of the cirrhotic patient; nevertheless, most of these techniques have limitations primarily because lack of objectivity, reproducibility, and prognosis discrimination. In this regard, an objective and reproducible technique, such as muscle mass quantification with cross-sectional imaging studies (computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging) constitute an attractive index of nutritional status in cirrhosis. Sarcopenia is part of the frailty complex present in cirrhotic patients, resulting from cumulative declines across multiple physiologic systems and characterized by impaired functional capacity, decreased reserve, resistance to stressors, and predisposition to poor outcomes. In this review, we discuss the current accepted and new methods to evaluate prognosis in cirrhosis. Also, we analyze the current knowledge regarding incidence and clinical impact of malnutrition and sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis and their impact after liver transplantation. Finally, we discuss existing and potential novel therapeutic approaches for malnutrition in cirrhosis, emphasizing the recognition of sarcopenia in an effort to reduced morbidity related and improved survival in cirrhosis. PMID:25009378

  5. Clinical relevance of sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Montano-Loza, Aldo J

    2014-07-07

    The most commonly recognized complications in cirrhotic patients include ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, susceptibility for infections, kidney dysfunction, and hepatocellular carcinoma; however, severe muscle wasting or sarcopenia are the most common and frequently unseen complications which negatively impact survival, quality of life, and response to stressor, such as infections and surgeries. At present, D'Amico stage classification, Child-Pugh, and MELD scores constitute the best tools to predict mortality in patients with cirrhosis; however, one of their main limitations is the lack of assessing the nutritional and functional status. Currently, numerous methods are available to evaluate the nutrition status of the cirrhotic patient; nevertheless, most of these techniques have limitations primarily because lack of objectivity, reproducibility, and prognosis discrimination. In this regard, an objective and reproducible technique, such as muscle mass quantification with cross-sectional imaging studies (computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging) constitute an attractive index of nutritional status in cirrhosis. Sarcopenia is part of the frailty complex present in cirrhotic patients, resulting from cumulative declines across multiple physiologic systems and characterized by impaired functional capacity, decreased reserve, resistance to stressors, and predisposition to poor outcomes. In this review, we discuss the current accepted and new methods to evaluate prognosis in cirrhosis. Also, we analyze the current knowledge regarding incidence and clinical impact of malnutrition and sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis and their impact after liver transplantation. Finally, we discuss existing and potential novel therapeutic approaches for malnutrition in cirrhosis, emphasizing the recognition of sarcopenia in an effort to reduced morbidity related and improved survival in cirrhosis.

  6. Clinical Relevance of Cranial Nerve Injury following Carotid Endarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Fokkema, M.; de Borst, G.J.; Nolan, B.W.; Indes, J.; Buck, D.B.; Lo, R.C.; Moll, F.L.; Schermerhorn, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The benefit of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) may be diminished by cranial nerve injury (CNI). Using a quality improvement registry, we aimed to identify the nerves affected, duration of symptoms (transient vs. persistent), and clinical predictors of CNI. Methods We identified all patients undergoing CEA in the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) between 2003 and 2011. Surgeon-observed CNI rate was determined at discharge (postoperative CNI) and at follow-up to determine persistent CNI (CNIs that persisted at routine follow-up visit). Hierarchical multivariable model controlling for surgeon and hospital was used to assess independent predictors for postoperative CNI. Results A total of 6,878 patients (33.8% symptomatic) were included for analyses. CNI rate at discharge was 5.6% (n = 382). Sixty patients (0.7%) had more than one nerve affected. The hypoglossal nerve was most frequently involved (n = 185, 2.7%), followed by the facial (n = 128, 1.9%), the vagus (n = 49, 0.7%), and the glossopharyngeal (n = 33, 0.5%) nerve. The vast majority of these CNIs were transient; only 47 patients (0.7%) had a persistent CNI at their follow-up visit (median 10.0 months, range 0.3–15.6 months). Patients with perioperative stroke (0.9%, n = 64) had significantly higher risk of CNI (n = 15, CNI risk 23.4%, p < .01). Predictors for CNI were urgent procedures (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.1, p < .01), immediate re-exploration after closure under the same anesthetic (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–3.0, p < .01), and return to the operating room for a neurologic event or bleeding (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4–3.8, p < .01), but not redo CEA (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.5–1.9, p = .90) or prior cervical radiation (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.3–2.5, p = .80). Conclusions As patients are currently selected in the VSGNE, persistent CNI after CEA is rare. While conditions of urgency and (sub)acute reintervention carried increased risk for postoperative CNI, a history of prior ipsilateral CEA or cervical

  7. Detection of Antigenic Variants of Subtype H3 Swine Influenza A Viruses from Clinical Samples.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brigitte E; Bowman, Andrew S; Li, Lei; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Smith, David R; Hanson, Larry A; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-04-01

    A large population of genetically and antigenically diverse influenza A viruses (IAVs) are circulating among the swine population, playing an important role in influenza ecology. Swine IAVs not only cause outbreaks among swine but also can be transmitted to humans, causing sporadic infections and even pandemic outbreaks. Antigenic characterizations of swine IAVs are key to understanding the natural history of these viruses in swine and to selecting strains for effective vaccines. However, influenza outbreaks generally spread rapidly among swine, and the conventional methods for antigenic characterization require virus propagation, a time-consuming process that can significantly reduce the effectiveness of vaccination programs. We developed and validated a rapid, sensitive, and robust method, the polyclonal serum-based proximity ligation assay (polyPLA), to identify antigenic variants of subtype H3N2 swine IAVs. This method utilizes oligonucleotide-conjugated polyclonal antibodies and quantifies antibody-antigen binding affinities by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Results showed the assay can rapidly detect H3N2 IAVs directly from nasal wash or nasal swab samples collected from laboratory-challenged animals or during influenza surveillance at county fairs. In addition, polyPLA can accurately separate the viruses at two contemporary swine IAV antigenic clusters (H3N2 swine IAV-α and H3N2 swine IAV-ß) with a sensitivity of 84.9% and a specificity of 100.0%. The polyPLA can be routinely used in surveillance programs to detect antigenic variants of influenza viruses and to select vaccine strains for use in controlling and preventing disease in swine. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Interpersonal subtypes in social phobia: diagnostic and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Cain, Nicole M; Pincus, Aaron L; Grosse Holtforth, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Interpersonal assessment may provide a clinically useful way to identify subtypes of social phobia. In this study, we examined evidence for interpersonal subtypes in a sample of 77 socially phobic outpatients. A cluster analysis based on the dimensions of dominance and love on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scales (Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 1990) found 2 interpersonal subtypes of socially phobic patients. These subtypes did not differ on pretreatment global symptom severity as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1993) or diagnostic comorbidity but did exhibit differential responses to outpatient psychotherapy. Overall, friendly-submissive social phobia patients had significantly lower scores on measures of social anxiety and significantly higher scores on measures of well-being and satisfaction at posttreatment than cold-submissive social phobia patients. We discuss the results in terms of interpersonal theory and the clinical relevance of assessment of interpersonal functioning prior to beginning psychotherapy with socially phobic patients.

  9. Subtyping stuttering II: contributions from language and temperament.

    PubMed

    Seery, Carol Hubbard; Watkins, Ruth V; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C; Shigeto, Aya

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series of two articles exploring subtypes of stuttering, and it addresses the question of whether and how language ability and temperament variables may be relevant to the study of subtypes within the larger population of children who stutter. Despite observations of varied profiles among young children who stutter, efforts to identify and characterize subtypes of stuttering have had limited influence on theoretical or clinical understanding of the disorder. This manuscript briefly highlights research on language and temperament in young children who stutter, and considers whether the results can provide guidance for efforts to more effectively investigate and elucidate subtypes in childhood stuttering. Issues from the literature that appear relevant to research on stuttering subtypes include: (a) the question of whether stuttering is best characterized as categorical or continuous; (b) interpretation of individual differences in skills and profiles; and (c) the fact that, during the preschool years, the interaction among domains such as language and temperament are changing very rapidly, resulting in large differences in developmental profiles within relatively brief chronological age periods. The reader will be able to: (1) discuss possible associations of language ability and temperament to the development of stuttering in young children; (2) summarize the subtyping research from the literature on language ability and temperament in young children; (3) generate directions for future research of stuttering subtypes drawn from the literature related to language ability and temperament in young children.

  10. Parkinson disease: insights in clinical, genetic and pathological features of monogenic disease subtypes.

    PubMed

    Crosiers, David; Theuns, Jessie; Cras, Patrick; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2011-10-01

    In the past 15 years, insights in clinical and genetic characteristics of Parkinson disease (PD) have increased substantially. Sequence or copy number variants in at least six genes (SNCA, LRRK2, PARK2, PINK1, DJ-1 and ATP13A2) have been identified to cause monogenic forms of PD. Routine clinical testing for mutations in these genes is feasible and available, but overlapping phenotypes in monogenic and sporadic PD complicate straightforward diagnostic screening. Primarily, a positive familial history and an early onset age should prompt clinicians to consider genetic testing. Based on a literature review on clinical and neuropathological features of PD patients carrying a pathogenic mutation we propose guidelines for genetic diagnostic testing in clinical practice. However, the absence of disease-modifying therapies and the variable penetrance of most known mutations currently limit the usefulness of genetic diagnostic testing for PD in clinical practice.

  11. Subtyping adolescents with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Eunice Y; Le Grange, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    Cluster analyses of eating disorder patients have yielded a "dietary-depressive" subtype, typified by greater negative affect, and a "dietary" subtype, typified by dietary restraint. This study aimed to replicate these findings in an adolescent sample with bulimia nervosa (BN) from a randomized controlled trial and to examine the validity and reliability of this methodology. In the sample of BN adolescents (N=80), cluster analysis revealed a "dietary-depressive" subtype (37.5%) and a "dietary" subtype (62.5%) using the Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Eating Disorder Examination Restraint subscale. The "dietary-depressive" subtype compared to the "dietary" subtype was significantly more likely to: (1) report co-occurring disorders, (2) greater eating and weight concerns, and (3) less vomiting abstinence at post-treatment (all p's<.05). The cluster analysis based on "dietary" and "dietary-depressive" subtypes appeared to have concurrent validity, yielding more distinct groups than subtyping by vomiting frequency. In order to assess the reliability of the subtyping scheme, a larger sample of adolescents with mixed eating and weight disorders in an outpatient eating disorder clinic (N=149) was subtyped, yielding similar subtypes. These results support the validity and reliability of the subtyping strategy in two adolescent samples.

  12. Different subtypes of epithelioid sarcoma and their clinical implication: long-term multi-institutional experience with a rare sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan; Yoo, Kwai Han; Kim, Min Hwan; Chon, Hong Jae; Lee, Soon Il; Lee, Hyo Jin; Koh, Sujin; Lee, Ha Yeon; Lee, Hye Ran; Kim, Kyung Sik; Choi, Young Deuk; Rha, Sun Young; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Hyo Song

    2017-03-01

    Epithelioid sarcoma (ES) is a very rare soft-tissue sarcoma with a high tendency of recurrence and metastasis. We analyzed clinical features of ES and aimed to identify the potential role of radio- and chemotherapy in ES. Fifty-five patients diagnosed with ES between 1997 and 2014 were enrolled from seven tertiary hospitals in Korean Cancer Research Group. The clinical variables were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Forty-six (84%) patients underwent surgical resection of ES, and among them, 27 experienced recurrence. In these patients, resection margin status and adjuvant radiotherapy were independent prognostic factors for longer recurrence-free survival (RFS), while adjuvant chemotherapy did not influence RFS. Twenty-two (40%) patients received palliative chemotherapy for metastatic or recurrent ES, and in these patients, palliative chemotherapy was the only independent prognostic factor for longer overall survival. Intriguingly, the clinical benefit of radio- and chemotherapy was observable only in proximal ES, but not in extremity ES, indicating that subtypes of ES might respond to radio- or chemotherapy differently. Proximal ES seems to benefits more from active anticancer treatment than conventional extremity ES. The aggressive characteristics of proximal ES could be overcome with an optimal multimodal treatment. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Mobile phone interference with medical equipment and its clinical relevance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Bolton, Damien M

    2004-08-02

    To conduct a systematic review of studies on clinically relevant digital mobile phone electromagnetic interference with medical equipment. MEDLINE and SUMSEARCH were searched for the period 1966-2004. The Cochrane Library and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were also searched for systematic reviews. Studies were eligible if published in a peer-reviewed journal in English, and if they included testing of digital mobile phones for clinically relevant interference with medical equipment used to monitor or treat patients, but not implantable medical devices. As there was considerable heterogeneity in medical equipment studied and the conduct of testing, results were summarised rather than subjected to meta-analysis. Clinically relevant electromagnetic interference (EMI) secondary to mobile phones potentially endangering patients occurred in 45 of 479 devices tested at 900 MHz and 14 of 457 devices tested at 1800 MHz. However, in the largest studies, the prevalence of clinically relevant EMI was low. Most clinically relevant EMI occurred when mobile phones were used within 1 m of medical equipment. Although testing was not standardised between studies and equipment tested was not identical, it is of concern that at least 4% of devices tested in any study were susceptible to clinically relevant EMI. All studies recommend some type of restriction of mobile phone use in hospitals, with use greater than 1 m from equipment and restrictions in clinical areas being the most common.

  14. [Clinical features of various subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in children].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Zhao; Wen, Fei-Qiu; Zhou, Ke-Ying; Yang, Chun-He; Zhang, Wei; Li, Ning

    2010-09-01

    To study the features of various subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children. Sex composition, risk factors, comorbidities, intelligence quotient and behavioral problems were investigated in 175 children with ADHD who met the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder Criteria (DSM-IV). The children were classified into three groups: ADHD predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I, n=82), ADHD predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI, n=24) and ADHD combined type (ADHD-C, n=69). There were no significant differences in the sex composition among the three groups. The rates of birth abnormality in the ADHD-I and the ADHD-C groups were higher than those in the ADHD-HI group. Negative parenting practices were noted more frequently in the ADHD-HI and the ADHD-C groups than the ADHD-I group. There were no significant differences in the performance intelligence quotient (PIQ), verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) and full intelligence quotient (FIQ) among the three groups. However, the incidence of imbalance between VIQ and PIQ in the ADHD-I group was higher than the other two groups. The rate of comorbidities with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and tic disorder (TD) in the ADHD-C and the ADHD-HI groups was higher than that in the ADHD-I group. Both the ADHD-I and the ADHD-C groups had a higher rate of comorbidities with learning disorder (LD) than the ADHD-HI group. The impulsive/hyperactive and conduct problems were more severe and the hyperactivity index was higher in the ADHD-C and the ADHD-HI groups than those in the ADHD-I group, while the learning difficulties in the ADHD-I group were the most severe. The children with ADHD-C or ADHD-HI have higher incidences of comorbidities with ODD and TD than those with ADHD-I who the learning difficulties and the imbalance between VIQ and PIQ are more severe.

  15. HIV-1 subtype distribution trends and evidence of transmission clusters among incident cases in a rural clinical cohort in southwest Uganda, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Kapaata, Anne; Lyagoba, Frederick; Ssemwanga, Deogratius; Magambo, Brian; Nanyonjo, Maria; Levin, Jonathan; Mayanja, Billy N; Mugasa, Claire; Parry, Chris M; Kaleebu, Pontiano

    2013-03-01

    The high diversity of HIV-1 has been shown to affect disease progression, transmission, and response to antiretroviral therapy and may influence HIV vaccine design. We describe the distribution trends of HIV-1 subtypes over a 7-year period among incident cases in a rural clinical cohort in Southwest Uganda and identify transmission clusters. Viral RNA was extracted from cryopreserved plasma samples from 94 participants who seroconverted and enrolled between 2004 and 2010. Partial gag (p24) and env (gp41) genes were directly sequenced to identify subtypes and transmission clusters with more than 95% bootstrap values. Direct sequencing of the partial pol gene and use of individual participant sexual life histories were also used to confirm these transmission clusters. The overall gag/env subtype distribution was A 28% (n=26), C 1% (n=1), and D 45% (n=42) and 27% (n=25) were intergene unique recombinant forms. The proportions of subtype A, D, or recombinants showed no significant increasing or decreasing trend over this time period (p=0.51). Phylogenetic analysis of the three genes confirmed 13 transmission clusters of which seven clusters were confirmed sexual partners using individual participants' sexual life histories. Subtype D has remained the predominant subtype in this population. From 2004 to 2010, there was no change in the proportions of these subtypes. Phylogenetic analysis and participants' sexual life histories revealed several transmission clusters. The high proportion of transmission clusters observed suggests continued high-risk sexual behavior and mixing in some individuals and possibly super transmitters in this presumed low-risk cohort, but also indicates that many transmissions occur in early HIV infection. This calls for early and targeted effective prevention and treatment intervention in this population.

  16. A Subtype of Speech Delay Associated with Developmental Psychosocial Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauner, Katherina K. Y.; Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Kwiatkowski, Joan; Allen, Chad T.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents findings supporting the hypothesis of a clinically relevant subtype of childhood speech sound disorder, provisionally titled speech delay--developmental psychosocial involvement (SD-DPI). Conversational speech samples from 29 children who met inclusionary criteria for SD-DPI were selected from a case record archive at a…

  17. Prognostic Factors Toward Clinically Relevant Radiographic Progression in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Tomohiro; Okada, Akitomo; Fukuda, Takaaki; Hidaka, Toshihiko; Ishii, Tomonori; Ueki, Yukitaka; Kodera, Takao; Nakashima, Munetoshi; Takahashi, Yuichi; Honda, Seiyo; Horai, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Ryu; Okuno, Hiroshi; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Izumiyama, Tomomasa; Takai, Osamu; Miyashita, Taiichiro; Sato, Shuntaro; Kawashiri, Shin-ya; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Origuchi, Tomoki; Nakamura, Hideki; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Katsumi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine prognostic factors of clinically relevant radiographic progression (CRRP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical practice. We performed a multicenter prospective study in Japan of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD)-naive RA patients with moderate to high disease activity treated with conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs) at study entry. We longitudinally observed 408 patients for 1 year and assessed disease activity every 3 months. CRRP was defined as yearly progression of modified total Sharp score (mTSS) > 3.0 U. We also divided the cohort into 2 groups based on disease duration (<3 vs ≥3 years) and performed a subgroup analysis. CRRP was found in 10.3% of the patients. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent variables to predict the development of CRRP were: CRP at baseline (0.30 mg/dL increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.11), time-integrated Disease Activity Score in 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) during the 1 year postbaseline (12.4-unit increase, 95%CI 1.17–2.59), RA typical erosion at baseline (95%CI 1.56–21.1), and the introduction of bDMARDs (95%CI 0.06–0.38). The subgroup analysis revealed that time-integrated DAS28-ESR is not a predictor whereas the introduction of bDMARDs is a significant protective factor for CRRP in RA patients with disease duration <3 years. We identified factors that could be used to predict the development of CRRP in RA patients treated with DMARDs. These variables appear to be different based on the RA patients’ disease durations. PMID:27124044

  18. Clinical Subtypes of Depression Are Associated with Specific Metabolic Parameters and Circadian Endocrine Profiles in Women: The Power Study

    PubMed Central

    Cizza, Giovanni; Ronsaville, Donna S.; Kleitz, Hayley; Eskandari, Farideh; Mistry, Sejal; Torvik, Sara; Sonbolian, Nina; Reynolds, James C.; Blackman, Marc R.; Gold, Philip W.; Martinez, Pedro E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with adverse medical consequences, including cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Patients with MDD may be classified as having melancholic, atypical, or undifferentiated features. The goal of the present study was to assess whether these clinical subtypes of depression have different endocrine and metabolic features and consequently, varying medical outcomes. Methods Premenopausal women, ages 21 to 45 years, with MDD (N = 89) and healthy controls (N = 44) were recruited for a prospective study of bone turnover. Women with MDD were classified as having melancholic (N = 51), atypical (N = 16), or undifferentiated (N = 22) features. Outcome measures included: metabolic parameters, body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and 24 hourly sampling of plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), cortisol, and leptin. Results Compared with control subjects, women with undifferentiated and atypical features of MDD exhibited greater BMI, waist/hip ratio, and whole body and abdominal fat mass. Women with undifferentiated MDD characteristics also had higher lipid and fasting glucose levels in addition to a greater prevalence of low BMD at the femoral neck compared to controls. Elevated ACTH levels were demonstrated in women with atypical features of depression, whereas higher mean 24-hour leptin levels were observed in the melancholic subgroup. Conclusions Pre-menopausal women with various features of MDD exhibit metabolic, endocrine, and BMD features that may be associated with different health consequences. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00006180 PMID:22235252

  19. Clinical subtypes of depression are associated with specific metabolic parameters and circadian endocrine profiles in women: the power study.

    PubMed

    Cizza, Giovanni; Ronsaville, Donna S; Kleitz, Hayley; Eskandari, Farideh; Mistry, Sejal; Torvik, Sara; Sonbolian, Nina; Reynolds, James C; Blackman, Marc R; Gold, Philip W; Martinez, Pedro E

    2012-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with adverse medical consequences, including cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Patients with MDD may be classified as having melancholic, atypical, or undifferentiated features. The goal of the present study was to assess whether these clinical subtypes of depression have different endocrine and metabolic features and consequently, varying medical outcomes. Premenopausal women, ages 21 to 45 years, with MDD (N = 89) and healthy controls (N = 44) were recruited for a prospective study of bone turnover. Women with MDD were classified as having melancholic (N = 51), atypical (N = 16), or undifferentiated (N = 22) features. Outcome measures included: metabolic parameters, body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and 24 hourly sampling of plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), cortisol, and leptin. Compared with control subjects, women with undifferentiated and atypical features of MDD exhibited greater BMI, waist/hip ratio, and whole body and abdominal fat mass. Women with undifferentiated MDD characteristics also had higher lipid and fasting glucose levels in addition to a greater prevalence of low BMD at the femoral neck compared to controls. Elevated ACTH levels were demonstrated in women with atypical features of depression, whereas higher mean 24-hour leptin levels were observed in the melancholic subgroup. Pre-menopausal women with various features of MDD exhibit metabolic, endocrine, and BMD features that may be associated with different health consequences. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00006180.

  20. Different disease subtypes with distinct clinical expression in familial Mediterranean fever: results of a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Akar, Servet; Solmaz, Dilek; Kasifoglu, Timucin; Bilge, Sule Yasar; Sari, Ismail; Gumus, Zeynep Zehra; Tunca, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there are clinical subgroups that may have different prognoses among FMF patients. The cumulative clinical features of a large group of FMF patients [1168 patients, 593 (50.8%) male, mean age 35.3 years (s.d. 12.4)] were studied. To analyse our data and identify groups of FMF patients with similar clinical characteristics, a two-step cluster analysis using log-likelihood distance measures was performed. For clustering the FMF patients, we evaluated the following variables: gender, current age, age at symptom onset, age at diagnosis, presence of major clinical features, variables related with therapy and family history for FMF, renal failure and carriage of M694V. Three distinct groups of FMF patients were identified. Cluster 1 was characterized by a high prevalence of arthritis, pleuritis, erysipelas-like erythema (ELE) and febrile myalgia. The dosage of colchicine and the frequency of amyloidosis were lower in cluster 1. Patients in cluster 2 had an earlier age of disease onset and diagnosis. M694V carriage and amyloidosis prevalence were the highest in cluster 2. This group of patients was using the highest dose of colchicine. Patients in cluster 3 had the lowest prevalence of arthritis, ELE and febrile myalgia. The frequencies of M694V carriage and amyloidosis were lower in cluster 3 than the overall FMF patients. Non-response to colchicine was also slightly lower in cluster 3. Patients with FMF can be clustered into distinct patterns of clinical and genetic manifestations and these patterns may have different prognostic significance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A Cross-Species Analysis in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Reveals Molecular Subtypes with Distinctive Clinical, Metastatic, Developmental, and Metabolic Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sadanandam, Anguraj; Wullschleger, Stephan; Lyssiotis, Costas A.; Grötzinger, Carsten; Barbi, Stefano; Bersani, Samantha; Körner, Jan; Wafy, Ismael; Mafficini, Andrea; Lawlor, Rita T.; Simbolo, Michele; Asara, John M.; Bläker, Hendrik; Cantley, Lewis C.; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Scarpa, Aldo; Hanahan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Seeking to assess the representative and instructive value of an engineered mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET) for its cognate human cancer, we profiled and compared mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes of tumors from both. Mouse PanNET tumors could be classified into two distinctive subtypes, well-differentiated islet/insulinoma tumors (IT) and poorly differentiated tumors associated with liver metastases, dubbed metastasis-like primary (MLP). Human PanNETs were independently classified into these same two subtypes, along with a third, specific gene mutation–enriched subtype. The MLP subtypes in human and mouse were similar to liver metastases in terms of miRNA and mRNA transcriptome profiles and signature genes. The human/mouse MLP subtypes also similarly expressed genes known to regulate early pancreas development, whereas the IT subtypes expressed genes characteristic of mature islet cells, suggesting different tumorigenesis pathways. In addition, these subtypes exhibit distinct metabolic profiles marked by differential pyruvate metabolism, substantiating the significance of their separate identities. SIGNIFICANCE This study involves a comprehensive cross-species integrated analysis of multi-omics profiles and histology to stratify PanNETs into subtypes with distinctive characteristics. We provide support for the RIP1-TAG2 mouse model as representative of its cognate human cancer with prospects to better understand PanNET heterogeneity and consider future applications of personalized cancer therapy. PMID:26446169

  2. The Clinical Utility of the Proposed DSM-5 Callous-Unemotional Subtype of Conduct Disorder in Young Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Dustin; Stepp, Stephanie; Hipwell, Alison; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A callous-unemotional (CU) subtype of conduct disorder (CD) has been proposed as an addition to the fifth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)." This study tested the hypothesis that young girls with the CU subtype of CD would exhibit more severe antisocial behavior and less severe internalizing…

  3. The Clinical Utility of the Proposed DSM-5 Callous-Unemotional Subtype of Conduct Disorder in Young Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Dustin; Stepp, Stephanie; Hipwell, Alison; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A callous-unemotional (CU) subtype of conduct disorder (CD) has been proposed as an addition to the fifth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)." This study tested the hypothesis that young girls with the CU subtype of CD would exhibit more severe antisocial behavior and less severe internalizing…

  4. Profiles in fibromyalgia: algometry, auditory evoked potentials and clinical characterization of different subtypes.

    PubMed

    Triñanes, Yolanda; González-Villar, Alberto; Gómez-Perretta, Claudio; Carrillo-de-la-Peña, María T

    2014-11-01

    The heterogeneity found in fibromyalgia (FM) patients has led to the investigation of disease subgroups, mainly based on clinical features. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that clinical FM subgroups are associated with different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Sixty-three FM patients were classified in type I or type II, according to the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), and in mild/moderate versus severe FM, according to the severity of three cardinal symptoms considered in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2010 criteria (unrefreshed sleep, cognitive problems and fatigue). To validate the subgroups obtained by these two classifications, we calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for various clinical variables and for two potential biomarkers of FM: Response to experimental pressure pain (algometry) and the amplitude/intensity slopes of the auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) obtained to stimuli of increasing intensity. The variables that best discriminated type I versus type II were those related to depression, while the indices of clinical or experimental pain (threshold or tolerance) did not significantly differ between them. The variables that best discriminated the mild/moderate versus severe subgroups were those related to the algometry. The AEPs did not allow discrimination among the generated subsets. The FIQ-based classification allows the identification of subgroups that differ in psychological distress, while the index based on the ACR 2010 criteria seems to be useful to characterize the severity of FM mainly based on hyperalgesia. The incorporation of potential biomarkers to generate or validate classification criteria is crucial to advance in the knowledge of FM and in the understanding of pathophysiological pathways.

  5. Diffuse capillary malformation with overgrowth: a clinical subtype of vascular anomalies with hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Margaret S; Liang, Marilyn G; Mulliken, John B

    2013-10-01

    Categorization of vascular anomalies with overgrowth is evolving rapidly with the aid of massively parallel genomic sequencing; however, accurate clinical diagnosis is still essential. We identified a group of patients with an extensive, diffuse, reticulate capillary malformation (CM) and variable hypertrophy without major complications. We sought to study a subset of patients with diffuse CM to better define prognosis and management. Chart review identified 73 patients with diffuse CM who did not fit the criteria for known disorders with CM and/or overgrowth. Soft-tissue or bony overgrowth did not correlate with location, morphology, or intensity of the vascular stain. Patients required periodic follow-up to monitor for leg length discrepancy. They were found to exhibit normal neurologic development and proportionate overgrowth rather than progressive, disproportionate asymmetry or vascular complications. This retrospective review was limited to observations documented at clinic visits; these patients require long-term assessment. Further studies are necessary to accurately assess Wilms tumor risk and clinical outcomes in older adults. We propose the term "diffuse capillary malformation with overgrowth" to designate this extensive reticular vascular staining with proportionate overgrowth. We differentiate diffuse capillary malformation with overgrowth from other disorders with CM and hypertrophy. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid detection and subtyping of European swine influenza viruses in porcine clinical samples by haemagglutinin- and neuraminidase-specific tetra- and triplex real-time RT-PCRs.

    PubMed

    Henritzi, Dinah; Zhao, Na; Starick, Elke; Simon, Gaelle; Krog, Jesper S; Larsen, Lars Erik; Reid, Scott M; Brown, Ian H; Chiapponi, Chiara; Foni, Emanuela; Wacheck, Silke; Schmid, Peter; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Harder, Timm C

    2016-11-01

    A diversifying pool of mammalian-adapted influenza A viruses (IAV) with largely unknown zoonotic potential is maintained in domestic swine populations worldwide. The most recent human influenza pandemic in 2009 was caused by a virus with genes originating from IAV isolated from swine. Swine influenza viruses (SIV) are widespread in European domestic pig populations and evolve dynamically. Knowledge regarding occurrence, spread and evolution of potentially zoonotic SIV in Europe is poorly understood. Efficient SIV surveillance programmes depend on sensitive and specific diagnostic methods which allow for cost-effective large-scale analysis. New SIV haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtype- and lineage-specific multiplex real-time RT-PCRs (RT-qPCR) have been developed and validated with reference virus isolates and clinical samples. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed for the combined detection in clinical samples and subtyping of SIV strains currently circulating in Europe that is based on a generic, M-gene-specific influenza A virus RT-qPCR. In a second step, positive samples are examined by tetraplex HA- and triplex NA-specific RT-qPCRs to differentiate the porcine subtypes H1, H3, N1 and N2. Within the HA subtype H1, lineages "av" (European avian-derived), "hu" (European human-derived) and "pdm" (human pandemic A/H1N1, 2009) are distinguished by RT-qPCRs, and within the NA subtype N1, lineage "pdm" is differentiated. An RT-PCR amplicon Sanger sequencing method of small fragments of the HA and NA genes is also proposed to safeguard against failure of multiplex RT-qPCR subtyping. These new multiplex RT-qPCR assays provide adequate tools for sustained SIV monitoring programmes in Europe. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The clinical prognostic value of molecular intrinsic tumor subtypes in older breast cancer patients: A FOCUS study analysis.

    PubMed

    Engels, Charla C; Kiderlen, Mandy; Bastiaannet, Esther; Mooyaart, Antien L; van Vlierberghe, Ronald; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Kuppen, Peter J K; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Liefers, G J

    2016-04-01

    It was recently proposed that the molecular breast tumor subtypes are differently distributed in the elderly breast cancer patients, and also lack prognostic value. Given the limited number of elderly patients in previous studies, the aim of this study was to determine the prognostic effect of the molecular intrinsic subtypes in a large older breast cancer population. Older breast cancer patients with invasive, non-metastatic breast cancer with tumor material available for immunohistochemical determination of Ki67, EGFR, CK5/6 and HER-2 were included. ER and PR expression was retrieved from the pathology report. Molecular subtypes were: Luminal A, Luminal B, ERBB2, Basal-like and Unclassified. Primary endpoint was Relapse Free Period (RFP), taking into account the competing risk of mortality, and adjusted for the most important patient, tumor and treatment characteristics. Secondary endpoint was Relative Survival (RS). Overall, 1362 patients were included. Patients with a Luminal A subtype had the lowest risk of recurrence (11% at 5 yrs). Patients with a Basal (24% at 5yrs) or ERBB2 (34% at 5yrs) molecular breast tumor subtype had the highest risk of recurrence. The ERBB2 subtype had the worst prognosis in terms of RFP (SHR 2.07, 95% CI 1.35-3.20; p = 0.001). The worst RS was again observed for the ERBB2 subtype (48% at 10 yrs). In multivariable analyses, the relative excess risk of death for all molecular subtypes was significantly worse compared to the Luminal A subtype. Molecular intrinsic breast tumor subtypes have significant prognostic value in the elderly population, even after taking competing mortality into account. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Limbic encephalitis associated with anti-NH2-terminal of α-enolase antibodies: A clinical subtype of Hashimoto encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Kishitani, Toru; Matsunaga, Akiko; Ikawa, Masamichi; Hayashi, Kouji; Yamamura, Osamu; Hamano, Tadanori; Watanabe, Osamu; Tanaka, Keiko; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Yoneda, Makoto

    2017-03-01

    Several types of autoantibodies have been reported in autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE), such as antibodies against the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex including leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1). We recently reported a patient with autoimmune LE and serum anti-NH2-terminal of α-enolase (NAE) antibodies, a specific diagnostic marker for Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE), who was diagnosed with HE based on the presence of antithyroid antibodies and responsiveness to immunotherapy. This case suggests that LE patients with antibodies to both the thyroid and NAE could be diagnosed with HE and respond to immunotherapy. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinicoimmunological features and efficacy of immunotherapy in LE associated with anti-NAE antibodies to determine whether the LE is a clinical subtype of HE.We examined serum anti-NAE antibodies in 78 LE patients with limbic abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging and suspected HE based on positivity for antithyroid antibodies. Nineteen of the 78 patients had anti-NAE antibodies; however, 5 were excluded because they were double positive for antibodies to the VGKC complex including LGI1. No antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), contactin-associated protein 2 (Caspr2), γ-aminobutyric acid-B receptor (GABABR), or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) were detected in the 19 patients. Among the remaining 14 who were positive only for anti-NAE antibodies, the median age was 62.5 (20-83) years, 9 (64%) were women, and 8 (57%) showed acute onset, with less than 2 weeks between onset and admission. Consciousness disturbance (71%) and memory disturbance (64%) were frequently observed, followed by psychiatric symptoms (50%) and seizures (43%). The frequency of these symptoms significantly differed between the acute- and subacute-onset groups. Abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid and electroencephalogram were commonly observed (92% for both

  9. Self-Esteem and Dimensions of Clinically Relevant Behavior Among Ten Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Philip; Pearman, William A.

    Although self-concept has been linked with many behavioral variables, most studies do not deal with dependent variables which would provide an understanding of such clinically relevant behaviors as sociability, aggression, activity level, somatization, inhibition, and sleep disturbance. The relationship between self-esteem and clinically relevant…

  10. Self-Esteem and Dimensions of Clinically Relevant Behavior Among Ten Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Philip; Pearman, William A.

    Although self-concept has been linked with many behavioral variables, most studies do not deal with dependent variables which would provide an understanding of such clinically relevant behaviors as sociability, aggression, activity level, somatization, inhibition, and sleep disturbance. The relationship between self-esteem and clinically relevant…

  11. Treatment failure and drug resistance is more frequent in HIV-1 subtype D versus subtype A-infected Ugandans over a 10-year study period

    PubMed Central

    Kyeyune, Fred; Nankya, Immaculate; Metha, Samar; Akao, Juliet; Ndashimye, Emmanuel; Tebit, Denis M.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Kityo, Cissy; Salata, Robert A.; Mugyenyi, Peter; Arts, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the impact of HIV-1 subtype on treatment outcomes and the emergence of drug resistance in the resource limited setting of Kampala, Uganda. Design The Joint Clinical Research Centre (JCRC) in Kampala, Uganda has provided over 2000 drug-resistant genotypes (DRGs) over the past 10 years as standard of care for patients failing therapy and 1403 from treatment-naive and experienced patients over the past 10 years have been analyzed for this study. Method Viral loads, CD4 cell count, treatment histories and other relevant clinical data was compared with the infecting HIV-1 subtype and DRGs of Ugandan patients failing treatment. Results Patients failing HAART with DRGs (n = 937) were more frequently infected with subtype D than expected on the basis of the subtype distribution in the treatment-naive population (n = 655) in Kampala (P < 0.001). Higher proportions of treatment failures among subtype D-infected patients were driven by resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) (P < 0.0002) more than to non-NRTIs (P > 0.04) or protease inhibitors. Conclusion Higher rates of treatment failure among subtype D as compared with subtype A-infected Ugandans was analogous to the faster disease progression in subtype D-infected patients. The mechanism(s) by which drug resistance may emerge faster in subtype D HIV-1 may relate to higher replicative fitness and increased propensity for a CXCR4 tropism. PMID:23727942

  12. The Effects of Clinically Relevant Multiple-Choice Items on the Statistical Discrimination of Physician Clinical Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Steven M.; Maatsch, Jack L.

    To test the effect of clinically relevant multiple-choice item content on the validity of statistical discriminations of physicians' clinical competence, data were collected from a field test of the Emergency Medicine Examination, test items for the certification of specialists in emergency medicine. Two 91-item multiple-choice subscales were…

  13. Estrogen Receptors Alpha (ERα) and Beta (ERβ): Subtype-Selective Ligands and Clinical Potential

    PubMed Central

    Paterni, Ilaria; Granchi, Carlotta; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Minutolo, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) are nuclear transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of many complex physiological processes in humans. Modulation of these receptors by prospective therapeutic agents is currently being considered for prevention and treatment of a wide variety of pathological conditions, such as, cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and osteoporosis. This review provides an overview and update of compounds that have been recently reported as modulators of ERs, with a particular focus on their potential clinical applications. PMID:24971815

  14. A computational method for clinically relevant cancer stratification and driver mutation module discovery using personal genomics profiles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Li, Fuhai; Sheng, Jianting; Wong, Stephen T C

    2015-01-01

    Personalized genomics instability, e.g., somatic mutations, is believed to contribute to the heterogeneous drug responses in patient cohorts. However, it is difficult to discover personalized driver mutations that are predictive of drug sensitivity owing to diverse and complex mutations of individual patients. To circumvent this problem, a novel computational method is presented to discover potential drug sensitivity relevant cancer subtypes and identify driver mutation modules of individual subtypes by coupling differentially expressed genes (DEGs) based subtyping analysis with the driver mutation network analysis. The proposed method was applied to breast cancer and lung cancer samples available from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Cancer subtypes were uncovered with significantly different survival rates, and more interestingly, distinct driver mutation modules were also discovered among different subtypes, indicating the potential mechanism of heterogeneous drug sensitivity. The research findings can be used to help guide the repurposing of known drugs and their combinations in order to target these dysfunctional modules and their downstream signaling effectively for achieving personalized or precision medicine treatment.

  15. Differentiated expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes in experimental models and clinical neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Georgantzi, Kleopatra; Tsolakis, Apostolos V; Stridsberg, Mats; Jakobson, Ake; Christofferson, Rolf; Janson, Eva Tiensuu

    2011-04-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a solid tumor of childhood originating from the adrenal medulla or sympathetic nervous system. Somatostatin (SS) is an important regulator of neural and neuroendocrine function, its actions being mediated through five specific membrane receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the different somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in NB tumor cells that may form targets for future therapeutic development. Tumor specimens from 11 children with stage II-IV disease were collected before and/or after chemotherapy. Experimental tumors derived from five human NB cell lines were grown subcutaneously in nude mice. Expression of SSRTs, the neuroendocrine marker chromogranin A (CgA) and SS was detected by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies. SSTR2 was detected in 90%, SSTR5 in 79%, SSTR1 in 74%, SSTR3 in 68% whereas SSTR4 was expressed in 21% of the clinical tumors. The experimental tumors expressed SSTRs in a high but variable frequency. All clinical tumors showed immunoreactivity for CgA but not for SS. The frequent expression of SSTRs indicates that treatment with unlabeled or radiolabeled SS analogs should be further explored in NB. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Seizures and epilepsy in elderly patients of an urban area of Iran: clinical manifestation, differential diagnosis, etiology, and epilepsy subtypes.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Sayed Shahaboddin; Delbari, Ahmad; Salman-Roghani, Reza; Shahgholi, Leili; Fadayevatan, Reza; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Lokk, Johan

    2013-08-01

    The incidences of seizures and epilepsy in the population show a peak after 60 years of age. Due to the lack of reported clinical aspects of seizure and epilepsy in the older patients in our region in Iran, this study was conducted to describe the clinical manifestation, etiology, differential diagnosis, and epilepsy subtypes of epilepsy and seizure. A cross-sectional retrospective study was performed on all consecutively elderly seizure and epilepsy patients, referred to the Epilepsy Association in the city of Qom, Iran over a 10-year period. A total of 466 patients aged >60 years were admitted. 31 % of the patients had epilepsy or seizure and 69 % of them had non-epileptic events. The most prevalent differential diagnoses in the beginning were syncope and cardiovascular disorders. The most frequent clinical symptom of epilepsy was generalized tonic-clonic seizures (75 %). The most common cause of seizure was systemic metabolic disorder (27 %). In epileptic elderly patients, no cause was ascertained for 38 % and the most frequently observed pathological factors were cerebrovascular diseases, which accounted for 24 %. The most common type of epileptic seizure was generalized epileptic seizures (75 %). 10 % of elderly epileptic patients suffered from status epilepticus, which was primarily caused by anoxia. Despite the rising rate and potentially profound physical and psychosocial effects of seizures and epilepsy, these disorders have received surprisingly little research focus and attention in Iran. Referring older patients to a specialist or a specialist epilepsy center allows speedy assessment, appropriate investigation and treatment, and less likely to miss the diagnosis.

  17. A Bayesian semiparametric factor analysis model for subtype identification.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiehuan; Warren, Joshua L; Zhao, Hongyu

    2017-04-25

    Disease subtype identification (clustering) is an important problem in biomedical research. Gene expression profiles are commonly utilized to infer disease subtypes, which often lead to biologically meaningful insights into disease. Despite many successes, existing clustering methods may not perform well when genes are highly correlated and many uninformative genes are included for clustering due to the high dimensionality. In this article, we introduce a novel subtype identification method in the Bayesian setting based on gene expression profiles. This method, called BCSub, adopts an innovative semiparametric Bayesian factor analysis model to reduce the dimension of the data to a few factor scores for clustering. Specifically, the factor scores are assumed to follow the Dirichlet process mixture model in order to induce clustering. Through extensive simulation studies, we show that BCSub has improved performance over commonly used clustering methods. When applied to two gene expression datasets, our model is able to identify subtypes that are clinically more relevant than those identified from the existing methods.

  18. Contact allergy to colophony. Clinical and experimental studies with emphasis on clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Färm, G

    1998-01-01

    Colophony--also called rosin--is a material obtained from coniferous trees. It is used widely in many products, particularly because of its good tackifying properties. Colophony is also used in paper sizing to increase water resistance. Colophony may cause contact allergy, and around 5% of Swedish dermatitis patients show allergic reactions to colophony at patch testing. There are many case reports of colophony in different products causing contact dermatitis. Often, however, the clinical relevance of a positive patch-test reaction to colophony is difficult to evaluate. The principal aims of the present thesis were to study the prevalence of contact allergy to colophony and of skin disease in individuals with an occupational exposure to colophony; to study the prognosis of dermatitis in colophony-sensitive subjects, and to investigate the outcome of repeated open applications of colophony, thereby trying to elucidate the clinical relevance of contact allergy to colophony. Employees of a tall-oil rosin (colophony) factory (n = 180), and of an opera company where colophony was used in dancers' rosin, mascara and wig glues (n = 132), were interviewed, examined and patch tested. 3.9% and 2% of these two groups respectively had a positive patch test to colophony. More than every fourth participant showed some kind of skin disease, but only few cases were related to work. Eighty-three patients with previously diagnosed contact allergy to colophony were followed-up 72% showed a positive patch-test reaction to colophony at re-testing. Around one third had hand eczema. There was no significant correlation between colophony exposure and current hand eczema. Adhesive bandages containing colophony and zinc oxide (ZnO), colophony and mixes of colophony and ZnO, were tested in 7 colophony-sensitive subjects to see whether addition of zinc oxide inhibited elicitation of allergic dermatitis to colophony, which has been proposed. No difference in reactivity between colophony and

  19. Indication of metronomic chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: Clinical outcomes and responsive subtypes

    PubMed Central

    KONTANI, KEIICHI; HASHIMOTO, SHIN-ICHIRO; MURAZAWA, CHISA; NORIMURA, SHOKO; TANAKA, HIROAKI; OHTANI, MASAHIRO; FUJIWARA-HONJO, NAOMI; DATE, MANABU; TERAMOTO, KOJI; HOUCHI, HITOSHI; YOKOMISE, HIROYASU

    2016-01-01

    The survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) has not improved, despite recent advances in therapeutic strategies. This is mainly due to the fact that cytotoxic agents cannot be administered over a long period, even if they exhibit favorable activity, due to treatment-related side effects or acquisition of tumor resistance to the administered agents. Thus, the development of therapeutic strategies that may be used over a long time period is required to improve survival. We assessed the availability and clinical outcomes of metronomic chemotherapy, which is defined as continuous or frequent treatment with low doses of cytotoxic drugs. A total of 80 patients with MBC received chemotherapy in the metastatic setting, and the clinicopathological factors and clinical outcomes were retrospectively compared between 52 patients who received metronomic regimens and 28 patients who received other cytotoxic regimens. As regards clinical outcomes, the median time-to-treatment failure (TTF) and overall survival (OS) were significantly longer in the metronomic group compared with those in the non-metronomic group (TTF, 15 vs. 4 months, P=0.0001; and OS, 53 vs. 28 months P=0.0012, respectively). In the metronomic group, none of the 18 patients who responded to the regimen had triple-negative (TN) cancer (17 had luminal-type tumors and 1 had a human epidermal factor receptor 2-type tumor). Furthermore, TTF and OS were significantly longer in patients with non-TN cancer compared with those in patients with TN cancer in the metronomic group (TTF, 16 vs. 7 months, P=0.0014; and OS, 108 vs. 20 months, P=0.000007, respectively). The proportion of patients who experienced treatment-related adverse events was significantly lower in the metronomic group compared with that in the non-metronomic group (36.5 vs. 61.5%, respectively; P=0.038). In conclusion, metronomic chemotherapy is a viable option for luminal-type MBC in terms of effectiveness and minimal toxicity, regardless

  20. Pretreatment HIV Drug Resistance and HIV-1 Subtype C Are Independently Associated With Virologic Failure: Results From the Multinational PEARLS (ACTG A5175) Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Rami; Smeaton, Laura; Vardhanabhuti, Saran; Hudelson, Sarah E; Wallis, Carol L; Tripathy, Srikanth; Morgado, Mariza G; Saravanan, Shanmugham; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Reitsma, Marissa; Hart, Stephen; Mellors, John W; Halvas, Elias; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Kumwenda, Johnstone; La Rosa, Alberto; Lalloo, Umesh G; Lama, Javier R; Rassool, Mohammed; Santos, Breno R; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Hakim, James; Flanigan, Timothy; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Campbell, Thomas B; Eshleman, Susan H

    2015-05-15

    Evaluation of pretreatment HIV genotyping is needed globally to guide treatment programs. We examined the association of pretreatment (baseline) drug resistance and subtype with virologic failure in a multinational, randomized clinical trial that evaluated 3 antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens and included resource-limited setting sites. Pol genotyping was performed in a nested case-cohort study including 270 randomly sampled participants (subcohort), and 218 additional participants failing ART (case group). Failure was defined as confirmed viral load (VL) >1000 copies/mL. Cox proportional hazards models estimated resistance-failure association. In the representative subcohort (261/270 participants with genotypes; 44% women; median age, 35 years; median CD4 cell count, 151 cells/µL; median VL, 5.0 log10 copies/mL; 58% non-B subtypes), baseline resistance occurred in 4.2%, evenly distributed among treatment arms and subtypes. In the subcohort and case groups combined (466/488 participants with genotypes), used to examine the association between resistance and treatment failure, baseline resistance occurred in 7.1% (9.4% with failure, 4.3% without). Baseline resistance was significantly associated with shorter time to virologic failure (hazard ratio [HR], 2.03; P = .035), and after adjusting for sex, treatment arm, sex-treatment arm interaction, pretreatment CD4 cell count, baseline VL, and subtype, was still independently associated (HR, 2.1; P = .05). Compared with subtype B, subtype C infection was associated with higher failure risk (HR, 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.35), whereas non-B/C subtype infection was associated with longer time to failure (HR, 0.47; 95% CI, .22-.98). In this global clinical trial, pretreatment resistance and HIV-1 subtype were independently associated with virologic failure. Pretreatment genotyping should be considered whenever feasible. NCT00084136. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  1. Latent class analysis of a series of 717 patients with vitiligo allows the identification of two clinical subtypes.

    PubMed

    Ezzedine, Khaled; Le Thuaut, Aurélie; Jouary, Thomas; Ballanger, Fabienne; Taieb, Alain; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Non-segmental vitiligo (NSV) is an enigmatic disease with various clinical courses. To empirically identify underlying subtypes of NSV, we performed latent class analysis (LCA) of 717 consecutive patients with NSV seen between 2006 and 2012 and were analyzed. Median age was 32 yrs (14-45), median age at NSV onset was 18 yrs (8-32), and median NSV duration 5 yrs (0.75-78.5). A two-class model showed the best fit. Of the 717 patients, 280 (39%) belonged to LC1 and 437 (61%) to LC2. LC1 patients had high probabilities for early disease onset (<12 yrs), halo nevi, family history of premature hair greying, Koebner phenomenon, previous episodes of repigmentation, and family history of vitiligo. By contrast, LC2 patients were characterized by a late disease onset (after or at the age of 12 yrs, median age of 30 yrs) and acrofacial localization without any lesions on trunk or limbs. These two LCA classes (LC1, 'prepubertal onset'; LC2, 'post-pubertal onset') may help refining results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and allow a more accurate genotype-phenotype correlation and help defining more directed treatment protocols. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. JAK2 or CALR mutation status defines subtypes of essential thrombocythemia with substantially different clinical course and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rumi, Elisa; Pietra, Daniela; Ferretti, Virginia; Klampfl, Thorsten; Harutyunyan, Ashot S; Milosevic, Jelena D; Them, Nicole C C; Berg, Tiina; Elena, Chiara; Casetti, Ilaria C; Milanesi, Chiara; Sant'antonio, Emanuela; Bellini, Marta; Fugazza, Elena; Renna, Maria C; Boveri, Emanuela; Astori, Cesare; Pascutto, Cristiana; Kralovics, Robert; Cazzola, Mario

    2014-03-06

    Patients with essential thrombocythemia may carry JAK2 (V617F), an MPL substitution, or a calreticulin gene (CALR) mutation. We studied biologic and clinical features of essential thrombocythemia according to JAK2 or CALR mutation status and in relation to those of polycythemia vera. The mutant allele burden was lower in JAK2-mutated than in CALR-mutated essential thrombocythemia. Patients with JAK2 (V617F) were older, had a higher hemoglobin level and white blood cell count, and lower platelet count and serum erythropoietin than those with CALR mutation. Hematologic parameters of patients with JAK2-mutated essential thrombocythemia or polycythemia vera were related to the mutant allele burden. While no polycythemic transformation was observed in CALR-mutated patients, the cumulative risk was 29% at 15 years in those with JAK2-mutated essential thrombocythemia. There was no significant difference in myelofibrotic transformation between the 2 subtypes of essential thrombocythemia. Patients with JAK2-mutated essential thrombocythemia and those with polycythemia vera had a similar risk of thrombosis, which was twice that of patients with the CALR mutation. These observations are consistent with the notion that JAK2-mutated essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera represent different phenotypes of a single myeloproliferative neoplasm, whereas CALR-mutated essential thrombocythemia is a distinct disease entity.

  3. JAK2 or CALR mutation status defines subtypes of essential thrombocythemia with substantially different clinical course and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rumi, Elisa; Pietra, Daniela; Ferretti, Virginia; Klampfl, Thorsten; Harutyunyan, Ashot S.; Milosevic, Jelena D.; Them, Nicole C. C.; Berg, Tiina; Elena, Chiara; Casetti, Ilaria C.; Milanesi, Chiara; Sant’Antonio, Emanuela; Bellini, Marta; Fugazza, Elena; Renna, Maria C.; Boveri, Emanuela; Astori, Cesare; Pascutto, Cristiana; Kralovics, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Patients with essential thrombocythemia may carry JAK2 (V617F), an MPL substitution, or a calreticulin gene (CALR) mutation. We studied biologic and clinical features of essential thrombocythemia according to JAK2 or CALR mutation status and in relation to those of polycythemia vera. The mutant allele burden was lower in JAK2-mutated than in CALR-mutated essential thrombocythemia. Patients with JAK2 (V617F) were older, had a higher hemoglobin level and white blood cell count, and lower platelet count and serum erythropoietin than those with CALR mutation. Hematologic parameters of patients with JAK2-mutated essential thrombocythemia or polycythemia vera were related to the mutant allele burden. While no polycythemic transformation was observed in CALR-mutated patients, the cumulative risk was 29% at 15 years in those with JAK2-mutated essential thrombocythemia. There was no significant difference in myelofibrotic transformation between the 2 subtypes of essential thrombocythemia. Patients with JAK2-mutated essential thrombocythemia and those with polycythemia vera had a similar risk of thrombosis, which was twice that of patients with the CALR mutation. These observations are consistent with the notion that JAK2-mutated essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera represent different phenotypes of a single myeloproliferative neoplasm, whereas CALR-mutated essential thrombocythemia is a distinct disease entity. PMID:24366362

  4. Utility of CSP typing to sub-type clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates and proposal for a new CSP type nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Corné H W; de Valk, Hanneke A; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Meis, Jacques F G M

    2009-06-01

    CSP typing is a newly developed sub-typing strategy that employs comparative DNA sequence analysis of the 12-mer tandem repeat region of the AFUA_3G08890 gene. In order to allow standardization of analysis and exchange of results between laboratories, we propose a new nomenclature for individual CSP repeats as well as for CSP types. A collection of 209 clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus recovered from various hospitals throughout The Netherlands was analyzed by using CSP typing and this newly proposed nomenclature. Eighteen different CSP types were recognized, positioning the CSP gene as a typing target between the relatively low discriminatory MLST loci and the highly discriminatory microsatellite markers. CSP typing may be a welcome addition to the existing molecular methods to study the diversity of A. fumigatus at the sub-population level. The results also show the presence of lineages of closely related CSP types within the A. fumigatus population, adding unique and valuable information about the population structure of A. fumigatus.

  5. The Common p.R114W HNF4A Mutation Causes a Distinct Clinical Subtype of Monogenic Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Laver, Thomas W; Colclough, Kevin; Shepherd, Maggie; Patel, Kashyap; Houghton, Jayne A L; Dusatkova, Petra; Pruhova, Stepanka; Morris, Andrew D; Palmer, Colin N; McCarthy, Mark I; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew T; Weedon, Michael N

    2016-10-01

    HNF4A mutations cause increased birth weight, transient neonatal hypoglycemia, and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). The most frequently reported HNF4A mutation is p.R114W (previously p.R127W), but functional studies have shown inconsistent results; there is a lack of cosegregation in some pedigrees and an unexpectedly high frequency in public variant databases. We confirm that p.R114W is a pathogenic mutation with an odds ratio of 30.4 (95% CI 9.79-125, P = 2 × 10(-21)) for diabetes in our MODY cohort compared with control subjects. p.R114W heterozygotes did not have the increased birth weight of patients with other HNF4A mutations (3,476 g vs. 4,147 g, P = 0.0004), and fewer patients responded to sulfonylurea treatment (48% vs. 73%, P = 0.038). p.R114W has reduced penetrance; only 54% of heterozygotes developed diabetes by age 30 years compared with 71% for other HNF4A mutations. We redefine p.R114W as a pathogenic mutation that causes a distinct clinical subtype of HNF4A MODY with reduced penetrance, reduced sensitivity to sulfonylurea treatment, and no effect on birth weight. This has implications for diabetes treatment, management of pregnancy, and predictive testing of at-risk relatives. The increasing availability of large-scale sequence data is likely to reveal similar examples of rare, low-penetrance MODY mutations.

  6. Do HIV-1 non-B subtypes differentially impact resistance mutations and clinical disease progression in treated populations? Evidence from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Madhavi; Cajas, Jorge Martinez; Wainberg, Mark A; Klein, Marina B; Pant Pai, Nitika

    2014-01-01

    There are 31 million adults living with HIV-1 non-B subtypes globally, and about 10 million are on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Global evidence to guide clinical practice on ART response in HIV-1 non-B subtypes remains limited. We systematically searched 11 databases for the period 1996 to 2013 for evidence. Outcomes documented included time to development of AIDS and/or death, resistance mutations, opportunistic infections, and changes in CD4 cell counts and viral load. A lack of consistent reporting of all clinical end points precluded a meta-analysis. In sum, genetic diversity that precipitated differences in disease progression in ART-naïve populations was minimized in ART-experienced populations, although variability in resistance mutations persisted across non-B subtypes. To improve the quality of patient care in global settings, recording HIV genotypes at baseline and at virologic failure with targeted non-B subtype-based point-of-care resistance assays and timely phasing out of resistance-inducing ART regimens is recommended.

  7. Clinical subtypes of bipolar mixed states: validating a broader European definition in 143 cases.

    PubMed

    Perugi, G; Akiskal, H S; Micheli, C; Musetti, L; Paiano, A; Quilici, C; Rossi, L; Cassano, G B

    1997-05-01

    To validate and clinically characterize mixed bipolar states derived from the concepts of Kraepelin and the Vienna School and defined as sustained instability of affective manifestations of opposite polarity--that usually fluctuate independently of one another--in the setting of marked emotional perplexity. Our criteria for mixed states represent a modified "user-friendly" operationalization of these classical concepts. We compared 143 mixed state patients, so defined, with 118 DSM III-R manic patients, systematically evaluated with the Semistructured Interview for Depression (SID) in our in-patient and day-hospital facilities. The two groups were comparable from demographic and familial standpoints (including family history for bipolar disorder). Mixed states were predominant in the past history of index mixed patients who were more likely to have experienced stressors and to have attempted suicide; manic and hypomanic episodes were more common in the past history of the index manic patients who, in addition, had more episodes and hospitalizations. Although rates of chronicity and rapid cycling were not significantly different in the two groups, the modal episodes in the mixed states were 3-6 months, and in mania they were less than 3 months. Two thirds of both groups arose from a dysregulated baseline temperamental dysregulation, which in manics, was largely hyperthymic, and in mixed patients, was both hyperthymic and depressive. Of our 143 mixed states, only 54% met the DSM III-R criteria for mixed states (which conformed to "dysphoric mixed mania"); of the remaining, 17.5% could be described as "mixed agitated psychotic depressive states" with irritable mood and flight of ideas, and 26% as "unproductive-inhibited manic" with fatigue and indecisiveness. The family history and course of these "non-DSM III-R" mixed states were essentially similar to DSM III-R mixed states. Family history could not be obtained blind to clinical status in patients with severe

  8. [Stroke in young adults: incidence and clinical picture in 280 patients according to their aetiological subtype].

    PubMed

    Arboix, Adrià; Massons, Joan; García-Eroles, Luís; Oliveres, Montserrat

    2016-03-04

    To assess the clinical features and incidence rate of stroke in young adults (less than 55 years of age). Hospital-based descriptive study of 280 young inpatients consecutively admitted for stroke over a period of 24 years. We conducted a comparison with the remaining 4,312 patients admitted for stroke. Stroke in young adults represented 6.1% of all strokes, 5.7% of transient ischaemic attacks, 5.8% of cerebral infarctions and 8.4% of brain haemorrhages. However, reported minimal frequency of cardioembolic (2.1%) and atherothrombotic (3.4%) infarctions, accounted for 5.9% of lacunar and for 10.7% of essential infarctions and showed a maximum frequency in those infarctions of unusual aetiology (36%). Factors independently associated with stroke in young adults were cigarette smoking (OR 4.23; 95% CI 3.02-5.93; P=.000), unusual aetiology (OR 4.97; 95% CI 3.15-7.84; P=.000), headache (OR 4.57; 95% CI 2.59-8.07; P=.000), alcohol abuse (OR 3.93; 95% CI 2.46-6.29; P=.000), oral contraceptives (OR 14.07; 95% CI 2.37-83.40; P=.004), atrial fibrillation (OR 0.15; 95% CI 0.08-0.28; P=.000), arterial hypertension (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.33-0.57; P=.000), COPD (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.09-0.44; P=.000), atherothrombotic infarction (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.34-0.77; P=.001), female sex (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.52-0.97; P=.029), diabetes mellitus (OR 0.66; 95% CI 0.46-0.98; P=.030), ischaemic heart disease (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.33-0.95; P=.032) and intermittent claudication (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.24-0.94; P=.033). Stroke in young adults is infrequent (6.1% of the total), but represents the highest frequency of cerebral infarcts of unusual aetiology (36%). We conclude that stroke in younger patients presents its own and differentiated clinical profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Tract based spatial statistics in multiple system atrophy: a comparison between clinical subtypes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Li; Zhu, Donglin; Xiao, Chaoyong; Shi, Jingping

    2014-10-01

    Using a novel method of tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), this study aimed to investigate micro-structural white matter similarities and differences between the two MSA variants. Diffusion tensor image data were acquired from 10 MSA-P, 15 MSA-C patients and 15 controls. Using TBSS, we performed pairwise comparison by examining the fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) maps of the white matter tract. Clusters showing diffusivity abnormalities were used as region of interests for correlation analysis. Both in MSA-C and MSA-P, we detected significantly decreased FA values in bilateral corticospinal tract (CST) and right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), increased RD values in bilateral CST, which correlated significantly with clinical severity. Direct comparison of two variants showed higher AD values of superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) in MSA-P than in MSA-C. These findings indicate that patients with MSA-C and MSA-P share similar diffusivity abnormalities in the bilateral CST and right ATR. Higher AD values of SLF in MSA-P than in MSA-C might be a reason for faster functional deterioration in MSA-P than in MSA-C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Early onset recurrent subtype of adolescent depression: clinical and psychosocial correlates.

    PubMed

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Herr, Nathaniel R

    2008-04-01

    Evaluated trajectories of adolescent depression and their correlates in a longitudinal study of a community sample: early onset (by age 15) with major depression (MDE) recurrence between 15 and 20; early onset with no recurrence; later onset of major depression after age 15 with and without recurrence by 20; and never-depressed. Eight-hundred sixteen youth were studied at age 15, and 699 were included at age 20, with diagnostic evaluations and assessments of functioning in major roles. Youth with early onset and recurrent MDE differed from both those with early onset but nonrecurrent MDE and those with later onset-no recurrence in terms of clinical features, adolescent social functioning, and later psychosocial adjustment. The early onset recurrent depressed youth had more severe, chronic, suicidal depressions, greater anxiety comorbidity, worse social functioning at 15, and poorer psychosocial, especially social, outcomes at 20. Youth with depression by 15 with recurrence by age 20 may represent a high-risk group, with likely life-course-persistent depression and maladjustment. Community youth whose early depression does not recur by age 20, or who have onset with no recurrence after age 15, may have more benign and possibly limited depressions. Later onset with recurrence is also a group at risk for dysfunctional outcomes, requiring further follow-up.

  11. Prognosis of metastatic breast cancer subtypes: the hormone receptor/HER2-positive subtype is associated with the most favorable outcome.

    PubMed

    Lobbezoo, Dorien J A; van Kampen, Roel J W; Voogd, Adri C; Dercksen, M Wouter; van den Berkmortel, Franchette; Smilde, Tineke J; van de Wouw, Agnes J; Peters, Frank P J; van Riel, Johanna M G H; Peters, Natascha A J B; de Boer, Maaike; Borm, George F; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G

    2013-10-01

    Contrary to the situation in early breast cancer, little is known about the prognostic relevance of the hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in metastatic breast cancer. The objectives of this study were to present survival estimates and to determine the prognostic impact of breast cancer subtypes based on HR and HER2 status in a recent cohort of metastatic breast cancer patients, which is representative of current clinical practice. Patients diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer between 2007 and 2009 were included. Information regarding patient and tumor characteristics and treatment was collected. Patients were categorized in four subtypes based on the HR and HER2 status of the primary tumor: HR positive (+)/HER2 negative (-), HR+/HER2+, HR-/HER2+ and triple negative (TN). Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the prognostic impact of breast cancer subtype, adjusted for possible confounders. Median follow-up was 21.8 months for the 815 metastatic breast cancer patients included; 66 % of patients had the HR+/HER2- subtype, 8 % the HR-/HER2+ subtype, 15 % the TN subtype and 11 % the HR+/HER2+ subtype. The longest survival was observed for the HR+/HER2+ subtype (median 34.4 months), compared to 24.8 months for the HR+/HER2- subtype, 19.8 months for the HR-/HER2+ subtype and 8.8 months for the TN subtype (P < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, subtype was an independent prognostic factor, as were initial site of metastases and metastatic-free interval. The HR+/HER2+ subtype was associated with the longest survival after diagnosis of distant metastases.

  12. Clinically relevant heterotopic ossification after elbow fracture surgery: a risk factors study.

    PubMed

    Hong, C C; Nashi, N; Hey, H W; Chee, Y H; Murphy, D

    2015-04-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a common complication of elbow fracture surgery that can significantly impair function and range of motion (ROM). Whereas numerous studies have assessed HO after hip trauma or replacement surgery, few data have been reported on the prevalence and risk factors of HO after elbow fractures. Our objective was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of clinically relevant HO after elbow fracture surgery under the hypothesis that the ability to identify high-risk patients would improve treatment tailoring and assist in meeting patient expectations. We retrospectively included consecutive patients who had surgery for elbow injuries between January 2007 and December 2011. Patient demographics, operative details, and radiographs were reviewed. Of 124 elbows in 122 patients, 38 (30.6%) had HO and 26 (21%) clinically relevant HO. The prevalence of clinically relevant HO was highest in floating elbow injury, followed by combined olecranon and radial head fractures, types A and B distal humerus fractures, and terrible triad injury. By multiple logistic regression, factors that independently predicted clinically relevant HO were fracture-dislocation (OR, 4.87; 95%CI, 1.78-13.29; P=0.002) and longer time to surgery (P<0.05). Of the 26 patients with clinically relevant HO, 6 (23%) eventually required revision elbow surgery to improve ROM. HO of the elbow occurred in almost one-third of our patients with surgically treated elbow fractures. Fracture-dislocation of the elbow and longer time to surgery independently predicted HO responsible for ROM loss. Clinically relevant HO was associated with significant morbidity. Level IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: reporting clinically relevant features.

    PubMed

    Del Chiaro, Marco; Verbeke, Caroline

    2016-11-22

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas can exhibit a wide spectrum of macroscopic and microscopic appearances. This not only causes occasional difficulties for the reporting pathologist in distinguishing these tumours from other lesions, but is also relevant clinically. As evidence accumulates, it becomes clear that multiple macroscopic and histological features of these neoplasms are relevant to the risk for malignant transformation and, consequently, of prime importance for clinical patient management. The need for detailed reporting is therefore increasing. This review discusses the panoply of gross and microscopic features of IPMN as well as the recommendations from recent consensus meetings regarding the pathology reporting on this tumour entity.

  14. Prevalence and clinical outcomes of young breast cancer (YBC) patients according to intrinsic breast cancer subtypes: Single institutional experience in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeon Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Jung, Hyun Ae; Kim, Sung Min; Kim, Moon Jin; Kil, Won Ho; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Ahn, Jin Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate and identify comprehensively the clinicopathological features and long-term outcome of young breast cancer (YBC) according to intrinsic subtype. We analyzed clinical and pathological characteristics of 2844 women who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from 2000 to 2007 and the treatment outcomes by age at diagnosis. The median age of the patients was 46 years (range, 21-83 years), and we divided them into three age group: ≤35 years (Group 1), 36-50 years (Group 2), and >50 years (Group 3). During a median follow-up of 100 months, the 5-year recurrence-free survival rate (RFSR) and overall survival rate (OSR) were 90.8% and 94.6%, respectively. The 10-year estimated RFSR and OSR were 81.9% and 86.9%, respectively. The prognosis of TN subtype appeared not to be worse than that of other subtypes in Group 1. In Group 1 alone (≤35 years), subtype was not identified as an independent risk factor for distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS) in a Cox-regression multivariate model (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.68-1.06; p = 0.148). This analysis revealed a very high prevalence of YBC in this cohort. The poor outcomes of YBC patients might result from an increased frequency of triple negative (TN)/HER2 subtypes and the more aggressive clinical behavior of ER-positive tumors compared with older patients. Further research to elucidate the biologic difference of the ER+ tumors of YBC patients is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinically relevant transmitted drug resistance to first line antiretroviral drugs and implications for recommendations.

    PubMed

    Monge, Susana; Guillot, Vicente; Alvarez, Marta; Chueca, Natalia; Stella, Natalia; Peña, Alejandro; Delgado, Rafael; Córdoba, Juan; Aguilera, Antonio; Vidal, Carmen; García, Federico

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to analyse trends in clinically relevant resistance to first-line antiretroviral drugs in Spain, applying the Stanford algorithm, and to compare these results with reported Transmitted Drug Resistance (TDR) defined by the 2009 update of the WHO SDRM list. We analysed 2781 sequences from ARV naive patients of the CoRIS cohort (Spain) between 2007-2011. Using the Stanford algorithm "Low-level resistance", "Intermediate resistance" and "High-level resistance" categories were considered as "Resistant". 70% of the TDR found using the WHO list were relevant for first-line treatment according to the Stanford algorithm. A total of 188 patients showed clinically relevant resistance to first-line ARVs [6.8% (95%Confidence Interval: 5.8-7.7)], and 221 harbored TDR using the WHO list [7.9% (6.9-9.0)]. Differences were due to a lower prevalence in clinically relevant resistance for NRTIs [2.3% (1.8-2.9) vs. 3.6% (2.9-4.3) by the WHO list] and PIs [0.8% (0.4-1.1) vs. 1.7% (1.2-2.2)], while it was higher for NNRTIs [4.6% (3.8-5.3) vs. 3.7% (3.0-4.7)]. While TDR remained stable throughout the study period, clinically relevant resistance to first line drugs showed a significant trend to a decline (p = 0.02). Prevalence of clinically relevant resistance to first line ARVs in Spain is decreasing, and lower than the one expected looking at TDR using the WHO list. Resistance to first-line PIs falls below 1%, so the recommendation of screening for TDR in the protease gene should be questioned in our setting. Cost-effectiveness studies need to be carried out to inform evidence-based recommendations.

  16. Metabolite profiling stratifies pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas into subtypes with distinct sensitivities to metabolic inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Daemen, Anneleen; Peterson, David; Sahu, Nisebita; McCord, Ron; Du, Xiangnan; Liu, Bonnie; Kowanetz, Katarzyna; Hong, Rebecca; Moffat, John; Gao, Min; Boudreau, Aaron; Mroue, Rana; Corson, Laura; O’Brien, Thomas; Qing, Jing; Sampath, Deepak; Merchant, Mark; Yauch, Robert; Manning, Gerard; Settleman, Jeffrey; Hatzivassiliou, Georgia; Evangelista, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Although targeting cancer metabolism is a promising therapeutic strategy, clinical success will depend on an accurate diagnostic identification of tumor subtypes with specific metabolic requirements. Through broad metabolite profiling, we successfully identified three highly distinct metabolic subtypes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). One subtype was defined by reduced proliferative capacity, whereas the other two subtypes (glycolytic and lipogenic) showed distinct metabolite levels associated with glycolysis, lipogenesis, and redox pathways, confirmed at the transcriptional level. The glycolytic and lipogenic subtypes showed striking differences in glucose and glutamine utilization, as well as mitochondrial function, and corresponded to differences in cell sensitivity to inhibitors of glycolysis, glutamine metabolism, lipid synthesis, and redox balance. In PDAC clinical samples, the lipogenic subtype associated with the epithelial (classical) subtype, whereas the glycolytic subtype strongly associated with the mesenchymal (QM-PDA) subtype, suggesting functional relevance in disease progression. Pharmacogenomic screening of an additional ∼200 non-PDAC cell lines validated the association between mesenchymal status and metabolic drug response in other tumor indications. Our findings highlight the utility of broad metabolite profiling to predict sensitivity of tumors to a variety of metabolic inhibitors. PMID:26216984

  17. Review: development of clinically relevant scaffolds for vascularised bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuchun; Lim, Jing; Teoh, Swee-Hin

    2013-01-01

    Clinical translation of scaffold-based bone tissue engineering (BTE) therapy still faces many challenges despite intense investigations and advancement over the years. To address these clinical barriers, it is important to analyse the current technical challenges in constructing a clinically relevant scaffold and subsequent clinical issues relating to bone repair. This review highlights the key challenges hampering widespread clinical translation of scaffold-based vascularised BTE, with a focus on the repair of large non-union defects. The main limitations of current scaffolds include the lack of sufficient vascularisation, insufficient mechanical strength as well as issues relating to the osseointegration of the bioresorbable scaffold and bone infection management. Critical insights on the current trends of scaffold technologies and future directions for advancing next-generation BTE scaffolds into the clinical realm are discussed. Considerations concerning regulatory approval and the route towards commercialisation of the scaffolds for widespread clinical utility will also be introduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. How relevant is undergraduate medical law teaching to clinical practice? A graduates' perspective.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Nicole; McMenamin, Christine

    2012-12-01

    The Monash University medical law tutorial program was implemented in 2002. A major aim of this program is to enable medical students to recognise and understand their legal obligations in clinical practice, thereby improving clinical standards and contributing to better patient outcomes. The present study examined whether, from a graduate perspective, the medical law tutorial program provides adequate legal information of relevance for a clinical context. Monash University medical graduates from 2007 to 2009 who were working at a Victorian hospital or who were members of the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners were invited to participate in the study. Fifty-six participants completed the survey. Overall, participants had positive perceptions of the medical law program. The medical law program is an essential component of students' medical education and provides information relevant to future clinical practice.

  19. Use of Microelectronic Array Technology for Rapid Identification of Clinically Relevant Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Novarese, Linda; Posteraro, Brunella; Ranno, Stefania; De Carolis, Elena; Pecorini, Giovanni; Lucignano, Barbara; Ardito, Fausta; Fadda, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    We developed a new method based on the Nanochip microelectronic array technology for identification of various clinically relevant mycobacterial species. PCR-amplified rRNA genes obtained from 270 positive Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube cultures were successfully tested by hybridizing them with species-selective probes, and the results agreed with those of conventional identification methods. The system is rapid and accurate and opens new perspectives in clinical diagnostics. PMID:16333127

  20. Use of microelectronic array technology for rapid identification of clinically relevant mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Novarese, Linda; Posteraro, Brunella; Ranno, Stefania; De Carolis, Elena; Pecorini, Giovanni; Lucignano, Barbara; Ardito, Fausta; Fadda, Giovanni

    2005-12-01

    We developed a new method based on the Nanochip microelectronic array technology for identification of various clinically relevant mycobacterial species. PCR-amplified rRNA genes obtained from 270 positive Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube cultures were successfully tested by hybridizing them with species-selective probes, and the results agreed with those of conventional identification methods. The system is rapid and accurate and opens new perspectives in clinical diagnostics.

  1. Five-year Prognosis after Mild to Moderate Ischemic Stroke by Stroke Subtype: A Multi-Clinic Registry Study

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yumei; Fang, Xianghua; Asmaro, Karam; Liu, Hongjun; Zhang, Xinqing; Zhang, Hongmei; Qin, Xiaoming; Ji, Xunming

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mild to moderate ischemic stroke is a common presentation in the outpatient setting. Among the various subtypes of stroke, lacunar infarction (LI) is generally very common. Currently, little is known about the long-term prognosis and factors associated with the prognosis between LI and non-LI. This study aims to compare the risk of death and acute cardiovascular events between patients with LI and non-LI, and identify potential risk factors associated with these outcomes. Methods A total of 710 first-ever ischemic stroke patients (LI: 474, non-LI: 263) from 18 clinics were recruited consecutively from 2003 to 2004. They were prospectively followed-up until the end of 2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results After a 5-year follow up, 54 deaths and 96 acute cardiovascular events occurred. Recurrent stroke was the most common cause of death (19 cases, 35.18%) and new acute cardiovascular events (75 cases, 78.13%). There were no significant differences between patients with LI and non-LI in their risks of death, new cardiovascular events, and recurrent stroke after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, cardiac diseases, body mass index, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol consumption, ADL dependence, and depressive symptoms. Among the modifiable risk factors, diabetes, hypertension, ADL dependency, and symptoms of depression were independent predictors of poor outcomes in patients with LI. In non-LI patients, however, no modifiable risk factors were detected for poor outcomes. Conclusion Long-term outcomes did not differ significantly between LI and non-LI patients. Detecting and managing vascular risk factors and depression as well as functional rehabilitation may improve the prognoses of LI patients. PMID:24223696

  2. Clinically Relevant Changes in Emotional Expression in Children with ADHD Treated with Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katic, Alain; Ginsberg, Lawrence; Jain, Rakesh; Adeyi, Ben; Dirks, Bryan; Babcock, Thomas; Scheckner, Brian; Richards, Cynthia; Lasser, Robert; Turgay, Atilla; Findling, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe clinically relevant effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on emotional expression (EE) in children with ADHD. Method: Children with ADHD participated in a 7-week, open-label, LDX dose-optimization study. Expression and Emotion Scale for Children (EESC) change scores were analyzed post hoc using two methods to…

  3. A Bridge between Two Cultures: Uncovering the Chemistry Concepts Relevant to the Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.; Henry, Melissa L. M.; Barbera, Jack; Hyslop, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the undergraduate course that covers basic topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry at a mid-sized state university in the western United States. The central objective of the research was to identify the main topics of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was…

  4. Preterm piglets are a clinically relevant model of pediatric GI disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of our research is to establish how nutritional support, enteral versus parenteral, affects gut function and susceptibility to disease in early development. We and others have used the neonatal pig to establish unique models of clinically relevant problems in pediatric gastroenterology, esp...

  5. Interaction of human serum albumin and its clinically relevant modification with oligoribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Gerasimova, Yuliya V; Erchenko, Irina A; Shakirov, Makhmut M; Godovikova, Tatyana S

    2008-08-15

    Human serum albumin (HSA) was shown to mediate oligoribonucleotide cleavage. Nonenzymatic glycation of HSA decreased the ribonuclease-like activity of the protein. According to (31)P NMR data, both native and glycated albumins induced hydrolysis of RNA molecule through 2',3'-cyclophosphate intermediates. A feasible mechanism of RNA hydrolysis by native albumin and its clinically relevant modification was discussed.

  6. A Bridge between Two Cultures: Uncovering the Chemistry Concepts Relevant to the Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.; Henry, Melissa L. M.; Barbera, Jack; Hyslop, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the undergraduate course that covers basic topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry at a mid-sized state university in the western United States. The central objective of the research was to identify the main topics of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was…

  7. There's an App for That? Highlighting the Difficulty in Finding Clinically Relevant Smartphone Applications.

    PubMed

    Wiechmann, Warren; Kwan, Daniel; Bokarius, Andrew; Toohey, Shannon L

    2016-03-01

    The use of personal mobile devices in the medical field has grown quickly, and a large proportion of physicians use their mobile devices as an immediate resource for clinical decision-making, prescription information and other medical information. The iTunes App Store (Apple, Inc.) contains approximately 20,000 apps in its "Medical" category, providing a robust repository of resources for clinicians; however, this represents only 2% of the entire App Store. The App Store does not have strict criteria for identifying content specific to practicing physicians, making the identification of clinically relevant content difficult. The objective of this study is to quantify the characteristics of existing medical applications in the iTunes App Store that could be used by emergency physicians, residents, or medical students. We found applications related to emergency medicine (EM) by searching the iTunes App Store for 21 terms representing core content areas of EM, such as "emergency medicine," "critical care," "orthopedics," and "procedures." Two physicians independently reviewed descriptions of these applications in the App Store and categorized each as the following: Clinically Relevant, Book/Published Source, Non-English, Study Tools, or Not Relevant. A third physician reviewer resolved disagreements about categorization. Descriptive statistics were calculated. We found a total of 7,699 apps from the 21 search terms, of which 17.8% were clinical, 9.6% were based on a book or published source, 1.6% were non-English, 0.7% were clinically relevant patient education resources, and 4.8% were study tools. Most significantly, 64.9% were considered not relevant to medical professionals. Clinically relevant apps make up approximately 6.9% of the App Store's "Medical" Category and 0.1% of the overall App Store. Clinically relevant apps represent only a small percentage (6.9%) of the total App volume within the Medical section of the App Store. Without a structured search

  8. There’s an App for That? Highlighting the Difficulty in Finding Clinically Relevant Smartphone Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wiechmann, Warren; Kwan, Daniel; Bokarius, Andrew; Toohey, Shannon L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of personal mobile devices in the medical field has grown quickly, and a large proportion of physicians use their mobile devices as an immediate resource for clinical decision-making, prescription information and other medical information. The iTunes App Store (Apple, Inc.) contains approximately 20,000 apps in its “Medical” category, providing a robust repository of resources for clinicians; however, this represents only 2% of the entire App Store. The App Store does not have strict criteria for identifying content specific to practicing physicians, making the identification of clinically relevant content difficult. The objective of this study is to quantify the characteristics of existing medical applications in the iTunes App Store that could be used by emergency physicians, residents, or medical students. Methods We found applications related to emergency medicine (EM) by searching the iTunes App Store for 21 terms representing core content areas of EM, such as “emergency medicine,” “critical care,” “orthopedics,” and “procedures.” Two physicians independently reviewed descriptions of these applications in the App Store and categorized each as the following: Clinically Relevant, Book/Published Source, Non-English, Study Tools, or Not Relevant. A third physician reviewer resolved disagreements about categorization. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results We found a total of 7,699 apps from the 21 search terms, of which 17.8% were clinical, 9.6% were based on a book or published source, 1.6% were non-English, 0.7% were clinically relevant patient education resources, and 4.8% were study tools. Most significantly, 64.9% were considered not relevant to medical professionals. Clinically relevant apps make up approximately 6.9% of the App Store’s “Medical” Category and 0.1% of the overall App Store. Conclusion Clinically relevant apps represent only a small percentage (6.9%) of the total App volume within the

  9. Clinically meaningful tumor reduction rates vary by prechemotherapy MRI phenotype and tumor subtype in the I-SPY 1 TRIAL (CALGB 150007/150012; ACRIN 6657).

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, Rita A; Yau, Christina; Rosen, Mark; Tandon, Vickram J; Hylton, Nola; Esserman, Laura J

    2013-11-01

    This study was designed to determine (1) rates of clinically meaningful tumor reduction in breast tumor size following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), (2) which receptor subtypes and MRI phenotypes are associated with clinically meaningful tumor reduction, and (3) whether MRI phenotype impacts concordance between pathologic and MRI size. We analyzed data from the I-SPY TRIAL, a multicenter, prospective NAC trial. Reduction in tumor size from >4 to ≤4 cm was considered clinically meaningful, as crossing this threshold was considered a reasonable cutoff for potential breast conservation therapy (BCT). MRI phenotypes were scored between one (well-defined) and five (diffuse) on pre-NAC MRIs. Of 174 patients with tumors >4 cm, 141 (81%) had clinically meaningful tumor reduction. Response to therapy varied by MRI phenotype (p = 0.003), with well-defined phenotypes more likely than diffuse phenotypes to have clinically meaningful tumor shrinkage (91 vs. 72%, p = 0.037). Her2+ and triple-negative (Tneg) tumors had the highest rate of clinically meaningful tumor reduction (p = 0.005). The concordance between tumor diameter on MRI and surgical pathology was highest for Her2+ and Tneg tumors, especially among tumors with solid imaging phenotypes (p = 0.004). NAC allows most patients with large breast tumors to have clinically meaningful tumor reduction, meaning response that would impact ability to undergo BCT. However, response varies by imaging and tumor subtypes. Concordance between tumor size on MRI and surgical pathology was higher in well-defined tumors, especially those with a Tneg subtype, and lower in HR+ diffuse tumors.

  10. Clinical Overestimation of HER2 Positivity in Early Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer and the Value of Molecular Subtyping Using BluePrint.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Ettienne J; Langenhoven, Lizanne; Grant, Kathleen A; van der Merwe, Lize; Kotze, Maritha J

    2017-08-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity is an important prognostic and predictive indicator in breast cancer. HER2 status is determined by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), which are potentially inaccurate techniques as a result of several technical factors, polysomy of chromosome 17, and amplification or overexpression of CEP17 (centromeric probe for chromosome 17) and/or HER2. In South Africa, HER2-positive tumors are excluded from a MammaPrint (MP; Agendia BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands) pretest algorithm. Clinical HER2 status has been reported to correlate poorly with molecular subtype. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of clinical HER2 status with BluePrint (BP) molecular subtyping. Clinico-pathologic and genomic information was extracted from a prospectively collected central MP database containing records of 256 estrogen receptor-positive and/or progesterone receptor-positive tumors. Twenty-one tumors considered HER2 positive on immunohistochemistry or FISH were identified for this study. The median age of patients was 56 years (range, 34 to 77 years), with a median tumor size of 16 mm (3 to 27 mm). Four (19%) tumors were confirmed HER2-enriched subtype, six (29%) were luminal A, and 11 (52%) were luminal B. The positive predictive values of HER2/CEP17 ratio ≥ 2 and HER2 copy number ≥ 6 were only 29% and 40%, respectively. The differences in means for HER2/CEP17 ratio were significant between BP HER2-enriched versus luminal (P = .0249; 95% CI, 0.12 to 1.21) and MP high-risk versus low-risk tumors (P = .0002; 95% CI, 0.40 to 1.06). Of the 21 tumors considered clinically HER2 positive, only four were HER2-enriched subtype with BP, indicating an overestimation of HER2 positivity. FISH testing has a poor positive predictive value.

  11. The clinical utility of the proposed DSM-5 callous-unemotional subtype of conduct disorder in young girls.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Dustin; Stepp, Stephanie; Hipwell, Alison; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A callous-unemotional (CU) subtype of conduct disorder (CD) has been proposed as an addition to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This study tested the hypothesis that young girls with the CU subtype of CD would exhibit more severe antisocial behavior and less severe internalizing problems over time relative to girls with CD alone. Second, the developmental outcomes of girls with CU traits in the absence of CD was examined because these girls would be overlooked by the proposed CU subtyping scheme. Theses issues were examined in a community sample of 1,862 girls 6 to 8 years of age at study onset. Outcomes included internalizing and externalizing problems, academic achievement, and global impairment assessed concurrently and at a 6-year follow-up. Girls with the CU subtype of CD had higher levels of externalizing disorder symptoms, bullying, relational aggression, and global impairment than girls with CD alone. Girls with CD alone tended to have more anxiety problems than girls with the CU subtype of CD. Girls with high CU traits without CD exhibited higher ODD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and lower academic achievement at the 6-year follow-up relative to girls without CU traits and CD. Group differences at the 6-year follow-up were primarily accounted for by baseline differences on the outcomes. The proposed DSM-5 CU subtype of CD identifies young girls who exhibit lower anxiety problems and more severe aggression, CD symptoms, academic problems and global impairment across time than girls with CD alone. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A software system to collect expert relevance ratings of medical record items for specific clinical tasks.

    PubMed

    Harvey, H Benjamin; Krishnaraj, Arun; Alkasab, Tarik K

    2014-02-28

    Development of task-specific electronic medical record (EMR) searches and user interfaces has the potential to improve the efficiency and safety of health care while curbing rising costs. The development of such tools must be data-driven and guided by a strong understanding of practitioner information requirements with respect to specific clinical tasks or scenarios. To acquire this important data, this paper describes a model by which expert practitioners are leveraged to identify which components of the medical record are most relevant to a specific clinical task. We also describe the computer system that was created to efficiently implement this model of data gathering. The system extracts medical record data from the EMR of patients matching a given clinical scenario, de-identifies the data, breaks the data up into separate medical record items (eg, radiology reports, operative notes, laboratory results, etc), presents each individual medical record item to experts under the hypothetical of the given clinical scenario, and records the experts' ratings regarding the relevance of each medical record item to that specific clinical scenario or task. After an iterative process of data collection, these expert relevance ratings can then be pooled and used to design point-of-care EMR searches and user interfaces tailored to the task-specific needs of practitioners.

  13. Predicting clinical relevance of grapefruit-drug interactions: a complicated process.

    PubMed

    Bailey, D G

    2017-04-01

    Grapefruit juice interacts with a number of drugs. This commentary provides feedback on a previously proposed approach for predicting clinically relevant interactions with grapefruit juice based on the average inherent oral bioavailability (F) and magnitude of increase in bioavailability with other CYP3A inhibitors of the drug. Additional factors such as variability of the magnitude of the pharmacokinetic interaction among individuals, product monograph cautionary statements and vulnerability of the patient population should be considered. A flow diagram is provided that should improve prediction of the pharmacokinetic interaction and clinical relevance for affected drugs and that recommends different courses of action for patient management. Forecasting the clinical importance of a particular drug interaction with grapefruit can be improved through consideration of additional readily available drug regulatory information. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Influence of hyaluronic acid on bacterial and fungal species, including clinically relevant opportunistic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ardizzoni, Andrea; Neglia, Rachele G; Baschieri, Maria C; Cermelli, Claudio; Caratozzolo, Manuela; Righi, Elena; Palmieri, Beniamino; Blasi, Elisabetta

    2011-10-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) has several clinical applications (aesthetic surgery, dermatology, orthopaedics and ophtalmology). Following recent evidence, suggesting antimicrobial and antiviral properties for HA, we investigated its effects on 15 ATCC strains, representative of clinically relevant bacterial and fungal species. The in vitro system employed allowed to assess optical density of broth cultures as a measure of microbial load in a time-dependent manner. The results showed that different microbial species and, sometimes, different strains belonging to the same species, are differently affected by HA. In particular, staphylococci, enterococci, Streptococcus mutans, two Escherichia coli strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida glabrata and C. parapsilosis displayed a HA dose-dependent growth inhibition; no HA effects were detected in E. coli ATCC 13768 and C. albicans; S. sanguinis was favoured by the highest HA dose. Therefore, the influence of HA on bacteria and fungi warrants further studies aimed at better establishing its relevance in clinical applications.

  15. Music's relevance for children with cancer: music therapists' qualitative clinical data-mining research.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Dun, Beth; Baron, Annette; Barry, Philippa

    2013-01-01

    Music is central in most children's lives. Understanding its relevance will advance efficacious pediatric supportive cancer care. Qualitative clinical data-mining uncovered four music therapists' perspectives about music and music therapy's relevance for pediatric oncology patients up to 14 years old. Inductive and comparative thematic analysis was performed on focus group transcripts and qualitative interrater reliability integrated. Music can offer children a safe haven for internalizing a healthy self-image alongside patient identity. Music therapy can calm, relieve distress, promote supportive relationships, enable self-care, and inspire playful creativity, associated with "normalcy" and hope. Preferred music and music therapy should be available in pediatric oncology.

  16. Polymicrobial infections involving clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Dhamgaye, Sanjiveeni; Qu, Yue; Peleg, Anton Y

    2016-12-01

    Interactions between fungi and bacteria and their relevance to human health and disease have recently attracted increased attention in biomedical fields. Emerging evidence shows that bacteria and fungi can have synergistic or antagonistic interactions, each with important implications for human colonization and disease. It is now appreciated that some of these interactions may be strategic and helps promote the survival of one or both microorganisms within the host. This review will shed light on clinically relevant interactions between fungi and Gram-negative bacteria. Mechanism of interaction, host immune responses, and preventive measures will also be reviewed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evidence, Mechanism, and Clinical Relevance of the Transdifferentiation from Lung Adenocarcinoma to Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shenda; Zhou, Shiyu; Qin, Zhen; Yang, Liu; Han, Xiangkun; Yao, Shun; Ji, Hongbin

    2017-03-08

    Lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are two distinct subtypes of non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Interestingly, approximately 4% to 9% of human non-small-cell lung carcinoma tumors contain mixed adenomatous and squamous pathologies in a single lesion, clinically termed adenosquamous cell carcinoma. More important, these two different pathological components frequently share identical oncogenic mutations, indicative of a potential transition. Indeed, recent data have provided convincing evidence in supporting the ADC to SCC transdifferentiation in lungs. In the liver kinase B1 (official name STK11)-deficient mouse model, lung ADC can progressively transdifferentiate to SCC through pathologically mixed adenosquamous cell carcinoma as the intermediate status. Mechanistic studies further identify essential roles of extracellular matrix remodeling and metabolic reprogramming during this phenotypic transition. Small molecular compounds, including lysyl oxidase inhibitors and reactive oxygen species-inducing reagents such as phenformin, significantly accelerate the transition from lung ADC to SCC and thus confer lung tumors with drug resistance. Consistent with these findings, recent clinical studies have shown that epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant lung ADC can transdifferentiate to SCC in relapsed cancer patients. Together, these data support that this phenotypic transition from lung ADC to SCC might represent a novel mechanism for drug resistance. This review will summarize our current understanding of the transdifferentiation from lung ADC to SCC.

  18. Identification of sepsis subtypes in critically ill adults using gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Maslove, David M; Tang, Benjamin M; McLean, Anthony S

    2012-10-04

    Sepsis is a syndromic illness that has traditionally been defined by a set of broad, highly sensitive clinical parameters. As a result, numerous distinct pathophysiologic states may meet diagnostic criteria for sepsis, leading to syndrome heterogeneity. The existence of biologically distinct sepsis subtypes may in part explain the lack of actionable evidence from clinical trials of sepsis therapies. We used microarray-based gene expression data from adult patients with sepsis in order to identify molecularly distinct sepsis subtypes. We used partitioning around medoids (PAM) and hierarchical clustering of gene expression profiles from neutrophils taken from a cohort of septic patients in order to identify distinct subtypes. Using the medoids learned from this cohort, we then clustered a second independent cohort of septic patients, and used the resulting class labels to evaluate differences in clinical parameters, as well as the expression of relevant pharmacogenes. We identified two sepsis subtypes based on gene expression patterns. Subtype 1 was characterized by increased expression of genes involved in inflammatory and Toll receptor mediated signaling pathways, as well as a higher prevalence of severe sepsis. There were differences between subtypes in the expression of pharmacogenes related to hydrocortisone, vasopressin, norepinephrine, and drotrecogin alpha. Sepsis subtypes can be identified based on different gene expression patterns. These patterns may generate hypotheses about the underlying pathophysiology of sepsis and suggest new ways of classifying septic patients both in clinical practice, and in the design of clinical trials.

  19. Clinical analysis of 670 cases in two trials of the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Cooperative Group subtyped according to the Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms: a comparison with the Working Formulation.

    PubMed

    Pittaluga, S; Bijnens, L; Teodorovic, I; Hagenbeek, A; Meerwaldt, J H; Somers, R; Thomas, J; Noordijk, E M; De Wolf-Peeters, C

    1996-05-15

    In the Working Formulation (WF), non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are grouped according to their clinical behavior. These disorders are listed as entities defined by morphology, phenotype, and cytogenetics in the proposed Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL), the clinical relevance of which is still debated. We analyzed 670 NHL cases included in two randomized clinical trials (EORTC 20855 WF-intermediate/high-grade and 20856 WF-low-grade malignancy) with histologic material available for review. Based on hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, 77% of cases could be subtyped. Immunophenotyping was considered to be mandatory only in diagnosing T-cell lymphoma and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Of 522 cases subtyped, 11% were mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 5% were marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL), 46% were follicle center lymphoma, and 32% were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Statistical analysis and comparisons between classifications were made only within each trial and treatment group. MCL and MZBCL were characterized by a shorter median survival (3.4 and 4.1 years, respectively) in comparison with low- and intermediate-grade WF groups (> 9.3 and 5.8 years, respectively). In terms of progression-free survival, MCL showed a behavior similar to the low-grade group, with frequent relapses. Follicle center cell lymphomas behaved as low-grade lymphomas as defined by the WF and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas as the WF-intermediate grade group. Because several NHL entities have a clinical behavior of their own, their recognition by the REAL classification offers clinicians additional information that is not obtained when the WF is used.

  20. Acute effects of outdoor air pollution on emergency department visits due to five clinical subtypes of coronary heart diseases in shanghai, china.

    PubMed

    Xie, Juan; He, Mingzhen; Zhu, Weiying

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution can be a contributing cause to the development and exacerbation of coronary heart disease (CHD), but there is little knowledge about the acute effects of air pollution on different clinical subtypes of CHD. We conducted a time-series study to investigate the association of air pollution (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm [PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) on emergency department (ED) visits due to five different subtypes of CHD in Shanghai, China, from 2010 to 2012. We applied an over-dispersed Poisson generalized addictive model to analyze the associations after controlling for the seasonality, day of the week, and weather conditions. We identified a total of 47 523 ED visits for CHD. A 10-µg/m(3) increase in the present-day concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 was associated with respective increases of 1.10% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33%-1.87%), 0.90% (95% CI -0.14%-1.93%), and 1.44% (95% CI 0.63%-2.26%) for total ED visits for CHD. These associations varied greatly by clinical type, with strong effects on sudden cardiac death, moderate effects on acute myocardial infarction and angina, weak effects on ischemic cardiomyopathy, and no effect on occult CHD. The associations were stronger among people aged 65 years or more than in younger individuals and in the cool season versus the warm one. Outdoor air pollution may have different effects of air pollution on 5 subtypes of CHD. Our results might be useful for the primary prevention of various subtypes of CHD exacerbated by air pollution.

  1. Contrasting breast cancer molecular subtypes across serial tumor progression stages: biological and prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Kimbung, Siker; Kovács, Anikó; Danielsson, Anna; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Lövgren, Kristina; Frostvik Stolt, Marianne; Tobin, Nicholas P; Lindström, Linda; Bergh, Jonas; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Fernö, Mårten; Hatschek, Thomas; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2015-10-20

    The relevance of the intrinsic subtypes for clinical management of metastatic breast cancer is not comprehensively established. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic significance of drifts in tumor molecular subtypes during breast cancer progression. A well-annotated cohort of 304 women with advanced breast cancer was studied. Tissue microarrays of primary tumors and synchronous lymph node metastases were constructed. Conventional biomarkers were centrally assessed and molecular subtypes were assigned following the 2013 St Gallen guidelines. Fine-needle aspirates of asynchronous metastases were transcriptionally profiled and subtyped using PAM50. Discordant expression of individual biomarkers and molecular subtypes was observed during tumor progression. Primary luminal-like tumors were relatively unstable, frequently adopting a more aggressive subtype in the metastases. Notably, loss of ER expression and a luminal to non-luminal subtype conversion was associated with an inferior post-recurrence survival. In addition, ER and molecular subtype assessed at all tumor progression stages were independent prognostic factors for post-recurrence breast cancer mortality in multivariable analyses. Our results demonstrate that drifts in tumor molecular subtypes may occur during tumor progression, conferring adverse consequences on outcome following breast cancer relapse.

  2. Contrasting breast cancer molecular subtypes across serial tumor progression stages: biological and prognostic implications

    PubMed Central

    Kimbung, Siker; Kovács, Anikó; Danielsson, Anna; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Lövgren, Kristina; Stolt, Marianne Frostvik; Tobin, Nicholas P.; Lindström, Linda; Bergh, Jonas; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Fernö, Mårten; Hatschek, Thomas; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the intrinsic subtypes for clinical management of metastatic breast cancer is not comprehensively established. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic significance of drifts in tumor molecular subtypes during breast cancer progression. A well-annotated cohort of 304 women with advanced breast cancer was studied. Tissue microarrays of primary tumors and synchronous lymph node metastases were constructed. Conventional biomarkers were centrally assessed and molecular subtypes were assigned following the 2013 St Gallen guidelines. Fine-needle aspirates of asynchronous metastases were transcriptionally profiled and subtyped using PAM50. Discordant expression of individual biomarkers and molecular subtypes was observed during tumor progression. Primary luminal-like tumors were relatively unstable, frequently adopting a more aggressive subtype in the metastases. Notably, loss of ER expression and a luminal to non-luminal subtype conversion was associated with an inferior post-recurrence survival. In addition, ER and molecular subtype assessed at all tumor progression stages were independent prognostic factors for post-recurrence breast cancer mortality in multivariable analyses. Our results demonstrate that drifts in tumor molecular subtypes may occur during tumor progression, conferring adverse consequences on outcome following breast cancer relapse. PMID:26375671

  3. Chorea as a clinical feature of the basophilic inclusion body disease subtype of fused-in-sarcoma-associated frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ito; Kobayashi, Zen; Arai, Tetsuaki; Yokota, Osamu; Nonaka, Takashi; Aoki, Naoya; Niizato, Kazuhiro; Oshima, Kenichi; Higashi, Shinji; Katsuse, Omi; Hosokawa, Masato; Hasegawa, Masato; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2016-04-04

    Choreoathetoid involuntary movements are rarely reported in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), suggesting their exclusion as a supportive feature in clinical diagnostic criteria for FTLD. Here, we identified three cases of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) that display chorea with fused in sarcoma (FUS)-positive inclusions (FTLD-FUS) and the basophilic inclusion body disease (BIBD) subtype. We determined the behavioral and cognitive features in this group that were distinct from other FTLD-FUS cases. We also reviewed the clinical records of 72 FTLD cases, and clarified additional clinical features that are predictive of the BIBD pathology. Symptom onset in the three patients with chorea was at 44.0 years of age (±12.0 years), and occurred in the absence of a family history of dementia. The cases were consistent with a clinical form of FTD known as bvFTD, as well as reduced neurological muscle tone in addition to chorea. The three patients showed no or mild parkinsonism, which by contrast, increased substantially in the other FTLD cases until a later stage of disease. The three patients exhibited severe caudate atrophy, which has previously been reported as a histological feature distinguishing FTLD-FUS from FTLD-tau or FTLD-TAR DNA-binding protein 43. Thus, our findings suggest that the clinical feature of choreoathetosis in bvFTD might be associated with FTLD-FUS, and in particular, with the BIBD subtype.

  4. A head and neck lymph node classification using an anatomical grid system while maintaining clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Brion; Barrett, Richard

    2011-10-01

    The current classification of head and neck lymph nodes lacks a standardized system that integrates basic anatomy and clinical relevance. Currently, anatomy texts, atlases, and journals used to educate future health care professionals use a classification system that differs from the commonly used clinical nomenclature. As a result, student trainees entering the professional world are confused by lymph node terminology. The purpose of this study was to suggest a lymph node classification system that accurately reflected anatomy and clinical applications. A literature search was conducted on anatomic and clinical texts, atlases, journals, and Web sites. Two recurring classification themes were found from anatomic texts and atlases: superficial and deep chains, and local anatomic structures. Since 1988 the clinical specialties have used a Roman numeral "level" system. The differences between anatomic and clinical classification systems have led to academic frustration. After analysis, a functional classification system was developed that integrated anatomic and clinical terminology from the current classification systems. This suggested system revised the clinically accepted level system approved in 1988 and replaced the terminology with an anatomically derived naming system. This system satisfies the need for a classification that unifies anatomic and clinical applications. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinically Relevant Transmitted Drug Resistance to First Line Antiretroviral Drugs and Implications for Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Monge, Susana; Guillot, Vicente; Alvarez, Marta; Chueca, Natalia; Stella, Natalia; Peña, Alejandro; Delgado, Rafael; Córdoba, Juan; Aguilera, Antonio; Vidal, Carmen; García, Federico; CoRIS

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim was to analyse trends in clinically relevant resistance to first-line antiretroviral drugs in Spain, applying the Stanford algorithm, and to compare these results with reported Transmitted Drug Resistance (TDR) defined by the 2009 update of the WHO SDRM list. Methods We analysed 2781 sequences from ARV naive patients of the CoRIS cohort (Spain) between 2007–2011. Using the Stanford algorithm “Low-level resistance”, “Intermediate resistance” and “High-level resistance” categories were considered as “Resistant”. Results 70% of the TDR found using the WHO list were relevant for first-line treatment according to the Stanford algorithm. A total of 188 patients showed clinically relevant resistance to first-line ARVs [6.8% (95%Confidence Interval: 5.8–7.7)], and 221 harbored TDR using the WHO list [7.9% (6.9–9.0)]. Differences were due to a lower prevalence in clinically relevant resistance for NRTIs [2.3% (1.8–2.9) vs. 3.6% (2.9–4.3) by the WHO list] and PIs [0.8% (0.4–1.1) vs. 1.7% (1.2–2.2)], while it was higher for NNRTIs [4.6% (3.8–5.3) vs. 3.7% (3.0–4.7)]. While TDR remained stable throughout the study period, clinically relevant resistance to first line drugs showed a significant trend to a decline (p = 0.02). Conclusions Prevalence of clinically relevant resistance to first line ARVs in Spain is decreasing, and lower than the one expected looking at TDR using the WHO list. Resistance to first-line PIs falls below 1%, so the recommendation of screening for TDR in the protease gene should be questioned in our setting. Cost-effectiveness studies need to be carried out to inform evidence-based recommendations. PMID:24637804

  6. Immunophenotypic and Clinical Differences Between the Nasal and Extranasal Subtypes of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qing-Feng; Wang, Wei-Hu; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Huang, Wen-Ting; Lu, Ning; Zhou, Li-Qiang; Ouyang, Han; Jin, Jing; Li, Ye-Xiong

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate, in a large cohort of patients, the immunophenotypic and clinical differences of nasal and extranasal extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT-NKTCL) and examine the relevance of the immunophenotype on the clinical behavior, prognosis, and treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 231 patients with UADT-NKTCL were recruited. One hundred eighty-one patients had primary location in the nasal cavity (nasal UADT-NKTCL), and 50 patients had primary extranasal UADT-NKTCL. Results: Patients with extranasal UADT-NKTCL had more adverse clinical features, including advanced-stage disease, regional lymph node involvement, B symptoms, and poor performance status, than patients with nasal UADT-NKTCL. In addition, CD56 and granzyme B were less frequently expressed in extranasal UADT-NKTCL. The 5-year overall survival rate was 74.1% for the entire group and 76.0% for early-stage disease. The 5-year overall survival rate for extranasal UADT-NKTCL was similar or superior to that of nasal UADT-NKTCL for all disease stages (76.9% vs 73.4%, P=.465), stage I disease (75.9% vs 79.2%, P=.786), and stage II disease (83.3% vs 50.3%, P=.018). CD56 expression and a Ki-67 proliferation rate ≥50% predicted poorer survival for extranasal UADT-NKTCL but not for nasal UADT-NKTCL. Conclusions: Patients with nasal and extranasal UADT-NKTCL have significantly different clinical features, immunophenotypes, and prognosis. Extranasal UADT-NKTCL should be considered as a distinct subgroup apart from the most commonly diagnosed prototype of nasal UADT-NKTCL.

  7. Opportunities for Cancer-relevant Innovative Technologies with Transformative Potential | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is seeking input from the community on identifying priorities with regards to supporting innovative technology development for cancer-relevant research. While the NCI provides support for technology development through a variety of mechanisms, it is important to understand whether or not these are sufficient for catalyzing and supporting the development of tools with significant potential for advancing important fields of cancer research or clinical care.

  8. Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and Their Clinical Relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Vriends, N.; Pfaltz, M. C.; Novianti, P.; Hadiyono, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taijin Kyofusho Scale (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated whether self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-construal is a mediator of the expected association between cultural background and social anxiety and TKS symptoms. Method: 311 Indonesian and 349 Swiss university students filled out the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Taijin Kyofusho Scale, the Self-Construal Scale, self-report social phobia DSM-IV criteria, and rated their wish for professional help to deal with social fears. Results: TKS and social anxiety symptoms were higher in the Indonesian than the Swiss sample. TKS symptoms were associated with clinical relevance in Indonesia, whereas in Switzerland only social anxiety symptoms were associated with clinical relevance. Independent self-construal was negatively associated and interdependent self-construal was positively associated with TKS and social anxiety symptoms. Interdependent self-construal mediated the association between cultural background and these symptoms. Discussion: TKS might be a clinically relevant syndrome in all individuals or cultures with an interdependent self-construal or less independent self-construal. The proposal to include the fear of offending others in the DSM-V criteria of social phobia is supported by the present findings. PMID:23382720

  9. Clinical relevance of cyclic GMP modulators: A translational success story of network pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Oettrich, J M; Dao, V T; Frijhoff, J; Kleikers, Pwm; Casas, A I; Hobbs, A J; Schmidt, H H H W

    2016-04-01

    Therapies that modulate cyclic guanosine-3'-5'-monophosphate (cGMP) have emerged as one of the most successful areas in recent drug discovery and clinical pharmacology. Historically, their focus has been on cardiovascular disease phenotypes; however, cGMP's relevance is likely to go beyond this rather limited organ-based set of indications. Moreover, the multitude of targets and their apparent interchangeability is a proof-of-concept of network pharmacology.

  10. Prevalence of Potential and Clinically Relevant Statin-Drug Interactions in Frail and Robust Older Inpatients.

    PubMed

    Thai, Michele; Hilmer, Sarah; Pearson, Sallie-Anne; Reeve, Emily; Gnjidic, Danijela

    2015-10-01

    A significant proportion of older people are prescribed statins and are also exposed to polypharmacy, placing them at increased risk of statin-drug interactions. To describe the prevalence rates of potential and clinically relevant statin-drug interactions in older inpatients according to frailty status. A cross-sectional study of patients aged ≥65 years who were prescribed a statin and were admitted to a teaching hospital between 30 July and 10 October 2014 in Sydney, Australia, was conducted. Data on socio-demographics, comorbidities and medications were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Potential statin-drug interactions were defined if listed in the Australian Medicines Handbook and three international drug information sources: the British National Formulary, Drug Interaction Facts and Drug-Reax(®). Clinically relevant statin-drug interactions were defined as interactions with the highest severity rating in at least two of the three international drug information sources. Frailty was assessed using the Reported Edmonton Frail Scale. A total of 180 participants were recruited (median age 78 years, interquartile range 14), 35.0% frail and 65.0% robust. Potential statin-drug interactions were identified in 10% of participants, 12.7% of frail participants and 8.5% of robust participants. Clinically relevant statin-drug interactions were identified in 7.8% of participants, 9.5% of frail participants and 6.8% of robust participants. Depending on the drug information source used, the prevalence rates of potential and clinically relevant statin-drug interactions ranged between 14.4 and 35.6% and between 14.4 and 20.6%, respectively. In our study of frail and robust older inpatients taking statins, the overall prevalence of potential statin-drug interactions was low and varied significantly according to the drug information source used.

  11. Evaluating immunologic response and clinical deterioration in treatment-naïve patients initiating first-line therapies infected with HIV-1 CRF01_AE and subtype B

    PubMed Central

    Oyomopito, Rebecca A.; Li, Patrick CK.; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Phanuphak, Praphan; Tee, Kok Keng; Sirisanthana, Thira; Kantipong, Pacharee; Oka, Shinichi; Lee, Chris KC.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Choi, Jun Yong; Sohn, Annette H.; Law, Matthew; Chen, Yi-Ming A.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-1 group M viruses diverge 25%–35% in envelope, important for viral attachment during infection, and 10–15% in the pol region, under selection pressure from common antiretrovirals. In Asia, subtypes B and CRF01_AE are common genotypes. Our objectives were to determine whether clinical, immunologic or virologic treatment responses differed by genotype in treatment-naïve patients initiating first-line therapy. Methods Prospectively collected, longitudinal data from patients in Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Japan, Taiwan and South Korea were provided for analysis. Covariates included demographics, hepatitis B and C coinfections, baseline CD4 T lymphocyte count and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. Clinical deterioration (a new diagnosis of CDC category B/AIDS-defining illness or death) was assessed by proportional hazards models. Surrogate endpoints were 12-month change in CD4 cell count and virologic suppression post-therapy, evaluated by linear and logistic regression, respectively. Results Of 1105 patients, 1036 (93.8%) infected with CRF01_AE or subtype B were eligible for inclusion in clinical deterioration analyses and contributed 1546.7 person-years of follow-up (median:413 days, IQR:169–672 days). Patients >40 years demonstrated smaller immunological increases (p=0.002) and higher risk of clinical deterioration (HR=2.17; p=0.008). Patients with baseline CD4 cell counts >200 cells/μL had lower risk of clinical deterioration (HR=0.373; p=0.003). A total of 532 patients (48.1% of eligible) had CD4 counts available at baseline and 12 months post-therapy for inclusion in immunolgic analyses. Patients infected with subtype B had larger increases in CD4 counts at 12 months (p=0.024). A total of 530 patients (48.0% of eligible) were included in virologic analyses with no differences in response found between genotypes. Conclusions Results suggest that patients infected with CRF01_AE have reduced immunologic response to therapy at 12 months, compared to

  12. Clinically Relevant Physical Benefits of Exercise Interventions in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Amy A; Bland, Kelcey A; Sayyari, Sarah; Campbell, Kristin L; Davis, Margot K

    2016-02-01

    Evidence is currently limited for the effect of exercise on breast cancer clinical outcomes. However, several of the reported physical benefits of exercise, including peak oxygen consumption, functional capacity, muscle strength and lean mass, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone health, have established associations with disability, cardiovascular disease risk, morbidity, and mortality. This review will summarize the clinically relevant physical benefits of exercise interventions in breast cancer survivors and discuss recommendations for achieving these benefits. It will also describe potential differences in intervention delivery that may impact outcomes and, lastly, describe current physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors.

  13. Minimal residual disease detection in mantle cell lymphoma: technical aspects and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Pott, Christiane

    2011-07-01

    The prognostic impact of minimal residual disease (MRD) has been demonstrated for several hematologic malignancies. While in acute lymphoblastic leukemias MRD assessment by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods has been established as an important tool for clinical risk assessment and is part of clinical management, data demonstrating a prognostic value of MRD in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) were sparse and results from randomized trials have been published only recently. In the present review technical aspects of different MRD detection methods are discussed, as well as the prognostic relevance of MRD in the context of clinical trials in patients with MCL. Furthermore, recommendations are given for workflow and useful implication of MRD in future clinical trials design.

  14. Clinical manipulation of mineral trioxide aggregate: lessons from the construction industry and their relevance to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ha, William N; Kahler, Bill; Walsh, Laurence J

    2015-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is based on ordinary Portland cement (with added radiopaque agents) and, thus, shares many of its features. Although MTA is reported to be difficult to handle clinically, concrete materials made using Portland cement are the foundation of the construction industry. In this paper, we summarize important lessons from the construction literature that are relevant to the successful use of MTA in clinical practice, including behaviour during storage, susceptibility to acidic environments, the effects of exposure of the setting material to moisture and interactions with substances that may interfere with the speed of setting and the quality of the end product.

  15. Cefoperazone-treated Mouse Model of Clinically-relevant Clostridium difficile Strain R20291

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Jenessa A.; Thanissery, Rajani; Montgomery, Stephanie A.; Theriot, Casey M.

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming enteric pathogen that is associated with increasing morbidity and mortality and consequently poses an urgent threat to public health. Recurrence of a C. difficile infection (CDI) after successful treatment with antibiotics is high, occurring in 20–30% of patients, thus necessitating the discovery of novel therapeutics against this pathogen. Current animal models of CDI result in high mortality rates and thus do not approximate the chronic, insidious disease manifestations seen in humans with CDI. To evaluate therapeutics against C. difficile, a mouse model approximating human disease utilizing a clinically-relevant strain is needed. This protocol outlines the cefoperazone mouse model of CDI using a clinically-relevant and genetically-tractable strain, R20291. Techniques for clinical disease monitoring, C. difficile bacterial enumeration, toxin cytotoxicity, and histopathological changes throughout CDI in a mouse model are detailed in the protocol. Compared to other mouse models of CDI, this model is not uniformly lethal at the dose administered, allowing for the observation of a prolonged clinical course of infection concordant with the human disease. Therefore, this cefoperazone mouse model of CDI proves a valuable experimental platform to assess the effects of novel therapeutics on the amelioration of clinical disease and on the restoration of colonization resistance against C. difficile. PMID:28060346

  16. Interference of cationic polymeric nanoparticles with clinical chemistry tests--clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Shcharbina, Natallia; Milowska, Katarzyna; de la Mata, Francisco Javier; Muñoz-Fernandez, Maria Angeles; Mignani, Serge; Gomez-Ramirez, Rafael; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Bryszewska, Maria

    2014-10-01

    The development of medical nanosystems requires knowledge of their behavior in vivo. Clinical chemistry tests are widely used to estimate the systemic toxicity of nanoparticles. In this paper we have explored the impact of small positively charged nanoparticles-poly(amidoamine), phosphorous and carbosilane dendrimers - on biochemical parameters of standardized serum in vitro. All the dendrimers could shift the main biochemical parameters. Thus, in the case of patients having the normal, but 'boundary', values of biochemical parameters, nanoparticle-induced changes can be wrongly interpreted as evidence of some dysfunctions (hepatic, renal, etc.). Moreover, the effects of nanoparticles of metals, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, fullerenes, dendrimers having been sized up to 4000 nm and the hundreds of reactive groups, can be significantly higher. Thus, preliminary evaluation of any nanomaterial in vitro is required in clinical chemistry tests before its application in vivo to draw the correct conclusions and benefit animals.

  17. Using mixed methods to identify and answer clinically relevant research questions.

    PubMed

    Shneerson, Catherine L; Gale, Nicola K

    2015-06-01

    The need for mixed methods research in answering health care questions is becoming increasingly recognized because of the complexity of factors that affect health outcomes. In this article, we argue for the value of using a qualitatively driven mixed method approach for identifying and answering clinically relevant research questions. This argument is illustrated by findings from a study on the self-management practices of cancer survivors and the exploration of one particular clinically relevant finding about higher uptake of self-management in cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy treatment compared with those who have not. A cross-sectional study generated findings that formed the basis for the qualitative study, by informing the purposive sampling strategy and generating new qualitative research questions. Using a quantitative research component to supplement a qualitative study can enhance the generalizability and clinical relevance of the findings and produce detailed, contextualized, and rich answers to research questions that would be unachievable through quantitative or qualitative methods alone.

  18. Young individuals with atopic disease and asthma or rhinoconjunctivitis may have clinically relevant contact allergies.

    PubMed

    Netterlid, Eva; Hindsén, Monica; Ekqvist, Susanne; Henricson, Kent Ake; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents with atopic disease who have allergic asthma and/or rhinitis with and without atopic dermatitis may have hidden, clinically relevant contact allergies. The objective of this study was to survey contact allergies in children and adolescents who had been offered allergen-specific immunotherapy and accepted (exposed)/not accepted (unexposed) such treatment. Thirty-seven exposed and 24 unexposed individuals with atopic disease were patch tested with a standard series supplemented with aluminum chloride hexahydrate, an empty Finn Chamber, and 8 antigen preparations. In the exposed group, 18 allergies were detected in 13 individuals with atopic disease when excluding reactions to aluminum and antigen preparations, whereas the corresponding figures for the unexposed group were 9 and 6, respectively (non-significant difference). Independent of the allergen-specific immunotherapy, significantly more (P = 0.013) individuals with atopic dermatitis had at least 1 contact allergy. Clinically relevant allergies were represented by sesquiterpene lactone mix, para-tertiary butylphenol-formaldehyde resin, tixocortol pivalate, and colophony. Clinically relevant contact allergies are not uncommon in children and adolescents with atopic disease, which is why patch testing always should be considered in the management of dermatitis in individuals with atopic disease.

  19. [Clinical relevance of drug interactions between nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antihypertensives].

    PubMed

    Villa, Juan; Cano, Alejandra; Franco, David; Monsalve, Mauricio; Hincapié, Jaime; Amariles, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    To establish the clinical relevance of drug interactions between nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antihypertensives, based on the interaction severity and probability of occurrence. Systematic review. A PubMed/Medline search was made using the MeSH terms: NSAIDs, Antihypertensive drugs, and Drug interactions. Articles between 2002 and 2012, human studies, in Spanish and English and full text access were included. Found articles were included and some of the references used in this works. Studies with in vitro methods, effects on ocular hypertension and those who do not consider the interaction NSAIDs, antihypertensives were excluded. For the selection of the papers included three independent reviewers were involved. We used a tool for data extraction and for assess of the interaction clinical relevance. Nineteen of 50 papers found were included. There were identified 21 interactions with pharmacodynamic mechanism, classified by their clinical relevance in level-2 high risk (76.2%) and level-3 medium risk (23.8%). In addition, evidence of 16 combinations of no interaction were found. Some NSAIDs may attenuate the effectiveness of antihypertensive drugs when used concurrently, especially with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, diuretics, beta blockers and angiotensin receptorsii blockers. There was no evidence of effect modification of calcium channel antagonists, especially dihydropyridine, by concurrent use of NSAIDs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Establishing a clinically relevant cutoff to the Dependency Scale from the dimensional clinical personality inventory.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Lucas de F; Pianowski, Giselle; Filho, Nelson H

    2017-05-01

    The Clinical Dimensional Personality Inventory (IDCP) is a 163-item self-report tool developed for the assessment of 12 dimensions of personality pathology. One of the scales comprising the instrument-the Dependency scale-is intended to provide psychometric information on traits closely related to the Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD). In the present study, we used both Item Response Theory modeling and Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis to establishing a clinically meaningful cutoff for the IDCP Dependency Scale. Participants were 2.481 adults, comprised by outpatients diagnosed with DPD, outpatients diagnosed with other PDs, and adults from the general population. The Wright's item map graphing technique revealed that outpatients were located at the very high levels in the latent scale continuum of the Dependency Scale, with a very large effect size for the mean difference between patients and non-patients. The ROC curve analysis supported a cutoff at 2.3 points in the Dependency Scale, which yielded 0.86 of sensitivity and 0.79 of specificity. Findings from the present investigation suggest the IDCP Dependency Scale is useful as a screening tool of the core features of the DPD. We address potential clinical applications for the instrument, and discuss limitations from the present study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Heart rate variability shows different cardiovascular modulation in Parkinson's disease patients with tremor dominant subtype compared to those with akinetic rigid dominant subtype.

    PubMed

    Solla, Paolo; Cadeddu, Christian; Cannas, Antonino; Deidda, Martino; Mura, Nicola; Mercuro, Giuseppe; Marrosu, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) can present with different motor subtypes depending on the predominant symptoms (tremor or rigidity/bradykinesia). Slower disease progression and less cognitive decline are observed in tremor-dominant patients compared to those with akinetic-rigid subtype. Autonomic cardiovascular disorders have been described in parkinsonian patients, although the definite correlations with different subtypes of PD are not clear. In this context, heart rate variability (HRV) analysis represents a non-invasive and established tool in assessing cardiovascular autonomic modulation. We investigate cardiovascular autonomic modulation in PD patients with tremor dominant subtype in comparison to akinetic rigid dominant subtype subjects using HRV analysis. Twenty-eight PD patients (17 with tremor dominant subtype and 11 with akinetic rigid dominant subtype) were enrolled and compared to 17 age and sex-matched healthy controls. HRV was analyzed in time- and frequency-domains. Low-frequency (LF) values were significantly lower in the akinetic rigid dominant subtype than in the tremor dominant group [LF 41.4 ± 13.6 vs 55.5 ± 11.6 (p < 0.007)] indicating that the disease led to a more evident impairment of the baroreflex modulation of the autonomic outflow mediated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems in the first class of patients. These findings support the biological relevance of clinical subtypes supporting the idea of a different pathophysiological process between these subtypes. These differences also suggest that different subtypes may also result in different responses to therapy or in the possible development of cardiovascular side effects of dopaminergic drugs in these different populations.

  2. Comprehensive Characterization of Reference Standard Lots of HIV-1 Subtype C Gp120 Proteins for Clinical Trials in Southern African Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zihao; Lorin, Clarisse; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Franco, David; Bayat, Babak; Zhang, Ying; Carfi, Andrea; Barnett, Susan W.; Porter, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Two HIV-1 subtype C gp120 protein candidates were the selected antigens for several experimental vaccine regimens now under evaluation in HVTN 100 Phase I/II clinical trial aiming to support the start of the HVTN 702 Phase IIb/III trial in southern Africa, which is designed to confirm and extend the partial protection seen against HIV-1 infection in the RV144 Thai trial. Here, we report the comprehensive physicochemical characterization of the gp120 reference materials that are representative of the clinical trial materials. Gp120 proteins were stably expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and subsequently purified and formulated. A panel of analytical techniques was used to characterize the physicochemical properties of the two protein molecules. When formulated in the AS01 Adjuvant System, the bivalent subtype C gp120 antigens elicited 1086.C- and TV1.C-specific binding antibody and CD4+ T cell responses in mice. All the characteristics were highly representative of the Clinical Trial Materials (CTM). Data from this report demonstrate the immunogenicity of the gp120 antigens, provide comprehensive characterization of the molecules, set the benchmark for assessment of current and future CTM lots, and lay the physicochemical groundwork for interpretation of future clinical trial data. PMID:27187483

  3. MDM2 and HIF1alpha expression levels in different histologic subtypes of malignant pleural mesothelioma: correlation with pathological and clinical data

    PubMed Central

    Mencoboni, Manlio; Grosso, Federica; Ceresoli, Giovanni Luca; Lunardi, Francesca; Vuljan, Stefania Edith; Bertorelle, Roberta; Sacchetto, Valeria; Ciminale, Vincenzo; Rea, Federico; Favaretto, Adolfo; Conte, PierFranco; Calabrese, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Sarcomatoid/biphasic mesotheliomas are characterized by more aggressive behaviour and a poorer prognosis compared with the epithelioid subtype. To date prognostic and tailored therapeutic biomarkers are lacking. The present study analyzed the expression levels of MDM2 and HIF1alpha in different histologic subtypes from chemonaive MPM patients. Diagnostic biopsies of MPM patients from four Italian cancer centers were centrally collected and analyzed. MDM2 and HIF1alpha expression levels were investigated through immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR. Pathological assessment of necrosis, inflammation and proliferation index was also performed. Molecular markers, pathological features and clinical characteristics were correlated to overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Sixty MPM patients were included in the study (32 epithelioid and 28 non-epithelioid). Higher levels of MDM2 (p < 0.001), HIF1alpha (p = 0.013), necrosis (p = 0.013) and proliferation index (p < 0.001) were seen mainly in sarcomatoid/biphasic subtypes. Higher levels of inflammation were significantly associated with epithelioid subtype (p = 0.044). MDM2 expression levels were correlated with HIF1alpha levels (p = 0.0001), necrosis (p = 0.008) and proliferation index (p = 0.009). Univariate analysis showed a significant correlation of non-epithelioid histology (p = 0.04), high levels of necrosis (p = 0.037) and proliferation index (p = 0.0002) with shorter PFS. Sarcomatoid/biphasic and epithelioid mesotheliomas showed different MDM2 and HIF1alpha expression levels and were characterized by different levels of necrosis, proliferation and inflammation. Further studies are warranted to confirm a prognostic and predictive role of such markers and features. PMID:26544728

  4. Affective Dysregulation and Reality Distortion: A 10-Year Prospective Study of Their Association and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    van Rossum, Inge; Dominguez, Maria-de-Gracia; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; van Os, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from clinical patient populations indicates that affective dysregulation is strongly associated with reality distortion, suggesting that a process of misassignment of emotional salience may underlie this connection. To examine this in more detail without clinical confounds, affective regulation-reality distortion relationships, and their clinical relevance, were examined in a German prospective cohort community study. A cohort of 2524 adolescents and young adults aged 14–24 years at baseline was examined by experienced psychologists. Presence of psychotic experiences and (hypo)manic and depressive symptoms was assessed at 2 time points (3.5 and up to 10 years after baseline) using the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations were tested between level of affective dysregulation on the one hand and incidence of psychotic experiences, persistence of these experiences, and psychotic Impairment on the other. Most psychotic experiences occurred in a context of affective dysregulation, and bidirectional dose-response was apparent with greater level of both affective dysregulation and psychotic experiences. Persistence of psychotic experiences was progressively more likely with greater level of (hypo)manic symptoms (odds ratio [OR] trend = 1.51, P < .001) and depressive symptoms (OR trend = 1.15, P = .012). Similarly, psychotic experiences of clinical relevance were progressively more likely to occur with greater level of affective dysregulation (depressive symptoms: OR trend = 1.28, P = .002; (hypo)manic symptoms: OR trend = 1.37, P = .036). Correlated genetic liabilities underlying affective and nonaffective psychotic syndromes may be expressed as correlated dimensions in the general population. Also, affective dysregulation may contribute causally to the persistence and clinical relevance of reality distortion, possibly by facilitating a mechanism of aberrant salience attribution. PMID:19793794

  5. Advanced Multi-Axis Spine Testing: Clinical Relevance and Research Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Holsgrove, Timothy P.; Nayak, Nikhil R.; Welch, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Back pain and spinal degeneration affect a large proportion of the general population. The economic burden of spinal degeneration is significant, and the treatment of spinal degeneration represents a large proportion of healthcare costs. However, spinal surgery does not always provide improved clinical outcomes compared to non-surgical alternatives, and modern interventions, such as total disc replacement, may not offer clinically relevant improvements over more established procedures. Although psychological and socioeconomic factors play an important role in the development and response to back pain, the variation in clinical success is also related to the complexity of the spine, and the multi-faceted manner by which spinal degeneration often occurs. The successful surgical treatment of degenerative spinal conditions requires collaboration between surgeons, engineers, and scientists in order to provide a multi-disciplinary approach to managing the complete condition. In this review, we provide relevant background from both the clinical and the basic research perspectives, which is synthesized into several examples and recommendations for consideration in increasing translational research between communities with the goal of providing improved knowledge and care. Current