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Sample records for close contact infections

  1. Occult HBV Infection May Be Transmitted through Close Contact and Manifest as an Overt Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Li-Ping; Liu, De-Ping; Chen, Qin-Yan; Harrison, Tim J.; He, Xiang; Wang, Xue-Yan; Li, Hai; Tan, Chao; Yang, Qing-Li; Li, Kai-Wen; Fang, Zhong-Liao

    2015-01-01

    The importance of transmission of occult HBV infection (OBI) via transfusion, organ transplantation and hemodialysis has been widely recognized. However, data regarding the transmission of OBI through close contact remain limited. In this study, serum samples were obtained from a child and his parents. The child had received the standard vaccination regimen at birth and produced protective antibody. Sera were tested for HBV serological markers. Nested PCR assays were used to detect HBV DNA and the amplicons were cloned and their sequences subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The results showed that both parents had occult infections while the child had an overt infection. Twelve, eleven and nine clones, from the father, mother and son, respectively, were sequenced. Serotypes adrq+, ayw1, ayw and ayr were found in the father and ayw1, adw2 and adwq+ in the mother; adrq+ was the only serotype in son. Genotype B, subgenotype C2 and a recombinant were identified in the father and genotype B, subgenotype C5 and three recombinants were found in the mother. Subgenotype C2 was the only genotype identified in the child. A phylogenetic tree showed that all of the child’s sequences and most of the father’s sequences clustered together. However, none of mother’s sequences clustered with those of the child. The surface gene from the child and his father had the same amino acid substitution pattern (T118K, T123N and G145A). We concluded that the father was the source of the son’s HBV infection, suggesting that occult HBV infection may be transmitted through close contact and manifest as an overt infection. PMID:26457811

  2. Occult HBV Infection May Be Transmitted through Close Contact and Manifest as an Overt Infection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Ping; Liu, De-Ping; Chen, Qin-Yan; Harrison, Tim J; He, Xiang; Wang, Xue-Yan; Li, Hai; Tan, Chao; Yang, Qing-Li; Li, Kai-Wen; Fang, Zhong-Liao

    2015-01-01

    The importance of transmission of occult HBV infection (OBI) via transfusion, organ transplantation and hemodialysis has been widely recognized. However, data regarding the transmission of OBI through close contact remain limited. In this study, serum samples were obtained from a child and his parents. The child had received the standard vaccination regimen at birth and produced protective antibody. Sera were tested for HBV serological markers. Nested PCR assays were used to detect HBV DNA and the amplicons were cloned and their sequences subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The results showed that both parents had occult infections while the child had an overt infection. Twelve, eleven and nine clones, from the father, mother and son, respectively, were sequenced. Serotypes adrq+, ayw1, ayw and ayr were found in the father and ayw1, adw2 and adwq+ in the mother; adrq+ was the only serotype in son. Genotype B, subgenotype C2 and a recombinant were identified in the father and genotype B, subgenotype C5 and three recombinants were found in the mother. Subgenotype C2 was the only genotype identified in the child. A phylogenetic tree showed that all of the child's sequences and most of the father's sequences clustered together. However, none of mother's sequences clustered with those of the child. The surface gene from the child and his father had the same amino acid substitution pattern (T118K, T123N and G145A). We concluded that the father was the source of the son's HBV infection, suggesting that occult HBV infection may be transmitted through close contact and manifest as an overt infection.

  3. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative

  4. SARS Patients and Their Close Contacts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fact Sheet for SARS Patients and Their Close Contacts Format: Select one PDF [256 KB] Recommend on ... that are not now known. What does "close contact" mean? In the context of SARS, close contact ...

  5. Contact degeneracies of closed 2-forms

    SciTech Connect

    Zot'ev, Dmitrii B

    2007-04-30

    Consider a closed 2-form that is degenerate at the points of a hypersurface and is non-degenerate outside it. In the neighbourhood of a singularity (which is called contact under certain natural conditions) the limit behaviour of Hamiltonian fields is investigated and a canonical form of the 2-form is found (Darboux's theorem). Connections with regular Lie structures are established. Properties of integrable structures on Liouville tori containing contact degeneracies are studied. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  6. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related ... symptoms 6 steps to avoid contact lens infections Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Leer en Español: Infecciones ...

  7. Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Gregory F.; Minkov, Vladimir; Petrick, Michael

    1984-01-01

    A high temperature heat exchanger with a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

  8. Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

    1981-11-02

    A high temperature heat exchanger is disclosed which has a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

  9. The Formation of Contact and Very Close Binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kisseleva-Eggleton, L; Eggleton, P P

    2007-08-10

    We explore the possibility that all close binaries, i.e. those with periods {approx}< 3 d, including contact (W UMa) binaries, are produced from initially wider binaries (periods of say 10's of days) by the action of a triple companion through the medium of Kozai Cycles with Tidal Friction (KCTF).

  10. High Transmembrane Voltage Raised by Close Contact Initiates Fusion Pore

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Bing; Tian, Zhiqi; Li, Dechang; Ji, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    Membrane fusion lies at the heart of neuronal communication but the detailed mechanism of a critical step, fusion pore initiation, remains poorly understood. Here, through atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, a transient pore formation induced by a close contact of two apposed bilayers is firstly reported. Such a close contact gives rise to a high local transmembrane voltage that induces the transient pore formation. Through simulations on two apposed bilayers fixed at a series of given distances, the process in which two bilayers approaching to each other under the pulling force from fusion proteins for membrane fusion was mimicked. Of note, this close contact induced fusion pore formation is contrasted with previous reported electroporation under ad hoc applied external electric field or ionic charge in-balance. We show that the transmembrane voltage increases with the decrease of the distance between the bilayers. Below a critical distance, depending on the lipid composition, the local transmembrane voltage can be sufficiently high to induce the transient pores. The size of these pores is approximately 1~2 nm in diameter, which is large enough to allow passing of neurotransmitters. A resealing of the membrane pores resulting from the neutralization of the transmembrane voltage by ions through the pores was then observed. We also found that the membrane tension can either prolong the lifetime of transient pores or cause them to dilate for full collapse. This result provides a possible mechanism for fusion pore formation and regulation of pathway of fusion process. PMID:28018169

  11. High Transmembrane Voltage Raised by Close Contact Initiates Fusion Pore.

    PubMed

    Bu, Bing; Tian, Zhiqi; Li, Dechang; Ji, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    Membrane fusion lies at the heart of neuronal communication but the detailed mechanism of a critical step, fusion pore initiation, remains poorly understood. Here, through atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, a transient pore formation induced by a close contact of two apposed bilayers is firstly reported. Such a close contact gives rise to a high local transmembrane voltage that induces the transient pore formation. Through simulations on two apposed bilayers fixed at a series of given distances, the process in which two bilayers approaching to each other under the pulling force from fusion proteins for membrane fusion was mimicked. Of note, this close contact induced fusion pore formation is contrasted with previous reported electroporation under ad hoc applied external electric field or ionic charge in-balance. We show that the transmembrane voltage increases with the decrease of the distance between the bilayers. Below a critical distance, depending on the lipid composition, the local transmembrane voltage can be sufficiently high to induce the transient pores. The size of these pores is approximately 1~2 nm in diameter, which is large enough to allow passing of neurotransmitters. A resealing of the membrane pores resulting from the neutralization of the transmembrane voltage by ions through the pores was then observed. We also found that the membrane tension can either prolong the lifetime of transient pores or cause them to dilate for full collapse. This result provides a possible mechanism for fusion pore formation and regulation of pathway of fusion process.

  12. Shigella Infections in Household Contacts of Pediatric Shigellosis Patients in Rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Talukder, Kaisar A; Azmi, Ishrat J; Perin, Jamie; Sack, R Bradley; Sack, David A; Stine, O Colin; Oldja, Lauren; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Subhra; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Bouwer, Edward; Zhang, Xiaotong; Hasan, Trisheeta N; Luna, Sharmin J; Akter, Fatema; Faruque, Abu S G

    2015-11-01

    To examine rates of Shigella infections in household contacts of pediatric shigellosis patients, we followed contacts and controls prospectively for 1 week after the index patient obtained care. Household contacts of patients were 44 times more likely to develop a Shigella infection than were control contacts (odds ratio 44.7, 95% CI 5.5-361.6); 29 (94%) household contacts of shigellosis patients were infected with the same species and serotype as the index patient's. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that 14 (88%) of 16 with infected contacts had strains that were indistinguishable from or closely related to the index patient's strain. Latrine area fly counts were higher in patient households compared with control households, and 2 patient household water samples were positive for Shigella. We show high susceptibility of household contacts of shigellosis patients to Shigella infections and found environmental risk factors to be targeted in future interventions.

  13. Shigella Infections in Household Contacts of Pediatric Shigellosis Patients in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Talukder, Kaisar A.; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Perin, Jamie; Sack, R. Bradley; Sack, David A; Stine, O. Colin; Oldja, Lauren; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Subhra; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Bouwer, Edward; Zhang, Xiaotong; Hasan, Trisheeta N.; Luna, Sharmin J.; Akter, Fatema; Faruque, Abu S.G.

    2015-01-01

    To examine rates of Shigella infections in household contacts of pediatric shigellosis patients, we followed contacts and controls prospectively for 1 week after the index patient obtained care. Household contacts of patients were 44 times more likely to develop a Shigella infection than were control contacts (odds ratio 44.7, 95% CI 5.5–361.6); 29 (94%) household contacts of shigellosis patients were infected with the same species and serotype as the index patient’s. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that 14 (88%) of 16 with infected contacts had strains that were indistinguishable from or closely related to the index patient’s strain. Latrine area fly counts were higher in patient households compared with control households, and 2 patient household water samples were positive for Shigella. We show high susceptibility of household contacts of shigellosis patients to Shigella infections and found environmental risk factors to be targeted in future interventions. PMID:26484778

  14. Interventions for preventing the spread of infestation in close contacts of people with scabies.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Deirdre; Grainger, Rachel J; Reid, Alex

    2014-02-24

    Scabies, caused by Sarcoptes scabiei variety hominis or the human itch mite, is a common parasitic infection. While anyone can become infected, it causes significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts and it spreads easily between human hosts where there is overcrowding or poor sanitation. The most common symptom reported is itch which is worse at night. As the symptoms are attributed to an allergic reaction to the mite, symptoms usually develop between four to six weeks after primary infection. Therefore, people may be infected for some time prior to developing symptoms. During this time, while asymptomatic, they may spread infection to others they are in close contact with. Consequently, it is usually recommended that when an index case is being treated, others who have been in close contact with the index case should also be provided with treatment. To assess the effects of prophylactic interventions for contacts of people with scabies to prevent infestation in the contacts. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Occupational Safety and Health Review Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (Ovid), Pubmed, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, OpenGrey and WHO ICTRP) up to November 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster RCTs which compared prophylactic interventions which were given to contacts of index cases with scabies infestation. Interventions could be compared to each other, or to placebo or to no treatment. Both drug treatments and non-drug treatments were acceptable. Two authors intended to extract dichotomous data (developed infection or did not develop infection) for the effects of interventions and report this as risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals. We intended to report any adverse outcomes similarly. We did not include any trials in this review. Out of 29 potentially-relevant studies, we excluded 16 RCTs as the data for the contacts were either not reported or were reported only in combination with the outcomes

  15. Indexing and retrieving motions of characters in close contact.

    PubMed

    Ho, Edmond S L; Komura, Taku

    2009-01-01

    Human motion indexing and retrieval are important for animators due to the need to search for motions in the database which can be blended and concatenated. Most of the previous researches of human motion indexing and retrieval compute the Euclidean distance of joint angles or joint positions. Such approaches are difficult to apply for cases in which multiple characters are closely interacting with each other, as the relationships of the characters are not encoded in the representation. In this research, we propose a topology-based approach to index the motions of two human characters in close contact. We compute and encode how the two bodies are tangled based on the concept of rational tangles. The encoded relationships, which we define as TangleList, are used to determine the similarity of the pairs of postures. Using our method, we can index and retrieve motions such as one person piggy-backing another, one person assisting another in walking, and two persons dancing / wrestling. Our method is useful to manage a motion database of multiple characters. We can also produce motion graph structures of two characters closely interacting with each other by interpolating and concatenating topologically similar postures and motion clips, which are applicable to 3D computer games and computer animation.

  16. An epidemiological cluster pattern of dengue outbreak amongst close contacts in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ang, K T; Ruhaini, I; Chua, K B

    2006-08-01

    Dengue fever is major public health problem especially among the highly urbanized states of Malaysia, such as, Selangor and Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory. We report an epidemiological cluster pattern of dengue outbreak in the district of Gombak, Selangor that may mimic other acute febrile illnesses in which the transmission mode is via close contact. This dengue outbreak consisted of two waves; an initial cluster of three cases (including the first deceased, JI) which occurred between 20th and 21st of July, followed by a later larger cluster of 11 cases that occurred between 1st and 8th of August 2005. This epidemiological clustering pattern of acute dengue virus infection among close contacts suggests an intense rate of dengue virus transmission within the vicinity of the first deceased's house.

  17. Online respondent-driven sampling for studying contact patterns relevant for the spread of close-contact pathogens: a pilot study in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Stein, Mart L; van Steenbergen, Jim E; Chanyasanha, Charnchudhi; Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Buskens, Vincent; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Sabaiwan, Wasamon; Bengtsson, Linus; Lu, Xin; Thorson, Anna E; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E E

    2014-01-01

    Information on social interactions is needed to understand the spread of airborne infections through a population. Previous studies mostly collected egocentric information of independent respondents with self-reported information about contacts. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a sampling technique allowing respondents to recruit contacts from their social network. We explored the feasibility of webRDS for studying contact patterns relevant for the spread of respiratory pathogens. We developed a webRDS system for facilitating and tracking recruitment by Facebook and email. One-day diary surveys were conducted by applying webRDS among a convenience sample of Thai students. Students were asked to record numbers of contacts at different settings and self-reported influenza-like-illness symptoms, and to recruit four contacts whom they had met in the previous week. Contacts were asked to do the same to create a network tree of socially connected individuals. Correlations between linked individuals were analysed to investigate assortativity within networks. We reached up to 6 waves of contacts of initial respondents, using only non-material incentives. Forty-four (23.0%) of the initially approached students recruited one or more contacts. In total 257 persons participated, of which 168 (65.4%) were recruited by others. Facebook was the most popular recruitment option (45.1%). Strong assortative mixing was seen by age, gender and education, indicating a tendency of respondents to connect to contacts with similar characteristics. Random mixing was seen by reported number of daily contacts. Despite methodological challenges (e.g. clustering among respondents and their contacts), applying RDS provides new insights in mixing patterns relevant for close-contact infections in real-world networks. Such information increases our knowledge of the transmission of respiratory infections within populations and can be used to improve existing modelling approaches. It is worthwhile

  18. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LIVE VIRAL AND BACTERIAL VACCINES IN IMMUNODEFICIENT PATIENTS AND THEIR CLOSE-CONTACTS

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, William T.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Buckley, Rebecca H.; Ballas, Zuhair; Ballow, Mark; Blaese, R. Michael; Bonilla, Francisco A.; Conley, Mary Ellen; Charlotte-Cunningham-Rundles; Filipovich, Alexandra H.; Fuleihan, Ramsay; Gelfand, Erwin W.; Hernandez-Trujillo, Vivian; Holland, Steven M.; Hong, Richard; Lederman, Howard M.; Malech, Harry L.; Miles, Stephen; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Ochs, Hans D.; Orange, Jordan S.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Routes, John M.; Stiehm, E. Richard; Sullivan, Kathleen; Torgerson, Troy; Winkelstein, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The present uncertainty of which live viral or bacterial vaccines may be given to immune deficient patients and the growing neglect of societal adherence to routine immunizations has prompted the Medical Advisory Committee of the Immune Deficiency Foundation to issue recommendations based upon published literature and the collective experience of the committee members. These recommendations address the concern for immunodeficient patients acquiring infections from healthy individuals who have not been immunized or who are shedding live vaccine-derived viral or bacterial organisms. Such transmission of infectious agents may occur within the hospital, clinic, home, or at any public gathering. Collectively, we define this type transmission as close-contact spread of infectious disease that is particularly relevant in patients with impaired immunity who may develop infection when exposed to individuals carrying vaccine-preventable infectious diseases or who have recently received a live vaccine. Immunodeficient patients who have received therapeutic hematopoietic stem transplantation are also at risk during the time when immune reconstitution is incomplete or while they are on immunosuppressive agents to prevent or treat graft-versus-host disease. This review recommends the general education of what is known about vaccine-preventable or vaccine-derived diseases being spread to immunodeficient patients at risk for close-contact spread of infection, and describes the relative risks for a child with severe immunodeficiency. The review also recommends a balance between the need to protect vulnerable individuals with their social needs to integrate into society, attend school, and benefit from peer education. PMID:24582311

  19. Evolution of Cool Close Binaries - Approach to Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stępień, K.

    2011-06-01

    As a part of a larger project, a set of 27 evolutionary models of cool close binaries was computed under the assumption that their evolution is influenced by the magnetized winds blowing from both components. Short period binaries with the initial periods of 1.5 d, 2.0 d and 2.5 d were considered. For each period three values of 1.3 Msun, 1.1 Msun and 0.9 Msun were taken as the initial masses of the more massive components. The initial masses of the less massive components were adjusted to avoid extreme mass ratios. Here the results of the computations of the first evolutionary phase are presented, which starts from the initial conditions and ends when the more massive component reaches its critical Roche lobe. In all considered cases this phase lasts for several Gyr. For binaries with the higher total mass and/or longer initial periods this time is equal to, or longer than the main sequence life time of the more massive component. For the remaining binaries it amounts to a substantial fraction of this life time. From the statistical analysis of models, the predicted period distribution of detached binaries with periods shorter than 2 d was obtained and compared to the observed distribution from the ASAS data. An excellent agreement was obtained under the assumption that the period distribution in this range is determined solely by magnetic braking (MB), i.e., the mass and angular momentum loss due to the magnetized winds, as considered in the present paper. This result indicates, in particular, that virtually all cool detached binaries with periods of a few tenths of a day, believed to be the immediate progenitors of W UMa-type stars, were formed from young detached systems with periods around 2-3 d. MB is the dominant formation mechanism of cool contact binaries. It operates on the time scale of several Gyr rendering them rather old, with age of 6-10 Gyr. The results of the present analysis will be used as input data to investigate the subsequent evolution of the

  20. Directional close-contact melting in glacier ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Julia; Schüller, Kai

    2015-04-01

    The Saturnian moon Enceladus shows incidence of liquid water underneath a thick ice sheet cover and is thought to be a potential candidate for extraterrestrial life. However, direct exploration of these subglacial aquatic ecosystems is very challenging. Within the scope of the joint research project 'Enceladus Explorer' (EnEx) (consisting of FH Aachen, RWTH Aachen, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Universität Bremen, TU Braunschweig und Bundeswehr Universität München), initiated by the German Space Agency, a maneuverable close-contact melting probe has been developed. The force-regulated and heater-controlled probe is able to melt against gravity or even on a curved trajectory. Hence, it offers additional degrees of freedom in its melting motion, e.g. for target oriented melting or obstacle avoidance strategies. General feasibility of the concept has been demonstrated in various field tests. However, in order to optimize its design and to adopt it to extraterrestrial missions a simulation model is needed, capable of determining melting velocity and efficiency at given environmental conditions and system configurations. Within this contribution, the physical situation is abstracted into a quasi-stationary mathematical model description, and a numerical solution strategy is developed to compute melting velocity and temperature distribution within the probe and the surrounding ice. We present an inverse solution approach, in which a background velocity field of the ice mimics the melting velocity. The fundamental balance laws are solved with the corresponding melting rate. Following Newton's laws, the resulting force acting on the probe has to balance the contact force exerted by the probe and can hence be used for convergence. We present both, analytical results to a simplified head geometry, as well as results from a simulation model implemented into the open source software Elmer for arbitrary head geometries. The latter can deal with the full 3d situation

  1. Close binaries in near and shallow contact stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.; Zejda, M.; Mikulášek, Z.

    2013-02-01

    After a detailed investigation of new observations obtained by small telescopes, we found a group of near and shallow contact binaries with decreasing period including BS Vul, MR Com, EP Cep, ES Cep and V369 Cep. BS Vul and V369 Cep are primary-filling near-contact binaries, while MR Com, EP Cep and ES Cep are shallow contact binaries. With their decrease in period, BS Vul and V369 Cep will evolve to the shallow-contact systems with higher mass ratios, just like ES Cep. The period decease of shallow contact binaries could be caused by the combined effect of the thermal relaxation oscillation (TRO) and variable angular momentum loss (AML). This produces contact binaries in oscillating circles that evolve towards the lower mass ratio direction. That means systems resemble ES Cep will evolve to those systems with lower mass ratio, such as MR Com and EP Cep.

  2. Gardnerella Vaginalis Infection and Sexual Contact in Female Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, David L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study found that the incidence of Gardnerella vaginalis infection was not more common in 191 female children who had other evidence of sexual contact than in 144 female children evaluated for possible sexual abuse but with no evidence of sexual contact found or in 31 female children with no suspected sexual contact. (Author/DB)

  3. Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Peter J.; Looker, Clare; Plumb, Ian D.; Bond, Virginia; Schaap, Ab; Shanaube, Kwame; Muyoyeta, Monde; Vynnycky, Emilia; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Corbett, Elizabeth L.; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; White, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating “close” (shared conversation) and “casual” (shared indoor space) social contacts in 16 Zambian communities and 8 South African communities. We modeled the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in all age groups using these contact patterns, as well as the observed incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in children and the prevalence of tuberculosis disease in adults. A total of 3,528 adults participated in the study. The reported rates of close and casual contact were 4.9 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 4.6, 5.2) and 10.4 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 9.3, 11.6), respectively. Rates of close contact were higher for adults in larger households and rural areas. There was preferential mixing of close contacts within age groups and within sexes. The estimated incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults was 1.5–6 times higher (2.5%–10% per year) than that in children. More than 50% of infections in men, women, and children were estimated to be due to contact with adult men. We conclude that estimates of infection incidence based on surveys in children might underestimate incidence in adults. Most infections may be due to contact with adult men. Treatment and control of tuberculosis in men is critical to protecting men, women, and children from tuberculosis. PMID:26646292

  4. Human infection by Brucella melitensis: an outbreak attributed to contact with infected goats.

    PubMed

    Wallach, J C; Samartino, L E; Efron, A; Baldi, P C

    1997-12-01

    Although several outbreaks of Brucella melitensis infection have been reported among laboratory workers or goat cheese consumers, outbreaks related to rural labour have been rarely studied. An outbreak of human brucellosis among farm workers of Argentina was studied and revealed a close relationship with an epidemic of caprine abortions which occurred shortly before on the same farm. High rates of B. melitensis infection were found among goats. Active brucellosis was diagnosed in 33 subjects (14 with positive blood culture for B. melitensis), while other 27 did not show evidence of illness. While 25 of the brucellosis active patients were rural workers, only 5 of the healthy subjects were engaged in rural labour. Active brucellosis was diagnosed in 91.3% of the subjects in continuous contact with goats and in 32% of those having an occasional contact with the animals. All the 60 subjects denied consumption of goat cheese or milk. As shown here, epidemic human infections by B. melitensis may develop among people frequently in contact with infected goat herds or goat manure.

  5. Follow-up of Contacts of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Infected Returning Travelers, the Netherlands, 2014.

    PubMed

    Mollers, Madelief; Jonges, Marcel; Pas, Suzan D; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Dirksen, Kees; Jansen, Casper; Gelinck, Luc B S; Leyten, Eliane M S; Thurkow, Ingrid; Groeneveld, Paul H P; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B; Koopmans, Marion P; Timen, Aura

    2015-09-01

    Notification of 2 imported cases of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the Netherlands triggered comprehensive monitoring of contacts. Observed low rates of virus transmission and the psychological effect of contact monitoring indicate that thoughtful assessment of close contacts is prudent and must be guided by clinical and epidemiologic risk factors.

  6. Follow-up of Contacts of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus–Infected Returning Travelers, the Netherlands, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mollers, Madelief; Jonges, Marcel; Pas, Suzan D.; van der Eijk, Annemiek A.; Dirksen, Kees; Jansen, Casper; Gelinck, Luc B.S.; Leyten, Eliane M.S.; Thurkow, Ingrid; Groeneveld, Paul H.P.; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B.; Koopmans, Marion P.

    2015-01-01

    Notification of 2 imported cases of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the Netherlands triggered comprehensive monitoring of contacts. Observed low rates of virus transmission and the psychological effect of contact monitoring indicate that thoughtful assessment of close contacts is prudent and must be guided by clinical and epidemiologic risk factors. PMID:26291986

  7. Close contact fluctuations: The seeding of signalling domains in the immunological synapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Amit K.; Burroughs, Nigel J.

    2007-02-01

    We analyse the size and density of thermally induced regions of close contact in cell : cell contact interfaces within a harmonic potential approximation, estimating these regions to be below one-tenth of a micron across. Our calculations indicate that as the distance between the close contact threshold depth and the mean membrane-membrane separation increases, the density of close contact patches decreases exponentially while there is only a minimal variation in their mean size. The technique developed can be used to calculate the probability of first crossing in reflection symmetry violating systems.

  8. Is the Colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus in Pets Associated with Their Close Contact with Owners?

    PubMed Central

    Bierowiec, Karolina; Płoneczka-Janeczko, Katarzyna; Rypuła, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    In human beings and animals, staphylococci constitute part of the normal microbial population. Staphylococcus aureus could be classified as an opportunistic pathogen because the bacteria are noted in clinically healthy individuals, but when the immune system becomes compromised, they can also cause a wide range of infections. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cats who are in close contact with their owners are at the greatest risk of being colonised with S. aureus. Two groups of cats were investigated: single, pet (domestic) cats that do not have outdoor access; and a local population of feral cats living in urban areas. The prevalence of S. aureus in domestic cats was 19.17%, while it’s prevalence in the feral cat population was only 8.3%; which was statistically significant. Analysis of antibiotic resistance, at the genotypic as well as phenotypic level, showed that S. aureus isolates from pet cats were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant determinants. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in households was 10.21%, while in feral cats it was only 1.4%. In conclusion, this study has revealed a correlation between close contact with humans and a higher risk of the cats being colonised with S. aureus and harbouring the antibiotic resistant determinants. PMID:27227897

  9. Is the Colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus in Pets Associated with Their Close Contact with Owners?

    PubMed

    Bierowiec, Karolina; Płoneczka-Janeczko, Katarzyna; Rypuła, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    In human beings and animals, staphylococci constitute part of the normal microbial population. Staphylococcus aureus could be classified as an opportunistic pathogen because the bacteria are noted in clinically healthy individuals, but when the immune system becomes compromised, they can also cause a wide range of infections. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cats who are in close contact with their owners are at the greatest risk of being colonised with S. aureus. Two groups of cats were investigated: single, pet (domestic) cats that do not have outdoor access; and a local population of feral cats living in urban areas. The prevalence of S. aureus in domestic cats was 19.17%, while it's prevalence in the feral cat population was only 8.3%; which was statistically significant. Analysis of antibiotic resistance, at the genotypic as well as phenotypic level, showed that S. aureus isolates from pet cats were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant determinants. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in households was 10.21%, while in feral cats it was only 1.4%. In conclusion, this study has revealed a correlation between close contact with humans and a higher risk of the cats being colonised with S. aureus and harbouring the antibiotic resistant determinants.

  10. Pasteurella multocida septicemia caused by close contact with a domestic cat: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Yoshinari; Takeuchi, Toyo; Shimizu, Manabu; Iwata, Masaru; Tanahashi, Junji; Ito, Makoto

    2004-08-01

    We report here a case of Pasteurella multocida infection caused by cat exposure presenting with septic shock, sinusitis, and pneumonia. The patient was a febrile 20-year-old woman who had been experiencing disturbed consciousness progressively. She had close contact with a domestic cat and had received some scratches on both arms. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head showed a high intensity in the paranasal cavity, and a computed tomographic (CT) scan of the chest showed bilateral lung consolidations. The pathogen was identified as P. multocida by the cultures from blood and nasal discharge. She was given intensive antibiotic therapy with ceftriaxone and piperacillin, continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) therapy, and anticoagulation therapy. Owing to these therapeutic regimens, the septic shock was successfully treated without complications. We also review the literature on P. multocida septicemia.

  11. Should close contacts of returning travellers with typhoid fever be protected by vaccination?

    PubMed

    Kantele, A

    2015-03-17

    Increasing international travel to areas endemic for typhoid fever correlates with increased risk for travellers to contract the disease. At home, the acutely ill/convalescent patients may pose some risk to their close contacts. In Finland an unofficial guideline suggests vaccination for close contacts of patients with acute typhoid fever; in other developed countries, routine typhoid vaccinations are only recommended to contacts of chronic carriers. This paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of prophylactic/post-exposure typhoid vaccination for contacts of patients with acute disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Management of Contacts of Patients With Severe Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Torres, Rosângela Stadnick Lauth; dos Santos, Talita Zajac; Torres, Robson Antônio de Almeida; Petrini, Lygia Maria Coimbra de Manuel; Burger, Marion; Steer, Andrew C; Smeesters, Pierre R

    2016-03-01

    Conflicting recommendations regarding antibiotic prophylaxis for contacts of patients with invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infection exist. Close contacts of patients with such severe and rapidly progressive disease often strongly appeal to the treating clinicians for antimicrobial treatment to prevent additional cases. We aimed to use an approach based on pharyngeal culture testing of contacts and targeted antibiotic prophylaxis. A large throat swab survey including 105 contacts was undertaken after a fulminant and fatal case of GAS necrotizing fasciitis. GAS strains were characterized by emm typing and antimicrobial susceptibility to 7 antibiotics. The presence of 30 virulence determinants was determined by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The GAS isolate recovered from the index patient was an M1T1 GAS clone susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. The same clone was present in the throat of 36% of close contacts who had exposure to the index patient (family households and classroom contacts) for >24 hours/week, whereas the strain was present in only 2% of the other contacts. Although the study does not allow firm conclusions to be drawn as to whether antibiotic prophylaxis is effective, we describe a practical approach, including an educational campaign and targeted antibiotic treatment to close contacts who have been exposed to an index patient for > 24 hours/week before the initial disease onset. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Cryptosporidium parvum Infection Following Contact with Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Suler, Denis; Mullins, David; Rudge, Travis; Ashurst, John

    2016-01-01

    Context: Scours, or calf diarrhea, is an infectious gastrointestinal disease commonly found in the calves of dairy farms. It primarily presents with diarrhea that can be life threatening to the animal and is also contagious and threatening to the other livestock. Cryptosporidium is one of the major causes of scours and can be transmitted to humans via fecal-oral route, resulting in diarrheal illnesses. Cryptosporidiosis infection usually occurs as a waterborne outbreak with the potential to affect many people at once. Case Report: We report a case of a 24-year-old female farmer who presented to the emergency department with diarrhea after taking care of ill cattle with similar symptoms. Fecal cultures were positive for Cryptosporidium parvum. Given the patient was immunocompetent, no further treatment was warranted. Conclusion: Confirmed cases should be reported, however, treatment is only recommended in children and immunocompromised adults. Clinicians should educate patients on the importance of proper hygiene and handling techniques in order to decrease transmission and recurrence of the protozoan infection. PMID:27583243

  14. Perceived Discrimination and Interracial Contact: Predicting Interracial Closeness among Black and White Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tropp, Linda R.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether perceptions of discrimination moderate relationships between interracial contact and feelings of interracial closeness among black and white Americans, using survey responses gathered by the National Conference for Community and Justice (2000). Results indicate that the general association between contact and…

  15. Achromobacter species in cystic fibrosis: cross-infection caused by indirect patient-to-patient contact.

    PubMed

    Hansen, C R; Pressler, T; Ridderberg, W; Johansen, H K; Skov, M

    2013-12-01

    Achromobacter species leads to chronic infection in an increasing number of CF patients. We report 2 cases of Achromobacter ruhlandii cross-infection between patients after well-described indirect contact. Both cases were young, stable, CF patients without chronic infections and with normal FEV1, but experienced clinical deterioration after visits to the home of a CF patient with A. ruhlandii infection and after sharing facilities with an A. ruhlandii infected CF patient on a skiing vacation, respectively. Both cases became positive for A. ruhlandii in airway secretions and were colonized with A. ruhlandii in their sinuses. Aggressive, long-term antibiotic treatment led to clinical stability. One of the cases developed chronic A. ruhlandii infection. A. species can cause cross-infection even after a short period of indirect contact between infected and non-infected CF patients. Patients should be followed closely for several months before the possibility of cross-infection is ruled out. Copyright © 2013 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Contact infection of infectious disease onboard a cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Miao, Ruosong; Huang, Hong; Chan, Emily Y Y

    2016-12-08

    Cruise tourism has become more popular. Long-term personal contact, complex population flows, a lack of medical care facilities, and defective infrastructure aboard most cruise ships is likely to result in the ship becoming an incubator for infectious diseases. In this paper, we use a cruise ship as a research scenario. Taking into consideration personal behavior, the nature and transfer route of the virus across different surfaces, virus reproduction, and disinfection, we studied contact infection of infectious disease on a cruise ship. Using gastroenteritis caused by the norovirus as an example, we analyzed the characteristics of infectious disease propagation based on simulation results under different conditions. We found hand washing are the most important factors affecting virus propagation and passenger infection. It also decides either the total number of virus microorganisms or the virus distribution in different functional areas. The transfer rate between different surfaces is a key factor influencing the concentricity of the virus. A high transfer rate leads to high concentricity. In addition, the risk of getting infected is effectively reduced when the disinfection frequency is above a certain threshold. The efficiency of disinfection of functional areas is determined by total virus number and total contact times of surfaces.

  17. Contact infection of infectious disease onboard a cruise ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Miao, Ruosong; Huang, Hong; Chan, Emily Y. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Cruise tourism has become more popular. Long-term personal contact, complex population flows, a lack of medical care facilities, and defective infrastructure aboard most cruise ships is likely to result in the ship becoming an incubator for infectious diseases. In this paper, we use a cruise ship as a research scenario. Taking into consideration personal behavior, the nature and transfer route of the virus across different surfaces, virus reproduction, and disinfection, we studied contact infection of infectious disease on a cruise ship. Using gastroenteritis caused by the norovirus as an example, we analyzed the characteristics of infectious disease propagation based on simulation results under different conditions. We found hand washing are the most important factors affecting virus propagation and passenger infection. It also decides either the total number of virus microorganisms or the virus distribution in different functional areas. The transfer rate between different surfaces is a key factor influencing the concentricity of the virus. A high transfer rate leads to high concentricity. In addition, the risk of getting infected is effectively reduced when the disinfection frequency is above a certain threshold. The efficiency of disinfection of functional areas is determined by total virus number and total contact times of surfaces.

  18. Contact infection of infectious disease onboard a cruise ship

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Miao, Ruosong; Huang, Hong; Chan, Emily Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cruise tourism has become more popular. Long-term personal contact, complex population flows, a lack of medical care facilities, and defective infrastructure aboard most cruise ships is likely to result in the ship becoming an incubator for infectious diseases. In this paper, we use a cruise ship as a research scenario. Taking into consideration personal behavior, the nature and transfer route of the virus across different surfaces, virus reproduction, and disinfection, we studied contact infection of infectious disease on a cruise ship. Using gastroenteritis caused by the norovirus as an example, we analyzed the characteristics of infectious disease propagation based on simulation results under different conditions. We found hand washing are the most important factors affecting virus propagation and passenger infection. It also decides either the total number of virus microorganisms or the virus distribution in different functional areas. The transfer rate between different surfaces is a key factor influencing the concentricity of the virus. A high transfer rate leads to high concentricity. In addition, the risk of getting infected is effectively reduced when the disinfection frequency is above a certain threshold. The efficiency of disinfection of functional areas is determined by total virus number and total contact times of surfaces. PMID:27929141

  19. Selection versus Structure: Explaining Family Type Differences in Contact with Close Kin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruycker, Trees

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on one aspect of family networks, namely, the frequency of contact with close kin for adults living in different traditional and new family types. Two mechanisms are hypothesized to account for the differences. The first focuses on structural factors such as the number and type of persons in the primary family network,…

  20. SIR model with local and global infective contacts: A deterministic approach and applications.

    PubMed

    Maltz, Alberto; Fabricius, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    An epidemic model with births and deaths is considered on a two-dimensional L×L lattice. Each individual can have global infective contacts according to the standard susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model rules or local infective contacts with their nearest neighbors. We propose a deterministic approach to this model and, for the parameters corresponding to pertussis and rubella in the prevaccine era, verify that there is a close agreement with the stochastic simulations when epidemic spread or endemic stationarity is considered. We also find that our approach captures the characteristic features of the dynamic behavior of the system after a sudden decrease in global contacts that may arise as a consequence of health care measures. By using the deterministic approach, we are able to characterize the exponential growth of the epidemic behavior and analyze the stability of the system at the stationary values. Since the deterministic approximation captures the essential features of the disease transmission dynamics of the stochastic model, it provides a useful tool for performing systematic studies as a function of the model parameters. We give an example of this potentiality by analyzing the likelihood of the endemic state to become extinct when the weight of the global contacts is drastically reduced.

  1. The Impact of Discontinuing Contact Precautions for VRE and MRSA on Device-Associated Infections.

    PubMed

    Edmond, Michael B; Masroor, Nadia; Stevens, Michael P; Ober, Janis; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2015-08-01

    The impact of discontinuing contact precautions for patients with MRSA and VRE colonization/infection on device-associated hospital-acquired infection rates at an academic medical center was investigated in this before-and-after study. In the setting of a strong horizontal infection prevention platform, discontinuation of contact precautions had no impact on device-associated hospital-acquired infection rates.

  2. Pharmacist-led Tdap vaccination of close contacts of neonates in a women's hospital.

    PubMed

    Mills, Brittany; Fensterheim, Leonard; Taitel, Michael; Cannon, Adam

    2014-01-16

    Pertussis can cause severe illness and death in infants. Immunization of family members with the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoids, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine can decrease risk of pertussis infection among infants. A community pharmacy on a women's hospital campus implemented a Tdap vaccination pilot program. To investigate the rate of Tdap vaccination among close contacts of neonates in a women's hospital pharmacy and to assess the impact of a coordinated pharmacy and hospital Tdap vaccination program. The intervention entailed education from hospital staff who explained the risks of pertussis, advocated the benefits of vaccination, and encouraged family members to be vaccinated. In the on-site clinic or in the pharmacy, pharmacists administered vaccine to eligible patients. Rates of Tdap vaccinations in the intervention pharmacy with in-hospital vaccination were compared to comparison pharmacies without Tdap interventions. In the pre-study period (December 2008-November 2010), there were 31 Tdap vaccinations administered at the intervention pharmacy (mean=1.3/month); during the study period (December 2010-November 2012), 2045 Tdap vaccinations were administered (mean=85.2/month). In four comparison hospital-campus pharmacies, there were 77 vaccinations (mean=0.8/month) during the pre-study period and 817 vaccinations (mean=8.5/month) during the study period. There were 155 vaccinations administered in 44 area-community pharmacies (mean=0.1/month) during the pre-study period and 2930 (mean=2.8/month) during the study period. The intervention pharmacy had the highest average monthly rate of change in Tdap volume from pre-study to study period (83.9), compared to comparison hospital-campus pharmacies (7.7, p<.001) and area-community pharmacies (2.7, p<.001). During the study period, the estimated Tdap vaccination coverage per live births was 8.1% in the intervention pharmacy versus 5.5% in the comparison hospital-campus pharmacies (p<.001). Tdap

  3. The infection of turkey poults with Histomonas meleagridis by contact with infected birds or contaminated cages.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, P L; McDougald, L R

    2011-03-01

    The conditions under which infection with Histomonas meleagridis could spread from directly inoculated turkey poults to uninoculated poults without the aid of invertebrate hosts or vectors was investigated in several experiments. In three experiments in battery cages, uninoculated poults were commingled with directly infected birds on pine-shaving litter. Directly exposed birds were inoculated per cloaca with H. meleagridis by means of a plastic pipette tip attached to a 10-ml syringe or orally gavaged with fresh cecal droppings from donor turkeys 4 days postinoculation (PI). Of the cloacally inoculated controls in these experiments, 31 of 44 (70.5%) birds had severe lesions ofhistomoniasis at 14 days PI, whereas none of the orally gavaged birds became infected. Histomoniasis developed in 11 of 36 (30.5%) birds allowed to commingle with inoculated birds. In other treatments, poults were allowed only contact with droppings from directly inoculated birds after the infected birds were removed from the cages. This was done for a single period of 1 hr or repeated five times. Four of 32 birds (12.5%) became infected in this way after the single exposure, whereas only four of 44 birds (9.1%) exposed five times developed lesions. In a comparison of floor materials, 35 of 35 control birds inoculated per cloaca developed severe liver and cecal lesions, irrespective of litter. Uninoculated birds allowed to commingle with infected birds on paper or pine shavings became severely infected in all cases (12/12 and 12/12 birds, respectively), whereas only 33% of those on wire-floored cages became infected (4/12). These results suggest that transmission of infection is more likely to occur as a result of direct contact between birds than from contact with litter or fecal material.

  4. Cost-optimisation of screening for latent tuberculosis in close contacts.

    PubMed

    Diel, R; Nienhaus, A; Lange, C; Schaberg, T

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform cost-minimisation analysis of contact investigation from a public health perspective using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and a new blood assay, QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G). A decision-analysis model simulated the costs of investigating a cohort of adult close tuberculosis contacts by the public health service following the current German guidelines over a period of 2 yrs. The economic outcomes were compared with alternative screening strategies. These were: 1) QFT-G instead of TST; 2) TST followed by QFT-G; and 3) TST followed by QFT-G in vaccinated (bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)) subjects. In a base-case analysis, the costs of TST-based screening were 91.06 Euros (EUR).contact(-1), assuming a 1% tuberculosis-case-finding incidence. The least expensive strategy was TST screening plus subsequent QFT-G testing (52.05 EUR), resulting in a 43% cost reduction. Using QFT-G alone in BCG-vaccinated subjects who tested positive in the TST led to a 39% cost reduction. The savings using QFT-G alone instead of TST amounted to 29.77 EUR.contact(-1). The results depended on the acquisition costs assumed and the proportion of positive results in TST-based screening. Screening for tuberculosis by combining tuberculin skin testing and QuantiFERON-TB Gold markedly reduces public health costs compared with tuberculin skin test screening alone.

  5. Instrumented Compliant Wrist with Proximity and Contact Sensing for Close Robot Interaction Control

    PubMed Central

    Laferrière, Pascal; Payeur, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Compliance has been exploited in various forms in robotic systems to allow rigid mechanisms to come into contact with fragile objects, or with complex shapes that cannot be accurately modeled. Force feedback control has been the classical approach for providing compliance in robotic systems. However, by integrating other forms of instrumentation with compliance into a single device, it is possible to extend close monitoring of nearby objects before and after contact occurs. As a result, safer and smoother robot control can be achieved both while approaching and while touching surfaces. This paper presents the design and extensive experimental evaluation of a versatile, lightweight, and low-cost instrumented compliant wrist mechanism which can be mounted on any rigid robotic manipulator in order to introduce a layer of compliance while providing the controller with extra sensing signals during close interaction with an object’s surface. Arrays of embedded range sensors provide real-time measurements on the position and orientation of surfaces, either located in proximity or in contact with the robot’s end-effector, which permits close guidance of its operation. Calibration procedures are formulated to overcome inter-sensor variability and achieve the highest available resolution. A versatile solution is created by embedding all signal processing, while wireless transmission connects the device to any industrial robot’s controller to support path control. Experimental work demonstrates the device’s physical compliance as well as the stability and accuracy of the device outputs. Primary applications of the proposed instrumented compliant wrist include smooth surface following in manufacturing, inspection, and safe human-robot interaction. PMID:28613255

  6. Risk of infection and disease with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among children identified through prospective community-based contact screening in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Triasih, Rina; Robertson, Colin; Duke, Trevor; Graham, Stephen M

    2015-06-01

    To identify characteristics of the child contact, index case or environment that are associated with infection or tuberculosis in child contacts in an urban community in Indonesia. Children who were close contacts of an index case with pulmonary tuberculosis were screened for infection and disease in Yogyakarta, Indonesia from August 2010 to December 2012. Data of the index case and child were collected prospectively, and all child contacts had clinical assessment, tuberculin skin test (TST) and chest X-ray performed. Those with clinically suspected tuberculosis also had sputum examined by Xpert MTB/RIF and culture. Child contacts were managed according to national guidelines, followed for 12 months and had a final classification of either tuberculosis 'disease', latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) or 'exposed only'. About 269 children of 141 index cases were investigated. Final classification was tuberculosis in 25 (9%) and LTBI in 121 (45%). The risk of infection was significantly greater if the source case was female (AOR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0-2.8), had sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (AOR 3.0; 95% CI 1.5-6.0) or slept in the same room (AOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.9). A positive TST was independently associated with a diagnosis of tuberculosis (AOR 7.3; 95% CI 2.4-22). This study highlights the high risk and the risk factors associated with tuberculosis and LTBI among child contacts in Indonesia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The relative importance of frequency of contacts and duration of exposure for the spread of directly transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    De Cao, Elisabetta; Zagheni, Emilio; Manfredi, Piero; Melegaro, Alessia

    2014-07-01

    The recent availability of survey data on social contact patterns has made possible important advances in the understanding of the social determinants of the spread of close-contact infections, and of the importance of long-lasting contacts for effective transmission to occur. Still, little is known about the relationship between two of the most critical identified factors (frequency of contacts and duration of exposure) and how this relationship applies to different types of infections. By integrating data from two independently collected social surveys (Polymod and time use), we propose a model that combines these two transmission determinants into a new epidemiologically relevant measure of contacts: the number of "suitable" contacts, which is the number of contacts that involve a sufficiently long exposure time to allow for transmission. The validity of this new epidemiological measure is tested against Italian serological data for varicella and parvovirus-B19, with uncertainty evaluated using the Bayesian melding technique. The model performs quite well, indicating that the interplay between time of exposure and contacts is critical for varicella transmission, while for B19 it is the duration of exposure that matters for transmission. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Human parvovirus B19 infection among hospital staff members after contact with infected patients.

    PubMed

    Bell, L M; Naides, S J; Stoffman, P; Hodinka, R L; Plotkin, S A

    1989-08-24

    In the spring and summer of 1988, two separate outbreaks of an illness with a rash resembling erythema infectiosum occurred among members of the nursing staff of the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. The sources were two adolescent patients with sickle cell disease and aplastic crisis who had unsuspected parvovirus infection. Tests for IgM and IgG antibodies to parvovirus B19 were positive in both patients, and electron microscopical examination showed parvovirus-like particles in the early serum samples. Of 40 health care workers exposed to infected patients, 12 (30 percent) were infected, 2 (5 percent) were possibly infected, 8 (20 percent) had evidence of a past infection with B19, and 18 (45 percent) remained seronegative. Attack rates among the susceptible contacts were 36 percent in the first outbreak and at least 38 percent in the second. Clinical symptoms began a mean of 12.6 days after exposure and included malaise, rash, and joint pain. We conclude that hospital workers are at risk of contracting nosocomial erythema infectiosum from patients with parvovirus-associated aplastic crisis. We recommend that all patients with hereditary hemolytic anemias who are admitted with a febrile illness be evaluated for aplasia and promptly placed in respiratory and contact isolation if aplastic crisis is suspected.

  9. A simulation study about tracking of micro sized particles close to contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yücel, Harun; Okumuşoǧlu, Nazmi Turan

    2017-02-01

    The tracking of micro sized colloidal particles which are optically trapped is an important method to gain information about the pair interaction potential between particles suspended in a liquid. To track the particles which are close to contact is difficult because the overlapping of the particle diffraction patterns causes systematic errors in the position detection. Recently, a template based the particle finding algorithm was reported and verified experimentally. Here, we perform simulations in order to determine the precision of that algorithm, as one cannot know the real positions of the particles in the experiment. We generate the particle images by using fitted curve to experimental data. As a result, we found that the proposed algorithm predicts correctly the positions with an isolated reference particle and it has the maximum error about 0.065 pixels (5.5nm) in the particle images.

  10. Numerical Simulations of Close and Contact Binary Systems Having Bipolytropic Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Kundan; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Motl, Patrick M.; Marcello, Dominic; Frank, Juhan

    2017-01-01

    I present the results of the numerical simulations of the mass transfer in close and contact binary systems with both stars having a bipolytropic (composite polytropic) equation of state. The initial binary systems are obtained by a modifying Hachisu’s self-consistent field technique. Both the stars have fully resolved cores with a molecular weight jump at the core-envelope interface. The initial properties of these simulations are chosen such that they satisfy the mass-radius relation, composition and period of a late W-type contact binary system. The simulations are carried out using two different Eulerian hydrocodes, Flow-ER with a fixed cylindrical grid, and Octo-tiger with an AMR capable cartesian grid. The detailed comparison of the simulations suggests an agreement between the results obtained from the two codes at different resolutions. The set of simulations can be treated as a benchmark, enabling us to reliably simulate mass transfer and merger scenarios of binary systems involving bipolytropic components.

  11. A new tracking algorithm for multiple colloidal particles close to contact.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Harun; Okumuşoğlu, Nazmi Turan

    2017-10-03

    In this paper, we propose a new algorithm based on radial symmetry center method to track colloidal particles close to contact, where the optical images of the particles start to overlap in digital video microscopy. This overlapping effect is important to observe the pair interaction potential in colloidal studies and it appears as additional interaction in the measurement of the interaction with conventional tracking analysis. The proposed algorithm in this work is simple, fast and applicable for not only two particles but also three and more particles without any modification. The algorithm uses gradient vectors of the particle intensity distribution, which allows us to use a part of the symmetric intensity distribution in the calculation of the actual particle position. In this study, simulations are performed to see the performance of the proposed algorithm for two and three particles, where the simulation images are generated by using fitted curve to experimental particle image for different sized particles . As a result, the algorithm yields the maximum error smaller than 2 nm for 5.53 μm silica particles in contact condition. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. The Physical Effects of Contact and Close-Distance Gunfire on Sweatshirt Fleece.

    PubMed

    Kusluski, Michael A

    2017-08-23

    Powder stippling caused by the impact of propellant particles during close-distance gunfire has been previously described on skin and solid objects only. Additionally, radial tearing has been described as clear evidence of a contact-distance shot, requiring no further testing. Patterns of discrete perforating holes (referred to here as "stippling perforations") and other physical damage on sweatshirt fleece fabrics were prepared. Using the firearm and ammunition in this study, stippling perforations were observed to a maximum muzzle-to-target distance of 35 cm (10 inches). In addition, radial tearing and disintegration were present (and often more extensive) at greater than contact distance. The presence of stippling perforations could augment muzzle-to-target distance estimates generated using the Griess test, or allow distance estimates when the Griess test is not feasible. Unlike what has been previously reported, testing on the original evidence (or similar substitute) is warranted when physical damage is used to estimate shooting distance. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Rabies Virus Infection Induces the Formation of Stress Granules Closely Connected to the Viral Factories

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Jovan; Civas, Ahmet; Lagaudrière-Gesbert, Cécile; Blondel, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are membrane-less dynamic structures consisting of mRNA and protein aggregates that form rapidly in response to a wide range of environmental cellular stresses and viral infections. They act as storage sites for translationally silenced mRNAs under stress conditions. During viral infection, SG formation results in the modulation of innate antiviral immune responses, and several viruses have the ability to either promote or prevent SG assembly. Here, we show that rabies virus (RABV) induces SG formation in infected cells, as revealed by the detection of SG-marker proteins Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 1 (G3BP1), T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) in the RNA granules formed during viral infection. As shown by live cell imaging, RABV-induced SGs are highly dynamic structures that increase in number, grow in size by fusion events, and undergo assembly/disassembly cycles. Some SGs localize in close proximity to cytoplasmic viral factories, known as Negri bodies (NBs). Three dimensional reconstructions reveal that both structures remain distinct even when they are in close contact. In addition, viral mRNAs synthesized in NBs accumulate in the SGs during viral infection, revealing material exchange between both compartments. Although RABV-induced SG formation is not affected in MEFs lacking TIA-1, TIA-1 depletion promotes viral translation which results in an increase of viral replication indicating that TIA-1 has an antiviral effect. Inhibition of PKR expression significantly prevents RABV-SG formation and favors viral replication by increasing viral translation. This is correlated with a drastic inhibition of IFN-B gene expression indicating that SGs likely mediate an antiviral response which is however not sufficient to fully counteract RABV infection. PMID:27749929

  14. Does close temperature regulation affect surgical site infection rates?

    PubMed

    Leeds, Ira L; Wick, Elizabeth C; Melton, Genevieve B

    2014-01-01

    The argument for close temperature control, to which regulatory bodies have held health systems in an effort to reduce the burden of hospital-acquired infections, is not fully supported by current evidence. The literature is complex on the topic, and overinterpretation of historical data supporting close temperature regulation does not preclude an important recognition of these early works' contribution to high-quality surgical care. Avoidance of hypothermia through the regular use of active rewarming should be a routine part of safe surgical care. The biochemical basis of emphasizing temperature regulation is sound, and ample evidence shows the frank physiologic derangements seen when biological processes occur at suboptimal temperature. It is also recognized that patients tend to do better when warmed during the perioperative period, suggesting that warming devices are an important and essential adjunct to good perioperative care. Clinicians, researchers, and policymakers must be careful in how they apply these well-supported findings to process metrics in an era of limited resources with increasingly stringent quality guidelines and outcomes measures. Discrete temperature targets in current measures are not supported by the existing literature. Not only do these targets artificially anchor clinicians to temperature values with an inadequate scientific basis but they demand intensive resources from health institutions that could potentially be better used on quality requirements with stronger evidence of their ultimate effect on patient care.

  15. DI Hya: A Near-contact Binary with a Close-in Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, W.-P.; Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Zhou, X.; Zhao, E.-G.; Zhang, J.

    2017-03-01

    DI Hya is a short-period eclipsing binary and its classification has been discussed by several authors. New four-color light curves were obtained and have been analyzed together with the data from Manimanis & Niarchos simultaneously using the W-D method. The binary turns out to be a near-contact system where both components are filling or nearly filling their critical Roche lobes. The secondary has a temperature difference of ΔT ≃ -2800 K. The orbital period investigation has been ignored so far. All charge-coupled devices (CCD) and pe times of light minima are used for period analysis, showing that a cyclic variation with a short period of 1.46 years and a small semi-amplitude of 0.0034 days and a downward parabolic variation with a rate of \\dot{P}=-2.98(+/- 0.32)× {10}-7 {days} {{yr}}-1. The short period and small semi-amplitude cyclic variations were analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of a close-in tertiary binary with an orbital separation shorter than 1.57(±0.31) au. Orbital properties of this close-in companion should provide valuable information on the formation of this short-period binary and stellar dynamical interaction. The downward parabolic change may be caused by angular momentum loss via an enhanced stellar wind of the more evolved secondary star.

  16. Clonal Differences between Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) Recovered from Children and Animals Living in Close Contact in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Dione, Michel M.; Ikumapayi, Usman N.; Saha, Debasish; Mohammed, Nuredin I.; Geerts, Stanny; Ieven, Margareta; Adegbola, Richard A.; Antonio, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is an important cause of invasive bacterial disease and associated with mortality in Africa. However, little is known about the environmental reservoirs and predominant modes of transmission. Our study aimed to study the role of domestic animals in the transmission of NTS to humans in rural area of The Gambia. Methodology Human NTS isolates were obtained through an active population-based case-control surveillance study designated to determine the aetiology and epidemiology of enteric infections covering 27,567 Gambian children less than five years of age in the surveillance area. Fourteen children infected with NTS were traced back to their family compounds and anal swabs collected from 210 domestic animals present in their households. Identified NTSs were serotyped and genotyped by multi-locus sequencing typing. Principal Findings NTS was identified from 21/210 animal sources in the households of the 14 infected children. Chickens carried NTS more frequently than sheep and goats; 66.6%, 28.6% and 4.8% respectively. The most common NTS serovars were S. Colindale in humans (21.42%) and S. Poona in animals (14.28%). MLST on the 35 NTS revealed four new alleles and 24 sequence types (ST) of which 18 (75%) STs were novel. There was no overlap in serovars or genotypes of NTS recovered from humans or animal sources in the same household. Conclusion Our results do not support the hypothesis that humans and animals in close contact in the same household carry genotypically similar Salmonella serovars. These findings form an important baseline for future studies of transmission of NTS in humans and animals in Africa. PMID:21655353

  17. Transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from persistently infected sows to contact controls.

    PubMed Central

    Bierk, M D; Dee, S A; Rossow, K D; Otake, S; Collins, J E; Molitor, T W

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could persist in non-pregnant sows and if persistently infected sows could transmit virus to naive contact controls. Twelve PRRSV-naive, non-pregnant sows (index sows) were infected with a field isolate of PRRSV and housed in individual isolation rooms for 42 to 56 days postinfection. Following this period, 1 naive contact sow was placed in each room divided by a gate allowing nose-to-nose contact with a single index sow. Index sows were not viremic at the time of contact sow entry. Virus nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction, and infectious virus was detected by virus isolation in sera from 3 of the 12 contact sows at 49, 56, and 86 days postinfection. All 3 infected contacts developed PRRSV antibodies. Virus nucleic acid was detected in tissues of all of the 12 index sows at 72 or 86 days postinfection. Nucleic acid sequencing indicated that representative samples from index and infected contacts were homologous (> 99%) to the PRRSV used to infect index sows at the onset of the study. This study demonstrates that PRRSV can persist in sows and that persistently infected sows can transmit virus to naive contact animals. PMID:11768134

  18. Genotype Analysis of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Children and Chickens Living in Close Contact

    PubMed Central

    Kariuki, S.; Gilks, C.; Kimari, J.; Obanda, A.; Muyodi, J.; Waiyaki, P.; Hart, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates from rectal swabs from 62 chickens and stools from 42 children living in close contact with chickens on the same farms in Kiambu district, Kenya, were compared for their genetic relatedness. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles broadly categorized isolates from the children and from the chickens into two separate clusters: the majority (144; 85.5%) of the E. coli isolates from children were multidrug resistant, while the majority (216; 87.1%) of the E. coli isolates from chickens were either fully susceptible or resistant only to tetracycline. Sixty- and 100- to 110-MDA plasmids were found to encode the transferable resistance to co-trimoxazole and tetracycline. HindIII restriction endonuclease digestion of the 60- and 100- to 110-MDA plasmids produced four distinct patterns for isolates from children and three distinct patterns for isolates from chickens. XbaI digestion of genomic DNA followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis produced 14 distinct clusters. There were six distinct PFGE clusters among the isolates from children, while among the isolates from chickens there were seven distinct clusters. Only one PFGE cluster contained isolates from both children and chickens, with the isolates displaying an approximately 60% coefficient of similarity. This study showed that although several different genotypes of E. coli were isolated from children and chickens from the same farms, the E. coli strains from these two sources were distinct. PMID:9925570

  19. Risk Behaviors for Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Among Adults and Adolescents - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Cope, Jennifer R; Collier, Sarah A; Nethercut, Hannah; Jones, Jefferson M; Yates, Kirsten; Yoder, Jonathan S

    2017-08-18

    Contact lens-related eye infections, which can lead to serious outcomes, including blindness, are associated with several risk factors, including sleeping in lenses, exposing lenses to water, not adhering to replacement schedules, and reusing disinfecting solution (1). In some studies, adolescent and young adult contact lens wearers have been reported to be more likely than older adult contact lens wearers to develop eye infections (2,3) and more likely to have poor contact lens hygiene practices (2). In 2015, CDC reported the number and demographics of adult contact lens wearers in the United States to define the population at risk for contact lens-related eye infections (4); however, this estimate did not include adolescents. To better understand this group of younger contact lens wearers and guide prevention efforts, a population-based survey was used to assess contact lens wear, care behaviors, risk factors, and demographics among persons aged 12-17 years (referred to as adolescents in this report), young adults aged 18-24 years, and older adults aged ≥25 years in the United States. In 2016, an estimated 3.6 million adolescents (14.5%) wore contact lenses. Of the adolescents who wore contact lenses, 85% reported at least one behavior that put them at risk for a contact lens-related eye infection, compared with 81% of young adults, and 88% of older adults. These findings can inform the creation of age-specific targeted prevention messages aimed at contact lens wearers and establish a baseline for evaluating trends in contact lens wear, care habits, and contact lens-related risk behaviors.

  20. Coxsackie A10 Virus Infection Among Infectious Hepatitis Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Embil, J. A.; Van Rooyen, C. E.; Nagler, F. P.

    1965-01-01

    During an outbreak of infectious hepatitis at a housing development, Coxsackie A10 virus was recovered from the stools of 45 different contacts and from the blood of four others. Caution should be exercised in attributing an etiological role to any given isolate of a Group A Coxsackie virus in view of the widespread distribution of these organisms. Nevertheless, the recovery of Coxsackie A10 viruses from the blood and stools of contacts with hepatitis cases appears to warrant record. PMID:5829398

  1. Effects of surface material, ventilation, and human behavior on indirect contact transmission risk of respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Sze-To, Gin Nam; Yang, Yang; Kwan, Joseph K C; Yu, Samuel C T; Chao, Christopher Y H

    2014-05-01

    Infectious particles can be deposited on surfaces. Susceptible persons who contacted these contaminated surfaces may transfer the pathogens to their mucous membranes via hands, leading to a risk of respiratory infection. The exposure and infection risk contributed by this transmission route depend on indoor surface material, ventilation, and human behavior. In this study, quantitative infection risk assessments were used to compare the significances of these factors. The risks of three pathogens, influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and rhinovirus, in an aircraft cabin and in a hospital ward were assessed. Results showed that reducing the contact rate is relatively more effective than increasing the ventilation rate to lower the infection risk. Nonfabric surface materials were found to be much more favorable in the indirect contact transmission for RSV and rhinovirus than fabric surface materials. In the cases considered in this study, halving the ventilation rate and doubling the hand contact rate to surfaces and the hand contact rate to mucous membranes would increase the risk by 3.7-16.2%, 34.4-94.2%, and 24.1-117.7%, respectively. Contacting contaminated nonfabric surfaces may pose an indirect contact risk up to three orders of magnitude higher than that of contacting contaminated fabric surfaces. These findings provide more consideration for infection control and building environmental design.

  2. Vaccinia virus infection after sexual contact with a military smallpox vaccinee -Washington, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-07-02

    On March 1, 2010, the Washington State Department of Health (WADOH) notified Public Health - Seattle & King County (PHSKC) of a suspected case of contact transmission of vaccinia virus from sexual contact with a member of the military who had been vaccinated against smallpox. Vaccinia virus infection after sexual contact has been reported previously (1-4). Despite the patient's exposure history and clinical presentation, the diagnosis initially was not considered by the patient's physician, who ordered laboratory testing for several common sexually transmitted infections. The patient was seen by a second physician and referred to an infectious disease specialist, who obtained a swab sample of a genital lesion for laboratory testing for vaccinia virus. Vaccinia virus was confirmed by the Washington State Public Health Laboratory (WAPHL) and the CDC Poxvirus Laboratory. The patient resided in a household with an immunosuppressed renal transplant recipient. Appropriate contact precautions were recommended to the patient. No additional cases of contact transmission were reported. This report describes the patient's clinical course and the associated epidemiologic investigation. Health-care providers caring for U.S. military personnel or their contacts should consider vaccinia virus infection in the differential diagnosis of clinically compatible genital lesions. Contact precautions should be emphasized to all persons who are vaccinated, as well as their contacts with unexplained lesions that might represent vaccinia infection from contact transmission.

  3. The Potential Role of Direct and Indirect Contacts on Infection Spread in Dairy Farm Networks

    PubMed Central

    Natalini, Silvano; Zarenghi, Luca; Ricchi, Matteo; Bolzoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Animals’ exchanges are considered the most effective route of between-farm infectious disease transmission. However, despite being often overlooked, the infection spread due to contaminated equipment, vehicles, or personnel proved to be important for several livestock epidemics. This study investigated the role of indirect contacts in a potential infection spread in the dairy farm network of the Province of Parma (Northern Italy). We built between-farm contact networks using data on cattle exchange (direct contacts), and on-farm visits by veterinarians (indirect contacts). We compared the features of the contact structures by using measures on static and temporal networks. We assessed the disease spreading potential of the direct and indirect network structures in the farm system by using data on the infection state of farms by paratuberculosis. Direct and indirect networks showed non-trivial differences with respect to connectivity, contact distribution, and super-spreaders identification. Furthermore, our analyses on paratuberculosis data suggested that the contributions of direct and indirect contacts on diseases spread are apparent at different spatial scales. Our results highlighted the potential role of indirect contacts in between-farm disease spread and underlined the need for a deeper understanding of these contacts to develop better strategies for prevention of livestock epidemics. PMID:28125610

  4. The Potential Role of Direct and Indirect Contacts on Infection Spread in Dairy Farm Networks.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gianluigi; De Leo, Giulio A; Pongolini, Stefano; Natalini, Silvano; Zarenghi, Luca; Ricchi, Matteo; Bolzoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Animals' exchanges are considered the most effective route of between-farm infectious disease transmission. However, despite being often overlooked, the infection spread due to contaminated equipment, vehicles, or personnel proved to be important for several livestock epidemics. This study investigated the role of indirect contacts in a potential infection spread in the dairy farm network of the Province of Parma (Northern Italy). We built between-farm contact networks using data on cattle exchange (direct contacts), and on-farm visits by veterinarians (indirect contacts). We compared the features of the contact structures by using measures on static and temporal networks. We assessed the disease spreading potential of the direct and indirect network structures in the farm system by using data on the infection state of farms by paratuberculosis. Direct and indirect networks showed non-trivial differences with respect to connectivity, contact distribution, and super-spreaders identification. Furthermore, our analyses on paratuberculosis data suggested that the contributions of direct and indirect contacts on diseases spread are apparent at different spatial scales. Our results highlighted the potential role of indirect contacts in between-farm disease spread and underlined the need for a deeper understanding of these contacts to develop better strategies for prevention of livestock epidemics.

  5. Infection Dynamics of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle Following Intranasopharyngeal Inoculation or Contact Exposure.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, J M; Stenfeldt, C; Rodriguez, L L; Arzt, J

    2016-11-01

    For the purpose of developing an improved experimental model for studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, three different experimental systems based on natural or simulated natural virus exposure were compared under standardized experimental conditions. Ante-mortem infection dynamics were characterized in cattle exposed to FMDV through a novel, simulated natural intranasopharyngeal (INP) inoculation system or through standardized and controlled systems of within- or between-species direct contact exposure (cattle-to-cattle or pig-to-cattle). All three systems were efficient in causing synchronous, generalized foot-and-mouth disease in cattle exposed to one of three different strains of FMDV representing serotypes O, A and Asia1. There was more within-group variation in the timing of clinical infection following natural and simulated natural virus exposure systems when compared with the conventionally used system of needle inoculation (intraepithelial lingual inoculation). However, the three optimized exposure systems described herein have the advantage of closely simulating field conditions by utilizing natural routes of primary infection, thereby facilitating engagement of mucosal host defence mechanisms. Overall, it is concluded that INP inoculation and standardized systems of direct contact exposure provide effective alternatives to conventional (needle) inoculation systems for studies in which it is desirable to simulate the natural biology of FMDV infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Mycobacterium marinum infection following contact with reptiles: vivarium granuloma.

    PubMed

    Bouricha, Mehdi; Castan, Bernard; Duchene-Parisi, Elisabeth; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-04-01

    A 19-year-old man presented with a 1.5-cm nodule on the first dorsal metacarpal ray. The patient denied having contact with fish tanks or fish, but recalled handling many reptiles without gloves in the vivarium where he worked. A culture of a skin biopsy specimen yielded Mycobacterium marinum. The clinical outcome was favourable after a 2-week course of intramuscular gentamicin (180 mg daily) combined with a 6-week course of oral clarithromycin (500 mg twice a day). Doctors should be aware that vivariums, in addition to fish tanks, can be sources of M. marinum exposure.

  7. [Neonatal infection with Salmonella apapa after contact with a reptile in the home].

    PubMed

    Haase, R; Beier, T; Bernstädt, M; Merkel, N; Bartnicki, J

    2011-04-01

    Salmonella apapa is transmitted by reptiles, e.g., bearded dragons. To date only few cases of S. apapa-related human infections have been reported. Because the bacteria are transmitted through the feces of animals or direct contact with low infection doses, infection in early infancy is possible. We report an 18-day-old newborn with sepsis caused by Salmonella apapa. Salmonella apapa was isolated from the feces of a bearded dragon living along with the family.

  8. Time-Motion Analysis of Health Care Workers’ Contact With Patients and Workers’ Hand Hygiene: Open vs Closed Units

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Babar A.; Hui, Ken Yon; Hui, Siu L.; Gulati, Rajesh; Tricker, Jason; Campbell, Noll L.; Farber, Mark O.; Boustani, Malaz A.; Buckley, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of open (care provided by general medicine teams with a pulmonary intensivist consultant) vs closed (care provided by a dedicated critical care team) intensive care units on health care workers’ contact with patients and their hand hygiene is uncertain. Objective To determine if closed intensive care units have fewer visits of patients by health care providers and greater hand-washing compliance among providers than do open units. Methods Time-motion analysis was used to observe 2 rooms in a medical intensive care unit at a teaching hospital affiliated with Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, for 96 hours before and after closure of the unit. The main outcome measures were frequency of health care providers’ visits and their hand-washing hygiene compliance rates. Results Mean number of visits per room per hour by physicians (1.53 in the open unit vs 1.27 in the closed unit; P = .93) and nurses (3.98 in open unit vs 4.14 in closed unit; P = .60) did not differ. No differences were observed in gold-standard hand washing among physicians (0.00% in open unit vs 2.63% in closed unit; P = .11) or nurses (2.50% in open unit vs 3.49% in closed unit; P = .51). However, hand washing decreased significantly in nurses in the closed unit (40.94% in open unit vs 29.84% in closed unit; P = .002). Conclusion Closing the intensive care unit did not decrease the number of contacts between health care providers and patients nor did it increase the providers’ compliance with hand hygiene. PMID:21532037

  9. Distance of the contact glide in the closing masticatory stroke during mastication of three types of food.

    PubMed

    Rilo, B; Fernández-Formoso, N; Mora, M J; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Santana, U

    2009-08-01

    This study was designed to characterize the distance of the contact glide in the closing masticatory stroke in healthy adult subjects, during chewing of three types of food (crustless bread, chewing gum and peanuts). Mandibular movements (masticatory movements and laterality movements with dental contact) were registered using a gnathograph (MK-6I Diagnostic System) on the right and left side during unilateral chewing of the three food types. Length of dental contact was measured in masticatory cycle, which is defined as where the terminal part of the chewing cycles could be superimposed on the pathways taken by the mandible during lateral excursions with occlusal contacts. The length of dental contact during mastication of chewing gum is 1.46 +/- 1 mm, during chewing of soft bread is 1.38 +/- 0.7 mm and during chewing of peanuts is 1.45 +/- 0.9 mm. There is no significant difference in the lengths of dental contact during mastication of three types of foods that enable direct tooth gliding.

  10. Personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices of Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with Jewish Israelis.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Abu Kheit, Ayat

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the connection between personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices among Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with the Jewish population in Israel. One hundred twenty-two Palestinian Israelis participated in the study. The participants were employed in different professional positions in the Tel Aviv Metropolitan area and were recruited to the study using the snowball technique. A stronger national identification was associated with a higher preference for the security and conformity values, and a lower preference for the humility values. A stronger ethnic identification was associated with a lower preference for the security, power, and stimulation values. Group identifications mediated the connection between personal value preferences and cultural practices. A longer time working in close contact with the majority group and less frequent visits home were associated with a greater adherence to the majority group's cultural practices but not with adherence to the ethnic group's practices and not with the group identifications.

  11. Vitamin D status in under-five children with a history of close tuberculosis contact in Padang, West Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Yani, Finny Fitry; Lipoeto, Nur Indrawaty; Supriyatno, Bambang; Darwin, Eryati; Basir, Darfioes

    2017-06-01

    Serum vitamin D influences cellular immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, particularly in under-five children. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency as well as tuberculosis (TB) are highly prevalent in Indonesia. This study described the association of serum vitamin D in the incidence of latent TB in under-five children with a history of close TB contact. This cross-sectional study examined 178 under-five children with a history of close TB contact, with 98 index cases from primary health care facilities in Padang. Latent TB was defined based on a positive tuberculin skin test. Serum vitamin D was determined using ELISA method. General characteristics for age, sex, socioeconomic status, contact score, BCG scars, and nutritional status were also collected. Of 168 eligible subjects, 40.5% had latent TB, however no differences between 'latent TB' and 'without latent TB' were observed in participant characteristics. Vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency were observed in 23.3%, 43.5%, and 33.3% of children, respectively. In general, the 'latent TB' group had lower serum vitamin D than those in the 'without latent TB' group, stratified by age, contact score and nutritional status; however, significant differences were observed in children age <1 years (18.0±2.6 vs 31.2±10.5, respectively, p=0.013). Nevertheless, no associations between the two groups were observed using multivariate analysis. Vitamin D status was not associated with the incidence of latent TB among under-five children with a history of close TB contact, although this may not obtain in children aged <1 year old.

  12. Lack of Marburg Virus Transmission From Experimentally Infected to Susceptible In-Contact Egyptian Fruit Bats.

    PubMed

    Paweska, Janusz T; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Fenton, Karla A; Graves, Kerry; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A; Moolla, Naazneen; Leman, Patricia; Weyer, Jacqueline; Storm, Nadia; McCulloch, Stewart D; Scott, Terence P; Markotter, Wanda; Odendaal, Lieza; Clift, Sarah J; Geisbert, Thomas W; Hale, Martin J; Kemp, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) were inoculated subcutaneously (n = 22) with Marburg virus (MARV). No deaths, overt signs of morbidity, or gross lesions was identified, but microscopic pathological changes were seen in the liver of infected bats. The virus was detected in 15 different tissues and plasma but only sporadically in mucosal swab samples, urine, and fecal samples. Neither seroconversion nor viremia could be demonstrated in any of the in-contact susceptible bats (n = 14) up to 42 days after exposure to infected bats. In bats rechallenged (n = 4) on day 48 after infection, there was no viremia, and the virus could not be isolated from any of the tissues tested. This study confirmed that infection profiles are consistent with MARV replication in a reservoir host but failed to demonstrate MARV transmission through direct physical contact or indirectly via air. Bats develop strong protective immunity after infection with MARV.

  13. Salmonella enterica serotype Javiana infections associated with amphibian contact, Mississippi, 2001.

    PubMed Central

    Srikantiah, P.; Lay, J. C.; Hand, S.; Crump, J. A.; Campbell, J.; Van Duyne, M. S.; Bishop, R.; Middendor, R.; Currier, M.; Mead, P. S.; Mølbak, K.

    2004-01-01

    Salmonella Javiana is a Salmonella serotype that is restricted geographically in the United States to the Southeast. During the summer of 2001, the number of reported S. Javiana infections in Mississippi increased sevenfold. To identify sources of infection, we conducted a case-control study, defining a case as an infection with S. Javiana between August and September in a Mississippi resident. We enrolled 55 cases and 109 controls. Thirty (55%) case patients reported exposure to amphibians, defined as owning, touching, or seeing an amphibian on one's property, compared with 30 (29%) controls (matched odds ratio 2.8, P=0.006). Contact with amphibians and their environments may be a risk factor for human infection with S. Javiana. The geographic pattern of S. Javiana infections in the United States mimics the distribution of certain amphibian species in the Southeast. Public health officials should consider amphibians as potential sources of salmonellosis, and promote hand washing after contact with amphibians. PMID:15061502

  14. The mathematical models of electromagnetic field dynamics and heat transfer in closed electrical contacts including Thomson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharin, Stanislav; Sarsengeldin, Merey; Kassabek, Samat

    2016-08-01

    We represent mathematical models of electromagnetic field dynamics and heat transfer in closed symmetric and asymmetric electrical contacts including Thomson effect, which are essentially nonlinear due to the dependence of thermal and electrical conductivities on temperature. Suggested solutions are based on the assumption of identity of equipotentials and isothermal surfaces, which agrees with experimental data and valid for both linear and nonlinear cases. Well known Kohlrausch temperature-potential relation is analytically justified.

  15. Potential for Non-Contact ACL Injury Between Step-Close-Jump and Hop-Jump Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-I; Gu, Chin-Yi; Chen, Wei-Ling; Chang, Mu-San

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the kinematics and kinetics during the landing of hop-jump and step-close-jump movements in order to provide further inferring that the potential risk of ACL injuries. Eleven elite male volleyball players were recruited to perform hop-jump and step-close-jump tasks. Lower extremity kinematics and ground reaction forces during landing in stop-jump tasks were recorded. Lower extremity kinetics was calculated by using an inverse dynamic process. Step-close-jump tasks demonstrated smaller peak proximal tibia anterior shear forces during the landing phase. In step-close-jump tasks, increasing hip joint angular velocity during initial foot-ground contact decreased peak posterior ground reaction force during the landing phase, which theoretically could reduce the risk of ACL injury. Key points The different landing techniques required for these two stop-jump tasks do not necessarily affect the jump height. Hop-jump decreased the hip joint angular velocity at initial foot contact with ground, which could lead to an increasing peak posterior GRF during the landing phase. Hop-jump decreased hip and knee joint angular flexion displacement during the landing, which could increase the peak vertical loading rate during the landing phase. PMID:24149397

  16. Potential for Non-Contact ACL Injury Between Step-Close-Jump and Hop-Jump Tasks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-I; Gu, Chin-Yi; Chen, Wei-Ling; Chang, Mu-San

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the kinematics and kinetics during the landing of hop-jump and step-close-jump movements in order to provide further inferring that the potential risk of ACL injuries. Eleven elite male volleyball players were recruited to perform hop-jump and step-close-jump tasks. Lower extremity kinematics and ground reaction forces during landing in stop-jump tasks were recorded. Lower extremity kinetics was calculated by using an inverse dynamic process. Step-close-jump tasks demonstrated smaller peak proximal tibia anterior shear forces during the landing phase. In step-close-jump tasks, increasing hip joint angular velocity during initial foot-ground contact decreased peak posterior ground reaction force during the landing phase, which theoretically could reduce the risk of ACL injury. Key pointsThe different landing techniques required for these two stop-jump tasks do not necessarily affect the jump height.Hop-jump decreased the hip joint angular velocity at initial foot contact with ground, which could lead to an increasing peak posterior GRF during the landing phase.Hop-jump decreased hip and knee joint angular flexion displacement during the landing, which could increase the peak vertical loading rate during the landing phase.

  17. IMMUNE CORRELATES OF ACUTE MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION IN HOUSEHOLD CONTACTS IN KAMPALA, UGANDA

    PubMed Central

    WHALEN, CHRISTOPHER C.; CHIUNDA, ALLAN; ZALWANGO, SARAH; NSHUTI, LORNA; JONES-LOPEZ, EDWARD; OKWERA, ALPHONSE; HIRSCH, CHRISTINA; PETERS, PIERRE; BOOM, W. HENRY; MUGERWA, ROY D.

    2010-01-01

    To determine immunologic and epidemiologic correlates of acute Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in household contacts of infectious tuberculosis cases, we performed a prospective, community-based cohort study of index cases and their household contacts in Kampala, Uganda. Contacts were evaluated for tuberculin skin test (TST) conversion over two years. Interferon-γ expression was measured using a whole blood assay after stimulating with M. tuberculosis culture-filtrate. In 222 contacts with a TST less than 5 mm at baseline, the one-year rate of TST conversion was 27%. The TST conversion was associated with the infectiousness of the index case and proximity of contact. Interferon-γ levels at baseline were greater among TST converters compared with those who did not convert. The risk of TST conversion increased four-fold as the baseline interferon-γ increased 10-fold, but only in contacts with BCG vaccination. In household contacts of tuberculosis, interferon-γ responses to non-specific mycobacterial antigens may be used to make an early diagnosis of tuberculosis infection, especially in resource-limited settings where bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination is commonly used. PMID:16837709

  18. Patterns of direct and indirect contact between cattle and badgers naturally infected with tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Drewe, J A; O'Connor, H M; Weber, N; McDonald, R A; Delahay, R J

    2013-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis is transmitted between cattle and badgers (Meles meles) in the UK and Ireland but it is unclear where or when transmission occurs. We investigated direct and indirect interactions between badgers and cattle using automated proximity loggers on animals and at badger latrines located on pasture, in an area of south-west England with a high-density badger population. Direct contacts (interactions within 1.4 m) between badgers and cattle at pasture were very rare (four out of >500000 recorded animal-to-animal contacts) despite ample opportunity for interactions to occur. Indirect interactions (visits to badger latrines by badgers and cattle) were two orders of magnitude more frequent than direct contacts: 400 visits by badgers and 1700 visits by cattle were recorded. This suggests that indirect contacts might be more important than direct contacts in terms of disease transmission at pasture. The TB infection status of individual badgers (ascribed with 93% accuracy using three diagnostic tests) did not affect the frequency or duration of their visits to latrines located on pasture grazed by cattle. Nevertheless, there was wide variation in contact behaviour between individuals, which highlights the importance of understanding heterogeneity in contact patterns when developing strategies to control disease spread in wildlife and livestock.

  19. Sharing specific "We" autobiographical memories in close relationships: the role of contact frequency.

    PubMed

    Beike, Denise R; Cole, Holly E; Merrick, Carmen R

    2017-04-10

    Sharing memories in conversations with close others is posited to be part of the social function of autobiographical memory. The present research focused on the sharing of a particular type of memory: Specific memories about one-time co-experienced events, which we termed Specific We memories. Two studies with 595 total participants examined the factors that lead to and/or are influenced by the sharing of Specific We memories. In Study 1, participants reported on their most recent conversation. Specific We memories were reportedly discussed most often in conversations with others who were close and with whom the participant had frequent communication. In Study 2, participants were randomly assigned either to increase or to simply record the frequency of communication with a close other (parent). Increases in the frequency of reported sharing of Specific We memories as well as closeness to the parent resulted. Mediation analyses of both studies revealed causal relationships among reported sharing of Specific We memories and closeness. We discuss the relevance of these results for understanding the social function of autobiographical memory.

  20. Social buffering and contact transmission: network connections have beneficial and detrimental effects on Shigella infection risk among captive rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Beisner, Brianne; Vandeleest, Jessica; Atwill, Edward; McCowan, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    In social animals, group living may impact the risk of infectious disease acquisition in two ways. On the one hand, social connectedness puts individuals at greater risk or susceptibility for acquiring enteric pathogens via contact-mediated transmission. Yet conversely, in strongly bonded societies like humans and some nonhuman primates, having close connections and strong social ties of support can also socially buffer individuals against susceptibility or transmissibility of infectious agents. Using social network analyses, we assessed the potentially competing roles of contact-mediated transmission and social buffering on the risk of infection from an enteric bacterial pathogen (Shigella flexneri) among captive groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Our results indicate that, within two macaque groups, individuals possessing more direct and especially indirect connections in their grooming and huddling social networks were less susceptible to infection. These results are in sharp contrast to several previous studies that indicate that increased (direct) contact-mediated transmission facilitates infectious disease transmission, including our own findings in a third macaque group in which individuals central in their huddling network and/or which initiated more fights were more likely to be infected. In summary, our findings reveal that an individual’s social connections may increase or decrease its chances of acquiring infectious agents. They extend the applicability of the social buffering hypothesis, beyond just stress and immune-function-related health benefits, to the additional health outcome of infectious disease resistance. Finally, we speculate that the circumstances under which social buffering versus contact-mediated transmission may occur could depend on multiple factors, such as living condition, pathogen-specific transmission routes, and/or an overall social context such as a group’s social stability. PMID:27812426

  1. Social buffering and contact transmission: network connections have beneficial and detrimental effects on Shigella infection risk among captive rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Krishna; Beisner, Brianne; Vandeleest, Jessica; Atwill, Edward; McCowan, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    In social animals, group living may impact the risk of infectious disease acquisition in two ways. On the one hand, social connectedness puts individuals at greater risk or susceptibility for acquiring enteric pathogens via contact-mediated transmission. Yet conversely, in strongly bonded societies like humans and some nonhuman primates, having close connections and strong social ties of support can also socially buffer individuals against susceptibility or transmissibility of infectious agents. Using social network analyses, we assessed the potentially competing roles of contact-mediated transmission and social buffering on the risk of infection from an enteric bacterial pathogen (Shigella flexneri) among captive groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Our results indicate that, within two macaque groups, individuals possessing more direct and especially indirect connections in their grooming and huddling social networks were less susceptible to infection. These results are in sharp contrast to several previous studies that indicate that increased (direct) contact-mediated transmission facilitates infectious disease transmission, including our own findings in a third macaque group in which individuals central in their huddling network and/or which initiated more fights were more likely to be infected. In summary, our findings reveal that an individual's social connections may increase or decrease its chances of acquiring infectious agents. They extend the applicability of the social buffering hypothesis, beyond just stress and immune-function-related health benefits, to the additional health outcome of infectious disease resistance. Finally, we speculate that the circumstances under which social buffering versus contact-mediated transmission may occur could depend on multiple factors, such as living condition, pathogen-specific transmission routes, and/or an overall social context such as a group's social stability.

  2. Incredibly close-A newly identified peroxisome-ER contact site in humans.

    PubMed

    Schuldiner, Maya; Zalckvar, Einat

    2017-02-01

    Peroxisomes are tiny organelles that control important and diverse metabolic processes via their interplay with other organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this issue, Costello et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201607055) and Hua et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201608128) identify a peroxisome-ER contact site in human cells held together by a tethering complex of VAPA/B (vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated proteins A/B) and ACBD5 (acyl Co-A binding protein 5).

  3. Close To You? How Parent–Adult Child Contact Is Influenced by Family Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Spitze, Glenna; Ward, Russell A.; Zhuo, Yue (Angela)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Intergenerational contacts occur in the context of other family relationships. We examine how in-person contacts among parents and all adult children affect each other, focusing on proximity and other predictors to assess whether and how visiting is correlated across adult children. Methods. We use a modeling approach derived from an adaptation of multilevel models to provide a convenient mechanism by which to write child-specific equations, each with its own set of predictors, and wherein one child’s attribute values can be attached to other children’s records. Results. We find that parent–adult child visiting is positively correlated across siblings, but the frequency of visiting within families is not directly reciprocated. Rather, visiting responds to common family factors. Visiting declines with distance, but there are strong discontinuities in the effect. Distance between parents and a focal child is positively associated with visiting with other children. Discussion. The empirical patterns we report can be framed within enhancement and compensation models. Positive correlations and cross-sibling interactions that juxtapose levels of visiting against not seeing a child in last 12 months are consistent with the enhancement model. The cross-sibling interaction for distance, whereby one child’s farther distance leads to more visits reported with others, provides evidence of a countervailing, though, weaker, pattern of compensation for proximity. PMID:26024669

  4. [Screening contacts for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) using an interferon test in Paris in 2009].

    PubMed

    Fournier, A; Antoun, F; Collignon, A; Muller, G; Rouvier, J; Ayache, B; Guesnon, M-S; Larnaudie, S

    2012-01-01

    There are two reasons for screening contacts: one is to identify cases of secondary tuberculosis disease (TB) and the other is to identify new cases of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The tuberculin skin test (TST) and the interferon-gamma-release assay (IGRA) have their limitations when used for the detection of LTBI. They neither allow a definite diagnosis of LTBI nor provide information as to the date of onset. The present study was observational, multi-centre (four centers) and retrospective. Six hundred and one contacts were included. The results of the QFT test showed 88 positive (15 %). Among the 144 index cases, all presented with pulmonary disease and 89 cases were sputum positive. In our series, 101 contacts belonged to the family circle. The four factors that had a significant positive impact on the result of the QFT test were: increasing age, the region of birth of the contact (high incidence areas), both of which may indicate old infection, while contact within the family and sputum positivity of the index case probably indicate recent infection. Only sputum positivity influenced the decision to treat the LTBI. We propose a tool aimed at facilitating the decision making process in QFT positive cases. Estimation of the duration of LTBI should help the physician to decide on the need for preventative treatment as well as a search for factors that increase the risk of progression to TB disease.

  5. Linking Contact Behavior and Droplet Patterns to Dynamically Model Indoor Respiratory Infections Among Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    You, Shu-Han; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Wang, Chien-Hua; Liao, Chung-Min

    2013-01-01

    Background We used the results of a contact behavior survey in conjunction with droplet pattern measurement to investigate the indoor population transmission dynamics of respiratory infections. Methods A total of 404 questionnaires on all contact behaviors were distributed to junior high school students. Droplet number concentration and size distribution generated by coughing and talking were measured by droplet experimentation. A deterministic susceptible–exposed–infected–recovery (SEIR) model was used to simulate the indoor transmission dynamics of influenza infection among schoolchildren. Results Results indicated that the average contact rates ranged from 9.44 to 11.18 person−1 day−1 for grades 7 to 9. We showed that total median droplet number concentrations were 9.01 × 107 and 8.23 × 107 droplets per cubic meter for coughing and talking, respectively. Population dynamic simulations indicated that the size-dependent median number of droplets per person resulted in a maximum of 8 and 10 infected persons on day 4, respectively, for talking and coughing activities. Conclusions Human contact behavior and airborne droplet characteristics may substantially change predicted indoor population transmission dynamics of influenza infection. PMID:23728484

  6. Tuberculosis in prisoners and their contacts in Chile: estimating incidence and latent infection.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, X P; González, C; Nájera-De Ferrari, M; Hirmas, M; Delgado, I; Olea, A; Lezaeta, L; Montaña, A; González, P; Hormazábal, J-C; Fernández, J; García, C; Herrera, T

    2016-01-01

    Contact investigation of tuberculosis (TB) patients in Chilean prisons. 1) To estimate TB incidence and the prevalence of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) among prisoners and their contacts; and 2) to determine factors associated with disease transmission. Cross-sectional study conducted in 46 prisons (51% of the total prison population) to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for LTBI among contacts of prisoners newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB. We used in vitro interferon-gamma release assays to establish LTBI and a questionnaire to address risk factors. During the 1-year follow-up, we studied 418 contacts of 33 active TB cases. We found high TB incidence (123.9 per 100,000 prisoners) and high LTBI prevalence (29.4%) among contacts. LTBI rates are significantly higher in prison inmates than in non-prisoners (33.2% vs. 15.6%). Male sex, illicit drugs, malnutrition, corticosteroid use, low educational level and sharing a cell with a case increase the risk of LTBI. Multivariate analyses showed that corticosteroid use, duration of incarceration and overcrowding are the most relevant determinants for LTBI among all contacts. Our results confirm that incarceration increases the risk of tuberculous infection and TB disease, and that it was associated not only with origin from vulnerable groups, but also with the prison environment. Reinforcing TB control is essential to prevent TB transmission in prisons.

  7. Infection risk associated with a closed luer access device.

    PubMed

    Adams, D; Karpanen, T; Worthington, T; Lambert, P; Elliott, T S J

    2006-03-01

    The potential for microbial contamination associated with a recently developed needleless closed luer access device (CLAD) (Q-Syte; Becton Dickinson, Sandy, UT, USA) was evaluated in vitro. Compression seals of 50 multiply activated Q-Syte devices were inoculated with Staphylococcus epidermidis NCTC 9865 in 25% (v/v) human blood and then disinfected with 70% (v/v) isopropyl alcohol followed by flushing with 0.9% (w/v) sterile saline. Forty-eight of 50 (96%) saline flushes passed through devices that had been activated up to a maximum of 70 times remained sterile. A further 25 Q-Syte CLADs that had undergone multiple activations were challenged with prefilled 0.9% (w/v) sterile saline syringes, the external luer tips of which had been inoculated with S. epidermidis NCTC 9865 prior to accessing the devices. None of the devices that had been accessed up to 70 times allowed passage of micro-organisms, despite challenge micro-organisms being detected on both the syringe tip after activation and the compression seals before decontamination. These findings suggest that the Q-Syte CLAD may be activated up to 70 times with no increased risk of microbial contamination within the fluid pathway. The device may also offer protection from the external surface of syringe tips contaminated with micro-organisms.

  8. Cell–cell contact promotes Ebola virus GP-mediated infection

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Chunhui; Li, Minghua; Zheng, Yi-Min; Cohen, Fredric S.; Liu, Shan-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is a highly pathogenic filovirus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and animals. Here we provide evidence that cell–cell contact promotes infection mediated by the glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV. Interestingly, expression of EBOV GP alone, even in the absence of retroviral Gag-Pol, is sufficient to transfer a retroviral vector encoding Tet-off from cell to cell. Cell-to-cell infection mediated by EBOV GP is blocked by inhibitors of actin polymerization, but appears to be less sensitive to KZ52 neutralization. Treatment of co-cultured cells with cathepsin B/L inhibitors, or an entry inhibitor 3.47 that targets the virus binding to receptor NPC1, also blocks cell-to-cell infection. Cell–cell contact also enhances spread of rVSV bearing GP in monocytes and macrophages, the primary targets of natural EBOV infection. Altogether, our study reveals that cell–cell contact promotes EBOV GP-mediated infection, and provides new insight into understanding EBOV spread and viral pathogenesis. PMID:26655238

  9. Infection with hemotropic Mycoplasma species in patients with or without extensive arthropod or animal contact.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Compton, Sarah M; Trull, Chelsea L; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Mozayeni, B Robert; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2013-10-01

    PCR amplification targeting the 16S rRNA gene was used to test individuals with and without extensive arthropod and animal contact for the possibility of hemotropic mycoplasma infection. The prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasma infection (4.7%) was significantly greater in previously reported cohorts of veterinarians, veterinary technicians, spouses of veterinary professionals, and others with extensive arthropod exposure and/or frequent animal contact than in a previously reported cohort of patients examined by a rheumatologist because of chronic joint pain or evidence of small-vessel disease (0.7%). Based upon DNA sequence analysis, a Mycoplasma ovis-like species was the most prevalent organism detected; however, infection with "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum" and a potentially novel, but incompletely characterized, hemotropic Mycoplasma species was also documented. Historical exposure to animals and arthropod vectors that can harbor hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. should be considered during epidemiological investigations and in the evaluation of individual patients.

  10. Close intramolecular sulfur-oxygen contacts: modified force field parameters for improved conformation generation.

    PubMed

    Lupyan, Dmitry; Abramov, Yuriy A; Sherman, Woody

    2012-11-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) offers an excellent data source to study small molecule conformations and molecular interactions. We have analyzed 130 small molecules from the CSD containing an intramolecular sulfur-oxygen distance less than the sum of their van der Waals (vdW) radii. Close S···O distances are observed in several important medicinal chemistry motifs (e.g. a carbonyl oxygen connected by a carbon or nitrogen linker to a sulfur) and are not treated well with existing parameters in the MMFFs or OPLS_2005 force fields, resulting in suboptimal geometries and energetics. In this work, we develop modified parameters for the OPLS_2005 force field to better treat this specific interaction in order to generate conformations close to those found in the CSD structures. We use a combination of refitting a force field torsional parameter, adding a specific atom pair vdW term, and attenuating the electrostatic interactions to obtain an improvement in the accuracy of geometry minimizations and conformational searches for these molecules. Specifically, in a conformational search 58 % of the cases produced a conformation less than 0.25 Å from the CSD crystal conformation with the modified OPLS force field parameters developed in this work. In contrast, 25 and 37 % produced a conformation less than 0.25 Å with the MMFFs and OPLS_2005 force fields, respectively. As an application of the new parameters, we generated conformations for the tyrosine kinase inhibitor axitinib (trade name Inlyta) that could be correctly repacked into three observed polymorphic structures, which was not possible with conformations generated using MMFFs or OPLS_2005. The improved parameters can be mapped directly onto physical characteristics of the systems that are treated inadequately with the molecular mechanics force fields used in this study and potentially other force fields as well.

  11. Close intramolecular sulfur-oxygen contacts: modified force field parameters for improved conformation generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupyan, Dmitry; Abramov, Yuriy A.; Sherman, Woody

    2012-11-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) offers an excellent data source to study small molecule conformations and molecular interactions. We have analyzed 130 small molecules from the CSD containing an intramolecular sulfur-oxygen distance less than the sum of their van der Waals (vdW) radii. Close S···O distances are observed in several important medicinal chemistry motifs (e.g. a carbonyl oxygen connected by a carbon or nitrogen linker to a sulfur) and are not treated well with existing parameters in the MMFFs or OPLS_2005 force fields, resulting in suboptimal geometries and energetics. In this work, we develop modified parameters for the OPLS_2005 force field to better treat this specific interaction in order to generate conformations close to those found in the CSD structures. We use a combination of refitting a force field torsional parameter, adding a specific atom pair vdW term, and attenuating the electrostatic interactions to obtain an improvement in the accuracy of geometry minimizations and conformational searches for these molecules. Specifically, in a conformational search 58 % of the cases produced a conformation less than 0.25 Å from the CSD crystal conformation with the modified OPLS force field parameters developed in this work. In contrast, 25 and 37 % produced a conformation less than 0.25 Å with the MMFFs and OPLS_2005 force fields, respectively. As an application of the new parameters, we generated conformations for the tyrosine kinase inhibitor axitinib (trade name Inlyta) that could be correctly repacked into three observed polymorphic structures, which was not possible with conformations generated using MMFFs or OPLS_2005. The improved parameters can be mapped directly onto physical characteristics of the systems that are treated inadequately with the molecular mechanics force fields used in this study and potentially other force fields as well.

  12. Cough Aerosols of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Predict New Infection. A Household Contact Study

    PubMed Central

    Namugga, Olive; Mumbowa, Francis; Ssebidandi, Martin; Mbabazi, Olive; Moine, Stephanie; Mboowa, Gerald; Fox, Matthew P.; Reilly, Nancy; Ayakaka, Irene; Kim, Soyeon; Okwera, Alphonse; Joloba, Moses; Fennelly, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Airborne transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis results from incompletely characterized host, bacterial, and environmental factors. Sputum smear microscopy is associated with considerable variability in transmission. Objectives: To evaluate the use of cough-generated aerosols of M. tuberculosis to predict recent transmission. Methods: Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) underwent a standard evaluation and collection of cough aerosol cultures of M. tuberculosis. We assessed household contacts for new M. tuberculosis infection. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis with cluster adjustment to analyze predictors of new infection. Measurements and Main Results: From May 2009 to January 2011, we enrolled 96 sputum culture-positive index TB cases and their 442 contacts. Only 43 (45%) patients with TB yielded M. tuberculosis in aerosols. Contacts of patients with TB who produced high aerosols (≥10 CFU) were more likely to have a new infection compared with contacts from low-aerosol (1–9 CFU) and aerosol-negative cases (69%, 25%, and 30%, respectively; P = 0.009). A high-aerosol patient with TB was the only predictor of new M. tuberculosis infection in unadjusted (odds ratio, 5.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.52–17.61) and adjusted analyses (odds ratio, 4.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–19.23). Contacts of patients with TB with no aerosols versus low and high aerosols had differential tuberculin skin test and interferon-γ release assay responses. Conclusions: Cough aerosols of M. tuberculosis are produced by a minority of patients with TB but predict transmission better than sputum smear microscopy or culture. Cough aerosols may help identify the most infectious patients with TB and thus improve the cost-effectiveness of TB control programs. PMID:23306539

  13. Understanding the Physical Aging Behavior of Glassy Polystyrene Layers in Close Contact with Rubbery Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Connie; Rauscher, Phil; Pye, Justin; Baglay, Roman

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in synthesis strategies and processing methods have led to new nanostructured polymer blend and block-copolymer materials containing domain sizes less than 100 nm with glassy and rubbery domains in close proximity. Given the outsized role interfacial perturbations have played in causing large changes in the glass transition temperature Tg and physical aging of ultrathin single-layer films, we are interested in studying how the presence of glassy-rubbery interfaces between neighboring polymer domains may alter the local stability and physical aging of confined glassy layers. Using a polystyrene (PS) / poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PnBMA) weakly immiscible system with 7 nm interfacial width, we demonstrate how ellipsometry can be used to isolate the physical aging rate of thin PS layers atop rubbery PnBMA layers. Despite a 25-30 K reduction in the average Tg of 84 nm thick PS layers atop PnBMA as measured by fluorescence, we observe no change in the PS aging rate relative to bulk. These results are in contrast with previous works on single-layer polymer films that have found the local aging rate to often be correlated with local Tg changes. This appears not to be the case for glassy PS layers atop rubbery PnBMA suggesting some additional factor is affecting the structural relaxation occurring near the glassy-rubbery interface.

  14. Closed form expressions for sheet resistance and mobility from Van-der-Pauw measurement on 90° symmetric devices with four arbitrary contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausserlechner, Udo

    2016-02-01

    Sheet resistance and Hall mobility are commonly measured by Van der Pauw's method. Closed form expressions are known for four point-sized contacts. Recently, for devices with fourfold rotational symmetry a closed form expression for the sheet resistance was given for contacts of arbitrary size. In this paper we discuss its accuracy, link it to the equivalent circuit diagram of the device, and add another expression that determines the Hall mobility with 0.02% accuracy.

  15. Prosthetic Arteriovenous Graft Contact Dermatitis Masquerading as an Arteriovenous Graft Infection in a Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ramagiri-Vinod, Nagadarshini; Tahir, Hassan; Narukonda, Sandhya; Joshi, Medha

    2016-01-01

    Prosthetic arteriovenous (AV) graft is the second most common vascular access of choice in hemodialysis patients. Rare complications of such grafts are increasingly seen due to rising population of patients on hemodialysis. Infections and thrombosis are the most common complications. Though metallic implants are known to cause hypersensitivity skin reactions, prosthetic AV grafts are rarely known to cause such kind of reactions due to inert nature of materials used in their preparation. We present a case of 54-year-old male who developed contact dermatitis after AV graft creation which was mistreated initially as infection. PMID:27493977

  16. Seroepidemiological survey on Rift Valley fever among small ruminants and their close human contacts in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A M; Ashshi, A M; Asghar, A H; Abd El-Rahim, I H A; El-Shemi, A G; Zafar, T

    2014-12-01

    This study describes a seroepidemiological survey on Rift Valley fever (RVF) among small ruminants and their close human contacts in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. A total of 500 small ruminants (126 local, 374 imported) were randomly selected from the sacrifice livestock yards of Al-Kaakiah slaughterhouse, in the holy city of Makkah, during the pilgrimage season 1432 H (4-9 November 2011). In addition, blood samples were collected from 100 local workers in close contact with the animals at the slaughterhouse. An RVF competition multi-species enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detecting anti-RVF virus immunoglobulin G (IgG)/ immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and an RVF IgM-specific ELISA were used for serological investigations. In total, 84 (16.8%) of the 500 sacrificial sheep and goats tested seropositive in the competition ELISA but no IgM antibodies were detected in the IgM-specific assay. All seropositive samples, comprising 17.91% of the imported animals and 13.49% of the local ones, were therefore designated positive for anti-RVF virus IgG antibody. Among the local personnel working in close contact with the animals, 9% tested seropositive in the RVF competition ELISA. The study indicates that two factors may increase the likelihood of an RVF outbreak among sacrificial animals and pilgrims: i) the large-scale importation of small ruminants into Saudi Arabia from the Horn of Africa shortly before the pilgrimage season, and ii) the movement of animals within Saudi Arabia, from the RVF-endemic south-western area (Jizan region) to the Makkah region, particularly in the few weeks before the pilgrimage season. From these findings, it is recommended that i) all regulations concerning the import of animals into Saudi Arabia from Africa should be rigorously applied, particularly the RVF vaccination of all ruminants destined for export at least two weeks before exportation, and ii) the movement of animals from the RVF-endemic south-western area (Jizan region) of Saudi

  17. Human vaccinia infection after contact with a raccoon rabies vaccine bait - Pennsylvania, 2009.

    PubMed

    2009-11-06

    Since 2003, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Wildlife Services has coordinated a multistate oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program for wildlife in a 15-state zone extending from Maine to Alabama and in Texas. The program seeks to enhance local control and prevent the spread of epizootic rabies among raccoons and, in Texas, among gray foxes and coyotes. The program uses baits containing liquid vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) recombinant virus vaccine. Because contact with ruptured baits can produce vaccinia virus infection in certain persons, surveillance for human and domestic animal contact with the baits is conducted, relying largely on reports from persons who find baits and call telephone numbers printed on them. In August 2009, during the autumn baiting campaign in western Pennsylvania, a woman aged 35 years who was taking immunosuppressive medication for inflammatory bowel disease contacted the Pennsylvania Department of Health (PADOH) after handling a ruptured bait, which had leaked liquid rabies vaccine onto a patch of abraded skin on her right hand. The patient subsequently developed vaccinia virus infection and was treated with human vaccinia immune globulin intravenous (VIGIV) and an investigational antiviral agent. This report describes this case, which was the second case of human vaccinia infection related to the ORV program. Public health agencies should educate the public, and particularly pet owners, regarding potential hazards associated with handling wildlife rabies vaccine baits and should provide guidance for persons exposed to this vaccine.

  18. Urban schistosomiasis: morbidity, sociodemographic characteristics and water contact patterns predictive of infection.

    PubMed

    Firmo, J O; Lima Costa, M F; Guerra, H L; Rocha, R S

    1996-12-01

    Schistosomiasis (Schistosoma mansoni) is classically described as a rural disease that occurs in areas with poor sanitary conditions. This cross-sectional study was undertaken in a suburban area of a large industrialized city in Brazil (Belo Horizonte), aiming at examining epidemiological characteristics of schistosomiasis in an urban setting. A simple random sample of 658/1896 dwellings was selected and 3049/3290 (92.7%) residents were submitted to stool examination. Of 518 eligible infected cases and 518 uninfected controls, 87.1% and 89.9% participated in the study, respectively. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 20%, predominantly low egg counts in stools; no cases of splenomegaly were found. Signs and symptoms associated with infection were bloody stools (odds ratio [OR] = 8.0) and hardened palpable liver at the middle clavicular and at the middle sternal life (OR = 5.5 and 8.0 respectively). Sociodemographic variables and water contacts predictive of infection were age (10-19 and > or = 20 yrs; OR = 7.1 and 3.3, respectively), gender (male; OR = 3.1), contacts for swimming and/or playing (twice a month or less and more than twice a month; OR = 2.2 and 3.0, respectively) and residence in Belo Horizonte (born in the City; OR = 2.5). Ninety per cent of dwellings had a piped water supply; no association between water supply and infection was found. Our results emphasize the need for schistosomiasis control measures focusing on water contacts for leisure purposes in this industrialized urban area.

  19. Diarrhoea in close contacts as a risk factor for childhood haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The CPKDRC co-investigators.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, P. C.; Orrbine, E.; Lior, H.; Wells, G. A.; McLaine, P. N.

    1993-01-01

    To determine whether the risk factors for childhood haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) are similar to risk factors previously reported for Escherichia coli O 157. H7 gastroenteritis, we conducted a case-control study at eight paediatric hospitals in the summer of 1990. Thirty-four consecutive children with HUS were prospectively enrolled; all had diarrhoea and 88% had laboratory evidence of exposure to verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC). The 102 controls were otherwise healthy children with minor acute injuries. Parents of all subjects responded to a questionnaire about each child's exposure to various foods, methods of food preparation, sources of water, travel, and individuals with diarrhoea. Children with HUS were significantly more likely than controls to have had close contact with an individual with diarrhoea in the 2 weeks before the onset of illness (74 v. 29%, P < 0.00001; odds ratio 7.0, 95% CI 2.7-18.5). The onset of diarrhoea in the contacts occurred a median of 6 days (range, 1- > 14 days) before the onset of diarrhoea in the HUS patients. Exposure to undercooked ground meat was not significantly more common in the patients with HUS (15 v. 8%; P = 0.05). These data provide evidence consistent with person-to-person transmission of VTEC in a substantial proportion of episodes of childhood HUS. PMID:8432328

  20. Frequency of Patient Contact with Health Care Personnel and Visitors: Implications for Infection Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Bevin; Hyman, Sandra; Rosenberg, Lauren; Larson, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Article-at-a-Glance Background Contact with health care workers may be an important means of infection transmission between patients, yet little is known about patterns of patient contact with staff and visitors in hospitals. In a cross-sectional study, the frequency, type, and duration of contacts made by health care workers, other hospital staff, and visitors to patients in acute care settings were documented. Methods Patients were observed in seven units of three academic hospitals, with recording of each occurrence of someone’s entry into the patient’s room. The health care worker’s role, the duration of the visit, and the highest level of patient contact made were noted. Staff were also surveyed to determine their perception of how many patients per hour they come into contact with, how long they spend with patients, and the level of patient contact that occurs. Findings Hourly room entries ranged from 0 to 28 per patient (median, 5.5), and patients received visits from 0 to 18 different persons per hour (median, 3.5). Nurses made the most visits (45%), followed by personal visitors (23%), medical staff (17%), nonclinical staff (7%), and other clinical staff (4%). Visits lasted 1 to 124 minutes (median, 3 minutes for all groups). Persons entering patients’ rooms touched nothing inside the room, only the environment, the patient’s intact skin, or the patient’s blood/body fluids 22%, 33%, 27%, and 18% of the time, respectively. Medical staff estimated visiting an average of 2.8 different patients per hour (range, 0.5–7.0), and nursing staff estimated visiting an average of 4.5 different patients per hour (range, 0.5–18.0). Conclusions Examining patterns of patient contact may improve understanding of transmission dynamics in hospitals. New transmission models should consider the roles of health care workers beyond patients’ assigned nurses and physicians. PMID:23240264

  1. [Asymptomatic human infection from contact with dogs: a case of human ehrlichiosis].

    PubMed

    Beatriz Silva, Angela; Pina Canseco, Socorro; Gabriel de la Torre, María Del Pilar; Mayoral Silva, Alejandro; Mayoral, Miguel Ángel; Pérez-Campos Mayoral, Laura; López Martínez, Jael; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Living with dogs leads one to consider the necessity of identifying canine infections found in the people with whom the dogs live. Dogs which were clinically and serologically positive with the infections Ehirlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Dirofilaria Immitis were sought. People with the same infections were also identified. From a population of 80 dogs identified in the villages of San Bartolo Coyotepec and San Agustín Etla (suburbs peripheral to the city of Oaxaca, Mexico), 27 dogs were selected for study, all of which had adenomegaly, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and fevers of at least 43° C. Using enzyme immunoassay in this population of dogs and their closest human contacts, antibodies for Ehirlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the antigen for Dirofilaria immitis were sought. Positive results in humans were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ten dogs with the clinical signs mentioned above tested positive for antibodies to Ehrlichia canis; two cases tested positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum; one case tested positive for Dirofilaria Immitis. From human contact, one person tested positive for Ehirlichia canis; this case was confirmed by DNA amplification by means of PCR. It is necessary to identify the population of sick dogs in order to reduce related infections in people.

  2. Generalized fatal Cowpox virus infection in a cat with transmission to a human contact case.

    PubMed

    Schulze, C; Alex, M; Schirrmeier, H; Hlinak, A; Engelhardt, A; Koschinski, B; Beyreiss, B; Hoffmann, M; Czerny, C-P

    2007-01-01

    A 4-month-old female domestic shorthair cat was infected by a virus of the Poxvirus family. The animal developed a severe pneumonia and generalized ulcerating lesions of the skin. Histologically, typical eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies indicative of an Orthopoxvirus (OPV) infection were present. The lung showed grey-white to haemorrhagic nodular lesions with a central zone of complete necrosis of alveolar and bronchial tissue. Electron microscopy from skin and lung nodules revealed typical square-shaped OPV particles. Cultivation of the virus on chorio-allantoic membranes of embryonated chicken eggs resulted in haemorrhagic plaques. Restriction enzyme analysis, PCR and sequencing of the D8L gene identified the OPV isolate as a typical Cowpox virus. It was transmitted by the cat to a human contact person who developed a local nodular dermatitis at the inoculation site in association with signs of general infection and had an increase of OPV-specific neutralizing antibodies in paired serum samples.

  3. Dynamics of African swine fever virus shedding and excretion in domestic pigs infected by intramuscular inoculation and contact transmission.

    PubMed

    Guinat, Claire; Reis, Ana Luisa; Netherton, Christopher L; Goatley, Lynnette; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Dixon, Linda

    2014-09-26

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly virulent swine pathogen that has spread across Eastern Europe since 2007 and for which there is no effective vaccine or treatment available. The dynamics of shedding and excretion is not well known for this currently circulating ASFV strain. Therefore, susceptible pigs were exposed to pigs intramuscularly infected with the Georgia 2007/1 ASFV strain to measure those dynamics through within- and between-pen transmission scenarios. Blood, oral, nasal and rectal fluid samples were tested for the presence of ASFV by virus titration (VT) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Serum was tested for the presence of ASFV-specific antibodies. Both intramuscular inoculation and contact transmission resulted in development of acute disease in all pigs although the experiments indicated that the pathogenesis of the disease might be different, depending on the route of infection. Infectious ASFV was first isolated in blood among the inoculated pigs by day 3, and then chronologically among the direct and indirect contact pigs, by day 10 and 13, respectively. Close to the onset of clinical signs, higher ASFV titres were found in blood compared with nasal and rectal fluid samples among all pigs. No infectious ASFV was isolated in oral fluid samples although ASFV genome copies were detected. Only one animal developed antibodies starting after 12 days post-inoculation. The results provide quantitative data on shedding and excretion of the Georgia 2007/1 ASFV strain among domestic pigs and suggest a limited potential of this isolate to cause persistent infection.

  4. The contribution of water contact behavior to the high Schistosoma mansoni Infection rates observed in the Senegal River Basin.

    PubMed

    Sow, Seydou; de Vlas, Sake J; Stelma, Foekje; Vereecken, Kim; Gryseels, Bruno; Polman, Katja

    2011-07-18

    Schistosomiasis is one of the major parasitic diseases in the world in terms of people infected and those at risk. Infection occurs through contact with water contaminated with larval forms of the parasite, which are released by freshwater snails and then penetrate the skin of people. Schistosomiasis infection and human water contact are thus essentially linked, and more knowledge about their relationship will help us to develop appropriate control measures. So far, only few studies have related water contact patterns to infection levels. We have conducted detailed direct water contact observations in a village in Northern Senegal during the first years of a massive Schistosoma mansoni outbreak to determine the role of human water contact in the extent of the epidemic.We quantified water contact activities in terms of frequency and duration, and described how these vary with age and sex. Moreover, we assessed the relationship between water contact- and infection intensity patterns to further elucidate the contribution of exposure to the transmission of schistosomiasis. This resulted in over 120,000 recorded water contacts for 1651 subjects over 175 observation days. Bathing was the main activity, followed by household activities. Frequency and duration of water contact depended on age and sex rather than season. Water contacts peaked in adolescents, women spent almost twice as much time in the water as men, and water contacts were more intense in the afternoon than in the morning, with sex-specific intensity peaks. The average number of water contacts per person per day in this population was 0.42; the average time spent in the water per person per day was 4.3 minutes. The observed patterns of water contact behavior are not unusual and have been described before in various other settings in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, water contact levels were not exceptionally high and thus cannot explain the extremely high S. mansoni infection intensities as observed in

  5. Primary bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection in calves following direct contact with a persistently viraemic calf.

    PubMed

    Tråvén, M; Alenius, S; Fossum, C; Larsson, B

    1991-08-01

    Six calves, aged 24 to 58 days and not previously exposed to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), were infected with this agent by nose-to-nose contact with a persistently BVDV viraemic calf. The study was conducted in two trials, using 3 calves in each. All 6 calves showed a peak interferon level in serum at 4 days post infection (dpi), and they seroconverted to BVDV at 16-21 dpi. The calves in trial 1 had diarrhoea for 2 or 3 days between 2 and 6 dpi and one calf again from 9 to 11 dpi. During the periods of fever, the calves were slightly depressed. Those in trial 2 were more depressed and their oral and nasal mucous membranes were reddened but they never had diarrhoea. In both trials, fever (up to 41.3 degrees C) was a prominent symptom at 8 to 9 dpi and 2 calves showed a diphasic fever course. Respiratory affection was mild and no medical treatment was required. Haematological assessment demonstrated a transient but significant leukopenia and lymphopenia at 4 dpi (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.05 respectively) and 11 dpi (P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.01 respectively). A significant decrease in thrombocyte count was seen at 4 dpi (P less than 0.05, n = 3). This study has demonstrated that nose-to-nose contact is an effective way of transmitting BVDV from persistently infected to susceptible cattle.

  6. [Water contacts in dracunculiasis-infected patients in Mali: transmission risk activities].

    PubMed

    Etard, J F; Kodio, B; Traoré, S; Audibert, M

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study lies in the identification of human activities responsible for the transmission of the Guinea worm in an endemic village in Diema Region in Mali. Human water contacts observations started after a census followed by the implementation of a bi-monthly notification system, carried out from May to November 1993. Water contacts were noticed and observed from the mid-July to the end of November of the same year. The first case of dracunculiasis observed was randomly drawn out of a list of the families with obvious cases. The patent case activities involving either surface water, traditional wells or bore-hole water were recorded for 10 consecutive days. During this observation period, contacts made by other patients with the same water sources were also recorded. After 14 days, the case list was updated and a new case selected out of families previously selected. This cycle was repeated until the end of the study period. A "contact at risk for transmission" was defined by a close correspondence between the location of the worm's emergence and the surface of the skin exposed to water, within two weeks following emergence. Contacts were described according to water sources, activities in relation to water, date, gender and age. Observations were made on 103 patients who had 2506 activities in relation with a water body: 1132 of these activities implied a skin contact with the water. Only 133 (9%) of these water contacts were at risk for transmission, 75% took place during the months of August and September, 80% were related to surface waters and 20% to traditional wells. Woman household activities and boys games were the major activities at risk, in contrast to economic activities (watering cattle). The low proportion of "at risk activities" evaluated in this study suggests that a small number of water contacts is sufficient to maintain the transmission. The case implications of the current eradication strategy might not be sufficient alone to break

  7. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in closed swine herds: infection patterns and serological profiles.

    PubMed

    Chiers, Koen; Donné, Eef; Van Overbeke, Ingrid; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2002-04-02

    Many farrow-to-finish herds are endemically infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In order to control the disease efficiently, a better knowledge of the ages at which pigs become infected is necessary. Furthermore, no information is available concerning the influence of maternally derived antibodies on the colonization of the upper respiratory tract. Therefore, A. pleuropneumoniae infection patterns were studied in five farrow-to-finish pig herds (A-E) with a history of pleuropneumonia. A longitudinal study was carried out in herds A and B. In these herds, piglets from sows carrying A. pleuropneumoniae in their noses or tonsils were sampled. Nasal and tonsillar swabs as well as sera, were collected from these animals at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16 (herds A and B) and 23 weeks (herd B). At these ages other pigs from the same sows were euthanized. The lungs were macroscopically examined and samples from nose, tonsils and lungs were collected at necropsy. A cross-sectional study was performed in herds C-E. In these herds nasal and tonsillar swabs, as well as sera, were taken from 10 animals of 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age. Lung, nasal and tonsillar samples were tested for the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae by routine bacteriology and PCR with mixed bacterial cultures. The sera were examined for the presence of Apx toxin neutralizing antibodies. In herd A, A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 and 10 strains were isolated, whereas serotype 2, 3, 5b and 8 strains were demonstrated in herd B. In most herds, A. pleuropneumoniae was detected in mixed bacterial cultures of tonsillar and/or nasal samples by PCR from the age of 4 weeks onwards. Colonization of the lungs and development of lung lesions was observed in 12- and 16-week-old animals of herd A and 23-week-old animals of herd B. In most herds, high antibody titres were detected in 4-week-old piglets. These titres decreased during the first 12 weeks of age, but thereafter, increased. It was concluded that PCR with

  8. Novel Closing Method Using Subcutaneous Continuous Drain for Preventing Surgical Site Infections in Radical Cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Yasuhiko; Ando, Ryosuke; Nakane, Akihiro; Etani, Toshiki; Iida, Keitaro; Akita, Hidetoshi; Okamura, Takehiko; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after radical cystectomy, a new closing method using subcutaneous continuous aspiration drain was developed and compared to the conventional closing method. The new method involved (a) closed aspiration with an indwelling aspiration drain without suture of the subcutaneous fat and (b) covering with hydrocolloid wound dressing after suture of the dermis with 4-0 absorbable thread and reinforcement using strips. The incidence of SSI was significantly improved by using the new method. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analysis associated with SSI revealed that the new closing method was statistically correlated with 85% reduction of SSI (odds ratio: 0.15, 95% confidence interval: 0.03–0.69).Our new method using continuous aspiration with subcutaneous drain is useful for preventing SSI through removal of effusions and reduction of dead space by apposition of the subcutaneous fat. PMID:24734201

  9. Familiarity breeds contempt: combining proximity loggers and GPS reveals female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) avoiding close contact with neighbors.

    PubMed

    Tosa, Marie I; Schauber, Eric M; Nielsen, Clayton K

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions can influence infectious disease dynamics, particularly for directly transmitted pathogens. Therefore, reliable information on contact frequency within and among groups can better inform disease modeling and management. We compared three methods of assessing contact patterns: (1) space-use overlap (volume of interaction [VI]), (2) direct contact rates measured by simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) locations (<10 m apart), and (3) direct contact rates measured by proximity loggers (PLs; 1-m detection) among female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We calculated the PL∶GPS contact ratios to see whether both devices reveal similar contact patterns and thus predict similar pathogen transmission patterns. Contact rates measured by GPS and PLs were similarly high for two within-group dyads (pairs of deer in the same social groups). Dyads representing separate but neighboring groups (high VI) had PL∶GPS contact ratios near zero, whereas dyads further apart (intermediate VI) had higher PL∶GPS contact ratios. Social networks based on PL contacts showed the fewest connected individuals and lowest mean centrality measures; network metrics were intermediate when based on GPS contacts and greatest when based on VI. Thus, the VI network portrayed animals to be more uniformly and strongly connected than did the PL network. We conclude that simultaneous GPS locations, compared with PLs, substantially underestimate the impact of group membership on direct contact rates of female deer and make networks appear more connected. We also present evidence that deer coming within the general vicinity of each other are less likely to come in close contact if they are in neighboring social groups than deer whose home ranges overlap little if at all. Combined, these results provide evidence that direct transmission of disease agents among female and juvenile white-tailed deer is likely to be constrained both spatially and by social structure, more

  10. Should we use closed or open infusion containers for prevention of bloodstream infections?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hospitalized patients in critical care settings are at risk for bloodstream infections (BSI). Most BSIs originate from a central line (CL), and they increase length of stay, cost, and mortality. Open infusion containers may increase the risk of contamination and administration-related (CLAB) because they allow the entry of air into the system, thereby also providing an opportunity for microbial entry. Closed infusion containers were designed to overcome this flaw. However, open infusion containers are still widely used throughout the world. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of switching from open (glass, burettes, and semi-rigid) infusion containers to closed, fully collapsible, plastic infusion containers (Viaflex®) on the rate and time to onset of central line-associated bloodstream infections CLABs. Methods An open label, prospective cohort, active healthcare-associated infection surveillance, sequential study was conducted in four ICUs in Mexico. Centers for Disease Control National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance Systems definitions were used to define device-associated infections. Results A total of 1,096 adult patients who had a central line in place for >24 hours were enrolled. The CLAB rate was significantly higher during the open versus the closed container period (16.1 versus 3.2 CLAB/1000 central line days; RR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.11-0.36, P < 0.0001). The probability of developing CLAB remained relatively constant in the closed container period (1.4% Days 2-4 to 0.5% Days 8-10), but increased in the open container period (4.9% Days 2-4 to 5.4% Days 8-10). The chance of acquiring a CLAB was significantly decreased (81%) in the closed container period (Cox proportional hazard ratio 0.19, P < 0.0001). Mortality was statistically significantly lower during the closed versus the open container period (23.4% versus 16.1%; RR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.54-0.88, P < 0.01). Conclusions Closed infusion containers significantly reduced

  11. Control of peptide nanotube diameter by chemical modifications of an aromatic residue involved in a single close contact

    PubMed Central

    Tarabout, Christophe; Roux, Stéphane; Gobeaux, Frédéric; Fay, Nicolas; Pouget, Emilie; Meriadec, Cristelle; Ligeti, Melinda; Thomas, Daniel; IJsselstijn, Maarten; Besselievre, François; Buisson, David-Alexandre; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Petitjean, Michel; Valéry, Céline; Perrin, Lionel; Rousseau, Bernard; Artzner, Franck; Paternostre, Maité; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Supramolecular self-assembly is an attractive pathway for bottom-up synthesis of novel nanomaterials. In particular, this approach allows the spontaneous formation of structures of well-defined shapes and monodisperse characteristic sizes. Because nanotechnology mainly relies on size-dependent physical phenomena, the control of monodispersity is required, but the possibility of tuning the size is also essential. For self-assembling systems, shape, size, and monodispersity are mainly settled by the chemical structure of the building block. Attempts to change the size notably by chemical modification usually end up with the loss of self-assembly. Here, we generated a library of 17 peptides forming nanotubes of monodisperse diameter ranging from 10 to 36 nm. A structural model taking into account close contacts explains how a modification of a few Å of a single aromatic residue induces a fourfold increase in nanotube diameter. The application of such a strategy is demonstrated by the formation of silica nanotubes of various diameters. PMID:21518895

  12. Toward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers and Inorganic Nanocrystals in Close Contact.

    PubMed

    He, Ming; Qiu, Feng; Lin, Zhiqun

    2013-06-06

    Organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells composed of conjugated polymers (CPs) and inorganic nanocrystal (NC) semiconductors have garnered considerable attention as a potential alternative to traditional silicon solar cells due to the capacity of producing high-efficiency solar energy in a cost-effective manner. The combination of advantageous characteristics of CPs and NCs enables the construction of nanostructured high-performance, lightweight, flexible, large-area, and low-cost hybrid solar cells. However, it remains a grand challenge to control the film morphology and interfacial structure of such organic/inorganic semiconductor blends on the nanoscale. In this Perspective, we highlight the strategies of implementing close contact between CPs and NCs by tailoring the colloidal synthesis, the coordination reaction, and the chemical modification of CPs. As such, they offer promising opportunities for rationally controlling the phase separation between electron-donating CPs and electron-accepting NCs, increasing the interfacial areas between them, enhancing their electronic interaction, and thus substantially promoting the photovoltaic performance of the resulting organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  13. Four multistate outbreaks of human Salmonella infections associated with live poultry contact, United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    Loharikar, A; Briere, E; Schwensohn, C; Weninger, S; Wagendorf, J; Scheftel, J; Garvey, A; Warren, K; Villamil, E; Rudroff, J A; Kurkjian, K; Levine, S; Colby, K; Morrison, B; May, A; Anderson, S; Daly, E; Marsden-Haug, N; Erdman, M M; Gomez, T; Rhorer, A; Castleman, J; Adams, J K; Theobald, L; Lafon, P; Trees, E; Mitchell, J; Sotir, M J; Behravesh, C B

    2012-08-01

    Outbreaks of human salmonellosis associated with live poultry contact have been reported since 1955. Multiple Salmonella serotypes have been associated with these outbreaks, and specific outbreak strains have been repeatedly linked to single hatcheries over multiple years. During 2009, four multistate outbreaks of human Salmonella infections associated with direct and indirect exposure to live poultry purchased from mail-order hatcheries and agricultural feed stores were identified, resulting in 165 culture-confirmed cases in 30 states. This report describes the epidemiologic, environmental and laboratory investigations conducted by state and local health departments, state departments of agriculture, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) and National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Case-patients were identified through PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, and interviewed using the CDC standard live poultry contact questionnaire that asks about poultry-related exposures during the 7 days before illness onset. These outbreaks highlight the need to focus efforts on strategies to decrease and prevent human illness associated with live poultry contact through comprehensive interventions at the mail-order hatchery, agricultural feed store and consumer levels. Additional consumer education and interventions at mail-order hatcheries and venues where live poultry are sold, including agricultural feed stores, are necessary to prevent transmission of Salmonella from poultry to humans.

  14. Infection dynamics in structured populations with disease awareness based on neighborhood contact history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lang

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, continuing efforts have been directed to revealing the effect of human behavioral responses in the spread of infectious diseases. In this paper, we propose an implementation mechanism of disease awareness via individual self-perception from neighborhood contact histories (NCHs), where each individual is capable of memorizing a sequence of his infectious contacts earlier time, and adaptively adjusting the contact rate with his neighboring individuals as a preventive strategy from risks of exposure to infection. Both analytical and numerical results show that the NCH-based self-perceived awareness is a simple, but efficient disease control measure, which can greatly reduce the outbreak size of infectious diseases. We further examine the effects of a centralized disease control measure, which corresponds, for comparison, to an NCH-independent and uniformly aroused disease awareness. We find our proposed strategy outperforms the centralized one in a much larger and more practical range of epidemiological parameters, which also highlight the importance of the NCH-based awareness information in guidance of the individual protective behavior against infectious diseases.

  15. Salmonellosis outbreak due to chicken contact leading to a foodborne outbreak associated with infected delicatessen workers.

    PubMed

    Hedican, Erin; Miller, Ben; Ziemer, Brian; LeMaster, Pam; Jawahir, Selina; Leano, Fe; Smith, Kirk

    2010-08-01

    Salmonella is the most common bacterial cause of foodborne outbreaks in the United States. Starting in June 2007, investigation of a cluster of Salmonella Montevideo cases with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns resulted in the identification of an outbreak associated with contact with chickens purchased from a single hatchery. Nine Minnesota cases from May through August 2007 were part of this outbreak. Cases with the outbreak PFGE pattern of Salmonella Montevideo continued to occur in Minnesota after August, but none of these cases reported chicken contact. The majority of these cases resided in the same town in rural Minnesota. Routine interviews revealed that all cases from these counties purchased groceries from the same local grocery store, with two specifically reporting consuming items from the grocery store delicatessen in the week before illness. As a result, an investigation into the delicatessen was initiated. Illness histories and stool samples were collected from all delicatessen employees, and food and environmental samples were collected. None of the employees reported experiencing recent gastrointestinal symptoms, but the outbreak PFGE subtype of Salmonella Montevideo was identified from stool from two food workers. Food and environmental samples collected tested negative for Salmonella. One of the positive employees reported having chickens at home, but the animals did not test positive for Salmonella. The positive food workers were excluded from work until they had two consecutive negative stool cultures for Salmonella. There was no evidence of ongoing transmission thereafter. This was an outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infections that began as an animal-contact-associated outbreak which subsequently resulted in a foodborne outbreak associated with infected food workers. These outbreaks illustrate the complex epidemiology of salmonellosis.

  16. Association of vitamin D deficiency, season of the year, and latent tuberculosis infection among household contacts.

    PubMed

    Balcells, María Elvira; García, Patricia; Tiznado, Camila; Villarroel, Luis; Scioscia, Natalia; Carvajal, Camila; Zegna-Ratá, Francesca; Hernández, Mariluz; Meza, Paulina; González, Luis F; Peña, Carlos; Naves, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D (VD) enhances the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro, and VD deficiency has been described in patients with active tuberculosis (TB). However, the role of hypovitaminosis D in the pathogenesis of early TB infection acquisition is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the association of VD deficiency, season of the year, and latent TB infection in household contacts (HHC), given that this is a potentially modifiable condition often related to nutritional deficiencies and lack of sun exposure. We prospectively enrolled new pulmonary TB cases (n = 107) and their HHC (n = 144) over a 2-year period in Santiago, Chile. We compared plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD) levels and examined the influence of season, ethnic background, living conditions, and country of origin. Over 77% of TB cases and 62.6% of HHC had VD deficiency (<20 ng/ml). Median 25OHD concentration was significantly lower in TB cases than in HHC (11.7 vs. 18.2 ng/ml, p<0.0001). Migrants HHC had lower 25OHD levels than non-migrants (14.6 vs. 19.0 ng/ml, p = 0.026), and a trend towards a higher burden of latent TB infection (52.9% vs. 35.2%, p = 0.066). Multivariate analysis found VD deficiency in HHC was strongly associated with being sampled in winter/spring (adOR 25.68, 95%CI 7.35-89.7), corresponding to the seasons with lowest solar radiation exposure. Spring enrollment-compared with other seasons-was the chief risk factor for latent TB infection in HHC (adOR 3.14, 95%CI 1.28-7.69). Hypovitaminosis D was highly prevalent in TB cases and also in HHC. A marked seasonality was found for both VD levels and latent TB in HHC, with winter being the season with lowest VD levels and spring the season with the highest risk of latent TB infection.

  17. Prevalence of tuberculosis among close family contacts of tuberculous patients in South India, and influence of segregation of the patient on the early attack rate*

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, R. H.; Devadatta, S.; Fox, Wallace; Radhakrishna, S.; Ramakrishnan, C. V.; Velu, S.

    1960-01-01

    The results of a study by the Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre, Madras, of the merits of home as compared with sanatorium treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis have indicated that treatment at home is satisfactory in the majority of cases. Before domiciliary chemotherapy can be introduced on a large scale, however, it must be established that it does not expose the patient's contacts to a special risk of infection, avoided by his isolation in a sanatorium. Accordingly, a further study was undertaken by the Centre to determine (a) the prevalence of tuberculosis among the family contacts of patients, and (b) the incidence of clinical tuberculosis and of tuberculous infections in the family contacts of the home and sanatorium groups of patients during the first year of treatment. The findings of this study indicate that the major risk for contacts lies in exposure to the infectious case before diagnosis, whether the patient subsequently remains at home or is isolated in a sanatorium appearing to have little importance, if the patients at home are treated with effective chemotherapy. Children under seven years of age proved to be particularly vulnerable to infection. The management of young contacts by chemoprophylaxis or by BCG vaccination, or by both measures, has been discussed. PMID:13683486

  18. [Immunology of contact allergy].

    PubMed

    Martin, S F

    2011-10-01

    Contact allergy is a skin disease that is caused by the reaction of the immune system to low molecular weight chemicals. A hallmark of contact allergens is their chemical reactivity, which is not exhibited by toxic irritants. Covalent binding of contact allergens to or complex formation with proteins is essential for the activation of the immune system. As a consequence antigenic epitopes are formed, which are recognized by contact allergen-specific T cells. The generation of effector and memory T cells causes the high antigen specificity and the repeated antigen-specific skin reaction of contact allergy. New findings reveal that the less specific reaction of the innate immune system to contact allergens closely resembles the reaction to an infection. Therefore, contact allergy can be viewed as an immunologic misunderstanding since the skin contact with chemical allergens is interpreted as an infection. The growing understanding of the molecular and cellular pathologic mechanisms of contact allergy can aid the development of specific therapies and of in vitro alternatives to animal testing for the identification of contact allergens.

  19. Primary closure of infected diabetic foot wounds. A report of closed instillation in 30 cases.

    PubMed

    Connolly, J E; Wrobel, J S; Anderson, R F

    2000-04-01

    Multiple surgical strategies are available for managing the infected diabetic foot at risk for amputation. The authors present their experience with the closed instillation system in the management of 30 such cases in 29 patients over a 5-year period. Data were collected from the hospital records of neuropathic patients presenting with deep-plantar-space infections or presumed acute osteomyelitis. All 29 patients were male; 57% had marginal or poor vascular supply, and 83% were nutritionally compromised or had proteinuria. At the conclusion of the study, 34% of the patients were dead, reflecting the severity of comorbid conditions found in this population. Despite the marginal healing capacity of these patients, the procedure had a 90% success rate, as defined by expeditious return to prior level of functioning and residential living situation without need for re-operation or higher-level amputation.

  20. Lipidome analysis of rotavirus-infected cells confirms the close interaction of lipid droplets with viroplasms

    PubMed Central

    Gaunt, Eleanor R.; Zhang, Qifeng; Cheung, Winsome; Wakelam, Michael J. O.; Desselberger, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) cause acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children, and are globally distributed. Within the infected host cell, RVs establish replication complexes in viroplasms (‘viral factories’) to which lipid droplet organelles are recruited. To further understand this recently discovered phenomenon, the lipidomes of RV-infected and uninfected MA104 cells were investigated. Cell lysates were subjected to equilibrium ultracentrifugation through iodixanol gradients. Fourteen different classes of lipids were differentiated by mass spectrometry. The concentrations of virtually all lipids were elevated in RV-infected cells. Fractions of low density (1.11–1.15 g ml−1), in which peaks of the RV dsRNA genome and lipid droplet- and viroplasm-associated proteins were observed, contained increased amounts of lipids typically found concentrated in the cellular organelle lipid droplets, confirming the close interaction of lipid droplets with viroplasms. A decrease in the ratio of the amounts of surface to internal components of lipid droplets upon RV infection suggested that the lipid droplet–viroplasm complexes became enlarged. PMID:23515026

  1. Relations of Wolbachia Infection with Phylogeography of Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) Populations Within and Beyond the Carpathian Contact Zone.

    PubMed

    Lis, Agata; Maryańska-Nadachowska, Anna; Kajtoch, Łukasz

    2015-08-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread intracellular α-proteobacteria maternally inherited endosymbiont of insects and nematodes. These bacteria are associated with a number of different reproductive phenotypes of their hosts. Relatively few studies have dealt with distribution of infections across populations and with the influence of these bacteria on host genetic diversification and speciation. The aims of this study are to determine the distribution and rate of infection and to characterize the Wolbachia strains associated with Philaenus spumarius spittlebug (Hemiptera) by using multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) analysis and host phylogeography. The results showed that infection rate was significantly different between members of both main mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages of P. spumarius. We detected much higher infection rates of Wolbachia in P. spumarius populations from the north-east clade than the south-west clade. Moreover, the frequency of these infections varied within and outside the contact zone known from the Carpathians. Given the reproductive alterations which are often associated with this endosymbiont, Wolbachia probably maintain genetic differentiation of its hosts in its contact zone in the Carpathians. This is one of the first studies demonstrating the presence of Wolbachia across a large part of the range of insect species, including the contact zone. The spread of Wolbachia in P. spumarius populations can potentially cause speciation by compromising the potential reproductive barrier between infected and uninfected populations. We discuss possible implications of Wolbachia infection inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility in the population dynamics of this spittlebug but confirm that more studies are also required.

  2. [Latent tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors among the tuberculosis contacts in one of district in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Xie, X; Tang, L H; Huang, X X; Wu, Y; Su, H L

    2016-12-12

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection(LTBI) and associated risk factors among the tuberculosis(TB) contacts in Minhang District of Shanghai. Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was used to acquire socio-demographic information and to assess the degree of exposure to index cases. LTBI screening was performed by T-SPOT.TB assay. Pearson chi-square test and Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the risk factors associated with LTBI among the TB contacts. Results: A total of 137 contacts from 59 mycobacterial (culture) positive pulmonary TB patients were enrolled in this study. In these contacts, there were 54 men and 83 women, with the average age of 42. LTBI was identified in 20% (27/137) of these contacts. Several risk factors were found by logistic analyses in this study. The worse the ventilation in the exposure location was, the more likely to develop LTBI. Contacts aged more than 60 (42.1%) were 3.9 times more likely to develop LTBI than those aged less than 60 (16.1%). Individuals in contact with TB patients for more than 40 h/week(25.8%) had a 4.2 times risk of LTBI as compared to those for less than 40 h/week(6.8%). Conclusion: The prevalence of LTBI was 20% among the TB contacts in this study, highlighting the need of TB screening and intervention among TB contacts.

  3. Association of vitamin D deficiency, season of the year, and latent tuberculosis infection among household contacts

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia; Tiznado, Camila; Villarroel, Luis; Scioscia, Natalia; Carvajal, Camila; Zegna-Ratá, Francesca; Hernández, Mariluz; Meza, Paulina; González, Luis F.; Peña, Carlos; Naves, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Vitamin D (VD) enhances the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro, and VD deficiency has been described in patients with active tuberculosis (TB). However, the role of hypovitaminosis D in the pathogenesis of early TB infection acquisition is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the association of VD deficiency, season of the year, and latent TB infection in household contacts (HHC), given that this is a potentially modifiable condition often related to nutritional deficiencies and lack of sun exposure. Methods We prospectively enrolled new pulmonary TB cases (n = 107) and their HHC (n = 144) over a 2-year period in Santiago, Chile. We compared plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD) levels and examined the influence of season, ethnic background, living conditions, and country of origin. Results Over 77% of TB cases and 62.6% of HHC had VD deficiency (<20 ng/ml). Median 25OHD concentration was significantly lower in TB cases than in HHC (11.7 vs. 18.2 ng/ml, p<0.0001). Migrants HHC had lower 25OHD levels than non-migrants (14.6 vs. 19.0 ng/ml, p = 0.026), and a trend towards a higher burden of latent TB infection (52.9% vs. 35.2%, p = 0.066). Multivariate analysis found VD deficiency in HHC was strongly associated with being sampled in winter/spring (adOR 25.68, 95%CI 7.35–89.7), corresponding to the seasons with lowest solar radiation exposure. Spring enrollment–compared with other seasons–was the chief risk factor for latent TB infection in HHC (adOR 3.14, 95%CI 1.28–7.69). Conclusions Hypovitaminosis D was highly prevalent in TB cases and also in HHC. A marked seasonality was found for both VD levels and latent TB in HHC, with winter being the season with lowest VD levels and spring the season with the highest risk of latent TB infection. PMID:28403225

  4. Multiplex PCR technique could be an alternative approach for early detection of leprosy among close contacts - a pilot study from India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Implementation of Multi drug Therapy (MDT) regimen has resulted in the decline of the total number of leprosy cases in the world. Though the prevalence rate has been declining, the incidence rate remains more or less constant and high in South East Asian countries particularly in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Srilanka. Leprosy, particularly that of multibacillary type spreads silently before it is clinically detected. An early detection and treatment would help to prevent transmission in the community. Multiplex PCR (M-PCR) technique appears to be promising towards early detection among contacts of leprosy cases. Methods A total of 234 paucibacillary (PB) and 205 multibacillary (MB) leprosy cases were studied in a community of an endemic area of Bankura district of West Bengal (Eastern India). They were assessed by smear examination for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and M-PCR technique. These patients were treated with Multidrug Therapy (MDT) as prescribed by WHO following detection. A total of 110 MB and 72 PB contacts were studied by performing M-PCR in their nasal swab samples. Results 83.4% of MB patients were observed to be positive by smear examination for AFB and 89.2% by M-PCR. While 22.2% of PB patients were found to be positive by smear examination for AFB, 80.3% of these patients were positive by M-PCR. Among leprosy contacts (using M-PCR), 10.9% were found to be positive among MB contacts and 1.3% among PB contacts. Interestingly, two contacts of M-PCR positive MB cases developed leprosy during the period of two years follow up. Conclusion The M-PCR technique appears to be an efficient tool for early detection of leprosy cases in community based contact tracing amongst close associates of PB and MB cases. Early contact tracing using a molecular biology tool can be of great help in curbing the incidence of leprosy further. PMID:20735843

  5. Multiplex PCR technique could be an alternative approach for early detection of leprosy among close contacts--a pilot study from India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Surajita; Sarkar, Kamalesh; Gupta, Soma; Mahapatra, Prasanta Sinha; Gupta, Siddhartha; Guha, Samudra; Bandhopadhayay, Debasis; Ghosal, Chaitry; Paine, Suman Kalyan; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Biswas, Nibir; Bhattacharya, Basudev

    2010-08-24

    Implementation of Multi drug Therapy (MDT) regimen has resulted in the decline of the total number of leprosy cases in the world. Though the prevalence rate has been declining, the incidence rate remains more or less constant and high in South East Asian countries particularly in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Srilanka. Leprosy, particularly that of multibacillary type spreads silently before it is clinically detected. An early detection and treatment would help to prevent transmission in the community. Multiplex PCR (M-PCR) technique appears to be promising towards early detection among contacts of leprosy cases. A total of 234 paucibacillary (PB) and 205 multibacillary (MB) leprosy cases were studied in a community of an endemic area of Bankura district of West Bengal (Eastern India). They were assessed by smear examination for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and M-PCR technique. These patients were treated with Multidrug Therapy (MDT) as prescribed by WHO following detection. A total of 110 MB and 72 PB contacts were studied by performing M-PCR in their nasal swab samples. 83.4% of MB patients were observed to be positive by smear examination for AFB and 89.2% by M-PCR. While 22.2% of PB patients were found to be positive by smear examination for AFB, 80.3% of these patients were positive by M-PCR. Among leprosy contacts (using M-PCR), 10.9% were found to be positive among MB contacts and 1.3% among PB contacts. Interestingly, two contacts of M-PCR positive MB cases developed leprosy during the period of two years follow up. The M-PCR technique appears to be an efficient tool for early detection of leprosy cases in community based contact tracing amongst close associates of PB and MB cases. Early contact tracing using a molecular biology tool can be of great help in curbing the incidence of leprosy further.

  6. Latent Tuberculosis Infection Diagnostic and Treatment Cascade among Contacts in Primary Health Care in a City of Sao Paulo State, Brazil: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a tool for global TB control, especially in close contacts. But data is scarce in high burden countries, under field conditions, including data on the benefits of LTBI management. Objective To analyze the LTBI diagnosis and treatment cascade among contacts in primary health care (PHC) services in São José do Rio Preto—SP, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional design, conducted with contacts of pulmonary TB patients followed in all PHC services. Data was collected from May to September 2014 in the Reporting System for TB cases (TBWEB) and Reporting System for Chemoprophylaxis. Medical records and treatment follow-up forms were reviewed and all the nurses responsible for TB in PHC services were interviewed. Results Among 336 contacts included, 267 (79.4%) were screened for TB or LTBI, according to the presence or not of respiratory symptoms. Among those contacts screened, 140 (52.4%) were symptomatic, 9 (3.4%) had TB disease, 106/221 (48%) had positive TST result, meeting the criteria for LTBI treatment, and 64/106 (60.4%) actually started it. Overall, among 267 screened, only 64 (24%) started LTBI treatment. The completion rates of treatment among the contacts who started it, those with positive TST result and those screened were 56.3% (36/64), 16.3% (36/221) and 13.5% (36/267), respectively. Nurses claimed that asymptomatic TB contacts pay no attention to preventive health care and do not seek medical care as they do not have symptoms of the disease. In reviewing the medical records, high proportions of contacts without evaluation, incomplete assessment, incorrect records of contraindication for LTBI treatment, lack of notes regarding the identification and evaluation of contacts were identified. Conclusions There is a need for better organization of the surveillance and investigation routine for contacts in PHC, considering the reorganization of the work process and the features of the

  7. Exposure to Schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural area of Brazil. I: water contact.

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli, A; Bethony, J; Fraga, L A; LoVerde, P T; Correa-Oliveira, R; Kloos, H

    2001-02-01

    The study of water contact patterns in rural Brazil presents unique challenges due to widely dispersed settlement patterns, the ubiquity of water contact sites, and the privatization of water resources. This study addresses these challenges by comparing the two most widely used methods of assessing water contact behaviour: direct observation and survey. The results of a 7-day direct observation of water contact were compared with water contact surveys administered 1 week after and then 1 year after the direct observation study. The direct observation study recorded a water contact rate higher than reported by other investigators (3.2 contacts per person per day); however, 75% of these contacts were for females and consisted mainly of domestic activities occurring around the household. A comparison of the frequency of water contact activities between the direct observation and the two surveys revealed several important points. First, no significant differences were found between methods for routine water contact activities (e.g. bathing), indicating that participants were able to accurately self-report some types of water contact activities. Second, significant differences were found in the recording of water contact activities that took place outside the observation area, indicating that direct observation may under-report water contact activities in areas where contact sites are dispersed widely. Third, significant differences between the direct observation and the survey method were more common for males than for females, indicating that the combination of widespread water contact sites and gender-specific division of labour may result in under-reporting of male contacts by direct observation methods. In short, despite the limitations in the recording of duration and body exposure, the survey method may more accurately record the frequency of water contact activities than direct observation methods in areas of widely dispersed water contact sites. Hence, surveys

  8. Solid-to-fluid DNA transition inside HSV-1 capsid close to the temperature of infection

    SciTech Connect

    Sae-Ueng, Udom; Li, Dong; Zuo, Xiaobing; Huffman, Jamie B.; Homa, Fred L.; Rau, Donald; Evilevitch, Alex

    2014-10-01

    DNA in the human Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsid is packaged to a tight density. This leads to tens of atmospheres of internal pressure responsible for the delivery of the herpes genome into the cell nucleus. In this study we show that, despite its liquid crystalline state inside the capsid, the DNA is fluid-like, which facilitates its ejection into the cell nucleus during infection. We found that the sliding friction between closely packaged DNA strands, caused by interstrand repulsive interactions, is reduced by the ionic environment of epithelial cells and neurons susceptible to herpes infection. However, variations in the ionic conditions corresponding to neuronal activity can restrict DNA mobility in the capsid, making it more solid-like. This can inhibit intranuclear DNA release and interfere with viral replication. In addition, the temperature of the human host (37 °C) induces a disordering transition of the encapsidated herpes genome, which reduces interstrand interactions and provides genome mobility required for infection.

  9. Extended Release of an Anti–Heparan Sulfate Peptide From a Contact Lens Suppresses Corneal Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Buhrman, Jason S.; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Gemeinhart, Richard A.; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To prolong the release of a heparan sulfate binding peptide, G2-C, using a commercially available contact lens as a delivery vehicle and to demonstrate the ability of the released peptide to block herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of corneal HSV-1 infection. Methods Commercially available contact lenses were immersed in peptide solution for 5 days prior to determining the release of the peptide at various time points. Cytotoxicity of the released samples was determined by MTT and cell cycle analysis, and the functional activity of the released samples were assessed by viral entry, and viral spread assay using human corneal epithelial cells (HCE). The ability to suppress infection in human and pig cornea ex vivo and mouse in vivo models were also assessed. Results Peptide G2-C was released through the contact lens. Following release for 3 days, the peptide showed significant activity by inhibiting HSV-1 viral entry and spread in HCE cells. Significant suppression of infection was also observed in the ex vivo and in vivo experiments involving corneas. Conclusions Extended release of an anti–HS peptide through a commercially available contact lens can generate significant anti–HSV-1 activity and provides a new and effective way to control corneal herpes. PMID:26780322

  10. Additional Evaluation of the Point-of-Contact Circulating Cathodic Antigen Assay for Schistosoma mansoni Infection.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Kittur, Nupur; Ochola, Elizabeth; Cooper, Philip J; Campbell, Carl H; King, Charles H; Colley, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the urine-based point-of-contact cathodic circulating antigen test (POC-CCA) in Schistosoma mansoni-endemic settings in Africa indicate it has good sensitivity in detecting infections, but in areas of low prevalence, the POC-CCA can be positive for persons who are egg-negative by Kato-Katz stool assays. We examined the POC-CCA assay for: (a) batch-to-batch stability; (b) intra-reader and inter-reader variability; (c) day-to-day variability compared to Kato-Katz stool assays, and (d) to see if praziquantel (PZQ) treatment converted Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals to POC-CCA negativity. We found essentially no batch-to-batch variation, negligible intra-reader variability (2%), and substantial agreement for inter-reader reliability. Some day-to-day variation was observed over 5 days of urine collection, but less than the variation in Kato-Katz stool assays over 3 days. To evaluate the effect of treatment on Kato-Katz(-)/POC-CCA(+) children, 149 children in an area of 10-15% prevalence who were Kato-Katz(-) based on 3 stool samples but POC-CCA(+) were enrolled. Seven days after treatment (PZQ 40 mg/kg) samples were again collected and tested. Almost half (47%) POC-CCA positive children turned negative. Those still POC-CCA positive received a second treatment, and 34% of them turned POC-CCA negative upon this second treatment. Most who remained POC-CCA positive shifted each time to a "lesser" POC-CCA "level of positivity." The data suggest that most Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals harbor low-intensity infections, and each treatment kills all or some of their adult worms. The data also suggest that when evaluated by a more sensitive assay, the effective cure rates for PZQ are significantly less than those inferred from fecal testing. These findings have public health significance for the mapping and monitoring of Schistosoma infections and in planning the transition from schistosomiasis morbidity control to elimination of

  11. Additional Evaluation of the Point-of-Contact Circulating Cathodic Antigen Assay for Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.; Kittur, Nupur; Ochola, Elizabeth; Cooper, Philip J.; Campbell, Carl H.; King, Charles H.; Colley, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the urine-based point-of-contact cathodic circulating antigen test (POC-CCA) in Schistosoma mansoni-endemic settings in Africa indicate it has good sensitivity in detecting infections, but in areas of low prevalence, the POC-CCA can be positive for persons who are egg-negative by Kato-Katz stool assays. We examined the POC-CCA assay for: (a) batch-to-batch stability; (b) intra-reader and inter-reader variability; (c) day-to-day variability compared to Kato-Katz stool assays, and (d) to see if praziquantel (PZQ) treatment converted Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals to POC-CCA negativity. We found essentially no batch-to-batch variation, negligible intra-reader variability (2%), and substantial agreement for inter-reader reliability. Some day-to-day variation was observed over 5 days of urine collection, but less than the variation in Kato-Katz stool assays over 3 days. To evaluate the effect of treatment on Kato-Katz(−)/POC-CCA(+) children, 149 children in an area of 10–15% prevalence who were Kato-Katz(−) based on 3 stool samples but POC-CCA(+) were enrolled. Seven days after treatment (PZQ 40 mg/kg) samples were again collected and tested. Almost half (47%) POC-CCA positive children turned negative. Those still POC-CCA positive received a second treatment, and 34% of them turned POC-CCA negative upon this second treatment. Most who remained POC-CCA positive shifted each time to a “lesser” POC-CCA “level of positivity.” The data suggest that most Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals harbor low-intensity infections, and each treatment kills all or some of their adult worms. The data also suggest that when evaluated by a more sensitive assay, the effective cure rates for PZQ are significantly less than those inferred from fecal testing. These findings have public health significance for the mapping and monitoring of Schistosoma infections and in planning the transition from schistosomiasis morbidity control to

  12. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Gregory F.; Minkov, Vladimir; Petrick, Michael

    1988-01-05

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  13. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

    1981-11-02

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system is described in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  14. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Gregory F.; Minkov, Vladimir; Petrick, Michael

    1988-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  15. SDSS J001641-000925: THE FIRST STABLE RED DWARF CONTACT BINARY WITH A CLOSE-IN STELLAR COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.-B.; Jiang, L.-Q.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E. G.; He, J.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Wang, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhou, X.; Liu, N. P.; Fernández Lajús, E.; Soonthornthum, B.; Rattanasoon, S.; Aukkaravittayapun, S.

    2015-01-10

    SDSS J001641-000925 is the first red dwarf contact binary star with an orbital period of 0.19856 days that is one of the shortest known periods among M-dwarf binary systems. The orbital period was detected to be decreasing rapidly at a rate of P-dot ∼8 s yr{sup −1}. This indicated that SDSS J001641-000925 was undergoing coalescence via a dynamical mass transfer or loss and thus this red dwarf contact binary is dynamically unstable. To understand the properties of the period change, we monitored the binary system photometrically from 2011 September 2 to 2014 October 1 by using several telescopes in the world and 25 eclipse times were determined. It is discovered that the rapid decrease of the orbital period is not true. This is contrary to the prediction that the system is merging driven by rapid mass transfer or loss. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the observed minus calculated (O–C) diagram shows a cyclic oscillation with an amplitude of 0.00255 days and a period of 5.7 yr. The cyclic variation can be explained by the light travel time effect via the presence of a cool stellar companion with a mass of M {sub 3}sin i' ∼ 0.14 M {sub ☉}. The orbital separation between the third body and the central binary is about 2.8 AU. These results reveal that the rarity of red dwarf contact binaries could not be explained by rapidly dynamical destruction and the presence of the third body helps to form the red dwarf contact binary.

  16. SDSS J001641-000925: The First Stable Red Dwarf Contact Binary with a Close-in Stellar Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.-B.; Jiang, L.-Q.; Fernández Lajús, E.; Soonthornthum, B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E. G.; He, J.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Wang, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Rattanasoon, S.; Aukkaravittayapun, S.; Zhou, X.; Liu, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    SDSS J001641-000925 is the first red dwarf contact binary star with an orbital period of 0.19856 days that is one of the shortest known periods among M-dwarf binary systems. The orbital period was detected to be decreasing rapidly at a rate of \\dot{P}˜ {8} s yr-1. This indicated that SDSS J001641-000925 was undergoing coalescence via a dynamical mass transfer or loss and thus this red dwarf contact binary is dynamically unstable. To understand the properties of the period change, we monitored the binary system photometrically from 2011 September 2 to 2014 October 1 by using several telescopes in the world and 25 eclipse times were determined. It is discovered that the rapid decrease of the orbital period is not true. This is contrary to the prediction that the system is merging driven by rapid mass transfer or loss. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the observed minus calculated (O-C) diagram shows a cyclic oscillation with an amplitude of 0.00255 days and a period of 5.7 yr. The cyclic variation can be explained by the light travel time effect via the presence of a cool stellar companion with a mass of M 3sin i' ~ 0.14 M ⊙. The orbital separation between the third body and the central binary is about 2.8 AU. These results reveal that the rarity of red dwarf contact binaries could not be explained by rapidly dynamical destruction and the presence of the third body helps to form the red dwarf contact binary.

  17. Living Close to Natural Outdoor Environments in Four European Cities: Adults' Contact with the Environments and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Seto, Edmund; Valentín, Antònia; Smith, Graham; Martínez, David; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Masterson, Daniel; van den Berg, Magdalena; Ambròs, Albert; Martínez-Íñiguez, Tania; Dedele, Audrius; Hurst, Gemma; Ellis, Naomi; Grazulevicius, Tomas; Voorsmit, Martin; Cirach, Marta; Cirac-Claveras, Judith; Swart, Wim; Clasquin, Eddy; Maas, Jolanda; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Jerrett, Michael; Gražulevičienė, Regina; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher J; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2017-09-30

    This study investigated whether residential availability of natural outdoor environments (NOE) was associated with contact with NOE, overall physical activity and physical activity in NOE, in four different European cities using objective measures. A nested cross-sectional study was conducted in Barcelona (Spain); Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Doetinchem (The Netherlands); and Kaunas (Lithuania). Smartphones were used to collect information on the location and physical activity (overall and NOE) of around 100 residents of each city over seven days. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to determine residential NOE availability (presence/absence of NOE within 300 m buffer from residence), contact with NOE (time spent in NOE), overall PA (total physical activity), NOE PA (total physical activity in NOE). Potential effect modifiers were investigated. Participants spent around 40 min in NOE and 80 min doing overall PA daily, of which 11% was in NOE. Having residential NOE availability was consistently linked with higher NOE contact during weekdays, but not to overall PA. Having residential NOE availability was related to NOE PA, especially for our Barcelona participants, people that lived in a city with low NOE availability.

  18. NK cells control HIV-1 infection of macrophages through soluble factors and cellular contacts in the human decidua.

    PubMed

    Quillay, H; El Costa, H; Duriez, M; Marlin, R; Cannou, C; Madec, Y; de Truchis, C; Rahmati, M; Barré-Sinoussi, F; Nugeyre, M T; Menu, E

    2016-06-06

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, HIV-1 in utero transmission is rare despite the permissivity of the placenta and the decidua (the uterine mucosa during pregnancy) to infection. In the decidua from the first trimester of pregnancy, macrophages (dMs) are the HIV-1 main target cells. Decidual natural killer (dNK) cells account for 70 % of decidual leukocytes. They display distinct phenotype and functions compared to peripheral NK cells. At the periphery, NK cells are involved in the control of HIV-1 infection. In this study, we investigate whether human decidual natural killer (dNK) cells control dM HIV-1 infection. Autologous cocultures of infected dMs with dNK cells reveal that dNK cells strongly inhibit dM HIV-1 infection. The addition of dNK cells to dMs at different times after infection suggests that the control occurs before the complete establishment of the infection. Double chamber cocultures show that cellular contacts are necessary for an optimal control of infection. Nevertheless, soluble factors secreted by dMs and dNK cells in double chamber cocultures partially inhibit dM HIV-1 infection, indicating that soluble factors have also a role in the control of infection. IFN-γ secretion is increased in infected and uninfected cocultures. We show that IFN-γ is involved in the control of dM HIV-1 infection by dNK cells. These results demonstrate that human dNK cells inhibit efficiently HIV-1 infection in dMs in vitro, and highlight the role of innate immune determinants in the control of HIV-1 transmission.

  19. Exposure to Schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural area in Brazil. Part III: household aggregation of water-contact behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bethony, Jeffrey; Williams, Jeff T; Brooker, Simon; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Gazzinelli, Maria F; LoVerde, Philip T; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Kloos, Helmut

    2004-03-01

    Much research points to the importance of the household in the study of water-borne diseases such as schistosomiasis. An important aspect of the household is the clustering of domestic activities associated with water collection, storage and usage. Such activities can result in the sharing of water-contact sites and water-contact behaviour, which expose household members to similar risks of infection. In previous studies, we determined that shared residence accounted for 28% of the variance in Schistosoma faecal egg excretion rates. We now quantify the effect of shared residence on the variation in water-related health behaviours. We found that shared residence accounted for 30% of the variation in total water contacts per week. It also accounted for a large proportion of the variation in individual water-contact behaviour: e.g. agricultural contacts (63%), washing limbs (56%) or bathing (41%). These results implicate the household as an important composite measure of the complex relationships between socioeconomic, environmental and behavioural factors that influence water-contact behaviour and, therefore, the transmission of schistosomiasis. Our results also support a focus on the household in the implementation of schistosomiasis prevention and control efforts.

  20. Experimental infection of Newcastle disease virus in pigeons (Columba livia): humoral antibody response, contact transmission and viral genome shedding.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Torres Carrasco, Adriano; Seki, Meire Christina; de Freitas Raso, Tânia; Paulillo, Antônio Carlos; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2008-05-25

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the humoral antibody response, the genome viral excretion and the contact transmission of pathogenic chicken origin Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from experimentally infected pigeons (Columba livia) to in-contact pigeon. The antibody response to infection was assessed by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and the genome viral excretion was detected by RT-PCR. Viral strain induced high antibody levels, both in inoculated and in sentinel birds. The pathogenic viral strain for chickens was unable to produce clinical signs of the disease in experimentally infected pigeons, although it induced the humoral antibody response and produced NDV genome shedding. NDV genome was detected intermittently throughout the experimental period, from 5 days post-infection (dpi) to 24 dpi. Therefore, viral genome shedding occurred for 20 days. The viral genome was detected in all birds, between 11 and 13 dpi. Furthermore, the high infectivity of the virus was confirmed, as all non-inoculated sentinel pigeons showed antibody levels as high as those of inoculated birds.

  1. The management of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in young children post-2015: an opportunity to close the policy-practice gap.

    PubMed

    Graham, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in young children is supported by universal policy based on strong rationale and evidence of effectiveness, but has rarely been implemented in tuberculosis endemic countries. Areas covered: This review highlights a number of important recent developments that provide an unprecedented opportunity to close the policy-practice gap, as well as ongoing needs to facilitate implementation under programmatic conditions and scale-up. Expert commentary: The WHO's End TB Strategy and Stop TB Partnership's Plan to End TB provide ambitious targets for prevention at a time when National Tuberculosis Programs in tuberculosis endemic countries are increasing attention to the challenges of management and prevention of tuberculosis disease in children. This opportunity is greatly enhanced by recent evidence of the effectiveness of shorter, simpler and safer regimens to treat tuberculosis infection. The scale of the challenge for implementation will require a decentralized, integrated, community-based approach. An accurate and low-cost point-of-care test for tuberculous infection would be a major advance to support such implementation. Specific guidance for the treatment of infection in young child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases is a major current need while awaiting further evidence.

  2. First Case Report of Bloodstream Infection Due to a Candida Species Closely Related to the Novel Species Candida pseudorugosa

    PubMed Central

    Córdoba, Susana; Isla, Guillermina; Fernández, Norma; García, Susana; Mazza, Mariana; Murisengo, Omar Alejandro; Vivot, Walter; Szusz, Wanda; Davel, Graciela; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Bosco-Borgeat, María Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Candida pseudorugosa is a novel species closely related to Candida rugosa for which only one case has been reported. We report the first case of a bloodstream infection in humans caused by a Candida sp. closely related to C. pseudorugosa. We contribute evidence to show this organism as a potential human pathogen that may be misidentified by conventional methods, also pointing out its lower sensitivity to azoles and other antifungal agents. PMID:22461681

  3. Toxoplasma gondii-Infected Human Myeloid Dendritic Cells Induce T-Lymphocyte Dysfunction and Contact-Dependent Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuang; Marches, Florentina; Borvak, Jozef; Zou, Weiping; Channon, Jacqueline; White, Michael; Radke, Jay; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Curiel, Tyler J.

    2002-01-01

    Dendritic cells ignite adaptive immunity by priming naïve T lymphocytes. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) infected with Toxoplasma gondii induce T-lymphocyte gamma interferon production and may thus activate T. gondii-specific immunity. However, we now demonstrate that T. gondii-infected MDDCs are poor at activating T lymphocytes and are unable to induce specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. On the other hand, MDDCs acquiring nonviable T. gondii antigens directly, or indirectly through captured apoptotic or necrotic cell bodies, induce potent T-lymphocyte activation. T lymphocytes exposed to infected MDDCs are significantly impaired in upregulation of CD69 and CD28, are refractory to activation, and die through contact-dependent apoptosis mediated by an as-yet-unidentified mechanism not requiring Fas, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, leukocyte function antigen 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 10, alpha interferon, gamma interferon, prostaglandins, or reactive nitrogen intermediates. Bystander T lymphocytes that were neither infected nor apoptotic were refractory to activation, suggesting global dysfunction. Immunosuppression and T-lymphocyte unresponsiveness and apoptosis are typical of acute T. gondii infection. Our data suggest that infected dendritic cells contribute to these processes. On the other hand, host cells infected with T. gondii are resistant to multiple inducers of apoptosis. Thus, regulation of host cell and bystander cell apoptosis by viable T. gondii may be significant components of a strategy to evade immunity and enhance intracellular parasite survival. PMID:11895936

  4. Isolation and characterization of five lytic bacteriophages infecting a Vibrio strain closely related to Vibrio owensii.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan-Ping; Gong, Ting; Jost, Günter; Liu, Wen-Hua; Ye, De-Zan; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Vibrio owensii is a potential bacterial pathogen in marine aquaculture system. In this study, five lytic phages specific against Vibrio strain B8D, closely related to V. owensii, were isolated from seawater of an abalone farm. The phages were characterized with respect to morphology, genome size, growth phenotype, as well as thermal, and pH stability. All phages were found to belong to the family Siphoviridae with long noncontractile tails and terminal fibers. Restriction analysis indicated that the five phages were dsDNA viruses with molecular weights ranging from c. 30 to 48 kb. One-step growth experiments revealed that the phages were heterogeneous in latent periods (10-70 min), rise periods (40-70 min), and burst sizes [23-331 plaque-forming units (PFU) per infected cell] at the same host strain. All phages were thermal stable and were tolerant to a wide range of pH. The results indicated that these phages could be potential candidates of a phage cocktail for biological control of V. owensii in aquaculture systems. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Opening the Door to Zero New HIV Infections in Closed Settings

    PubMed Central

    Tadion, Alexander; Hsu, Lee-Nah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Prisons and other closed settings are high-risk environments for HIV and tuberculosis (TB) transmission. Prisoners often experience overcrowded living conditions and violence—including sexual assault—increasing their vulnerability to HIV and TB. However, high infection rates in prisons affect both prisoners and prison employees. Both groups, in interacting with their families and their communities, represent a potential risk of HIV transmission outside the prison setting. National HIV and TB strategies should therefore include measures to prevent transmission and increase access to HIV-related services in prisons. Courts have progressively recognized the human rights of prisoners, including the right to health and access to HIV-related services. A number of national and regional court decisions have affirmed that prison authorities have a duty of care to prisoners and an obligation to ensure that prisoners have access to HIV prevention measures and treatment. Policies and programs on HIV, AIDS, and TB for prison workplaces that are aligned with the ILO’s international labor standards can benefit both prisoners and prison employees. In particular, the ILO’s HIV and AIDS Recommendation, 2010 (No. 200) affirms the principle of universal access to HIV services and provides guidance for the HIV/TB response in prison settings. PMID:27781007

  6. No contact transmission of avian bornavirus in experimentally infected cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and domestic canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica).

    PubMed

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Brosinski, Katrin; Rinder, Monika; Olbert, Marita; Kaspers, Bernd; Korbel, Rüdiger; Staeheli, Peter

    2014-08-06

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a widely distributed disease of parrots. Distinct ABV lineages were also found in various non-psittacine avian species, such as canaries, but the pathogenic role of ABV in these species is less clear. Despite the wide distribution of ABV in captive parrots and canaries, its mode of transmission is poorly understood: both horizontal transmission via the urofaecal-oral route and vertical transmission are discussed to play a role. In this study we investigated pathology and horizontal transmission of ABV in domestic canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica) and cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), two natural host species commonly used for experimental ABV infections. ABV inoculation resulted in persistent infection of all inoculated animals from both species. ABV-infected cockatiels exhibited PDD-like symptoms, such as neurologic signs or shedding of undigested seeds. In contrast, infected domestic canaries did not develop clinical disease. Interestingly, we did not detect viral RNA in cloacal swabs and organ samples or ABV-specific antibodies in serum samples of contact-exposed sentinel birds from either species at any time during a four months observation period. Our results strongly indicate that horizontal transmission of ABV by direct contact is inefficient in immunocompetent fully fledged domestic canaries and cockatiels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nef-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in noninfected heterosexual contact of HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed Central

    Langlade-Demoyen, P; Ngo-Giang-Huong, N; Ferchal, F; Oksenhendler, E

    1994-01-01

    We report on the detection of HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) among 23 regular partners of HIV-infected individuals. 15 of the 46 individuals enrolled in the study were positive for HLA-A2.1 typing. Among the 23 contacts studied, 7 were seropositive and 16 were seronegative on repeated tests. None of the 16 seronegative contacts were positive for p24 antigenemia nor were they positive by the lymphocytes coculture assay, although, in two instances HIV-1 DNA could be detected by PCR (in one case using a gag SK 38/39 primer, and in the other using a primer for the pol P3/P4 primer). These two individuals remained seronegative for 18 and 36 mo, respectively. HIV-specific cytotoxicity was performed in the 15 HLA-A2.1 subjects (7 indexes, 2 seropositive contacts, and 6 seronegative contacts) and in 4 HLA-matched HIV negative donors. CTL specific for env, gag, or nef proteins could not be detected in unstimulated bulk cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes in any of the six seronegative contacts. However, using a limiting dilution assay we found an usually high frequency of HIV nef-specific CTL precursors (CTLp) for HIV env and gag was very similar to that observed in seronegative HLA-matched healthy donors. Because no presence of HIV could be demonstrated in these individuals, these findings argue against the possibility of a silent HIV infection and suggest that a CTL response against nef may be involved in a rapid and effective clearance of the virus after sexual exposure. PMID:8132769

  8. How Could Contact Lens Wearers Be at Risk of Acanthamoeba Infection? A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Youhanna W.; Boase, David L.; Cree, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Contact lens wear is highly influential on the incidence of ulcerative keratitis worldwide, particularly in developed countries. The association between Acanthamoeba keratitis and contact lens wear is firmly established; it may account for up to 95% of the reported cases. Before the popularisation of soft contact lens wear, Acanthamoeba keratitis was extremely rare. In 2000 it was estimated that the number of contact lens wearers worldwide was about 80 million, out of whom 33 million were in the United States and 90% of them wore hydrogel soft lenses. Contact lens-related problems depend on many factors, such as lens material, wearing modality, lens hygiene, type of lens-caring solution, the degree of compliance of the lens user with lens wear and care procedures, lens overwear, sleeping in lenses, rate of changing lenses, and lens case hygiene. This paper is a thorough review of the literature aiming to highlight the role of one of the main risk factors of infectious keratitis, contact lens wear, and also to show the responsibility of lens users in aggravating this risk.

  9. African great apes are naturally infected with roseoloviruses closely related to human herpesvirus 7.

    PubMed

    Lavergne, Anne; Donato, Damien; Gessain, Antoine; Niphuis, Henk; Nerrienet, Eric; Verschoor, Ernst J; Lacoste, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    Primates are naturally infected with herpesviruses. During the last 15 years, the search for homologues of human herpesviruses in nonhuman primates allowed the identification of numerous viruses belonging to the different herpesvirus subfamilies and genera. No simian homologue of human herpesvirus 7 (HHV7) has been reported to date. To investigate the putative existence of HHV7-like viruses in African great apes, we applied the consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primers (CODEHOP) program-mediated PCR strategy to blood DNA samples from the four common chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes verus, P. t. ellioti, P. t. troglodytes, and P. t. schweinfurthii), pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus), as well as lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). This study led to the discovery of a novel roseolovirus close to HHV7 in each of these nonhuman primate species and subspecies. Generation of the partial glycoprotein B (1,111-bp) and full-length DNA polymerase (3,036/3,042-bp) gene sequences allowed the deciphering of their evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that HHV7 and its African great ape homologues formed well-supported monophyletic lineages whose topological resemblance to the host phylogeny is suggestive of virus-host codivergence. Notably, the evolutionary branching points that separate HHV7 from African great ape herpesvirus 7 are remarkably congruent with the dates of divergence of their hosts. Our study shows that African great apes are hosts of human herpesvirus homologues, including HHV7 homologues, and that the latter, like other DNA viruses that establish persistent infections, have cospeciated with their hosts. Human herpesviruses are known to possess simian homologues. However, surprisingly, none has been identified to date for human herpesvirus 7 (HHV7). This study is the first to describe simian homologues of HHV7. The extensive search performed on almost all African great ape species and subspecies, i.e., common

  10. The effect of temperature and contact time of sodium hypochlorite on human roots infected with Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Gulsahi, Kamran; Tirali, R Ebru; Cehreli, S Burcak; Karahan, Zeynep Ceren; Uzunoglu, Emel; Sabuncuoglu, Bizden

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 2.5 % NaOCl at different temperature and time intervals on Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans-infected human roots. A total of 112 root cylinders prepared from extracted single-rooted humans were infected by E. faecalis (Group A, n = 56) or C. albicans (Group B, n = 56); 3 root cylinders served as negative controls. Both groups were further divided into 6 subgroups according to three contact times (30 s, 1 min, 5 min) with NaOCl at two different temperatures (25 or 37 °C). Microorganism growth was controlled at the 24th and 48th hours. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square test. While NaOCl at 25 °C for 5 min was the most effective irrigation regimen to eliminate E. faecalis (p < 0.001), NaOCl at 37 °C for 5 min exhibited significantly superior antifungal properties (p < 0.05). At the same contact times, difference in the temperature of NaOCl did not affect the growth of either E. faecalis or C. albicans. As a result, the irrigation time of NaOCl was more effective than the temperature to eliminate E. faecalis, while pre-heating of NaOCl to 37 °C increased its effectiveness on C. albicans at 5 min contact time.

  11. Impact of Post-visit Contact on Emergency Department Utilization for Adolescent Women with a Sexually Transmitted Infection.

    PubMed

    Reed, Jennifer L; Zaidi, Mohsin A; Woods, Tiffany D; Bates, Justin R; Britto, Maria T; Huppert, Jill S

    2015-06-01

    To understand Emergency Department (ED) utilization patterns for women who received sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and explore the impact of post-visit telephone contact on future ED visits. We performed a secondary analysis on a prospectively collected dataset of ED patients ages 14-21 years at a children's hospital. The dataset documented initial and return visits, STI results, race, age and post-visit contact success (telephone contact ≤7 days of visit). Logistic regression was performed identifying variables that predicted a return visit to the ED, a return visit with STI testing, and subsequent positive STI results. Of 922 women with STI testing at their initial ED visit, 216 (23%) were STI positive. One-third (315/922) returned to the ED, 15% (141/922) returned and had STI testing, and 4% (38/922) had a subsequent STI. Of 216 STI-positive women, 59% were successfully contacted. Of those who returned to the ED, age ≥ 18 and Black race were associated with increased STI testing at a subsequent visit. Successful contact reduced the likelihood of STI testing at a subsequent ED visit (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.01-0.8), and ED empiric antibiotic treatment had no effect on subsequent STI testing. Contacting women with STI results and counseling them regarding safe sex behaviors may reduce the number of ED patients who return with symptoms or a new exposure necessitating STI testing. The high STI prevalence and frequent return rate suggest that ED interventions are needed. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Skin-To-Skin Contact on Preterm Infant Skin Barrier Function and Hospital-Acquired Infection

    PubMed Central

    Abouelfettoh, Amel; Ludington-Hoe, Susan M.; Burant, Chris J.; Visscher, Marty O.

    2011-01-01

    Background The preterm infants' skin is structurally and functionally immature at birth because of immature stratum corneum barrier function, leading to problems with fluid loses, thermoregulation, and infection. Two parameters of barrier function can be non-invasively assessed: Stratum Corneum Hydration (SCH) and Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL). Skin-to-Skin Care (SSC) is the proposed independent variable that might affect barrier function by decreasing TEWL and increasing SCH, thereby improving stratum corneum barrier function and consequently decreasing the rate of infection. No study of SSC's effects on TEWL and SCH of preterm infants could be found. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 5 daily Skin-to-Skin Contact sessions on infant skin hydration (SCH), transepidermal evaporated water loss (TEWL), and on SCH when TEWL was controlled, and on the presence of hospital acquired infection. Methods A one-group pretest-test-posttest design with 10 preterm infants (28 - 30 wks GA < 32 wks postmenstrual age, and no infection at entry). Test = 90 minutes of SSC; pre-test and post-test = 30 minutes each of prone positioning in an incubator. SCH and TEWL were taken on Days 1 and 5 at the beginning, middle and end of each period using Multi-Probe Adaptor. A 3 X 3 X 2 Repeated Measures Mixed Models Design, including a covariate, was used to analyze level of Skin Hydration. Specifically, the model tested comparisons in SCH made across repetitions, time, and days, as well as all possible interactions while controlling for TEWL. Descriptive statistics described the number of positive blood cultures during hospitalization and the presence of infections four weeks post-discharge. Results Significant differences in skin hydration were found across TIME (Pre-SSC, SSC, Post-SSC) (F = 21.86; p < 0.001). One infant had a positive blood culture during hospitalization; no infants had signs of infection by 4 weeks post-discharge. Conclusions The study has begun

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection involves activation of its iron acquisition system in response to fascial contact.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moses; Christley, Scott; Khodarev, Nikolai N; Fleming, Irma; Huang, Yong; Chang, Eugene; Zaborina, Olga; Alverdy, John C

    2015-04-01

    Wound infections are traditionally thought to occur when microbial burden exceeds the innate clearance capacity of host immune system. Here, we introduce the idea that the wound environment itself plays a significant contributory role to wound infection. We developed a clinically relevant murine model of soft tissue infection to explore the role of activation of microbial virulence in response to tissue factors as a mechanism by which pathogenic bacteria cause wound infections. Mice underwent abdominal skin incision and light muscle injury with a crushing forceps versus skin incision alone followed by topical inoculation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mice were sacrificed on postoperative Day 6, and abdominal tissues were analyzed for clinical signs of wound infection. To determine if specific wound tissue components induce bacterial virulence, P. aeruginosa was exposed to the skin, fascia, and muscle. Gross wound infection caused by P. aeruginosa was observed to be significantly increased in injured tissues versus noninjured (80% vs.10%) tissues (n = 20 per group, p < 0.0001). Exposure of P. aeruginosa to individual tissue components demonstrated that fascia significantly induced bacterial virulence as judged by the production of pyocyanin, a redox-active phenazine compound known to kill immune cells. Whole-genome transcriptional profiling of P. aeruginosa exposed to the fascia demonstrated activation of multiple genes responsible for the synthesis of the iron scavenging molecule pyochelin. We conclude that wound elements, in particular fascia, may play a significant role in enhancing the virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis of clinical wound infection.

  14. Contact isolation for infection control in hospitalized patients: is patient satisfaction affected?

    PubMed

    Gasink, Leanne B; Singer, Karyn; Fishman, Neil O; Holmes, William C; Weiner, Mark G; Bilker, Warren B; Lautenbach, Ebbing

    2008-03-01

    The effects of contact isolation on patient satisfaction are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional survey and found that most patients lack education and knowledge regarding isolation but feel that it improves their care. In multivariable analysis, isolated patients were not less satisfied with inpatient care than were nonisolated patients.

  15. A nice day for an infection? Weather conditions and social contact patterns relevant to influenza transmission.

    PubMed

    Willem, Lander; Van Kerckhove, Kim; Chao, Dennis L; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Although there is no doubt that significant morbidity and mortality occur during annual influenza epidemics, the role of contextual circumstances, which catalyze seasonal influenza transmission, remains unclear. Weather conditions are believed to affect virus survival, efficiency of transmission and host immunity, but seasonality may also be driven by a tendency of people to congregate indoors during periods of bad weather. To test this hypothesis, we combined data from a social contact survey in Belgium with local weather data. In the absence of a previous in-depth weather impact analysis of social contact patterns, we explored the possibilities and identified pitfalls. We found general dominance of day-type (weekend, holiday, working day) over weather conditions, but nonetheless observed an increase in long duration contacts ([Formula: see text]1 hour) on regular workdays with low temperatures, almost no precipitation and low absolute humidity of the air. Interestingly, these conditions are often assumed to be beneficial for virus survival and transmission. Further research is needed to establish the impact of the weather on social contacts. We recommend that future studies sample over a broad spectrum of weather conditions and day types and include a sufficiently large proportion of holiday periods and weekends.

  16. A Nice Day for an Infection? Weather Conditions and Social Contact Patterns Relevant to Influenza Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Willem, Lander; Van Kerckhove, Kim; Chao, Dennis L.; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Although there is no doubt that significant morbidity and mortality occur during annual influenza epidemics, the role of contextual circumstances, which catalyze seasonal influenza transmission, remains unclear. Weather conditions are believed to affect virus survival, efficiency of transmission and host immunity, but seasonality may also be driven by a tendency of people to congregate indoors during periods of bad weather. To test this hypothesis, we combined data from a social contact survey in Belgium with local weather data. In the absence of a previous in-depth weather impact analysis of social contact patterns, we explored the possibilities and identified pitfalls. We found general dominance of day-type (weekend, holiday, working day) over weather conditions, but nonetheless observed an increase in long duration contacts (1 hour) on regular workdays with low temperatures, almost no precipitation and low absolute humidity of the air. Interestingly, these conditions are often assumed to be beneficial for virus survival and transmission. Further research is needed to establish the impact of the weather on social contacts. We recommend that future studies sample over a broad spectrum of weather conditions and day types and include a sufficiently large proportion of holiday periods and weekends. PMID:23155399

  17. Dynamic of nasal colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 and ST1 after mupirocin treatment in a family in close contact with pigs.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Carmen; Aspiroz, Carmen; Lasarte, Juan J; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Nasal colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was evaluated after a mupirocin treatment in a family previously colonized by MRSA sequence type ST398 and ST1, who lived close to a pig farm. Eight nasal samples were swabbed from each of the four family members on different moments after mupirocin treatment. The efficacy of treatment was low in those family members who worked in the farm, and higher in the remaining two family members with sporadic contact with pigs. In addition, nasal and skin swabs from randomly selected pigs of the farm were taken. MRSA were detected in 33% of pigs tested. All MRSA isolates obtained were characterized by Staphylococcal-Cassette-Chromosome mec (SCCmec) determination, Multilocus-Sequence-Typing (MLST), spa- and agr-typing, Pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis (PFGE), antimicrobial susceptibility, detection of antimicrobial resistance genes, and toxin gene profiling. Spa-types t011, t1255 and t1197 were detected in humans and animals, with indistinguishable PFGE patterns, suggesting animal to human MRSA transmission. Each spa-type was ascribed to a specific pulsotype. Spa-types t127 and t108 were only detected in MRSA isolates obtained from humans, and t012 only in those from animals. MRSA ST1-t127 isolates and some ST398-t011 and ST398-t1197 isolates presented a multiantimicrobial-resistance phenotype. None of them harbored lukF/lukS, tst, eta and etb virulence genes. This study showed that the efficacy of nasal MRSA decolonization in healthy people with very close contact with pigs is especially low. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of oseltamivir prophylaxis regimens for reducing influenza virus infection, transmission and disease severity in a ferret model of household contact.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ding Yuan; Lowther, Sue; McCaw, James M; Sullivan, Sheena G; Leang, Sook-Kwan; Haining, Jessica; Arkinstall, Rachel; Kelso, Anne; Mcvernon, Jodie; Barr, Ian G; Middleton, Deborah; Hurt, Aeron C

    2014-09-01

    The emergence of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in 2009 saw a significant increase in the therapeutic and prophylactic use of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) to mitigate the impact of this highly transmissible virus. Prior to the pandemic, many countries stockpiled NAIs and developed pandemic plans for the use of antiviral drugs, based on either treatment of high-risk individuals and/or prophylaxis of contacts. However, to date there has been a lack of in vivo models to test the efficacy of treatment or prophylaxis with NAIs, for influenza-infected individuals or exposed contacts, in a household setting. A ferret model of household contact was developed to study the efficacy of different prophylaxis regimens in preventing infection in contact ferrets exposed to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-infected index ferrets. Among the different prophylactic regimens, contact ferrets receiving oseltamivir prophylaxis twice daily showed better outcomes than those receiving oseltamivir once daily. Benefits included a significant delay in the time to secondary infection, lower weight loss and higher activity levels. The treatment of index ferrets at 36 h post-infection did not influence either secondary infection rates or clinical symptoms in exposed contact ferrets. Neither prophylaxis nor treatment prevented infection or reduced the duration of viral shedding, although clinical symptoms did improve in infected animals receiving prophylaxis. Different oseltamivir prophylaxis regimens did not prevent infections, but consistently resulted in a reduction in symptoms in infected ferrets. However, oseltamivir prophylaxis failed to reduce viral titres, which warrants further investigation in humans. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  19. Evaluation of oseltamivir prophylaxis regimens for reducing influenza virus infection, transmission and disease severity in a ferret model of household contact

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ding Yuan; Lowther, Sue; McCaw, James M.; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Leang, Sook-Kwan; Haining, Jessica; Arkinstall, Rachel; Kelso, Anne; Mcvernon, Jodie; Barr, Ian G.; Middleton, Deborah; Hurt, Aeron C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The emergence of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in 2009 saw a significant increase in the therapeutic and prophylactic use of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) to mitigate the impact of this highly transmissible virus. Prior to the pandemic, many countries stockpiled NAIs and developed pandemic plans for the use of antiviral drugs, based on either treatment of high-risk individuals and/or prophylaxis of contacts. However, to date there has been a lack of in vivo models to test the efficacy of treatment or prophylaxis with NAIs, for influenza-infected individuals or exposed contacts, in a household setting. Methods A ferret model of household contact was developed to study the efficacy of different prophylaxis regimens in preventing infection in contact ferrets exposed to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-infected index ferrets. Results Among the different prophylactic regimens, contact ferrets receiving oseltamivir prophylaxis twice daily showed better outcomes than those receiving oseltamivir once daily. Benefits included a significant delay in the time to secondary infection, lower weight loss and higher activity levels. The treatment of index ferrets at 36 h post-infection did not influence either secondary infection rates or clinical symptoms in exposed contact ferrets. Neither prophylaxis nor treatment prevented infection or reduced the duration of viral shedding, although clinical symptoms did improve in infected animals receiving prophylaxis. Conclusions Different oseltamivir prophylaxis regimens did not prevent infections, but consistently resulted in a reduction in symptoms in infected ferrets. However, oseltamivir prophylaxis failed to reduce viral titres, which warrants further investigation in humans. PMID:24840623

  20. Covalently closed circular DNAs of murine type C retrovirus: depressed formation in cells treated with cycloheximide early after infection

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W.K.; Yang, D.M.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

    1980-10-01

    Formation of viral closed circular supercoiled DNA duplexes and production of progeny virus were both inhibited in cultured mouse cells treated with cycloheximide in the first 4 h of type C retrovirus infection. With different doses of cycloheximide to cause different degrees of inhibition, the number of viral supercoiled DNA duplexes detected in the cells at 11 h showed an apparent correlation with the amount of progeny virus produced in the 12- to 22-h period of infection. These kinetic data suggest that a cycloheximide-sensitive metabolic process, probably early viral protein synthesis, is required for retrovirus replication and supercoiled viral DNA formation in the cell.

  1. IFNγ Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Risk of Infection and Disease in Household Contacts of Tuberculosis Patients in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Nancy D.; Marín, Diana M.; López, Lucelly; Henao, Hanna M.; Martínez, Teresita; Villa, Liliana; Barrera, Luis F.; Ortiz, Blanca L.; Ramírez, María E.; Montes, Carlos J.; Oquendo, María C.; Arango, Lisandra M.; Riaño, Felipe; Aguirre, Carlos; Bustamante, Alberto; Belisle, John T.; Dobos, Karen; Mejía, Gloria I.; Giraldo, Margarita R.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Robledo, Jaime; Arbeláez, María P.; Rojas, Carlos A.; García, Luis F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Household contacts (HHCs) of pulmonary tuberculosis patients are at high risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and early disease development. Identification of individuals at risk of tuberculosis disease is a desirable goal for tuberculosis control. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) using specific M. tuberculosis antigens provide an alternative to tuberculin skin testing (TST) for infection detection. Additionally, the levels of IFNγ produced in response to these antigens may have prognostic value. We estimated the prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection by IGRA and TST in HHCs and their source population (SP), and assessed whether IFNγ levels in HHCs correlate with tuberculosis development. Methods A cohort of 2060 HHCs was followed for 2–3 years after exposure to a tuberculosis case. Besides TST, IFNγ responses to mycobacterial antigens: CFP, CFP-10, HspX and Ag85A were assessed in 7-days whole blood cultures and compared to 766 individuals from the SP in Medellín, Colombia. Isoniazid prophylaxis was not offered to child contacts because Colombian tuberculosis regulations consider it only in children under 5 years, TST positive without BCG vaccination. Results Using TST 65.9% of HHCs and 42.7% subjects from the SP were positive (OR 2.60, p<0.0001). IFNγ response to CFP-10, a biomarker of M. tuberculosis infection, tested positive in 66.3% HHCs and 24.3% from the SP (OR = 6.07, p<0.0001). Tuberculosis incidence rate was 7.0/1000 person years. Children <5 years accounted for 21.6% of incident cases. No significant difference was found between positive and negative IFNγ responders to CFP-10 (HR 1.82 95% CI 0.79–4.20 p = 0.16). However, a significant trend for tuberculosis development amongst high HHC IFNγ producers was observed (trend Log rank p = 0.007). Discussion CFP-10-induced IFNγ production is useful to establish tuberculosis infection prevalence amongst HHC and identify those at highest risk of disease. The high

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection involves activation of its iron acquisition system in response to fascial contact

    PubMed Central

    Kim, M.; Christley, S.; Khodarev, N. N.; Fleming, I.; Huang, Y.; Chang, E.; Zaborina, O.; Alverdy, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Wound infections are traditionally thought to occur when microbial burden exceeds the innate clearance capacity of host immune system. Here we introduce the idea that the wound environment itself plays a significant contributory role to wound infection. Methods We developed a clinically relevant murine model of soft tissue infection to explore the role of activation of microbial virulence in response to tissue factors as a mechanism by which pathogenic bacteria cause wound infections. Mice underwent abdominal skin incision and light muscle injury with a crushing forceps versus skin incision alone followed by topical inoculation of P. aeruginosa. Mice were sacrificed on postoperative day 6 and abdominal tissues analyzed for clinical signs of wound infection. To determine if specific wound tissues components induce bacterial virulence, P. aeruginosa was exposed to skin, fascia, and muscle. Results Gross wound infection due to P. aeruginosa was observed to be significantly increased in injured tissues vs non-injured (80% vs 10%) tissues (n=20/group, p<0.0001). Exposure of P. aeruginosa to individual tissue components demonstrated that fascia significantly induced bacterial virulence as judged by the production of pyocyanin, a redox-active phenazine compound known to kill immune cells. Whole genome transcriptional profiling of P. aeruginosa exposed to fascia demonstrated activation of multiple genes responsible for the synthesis of the iron scavenging molecule pyochelin. Conclusion We conclude that wound elements, in particular fascia, may play a significant role in enhancing the virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis of clinical wound infection. PMID:25807409

  3. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics: a review on legislation, usage, infections, and contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-02-01

    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market is dominated by a few preservatives: parabens, formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. Allergy to preservatives is one of the main reasons for contact eczema caused by cosmetics. Concentration of the same preservative in similar products varies greatly, and this may indicate that some cosmetic products are over preserved. As development and elicitation of contact allergy is dose dependent, over preservation of cosmetics potentially leads to increased incidences of contact allergy. Very few studies have investigated the antimicrobial efficiency of preservatives in cosmetics, but the results indicate that efficient preservation is obtainable with concentrations well below the maximum allowed.

  4. Risk factors for febrile respiratory illness and mono-viral infections in a semi-closed military environment: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Pang, Junxiong; Jin, Jing; Loh, Jin Phang; Tan, Boon Huan; Koh, Wee Hong Victor; Ng, Sock Hoon; Ho, Zheng Jie Marc; Gao, Qiuhan; Cook, Alex R; Hsu, Li Yang; Lee, Vernon J; Chen, Mark I Cheng

    2015-07-25

    Febrile respiratory illness (FRI) results in substantial burden in semi-closed environments. Tackling risk factors may reduce transmission and infection. However, risk factors involved in one setting may not be generalizable in all settings due to differences in climate, residential environment, population genetic and cultural backgrounds. This study aims to identify risk factors of FRI and mono-viral infections in a tropical military environment. From year 2009 to 2012, military personnel with temperature ≥37.5 °C, cough and/or sore throat, and personnel with no fever or no respiratory symptoms were recruited as cases and controls, respectively. Subjects provided nasal wash specimens and answered a standardized questionnaire. Resplex assays were used to determine the viral etiologies. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses of the variables were performed using appropriate descriptive tests and logistic regression modelling, respectively, with R program. A total of 7,743 FRI cases and 1,247 non-FRI study controls were recruited. Increasing age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.03; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.05], recruit camp (AOR = 4.67; 95 % CI = 3.99-5.46) and smoker (AOR = 1.31; 95 % CI = 1.13-1.52) were independent risk factors of FRI. Malay ethnicity was positively associated with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (AOR = 1.50; 95 % CI = 1.04-2.15) and coxsackie/echovirus (AOR = 1.67; 95 % CI = 1.19-2.36) mono-infection. Significant contact risk factors were stay-out personnel with ill household member (AOR = 4.96; 95 % CI = 3.39-7.24), and stay-in personnel with ill bunkmate and household member (AOR = 3.55; 95 % CI = 2.57-4.91). Staying in camp with none ill in bunk and at home was a protective factor against FRI (AOR = 0.80; 95 % CI = 0.64-0.99). These contact risk factors were similarly observed for the five most common viruses detected, namely adenovirus, rhinoviruses, influenza A and B, and coxsackie/echovirus. Increasing age

  5. Intraoperative subcutaneous wound closing culture sample: a predicting factor for periprosthetic infection after hip- and knee-replacement?

    PubMed

    Frank, Christian B; Adams, Martin; Kroeber, Markus; Wentzensen, Andreas; Heppert, Volkmar; Schulte-Bockholt, Dietrich; Guehring, Thorsten

    2011-10-01

    It is unknown whether intraoperative subcutaneous wound closing culture samples (WCCS) are useful to predict periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Here we prospectively followed 167 out of a total of 175 consecutive patients with primary total hip (THR) or knee replacement (TKR) between 01/2002 and 12/2002 for a mean follow-up period of 5 years; of those patients, n = 159 (96.8%) underwent WCCS. The results showed a positive WCCS in n = 9 cases (5.8%). Nine patients developed postoperative wound complication and required revision surgery. Two patients developed signs of a deep periprosthetic infection; however, only one out of nine patients had initial positive WCCS. Our results thus indicate that WCCS during primary joint replacement is not an appropriate predictive method to identify patients at risk for periprosthetic joint infections.

  6. China is closely monitoring an increase in infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qi; Shao, Meiying; Xu, Lingzhong

    2017-03-22

    The fifth outbreak of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus has struck far and wide in China. The number of cases of infection with the avian influenza A (H7N9) suddenly increased in 2013-2014, but the number of cases reported this winter has exceeded the number reported in all previous seasons. Given this situation, the National Health and Family Planning Commission issued updated Chinese guidelines (2017 version) on diagnosis and treatment of infection with the avian influenza A (H7N9) virus on January 24, 2017. In addition, the Chinese Government closed many live poultry markets in urban and rural areas in a number of provinces and the Government has taken proactive measures to surveil, respond to, and prevent potential pandemics involving the avian influenza A (H7N9) virus.

  7. Deciphering Multiplicity of HIV-1C Infection: Transmission of Closely Related Multiple Viral Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Novitsky, Vlad; Moyo, Sikhulile; Wang, Rui; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Essex, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background A single viral variant is transmitted in the majority of HIV infections. However, about 20% of heterosexually transmitted HIV infections are caused by multiple viral variants. Detection of transmitted HIV variants is not trivial, as it involves analysis of multiple viral sequences representing intra-host HIV-1 quasispecies. Methodology We distinguish two types of multiple virus transmission in HIV infection: (1) HIV transmission from the same source, and (2) transmission from different sources. Viral sequences representing intra-host quasispecies in a longitudinally sampled cohort of 42 individuals with primary HIV-1C infection in Botswana were generated by single-genome amplification and sequencing and spanned the V1C5 region of HIV-1C env gp120. The Maximum Likelihood phylogeny and distribution of pairwise raw distances were assessed at each sampling time point (n = 217; 42 patients; median 5 (IQR: 4–6) time points per patient, range 2–12 time points per patient). Results Transmission of multiple viral variants from the same source (likely from the partner with established HIV infection) was found in 9 out of 42 individuals (21%; 95 CI 10–37%). HIV super-infection was identified in 2 patients (5%; 95% CI 1–17%) with an estimated rate of 3.9 per 100 person-years. Transmission of multiple viruses combined with HIV super-infection at a later time point was observed in one individual. Conclusions Multiple HIV lineages transmitted from the same source produce a monophyletic clade in the inferred phylogenetic tree. Such a clade has transiently distinct sub-clusters in the early stage of HIV infection, and follows a predictable evolutionary pathway. Over time, the gap between initially distinct viral lineages fills in and initially distinct sub-clusters converge. Identification of cases with transmission of multiple viral lineages from the same source needs to be taken into account in cross-sectional estimation of HIV recency in epidemiological and

  8. Bacterial infections from aquatic species: potential for and prevention of contact zoonoses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As aquaculture production and consumption of aquacultural products increases, the possibility of zoonotic infection from either handling or ingestion of these products also increases. The principal pathogens acquired topically from fish or shellfish through spine/pincer puncture or open wounds are ...

  9. Cell-contact dependent inhibition of monocytes by airway epithelial cells and reversion by infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    PubMed

    Oumouna, Mustapha; Weitnauer, Michael; Mijošek, Vedrana; Schmidt, Lotte M; Eigenbrod, Tatjana; Dalpke, Alexander H

    2015-11-01

    Airway epithelial cells (AEC) are the first line of defense against airborne infectious microbes and play an important role in regulating the local immune response. However, the interplay of epithelial cells and professional immune cells during both homeostasis and infection has only been partially studied. The present study was performed to determine how bronchial epithelial cells affect the activation of monocytes. Under healthy conditions, AECs were shown to inhibit reactivity of monocytes. We hypothesized that upon infection, monocytes might be released from inhibition by AECs. We report that direct contact of monocytes with unstimulated BEAS2B epithelial cells results in inhibition of TNF secretion by activated monocytes. In addition to the known soluble modulators, we show that cell contacts between epithelial cells and monocytes or macrophages also contribute to homeostatic inhibitory actions. We find AECs to express the inhibitory molecule PD-L1 and blockade of PD-L1 results in increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from monocytes. Contrary to the inhibitory activities during homeostasis, epithelial cells infected with Respiratory Syncitial Virus (RSV) induce a significant release of inhibition. However, release of inhibition was not due to modulation of PD-L1 expression in AECs. We conclude that airway epithelial cells control the reactivity of monocytes through direct and indirect interactions; however tonic inhibition can be reverted upon stimulation of AECs with RSV and thereof derived molecular patterns. The study confirms the important role of airway epithelial cells for local immune reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Intestinal mucosal mast cells in normal and nematode-infected rat intestines are in intimate contact with peptidergic nerves.

    PubMed Central

    Stead, R H; Tomioka, M; Quinonez, G; Simon, G T; Felten, S Y; Bienenstock, J

    1987-01-01

    Inflammatory or allergic conditions, as well as situations where healing and repair processes occur, are characterized by the presence of increased numbers of mast cells. Previous work on the effect of neuropeptides on mast cell mediator release showed that only substance P caused such release from intestinal mucosal mast cells [Shanahan, F., Denburg, J. A., Fox, J., Bienenstock, J. & Befus, A. D. (1985) J. Immunol. 135, 1331-1337]. Accordingly, we investigated the microanatomical relationship between mast cells and enteric nerves in normal rat intestine and parasite-infected rat intestine, in which mucosal mast cell hyperplasia occurs. Combined immunohistochemistry for neuron-specific enolase and staining with alcian blue at pH 0.5 was employed on paraffin-embedded sections of normal and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rat jejunum. Sixty-seven percent of intestinal mucosal mast cells were touching subepithelial nerves, and an additional 20% were within 2 micron of nerves. Assessment of the proportion of the lamina propria occupied by mast cells (12.5%), the average mast cell area (121 +/- 28 microns 2), and the density of enteric nerves (one per 788 +/- 151 microns 2) suggested that the association was 5 times greater than would be expected by chance alone (P less than 0.0001). In consecutive sections, the nerves in contact with mast cells were also shown to contain substance P and/or calcitonin-gene-related peptide. Electron microscopy confirmed this association: 8% of the mast cells in infected rats exhibited membrane-membrane contact with unmyelinated axons containing 70- to 170-nm dense-core vesicles, and an additional 31% were situated less than 250 nm from nerves. Other mast cells appeared to embrace nerve bundles through the projection of lamellopodia. These data provide systematic quantitative evidence that a structural foundation for communication between the immune and nervous systems exists in the rat gastrointestinal tract. Images PMID:2437589

  11. Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Mastitis and Close Human Contacts in South African Dairy Herds: Genetic Diversity and Inter-Species Host Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Tracy; Kock, Marleen M.; Ehlers, Marthie M.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common etiological agents of contagious bovine mastitis worldwide. The purpose of this study was to genetically characterize a collection of S. aureus isolates (bovine = 146, human = 12) recovered from cases of bovine mastitis and nasal swabs of close human contacts in the dairy environment. Isolates were screened for a combination of clinically significant antimicrobial and virulence gene markers whilst the molecular epidemiology of these isolates and possible inter-species host transmission was investigated using a combination of genotyping techniques. None of the isolates under evaluation tested positive for methicillin or vancomycin resistance encoding genes. Twenty seven percent of the bovine S. aureus isolates tested positive for one or more of the pyrogenic toxin superantigen (PTSAg) genes with the sec and sell genes predominating. Comparatively, 83% of the human S. aureus isolates tested positive for one or more PTSAg genes with a greater variety of genes being detected. Genomic DNA macrorestriction followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of the bovine isolates generated 58 electrophoretic patterns which grouped into 10 pulsotypes at an 80% similarity level. The majority of the bovine isolates, 93.2% (136/146), clustered into four major pulsotypes. Seven sequence types (ST) were identified among the representative bovine S. aureus isolates genotyped, including: ST8 (CC8), ST97 (CC97), ST351 (CC705), ST352 (CC97), ST508 (CC45), ST2992 (CC97) and a novel sequence type, ST3538 (CC97). Based on PFGE analysis, greater genetic diversity was observed among the human S. aureus isolates. Bovine and human isolates from three sampling sites clustered together and were genotypically indistinguishable. Two of the isolates, ST97 and ST352 belong to the common bovine lineage CC97, and their isolation from close human contacts suggests zoonotic transfer. In the context of this study, the third isolate, ST8 (CC8), is

  12. Cell-to-cell contact of human monocytes with infected arterial smooth-muscle cells enhances growth of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Puolakkainen, Mirja; Campbell, Lee Ann; Lin, Tsun-Mei; Richards, Theresa; Patton, Dorothy L; Kuo, Cho-Chou

    2003-02-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae can infect arterial cells. It has been shown that coculture of human monocytes (U937) and endothelial cells promotes infection of C. pneumoniae in endothelial cells and that the enhancement was mediated by a soluble factor (insulin-like growth factor 2) secreted by monocytes. In this study, it is shown that coculture of monocytes with C. pneumoniae enhances infection of C. pneumoniae in arterial smooth-muscle cells 5.3-fold at a monocyte-to-smooth-muscle cell ratio of 5. However, unlike endothelial cells, no enhancement was observed if monocytes were placed in cell culture inserts or if conditioned medium from monocyte cultures was used, which suggests that cell-to-cell contact is critical. The addition of mannose 6-phosphate or octyl glucoside, a nonionic detergent containing a sugar group, to cocultures inhibited the enhancement. These findings suggest that the monocyte-smooth-muscle cell interaction may be mediated by mannose 6-phosphate receptors present on monocytes.

  13. Infection-induced behavioural changes reduce connectivity and the potential for disease spread in wild mice contact networks

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Patricia C.; Block, Per; König, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Infection may modify the behaviour of the host and of its conspecifics in a group, potentially altering social connectivity. Because many infectious diseases are transmitted through social contact, social connectivity changes can impact transmission dynamics. Previous approaches to understanding disease transmission dynamics in wild populations were limited in their ability to disentangle different factors that determine the outcome of disease outbreaks. Here we ask how social connectivity is affected by infection and how this relationship impacts disease transmission dynamics. We experimentally manipulated disease status of wild house mice using an immune challenge and monitored social interactions within this free-living population before and after manipulation using automated tracking. The immune-challenged animals showed reduced connectivity to their social groups, which happened as a function of their own behaviour, rather than through conspecific avoidance. We incorporated these disease-induced changes of social connectivity among individuals into models of disease outbreaks over the empirically-derived networks. The models revealed that changes in host behaviour frequently resulted in the disease being contained to very few animals, as opposed to becoming widespread. Our results highlight the importance of considering the role that behavioural alterations during infection can have on social dynamics when evaluating the potential for disease outbreaks. PMID:27548906

  14. Infection-induced behavioural changes reduce connectivity and the potential for disease spread in wild mice contact networks.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Patricia C; Block, Per; König, Barbara

    2016-08-22

    Infection may modify the behaviour of the host and of its conspecifics in a group, potentially altering social connectivity. Because many infectious diseases are transmitted through social contact, social connectivity changes can impact transmission dynamics. Previous approaches to understanding disease transmission dynamics in wild populations were limited in their ability to disentangle different factors that determine the outcome of disease outbreaks. Here we ask how social connectivity is affected by infection and how this relationship impacts disease transmission dynamics. We experimentally manipulated disease status of wild house mice using an immune challenge and monitored social interactions within this free-living population before and after manipulation using automated tracking. The immune-challenged animals showed reduced connectivity to their social groups, which happened as a function of their own behaviour, rather than through conspecific avoidance. We incorporated these disease-induced changes of social connectivity among individuals into models of disease outbreaks over the empirically-derived networks. The models revealed that changes in host behaviour frequently resulted in the disease being contained to very few animals, as opposed to becoming widespread. Our results highlight the importance of considering the role that behavioural alterations during infection can have on social dynamics when evaluating the potential for disease outbreaks.

  15. Search for a cure for chronic hepatitis B infection: How close are we?

    PubMed Central

    Phyo, Wah Wah; Soh, Alex Yu Sen; Lim, Seng Gee; Lee, Guan Huei

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains a significant unmet medical need, with 240 million chronically infected persons worldwide. It can be controlled effectively with either nucleoside/nucleotide-based or interferon-based therapies. However, most patients receiving these therapies will relapse after treatment withdrawal. During recent years, the advances in molecular biology and immunology have enabled a better understanding of the viral-host interaction and inspired new treatment approaches to achieve either elimination of the virus from the liver or durable immune control of the infection. This review aims to provide a brief overview on the potential new therapies that may overcome the challenge of persistent CHB infection in the near future. PMID:26019743

  16. Non-contact electromagnetic induction heating for eradicating bacteria and yeasts on biomaterials and possible relevance to orthopaedic implant infections

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, I. M. J. G.; Kuijper, E. J.; Nelissen, R. G. H. H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Infection of implants is a major problem in elective and trauma surgery. Heating is an effective way to reduce the bacterial load in food preparation, and studies on hyperthermia treatment for cancer have shown that it is possible to heat metal objects with pulsed electromagnetic fields selectively (PEMF), also known as induction heating. We therefore set out to answer the following research question: is non-contact induction heating of metallic implants effective in reducing bacterial load in vitro? Methods Titanium alloy cylinders (Ti6Al4V) were exposed to PEMF from an induction heater with maximum 2000 watts at 27 kHz after being contaminated with five different types of micro-organisms: Staphylococcus epidermidis; Staphylococcus aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; spore-forming Bacillus cereus; and yeast Candida albicans. The cylinders were exposed to incremental target temperatures (35°C, 45°C, 50°C, 55°C, 60°C, 65°C, 70°C) for up to 3.5 minutes. Results There was an average linear heating rate of 0.39°C per second up to the target temperature, and thereafter the target temperature was maintained until the end of the experiment. At 60°C and higher (duration 3.5 minutes), there was a 6-log reduction or higher for every micro-organism tested. At 60°C, we found that the shortest duration of effective induction heating was 1.5 minutes. This resulted in a 5-log reduction or higher for every micro-organism tested. Conclusion Non-contact induction heating of a titanium disk is effective in reducing bacterial load in vitro. These promising results can be further explored as a new treatment modality for infections of metal orthopaedic implants. Cite this article: B. G. Pijls, I. M. J. G. Sanders, E. J. Kuijper, R. G. H. H. Nelissen. Non-contact electromagnetic induction heating for eradicating bacteria and yeasts on biomaterials and possible relevance to orthopaedic implant infections: In vitro findings. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:323–330. DOI: 10

  17. Case Report: Emergence of bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected calves in a closed herd

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to have significant economic impact on the cattle industry worldwide. The virus is primarily maintained in the cattle population due to persistently infected animals. Herd surveillance along with good vaccination programs and biosecurity practices are the...

  18. Serological Follow-up of Tuberculosis in a Wild Boar Population in Contact with Infected Cattle.

    PubMed

    Pérez de Val, B; Napp, S; Velarde, R; Lavín, S; Cervera, Z; Singh, M; Allepuz, A; Mentaberre, G

    2017-02-01

    There is an increasing concern in several European countries over the role that tuberculosis (TB)-infected wild boar may play in the progress of bovine TB eradication campaigns. In 2004, as a consequence of the detection of a TB focus in wild boar from a National Game Reserve (NGR) located in southern Catalonia, a surveillance programme based on post-mortem inspection for detection of macroscopic TB-like lesions (TBLL) was initiated in the affected area. The source of infection for wild boar was linked to a tuberculous cattle herd located in the same area. Besides, the results of the surveillance programme in wild boar were used for the validation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) IgG antibodies. Using this ELISA, a seven-year serological study of MTBC in wild boar from the NGR was conducted in 173 animals (93 adults, 44 juveniles-yearlings and 36 piglets) culled between 2004 and 2010. ELISA results and presence of TBLL showed excellent agreement for adult and juvenile wild boar (Kappa index = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.76-0.95). Of the thirty-eight adults, yearlings and juveniles classified as positives by the ELISA, 34 (89%) showed TBLL at necropsy. In contrast, none of the ELISA-positive wild boar piglets (n = 20) showed TBLL, suggesting the detection of early antibody responses to the infection. Overall, this study contributes to the knowledge of wild boar humoral responses to MTBC. The results also highlight the usefulness of this serological test for wild boar TB surveillance. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of Quantiferon®-TB Gold-in-Tube versus tuberculin skin testing for contact screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Ricardo Ewbank; Caetano, Rosângela; Pinto, Márcia; Chaves, Diogo; Ferrari, Rossini; Bastos, Mayara; de Abreu, Sandra Teixeira; Menzies, Dick; Trajman, Anete

    2013-01-01

    Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a reservoir for new TB cases. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) reduces the risk of active TB by as much as 90%, but LTBI screening has limitations. Unlike tuberculin skin testing (TST), interferon-gamma release assays are not affected by BCG vaccination, and have been reported to be cost-effective in low-burden countries. The goal of this study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis from the health system perspective, comparing three strategies for LTBI diagnosis in TB contacts: tuberculin skin testing (TST), QuantiFERON®-TB Gold-in-Tube (QFT-GIT) and TST confirmed by QFT-GIT if positive (TST/QFT-GIT) in Brazil, a middle-income, high-burden country with universal BCG coverage. Costs for LTBI diagnosis and treatment of a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 adult immunocompetent close contacts were considered. The effectiveness measure employed was the number of averted TB cases in two years. Health system costs were US$ 105,096 for TST, US$ 121,054 for QFT-GIT and US$ 101,948 for TST/QFT-GIT; these strategies averted 6.56, 6.63 and 4.59 TB cases, respectively. The most cost-effective strategy was TST (US$ 16,021/averted case). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was US$ 227,977/averted TB case for QFT-GIT. TST/QFT-GIT was dominated. Unlike previous studies, TST was the most cost-effective strategy for averting new TB cases in the short term. QFT-GIT would be more cost-effective if its costs could be reduced to US$ 26.95, considering a TST specificity of 59% and US$ 18 considering a more realistic TST specificity of 80%. Nevertheless, with TST, 207.4 additional people per 1,000 will be prescribed IPT compared with QFT.

  20. Genomic Variation, Host Range, and Infection Kinetics of Closely Related Cyanopodoviruses from New England Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veglia, A. J.; Milford, C. R.; Marston, M.

    2016-02-01

    Viruses infecting marine Synechococcus are abundant in coastal marine environments and influence the community composition and abundance of their cyanobacterial hosts. In this study, we focused on the cyanopodoviruses which have smaller genomes and narrower host ranges relative to cyanomyoviruses. While previous studies have compared the genomes of diverse podoviruses, here we analyzed the genomic variation, host ranges, and infection kinetics of podoviruses within the same OTU. The genomes of fifty-five podoviral isolates from the coastal waters of New England were fully sequenced. Based on DNA polymerase gene sequences, these isolates fall into five discrete OTUs (termed RIP - Rhode Island Podovirus). Although all the isolates belonging to the same RIP have very similar DNA polymerase gene sequences (>98% sequence identity), differences in genome content, particularly in regions associated with tail fiber genes, were observed among isolates in the same RIP. Host range tests reveal variation both across and within RIPs. Notably within RIP1, isolates that had similar tail fiber regions also had similar host ranges. Isolates belonging to RIP4 do not contain the host-derived psbA photosynthesis gene, while isolates in the other four RIPs do possess a psbA gene. Nevertheless, infection kinetic experiments suggest that the latent period and burst size for RIP4 isolates are similar to RIP1 isolates. We are continuing to investigate the correlations among genome content, host range, and infection kinetics of isolates belonging to the same OTU. Our results to date suggest that there is substantial genomic variation within an OTU and that this variation likely influences cyanopodoviral - host interactions.

  1. Estimating the Per-Contact Probability of Infection by Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N7) Virus during the 2003 Epidemic in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Ssematimba, Amos; Elbers, Armin R. W.; Hagenaars, Thomas J.; de Jong, Mart C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of the per-contact probability of transmission between farms of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus of H7N7 subtype during the 2003 epidemic in the Netherlands are important for the design of better control and biosecurity strategies. We used standardized data collected during the epidemic and a model to extract data for untraced contacts based on the daily number of infectious farms within a given distance of a susceptible farm. With these data, we used a maximum likelihood estimation approach to estimate the transmission probabilities by the individual contact types, both traced and untraced. The estimated conditional probabilities, conditional on the contact originating from an infectious farm, of virus transmission were: 0.000057 per infectious farm within 1 km per day, 0.000413 per infectious farm between 1 and 3 km per day, 0.0000895 per infectious farm between 3 and 10 km per day, 0.0011 per crisis organisation contact, 0.0414 per feed delivery contact, 0.308 per egg transport contact, 0.133 per other-professional contact and, 0.246 per rendering contact. We validate these outcomes against literature data on virus genetic sequences for outbreak farms. These estimates can be used to inform further studies on the role that improved biosecurity between contacts and/or contact frequency reduction can play in eliminating between-farm spread of the virus during future epidemics. The findings also highlight the need to; 1) understand the routes underlying the infections without traced contacts and, 2) to review whether the contact-tracing protocol is exhaustive in relation to all the farm’s day-to-day activities and practices. PMID:22808285

  2. Closed Incision Negative Pressure Therapy Effects on Postoperative Infection and Surgical Site Complication After Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Redfern, Roberta E; Cameron-Ruetz, Claire; O'Drobinak, Simone K; Chen, John T; Beer, Karl J

    2017-06-17

    The aim of this study is to determine whether negative pressure wound therapy, used prophylactically in clean surgical incisions, reduces surgical site infection, hematoma, and seroma after total joint replacement. A single center, open-label study with a prospective cohort of patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty treated with closed incision negative pressure therapy (ciNPT) of clean surgical wounds was conducted. One hundred ninety-six incisions treated with ciNPT in 192 patients were compared with a historical control group of 400 patients treated with traditional gauze dressing. The rates of clinically significant hematoma, seroma, dehiscence, surgical site infection, and complication were compared using univariate analyses and multiple logistic regression. The rate of deep infection was unchanged in the ciNPT group compared with control (1.0% vs 1.25%); however, the overall rate of infection (including superficial wound infection) decreased significantly (3.5% vs 1.0%, P = .04). Overall complication rate was lower in the ciNPT group than controls (1.5% vs 5.5%, P = .02). Upon logistic regression, only treatment group was associated with complication; patients treated with ciNPT were about 4 times less likely to experience a surgical site complication compared with control (P = .0277, odds ratio 4.251, 95% confidence interval 1.172-15.414). ciNPT for total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty in a comprehensive patient population reduced overall incidence of complication, but did not significantly impact the rate of deep infection. Further research to determine clinical and economic advantages of routine use of ciNPT in total joint arthroplasty is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Widespread infection with hemotropic mycoplasmas in bats in Spain, including a hemoplasma closely related to "Candidatus Mycoplasma hemohominis".

    PubMed

    Millán, Javier; López-Roig, Marc; Delicado, Verónica; Serra-Cobo, Jordi; Esperón, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Molecular analyses of blood samples revealed infection with hemoplasmas in 97% of 31 cave bats captured in three caves in North-Eastern Spain. The characterization of 1250 bp of the 16S rRNA gene in 29 of the positive bats identified two different groups of sequences. Twenty-two Schreibers' bats (Miniopterus schreibersii) and one long-eared bat (Myotis capaccinii) shared one group, composed of seven closely related sequences. These sequences showed an identity of about 97% with "Candidatus Mycoplasma hemohominis" and the phylogenetic branch including bat and human sequences showed a 100% bootstrap value, supporting a close phylogenetic relationship between these hemoplasmas. The second group, representing a potentially novel species, was composed of a single sequence shared by six Schreibers' bats that had 91% identity with the recently reported hemoplasma from little brown bats in North America. Large bat aggregations in roosting caves probably benefits intra and inter-species transmission explaining the high observed prevalence.

  4. Subacute autonomic and sensory neuropathy closely related to cytomegalovirus infection preceded by frequent syncopal attacks.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Koichi; Namekawa, Michito; Kondo, Soichi; Ono, Sayaka; Nakano, Imaharu

    2016-08-31

    A 73-year-old woman who had hypertension developed a slight fever and general malaise with laboratory-proven hepatic dysfunction as well as frequent syncopal attacks 3 months before admission to our hospital. One month later, she developed urinary retention and distal limb numbness. Upon admission, her neurological examination showed reduced limb tendon reflexes, glove and stocking-type numbness, and diminished senses of touch, temperature, pain, and distal leg vibration and position. Serum cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM antibody and CMV IgG antibody were elevated on admission, and both decreased thereafter, confirming CMV infection. No serum anti-ganglioside antibody was detected. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed a mild pleocytosis and elevated proteins. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes of the tibial and peroneal nerve were slightly reduced. Sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitudes of the median and ulnar nerves were reduced, and sural SNAP was not evoked. Systolic blood pressure dropped 48 mmHg when the patient assumed a standing position from a supine one, demonstrating orthostatic hypotension, and a cold pressor test was abnormal, both indicating an obvious hypofunction of the sympathetic nerve. The postganglionic autonomic nerve appeared to be damaged because the accumulation of [(123)I] meta-iodobenzylguanidine was reduced on myocardial scintigraphy. These findings combined together led us to make a diagnosis of subacute autonomic and sensory neuropathy associated with CMV infection in this case. Following an eventless administration of oral fludrocortisones, intravenous immuno-globulin (IVIg) was given after one month of the hospitalization with a remarkable reduction of the syncope. This case is instructive in two points. One is that there may be a couple of months with syncope alone before the sensory disturbance appearance, and the other is that IVIg may be considerably effective for the patient-annoying syncopes. To our knowledge, this

  5. [Elevated risk of HIV infection in homosexual men even after contact with the health system].

    PubMed

    Barrasa, Alicia; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Sáez de Vicuña, Luis María; Saladié, Pilar; Arellano, Encarnación; Larrañaga, Guendane; Castro, Esperanza; Losas, Araceli; Neira, María Angeles; Cuesta, María Mar; Mendo, Antonia; Castilla, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    To determine the incidence of HIV seroconversion and to evaluate the characteristics associated with a greater risk of seroconversion in homosexual men in the period 2000-2003. We performed a dynamic cohort study of all homosexual men tested for HIV in 20 ambulatory care centers specialized in diagnosing HIV, located in 19 cities in Spain. The characteristics of the men were analyzed and the seroconversion incidence rate was calculated among those who were followed up. In the period 2000-2003, a total of 10,189 persons-year of follow-up were accumulated and 167 seroconversions were diagnosed with a seroconversion incidence rate of 16.4 per 1,000 persons-year. Most of the seroconversions (63%) occurred in men younger than 30 years old. The seroconversion rate was higher among homosexual men from Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa than among Spanish men. In Spain, the risk of HIV transmission among men who have sex with men is still high. Therefore, this population continues to be a high priority group in HIV prevention. A proportion of HIV diagnoses among immigrants concern infections acquired after their arrival to Spain, probably due to conditions of greater social vulnerability. Reinforcing and renewing prevention strategies directed at this population would be timely.

  6. Survey of Household Contacts of Infants With Laboratory-confirmed Pertussis Infection During a National Pertussis Outbreak in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Kara, Edna O; Campbell, Helen; Ribeiro, Sonia; Fry, Norman K; Litt, David; Eletu, Seyi; Amirthalingam, Gayatri

    2017-02-01

    Highest rates of pertussis occur in infants <3 months of age, too young to be fully vaccinated. The 2012 national outbreak provided a valuable opportunity to study sources of infection for these infants at highest risk of severe complications and death. Households of infants <3 months of age with laboratory-confirmed pertussis between August 2012 and October 2013 were invited to complete a questionnaire with information on household members' demographics, relationship with the infant, chronology of cough onset where relevant and vaccination history. Contacts were also invited to provide an oral fluid sample for antipertussis toxin IgG testing. Individuals with laboratory evidence of infection and cough onset up to 3 months before infant onset were considered probable sources of infection. In total, 220 contacts from 63 families were included in the analysis. In 86% of households (54/63), at least one positive result was found with 44% (97/220) of all contacts testing positive. Around 29% (31/108) of noncoughers tested positive. A probable source of infection was found for 46% (29/63) of infant cases. Mothers were the probable source in 38% of cases, followed by siblings (31%) and fathers (10%). Household contacts play an important role in the transmission of pertussis to infants and when identified, mothers were the main sources of infection. Immunization during pregnancy has a key role in preventing infant disease through passive protection from birth and reduced maternal exposure.

  7. A new model mimicking persistent HBV e antigen-negative infection using covalently closed circular DNA in immunocompetent mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Cao, Min; Wei, Qing Lu; Zhao, Zhong Hua; Xiang, Qin; Wang, Hui Juan; Zhang, Hua Tang; Lai, Guo Qi

    2017-01-01

    Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major health problem. HBV e antigen (HBeAg)-negative strains have become prevalent. Previously, no animal model mimicked the clinical course of HBeAg-negative HBV infection. To establish an HBeAg-negative HBV infection model, the 3.2-kb full-length genome of HBeAg-negative HBV was cloned from a clinical sample and then circularized to form covalently closed circular (cccDNA). The resulting cccDNA was introduced into the liver of C57BL/6J mice through hydrodynamic injection. Persistence of the HBeAg-negative infection was monitored at predetermined time points using HBV-specific markers including HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), HBeAg, and HBV core antigen (HBcAg) as well as DNA copies. Throughout the study, pAAV-HBV1.2 was used as a control. In mice injected with HBeAg-negative cccDNA, the HBV infection rate was 100% at the initial stage. HBsAg levels increased up to 1 week, at which point levels peaked and dropped quickly thereafter. In 60% of injected mice, HBsAg and HBcAg persisted for more than 10 weeks. High numbers of HBV DNA copies were detected in the serum and liver. Moreover, cccDNA persisted in the liver tissue of HBeAg-negative mice. In contrast to the pAAV-HBV 1.2 injected mice, no HBeAg was found in mice injected with HBeAg-negative HBV throughout the study period. These results demonstrate the first successful establishment of a model of HBeAg-negative HBV-persistent infection in immunocompetent mice. Compared to pAAV-HBV1.2-injected mice, the infection persistence and levels of serum virological and biochemical markers were approximately equal in the model mice. This model will be useful for mechanistic studies on HBeAg-negative HBV infection and will facilitate the evaluation of new antiviral drugs.

  8. Equine CD4+ CD25high T cells exhibit regulatory activity by close contact and cytokine-dependent mechanisms in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Eman; Gerber, Vinzenz; Steinbach, Falko; Marti, Eliane

    2011-01-01

    Horses are particularly prone to allergic and autoimmune diseases, but little information about equine regulatory T cells (Treg) is currently available. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the existence of CD4+ Treg cells in horses, determine their suppressive function as well as their mechanism of action. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy horses were examined for CD4, CD25 and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) expression. We show that equine FoxP3 is expressed constitutively by a population of CD4+ CD25+ T cells, mainly in the CD4+ CD25high subpopulation. Proliferation of CD4+ CD25− sorted cells stimulated with irradiated allogenic PBMC was significantly suppressed in co-culture with CD4+ CD25high sorted cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of suppression by the CD4+ CD25high cell population is mediated by close contact as well as interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and probably other factors. In addition, we studied the in vitro induction of CD4+ Treg and their characteristics compared to those of freshly isolated CD4+ Treg cells. Upon stimulation with a combination of concanavalin A, TGF-β1 and IL-2, CD4+ CD25+ T cells which express FoxP3 and have suppressive capability were induced from CD4+ CD25− cells. The induced CD4+ CD25high express higher levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 mRNA compared to the freshly isolated ones. Thus, in horses as in man, the circulating CD4+ CD25high subpopulation contains natural Treg cells and functional Treg can be induced in vitro upon appropriate stimulation. Our study provides the first evidence of the regulatory function of CD4+ CD25+ cells in horses and offers insights into ex vivo manipulation of Treg cells. PMID:21977999

  9. Hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA homeostasis is independent of the lymphotoxin pathway during chronic HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Meier, M-A; Suslov, A; Ketterer, S; Heim, M H; Wieland, S F

    2017-08-01

    Current treatment options for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are not curative as they are not effective in eliminating covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). cccDNA is a stable template for HBV transcription in the nucleus of hepatocytes and is thought to be one of the main factors responsible for HBV persistence. Recently, activation of the lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTβR) has been shown to trigger degradation of cccDNA through induction of cytidine deaminases of the APOBEC3 family in HBV cell culture model systems. To assess the presence and relevance of such mechanisms in the liver of chronically HBV-infected patients, we compared intrahepatic cccDNA levels with the expression levels of lymphotoxins and some of their target genes (eg APOBEC deaminases) in liver biopsy tissue. Our results confirm elevated gene expression levels of components of the lymphotoxin pathway including lymphotoxin alpha (LTα), lymphotoxin beta (LTβ), APOBEC3B (A3B) and APOBEC3G (A3G) in the chronically HBV-infected liver compared to uninfected liver. Furthermore, expression levels of the genes of the APOBEC deaminase family were correlated with those of LTα and LTβ gene expression, consistent with lymphotoxin-mediated upregulation of APOBEC gene expression. However, intrahepatic cccDNA and HBV replication levels were not correlated with LTα, LTβ and APOBEC gene expression. In conclusion, these results suggest that although the lymphotoxin pathway is activated in the chronically HBV-infected liver, it has no major impact on HBV cccDNA metabolism in chronic HBV infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Assessing Host-Virus Codivergence for Close Relatives of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infecting African Great Apes.

    PubMed

    Madinda, Nadège F; Ehlers, Bernhard; Wertheim, Joel O; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Bergl, Richard A; Boesch, Christophe; Akonkwa, Dieudonné Boji Mungu; Eckardt, Winnie; Fruth, Barbara; Gillespie, Thomas R; Gray, Maryke; Hohmann, Gottfried; Karhemere, Stomy; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Nishuli, Radar; Pauly, Maude; Petrzelkova, Klara J; Robbins, Martha M; Todd, Angelique; Schubert, Grit; Stoinski, Tara S; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Peeters, Martine; Leendertz, Fabian H; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2016-10-01

    It has long been hypothesized that polyomaviruses (PyV; family Polyomaviridae) codiverged with their animal hosts. In contrast, recent analyses suggested that codivergence may only marginally influence the evolution of PyV. We reassess this question by focusing on a single lineage of PyV infecting hominine hosts, the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) lineage. By characterizing the genetic diversity of these viruses in seven African great ape taxa, we show that they exhibit very strong host specificity. Reconciliation analyses identify more codivergence than noncodivergence events. In addition, we find that a number of host and PyV divergence events are synchronous. Collectively, our results support codivergence as the dominant process at play during the evolution of the MCPyV lineage. More generally, our results add to the growing body of evidence suggesting an ancient and stable association of PyV and their animal hosts. The processes involved in viral evolution and the interaction of viruses with their hosts are of great scientific interest and public health relevance. It has long been thought that the genetic diversity of double-stranded DNA viruses was generated over long periods of time, similar to typical host evolutionary timescales. This was also hypothesized for polyomaviruses (family Polyomaviridae), a group comprising several human pathogens, but this remains a point of controversy. Here, we investigate this question by focusing on a single lineage of polyomaviruses that infect both humans and their closest relatives, the African great apes. We show that these viruses exhibit considerable host specificity and that their evolution largely mirrors that of their hosts, suggesting that codivergence with their hosts played a major role in their diversification. Our results provide statistical evidence in favor of an association of polyomaviruses and their hosts over millions of years. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Assessing Host-Virus Codivergence for Close Relatives of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infecting African Great Apes

    PubMed Central

    Madinda, Nadège F.; Ehlers, Bernhard; Wertheim, Joel O.; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Bergl, Richard A.; Boesch, Christophe; Akonkwa, Dieudonné Boji Mungu; Eckardt, Winnie; Fruth, Barbara; Gillespie, Thomas R.; Gray, Maryke; Hohmann, Gottfried; Karhemere, Stomy; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Nishuli, Radar; Pauly, Maude; Petrzelkova, Klara J.; Robbins, Martha M.; Todd, Angelique; Schubert, Grit; Stoinski, Tara S.; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Peeters, Martine; Leendertz, Fabian H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has long been hypothesized that polyomaviruses (PyV; family Polyomaviridae) codiverged with their animal hosts. In contrast, recent analyses suggested that codivergence may only marginally influence the evolution of PyV. We reassess this question by focusing on a single lineage of PyV infecting hominine hosts, the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) lineage. By characterizing the genetic diversity of these viruses in seven African great ape taxa, we show that they exhibit very strong host specificity. Reconciliation analyses identify more codivergence than noncodivergence events. In addition, we find that a number of host and PyV divergence events are synchronous. Collectively, our results support codivergence as the dominant process at play during the evolution of the MCPyV lineage. More generally, our results add to the growing body of evidence suggesting an ancient and stable association of PyV and their animal hosts. IMPORTANCE The processes involved in viral evolution and the interaction of viruses with their hosts are of great scientific interest and public health relevance. It has long been thought that the genetic diversity of double-stranded DNA viruses was generated over long periods of time, similar to typical host evolutionary timescales. This was also hypothesized for polyomaviruses (family Polyomaviridae), a group comprising several human pathogens, but this remains a point of controversy. Here, we investigate this question by focusing on a single lineage of polyomaviruses that infect both humans and their closest relatives, the African great apes. We show that these viruses exhibit considerable host specificity and that their evolution largely mirrors that of their hosts, suggesting that codivergence with their hosts played a major role in their diversification. Our results provide statistical evidence in favor of an association of polyomaviruses and their hosts over millions of years. PMID:27440885

  12. Infection with a Hepatozoon sp. closely related to Hepatozoon felis in a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex -Pseudalopex -gymnocercus) co-infected with canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Giannitti, Federico; Diab, Santiago S; Uzal, Francisco A; Fresneda, Karina; Rossi, Daniel; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Baneth, Gad

    2012-05-25

    A species of Hepatozoon closely related to Hepatozoon felis found in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) is described. The fox was euthanized after showing severe incoordination. On necropsy and histopathology there was bilateral, diffuse, severe, sub-acute, necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia, with intracytoplasmic and intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies. Canine distemper virus was detected by immunohistochemistry in the bronchiolar epithelium, syncytial cells, alveolar macrophages and pneumocytes. The skeletal muscle and myocardium contained multiple round to oval protozoan cysts ranging from 64 μm × 75 μm to 98 μm × 122 μm, with a central eosinophilic meront-like core surrounded by concentric rings of mucinous material resembling Hepatozoon americanum cysts but smaller in size. Macrophages within rare pyogranulomas and monocytes/macrophages in adjacent sinusoidal blood vessels in the skeletal muscle contained intracytoplasmic round protozoa consistent with merozoites or developing gamonts of Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon sp. infection was confirmed by PCR of skeletal muscle and the sequenced 18S rRNA PCR product was found to be 99% identical to H. felis by BLAST analysis and deposited in GenBank as accession number HQ020489. It clustered together in the phylogenetic analysis with published H. felis sequences and separately from H. canis, H. americanum and other Hepatozoon species. However, the close relatedness of the fox Hepatozoon to H. felis does not rule out infection with a different and possibly unknown Hepatozoon species.

  13. Effects of closing and reopening live poultry markets on the epidemic of human infection with avian influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian; Liu, Wendong; Xia, Rui; Dai, Qigang; Bao, Changjun; Tang, Fenyang; Zhu, yefei; Wang, Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Live poultry markets (LPMs) are crucial places for human infection of influenza A (H7N9 virus). In Yangtze River Delta, LPMs were closed after the outbreak of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus, and then reopened when no case was found. Our purpose was to quantify the effect of LPMs’ operations in this region on the transmission of influenza A (H7N9) virus. We obtained information about dates of symptom onset and locations for all human influenza A (H7N9) cases reported from Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces by May 31, 2014, and acquired dates of closures and reopening of LPMs from official media. A two-phase Bayesian model was fitted by Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to process the spatial and temporal influence of human cases. A total of 235 cases of influenza A (H7N9) were confirmed in Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang by May 31, 2014. Using these data, our analysis showed that, after LPM closures, the influenza A (H7N9) outbreak disappeared within two weeks in Shanghai, one week in Jiangsu, and one week in Zhejiang, respectively. Local authorities reopened LPMs when there was no outbreak of influenza A (H7N9), which did not lead to reemergence of human influenza A (H7N9). LPM closures were effective in controlling the H7N9 outbreak. Reopening of LPM in summer did not increase the risk of human infection with H7N9. Our findings showed that LPMs should be closed immediately in areas where the H7N9 virus is confirmed in LPM. When there is no outbreak of H7N9 virus, LPMs can be reopened to satisfy the Chinese traditional culture of buying live poultry. In the long term, local authorities should take a cautious attitude in permanent LPM closure.

  14. The association of a heart attack or stroke with depressive symptoms stratified by the presence of a close social contact: findings from the National Health and Aging Trends Study Cohort.

    PubMed

    Simning, Adam; Seplaki, Christopher L; Conwell, Yeates

    2017-02-21

    The objective of the study is to examine whether the risk of having clinically significant depressive symptoms following a heart attack or stroke varies by the presence of a close social contact. The National Health and Aging Trends Study is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older initiated in 2011. A total of 5643 older adults had information on social contacts at baseline and depressive symptoms at the 1-year follow-up interview. The two-item Patient Health Questionnaire identified clinically significant depressive symptoms. Interview questions examined social contacts and the presence of self-reported heart attack or stroke during the year of follow-up. A total of 297 older adults reported experiencing a heart attack and/or stroke between their baseline and follow-up interviews. In regression analyses accounting for sociodemographics, baseline depressive symptoms, medical comorbidity, and activities of daily living impairment, older adults with no close social contacts had increased odds of depressive symptoms at follow-up after experiencing a heart attack or stroke, while those with close social contacts had increased odds of depressive symptoms at follow-up after experiencing a stroke, but not a heart attack. Older adults have increased odds of having depressive symptoms following a self-reported stroke, but only those with no close social contacts had increased odds of depressive symptoms following a heart attack. Social networks may play a role in the mechanisms underlying depression among older adults experiencing certain acute health events. Future work exploring the potential causal relationships suggested here, if confirmed, could inform interventions to alleviate or prevent depression among at risk older adults. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Investigations on anopheline mosquitoes close to the nest sites of chimpanzees subject to malaria infection in Ugandan highlands.

    PubMed

    Krief, Sabrina; Levrero, Florence; Krief, Jean-Michel; Thanapongpichat, Supinya; Imwong, Mallika; Snounou, Georges; Kasenene, John M; Cibot, Marie; Gantier, Jean-Charles

    2012-04-17

    Malaria parasites (Plasmodium sp.), including new species, have recently been discovered as low grade mixed infections in three wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) sampled randomly in Kibale National Park, Uganda. This suggested a high prevalence of malaria infection in this community. The clinical course of malaria in chimpanzees and the species of the vectors that transmit their parasites are not known. The fact that these apes display a specific behaviour in which they consume plant parts of low nutritional value but that contain compounds with anti-malarial properties suggests that the apes health might be affected by the parasite. The avoidance of the night-biting anopheline mosquitoes is another potential behavioural adaptation that would lead to a decrease in the number of infectious bites and consequently malaria. Mosquitoes were collected over two years using suction-light traps and yeast-generated CO(2) traps at the nesting and the feeding sites of two chimpanzee communities in Kibale National Park. The species of the female Anopheles caught were then determined and the presence of Plasmodium was sought in these insects by PCR amplification. The mosquito catches yielded a total of 309 female Anopheles specimens, the only known vectors of malaria parasites of mammalians. These specimens belonged to 10 species, of which Anopheles implexus, Anopheles vinckei and Anopheles demeilloni dominated. Sensitive DNA amplification techniques failed to detect any Plasmodium-positive Anopheles specimens. Humidity and trap height influenced the Anopheles capture success, and there was a negative correlation between nest numbers and mosquito abundance. The anopheline mosquitoes were also less diverse and numerous in sites where chimpanzees were nesting as compared to those where they were feeding. These observations suggest that the sites where chimpanzees build their nests every night might be selected, at least in part, in order to minimize contact with

  16. Comparison of the Tuberculin Skin Test and Interferon Gamma Release Assay for the Screening of Tuberculosis in Adolescents in Close Contact with Tuberculosis TB Patients

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seung-Eun; Yang, JiYeon; Lee, Kil Soo; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, Young Mi; Kim, Seonghan; Park, Mi-Sun; Oh, Su Yeon; Lee, Jin Bum; Lee, EunPyo; Park, Sang-Hee; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background The tuberculin skin test (TST) frequently yields false positive results among BCG-vaccinated persons thereby limiting its diagnostic value particularly in settings with high BCG vaccination rate. We determined the agreement between IGRA and TST using 2 cutoff values and identified possible relationships between the results of these tests and the development of active tuberculosis. Methodology Adolescents aged 11–19 years in close contact with smear-positive tuberculosis cases and with normal chest radiographs were recruited from middle and high schools in South Korea. The TST was conducted by trained nurses, and blood was drawn for the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT). Participants were followed up for 2 years to check for incidence tuberculosis. Results A total of 2,982 subjects were included in the study, the average age was 15.1 years (SD 1.3), 61% had BCG vaccination scars. The agreement of QFT-GIT and the TST was low (κ = 0.38, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.42) using 10 mm cutoff; however, when the 15 mm cutoff was used, the agreement was intermediate (κ = 0.56, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.61). The odds ratio (OR) for the development of active tuberculosis was 7.9 (95% CI 3.46 to 18.06) for QFT-GIT positive patients, 7.96 (95% CI 3.14-20.22) for TST/QFT-GIT+ and the OR 4.62 (95% CI 2.02 to 10.58) and 16.35 (95% CI 7.09 to 37.71) for TST 10 mm and 15 mm cutoff respectively. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the TST cutoff point for patients aged 11–17 years would be 15 mm in other study. The OR of QFT-GIT for the development of active tuberculosis and its intermediate agreement with TST using 15 mm cutoff demonstrates its role as an adjunct diagnostic tool to current clinical practice. Positive responders to both TST and QFT-GIT at the outset may benefit from chemoprophylaxis. PMID:25020161

  17. Comparison of the tuberculin skin test and interferon gamma release assay for the screening of tuberculosis in adolescents in close contact with tuberculosis TB patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Seung-Eun; Yang, JiYeon; Lee, Kil Soo; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, Young Mi; Kim, Seonghan; Park, Mi-Sun; Oh, Su Yeon; Lee, Jin Bum; Lee, EunPyo; Park, Sang-Hee; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) frequently yields false positive results among BCG-vaccinated persons thereby limiting its diagnostic value particularly in settings with high BCG vaccination rate. We determined the agreement between IGRA and TST using 2 cutoff values and identified possible relationships between the results of these tests and the development of active tuberculosis. Adolescents aged 11-19 years in close contact with smear-positive tuberculosis cases and with normal chest radiographs were recruited from middle and high schools in South Korea. The TST was conducted by trained nurses, and blood was drawn for the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT). Participants were followed up for 2 years to check for incidence tuberculosis. A total of 2,982 subjects were included in the study, the average age was 15.1 years (SD 1.3), 61% had BCG vaccination scars. The agreement of QFT-GIT and the TST was low (κ = 0.38, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.42) using 10 mm cutoff; however, when the 15 mm cutoff was used, the agreement was intermediate (κ = 0.56, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.61). The odds ratio (OR) for the development of active tuberculosis was 7.9 (95% CI 3.46 to 18.06) for QFT-GIT positive patients, 7.96 (95% CI 3.14-20.22) for TST/QFT-GIT+ and the OR 4.62 (95% CI 2.02 to 10.58) and 16.35 (95% CI 7.09 to 37.71) for TST 10 mm and 15 mm cutoff respectively. The results of this study suggest that the TST cutoff point for patients aged 11-17 years would be 15 mm in other study. The OR of QFT-GIT for the development of active tuberculosis and its intermediate agreement with TST using 15 mm cutoff demonstrates its role as an adjunct diagnostic tool to current clinical practice. Positive responders to both TST and QFT-GIT at the outset may benefit from chemoprophylaxis.

  18. A cluster of acute hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men--results from contact tracing and public health implications.

    PubMed

    Götz, Hannelore M; van Doornum, Gerard; Niesters, Hubert Gm; den Hollander, Jan G; Thio, H Bing; de Zwart, Onno

    2005-06-10

    An acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in an HIV-positive man who had sex with men (MSM) was notified. In the period of his seroconversion he was also diagnosed with a rectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) infection, and was part of a cluster of 15 LGV cases in 2003. Our aim was to investigate HCV transmission and to search for potential spread among sexual contacts and known LGV patients. Our case series included the index, two recent contacts, and 14 LGV cases. They were interviewed about parenteral exposure for HCV, history of sexually transmitted diseases(STDs), sexual behaviour and drug use. Laboratory investigations included anti-HCV antibodies, HCV-polymerase chain reaction, and HCV genotyping. Seven out of 17 MSM recently seroconverted for HCV (41%). Three genotypes were found. Parenteral risk factors were excluded. Six out of seven had LGV proctitis coinciding with HCV seroconversion, six (86%) were HIV infected. Unprotected anal contact was practised by both HCV uninfected and infected cases. Unprotected active and passive fisting was reported by all seven HCV infected men, compared with two of nine uninfected men (P = 0.003). Non-intravenous drug use during sexual activities was common among all MSM. Numerous, often anonymous, sexual contacts in various European countries were reported. A cluster of acute HCV infection is reported among mostly HIV-positive MSM, with multiple partners throughout Europe. Sexual techniques potentially leading to mucosal damage (fisting), concomitant STDs such as LGV and drug use seem facilitating factors for spread. Extensive case finding and partner tracing is advocated as well as targeted prevention messages.

  19. High frequency of hepatitis E virus infection in swine from South Brazil and close similarity to human HEV isolates.

    PubMed

    Passos-Castilho, Ana Maria; Granato, Celso Francisco Hernandes

    Hepatitis E virus is responsible for acute and chronic liver infections worldwide. Swine hepatitis E virus has been isolated in Brazil, and a probable zoonotic transmission has been described, although data are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs from a small-scale farm in the rural area of Paraná State, South Brazil. Fecal samples were collected from 170 pigs and screened for hepatitis E virus RNA using a duplex real-time RT-PCR targeting a highly conserved 70nt long sequence within overlapping parts of ORF2 and ORF3 as well as a 113nt sequence of ORF2. Positive samples with high viral loads were subjected to direct sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. hepatitis E virus RNA was detected in 34 (20.0%) of the 170 pigs following positive results in at least one set of screening real-time RT-PCR primers and probes. The swine hepatitis E virus strains clustered with the genotype hepatitis E virus-3b reference sequences in the phylogenetic analysis and showed close similarity to human hepatitis E virus isolates previously reported in Brazil.

  20. The Japanese ladybirds, Coccinula crotchi and Coccinula sinensis, are infected with very closely related strains of male-killing Flavobacterium.

    PubMed

    Elnagdy, Sherif; Messing, Susan; Majerus, Michael E N

    2014-12-01

    Male-killing is 1 of 4 known strategies that inherited parasitic endosymbionts have evolved to manipulate their host's reproduction. In early male-killing, infected male offspring are killed early in embryogenesis. Within the Insecta, male-killing bacteria have been found in a wide range of hosts. The Coccinellidae families of beetles, better known as ladybirds, are particularly prone to male-killer invasion. In samples of the coccinellid, Coccinula crotchi, from Japan, a new male-killing bacterium was revealed by phenotypic assay. Molecular genetic analysis revealed the identity to be a tetracycline-sensitive Flavobacterium that causes female-biased offspring sex ratio. Furthermore, that Flavobacterium strain was found to be closely related to the Flavobacterium causing male-killing in the congeneric Japanese coccinellid, Coccinula sinensis, which was collected from the same region. However, we found slightly different Flavobacterium strains infecting C. sinensis from regions with different environmental conditions. This may be an indication of horizontal transmission of male-killing Flavobacterium between these 2 ladybird spices. Finally, environmental conditions may affect the spread of male-killing bacteria among their hosts.

  1. Remarkable reductions of PAKs in the brain tissues of scrapie-infected rodent possibly linked closely with neuron loss.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ge; Tian, Chan; Wang, Hui; Xu, Yin; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Shi, Qi; Gao, Chen; Chen, Cao; Fan, Xue-Yu; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Kang; Ren, Ke; Xue, Ming-Ming; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Prion diseases are irreversible progressive neurodegenerative diseases characterized in the brain by PrP(Sc) deposits, neuronal degeneration, gliosis and by cognitive, behavioral and physical impairments, leading to severe incapacity and inevitable death. Proteins of the p21-activated kinase (PAK) family are noted for roles in gene transcription, cytoskeletal dynamics, cell cycle progression and survival signaling. In the present study, we aimed to identify the potential roles of PAKs during prion infection, utilizing the brains of scrapie agent-infected hamsters. Western blots and immunohistochemical assays showed that brain levels of PAK3 and PAK1, as well as their upstream activator Rac/cdc42 and downstream substrate Raf1, were remarkably reduced at terminal stage. Double-stained immunofluorescent assay demonstrated that PAK3 was expressed mainly in neurons. Dynamic analyses of the brain samples collected at the different time points during the incubation period illustrated successive decreases of PAK3, PAK1 and Raf1, especially phosphor Raf1, which correlated well with neuron loss. Rac/cdc42 in the brain tissues increased at early stage and reached to the top at mid-late stage, but diminished at final stage. Unlike the alteration of PAKs in vivo, PAK3 and PAK1, as well as Rac/cdc42 and Raf1 in the prion-infected cell line SMB-S15 remained unchanged compared with those of its normal cell line SMB-PS. Our data here indicate that the functions of PAKs and their associated signaling pathways are seriously affected in the brains of prion disease, which appear to associate closely with the extensive neuron loss.

  2. The prevalence and transmission dynamics of Escherichia coli ST131 among contacts of infected community and hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Torres, Eva; López-Cerero, Lorena; Morales, Isabel; Navarro, M Dolores; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesus; Pascual, Alvaro

    2017-09-19

    The E. coli O25b-associated ST131 clonal group was recently found to be prevalent in our area as a cause of community-acquired UTIs. We evaluated the transmission dynamics and longitudinal persistence of E. coli O25b-ST131 between patients with nosocomial and community-acquired infections and their contacts. Prevalence and transmission of O25b/pabB3/B23 isolates were compared in 38 community clusters, 30 nosocomial clusters and 50 healthy volunteers. Duration of colonization was studied at 1 to 4 months and 6 to 12 months after the first sample. Isolates exhibiting a ≤ 3-band difference by PFGE were assigned to the same pulsotype. Colonization was found to be more frequent in index cases (31/68, 45.6%) than in contacts (25/118, 21.2%; p=0.0009) or volunteers (1/50, 2%; p=0.0009). Seven of 64 (11%) isolates were ESBL producers. Transmission ocurred in 61% (8/13) community clusters and in 12% (1/8) nosocomial clusters. Thirteen (56.5%) of the 23 initial carriers assessed at 1-4 months remained colonized. Only 2 (13.3%) of 15 positive patients followed for 6-12 months showed prolonged carriage, and none was ESBL producers. Six previously positive individuals acquired a different ST131 pulsotype (5/23 at sample 2 and 1/15 at sample 3) and 3 previously negative individuals became positive (2/46 at 1-4 months and 1/33 at 6-12 months). Person-to-person transmission or acquisition from a common source of E. coli O25b-associated ST131 is more frequent in the household setting than in the nosocomial. The carrier state does not usually last beyond 4 months, with new acquisitions in certain individuals. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of individuals resistant to M. tuberculosis infection in a longitudinal TB household contact study in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite sustained exposure to a person with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), some M. tuberculosis (Mtb) exposed individuals maintain a negative tuberculin skin test (TST). Our objective was to characterize these persistently negative TST (PTST-) individuals and compare them to TST converters (TSTC) and individuals who are TST positive at study enrollment. Methods During a TB household contact study in Kampala, Uganda, PTST-, TSTC, and TST + individuals were identified. PTST- individuals maintained a negative TST over a 2 year observation period despite prolonged exposure to an infectious tuberculosis (TB) case. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics were compared, a risk score developed by another group to capture risk for Mtb infection was computed, and an ordinal regression was performed. Results When analyzed independently, epidemiological risk factors increased in prevalence from PTST- to TSTC to TST+. An ordinal regression model suggested age (p < 0.01), number of windows (p < 0.01) and people (p = 0.07) in the home, and sleeping in the same room (p < 0.01) were associated with PTST- and TSTC. As these factors do not exist in isolation, we examined a risk score, which reflects an accumulation of risk factors. This compound exposure score did not differ significantly between PTST-, TSTC, and TST+, except for the 5–15 age group (p = 0.009). Conclusions Though many individual factors differed across all three groups, an exposure risk score reflecting a collection of risk factors did not differ for PTST-, TSTC and TST + young children and adults. This is the first study to rigorously characterize the epidemiologic risk profile of individuals with persistently negative TSTs despite close exposure to a person with TB. Additional studies are needed to characterize possible epidemiologic and host factors associated with this phenotype. PMID:24970328

  4. Distribution of avian influenza H5N1 viral RNA in tissues of AI-vaccinated and unvaccinated contact chickens after experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed K; Kilany, Walid H; Abdelwhab, E M; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Selim, Abdullah; Samy, Ahmed; Samir, M; Le Brun, Yvon; Jobre, Yilma; Aly, Mona M

    2012-05-01

    Avian influenza due to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) H5N1 virus is not a food-borne illness but a serious panzootic disease with the potential to be pandemic. In this study, broiler chickens were vaccinated with commercial H5N1 or H5N2 inactivated vaccines prior to being challenged with an HPAIV H5N1 (clade 2.2.1 classic) virus. Challenged and non-challenged vaccinated chickens were kept together, and unvaccinated chickens served as contact groups. Post-challenge samples from skin and edible internal organs were collected from dead and sacrificed (after a 14-day observation period) birds and tested using qRT-PCR for virus detection and quantification. H5N1 vaccine protected chickens against morbidity, mortality and transmission. Virus RNA was not detected in the meat or edible organs of chickens vaccinated with H5N1 vaccine. Conversely, H5N2 vaccine did not confer clinical protection, and a significant virus load was detected in the meat and internal organs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the H5N1 virus vaccine and challenge virus strains are closely related. The results of the present study strongly suggest a need for proper selection of vaccines and their routine evaluation against newly emergent field viruses. These actions will help to reduce human exposure to HPAIV H5N1 virus from both infected live birds and slaughtered poultry. In addition, rigorous preventive measures should be put in place in order to minimize the public-health risks of avian influenza at the human-animal interface.

  5. QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with household tuberculosis contact.

    PubMed

    Kasambira, T S; Shah, M; Adrian, P V; Holshouser, M; Madhi, S A; Chaisson, R E; Martinson, N A; Dorman, S E

    2011-05-01

    Improved strategies are needed for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children in TB-endemic settings. To determine the prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection by tuberculin skin testing (TST) and by the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test in children with an adult household contact with pulmonary TB in South Africa. Cross-sectional study. A total of 167 adult pulmonary TB cases (153/167, 92% human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infected) and 270 pediatric contacts (median age 6 years, 14/270, 5% HIV-infected) were enrolled. All children completed QFT-GIT testing and 254 (94.1%) completed TST testing. Prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection was 28% (71/254, 95%CI 23-34) using TST (5 mm cut-off) and 29% (79/270, 95%CI 24-35) using QFT-GIT (P = 0.49). Agreement between TST and QFT-GIT was 81% (kappa 0.58). Nineteen (7%) QFT-GIT results were indeterminate. Children aged <2 years were more likely than older children to have indeterminate QFT-GIT results (aOR 5.7, 95%CI 1.5-22, P = 0.01) and discordant QFT-GIT and TST results (aOR 3.5, 95%CI 1.7-7.6, P = 0.001). Prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection in pediatric contacts was high regardless of the diagnostic method used. TST should not be excluded for the detection of pediatric M. tuberculosis infection in this setting, but QFT-GIT may be a feasible alternative in children aged ≥ 2 years.

  6. Memory B cell responses to Vibrio cholerae O1 lipopolysaccharide are associated with protection against infection from household contacts of patients with cholera in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sweta M; Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Mohasin, M; Riyadh, M Asrafuzzaman; Leung, Daniel T; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; Weil, Ana A; Aktar, Amena; Nazim, Mohammad; LaRocque, Regina C; Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Harris, Jason B

    2012-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 causes cholera, a dehydrating diarrheal disease. We have previously shown that V. cholerae-specific memory B cell responses develop after cholera infection, and we hypothesize that these mediate long-term protective immunity against cholera. We prospectively followed household contacts of cholera patients to determine whether the presence of circulating V. cholerae O1 antigen-specific memory B cells on enrollment was associated with protection against V. cholerae infection over a 30-day period. Two hundred thirty-six household contacts of 122 index patients with cholera were enrolled. The presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific IgG memory B cells in peripheral blood on study entry was associated with a 68% decrease in the risk of infection in household contacts (P = 0.032). No protection was associated with cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB)-specific memory B cells or IgA memory B cells specific to LPS. These results suggest that LPS-specific IgG memory B cells may be important in protection against infection with V. cholerae O1.

  7. Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Three Zoo Elephants and a Human Contact - Oregon, 2013.

    PubMed

    Zlot, Amy; Vines, Jennifer; Nystrom, Laura; Lane, Lindsey; Behm, Heidi; Denny, Justin; Finnegan, Mitch; Hostetler, Trevor; Matthews, Gloria; Storms, Tim; DeBess, Emilio

    2016-01-08

    In 2013, public health officials in Multnomah County, Oregon, started an investigation of a tuberculosis (TB) outbreak among elephants and humans at a local zoo. The investigation ultimately identified three bull elephants with active TB and 118 human contacts of the elephants. Ninety-six (81%) contacts were evaluated, and seven close contacts were found to have latent TB infection. The three bulls were isolated and treated (elephants with TB typically are not euthanized) to prevent infection of other animals and humans, and persons with latent infection were offered treatment. Improved TB screening methods for elephants are needed to prevent exposure of human contacts.

  8. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius between infected dogs and cats and contact pets, humans and the environment in households and veterinary clinics.

    PubMed

    van Duijkeren, E; Kamphuis, M; van der Mije, I C; Laarhoven, L M; Duim, B; Wagenaar, J A; Houwers, D J

    2011-06-02

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in people, pets and the environment in households with a pet with a clinical MRSP-infection within the past year. Personnel and the environment at veterinary clinics were also screened. Nasal swabs (humans), nasal and perineal swabs (pets) and environmental wipes were examined using selective culturing. Twenty households were enrolled; 10/20 index cases still had clinical signs of infection at the start of the study and all were MRSP-positive. Of the remaining 10 index cases five were MRSP-positive in nasal and/or perineal samples. Five of 14 (36%) contact dogs and four of 13 (31%) contact cats were found MRSP-positive. In the households with an index case with clinical signs of infection 6/7 (86%) contact animals were MRSP-positive. MRSP was cultured from 2/45 (4%) human nasal samples. Domestic contamination was widespread as positive samples were found in 70% of the households and 44% of all environmental samples were MRSP-positive. In all but one of these MRSP-positive households the index case was still MRSP positive. Among the personnel in veterinary clinics 4/141 (3%) were MRSP-positive. MRSP was cultured from 31/200 environmental samples in 7/13 clinics at the first sampling and in 3/6 clinics the environment remained MRSP-positive after cleaning and disinfection indicating that current cleaning procedures often were unable to eliminate MRSP. These results show that transmission of MRSP between infected or colonized dogs and cats and healthy people does occur but is relatively uncommon, while transmission to contact pets occurs frequently, especially when the index case still has clinical signs of MRSP-infection.

  9. Enhanced attachment of acanthamoeba to extended-wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses: a new risk factor for infection?

    PubMed

    Beattie, Tara K; Tomlinson, Alan; McFadyen, Angus K; Seal, David V; Grimason, Anthony M

    2003-04-01

    To establish if silicone hydrogel (S-H) contact lenses could be a risk factor for Acanthamoeba infection by facilitating the attachment of trophozoites to their surface and transfer to the cornea and to determine the effect Acanthamoeba culture technique, patient wear, and Pseudomonas biofilm coating have on attachment to the S-H lens. Experimental material study. Attachment to a S-H lens was compared with that of a conventional hydrogel control lens. Sixteen replicates were carried out for both lens types under each test condition. Unworn S-H (PureVision; Bausch & Lomb, Kingston-Upon-Thames UK) and conventional hydrogel (Acuvue; Vistakon, Johnson & Johnson, Jacksonville, FL USA) lens quarters were incubated for 90 minutes in suspensions of liquid or plate-cultured Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites. Unworn, worn, and Pseudomonas biofilm coated S-H and hydrogel quarters were incubated for 90 minutes with plate-cultured trophozoites. Trophozoites attached to one surface of each lens quarter were counted by direct light microscopy. Logarithmic transformation of data allowed the use of a parametric analysis of variance. Lens polymer had a significant effect on attachment (P < 0.001), with higher numbers of trophozoites attaching to the S-H lens. Culture technique also had a significant effect on attachment (P = 0.013), with higher numbers of liquid-cultured organisms attaching to both lens types. A significant increase in attachment was demonstrated with worn and Pseudomonas biofilm-coated hydrogel lenses (P < 0.001); however, this difference was not seen with the S-H lens. Acanthamoebal attachment to the S-H lenses was significantly greater than to the conventional hydrogel. Liquid-cultured trophozoites demonstrated a higher affinity for the lenses tested. Wear and bacterial biofilm coating had no effect on attachment to S-H lenses. The increased attachment found with the S-H lens may be an inherent characteristic of the polymer or a side effect of the surface

  10. Questionnaires in the screening for Schistosoma mansoni infection: a study of socio demographic and water contact variables in four communities in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima e Costa, M F; Rocha, R S; Firmo, J O; Guerra, H L; Passos, V A; Katz, N

    1998-01-01

    The use of questionnaires has been recommended for identifying, at a lower cost, individuals at risk for schistosomiasis. In this study, validity of information obtained by questionnaire in the screening for Schistosoma mansoni infection was assessed in four communities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Explanatory variables were water contact activities, sociodemographic characteristics and previous treatment for schistosomiasis. From 677, 1474, 766 and 3290 individuals eligible for stool examination in the communities, 89 to 97% participated in the study. The estimated probability of individuals to be infected, if they have all characteristics identified as independently associated with S.mansoni infection, varied from 15% in Canabrava, to 42% in Belo Horizonte, 48% in Comercinho and 80% in São José do Acácio. Our results do not support the hypothesis that a same questionnaire on risk factors could be used in screening for S.mansoni infection in different communities.

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns in bacterial abundance, production and viral infection in a temporarily open/closed southern African estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, E. L.; Froneman, P. W.

    2008-05-01

    The spatial and temporal patterns in bacterial abundance, biomass, production, nanoflagellate abundance and the loss of bacterial production due to viral lysis were investigated in a temporarily open/closed estuary along the eastern seaboard of southern Africa over the period May 2006 to April 2007. Bacterial abundance, biomass and production ranged between 1.00 × 10 9 and 4.93 × 10 9 cells l -1, 32.43 and 108.59 μg C l -1 and 0.01 and 1.99 μg C l -1 h -1, respectively. With a few exceptions there were no significant spatial patterns in the values ( P > 0.05). Bacterial abundance, biomass and production, however, demonstrated a distinct temporal pattern with the lowest values consistently recorded during the winter months. Bacterial dynamics showed no effect of mouth opening events. Nanoflagellate and bacterial abundances were significantly correlated to one another ( P < 0.05) suggesting a strong predator-prey relationship. The frequency of visibly infected bacterial cells and the number of virus particles within each bacterial cell during the study demonstrated no significant temporal or spatial pattern ( P > 0.05) and ranged from 0.5 to 6.1% and 12.0 to 37.5 virus particles per bacterium, respectively. Viral infection and lysis was thus a constant source of bacterial mortality throughout the year. The estimated percentage of bacterial production removed by viral lysis ranged between 7.8 and 88.9% (mean = 30.3%) of the total which suggests that viral lysis represents a very important source of bacterial mortality during the study.

  12. Resistance of human plasmacytoid dendritic CAL-1 cells to infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is caused by restricted virus cell entry, which is overcome by contact of CAL-1 cells with LCMV-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Masaharu; Sharma, Siddhartha M; Marro, Brett S; de la Torre, Juan C

    2017-11-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a main source of type I interferon in response to viral infection, are an early cell target during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, which has been associated with the LCMV's ability to establish chronic infections. Human blood-derived pDCs have been reported to be refractory to ex vivo LCMV infection. In the present study we show that human pDC CAL-1 cells are refractory to infection with cell-free LCMV, but highly susceptible to infection with recombinant LCMVs carrying the surface glycoprotein of VSV, indicating that LCMV infection of CAL-1 cells is restricted at the cell entry step. Co-culture of uninfected CAL-1 cells with LCMV-infected HEK293 cells enabled LCMV to infect CAL-1 cells. This cell-to-cell spread required direct cell-cell contact and did not involve exosome pathway. Our findings indicate the presence of a novel entry pathway utilized by LCMV to infect pDC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Cell-to-Cell Contact Results in a Selective Translocation of Maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Quasispecies across a Trophoblastic Barrier by both Transcytosis and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lagaye, S.; Derrien, M.; Menu, E.; Coïto, C.; Tresoldi, E.; Mauclère, P.; Scarlatti, G.; Chaouat, G.; Barré-Sinoussi, F.; Bomsel, M.

    2001-01-01

    Mother-to-child transmission can occur in utero, mainly intrapartum and postpartum in case of breastfeeding. In utero transmission is highly restricted and results in selection of viral variant from the mother to the child. We have developed an in vitro system that mimics the interaction between viruses, infected cells present in maternal blood, and the trophoblast, the first barrier protecting the fetus. Trophoblastic BeWo cells were grown as a tight polarized monolayer in a two-chamber system. Cell-free virions applied to the apical pole neither crossed the barrier nor productively infected BeWo cells. In contrast, apical contact with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) resulted in transcytosis of infectious virus across the trophoblastic monolayer and in productive infection correlating with the fusion of HIV-infected PBMCs with trophoblasts. We showed that viral variants are selected during these two steps and that in one case of in utero transmission, the predominant maternal viral variant characterized after transcytosis was phylogenetically indistinguishable from the predominant child's virus. Hence, the first steps of transmission of HIV-1 in utero appear to involve the interaction between HIV type 1-infected cells and the trophoblastic layer, resulting in the passage of infectious HIV by transcytosis and by fusion/infection, both leading to a selection of virus quasispecies. PMID:11312350

  14. A Multi-Disciplinary Review of the Potential Association between Closed-Suction Drains and Surgical Site Infection

    PubMed Central

    Reiffel, Alyssa J.; Barie, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the putative advantages conferred by closed-suction drains (CSDs), the widespread utilization of post-operative drains has been questioned due to concerns regarding both efficacy and safety, particularly with respect to the risk of surgical site infection (SSI). Although discipline-specific reports exist delineating risk factors associated with SSI as they relate to the presence of CSDs, there are no broad summary studies to examine this issue in depth. Methods The pertinent medical literature exploring the relationship between CSDs and SSI across multiple surgical disciplines was reviewed. Results Across most surgical disciplines, studies to evaluate the risk of SSI associated with routine post-operative CSD have yielded conflicting results. A few studies do suggest an increased risk of SSI associated with drain placement, but are usually associated with open drainage and not the use of CSDs. No studies whatsoever attribute a decrease in the incidence of SSI (including organ/space SSI) to drain placement. Conclusions Until additional, rigorous randomized trials are available to address the issue definitively, we recommend judicious use and prompt, timely removal of CSDs. Given that the evidence is scant and weak to suggest that CSD use is associated with increased risk of SSI, there is no justification for the prolongation of antibiotic prophylaxis to “cover” an indwelling drain. PMID:23718273

  15. Contact dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... can be by contact with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps ...

  16. Closed-Hub Systems with Protected Connections and the Reduction of Risk of Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection in Pediatric Patients Receiving Intravenous Prostanoid Therapy for Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, D. Dunbar; Calderbank, Michelle; Wagner, Brandie D.; Dolan, Susan; Nyquist, Ann-Christine; Wade, Michael; Nickels, William M.; Doran, Aimee K.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intravenous prostanoids (epoprostenol and treprostinil) are effective therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension but carry a risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). Prevention of CR-BSI during long-term use of indwelling central venous catheters is important. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether using a closed-hub system and waterproofing catheter hub connections reduces the rate of CR-BSI per 1,000 catheter-days. DESIGN Single-center open observational study (January 2003–December 2008). PATIENTS Pediatric patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension who received intravenous prostanoids. METHODS In July 2007, CR-BSI preventive measures were implemented, including the use of a closed-hub system and the waterproofing of catheter hub connections during showering. Rates of CR-BSI before and after implementing preventive measures were compared with respect to medication administered and type of bacterial infection. RESULTS Fifty patients received intravenous prostanoid therapy for a total of 41,840 catheter-days. The rate of CR-BSI during the study period was 0.51 infections per 1,000 catheter-days for epoprostenol and 1.38 infections per 1,000 catheter-days for treprostinil, which differed significantly (P < .01). CR-BSIs caused by gram-negative pathogens occurred more frequently with treprostinil than with epoprostenol (0.91 infections per 1,000 catheter-days vs 0.08 infections per 1,000 catheter-days; P < .01). Patients treated with treprostinil after the implemented changes had a significant decrease in CR-BSI rate (1.95 infections per 1,000 catheter-days vs 0.19 infections per 1,000 catheter-days; P < .01). CONCLUSION The closed-hub system and the maintenance of dry catheter hub connections significantly reduced the incidence of CR-BSI (particularly infections caused by gram-negative pathogens) in patients receiving intravenous treprostinil. PMID:19637961

  17. Closed-hub systems with protected connections and the reduction of risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection in pediatric patients receiving intravenous prostanoid therapy for pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ivy, D Dunbar; Calderbank, Michelle; Wagner, Brandie D; Dolan, Susan; Nyquist, Ann-Christine; Wade, Michael; Nickels, William M; Doran, Aimee K

    2009-09-01

    Intravenous prostanoids (epoprostenol and treprostinil) are effective therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension but carry a risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). Prevention of CR-BSI during long-term use of indwelling central venous catheters is important. To evaluate whether using a closed-hub system and waterproofing catheter hub connections reduces the rate of CR-BSI per 1,000 catheter-days. Single-center open observational study (January 2003-December 2008). Pediatric patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension who received intravenous prostanoids. In July 2007, CR-BSI preventive measures were implemented, including the use of a closed-hub system and the waterproofing of catheter hub connections during showering. Rates of CR-BSI before and after implementing preventive measures were compared with respect to medication administered and type of bacterial infection. Fifty patients received intravenous prostanoid therapy for a total of 41,840 catheter-days. The rate of CR-BSI during the study period was 0.51 infections per 1,000 catheter-days for epoprostenol and 1.38 infections per 1,000 catheter-days for treprostinil, which differed significantly (P < .01). CR-BSIs caused by gram-negative pathogens occurred more frequently with treprostinil than with epoprostenol (0.91 infections per 1,000 catheter-days vs 0.08 infections per 1,000 catheter-days; P < .01). Patients treated with treprostinil after the implemented changes had a significant decrease in CR-BSI rate (1.95 infections per 1,000 catheter-days vs 0.19 infections per 1,000 catheter-days; P < .01). The closed-hub system and the maintenance of dry catheter hub connections significantly reduced the incidence of CR-BSI (particularly infections caused by gram-negative pathogens) in patients receiving intravenous treprostinil.

  18. Intramolecular S⋯S and S⋯O close contacts in 1,8-bis(phenylsulfanyl)naphthalene derivatives of different sulfur valence state: an X-ray study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Péter; Szabó, Dénes; Kapovits, István; Kucsman, Árpád; Argay, Gyula; Kálmán, Alajos

    2002-03-01

    Four peri-substituted naphthalene derivatives, 1,8-bis(phenylsulfanyl)naphthalene (1), 1,8-bis[(2-methoxycarbonylphenyl)sulfanyl]naphthalene (2), bis[(2-methoxycarbonyl-phenyl)-sulfinyl]naphthalene (3) and bis[(2-methoxycarbonylphenyl)sulfonyl]naphthalene (4) with different valence states of sulfur were prepared and their molecular structures determined by X-ray diffraction. Data were collected on CAD-4 diffractometers with monochromated MoKα and CuKα radiations. Naphthalene ring torsions, aromatic ring orientations, S⋯S and S⋯O close contacts were analyzed and the controlling factors established. In both halves of the molecules, the naphthyl and phenyl rings assume axial-equatorial positions in bis-sulfides 1 and 2, and twist-axial positions in bis-sulfoxide 3 and bis-sulfone 4. The S⋯S distance was found to be 3.01, 3.18; 3.01 and 3.53 Å, for 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The equatorial S-phenyl rings in 2 and the steric crowd in 4 are unfavorable factors for S⋯S contacts. As expected, S(II)⋯O and S(IV)⋯O close contacts are formed in the equatorial and axial S-phenyl rings of 2 and 3, respectively, with 2.72, 2.73 and 2.77, 2.83 Å distances. Steric repulsion in bis-sulfone 4 is moderated by two C(ar)-S(VI)⋯O(sulfonyl) type close contacts (2.89 and 3.02 Å), which join the two halves of the molecule.

  19. Risk factors for tuberculosis in contact investigations in Rotterdam, the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Verdier, Jesse Eduard; Jan de Vlas, Sake; Kidgell-Koppelaar, Inge D.; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Contact investigations around tuberculosis patients enable early detection of infection and disease, and prevention of secondary tuberculosis cases. We aim to identify risk factors for M. tuberculosis transmission to contacts of tuberculosis patients, based on unique data from routine contact investigations by the Public Health Service in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, collected between 2001 and 2006. Through logistic regression analysis, we determined the effect of various risk factors on the chance of finding a latent tuberculosis (TB) infection or overt tuberculosis case among contacts. A total of 1165 index patients with active tuberculosis were registered and at least one contact was investigated in 731, resulting in 21,540 contacts overall. Altogether, the contact investigations led to 91 cases of active tuberculosis. Of the 12,698 contacts eligible for screening by tuberculin skin test, 1091 (9%) were diagnosed with latent tuberculosis infections. Risk factors were old age of the contact, old age of the index patient, and the relationship to the index. A larger fraction of infected close contacts was strongly associated with infections among more distant contacts. Our findings emphasize the importance of including these personal and interpersonal risk factors in decision making in contact investigations. PMID:24470940

  20. A bundle that includes active surveillance, contact precaution for carriers, and cefazolin-based antimicrobial prophylaxis prevents methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in clean orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Hideki; Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Shigemi, Akari; Orita, Michiyo; Nakagawa, Aya; Nozima, Satoko; Tominaga, Hiroyuki; Setoguchi, Takao; Komiya, Setsuro; Tokuda, Koichi; Nishi, Junichiro

    2016-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent cause of orthopedic surgical site infections (SSIs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a bundle approach in the prevention of orthopedic MRSA SSIs. MRSA active surveillance and decolonization were performed preoperatively at our institution from July 2004 until 2007. In January 2008, a bundle approach comprising contact precautions for MRSA-positive patients and cefazolin-based antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) stewardship was implemented. Data on the prevalence of MRSA SSIs, antimicrobial use density, duration of AMP, and the use of an alcohol antiseptic agent (L/1,000 patient-days) were evaluated during 2 periods: July 2004-December 2007 (period A) and January 2008-December 2012 (period B). The MRSA SSI rate during period B (0.97%; 19 out of 1,966) was significantly lower than that during period A (2.17%; 29 out of 1,333; P = .003). The infection rate correlated negatively with both the cefazolin antimicrobial use density (r = -0.76; P = .0002) and the use of an alcohol antiseptic agent (r = -0.68; P = .002). An infection-prevention bundle consisting of contact precautions for carriers and AMP stewardship in addition to active surveillance was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of orthopedic MRSA SSIs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pathogenesis of highly virulent African swine fever virus in domestic pigs exposed via intraoropharyngeal, intranasopharyngeal, and intramuscular inoculation, and by direct contact with infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Howey, Erin B; O'Donnell, Vivian; de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Borca, Manuel V; Arzt, Jonathan

    2013-12-26

    To investigate the pathogenesis of African swine fever virus (ASFV), domestic pigs (n=18) were challenged with a range (10(2)-10(6) 50% hemadsorbing doses (HAD50)) of the highly virulent ASFV-Malawi strain by inoculation via the intraoropharyngeal (IOP), intranasopharyngeal (INP), or intramuscular (IM) routes. A subsequent contact challenge experiment was performed in which six IOP-inoculated donor pigs were allowed to have direct contact (DC) with six naïve pigs for exposure times that varied from 24 to 72 h. All challenge routes resulted in clinical progression and postmortem lesions similar to those previously described in experimental and natural infection. The onset of clinical signs occurred between 1 and 7 days post inoculation (dpi) and included pyrexia with variable progression to obtundation, hematochezia, melena, moribundity and death with a duration of 4-11 days. Viremia was first detected between 4 and 5 dpi in all inoculation groups whereas ASFV shedding from the nasal cavity and tonsil was first detected at 3-9 dpi. IM and DC were the most consistent modes of infection, with 12/12 (100%) of pigs challenged by these routes becoming infected. Several clinical and virological parameters were significantly different between IM and DC groups indicating dissimilarity between these modes of infection. Amongst the simulated natural routes, INP inoculation resulted in the most consistent progression of disease across the widest range of doses whilst preserving simulation of natural exposure and therefore may provide a superior system for pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy investigation.

  2. Outbreak of human Salmonella Typhimurium infections linked to contact with baby poultry from a single agricultural feed store chain and mail-order hatchery, 2009.

    PubMed

    Loharikar, Anagha; Vawter, Shannon; Warren, Kim; Deasy, Marshall; Moll, Maria; Sandt, Carol; Gilhousen, Renee; Villamil, Elizabeth; Rhorer, Andrew; Briere, Elizabeth; Schwensohn, Colin; Trees, Eija; Lafon, Patricia; Adams, Jennifer Kincaid; Le, Brenda; Behravesh, Casey Barton

    2013-01-01

    Over 30 outbreaks of human salmonellosis linked to contact with live poultry from mail-order hatcheries were reported to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 1990 and 2010. In May 2009, we investigated an outbreak of human Salmonella Typhimurium infections, primarily affecting children. A case was defined as a person with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis, in a Pennsylvania or New York resident with illness onset between May 1 and September 1, 2009. We conducted a case-control study to examine the relationship between illness and live poultry contact. Controls were age-matched and geographically-matched. Traceback and environmental investigations were conducted. We identified 36 case-patients in Pennsylvania and New York; 36% were children aged ≤5 years. Case-patients were more likely than controls to report live baby poultry contact (matched odds ratio [mOR]: 17.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7-710.5), contact with chicks (mOR: 14.0; 95% CI: 2.1-592.0), ducklings (mOR: 8.0; 95% CI: 1.1-355.0) and visiting agricultural feed stores (mOR: 6.0; 95% CI: 1.3-55.2). Most (83%) visited agricultural Feed Store Chain Y, a national agricultural feed store chain, which received poultry from Hatchery C, which is supplied by multiple egg sources. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from a source duck flock, but had a different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern than the outbreak strain. Live baby poultry remain an important source of human salmonellosis, particularly among children. Preventing these infections requires comprehensive interventions at hatcheries and agricultural feed stores; pediatricians should inform patients of risks associated with live poultry contact.

  3. A Close View Into the 3D Geometry of Grain-to-Grain Contacts and Surface Roughness in Sandstones Using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, B.; David, C.; Louis, L.; Martinez Nistal, A.

    2003-12-01

    Due to its sharp resolution (< 1 micron) and its ability in building 3D reconstructions from images scanned at various depths, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) is a powerful tool to render the three-dimensional geometry of microstructural features like pores, cracks and grains. This technique was used in particular to study the grain-to-grain contacts and grain surface topology at small scale in several sandstones. For that purpose, the rock samples to be studied were impregnated with a fluorescent dyed (Rhodamine B) resin in order to discriminate the void space from the grains. The next stage is then to make thin-sections with a thickness larger than usual (> 100 microns) that can be studied under LSCM. Three different sandstones have been studied: the Rothbach sandstone (Vosges mountains, Eastern France), the Bentheim sandstone (Germany) and the Darley Dale sandstone (UK). On each sample several three dimensional blocks have been investigated with size 228 by 152 microns and depths ranging from 35 to 100 microns. From each block, series of tens of parallel "virtual sections" have been recorded, separated by 1 or 2 microns in depth. We show on several examples the complex structure of grain-to-grain contacts which may be associated to the heterogeneity in cement distribution. In particular for the Rothbach sandstone, we found that the topology of the grain surfaces is dominated by the coating of clay particles which leads to a high surface roughness. Complementary SEM studies revealed that the clays are also present as cementing material between the grains. A thorough petrophysical study has shown that the anisotropy of P wave velocity in the Rothbach sandstone can be explained by an anisotropic distribution of cement: whereas this could not be confirmed from our LSCM and SEM analysis, we observed that the spatial distribution of contact lengths is anisotropic which explains qualitatively the spatial variability of P wave velocity. Finally we show

  4. Two closely related members of Arabidopsis 13-LOXs, LOX3 and LOX4, reveal distinct functions in response to plantparasitic nematode infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The responses of two closely related members of Arabidopsis 13-lipoxygenase (13-LOX), LOX3 and LOX4, to infection by the sedentary nematodes root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) and cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) were analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings. Tissue localization of LO...

  5. Effect of emergency FMD vaccine antigen payload on protection, sub-clinical infection and persistence following direct contact challenge of cattle.

    PubMed

    Cox, S J; Voyce, C; Parida, S; Reid, S M; Hamblin, P A; Hutchings, G; Paton, D J; Barnett, P V

    2006-04-12

    Previous work, in sheep vaccinated with emergency foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine, indicated the benefit of increasing the antigen payload in inhibiting local virus replication and consequently persistence following an indirect aerosol challenge with a virus homologous to the vaccine strain. The work presented here investigates this possibility further using cattle and a more severe semi-heterologous direct contact challenge. The quantitative dynamics of virus replication and excretion in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle following challenge are examined. Two experiments were carried out each involving 20 vaccinated and 5 non-vaccinated cattle. An O(1) Manisa vaccine (18 PD(50)) was used for the first, previously reported experiment [Cox SJ, Voyce C, Parida S, Reid SM, Hamblin PA, Paton DJ, et al. Protection against direct contact challenge following emergency FMD vaccination of cattle and the effect on virus excretion from the oropharynx. Vaccine 2005;23:1106-13]. The same vaccine was used for the second experiment described in this paper except the antigen payload was increased 10-fold per bovine dose, resulting in significantly higher FMD virus neutralising antibody titres prior to challenge. Twenty-one days post-vaccination the cattle received a 5-day direct contact challenge with FMD virus from five further non-vaccinated cattle infected 24h earlier with O UKG 34/2001. All vaccinated cattle regardless of antigen payload were protected against clinical disease. Sub-clinical oropharyngeal infection was detected in animals from both experiments but the level of virus replication shortly after direct contact challenge was significantly reduced in vaccinated animals. Cattle immunised with the 10-fold antigen payload cleared the virus more readily and consequently at 28 days post-challenge fewer animals were persistently infected compared to the single strength vaccine. Following a severe challenge, the results from both experiments show that use of

  6. Close, stable homolog juxtaposition during meiosis in budding yeast is dependent on meiotic recombination, occurs independently of synapsis, and is distinct from DSB-independent pairing contacts

    PubMed Central

    Peoples, Tamara L.; Dean, Eric; Gonzalez, Oscar; Lambourne, Lindsey; Burgess, Sean M.

    2002-01-01

    A site-specific recombination system that probes the relative probabilities that pairs of chromosomal loci collide with one another in living cells of budding yeast was used to explore the relative contributions of pairing, recombination, synaptonemal complex formation, and telomere clustering to the close juxtaposition of homologous chromosome pairs during meiosis. The level of Cre-mediated recombination between a pair of loxP sites located at an allelic position on homologous chromosomes was 13-fold greater than that between a pair of loxP sites located at ectopic positions on nonhomologous chromosomes. Mutations affecting meiotic recombination initiation and the processing of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) into single-end invasions (SEIs) reduced the levels of allelic Cre-mediated recombination levels by three- to sixfold. The severity of Cre/loxP phenotypes is presented in contrast to relatively weak DSB-independent pairing defects as assayed using fluorescence in situ hybridization for these mutants. Mutations affecting synaptonemal complex (SC) formation or crossover control gave wild-type levels of allelic Cre-mediated recombination. A delay in attaining maximum levels of allelic Cre-mediated recombination was observed for a mutant defective in telomere clustering. None of the mutants affected ectopic levels of recombination. These data suggest that stable, close homolog juxtaposition in yeast is distinct from pre-DSB pairing interactions, requires both DSB and SEI formation, but does not depend on crossovers or SC. PMID:12101126

  7. Rate and time to develop first central line-associated bloodstream infections when comparing open and closed infusion containers in a Brazilian Hospital.

    PubMed

    Vilins, Margarete; Blecher, Sergio; Silva, Maria A Maretti da; Rosenthal, Victor Daniel; Barker, Kerry; Salomao, Reinaldo

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of switching from an open (glass or semi-rigid plastic) infusion container to a closed, fully collapsible plastic infusion container (Viaflex) on rate and time to onset of central lineassociated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). An open-label, prospective cohort, active healthcare-associated infection surveillance, sequential study was conducted in three intensive care units in Brazil. The CLABSI rate using open infusion containers was compared to the rate using a closed infusion container. Probability of acquiring CLABSI was assessed over time and compared between open and closed infusion container periods; three-day intervals were examined. A total of 1125 adult ICU patients were enrolled. CLABSI rate was significantly higher during the open compared with the closed infusion container period (6.5 versus 3.2 CLABSI/1000 CL days; RR=0.49, 95%CI=0.26- 0.95, p=0.031). During the closed infusion container period, the probability of acquiring a CLABSI remained relatively constant along the time of central line use (0.8% Days 2-4 to 0.7% Days 11-13) but increased in the open infusion container period (1.5% Days 2-4 to 2.3% Days 11-13). Combined across all time intervals, the chance of a patient acquiring a CLABSI was significantly lower (55%) in the closed infusion container period (Cox proportional hazard ratio 0.45, p= 0.019). CLABSIs can be reduced with the use of full barrier precautions, education, and performance feedback. Our results show that switching from an open to a closed infusion container may further reduce CLABSI rate as well as delay the onset of CLABSIs. Closed infusion containers significantly reduced CLABSI rate and the probability of acquiring CLABSI.

  8. JAM-A and aPKC: A close pair during cell-cell contact maturation and tight junction formation in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ebnet, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Cell-cell adhesion plays a critical role in the formation of barrier-forming epithelia. The molecules which mediate cell-cell adhesion frequently act as signaling molecules by recruiting and/or assembling cytoplasmic protein complexes. Junctional Adhesion Molecule (JAM)-A interacts with the cell polarity protein PAR-3, a member of the PAR-3-aPKC-PAR-6 complex, which regulates the formation of cell-cell contacts and the development of tight junctions (TJs). In our recent study we found that JAM-A is localized at primordial, spot-like cell-cell junctions (pAJs) in a non-phosphorylated form. After the recruitment of the PAR-aPKC complex and its activation at pAJs, aPKC phosphorylates JAM-A at Ser285 to promote the maturation of immature junctions. In polarized epithelial cells, aPKC phosphorylates JAM-A selectively at the TJs to maintain the barrier function of TJs. Thus, through mutual regulation, JAM-A and aPKC form a functional unit that regulates the establishment of barrier-forming junctions in vertebrate epithelial cells.

  9. Non-Invasive, Temporally Discrete Feedback of Object Contact and Release Improves Grasp Control of Closed-Loop Myoelectric Transradial Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Francesco; D'Alonzo, Marco; Controzzi, Marco; Edin, Benoni B; Cipriani, Christian

    2016-12-01

    Human grasping and manipulation control critically depends on tactile feedback. Without this feedback, the ability for fine control of a prosthesis is limited in upper limb amputees. Although various approaches have been investigated in the past, at present there is no commercially available device able to restore tactile feedback in upper limb amputees. Based on the Discrete Event-driven Sensory feedback Control (DESC) policy we present a device able to deliver short-lasting vibrotactile feedback to transradial amputees using commercially available myoelectric hands. The device (DESC-glove) comprises sensorized thimbles to be placed on the prosthesis digits, a battery-powered electronic board, and vibrating units embedded in an arm-cuff being transiently activated when the prosthesis makes and breaks contact with objects. The consequences of using the DESC-glove were evaluated in a longitudinal study. Five transradial amputees were equipped with the device for one month at home. Through a simple test proposed here for the first time-the virtual eggs test-we demonstrate the effectiveness of the device for prosthetic control in daily life conditions. In the future the device could be easily exploited as an add-on to complement myoelectric prostheses or even embedded in prosthetic sockets to enhance their control by upper limb amputees.

  10. The effect of physical and chemical properties of swimming pool water and its close environment on the development of contact dermatitis in hydrotherapists.

    PubMed

    Pardo, A; Nevo, K; Vigiser, D; Lazarov, A

    2007-02-01

    The association between physical and chemical parameters in swimming pool water and the incidence of contact dermatitis (CD) in hydrotherapists was studied. Chemical and physical parameters characterizing the water and air environment of swimming pools conducting hydrotherapy program were recorded. Differences between the values of these parameters associated with affected and non-affected hydrotherapists employed in 39 pools were tested statistically. No significant difference was found between the means of each of the physical and chemical parameters associated with the affected and the non-affected group of hydrotherapists. The prevalence ratio of the incidence of CD in pools chlorinated by gaseous chlorine was significantly higher than that in pools disinfected by other forms of chlorine compounds (PR = 1.49, CI = 1.17-1.89, P = 0.017). Dosing the water with larger amounts of gaseous chlorine compared to other disinfectants and a subsequent temporary decrease in the pH of the water may produce a more aggressive environment. It is suggested that combined effect of the various factors concomitantly with the irritating effect of prolonged exposure to water may trigger CD in pools treated with other chlorine-based compounds.

  11. Notes from the field: Multistate outbreak of human Salmonella typhimurium infections linked to contact with pet hedgehogs - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    CDC is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) and state health departments to investigate an outbreak of human Salmonella Typhimurium infections with an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern linked to contact with pet hedgehogs. This outbreak strain is historically rare, with only one to two cases reported via PulseNet (the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance) annually since 2002. Since 2011, an increasing number of cases have been detected. PulseNet identified 14 human isolates in 2011, 18 in 2012, and two in 2013.

  12. Full-length genome sequence of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infecting a captive agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) is closely related to SIVrcm infecting wild red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Liegeois, Florian; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Foupouapouognini, Yacouba; Nerrienet, Eric; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2010-12-01

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are lentiviruses that infect an extensive number of wild African primate species. Here we describe for the first time SIV infection in a captive agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) from Cameroon. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome sequence of SIVagi-00CM312 showed that this novel virus fell into the SIVrcm lineage and was most closely related to a newly characterized SIVrcm strain (SIVrcm-02CM8081) from a wild-caught red-capped mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) from Cameroon. In contrast to red-capped mangabeys, no 24 bp deletion in CCR5 has been observed in the agile mangabey. Further studies on wild agile mangabeys are needed to determine whether agile and red-capped mangabeys are naturally infected with the same SIV lineage, or whether this agile mangabey became infected with an SIVrcm strain in captivity. However, our study shows that agile mangabeys are susceptible to SIV infection.

  13. Full-length genome sequence of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infecting a captive agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) is closely related to SIVrcm infecting wild red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Liegeois, Florian; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Foupouapouognini, Yacouba; Nerrienet, Eric; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are lentiviruses that infect an extensive number of wild African primate species. Here we describe for the first time SIV infection in a captive agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) from Cameroon. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome sequence of SIVagi-00CM312 showed that this novel virus fell into the SIVrcm lineage and was most closely related to a newly characterized SIVrcm strain (SIVrcm-02CM8081) from a wild-caught red-capped mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) from Cameroon. In contrast to red-capped mangabeys, no 24 bp deletion in CCR5 has been observed in the agile mangabey. Further studies on wild agile mangabeys are needed to determine whether agile and red-capped mangabeys are naturally infected with the same SIV lineage, or whether this agile mangabey became infected with an SIVrcm strain in captivity. However, our study shows that agile mangabeys are susceptible to SIV infection. PMID:20797968

  14. Perception of first respiratory infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa by people with cystic fibrosis and those close to them: an online qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Palser, Sally C; Rayner, Oliver C; Leighton, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Background People with cystic fibrosis (CF) are susceptible to respiratory infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), which may become chronic if initial eradication fails. Environmental acquisition and person-to-person transmission can occur. Respiratory PA infection is associated with increased mortality and more hospitalisations. This may cause patients and families anxiety and lead them to adopt preventive measures which may be ineffectual and intrusive. It is not possible to hold a conventional focus group to explore these issues because people with CF cannot meet together due to the risk of cross-infection. Objective To explore the perceptions of first respiratory infection with PA in people with CF and those close to them. Design We designed an online survey, to maximise accessibility and avoid the risk of cross-infection. This established the respondent's relationship with CF, asked 3 open questions about perceptions of PA and a final question about the prioritisation of research. Responses were analysed using a structured, iterative process. We identified keywords, analysed these incontext and derived key themes. Setting Promotion through social media allowed respondents from any country to participate. Participants People with CF and those close to them. Results Responses were received from 393 people, including 266 parents and 97 people with CF. The key themes were the emotional burden of PA (fear in particular); the burden of treatment PA entails and the need for accurate knowledge about PA. Conclusions Lack of knowledge and the health beliefs of individuals may promote fear of infection and inappropriate avoidance measures. Uncertainty about the implications of PA infection and the treatment required may cause anxiety. Healthcare professionals should provide clear information about how PA might be acquired and the treatment necessary, making clear the limitations of current understanding and acknowledging health beliefs. PMID:28031208

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cell Wall Fragments Released upon Bacterial Contact with the Human Lung Mucosa Alter the Neutrophil Response to Infection

    PubMed Central

    Scordo, Julia M.; Arcos, Jesús; Kelley, Holden V.; Diangelo, Lauren; Sasindran, Smitha J.; Youngmin, Ellie; Wewers, Mark D.; Wang, Shu-Hua; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Torrelles, Jordi B.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the World Health Organization reported that one person dies of tuberculosis (TB) every 21 s. A host environment that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) finds during its route of infection is the lung mucosa bathing the alveolar space located in the deepest regions of the lungs. We published that human lung mucosa, or alveolar lining fluid (ALF), contains an array of hydrolytic enzymes that can significantly alter the M.tb surface during infection by cleaving off parts of its cell wall. This interaction results in two different outcomes: modifications on the M.tb cell wall surface and release of M.tb cell wall fragments into the environment. Typically, one of the first host immune cells at the site of M.tb infection is the neutrophil. Neutrophils can mount an extracellular and intracellular innate immune response to M.tb during infection. We hypothesized that exposure of neutrophils to ALF-induced M.tb released cell wall fragments would prime neutrophils to control M.tb infection better. Our results show that ALF fragments activate neutrophils leading to an increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative radicals. However, neutrophil exposure to these fragments reduces production of chemoattractants (i.e., interleukin-8), and degranulation, with the subsequent reduction of myeloperoxidase release, and does not induce cytotoxicity. Unexpectedly, these ALF fragment-derived modulations in neutrophil activity do not further, either positively or negatively, contribute to the intracellular control of M.tb growth during infection. However, secreted products from neutrophils primed with ALF fragments are capable of regulating the activity of resting macrophages. These results indicate that ALF-induced M.tb fragments could further contribute to the control of M.tb growth and local killing by resident neutrophils by switching on the total oxidative response and limiting migration of neutrophils to the infection site. PMID:28373877

  16. Soft contact lenses

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, R. L.; VanLeeuwen, Wm. N.

    1972-01-01

    A series of 55 patients were fitted with a new type of hydrophilic soft contact lens. These were found more comfortable than hard contact lenses and they had a protective and pain-relieving action in cases of chronic corneal disease. Vision was not as good as with hard contact lenses and a greater potential danger of infection was found. They are preferred by many patients despite the noticeable thick edge and the difficulty of obtaining an identical replacement. PMID:5042887

  17. Interspecies spread of Staphylococcus aureus clones among companion animals and human close contacts in a veterinary teaching hospital. A cross-sectional study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Drougka, Eleanna; Foka, Antigoni; Koutinas, Christos K; Jelastopulu, Eleni; Giormezis, Nikolaos; Farmaki, Ourania; Sarrou, Styliani; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Petinaki, Efthimia; Spiliopoulou, Iris

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence among companion animals and veterinary personnel (VP) was investigated. Strains' molecular characteristics were evaluated in order to assess S. aureus transmission. Specimens (224) from colonized and infected sites of 102 animals (92 dogs, 10 cats) and 18 VP were collected during 2012 and 2013. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the disk diffusion method and Etest. mecA, mecC, tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin) and lukF/lukS-PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL) genes were investigated by PCR. Genotypes were identified by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec), accessory gene regulator group (agr), spa and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). S. aureus prevalence among pets and VP was 36.3% (37/102) and 38.9% (7/18), respectively. Younger companion animals, those living in rural areas, having a disease upon admission or Coagulase-negative staphylococci co-carriage showed significantly higher prevalence of S. aureus isolation (p<0.05). Twenty-six pets and five VP carried PVL-positive S. aureus. In total, 60 S. aureus strains were recovered (53 from pets, seven from VP) of which 16 were MRSA (26.7%), 12 mecA- and four mecC-positive. MRSA showed higher resistance rates against other antimicrobials as compared to methicillin-susceptible ones. Strains were classified by MLST in 13 STs, with the predominance of ST80 and ST15. In MRSA, SCCmec types II, IV and XI were identified. The most frequent spa types were t5559 and t7558. Fifty-six strains were classified into 15 PFGE types. Comparison of genetic markers shows that identical or very similar strains disseminate among animals and VP. Companion animals harbor PVL-positive clones constituting a possible source for transmission to humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of highly photoresponsive fullerenyl dyads with a close chromophore antenna–C60 contact and effective photodynamic potential†

    PubMed Central

    Padmawar, Prashant A.; Rogers-Haley, Joy E.; So, Grace; Canteenwala, Taizoon; Thota, Sammaiah; Tan, Loon-Seng; Pritzker, Kenneth; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Kurup, Divya Balachandran; Hamblin, Michael R.; Wilson, Brian; Urbas, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a new class of photoresponsive C60–DCE–diphenylaminofluorene nanostructures and their intramolecular photoinduced energy and electron transfer phenomena. Structural modification was made by chemical conversion of the keto group in C60(>DPAF-Cn) to a stronger electron-withdrawing 1,1-dicyanoethylenyl (DCE) unit leading to C60(>CPAF-Cn) with an increased electronic polarization of the molecule. The modification also led to a large bathochromic shift of the major band in visible spectrum giving measureable absorption up to 600 nm and extended the photoresponsive capability of C60–DCE–DPAF nanostructures to longer red wavelengths than C60(>DPAF-Cn). Accordingly, C60(>CPAF-Cn) may allow 2γ-PDT using a light wavelength of 1000–1200 nm for enhanced tissue penetration depth. Production efficiency of singlet oxygen by closely related C60(>DPAF-C2M) was found to be comparable with that of tetraphenylporphyrin photosensitizer. Remarkably, the 1O2 quantum yield of C60(>CPAF-C2M) was found to be nearly 6-fold higher than that of C60(>DPAF-C2M), demonstrating the large light-harvesting enhancement of the CPAF-C2M moiety and leading to more efficient triplet state generation of the C60> cage moiety. This led to highly effective killing of HeLa cells by C60(>CPAF-C2M) via photodynamic therapy (200 J cm−2 white light). We interpret the phenomena in terms of the contributions by the extended π-conjugation and stronger electron-withdrawing capability associated with the 1,1-dicyanoethylenyl group compared to that of the keto group. PMID:20890406

  19. Characterization of Blastocystis species infection in humans and mantled howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata aequatorialis, living in close proximity to one another.

    PubMed

    Helenbrook, William D; Shields, William M; Whipps, Christopher M

    2015-07-01

    This study characterizes Blastocystis species infections in humans and mantled howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata aequatorialis, living in close proximity to one another in northwestern Ecuador. Blastocystis species were identified from 58 of 96 (60.4 %) mantled howler monkey fecal samples, and 44 of 55 human fecal samples (81.5 %) by polymerase chain reaction. Using single-stranded conformation polymorphism, we were able to efficiently separate and sequence subtypes (STs) within mixed samples without the need for cloning. Blastocystis ST1, ST2, and ST3 were found in people, and two individuals were infected with more than one subtype. All monkey samples were ST8. The lack of shared subtypes between humans and monkeys suggests that no Blastocystis transmission occurs between these species in spite of close proximity in some instances. Based on analysis of demographic data from a questionnaire given to human participants, individuals who boiled their water before consumption were significantly less likely to be infected with Blastocystis (44.4 %) compared to those who did not (93.8 %) (p = 0.002). No other risk factors were significant, although hunters, females, individuals living in large families, and those living closer to forested habitat tended to have a higher proportion of Blastocystis infections.

  20. Infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle following intra-nasopharyngeal inoculation or contact exposure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For the purpose of developing an improved experimental model for studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, three different experimental systems based on natural or simulated-natural virus exposure were compared under standardized experimental conditions. Antemortem infecti...

  1. Efficacy and safety of two closely spaced doses of praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni and re-infection patterns in school-aged children in Niger.

    PubMed

    Garba, Amadou; Lamine, Mariama S; Barkiré, Nouhou; Djibo, Ali; Sofo, Boubacar; Gouvras, Anouk N; Labbo, Rabiou; Sebangou, Hannatou; Webster, Joanne P; Fenwick, Alan; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of two closely spaced doses of praziquantel (PZQ) against Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection in school-aged children, and to characterise re-infection patterns over a 12-month period. The study was carried out in five villages in western Niger: Falmado, Seberi and Libore (single S. haematobium infection foci), and Diambala and Namarigoungou (mixed S. haematobium-S. mansoni infection foci). Parasitological examinations consisted of triplicate urine filtrations and triplicate Kato-Katz thick smears at each visit. Two 40mg/kg oral doses of PZQ were administered 3 weeks apart. Adverse events were monitored within 4h after dosing by the survey team and 24h after treatment using a questionnaire. Our final study cohort comprised 877 children who were infected with either S. haematobium, or S. mansoni, or both species concurrently and received both doses of PZQ. Follow-up visits were conducted 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months after the first dose of PZQ. At baseline, the geometric mean (GM) infection intensity of S. haematobium ranged from 3.6 (Diambala) to 30.3eggs/10ml of urine (Falmado). The GM infection intensity of S. mansoni ranged from 86.7 (Diambala) to 151.4eggs/g of stool (Namarigoungou). Adverse events were reported by 33.0% and 1.5% of the children after the first and second doses of PZQ, respectively. We found cure rates (CRs) in S. haematobium-infected children 3 weeks after the second dose of PZQ ranging between 49.2% (Falmado) and 98.4% (Namarigoungou) and moderate-to-high egg reduction rates (ERRs) (71.4-100%). Regarding S. mansoni, only moderate CRs and ERRs were found (51.7-58.8% in Diambala, 55.2-60.2% in Namarigoungou). Twelve months post-treatment, prevalence rates approached pre-treatment levels, but infection intensities remained low. In conclusion, PZQ, given in two closely spaced doses, is efficacious against S. haematobium, but the low ERR observed against S. mansoni raises

  2. Infectivity of Leishmania mexicana Is Associated with Differential Expression of Protein Kinase C-Like Triggered during a Cell-Cell Contact

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Rueda, Nidia; Biron, Marlène; Le Pape, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian host cell invasion by Leishmania is a complex process in which various parasite and host cell components interact, triggering the activation of signaling cascades in both cells. Little is known regarding PKC biological functions in Leishmania sp. during parasite-macrophage interaction. PKC-like enzyme was first identified in homogenates and membrane fraction of L. mexicana stationary promastigotes by immunoblot. PKC-like enzyme activity was then detected in cell homogenates but also on intact promastigotes showing for the first time the presence of an ecto-PKC dependent on Ca2+/phosphatidylserine for activation. This ecto-PKC was activated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and inhibited by RO-32-0432, a selective PKCαβIε bisindolylmaleimide inhibitor. Interestingly, the Leishmania PKC- activity was higher in the infective stationary than in non-infective logarithmic stage. Then, promastigotes at different stages of time proliferation curve were used in order to identify the role of PKC-like during macrophage invasion. After attachment to macrophages, PKC-like is over-expressed in promastigotes at the 6th culture day but also at the 4th day of culture corresponding to the maximal infection capacity. An antibody microarray for MAPK and PKC corroborate the Leishmania PKC-like over-expression during contact with macrophages. Pretreatment with RO-32-0432 inhibitor reduced the number of infected macrophages and the parasite burden. These data suggest for the first time a direct link between PKC expression level and infectivity, and provide evidence that PKC-like plays a critical role in attachment and in the internalization steps involved in the invasion process. PMID:19851504

  3. Electrochemical characterization of AISI 316L stainless steel in contact with simulated body fluid under infection conditions.

    PubMed

    López, Danián Alejandro; Durán, Alicia; Ceré, Silvia Marcela

    2008-05-01

    Titanium and cobalt alloys, as well as some stainless steels, are among the most frequently used materials in orthopaedic surgery. In industrialized countries, stainless steel devices are used only for temporary implants due to their lower corrosion resistance in physiologic media when compared to other alloys. However, due to economical reasons, the use of stainless steel alloys for permanent implants is very common in developing countries. The implantation of foreign bodies is sometimes necessary in the modern medical practice. However, the complex interactions between the host and the can implant weaken the local immune system, increasing the risk of infections. Therefore, it is necessary to further study these materials as well as the characteristics of the superficial film formed in physiologic media in infection conditions in order to control their potential toxicity due to the release of metallic ions in the human body. This work presents a study of the superficial composition and the corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel and the influence of its main alloying elements when they are exposed to an acidic solution that simulates the change of pH that occurs when an infection develops. Aerated simulated body fluid (SBF) was employed as working solution at 37 degrees C. The pH was adjusted to 7.25 and 4 in order to reproduce normal body and disease state respectively. Corrosion resistance was measured by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and anodic polarization curves.

  4. Vaccination against rubella: Analysis of the temporal evolution of the age-dependent force of infection and the effects of different contact patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaku, M.; Coutinho, F. A.; Azevedo, R. S.; Burattini, M. N.; Lopez, L. F.; Massad, E.

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the temporal evolution of the age-dependent force of infection and incidence of rubella, after the introduction of a very specific vaccination program in a previously nonvaccinated population where rubella was in endemic steady state. We deduce an integral equation for the age-dependent force of infection, which depends on a number of parameters that can be estimated from the force of infection in a steady state prior to the vaccination program. We present the results of our simulations, which are compared with observed data. We also examine the influence of contact patterns among members of a community on the age-dependent intensity of transmission of rubella and on the results of vaccination strategies. As an example of the theory proposed, we calculate the effects of vaccination strategies for four communities from Caieiras (Brazil), Huixquilucan (Mexico), Finland, and the United Kingdom. The results for each community differ considerably according to the distinct intensity and pattern of transmission in the absence of vaccination. We conclude that this simple vaccination program is not very efficient (very slow) in the goal of eradicating the disease. This gives support to a mixed strategy, proposed by Massad et al., accepted and implemented by the government of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

  5. Asymptomatic rectal mucosal lesions and hepatitis B surface antigen at sites of sexual contact in homosexual men with persistent hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Reiner, N E; Judson, F N; Bond, W W; Francis, D P; Petersen, N J

    1982-02-01

    To ascertain why active and passive oral-anal and genital anal intercourse correlate strongly with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in homosexual men, we studied 22 men with HBV infection for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in gingival and anorectal mucosa, feces, and semen. Thirteen of 22 (59%) patients had asymptomatic rectal mucosal lesions consisting of punctate bleeding points. Seventy-seven percent of swabbed specimens from lesions, 62% from feces, 59% from rectal mucosa, and 50% from anal canal mucosa contained HBsAg. Sera diluted serially and tested for HBsAg by radioimmunoassay showed that men with serum titers of 105 or greater were more likely to have HBsAg in specimens from lesions (p = 0.034), feces (p = 0.032), and normal mucosa (p = 0.001) than men with titers under 10 5. Asymptomatic rectal bleeding is frequent in homosexual men with persistent HBV infection. Rectal mucosa, feces, and anal canal mucosa become contaminated with HBsAg, creating a setting for de facto parenteral transmission when there is contact with oral or urethral mucosa.

  6. Non-contact electromagnetic induction heating for eradicating bacteria and yeasts on biomaterials and possible relevance to orthopaedic implant infections: In vitro findings.

    PubMed

    Pijls, B G; Sanders, I M J G; Kuijper, E J; Nelissen, R G H H

    2017-05-01

    Infection of implants is a major problem in elective and trauma surgery. Heating is an effective way to reduce the bacterial load in food preparation, and studies on hyperthermia treatment for cancer have shown that it is possible to heat metal objects with pulsed electromagnetic fields selectively (PEMF), also known as induction heating. We therefore set out to answer the following research question: is non-contact induction heating of metallic implants effective in reducing bacterial load in vitro? Titanium alloy cylinders (Ti6Al4V) were exposed to PEMF from an induction heater with maximum 2000 watts at 27 kHz after being contaminated with five different types of micro-organisms: Staphylococcus epidermidis; Staphylococcus aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; spore-forming Bacillus cereus; and yeast Candida albicans. The cylinders were exposed to incremental target temperatures (35°C, 45°C, 50°C, 55°C, 60°C, 65°C, 70°C) for up to 3.5 minutes. There was an average linear heating rate of 0.39°C per second up to the target temperature, and thereafter the target temperature was maintained until the end of the experiment. At 60°C and higher (duration 3.5 minutes), there was a 6-log reduction or higher for every micro-organism tested. At 60°C, we found that the shortest duration of effective induction heating was 1.5 minutes. This resulted in a 5-log reduction or higher for every micro-organism tested. Non-contact induction heating of a titanium disk is effective in reducing bacterial load in vitro. These promising results can be further explored as a new treatment modality for infections of metal orthopaedic implants.Cite this article: B. G. Pijls, I. M. J. G. Sanders, E. J. Kuijper, R. G. H. H. Nelissen. Non-contact electromagnetic induction heating for eradicating bacteria and yeasts on biomaterials and possible relevance to orthopaedic implant infections: In vitro findings. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:323-330. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.65.BJR-2016-0308.R1. © 2017

  7. Human water contacts patterns in Schistosoma mansoni epidemic foci in northern Senegal change according to age, sex and place of residence, but are not related to intensity of infection.

    PubMed

    Scott, J T; Diakhaté, M; Vereecken, K; Fall, A; Diop, M; Ly, A; De Clercq, D; de Vlas, S J; Berkvens, D; Kestens, L; Gryseels, B

    2003-02-01

    In an epidemic focus in northern Senegal, adults had lower intensities of infection than adolescents, a phenomenon that could not be attributed to immunity acquired over the previous 10-15 years of exposure to the parasite because all age groups had had the same number of years' experience of the worm. This article considers whether this pattern could have been because of higher levels of exposure to the parasite in younger age groups. Personal contact with infected water was recorded using a questionnaire in Schistosoma mansoni foci not more than 3 years old and in another, 10-year-old focus. Many aspects of contact (e.g. frequency, duration or time of day of contact) may contribute to the number of encounters with infective cercariae (true exposure), so various assumptions regarding the relationship between water contact and true exposure were tested resulting in a range of exposure indices. People reported a mean of 4.4 separate contacts, and spent a median of 57 min per day in water. Patterns of water contact differed depending on the exposure index used, e.g. considering duration, males spent a longer time in water than females (P < 0.001). But using frequency, females had more contacts with water than males in most villages (P < 0.001). Generally, exposure levels dropped as people become aged (P < 0.001) and residents of the older focus were more exposed than residents of other foci (P < 0.002). Intensity of (re)infection was not related to exposure either alone or in models incorporating age, sex and/or village irrespective of the index used. There is therefore evidence that age, sex and place of residence determine exposure but none to suggest that exposure had an influence on the relationship between these factors and intensity of infection. We propose therefore that in this population other factors have principal importance in determining intensity of infection.

  8. Phytoplasma infecting cherry and lilac represent two distinct lineages having close evolutionary affinities with clover phyllody phytoplasma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytoplasmas infecting cherry and lilac in Lithuania were found to represent two lineages related to clover phyllody phytoplasma (CPh), a subgroup 16SrI-C strain exhibiting rRNA interoperon sequence heterogeneity. 16S rDNAs amplified from the cherry bunchy leaf (ChBL) and lilac little leaf (LcLL) p...

  9. Prevalence of HIV-1 resistant to antiretroviral drugs in 81 individuals newly infected by sexual contact or injecting drug use. Investigators of the Quebec Primary Infection Study.

    PubMed

    Salomon, H; Wainberg, M A; Brenner, B; Quan, Y; Rouleau, D; Coté, P; LeBlanc, R; Lefebvre, E; Spira, B; Tsoukas, C; Sekaly, R P; Conway, B; Mayers, D; Routy, J P

    2000-01-28

    Prolonged treatment with antiretroviral drugs results in the selection of HIV-1 variants with mutations conferring resistance to nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and NNRTI) or to protease inhibitors (PI). There is serious concern about transmission of resistant viruses to newly infected persons. This study monitored the prevalence of resistant viruses in individuals undergoing primary HIV infection. Resistance testing was performed on 81 individuals infected between 1997 and 1999 by injecting drug use (n =21), sexual (n = 56), or unknown (n = 4) transmission. Automated sequencing was used to genotype the reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease regions of virus isolated from patients' plasma. The phenotypic susceptibility of stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells to antiretroviral drugs was assayed. Line probe assays detected quasispecies variations in wild-type and mutated RT codons. A high prevalence of PI and RT genotypic variants, associated with high-level resistance to antiretroviral drugs, was observed in individuals newly infected by injecting drug use (PI = 24%, RT = 24%) or sexual transmission (PI = 12%, RT = 22%). The PI mutations, L101, V82A, and L90M, were found in 10.5, 3 and 4% of cases, respectively; whereas for RT, primary mutations at positions T215Y (zidovudine), M184V (lamivudine), T69D/A (zalcitabine), and K103N (multi-NNRTI) were present in 8, 5, 4, and 4% of subjects, respectively. Resistance to NRTI was demonstrated by phenotypic, genotypic, and line probe analyses. Transmission of multidrug (NRTI/NNRTI/PI) resistance in eight subjects (9.9%) was confirmed by showing that source partners possessed viruses of similar genotype. The transmission of drug-resistant HIV is a serious problem that merits further attention by public health officials as well as virologists and clinicians.

  10. A Familial Cluster of Human Brucellosis Attributable to Contact with Imported Infected Goats in Shuyang, Jiangsu Province, China, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhongming; Huang, Yong; Liu, Genyan; Zhou, Weizhong; Xu, Xilou; Zhang, Zibing; Shen, Qing; Tang, Fenyang; Zhu, Yefei

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis remains a serious public health issue in developing countries, including China. On August 8, 2013, four cases of brucellosis from one extended family were reported at Shuyang County, Jiangsu Province, China. Active case finding was performed to identify the source and the risk factors of the infection and to prevent additional cases. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used for molecular subtyping analysis. Six people from two extended families met the case definition for brucellosis infection; four were blood culture positive for Brucella melitensis biotype 3. Four additional family members were found seropositive by using a serological test. Isolates from the four patients were indistinguishable by MLVA profiling, displaying a unique type for Jiangsu Province. Field epidemiological data combined with MLVA genotyping supported a common source of the isolates from the different patients. We recommend stronger reinforcement measures for animal quarantine practices, enhanced cooperation with veterinary service organizations, and implementation of measures that strengthen public education on brucellosis to prevent further human outbreaks in Jiangsu Province. PMID:26149866

  11. A Familial Cluster of Human Brucellosis Attributable to Contact with Imported Infected Goats in Shuyang, Jiangsu Province, China, 2013.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhongming; Huang, Yong; Liu, Genyan; Zhou, Weizhong; Xu, Xilou; Zhang, Zibing; Shen, Qing; Tang, Fenyang; Zhu, Yefei

    2015-10-01

    Brucellosis remains a serious public health issue in developing countries, including China. On August 8, 2013, four cases of brucellosis from one extended family were reported at Shuyang County, Jiangsu Province, China. Active case finding was performed to identify the source and the risk factors of the infection and to prevent additional cases. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used for molecular subtyping analysis. Six people from two extended families met the case definition for brucellosis infection; four were blood culture positive for Brucella melitensis biotype 3. Four additional family members were found seropositive by using a serological test. Isolates from the four patients were indistinguishable by MLVA profiling, displaying a unique type for Jiangsu Province. Field epidemiological data combined with MLVA genotyping supported a common source of the isolates from the different patients. We recommend stronger reinforcement measures for animal quarantine practices, enhanced cooperation with veterinary service organizations, and implementation of measures that strengthen public education on brucellosis to prevent further human outbreaks in Jiangsu Province.

  12. Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Infections Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) Styes Fungal Infections (Ringworm, Yeast, etc.) Diaper Rash Infections That Pets Carry Oral ... Pneumonia Tinea (Ringworm, Jock Itch, Athlete's Foot) Vaginal Yeast Infections Immunizations Do My Kids Need Vaccines Before ...

  13. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Poliovirus Infection in Older Children and Adults in Northern India: Analysis of Contact and Enhanced Community Surveillance, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Ondrej; Verma, Harish; Khandait, Devendra W.; Sutter, Roland W.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Pallansch, Mark A.; Cochi, Stephen L.; Linkins, Robert W.; Chu, Susan Y.; Wolff, Chris; Jafari, Hamid S.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2009, enhanced poliovirus surveillance was established in polio-endemic areas of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, India, to assess poliovirus infection in older individuals. Methods In Uttar Pradesh, stool specimens from asymptomatic household and neighborhood contacts of patients with laboratory-confirmed polio were tested for polioviruses. In Bihar, in community-based surveillance, children and adults from 250 randomly selected households in the Kosi River area provided stool and pharyngeal swab samples that were tested for polioviruses. A descriptive analysis of surveillance data was performed. Results In Uttar Pradesh, 89 of 1842 healthy contacts of case patients with polio (4.8%) were shedding wild poliovirus (WPV); 54 of 85 (63.5%) were ≥5 years of age. Shedding was significantly higher in index households than in neighborhood households (P < .05). In Bihar, 11 of 451 healthy persons (2.4%) were shedding WPV in their stool; 6 of 11 (54.5%) were ≥5 years of age. Mean viral titer was similar in older and younger children. Conclusions A high proportion of persons ≥5 years of age were asymptomatically shedding polioviruses. These findings provide indirect evidence that older individuals could have contributed to community transmission of WPV in India. Polio vaccination campaigns generally target children <5 years of age. Expanding this target age group in polio-endemic areas could accelerate polio eradication. PMID:25316843

  14. Surface-Engineered Contact Lens as an Advanced Theranostic Platform for Modulation and Detection of Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Mak, Wing Cheung; Cheung, Kwan Yee; Orban, Jenny; Lee, Chyan-Jang; Turner, Anthony P F; Griffith, May

    2015-11-18

    We have demonstrated an entirely new concept of a wearable theranostic device in the form of a contact lens (theranostic lens) with a dual-functional hybrid surface to modulate and detect a pathogenic attack, using a the corneal HSV serotype-1 (HSV-1) model. The theranostic lenses were constructed using a facile layer-by-layer surface engineering technique, keeping the theranostic lenses with good surface wettability, optically transparency, and nontoxic toward human corneal epithelial cells. The theranostic lenses were used to capture and concentrate inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1α (IL-1α), which is upregulated during HSV-1 reactivation, for sensitive, noninvasive diagnostics. The theranostic lens also incorporated an antiviral coating to serve as a first line of defense to protect patients against disease. Our strategy tackles major problems in tear diagnostics that are mainly associated with the sampling of a relatively small volume of fluid and the low concentration of biomarkers. The theranostic lenses show effective anti-HSV-1 activity and good analytical performance for the detection of IL-1α, with a limit of detection of 1.43 pg mL(-1) and a wide linear range covering the clinically relevant region. This work offers a new paradigm for "wearable" noninvasive healthcare devices combining "diagnosis" and "protection" against disease, while supporting patient compliance. We believe that this approach holds immense promise as a next-generation point-of-care and decentralized diagnostic/theranostic platform for a range of biomarkers.

  15. Impact of Co-Infections and BCG Immunisation on Immune Responses among Household Contacts of Tuberculosis Patients in a Ugandan Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Biraro, Irene A.; Egesa, Moses; Toulza, Frederic; Levin, Jonathan; Cose, Stephen; Joloba, Moses; Smith, Steven; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Katamba, Achilles; Elliott, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis incidence in resource poor countries remains high. We hypothesized that immune modulating co-infections such as helminths, malaria, and HIV increase susceptibility to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), thereby contributing to maintaining the tuberculosis epidemic. Methods Adults with sputum-positive tuberculosis (index cases) and their eligible household contacts (HHCs) were recruited to a cohort study between May 2011 and January 2012. HHCs were investigated for helminths, malaria, and HIV at enrolment. HHCs were tested using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFN) assay at enrolment and six months later. Overnight whole blood culture supernatants from baseline QFN assays were analyzed for cytokine responses using an 11-plex Luminex assay. Associations between outcomes (LTBI or cytokine responses) and exposures (co-infections and other risk factors) were examined using multivariable logistic and linear regression models. Results We enrolled 101 index cases and 291 HHCs. Among HHCs, baseline prevalence of helminths was 9% (25/291), malaria 16% (47/291), HIV 6% (16/291), and LTBI 65% (179/277). Adjusting for other risk factors and household clustering, there was no association between LTBI and any co-infection at baseline or at six months: adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI); p-value) at baseline for any helminth, 1.01 (0.39–2.66; 0.96); hookworm, 2.81 (0.56–14.14; 0.20); malaria, 1.06 (0.48–2.35; 0.87); HIV, 0.74 (0.22–2.47; 0.63). HHCs with LTBI had elevated cytokine responses to tuberculosis antigens but co-infections had little effect on cytokine responses. Exploring other risk factors, Th1 cytokines among LTBI-positive HHCs with BCG scars were greatly reduced compared to those without scars: (adjusted geometric mean ratio) IFNγ 0.20 (0.09–0.42), <0.0001; IL-2 0.34 (0.20–0.59), <0.0001; and TNFα 0.36 (0.16–0.79), 0.01. Conclusions We found no evidence that co-infections increase the risk of LTBI, or

  16. 'Everyone has a secret they keep close to their hearts': challenges faced by adolescents living with HIV infection at the Kenyan coast.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Amina; Van de Vijver, Fons J R; Fischer, Ronald; Hassan, Amin S; Gona, Joseph K; Dzombo, Judith Tumaini; Bomu, Grace; Katana, Khamis; Newton, Charles R

    2016-02-29

    The upsurge in the uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant increase in the survival of vertically acquired HIV infected children, many of whom are currently living into adolescence and early adulthood. However little if anything is known of the lived experiences and the challenges faced by HIV positive adolescents in the African context. We set out to investigate psychosocial challenges faced by HIV infected adolescents on the Kenyan coast. A total of 44 participants (12 HIV-infected adolescents, 7 HIV uninfected adolescents, and 25 key informants) took part in this qualitative study, using individually administered in-depth interviews. A framework approach was used to analyze the data using NVIVO software. We observed that the challenges faced by adolescents in rural Kenya could be placed into six major themes: poverty, poor mental and physical health, the lack of a school system that is responsive to their needs, challenges in how to disclose to peers and family members, high levels of stigma in its various forms, and challenges of medical adherence leading to the need for close monitoring. In this African community, vertically acquired HIV-infected adolescents face a complex set of social, economic and medical challenges. Our study points to the urgent need to develop multisectorial intervention support programmes to fully address these challenges.

  17. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Contact Rates during a Simulated Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Shay, Davis K.; Davis, Xiaohong M.; Patel, Rajan; Jin, Xiaoping; Weintraub, Eric; Orenstein, Evan; Thompson, William W.

    2007-01-01

    Measures to decrease contact between persons during an influenza pandemic have been included in pandemic response plans. We used stochastic simulation models to explore the effects of school closings, voluntary confinements of ill persons and their household contacts, and reductions in contacts among long-term care facility (LTCF) residents on pandemic-related illness and deaths. Our findings suggest that school closings would not have a substantial effect on pandemic-related outcomes in the absence of measures to reduce out-of-school contacts. However, if persons with influenzalike symptoms and their household contacts were encouraged to stay home, then rates of illness and death might be reduced by ≈50%. By preventing ill LTCF residents from making contact with other residents, illness and deaths in this vulnerable population might be reduced by ≈60%. Restricting the activities of infected persons early in a pandemic could decrease negative health impact. PMID:17553273

  18. Evaluation of point-of-contact circulating cathodic antigen assays for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in low-, moderate-, and high-prevalence schools in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Foo, Karen T; Blackstock, Anna J; Ochola, Elizabeth A; Matete, Daniel O; Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Montgomery, Susan P; Karanja, Diana M S; Secor, W Evan

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of a point-of-contact circulating cathodic antigen assay (POC-CCA) to detect schistosome infections in primary school children (N = 1,801) living in areas with low, moderate, and high Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in western Kenya. The commercially available assay (CCA-1) and a second, experimental formulation (CCA-2) were compared against Kato-Katz stool examinations and an anti-schistosome enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A latent class model based on the four tests was used to establish "true infection status" in three different zones based on their distance from Lake Victoria. As a screening tool for community treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, the Kato-Katz examination was in closest agreement with the latent class model, followed by the experimental CCA-2, soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) ELISA, and CCA-1, which had high sensitivity compared with the other tests but was consistently the least specific. Our experience suggests that POC-CCA tests offer a field-friendly alternative to Kato-Katz, but need further interpretation for appropriate field use.

  19. Evaluation of Point-of-Contact Circulating Cathodic Antigen Assays for the Detection of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Low-, Moderate-, and High-Prevalence Schools in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Karen T.; Blackstock, Anna J.; Ochola, Elizabeth A.; Matete, Daniel O.; Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.; Montgomery, Susan P.; Karanja, Diana M. S.; Secor, W. Evan

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of a point-of-contact circulating cathodic antigen assay (POC-CCA) to detect schistosome infections in primary school children (N = 1,801) living in areas with low, moderate, and high Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in western Kenya. The commercially available assay (CCA-1) and a second, experimental formulation (CCA-2) were compared against Kato-Katz stool examinations and an anti-schistosome enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A latent class model based on the four tests was used to establish “true infection status” in three different zones based on their distance from Lake Victoria. As a screening tool for community treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, the Kato-Katz examination was in closest agreement with the latent class model, followed by the experimental CCA-2, soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) ELISA, and CCA-1, which had high sensitivity compared with the other tests but was consistently the least specific. Our experience suggests that POC-CCA tests offer a field-friendly alternative to Kato-Katz, but need further interpretation for appropriate field use. PMID:25870418

  20. Spatial and temporal epidemiology of Mycobacterium leprae infection among leprosy patients and household contacts of an endemic region in Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nicchio, Mariana V C; Araujo, Sergio; Martins, Lorraine C; Pinheiro, Andressa V; Pereira, Daniela C; Borges, Angélica; Antunes, Douglas E; Barreto, Josafá G; Goulart, Isabela Maria B

    2016-11-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that remains a public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. Household contacts of leprosy patients (HHCs) have increased risk of developing disease and are important links in the chain of transmission of Mycobacterium leprae. Based on epidemiological and operational factors, the global elimination strategy depends on the geographic stratification of endemic areas to intensify control activities. The purpose of the study was to integrate epidemiological indicators and serology into the spatial and temporal analysis of M. leprae infection, in order to understanding of the dynamics of transmission, essential information for the control of leprosy. Using location-based technologies and epidemiological data obtained from leprosy cases (N=371) and HHCs (N=53), during a 11year period (2004-2014), we explored the spatial and temporal distribution of diagnosed cases: stratified according their disease manifestation; and of subclinical infection among HHCs: determined by serology (anti-PGL-I ELISA and anti-NDO-LID rapid lateral-flow test); in order to assess the distribution pattern of the disease and the areas of greatest risk of illness, in a highly endemic municipality (Ituiutaba, MG) in the southeast region of Brazil. Seropositivity among HHCs was: 17% (9/53) for anti-PGL-I ELISA; and 42% for the NDO-LID rapid lateral-flow test. Forty-nine percent of the contacts were seropositive to at least one of the immunological tests. We observed substantial spatial heterogeneity of cases throughout the urban perimeter. Even so, four main clusters of patients and three main clusters of subclinical infection were identified. Spatio-temporal epidemiology associated to serological assessment can identify high-risk areas imbedded within the overall epidemic municipality, to prioritize active search of new cases as well support prevention strategies in these locations of greater disease burden and transmission. Such techniques should

  1. The avian XPR1 gammaretrovirus receptor is under positive selection and is disabled in bird species in contact with virus-infected wild mice.

    PubMed

    Martin, Carrie; Buckler-White, Alicia; Wollenberg, Kurt; Kozak, Christine A

    2013-09-01

    Xenotropic mouse leukemia viruses (X-MLVs) are broadly infectious for mammals except most of the classical strains of laboratory mice. These gammaretroviruses rely on the XPR1 receptor for entry, and the unique resistance of laboratory mice is due to two mutations in different putative XPR1 extracellular loops. Cells from avian species differ in susceptibility to X-MLVs, and 2 replacement mutations in the virus-resistant chicken XPR1 (K496Q and Q579E) distinguish it from the more permissive duck and quail receptors. These substitutions align with the two mutations that disable the laboratory mouse XPR1. Mutagenesis of the chicken and duck genes confirms that residues at both sites are critical for virus entry. Among 32 avian species, the 2 disabling XPR1 mutations are found together only in the chicken, an omnivorous, ground-dwelling fowl that was domesticated in India and/or Southeast Asia, which is also where X-MLV-infected house mice evolved. The receptor-disabling mutations are also present separately in 5 additional fowl and raptor species, all of which are native to areas of Asia populated by the virus-infected subspecies Mus musculus castaneus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the avian XPR1 gene is under positive selection at sites implicated in receptor function, suggesting a defensive role for XPR1 in the avian lineage. Contact between bird species and virus-infected mice may thus have favored selection of mouse virus-resistant receptor orthologs in the birds, and our data suggest that similar receptor-disabling mutations were fixed in mammalian and avian species exposed to similar virus challenges.

  2. The Avian XPR1 Gammaretrovirus Receptor Is under Positive Selection and Is Disabled in Bird Species in Contact with Virus-Infected Wild Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Carrie; Buckler-White, Alicia; Wollenberg, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Xenotropic mouse leukemia viruses (X-MLVs) are broadly infectious for mammals except most of the classical strains of laboratory mice. These gammaretroviruses rely on the XPR1 receptor for entry, and the unique resistance of laboratory mice is due to two mutations in different putative XPR1 extracellular loops. Cells from avian species differ in susceptibility to X-MLVs, and 2 replacement mutations in the virus-resistant chicken XPR1 (K496Q and Q579E) distinguish it from the more permissive duck and quail receptors. These substitutions align with the two mutations that disable the laboratory mouse XPR1. Mutagenesis of the chicken and duck genes confirms that residues at both sites are critical for virus entry. Among 32 avian species, the 2 disabling XPR1 mutations are found together only in the chicken, an omnivorous, ground-dwelling fowl that was domesticated in India and/or Southeast Asia, which is also where X-MLV-infected house mice evolved. The receptor-disabling mutations are also present separately in 5 additional fowl and raptor species, all of which are native to areas of Asia populated by the virus-infected subspecies Mus musculus castaneus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the avian XPR1 gene is under positive selection at sites implicated in receptor function, suggesting a defensive role for XPR1 in the avian lineage. Contact between bird species and virus-infected mice may thus have favored selection of mouse virus-resistant receptor orthologs in the birds, and our data suggest that similar receptor-disabling mutations were fixed in mammalian and avian species exposed to similar virus challenges. PMID:23843647

  3. Severe hepatic fibrosis in Schistosoma mansoni infection is controlled by a major locus that is closely linked to the interferon-gamma receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Dessein, A J; Hillaire, D; Elwali, N E; Marquet, S; Mohamed-Ali, Q; Mirghani, A; Henri, S; Abdelhameed, A A; Saeed, O K; Magzoub, M M; Abel, L

    1999-01-01

    Lethal disease due to hepatic periportal fibrosis occurs in 2%-10% of subjects infected by Schistosoma mansoni in endemic regions such as Sudan. It is unknown why few infected individuals present with severe disease, and inherited factors may play a role in fibrosis development. Schistosoma mansoni infection levels have been shown to be controlled by a locus that maps to chromosome 5q31-q33. To investigate the genetic control of severe hepatic fibrosis (assessed by ultrasound examination) causing portal hypertension, a segregation analysis was performed in 65 Sudanese pedigrees from the same village. Results provide evidence for a codominant major gene, with.16 as the estimated allele A frequency predisposing to advanced periportal fibrosis. For AA males, AA females, and Aa males a 50% penetrance is reached after, respectively, 9, 14, and 19 years of residency in the area, whereas for other subjects the penetrance remains <.02 after 20 years of exposure. Linkage analysis performed in four candidate regions shows that this major locus maps to chromosome 6q22-q23 and that it is closely linked (multipoint LOD score 3.12) to the IFN-gammaR1 gene encoding the receptor of the strongly antifibrogenic cytokine interferon-gamma. These results show that infection levels and advanced hepatic fibrosis in human schistosomiasis are controlled by distinct loci; they suggest that polymorphisms within the IFN-gammaR1 gene could determine severe hepatic disease due to S. mansoni infection and that the IFN-gammaR1 gene is a strong candidate for the control of abnormal fibrosis observed in other diseases. PMID:10441577

  4. The Ankle Injury Management (AIM) trial: a pragmatic, multicentre, equivalence randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation comparing close contact casting with open surgical reduction and internal fixation in the treatment of unstable ankle fractures in patients aged over 60 years.

    PubMed

    Keene, David J; Mistry, Dipesh; Nam, Julian; Tutton, Elizabeth; Handley, Robert; Morgan, Lesley; Roberts, Emma; Gray, Bridget; Briggs, Andrew; Lall, Ranjit; Chesser, Tim Js; Pallister, Ian; Lamb, Sarah E; Willett, Keith

    2016-10-01

    Close contact casting (CCC) may offer an alternative to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) surgery for unstable ankle fractures in older adults. We aimed to (1) determine if CCC for unstable ankle fractures in adults aged over 60 years resulted in equivalent clinical outcome compared with ORIF, (2) estimate cost-effectiveness to the NHS and society and (3) explore participant experiences. A pragmatic, multicentre, equivalence randomised controlled trial incorporating health economic evaluation and qualitative study. Trauma and orthopaedic departments of 24 NHS hospitals. Adults aged over 60 years with unstable ankle fracture. Those with serious limb or concomitant disease or substantial cognitive impairment were excluded. CCC was conducted under anaesthetic in theatre by surgeons who attended training. ORIF was as per local practice. Participants were randomised in 1 : 1 allocation via remote telephone randomisation. Sequence generation was by random block size, with stratification by centre and fracture pattern. Follow-up was conducted at 6 weeks and, by blinded outcome assessors, at 6 months after randomisation. The primary outcome was the Olerud-Molander Ankle Score (OMAS), a patient-reported assessment of ankle function, at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were quality of life (as measured by the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions, Short Form questionnaire-12 items), pain, ankle range of motion and mobility (as measured by the timed up and go test), patient satisfaction and radiological measures. In accordance with equivalence trial US Food and Drug Administration guidance, primary analysis was per protocol. We recruited 620 participants, 95 from the pilot and 525 from the multicentre phase, between June 2010 and November 2013. The majority of participants, 579 out of 620 (93%), received the allocated treatment; 52 out of 275 (19%) who received CCC later converted to ORIF because of loss of fracture reduction. CCC resulted in equivalent ankle

  5. The Ankle Injury Management (AIM) trial: a pragmatic, multicentre, equivalence randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation comparing close contact casting with open surgical reduction and internal fixation in the treatment of unstable ankle fractures in patients aged over 60 years.

    PubMed Central

    Keene, David J; Mistry, Dipesh; Nam, Julian; Tutton, Elizabeth; Handley, Robert; Morgan, Lesley; Roberts, Emma; Gray, Bridget; Briggs, Andrew; Lall, Ranjit; Chesser, Tim Js; Pallister, Ian; Lamb, Sarah E; Willett, Keith

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Close contact casting (CCC) may offer an alternative to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) surgery for unstable ankle fractures in older adults. OBJECTIVES We aimed to (1) determine if CCC for unstable ankle fractures in adults aged over 60 years resulted in equivalent clinical outcome compared with ORIF, (2) estimate cost-effectiveness to the NHS and society and (3) explore participant experiences. DESIGN A pragmatic, multicentre, equivalence randomised controlled trial incorporating health economic evaluation and qualitative study. SETTING Trauma and orthopaedic departments of 24 NHS hospitals. PARTICIPANTS Adults aged over 60 years with unstable ankle fracture. Those with serious limb or concomitant disease or substantial cognitive impairment were excluded. INTERVENTIONS CCC was conducted under anaesthetic in theatre by surgeons who attended training. ORIF was as per local practice. Participants were randomised in 1 : 1 allocation via remote telephone randomisation. Sequence generation was by random block size, with stratification by centre and fracture pattern. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Follow-up was conducted at 6 weeks and, by blinded outcome assessors, at 6 months after randomisation. The primary outcome was the Olerud-Molander Ankle Score (OMAS), a patient-reported assessment of ankle function, at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were quality of life (as measured by the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions, Short Form questionnaire-12 items), pain, ankle range of motion and mobility (as measured by the timed up and go test), patient satisfaction and radiological measures. In accordance with equivalence trial US Food and Drug Administration guidance, primary analysis was per protocol. RESULTS We recruited 620 participants, 95 from the pilot and 525 from the multicentre phase, between June 2010 and November 2013. The majority of participants, 579 out of 620 (93%), received the allocated treatment; 52 out of 275 (19%) who received CCC later

  6. Assessment of exposure to Leptospira serovars in veterinary staff and dog owners in contact with infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Barmettler, Reto; Schweighauser, Ariane; Bigler, Susanne; Grooters, Amy M; Francey, Thierry

    2011-01-15

    To assess patterns of seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars in veterinary professional staff and dog owners exposed to dogs with acute leptospirosis and to contrast these patterns in people with those observed in dogs. Cross-sectional study. Human subjects consisted of 91 people (50 veterinarians, 19 technical staff, 9 administrative personnel, and 13 dog owners) exposed to dogs with leptospirosis. Canine subjects consisted of 52 dogs with naturally occurring leptospirosis admitted to the University of Bern Vetsuisse Faculty Small Animal Clinic in 2007 and 2008. People were tested for seroreactivity to regionally prevalent Leptospira serovars by use of a complement fixation test. A questionnaire designed to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity was used to collect demographic information from each study participant. Dogs were tested for seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars by use of a microscopic agglutination test. On the basis of microscopic agglutination test results, infected dogs were seropositive for antibodies against Leptospira serovars as follows (in descending order): Bratislava (43/52 [83%]), Australis (43/52 [83%]), Grippotyphosa (18/52 [35%]), Pomona (12/52 [23%]), Autumnalis (6/52 [12%]), Icterohemorrhagiae (4/52 [8%]), Tarassovi (2/52 [4%]), and Canicola (1/52 [2%]). All 91 people were seronegative for antibodies against Leptospira serovars. Therefore, statistical evaluation of risk factors and comparison of patterns of seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars between human and canine subjects were limited to theoretical risks. Seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars among veterinary staff adhering to standard hygiene protocols and pet owners exposed to dogs with acute leptospirosis was uncommon.

  7. ELECTRIC CONTACT MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Grear, J.W. Jr.

    1959-03-10

    A switch adapted to maintain electrical connections under conditions of vibration or acceleration is described. According to the invention, thc switch includes a rotatable arm carrying a conductive bar arranged to close against two contacts spaced in the same plane. The firm and continuous engagement of the conductive bar with the contacts is acheived by utilizeing a spring located betwenn the vbar and athe a rem frzme and slidable mounting the bar in channel between two arms suspendef from the arm frame.

  8. Telocyte's contacts.

    PubMed

    Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela

    2016-07-01

    Telocytes (TC) are an interstitial cell type located in the connective tissue of many organs of humans and laboratory mammals. By means of homocellular contacts, TC build a scaffold whose meshes integrity and continuity are guaranteed by those contacts having a mechanical function; those contacts acting as sites of intercellular communication allow exchanging information and spreading signals. Heterocellular contacts between TC and a great variety of cell types give origin to mixed networks. TC, by means of all these types of contacts, their interaction with the extracellular matrix and their vicinity to nerve endings, are part of an integrated system playing tissue/organ-specific roles.

  9. [New recommendations for contact tracing in tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Diel, R; Loytved, G; Nienhaus, A; Castell, S; Detjen, A; Geerdes-Fenge, H; Haas, W; Hauer, B; Königstein, B; Maffei, D; Magdorf, K; Priwitzer, M; Zellweger, J-P; Loddenkemper, R

    2011-06-01

    In 2007, the German Central Committee against Tuberculosis (DZK) published recommendations for contact tracing that introduced the new interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs). Meanwhile, substantial progress has been made in documenting the utility of IGRAs. Because IGRAs are usually superior to the tuberculin skin test (TST) in detecting latent TB infection (LTBI) with respect to sensitivity and specificity in adult contact populations that are at least partially BCG vaccinated, it is now recommended that instead of two-step testing only IGRAs be used.[nl]As the literature does not yet provide sufficient data on the accuracy of IGRAs in children younger than 5 years, the TST remains the method of choice in that age group. To date, also, no clear body of data exists to substantiate better performance for IGRAs than for the TST in older children, thus in this age group using of either test is recommended. The new recommendations also underscore the importance of a diligent preselection of close contacts in order to achieve a high probability that positive test results represent recent infection and to thus increase the benefit of chemopreventive treatment for those identified as requiring it. In a third point of update, it is noted that re-testing of contacts individuals found positive for LTBI may produce a considerable number of false-negative results and should thus be avoided in case of documented exposure.

  10. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from ocular wound infections after laser refractive surgery: attachment to and accumulation on soft contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Faghri, Jamshid; Razavi, Mohamad Reza

    2009-03-01

    Disposable soft contact lenses that are commonly used after laser refractive surgery are known to be colonized by bacteria and play a key role in Bacterial Keraitis (BK) pathogenesis. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) have been found to be the most common pathogen involved in this postoperative infection. In this study a rapid and a simple assay was developed for studying attachment and accumulation of CoNS on soft contact lenses in vitro using [3H] thymidine. Thirty-five isolates of CoNS were obtained from 27 laser refractive surgery patients. Twenty-five of these thirty-five CoNS were isolated in multiple cultures. Ten CoNS were isolated in cultures from patients who underwent reoperation. The assay was optimized using a biofilm-producing strain, S. epidermidis RP62A, which was subcultured overnight at 37 degrees C on blood agar medium. Quantitative determination of biofilm production was tested. Presence of the genes icaADB and icaD was determined in all isolates. All isolates were biochemically analyzed using the Phene Plate (PhP) system modified for typing of CoNS. The CoNS isolates were further characterized to species level using ID32Staph.Mann-Whitney rank sum test and chi-square test were used to identify statistical differences in adherence, index, antibiotic susceptibility patterns, and biofilm production or presence of the ica operon between clinically significant isolates and non-postoperative BK isolates. No differences in attachment and accumulation were found between isolates causing BK after laser refractive surgery and contaminant isolates. In addition, there were no differences in the distribution of the ica operon between the two groups, as determined by polymerase chain reaction. Nevertheless, the ability to produce biofilm was found to be present significantly more frequently among BK isolates than among non-postoperative BK isolates. This study shows that the method using radioactive thymidine to analyze adherence of CoNS to soft

  11. Hyperspora aquatica n.gn., n.sp. (Microsporidia), hyperparasitic in Marteilia cochillia (Paramyxida), is closely related to crustacean-infecting microspordian taxa.

    PubMed

    Stentiford, G D; Ramilo, A; Abollo, E; Kerr, R; Bateman, K S; Feist, S W; Bass, D; Villalba, A

    2017-02-01

    The Paramyxida, closely related to haplosporidians, paradinids, and mikrocytids, is an obscure order of parasitic protists within the class Ascetosporea. All characterized ascetosporeans are parasites of invertebrate hosts, including molluscs, crustaceans and polychaetes. Representatives of the genus Marteilia are the best studied paramyxids, largely due to their impact on cultured oyster stocks, and their listing in international legislative frameworks. Although several examples of microsporidian hyperparasitism of paramyxids have been reported, phylogenetic data for these taxa are lacking. Recently, a microsporidian parasite was described infecting the paramyxid Marteilia cochillia, a serious pathogen of European cockles. In the current study, we investigated the phylogeny of the microsporidian hyperparasite infecting M. cochillia in cockles and, a further hyperparasite, Unikaryon legeri infecting the digenean Meiogymnophallus minutus, also in cockles. We show that rather than representing basally branching taxa in the increasingly replete Cryptomycota/Rozellomycota outgroup (containing taxa such as Mitosporidium and Paramicrosoridium), these hyperparasites instead group with other known microsporidian parasites infecting aquatic crustaceans. In doing so, we erect a new genus and species (Hyperspora aquatica n. gn., n.sp.) to contain the hyperparasite of M. cochillia and clarify the phylogenetic position of U. legeri. We propose that in both cases, hyperparasitism may provide a strategy for the vectoring of microsporidians between hosts of different trophic status (e.g. molluscs to crustaceans) within aquatic systems. In particular, we propose that the paramyxid hyperparasite H. aquatica may eventually be detected as a parasite of marine crustaceans. The potential route of transmission of the microsporidian between the paramyxid (in its host cockle) to crustaceans, and, the 'hitch-hiking' strategy employed by H. aquatica is discussed.

  12. Spatial analyses of wildlife contact networks

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephen; Abbasi, Babak; Shah, Shrupa; Telfer, Sandra; Begon, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Datasets from which wildlife contact networks of epidemiological importance can be inferred are becoming increasingly common. A largely unexplored facet of these data is finding evidence of spatial constraints on who has contact with whom, despite theoretical epidemiologists having long realized spatial constraints can play a critical role in infectious disease dynamics. A graph dissimilarity measure is proposed to quantify how close an observed contact network is to being purely spatial whereby its edges are completely determined by the spatial arrangement of its nodes. Statistical techniques are also used to fit a series of mechanistic models for contact rates between individuals to the binary edge data representing presence or absence of observed contact. These are the basis for a second measure that quantifies the extent to which contacts are being mediated by distance. We apply these methods to a set of 128 contact networks of field voles (Microtus agrestis) inferred from mark–recapture data collected over 7 years and from four sites. Large fluctuations in vole abundance allow us to demonstrate that the networks become increasingly similar to spatial proximity graphs as vole density increases. The average number of contacts, , was (i) positively correlated with vole density across the range of observed densities and (ii) for two of the four sites a saturating function of density. The implications for pathogen persistence in wildlife may be that persistence is relatively unaffected by fluctuations in host density because at low density is low but hosts move more freely, and at high density is high but transmission is hampered by local build-up of infected or recovered animals. PMID:25411407

  13. Spatial analyses of wildlife contact networks.

    PubMed

    Davis, Stephen; Abbasi, Babak; Shah, Shrupa; Telfer, Sandra; Begon, Mike

    2015-01-06

    Datasets from which wildlife contact networks of epidemiological importance can be inferred are becoming increasingly common. A largely unexplored facet of these data is finding evidence of spatial constraints on who has contact with whom, despite theoretical epidemiologists having long realized spatial constraints can play a critical role in infectious disease dynamics. A graph dissimilarity measure is proposed to quantify how close an observed contact network is to being purely spatial whereby its edges are completely determined by the spatial arrangement of its nodes. Statistical techniques are also used to fit a series of mechanistic models for contact rates between individuals to the binary edge data representing presence or absence of observed contact. These are the basis for a second measure that quantifies the extent to which contacts are being mediated by distance. We apply these methods to a set of 128 contact networks of field voles (Microtus agrestis) inferred from mark-recapture data collected over 7 years and from four sites. Large fluctuations in vole abundance allow us to demonstrate that the networks become increasingly similar to spatial proximity graphs as vole density increases. The average number of contacts, 〈k〉, was (i) positively correlated with vole density across the range of observed densities and (ii) for two of the four sites a saturating function of density. The implications for pathogen persistence in wildlife may be that persistence is relatively unaffected by fluctuations in host density because at low density 〈k〉 is low but hosts move more freely, and at high density 〈k〉 is high but transmission is hampered by local build-up of infected or recovered animals.

  14. Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    standing, diagnosis, and treatment of musculoskeletal infections. Key Words: musculoskeletal infection, biofilm , bacteria, biomaterial (J Orthop Trauma...form a biofilm , or slime layer.1 The recurrence of infections is often the result of microbial biofilm formation on the implant, enabling the persistence...Klebsiella pneumoniae). Staphylococcus species is by far the most studied pathogen in musculoskeletal infections and can produce a multilayered biofilm

  15. Transmission of rubella vaccine virus from vaccinees to contacts.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, J; Leedom, J M; Salvatore, M A; Portnoy, B

    1971-11-01

    The report presents evidence of the transmission of hpv-77 derived rubella vaccine virus from vaccinees to two susceptible contacts. The first instance of transmission was to a child who served as a transmission control on a "closed" study ward, and the second was to an antibody-negative mother in an "open" family study. Neither of these persons had any clinical evidence of rubella. Both had significant increases in rubella hemagglutination inhibiting (hai) antibody titers, but detectable complement fixing (cf) antibodies did not develop in either. With the kind of antigen used in our rubella cf test, this pattern of serologic response is characteristic of, but not diagnostic of, infection with the rubella vaccine virus. The serological evidence which was compatible with rubella vaccine virus infection, the complete absence of serologic or clinical evidence of "wild" rubella virus infections among the other four rubella susceptible transmission control children and the security precautions employed to ensure isolation on the "closed" ward, make "wild" rubella virus infection extremely unlikely. The evidence for rubella vaccine virus infection in the other susceptible contact is not as conclusive, because "wild" rubella virus infection is difficult to rule out in any person living in an "open" family situation. Nevertheless the need for more data is emphasized by the virtual certainty that rubella vaccine virus transmission did occur in the subject on the isolation ward, plus the high probability that the infection observed in the family group setting also represented transmission of rubella vaccine virus. Such data can only come from close surveillance of recipients of live rubella virus vaccines and their contacts in the future.

  16. Induction of a grapevine germin-like protein (VvGLP3) gene is closely linked to the site of Erysiphe necator infection: a possible role in defense?

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Dale; Able, Amanda J; Dry, Ian B

    2007-09-01

    Germin-like proteins (GLP) have various proposed roles in plant development and defense. Seven novel GLP cDNA clones were isolated from grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction expression analysis revealed that the VvGLP genes exhibit diverse and highly specific patterns of expression in response to a variety of abiotic and biotic treatments, including challenge by Erysiphe necator, Plasmopara viticola, and Botrytis cinerea, suggesting a diversity of roles for each of the GLP family members. Significantly, one of the grapevine GLP genes, VvGLP3, is induced specifically by E. necator infection and expression is closely linked to the site of infection. Subcellular localization of VvGLP3 determined by transient expression of a VvGLP3:GFP fusion construct in onion cells indicated that the recombinant protein was targeted to the cell wall. Recombinant VvGLP3 was successfully expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana and the partially purified recombinant protein was demonstrated to have superoxide dismutase activity. This data has provided an insight into the diverse nature of the GLP family in grapevine and suggests that VvGLP3 may be involved in the defense response against E. necator.

  17. Towards harmonised procedures in wildlife epidemiological investigations: a serosurvey of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Beerli, Olivia; Blatter, Sohvi; Boadella, Mariana; Schöning, Janne; Schmitt, Sarah; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a (re-)emerging disease in European countries, including Switzerland. This study assesses the seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland, because wild boar are potential maintenance hosts of these pathogens. The study employs harmonised laboratory methods to facilitate comparison with the situation in other countries. Eighteen out of 743 blood samples tested seropositive (2.4%, CI: 1.5-3.9%) by ELISA, and the results for 61 animals previously assessed using culture and PCR indicated that this serological test was not 100% specific for M. bovis, cross-reacting with M. microti. Nevertheless, serology appears to be an appropriate test methodology in the harmonisation of wild boar testing throughout Europe. In accordance with previous findings, the low seroprevalence found in wild boar suggests wildlife is an unlikely source of the M. bovis infections recently detected in cattle in Switzerland. This finding contrasts with the epidemiological situation pertaining in southern Spain.

  18. [Assessing the effect of subcuticular buried sutures with subcutaneous closed suction drain to prevent surgical site infection in patients undergoing total cystectomy with urinary diversion using intestine].

    PubMed

    Kanamaru, Sojun; Tsuchihashi, Kazunari; Makino, Yuki; Shimizu, Yosuke; Ito, Noriyuki

    2014-11-01

    We assessed the effect of subcuticular buried sutures with subcutaneous closed suction drain to prevent surgical site infection (SSI) in patients undergoing total cystectomy with urinary diversion using the intestine. We reviewed the clinical charts of 43 consecutive patients who underwent total cystectomy with urinary diversion using the intestine from February 2006 to March 2011 at Nishi-Kobe Medical Center. All patients received intravenous prophylactic antibiotics before and throughout surgery as well as for three days after surgery. Skin closure was performed with interrupted vertical mattress sutures with 2-0 nylon on the first 22 patients (mattress group), and with interrupted subcuticular buried sutures with 4-0 absorbable monofilament with subcutaneous closed suction drain on the remaining 21 patients (subcuticular buried suture with subcutaneous drain; SBD group). SSI occurred in 7 (31.8%) patients in the mattress group, but did not affect any patient in the SBD group. We compared risk factors for SSI between the groups, and found that the method of skin closure was significant risk factor for SSI (P = 0.005). We concluded that interrupted subcuticular buried sutures with 4-0 absorbable monofilament with subcutaneous suction drain is effective for prevention of SSI in total cystectomy with urinary diversion using the intestine.

  19. A randomized controlled trial of subcutaneous closed-suction Blake drains for the prevention of incisional surgical site infection after colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Jun; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Kawamoto, Makoto; Akikazu, Yago; Suwa, Yusuke; Suwa, Hirokazu; Momiyama, Masashi; Ishibe, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Masui, Hidenobu; Nagahori, Kaoru

    2017-03-01

    The effects of subcutaneous closed-suction Blake drain for preventing incisional surgical site infections (SSIs) after colorectal surgery have never been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Thus, we performed a RCT to evaluate the clinical benefits of using a subcutaneous closed-suction Blake drain in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Consecutive patients who underwent colorectal surgery were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to the subcutaneous closed-suction drainage arm or the control (no subcutaneous drainage) arm. The primary endpoint was incidence rate of incisional SSIs. And, we performed logistic regression analysis to detect predictive factors for incisional SSIs after colorectal surgery. From November 2012 to September 2014, a total of 240 patients were enrolled in this study. One-hundred-seventeen patients who were treated by the control arm and 112 patients by the subcutaneous drainage arm were judged to be eligible for analysis. The incidence of incisional SSIs rate was 8.7 % in the overall patients. The incidence of incisional SSIs rate was 12.8 % in the control arm and 4.5 % in the subcutaneous drainage arm. There was significantly reduction of the incidence in the subcutaneous drainage arm than in the control arm (p = 0.025). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that thickness of subcutaneous fat >3.0 cm, forced expiratory volume in 1 s as percent of forced vital capacity (FEV1.0 %) >70 %, and subcutaneous drain were independent predictors of postoperative incisional SSIs (p = 0.008, p = 0.004, and p = 0.017, respectively). The results of our RCT suggest that a subcutaneous Blake drain is beneficial for preventing incisional SSIs in patients undergoing colorectal surgery.

  20. Hantavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... but deadly viral infection. It is spread by mice and rats. They shed the virus in their ... breathe infected air or come into contact with rodents or their urine or droppings. You cannot catch ...

  1. Latent tuberculosis infection, tuberculin skin test and vitamin D status in contacts of tuberculosis patients: a cross-sectional and case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Deficient serum vitamin D levels have been associated with incidence of tuberculosis (TB), and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). However, to our knowledge, no studies on vitamin D status and tuberculin skin test (TST) conversion have been published to date. The aim of this study was to estimate the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D) status with LTBI prevalence and TST conversion in contacts of active TB in Castellon (Spain). Methods The study was designed in two phases: cross-sectional and case-control. From November 2009 to October 2010, contacts of 42 TB patients (36 pulmonary, and 6 extra-pulmonary) were studied in order to screen for TB. LTBI and TST conversion cases were defined following TST, clinical, analytic and radiographic examinations. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) on a COBAS® 410 ROCHE® analyzer. Logistic regression models were used in the statistical analysis. Results The study comprised 202 people with a participation rate of 60.1%. Only 20.3% of the participants had a sufficient serum 25(OH)D (≥ 30 ng/ml) level. In the cross-sectional phase, 50 participants had LTBI and no association between LTBI status and serum 25(OH)D was found. After 2 months, 11 out of 93 negative LTBI participants, without primary prophylaxis, presented TST conversion with initial serum 25(OH)D levels: a:19.4% (7/36): < 20 ng/ml, b:12.5% (4/32):20-29 ng/ml, and c:0%(0/25) ≥ 30 ng/ml. A sufficient serum 25(OH)D level was a protector against TST conversion a: Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.00; b: OR = 0.49 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-2.66); and c: OR = 0.10 (95% CI 0.00-0.76), trends p = 0.019, adjusted for high exposure and sputum acid-fast bacilli positive index cases. The mean of serum level 25(OH)D in TST conversion cases was lower than controls,17.5 ± 5.6 ng/ml versus 25.9 ± 13.7 ng/ml (p = 0.041). Conclusions The results suggest that sufficient serum 25(OH)D levels protect against

  2. SARS-CoV Antibody Prevalence in All Hong Kong Patient Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Gabriel M.; Chung, Pui-Hong; Tsang, Thomas; Lim, Wilina; Chan, Steve K.K.; Chau, Patsy; Donnelly, Christl A.; Ghani, Azra C.; Fraser, Christophe; Riley, Steven; Ferguson, Neil M.; Anderson, Roy M.; Law, Yuk-lung; Mok, Tina; Ng, Tonny; Fu, Alex; Leung, Pak-Yin; Peiris, J.S. Malik; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2004-01-01

    A total of 1,068 asymptomatic close contacts of patients with severe acute respiratory (SARS) from the 2003 epidemic in Hong Kong were serologically tested, and 2 (0.19%) were positive for SARS coronavirus immunoglobulin G antibody. SARS rarely manifests as a subclinical infection, and at present, wild animal species are the only important natural reservoirs of the virus. PMID:15498170

  3. Comparative in vivo gene expression of the closely related bacteria Photorhabdus temperata and Xenorhabdus koppenhoeferi upon infection of the same insect host, Rhizotrogus majalis

    PubMed Central

    An, Ruisheng; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Grewal, Parwinder S

    2009-01-01

    pathway were induced in X. koppenhoeferi, suggesting differences in metabolism between the two bacteria in the same insect host. Upregulation of genes encoding different types of nutrient uptake systems further emphasized the differences in nutritional requirements of the two bacteria in the same insect host. Photorhabdus temperata displayed upregulation of genes encoding siderophore-dependent iron uptake system, but X. koppenhoeferi upregulated genes encoding siderophore-independent ion uptake system. Photorhabdus temperata induced genes for amino acid acquisition but X. koppenhoeferi upregulated malF gene, encoding a maltose uptake system. Further analyses identified possible mechanistic associations between the identified gene products in metabolic pathways, providing an interactive model of pathogenesis for each bacterium species. Conclusion This study identifies set of genes induced in P. temperata and X. koppenhoeferi upon infection of R. majalis, and highlights differences in molecular features used by these two closely related bacteria to promote their pathogenicity in the same insect host. PMID:19754939

  4. Focusing on Contact Lens Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... solution) because it can be a source of microorganisms that may cause serious eye infections. (Contact lens ... means it is free from living germs or microorganisms.) Never put your lenses in your mouth or ...

  5. Active tuberculosis among Iraqi schoolchildren with positive skin tests and their household contacts.

    PubMed

    Al Kubaisy, W; Al Dulayme, A; Hashim, D S

    2003-07-01

    In a prospective cohort study in Iraq, schoolchildren with a positive tuberculin skin test during the nationwide survey in 2000 were followed up in 2002 to determine prevalence of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection and risk factors among household contacts. Of 205 children, 191 remained skin-test positive in 2002. Based on X-ray and clinical examination, 9 children (4.4%) were active TB cases. Among 834 household contacts, there were 144 new TB cases, giving a cumulative incidence of 17.3%. Risk factors for TB among household contacts were: age > or = 15 years; technical/professional job; smoking; low body mass index; diabetes mellitus; steroid therapy; and closeness of contact with the index cases. Based on past history of TB in index children and their contacts, 77.2% of new TB cases were attributable to household contacts.

  6. Human infections with Tensaw virus in south Florida: evidence that Tensaw virus subtypes stimulate the production of antibodies reactive with closely related Bunyamwera serogroup viruses.

    PubMed

    Calisher, C H; Lazuick, J S; Lieb, S; Monath, T P; Castro, K G

    1988-07-01

    Maguari virus, a member of the Bunyamwera serogroup (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) has not been isolated north of Trinidad. Anecdotal information from other investigators has indicated the presence of antibody to Maguari virus in human residents of south Florida. We attributed such antibody to either cross-reactivity with Tensaw virus, the only Bunyamwera serogroup virus known in south Florida, or to cross-reactivity to an antigenic subtype or variant of Tensaw virus. Five strains, identified as Tensaw virus when they were isolated from mosquitoes collected in south Florida more than 20 years ago, were retrieved from storage. They were compared by serum dilution-plaque reduction neutralization tests with Bunyamwera serogroup prototypes Tensaw, Maguari, Cache Valley, and Tlacotalpan viruses. The south Florida isolates were shown to be most closely related to prototype Tensaw virus and most distantly related to prototype Maguari virus. One isolate could not be distinguished from prototype Tensaw virus, and the other 4 appeared to be subtypes of prototype Tensaw virus. More than 300 serum samples from humans in south Florida were tested for neutralizing antibody to prototypes Tensaw and Maguari viruses and to 3 of the field isolates. Thirteen had antibody to prototype Tensaw virus only, 19 to prototype Maguari virus only, and 39 to both. Antibody to all but 6 of these 71 was attributed to infection with Tensaw virus, to a subtype of Tensaw virus, or to travel or birth outside the United States. It is likely that those with antibody to Maguari virus only had been infected with yet another subtype of Tensaw virus, although another, undiscovered, Bunyamwera serogroup virus may exist in south Florida.

  7. Closed-suction drain placement at laparotomy in isolated solid organ injury is not associated with decreased risk of deep surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Shahin; Talving, Peep; Kobayashi, Leslie; Kim, Dennis; Inaba, Kenji; Lam, Lydia; Chan, Linda S; Coimbra, Raul; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of intra-abdominal closed-suction drainage after emergent trauma laparotomy for isolated solid organ injuries (iSOI) and to determine its association with deep surgical site infections (DSSI). All patients subjected to trauma laparotomy between January 2006 and December 2008 for an iSOI at two Level I urban trauma centers were identified. Patients with isolated hepatic, splenic, or renal injuries were included. Study variables extracted included demographics, clinical characteristics, intra-abdominal injuries, drain placement, DSSI, septic events, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and in-hospital mortality. Diagnosis of DSSI was based on abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrating an intra-abdominal collection combined with fever and elevated white blood cell count. For the analysis, patients were stratified based on injury severity. To identify an independent association between closed-suction drain placement and DSSI, stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed. Overall, 142 patients met the inclusion criteria with 80 per cent (n=114) having severe iSOI. In 47 per cent (n=53) of the patients with a severe injury, an intra-abdominal drain was placed. A drain was placed more often in patients with a blunt trauma with more severe injury defined by Injury Severity Score and abdominal Abbreviated Injury Scale Score and those who underwent splenectomy (P<0.05). There was a three-fold increased risk of DSSI in patients subjected to drain placement (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 8.2; P=0.046). Subgroup analysis demonstrated those who sustained severe hepatic injury receiving a drain had a significantly increase risk of DSSI (P=0.02). There was no statistical difference in the rate of DSSI based on the presence or absence of an intra-abdominal drain after severe splenic injury (17 vs 18%, P=0.88). The use of intra-abdominal closed-suction drains after iSOI is not

  8. [Infected pseudarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Kinzl, L; Suger, G

    1996-09-01

    In open fractures the rate of infected non-union defects has in recent years decreased due to the increased primary application of external fixation. In spite of this positive state of affairs the condition is still encountered often enough to warrant specific treatment strategies and techniques. In the treatment of infected pseudarthroses the general principles of osteitis treatment are applied. This includes radical excision of infected pseudarthrotic bone and of the diseased surrounding soft tissue, provides mechanical stability in the non-union area and requires effective local treatment of the infection in combination with systemic, target-specific and temporary well-defined antibiotic therapy as well as procedures to improve local circulation. The incorporation of autogenous bone transplants in defects appears to depend on close contact between the transplant and the vascularized receiving site and on the quantity of the transplanted osseous material. A promising alternative method of dealing with extensive bone defects is osteogenesis produced by callus distraction; therefore special attention is given to Ilizarov's ring fixation system. Unstable scar formation demands local muscular flaps or microvascularized free flap transfer, which seems to be superior to other methods.

  9. [Contact lithotripsy. Advantages and disadvantages].

    PubMed

    Iglesias Prieto, J I; Pérez-Castro Ellendt, E

    2001-11-01

    To review the different methods of contact lithotripsy by intracavitary direct contact or very close approximation of different rigid and flexible energy-transmitting devices (probes, fibers, etc.). The systems commonly used, as well as those that have fallen into disuse or have not been developed further, are briefly described. Although no contact lithotripsy system is clearly superior over another, in our experience the electrokinetic system (Walz) is highly effective and simple to use. Contact lithotripsy permits stone disintegration and removal of fragments during the same surgical procedure. It improves the rate of completeness of stone removal and permits earlier functional recovery of the obstructed renal unit.

  10. Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... or articles contaminated by them is an important component of infection control and isolation precautions. To help protect exposure to infectious materials, wash your hands: Wear gloves: In addition to ...

  11. Investigation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus transmission from patients to relatives: a prospective contact tracing study.

    PubMed

    Gozel, Mustafa Gokhan; Bakir, Mehmet; Oztop, Atifet Yasemin; Engin, Aynur; Dokmetas, Ilyas; Elaldi, Nazif

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus through respiratory and physical contact. In this prospective study, we traced 116 close relatives of confirmed CCHF cases who were in close contact with the patients during the acute phase of the infection and evaluated the type of contact between patients and their relatives. These relatives were followed for clinical signs or symptoms indicative of CCHF disease, blood samples of those with and without clinical signs were analyzed for CCHF virus immunoglobulin M and G (IgM and IgG, respectively) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No close relatives developed any signs or symptoms of CCHF and were negative for CCHF virus IgM and IgG. The results suggest that CCHF virus is not easily transmitted from person to person through respiratory or physical contact.

  12. Contact tracing the first Middle East respiratory syndrome case in the Philippines, February 2015.

    PubMed

    Racelis, Sheryl; de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; Deveraturda, Imelda; Roca, John Bobbie; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an illness caused by a coronavirus in which infected persons develop severe acute respiratory illness. A person can be infected through close contacts. This is an outbreak investigation report of the first confirmed MERS case in the Philippines and the subsequent contact tracing activities. Review of patient records and interviews with health-care personnel were done. Patient and close contacts were tested for MERS-coronavirus (CoV) by real time-polymerase chain reaction. Close contacts were identified and categorized. All traced contacts were monitored daily for appearance of illness for 14 days starting from the date of last known exposure to the confirmed case. A standard log sheet was used for symptom monitoring. The case was a 31-year-old female who was a health-care worker in Saudi Arabia. She had mild acute respiratory illness five days before travelling to the Philippines. On 1 February, she travelled with her husband to the Philippines while she had a fever. On 2 February, she attended a health facility in the Philippines. On 8 February, respiratory samples were tested for MERS-CoV and yielded positive results. A total of 449 close contacts were identified, and 297 (66%) were traced. Of those traced, 15 developed respiratory symptoms. All of them tested negative for MERS. In this outbreak investigation, the participation of health-care personnel in conducting vigorous contact tracing may have reduced the risk of transmission. However, being overly cautious to include more contacts for the outbreak response should be further reconsidered.

  13. Contact hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Baggish, M S; Barbot, J

    1983-06-01

    In 1907 innovations in optics and illumination made by Maximilian Nitze were applied to hysteroscopy by Charles David, who wrote a treatise of hysteroscopy. David improved illumination by placing an electric incandescent bulb at the intrauterine end of his endoscope and also sealed the distal end of the tube with a piece of glass. The history of the contact endoscope that the authors personally used is connected to the invention by Vulmiere (1952) of a revolutionary illumination process in endoscopy--the "cold light" process. The components of cold light consist of a powerful external light source that is transmitted via a special optical guide into the endometrial cavity. The 1st application of his principle (1963) was an optical trochar contained in a metallic sheath. This simple endoscope was perfected, and in 1973 Barbot and Parent, in France, began to use it to examine the uterine cavity. Discussion focuses on methods, instrumentation, method for examination (grasping the instrument, setup, light source, anesthesia, dilatation, technique, and normal endometrium); cervical neoplasia; nonneoplastic lesions of the endometrium (endometrial polyp, submucous myoma, endometrial hyperplasia); intrauterine device localization; neoplastic lesions of the endometrium; precursors (adenocarcinoma); hysteroscopy in pregnancy (embryoscopy, hydatidiform mole, postpartum hemorrhage, incomplete abortion, spontaneous abortion, induced abortions, and amnioscopy); and examinations of children and infants. The contact endoscope must make light contact with the structure to be viewed. The principles of contact endoscopy depend on an interpretation of color, contour, vascular pattern, and a sense of touch. These are computed together and a diagnosis is made on the basis of previously learned clinical pathologic correlations. The contact endoscope is composed of 3 parts: an optical guide; a cylindric chamber that collects and traps ambient light; and a magnifying eyepiece. The phase of

  14. [Contact tracing of paediatric pertussis cases at a tertiary hospital in Barcelona, Spain].

    PubMed

    Uriona Tuma, Sonia María; Martínez Gómez, Xavier; Campins Martí, Magda; Codina Grau, Gemma; Ferrer Marcelles, Adelaida; Rodrigo Pendás, José Ángel; Pinós Tella, Laia; Cebrian, Rocio; Moraga Llop, Fernando Alfonso

    2013-11-02

    Pertussis remains an important cause of morbimortality despite current vaccination strategies. This study was designed to describe the results and characteristics of close contacts of pertussis cases diagnosed in children less than 16 years in a tertiary hospital in Barcelona. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected from chart review of contacts of paediatric cases of pertussis in Vall d'Hebron University Hospital from 2005 to 2009. Only patients with microbiological study done were included. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated as association measure. Ninety-one index cases and 404 contacts were studied. The prevalence of positive cases among contacts was 33.2%. Contacts of index cases younger than 6 months had a higher risk of being positive for pertussis than contacts of older children (OR: 3.38; 95% CI: 1.88-6.10). Primary cases were identified as 16.7% of the contacts studied, who were the source of infection for 67.7% of index cases younger than 6 months and for 26.9% of older index cases. Contact tracing of paediatric pertussis cases is a necessary clinical activity. It is more likely to find primary cases in the contact investigation of children less than 6 months. Preventive strategies should be targeted primarily to frequent contacts of this age group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. [Contact lens-related keratitis].

    PubMed

    Steiber, Zita; Berta, András; Módis, László

    2013-11-10

    Nowadays, keratitis, corneal infection due to wearing contact lens means an increasingly serious problem. Neglected cases may lead to corneal damage that can cause blindness in cases of otherwise healthy eyes. Early diagnosis based on the clinical picture and the typical patient history is an important way of prevention. Prophylaxis is substantial to avoid bacterial and viral infection that is highly essential in this group of diseases. Teaching contact lens wearers the proper contact lens care, storage, sterility, and hygiene regulations is of great importance. In case of corneal inflammation early accurate diagnosis supported by microbiological culture from contact lenses, storage boxes or cornea is very useful. Thereafter, targeted drug therapy or in therapy-resistant cases surgical treatment may even be necessary in order to sustain suitable visual acuity.

  16. The pathogenesis of highly virulent African Swine Fever virus in domestic pigs exposed via intraoropharyngeal, intranasopharyngeal, and intramuscular inoculation, and by direct contact with infected pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order to optimize novel systems for African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) vaccine development, domestic pigs were challenged with the highly virulent ASFV-Malawi strain via intraoropharyngeal (IOP), intranasopharyngeal (INP), intramuscular (IM), and direct contact (DC) routes. Direct challenge doses ...

  17. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  18. Types of Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Types of Contact Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) Decorative (Plano) Contact Lenses Soft Contact Lenses Soft contact lenses are made of soft, ...

  19. Closing in on Close Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    "A significant body of research links the close reading of complex text--whether the student is a struggling reader or advanced--to significant gains in reading proficiency and finds close reading to be a key component of college and career readiness" (Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, 2011, p. 7). When the author…

  20. Closing remarks

    PubMed Central

    Daykin, C. D.

    1997-01-01

    Closing remarks to Human genetics - uncertainties and the financial implications ahead. A Discussion held at the Royal Society on 25 and 26 September 1996, and organized and edited by R. M. Anderson.

  1. Microscale hydrodynamics near moving contact lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garoff, Stephen; Chen, Q.; Rame, Enrique; Willson, K. R.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrodynamics governing the fluid motions on a microscopic scale near moving contact lines are different from those governing motion far from the contact line. We explore these unique hydrodynamics by detailed measurement of the shape of a fluid meniscus very close to a moving contact line. The validity of present models of the hydrodynamics near moving contact lines as well as the dynamic wetting characteristics of a family of polymer liquids are discussed.

  2. An evaluation of psychological distress and social support of survivors and contacts of Ebola virus disease infection and their relatives in Lagos, Nigeria: a cross sectional study--2014.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Gidado, Saheed; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick; Olayinka, Adebola; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Shuaib, Faisal; Adeyemi, Joseph; Uzoma, Ogbonna; Ahmed, Abubakar; Doherty, Funmi; Nyanti, Sarah Beysolow; Nzuki, Charles Kyalo; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Oyemakinde, Akin; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Abdus-Salam, Ismail Adeshina; Obiako, Reginald O

    2015-08-27

    By September 2014, an outbreak of Ebola Viral Disease (EVD) in West African countries of Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegal and Nigeria, had recorded over 4500 and 2200 probable or confirmed cases and deaths respectively. EVD, an emerging infectious disease, can create fear and panic among patients, contacts and relatives, which could be a risk factor for psychological distress. Psychological distress among this subgroup could have public health implication for control of EVD, because of potential effects on patient management and contact tracing. We determined the Prevalence, pattern and factors associated with psychological distress among survivors and contacts of EVD and their relatives. In a descriptive cross sectional study, we used General Health Questionnaire to assess psychological distress and Oslo Social Support Scale to assess social support among 117 participants who survived EVD, listed as EVD contacts or their relatives at Ebola Emergency Operation Center in Lagos, Nigeria. Factors associated with psychological distress were determined using chi square/odds ratio and adjusted odds ratio. The mean age and standard deviation of participants was 34 +/ - 9.6 years. Of 117 participants, 78 (66.7%) were females, 77 (65.8%) had a tertiary education and 45 (38.5%) were health workers. Most frequently occurring psychological distress were inability to concentrate (37.6%) and loss of sleep over worry (33.3%). Losing a relation to EVD outbreak (OR = 6.0, 95% CI, 1.2-32.9) was significantly associated with feeling unhappy or depressed while being a health worker was protective (OR = 0.4, 95% CI, 0.2-0.9). Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) showed losing a relation (AOR = 5.7, 95% CI, 1.2-28.0) was a predictor of "feeling unhappy or depressed", loss of a relation (AOR = 10.1, 95% CI, 1.7-60.7) was a predictor of inability to concentrate. Survivors and contacts of EVD and their relations develop psychological distress. Development of psychological distress could be

  3. Characterization of tetracycline and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in a Spanish hospital: is livestock-contact a risk factor in infections caused by MRSA CC398?

    PubMed

    Benito, Daniel; Lozano, Carmen; Rezusta, Antonio; Ferrer, Isabel; Vasquez, Maria Alejandra; Ceballos, Sara; Zarazaga, Myriam; Revillo, Maria José; Torres, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Tetracycline-resistance (Tet(R)) has been postulated as a marker of the livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) lineage CC398. to determine the spa-types and assigned MLST clonal complexes (CCs) among all 98 MRSA-Tet(R) strains recovered during 2011-2012 (from different patients) in a Spanish Hospital, analyzing the possible correlation with livestock-contact of the patients. All 98 strains were assigned to 9 CCs: CC398 (60.2%), CC1 (19.4%), CC5 (12.2%), and other CCs (8.2%). The 98 patients were classified into three groups: (A) contact with livestock-animals (n=25); (B) no-contact with livestock-animals (n=42); (C) no information about animal contact (n=31). A significant higher percentage of CC398 strains was obtained in group A (76%) than in group B (50%) (p<0.05), being the percentage in group C of 61.3%. Most of MRSA-Tet(R)-CC398 strains presented a multi-resistance phenotype, including erythromycin, clindamycin, and ciprofloxacin, and the most prevalent detected genes were tet(M) and erm(C). Three strains presented the phenotype macrolide-susceptibility/lincosamide-resistance and contained the vga(A) gene. MRSA-CC1 strains showed higher percentages of erythromycin/clindamycin resistance (95%/89%) than MRSA-CC398 strains (58%/63%), and this resistance was usually mediated by erm(C) gene. Most of MRSA-CC5 strains showed resistance to ciprofloxacin, tobramycin/kanamycin and erythromycin. None of the strains presented the genes lukF/lukS-PV, tsst-1, eta, etb or etd. All MRSA-CC398 strains lacked the genes of the immune-evasion-cluster, but MRSA-CC1 strains carried these genes (type E). In conclusion, although MRSA CC398 is detected in a significant higher proportion in patients with livestock-contact; its detection in people without this type of contact also indicates its capacity for human-to-human transmission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of BCG vaccination and non-tuberculous Mycobacterium infection on interferon gamma specific assay and a tuberculin skin test among children with a tuberculosis contact in Surabaya, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Setiawati, Landia; Endaryanto, Anang; Kusumadewi, Annie; Lestari, Pudji

    2011-11-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) as a diagnostic tool for tuberculosis (TB) infection is used in many countries, including Indonesia, but lacks specificity. Interferon-gamma is a highly specific assay because it is not influenced by previous BCG vaccination or non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections. We aimed to study the effect of BCG vaccination and NTM infection on the results of the interferon-gamma specific assay and TST among children with a TB contact. We carried out a cross-sectional study of children at an outpatient clinic in Surabaya, Indonesia. We studied 37 children aged 1-15 years having a household contact with an acid-fast bacilli positive adult index case. BCG vaccination was determined by the presence of a BCG scar. A PPD RT23 2 tuberculin test was used for the TST. ESAT-6, CFP-10, and TB 7.7(p4) antigens were used for the interferon-gamma assay by ELISA. Gastric aspirates were cultured in Lowenstein-Jensen media. A comparison of the two diagnostic tools among children aged 1-5 years without a BCG scar, revealed high agreement, while children with a BCG scar it revealed disagreement. Among children aged > 5 years with or without a BCG scar the comparisons revealed disagreement. Among children aged > 5-10 years, a comparison of the two diagnostic tools among NTM positive and negative children, there was a disagreement in results. Among children aged 1-5 years, the TST was influenced by a BCG scar. Infection with NTM had no influence on the results of the TST among children aged > 5-10 years, while in children aged 1-5 years and > 10 years the results could not be determined in this study.

  5. Screening for Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-Infected Individuals at First Contact after HIV Diagnosis: The Experience of a Large Clinical Center in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Focà, Emanuele; Magro, Paola; Motta, Davide; Compostella, Silvia; Casari, Salvatore; Bonito, Andrea; Brianese, Nigritella; Ferraresi, Alice; Rodari, Paola; Pezzoli, Maria Chiara; Quiros-Roldan, Eugenia; Castelli, Francesco

    2016-03-24

    Neurocognitive disorders are emerging, probably underestimated, complications in HIV-infected people. The aim of the study was to assess neurocognitive profiles of newly detected HIV-infected patients. We performed an observational retrospective single-cohort study. Illiterates and patients with neurologic symptoms or previous psychiatric diagnosis were excluded. Neuropsychological profiles were assessed using a validated battery of neuropsychological tests. We included 206 patients; with males representing the majority of them (85%). Risk factors for HIV acquisition were unprotected sexual intercourse (homo/bisexual in 39.8% and heterosexual in 60.2%). Thirty-nine patients (18.9%) were previous injection drug users, while 41 (19.9%) were alcohol abusers. Mean education was 11.1 years (SD--standard deviation--3.7). A high prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND, 47.1%) was present in HIV-infected patients: particularly, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) was found in 30.6%, mild neurocognitive disorder (MND) in 15% and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in 1.5%. Male gender, low degree of education, AIDS diagnosis and gepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection were factors independently associated with HAND in a multivariable logistic regression model. Our data suggest that patient-specific factors and AIDS diagnosis have a certain kind of impact in HAND occurrence. A complete neuropsychological screening must be recommended in all patients at HIV-infection diagnosis.

  6. Plague: Infections of Companion Animals and Opportunities for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Oyston, Petra C.F.; Williamson, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary Plague is a notorious disease of humans, typically transmitted from rodents to man by the bite of infected fleas. However, plague can also be brought into the home by domestic animals. Cats are acutely susceptible to plague and can pose a significant hazard to close contacts. Dogs are relatively resistant to plague, but can import infected fleas into the home. This review discusses options available for vaccinating cats and dogs, to protect the animals, their owners and veterinarians from infection. Abstract Plague is a zoonotic disease, normally circulating in rodent populations, transmitted to humans most commonly through the bite of an infected flea vector. Secondary infection of the lungs results in generation of infectious aerosols, which pose a significant hazard to close contacts. In enzootic areas, plague infections have been reported in owners and veterinarians who come into contact with infected pets. Dogs are relatively resistant, but can import infected fleas into the home. Cats are acutely susceptible, and can present a direct hazard to health. Reducing roaming and hunting behaviours, combined with flea control measures go some way to reducing the risk to humans. Various vaccine formulations have been developed which may be suitable to protect companion animals from contracting plague, and thus preventing onward transmission to man. Since transmission has resulted in a number of fatal cases of plague, the vaccination of domestic animals such as cats would seem a low cost strategy for reducing the risk of infection by this serious disease in enzootic regions. PMID:26486314

  7. Transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from experimentally infected Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to in-contact naïve and vaccinated Indian buffalo and cattle.

    PubMed

    Madhanmohan, M; Yuvaraj, S; Nagendrakumar, S B; Srinivasan, V A; Gubbins, Simon; Paton, David James; Parida, Satya

    2014-09-03

    This study investigated the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from experimentally infected Indian buffalo to in-contact naïve and vaccinated cattle and buffalo. In each of six rooms, two donor buffalo that had been inoculated with FMDV were housed for five days with four recipient animals, comprising one vaccinated buffalo, one vaccinated calf, one unvaccinated buffalo and one unvaccinated calf. Vaccination was carried out with current Indian vaccine strain (O/IND/R2/75) and challenged on 28 days post-vaccination with an antigenically similar strain (O/HAS/34/05). All 12 donor buffalo and the six unvaccinated cattle and six unvaccinated calves developed clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). In contrast, all six vaccinated cattle (100%) and four out of six vaccinated buffalo (66.6%) were protected from disease but all became infected with FMDV. This confirms that buffalo have the potential to spread FMD by direct contact and that vaccination can block this spread. The numbers of animals in the study were too small to determine if the differences in clinical protection afforded by vaccination of cattle and buffalo are significant and warrant a different dose regime. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Infection of dogs with equine influenza virus: evidence for transmission from horses during the Australian outbreak.

    PubMed

    Crispe, E; Finlaison, D S; Hurt, A C; Kirkland, P D

    2011-07-01

    During the equine influenza (EI) outbreak, respiratory disease was observed in dogs that were in close proximity to infected horses. Investigations were undertaken to exclude influenza virus infection. Of the 23 dogs that were seropositive in tests using the influenza A/Sydney/2007 virus as the test antigen, 10 showed clinical signs. EI virus appeared to be readily transmitted to dogs that were held in close proximity to infected horses, but there was no evidence of lateral transmission of the virus to other dogs that did not have contact with or were not held in close proximity to horses.

  9. Rate of tuberculosis infection in children and adolescents with household contact with adults with active pulmonary tuberculosis as assessed by tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assays.

    PubMed

    Ferrarini, M A G; Spina, F G; Weckx, L Y; Lederman, H M; De Moraes-Pinto, M I

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection was evaluated in Brazilian immunocompetent children and adolescents exposed and unexposed (control group) to adults with active pulmonary TB. Both groups were analysed by clinical and radiological assessment, TST, QFT-IT and T-SPOT.TB. The three tests were repeated after 8 weeks in the TB-exposed group if results were initially negative. Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) were treated and tests were repeated after treatment. Fifty-nine TB-exposed and 42 controls were evaluated. Rate of infection was 69·5% and 9·5% for the exposed and control groups, respectively. The exposed group infection rate was 61% assessed by TST, 57·6% by T-SPOT.TB, and 59·3%, by QFT-IT. No active TB was diagnosed. Agreement between the three tests was 83·1% and 92·8% in the exposed and control groups, respectively. In the exposed group, T-SPOT.TB added four TB diagnoses [16%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·6-30·4] and QFT-IT added three TB diagnoses (12%, 95% CI 0-24·7) in 25 individuals with negative tuberculin skin test (TST). Risk factors associated to TB infection were contact with an adult with active TB [0-60 days: odds ratio (OR) 6·9; >60 days: OR 27·0] and sleeping in the same room as an adult with active TB (OR 5·2). In Brazilian immunocompetent children and adolescents, TST had a similar performance to interferon-gamma release assays and detected a high rate of LTBI.

  10. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  11. Attempts to control clothes-borne infection in a burn unit, 3. An open-roofed plastic isolator or plastic aprons to prevent contact transfer of bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Ransjö, U.

    1979-01-01

    An open-roofed plastic isolator was built in a single patient isolation room in a burn unit. It was designed to prevent contact contamination only, as this had been shown to be the important route of cross-colonization in the unit. To exclude any possible effect on airborne transfer of bacteria, the isolator was first examined by means of an airborne particle tracer of the same size as bacteria-carrying particles. Such experiments indicated that the isolator might prevent some transfer out of but not into the isolator. This was not confirmed in simulated nursing experiments nor in a patient study, where the air counts of bacteria were practically the same inside and outside the isolator wall. Two patients only were nursed in the isolator. Both patients acquired exogenous colonizations from other patients, one with Ps. aeruginosa and the other with S. aureus. Nursing in the isolator was difficult and staff-demanding. In simulated nursing experiments, plastic aprons and gauntlets as the only protective measures against contact contamination gave as much protection to a mock patient as did the isolator. S. aureus were released from nurses' clothes more easily during work with the isolator than in open nursing with aprons and gauntlets. In conclusion, the isolator did not seem to be a realistic alternative to impermeable clothes such as plastic aprons as a means of preventing clothes-borne cross-contamination between burn patients. Images Plate 2 Plate 1 PMID:109499

  12. Factors associated with acquisition of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in roommate contacts of patients colonized or infected with VRE in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian; Moore, Christine; Eden, Sarah; Tong, Agnes; McGeer, Allison

    2008-05-01

    Most nosocomial acquistion of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is due to cross-transmission. We sought to identify risk factors for acquisition of VRE by roommates of patients colonized or infected with VRE. Retrospective cohort study. A 472-bed tertiary care teaching hospital. All patients who shared a room with a patient colonized or infected with VRE at our hospital between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2006 were identified. These roommates of VRE-positive patients were screened by rectal swab culture on days 2, 5, and 7 after the last exposure to the index patient. Chart reviews were performed to identify risk factors for VRE colonization in these roommates. Eighty-eight roommates of patients colonized or infected with VRE were identified. Of the 38 roommates with complete follow-up, 8 (21%) became colonized with VRE. These 8 roommates were older (median, 87.5 vs 62.5 years of age; P = .001), had longer duration of room exposure (median, 8.5 vs 4 days; P = .002), and were more likely to have a urinary catheter (odds ratio [OR], 16 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.7-152]; P = .005), an elevated serum creatinine level (OR, 17 [95% CI, 1.4-196]; P = .02), low serum albumin level (OR, 9.9 [95% CI, 1.3-113]; P = .01), and recent third-generation cephalosporin use (OR, 8.3 [95% CI, 1.5-47]; P = .02). Roommates of patients identified as colonized or infected with VRE are at substantial risk of becoming colonized, with the degree of risk increasing in older and more frail patients. VRE control programs should pay particular attention to such patients.

  13. Design an easy-to-use infection screening system for non-contact monitoring of vital-signs to prevent the spread of pandemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanghao; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Matsuoka, Ayumu; Miyata, Keisuke; Chen, Chris; Ueda, Akiko; Kim, Seokjin; Hakozaki, Yukiya; Abe, Shigeto; Takei, Osamu; Matsui, Takemi

    2014-01-01

    The outbreak of infectious diseases such as influenza, dengue fever, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are threatening the global health. Especially, developing countries in the South-East Asia region have been at serious risk. Rapid and highly reliable screening of infection is urgently needed during the epidemic season at mass gathering places, such as airport quarantine facilities, public health centers, and hospital outpatients units, etc. To meet this need, our research group is currently developing a multiple vital-signs based infection screening system that can perform human medical inspections within 15 seconds. This system remotely monitors facial temperature, heart and respiration rates using a thermopile array and a 24-GHz microwave radar, respectively. In this work, we redesigned our previous system to make a higher performance with a user-friendly interface. Moreover, the system newly included a multivariable logistic regression model (MLRM) to determine the possibility of infection. We tested the system on 34 seasonal influenza patients and 35 normal control subjects at the Japan Self-Defense Forces Central Hospital. The sensitivity and specificity of the screening system using the MLRM were 85.3% and 88.6%, respectively.

  14. How Close Is Close Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saccomano, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    Close Reading is a strategy that can be used when reading challenging text. This strategy requires teachers to provide scaffolding, and create opportunities for think-alouds and rereading of text in order to help students become active readers who focus on finding text-based support for their answers. In addition, teachers must also be aware of…

  15. [Allergic contact eczema to ninhydrin].

    PubMed

    Schlacke, K H; Fuchs, T

    1989-01-01

    Use of a surgical marking pen to indicate test areas on the skin during epicutaneous evaluation caused eczema in three female patients undergoing patch testing. Close scrutiny of the individual components of this surgical marking pen revealed contact dermatitis to ninhydrine, a substance whose allergenic potential has hardly been noted in the relevant literature.

  16. HPV Infection and Prognostic Factors of Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Different Ethnic Groups from Geographically Closed Cohort in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Huarong; Niyaz, Huerxidan; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Songan; Reheman, Yiming; Bao, Yongxing; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Background. The effect of HPV infection status and ethnic differences on the prognosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma in Xinjiang presents an interesting set of conditions that has yet to be studied. Methods. A comprehensive analysis of clinical data was undertaken for a cohort consisting of 63 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma recruited from three ethnic groups in Xinjiang. PCR was used for the detection of HPV16 and HPV18 infections. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used for analyzing survival outcome in addition to the assessment of other prognostic factors. Results. The overall infection rate for HPV was 28.6% (18/63); the 5-year survival rate among the HPV-positive patients was 47.8% and 30.3% for HPV-negative patients. The survival rate for HPV-positive patients who received radiotherapy and chemotherapy was better than for those who did not receive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. N staging and HPV infection were found to be two independent and significant prognostic factors. Conclusion. HPV-positive patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma are more sensitive to chemotherapy. Higher N staging indicates poor prognosis. PMID:27034835

  17. Comprehensive analysis of draft genomes of two closely related Pseudomonas syringae phylogroup 2b strains infecting mono and dicotyledon host plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, the damage caused by bacterial pathogens to major crops has been increasing worldwide. Pseudomonas syringae is a widespread bacterial species that infects almost all major crops. Different P. syringae strains use a wide range of biochemical mechanisms, including phytotoxins and effe...

  18. Black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) as sentinels of ecosystem health: patterns of zoonotic protozoa infection relative to degree of human-primate contact.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Martin M; Salzer, Johanna S; Deutsch, Joseph C; Raño, Mariana; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    Exponential expansion of human populations and human activities within primate habitats has resulted in high potential for pathogen exchange creating challenges for biodiversity conservation and global health. Under such conditions, resilient habitat generalists such as black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) may act as effective sentinels to overall ecosystem health and alert us to impending epidemics in the human population. To better understand this potential, we examined noninvasively collected fecal samples from black and gold howler monkeys from remote, rural, and village populations in Northern Argentina. We examined all samples (n=90) for the zoonotic protozoa Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. via immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) detection. All samples were negative for Cryptosporidium sp. The prevalence of Giardia sp. was significantly higher at the rural site (67%) compared with the remote forest (57%) and village (40%) sites. A lack of Cryptosporidium sp. in all samples examined suggests that this pathogen is not a natural component of the howler parasite communities at these sites and that current land-use patterns and livestock contact are not exposing Argentine howler monkeys to this pathogen. High prevalence of Giardia sp. at all sites suggests that howler monkeys may serve as a viable reservoir for Giardia. Significantly higher prevalence of Giardia sp. at the rural site, where primate-livestock contact is highest, suggests the presence of multiple Giardia clades or increased exposure to Giardia through repeated zoonotic transmission among nonhuman primates, livestock, and/or people. These results highlight the need for future research into the epidemiology, cross-species transmission ecology, and clinical consequences of Giardia and other infectious agents not only in humans and livestock, but also in the wild animals that share their environments.

  19. Differential expression of interleukin-8 by polymorphonuclear leukocytes of two closely related species, Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries, in response to Mannheimia haemolytica infection.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Caroline N; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-08-01

    The pneumonic lesions and mortality caused by Mannheimia haemolytica in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) are more severe than those in the related species, domestic sheep (DS; Ovis aries), under both natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin (Lkt) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are the most important virulence factors of this organism. One hallmark of pathogenesis of pneumonia is the influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the lungs. Lkt-induced cytolysis of PMNs results in the release of cytotoxic compounds capable of damaging lung tissue. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent PMN chemoattractant. The objective of the present study was to determine if there is differential expression of IL-8 by the macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS in response to M. haemolytica. Macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS were stimulated with heat-killed M. haemolytica or LPS. IL-8 expression by the cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The PMNs of BHS expressed severalfold higher levels of IL-8 than those of DS upon stimulation. Lesional lung tissue of M. haemolytica-infected BHS contained significantly higher levels of IL-8 than nonlesional tissue. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of infected BHS also contained higher levels of IL-8 than that of infected DS. Depletion of IL-8 reduced migration of PMNs toward BAL fluid by approximately 50%, indicating that IL-8 is integral to PMN recruitment to the lung during M. haemolytica infection. Excessive production of IL-8, enhanced recruitment of PMNs, and PMN lysis by Lkt are likely responsible for the severity of the lung lesions in M. haemolytica-infected BHS.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of LTBI treatment for TB contacts in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Michael C; Marra, Carlo A; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Marra, Fawziah; Morán-Mendoza, Onofre; Moadebi, Susanne; Elwood, R Kevin; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2008-01-01

    Contacts of patients with active tuberculosis ("TB contacts") with a tuberculin skin test (TST) size > or = 5 mm are currently recommended treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI). Knowing the cost-effectiveness of LTBI therapy for specific TB contact subpopulations may improve the use of limited resources by reducing the treatment of persons at low TB risk. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of LTBI therapy for different TB contact populations defined by important risk factors, and to propose an optimal policy based on different recommendation for each subgroup of contacts. A 6-year Markov decision analytic model simulating the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), number of active TB cases prevented, and costs for hypothetical cohorts of Canadian TB contacts defined by TST size, age group (< 10 y/o or above), ethnicity, closeness of contact, and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination status. For the majority of subgroups, the current policy of preventive therapy in those with positive TST was the most cost-effective. Nevertheless, our analysis determined that LTBI treatment is not cost-effective in nonhousehold Canadian-born (nonaboriginal) or foreign-born contacts age > or = 10 y/o. On the other hand, empirical treatment without screening of all non-BCG-vaccinated household contacts age < 10 y/o appeared cost-effective. Such an optimal approach would result in an incremental net monetary benefit of $25 for each contact investigated for a willingness-to-pay of $50,000/QALY. Results were robust to several alternative assumptions considered in sensitivity analyses. The current practice of LTBI treatment for TB contacts with a TST size > or = 5 mm is cost-effective. A customized approach based on excluding low risk groups from screening and providing treatment to high risk contacts without screening could improve the performance of the program.

  1. Integrated Source Case Investigation for Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV in the Caregivers and Household Contacts of Hospitalised Young Children Diagnosed with TB in South Africa: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Lala, Sanjay G; Little, Kristen M; Tshabangu, Nkeko; Moore, David P; Msandiwa, Reginah; van der Watt, Martin; Chaisson, Richard E; Martinson, Neil A

    2015-01-01

    Contact tracing, to identify source cases with untreated tuberculosis (TB), is rarely performed in high disease burden settings when the index case is a young child with TB. As TB is strongly associated with HIV infection in these settings, we used source case investigation to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed TB and HIV in the caregivers and household contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB in South Africa. Caregivers and household contacts of 576 young children (age ≤7 years) with TB diagnosed between May 2010 and August 2012 were screened for TB and HIV. The primary outcome was the detection of laboratory-confirmed, newly-diagnosed TB disease and/or HIV-infection in close contacts. Of 576 caregivers, 301 (52·3%) self-reported HIV-positivity. Newly-diagnosed HIV infection was detected in 63 (22·9%) of the remaining 275 caregivers who self-reported an unknown or negative HIV status. Screening identified 133 (23·1%) caregivers eligible for immediate anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Newly-diagnosed TB disease was detected in 23 (4·0%) caregivers. In non-caregiver household contacts (n = 1341), the prevalence of newly-diagnosed HIV infection and TB disease was 10·0% and 3·2% respectively. On average, screening contacts of every nine children with TB resulted in the identification of one case of newly-diagnosed TB disease, three cases of newly diagnosed HIV-infection, and three HIV-infected persons eligible for ART. In high burden countries, source case investigation yields high rates of previously undiagnosed HIV and TB infection in the close contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB. Furthermore, integrated screening identifies many individuals who are eligible for immediate ART. Similar studies, with costing analyses, should be undertaken in other high burden settings-integrated source case investigation for TB and HIV should be routinely undertaken if our findings are confirmed.

  2. Integrated Source Case Investigation for Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV in the Caregivers and Household Contacts of Hospitalised Young Children Diagnosed with TB in South Africa: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Lala, Sanjay G.; Little, Kristen M.; Tshabangu, Nkeko; Moore, David P.; Msandiwa, Reginah; van der Watt, Martin; Chaisson, Richard E.; Martinson, Neil A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact tracing, to identify source cases with untreated tuberculosis (TB), is rarely performed in high disease burden settings when the index case is a young child with TB. As TB is strongly associated with HIV infection in these settings, we used source case investigation to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed TB and HIV in the caregivers and household contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB in South Africa. Methods Caregivers and household contacts of 576 young children (age ≤7 years) with TB diagnosed between May 2010 and August 2012 were screened for TB and HIV. The primary outcome was the detection of laboratory-confirmed, newly-diagnosed TB disease and/or HIV-infection in close contacts. Results Of 576 caregivers, 301 (52·3%) self-reported HIV-positivity. Newly-diagnosed HIV infection was detected in 63 (22·9%) of the remaining 275 caregivers who self-reported an unknown or negative HIV status. Screening identified 133 (23·1%) caregivers eligible for immediate anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Newly-diagnosed TB disease was detected in 23 (4·0%) caregivers. In non-caregiver household contacts (n = 1341), the prevalence of newly-diagnosed HIV infection and TB disease was 10·0% and 3·2% respectively. On average, screening contacts of every nine children with TB resulted in the identification of one case of newly-diagnosed TB disease, three cases of newly diagnosed HIV-infection, and three HIV-infected persons eligible for ART. Conclusion In high burden countries, source case investigation yields high rates of previously undiagnosed HIV and TB infection in the close contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB. Furthermore, integrated screening identifies many individuals who are eligible for immediate ART. Similar studies, with costing analyses, should be undertaken in other high burden settings–integrated source case investigation for TB and HIV should be routinely undertaken if our findings are confirmed

  3. An outbreak of staphylococcal skin infections among river rafting guides.

    PubMed

    Decker, M D; Lybarger, J A; Vaughn, W K; Hutcheson, R H; Schaffner, W

    1986-12-01

    Outbreaks of staphylococcal skin infections among healthy adults are most unusual. The authors report an epidemic of skin infections due to Staphylococcus aureus that involved river rafting guides in Tennessee, South Carolina, and North Carolina in summer 1982. Infections occurred only among employees of the rafting companies that provided communal, on-site housing; carriage rates of S. aureus were as high as 89% at those companies. A case-control study found that having had an infected roommate was significantly associated with infection, as was working at the livery with the most crowded housing. This outbreak appeared to be due to two factors: frequent minor skin wounds acquired while rafting, and prolonged close contact among the persons with wounds. It is likely that crowding and exposure to infected wounds led to elevated S. aureus carriage rates, which in turn increased the probability that wounds would become infected. Repeated immersion in water likely enhanced the development of infections.

  4. [Comparative study of concordance and costs between tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection among contacts of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Martinez Lacasa, Xavier; Canals Font, Roser; Jaen Manzanera, Angels; Cuchi Burgos, Eva; Lite Lite, Josep

    2015-11-20

    Recently diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) can be made using the tuberculin skin test (TST) or by techniques known as interferon-γ release assays (IGRAS), being QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube (QF-G-IT) the most used. The IGRAS avoid some drawbacks of the TST, especially cross-reaction with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, but also present some problems such as those arising from cost and the need of having an adequate infrastructure and experience. There is no clear consensus on which technique should be preferentially used for the diagnosis of LTBI. This is a comparative study between the TST and QT-G-IT in a cohort of contacts of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis during the study period. An analysis of global agreement and groups was performed according to whether the contacts were vaccinated with BCG or not. A study of costs of both techniques and diagnostic strategies based on these techniques was performed. The agreement between TST and QF-G-IT was acceptable in the whole sample yet it was very good in the unvaccinated group. Few cases of indeterminate values were recorded. The cost study showed that TST was cheaper than QF-G-IT; however when we analyzed the cost of the strategies according to each technique, the QF-G-IT showed a better cost-benefit. We suggest considering QF-G-IT as the only preferred technique for the diagnosis of LTBI in household contacts, based on good overall agreement between the 2 techniques (even if we eliminate the effect of the vaccine) and a cost analysis favorable to QF-G-IT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Fingertip contact influences human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Lackner, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Touch and pressure stimulation of the body surface can strongly influence apparent body orientation, as well as the maintenance of upright posture during quiet stance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between postural sway and contact forces at the fingertip while subjects touched a rigid metal bar. Subjects were tested in the tandem Romberg stance with eyes open or closed under three conditions of fingertip contact: no contact, touch contact (< 0.98 N of force), and force contact (as much force as desired). Touch contact was as effective as force contact or sight of the surroundings in reducing postural sway when compared to the no contact, eyes closed condition. Body sway and fingertip forces were essentially in phase with force contact, suggesting that fingertip contact forces are physically counteracting body sway. Time delays between body sway and fingertip forces were much larger with light touch contact, suggesting that the fingertip is providing information that allows anticipatory innervation of musculature to reduce body sway. The results are related to observations on precision grip as well as the somatosensory, proprioceptive, and motor mechanisms involved in the reduction of body sway.

  6. Fingertip contact influences human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Lackner, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Touch and pressure stimulation of the body surface can strongly influence apparent body orientation, as well as the maintenance of upright posture during quiet stance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between postural sway and contact forces at the fingertip while subjects touched a rigid metal bar. Subjects were tested in the tandem Romberg stance with eyes open or closed under three conditions of fingertip contact: no contact, touch contact (< 0.98 N of force), and force contact (as much force as desired). Touch contact was as effective as force contact or sight of the surroundings in reducing postural sway when compared to the no contact, eyes closed condition. Body sway and fingertip forces were essentially in phase with force contact, suggesting that fingertip contact forces are physically counteracting body sway. Time delays between body sway and fingertip forces were much larger with light touch contact, suggesting that the fingertip is providing information that allows anticipatory innervation of musculature to reduce body sway. The results are related to observations on precision grip as well as the somatosensory, proprioceptive, and motor mechanisms involved in the reduction of body sway.

  7. Use of Er:YAG laser to decontaminate infected dental implant surface in preparation for reestablishment of bone-to-implant contact.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Myron; Nevins, Marc L; Yamamoto, Atsuhiko; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Ono, Yoshihiro; Wang, Chin-Wei; Kim, David M

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of peri-implantitis is of concern to all clinicians participating in implant dentistry. Peri-implant inflammation results in the loss of supporting bone for the implant that may or may not be accompanied by bleeding on probing and suppuration. Early diagnosis and intervention are mandated, but there is a paucity of evidence leading to the most effective therapy. There is agreement that one of the challenges in surgically treating peri-implant defects is the process of cleaning and decontaminating the implant surface, which may be contaminated by bacterial aggregates. This preclinical canine study investigates the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser to decontaminate the complex rough surface of the implant by stripping the contaminated oxide layer for induction of hard and soft tissue adaptation to a compromised or failing implant. The results provide evidence of new bone-to-implant contact established at a level representative of the size of the defects. The soft tissues contain little or no evidence of inflammation, which can be interpreted as an arrest of the disease progression process. The results can be translated to a treatment goal of stabilizing the prognosis of an implant that has been compromised.

  8. Second outbreak of infection with a rare Cryptosporidium parvum genotype in schoolchildren associated with contact with lambs/goat kids at a holiday farm in Norway.

    PubMed

    Lange, H; Johansen, O H; Vold, L; Robertson, L J; Anthonisen, I L; Nygard, K

    2014-10-01

    In March 2012, a second outbreak of Cryptosporidium parvum affected children following a stay at a holiday farm in Norway; the first outbreak occurred in 2009. We studied a cohort of 145 schoolchildren who had visited the farm, of which 40 (28%) were cases. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in faecal samples from humans, goat kids and lambs. Molecular studies revealed C. parvum subtype IIa A19G1R1 in all samples including human samples from the 2009 outbreak. A dose-response relationship was found between the number of optional sessions with animals and illness, increasing from two sessions [risk ratio (RR) 2·7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·6-11·5] to six sessions (RR 8·0, 95% CI 1·7-37·7). The occurrence of two outbreaks 3 years apart, with the same subtype of C. parvum, suggests that the parasite is established in the farm's environment. We recommend greater emphasis on hand hygiene and routines related to animal contact.

  9. Antibacterial surface design - Contact kill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Liu, Song

    2016-08-01

    Designing antibacterial surfaces has become extremely important to minimize Healthcare Associated Infections which are a major cause of mortality worldwide. A previous biocide-releasing approach is based on leaching of encapsulated biocides such as silver and triclosan which exerts negative impacts on the environment and potentially contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. This drawback of leachable compounds led to the shift of interest towards a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach: contact-killing surfaces. Biocides that can be bound onto surfaces to give the substrates contact-active antibacterial activity include quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), quaternary phosphoniums (QPs), carbon nanotubes, antibacterial peptides, and N-chloramines. Among the above, QACs and N-chloramines are the most researched contact-active biocides. We review the engineering of contact-active surfaces using QACs or N-chloramines, the modes of actions as well as the test methods. The charge-density threshold of cationic surfaces for desired antibacterial efficacy and attempts to combine various biocides for the generation of new contact-active surfaces are discussed in detail. Surface positive charge density is identified as a key parameter to define antibacterial efficacy. We expect that this research field will continue to attract more research interest in view of the potential impact of self-disinfective surfaces on healthcare-associated infections, food safety and corrosion/fouling resistance required on industrial surfaces such as oil pipes and ship hulls.

  10. Contact Lenses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Glasses & Contacts Contact Lenses Sections Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Contact ... to Know About Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Leer en Español: Lentes ...

  11. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a strong dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small but finite ridge, which corresponds to an effective line tension term. We also predict contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces generated by the pinning of the contact lines by the surface corrugations. Our analytical expressions for both the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis can be interpreted as `weighted sums' between the contact angles of the infusing liquid relative to the droplet and surrounding gas phases, where the weighting coefficients are given by ratios of the fluid surface tensions.

  12. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces.

    PubMed

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2016-12-21

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small but finite ridge, which corresponds to an effective line tension term. We also predict contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces generated by the pinning of the contact lines by the surface corrugations. Our analytical expressions for both the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis can be interpreted as 'weighted sums' between the contact angles of the infusing liquid relative to the droplet and surrounding gas phases, where the weighting coefficients are given by ratios of the fluid surface tensions.

  13. A Novel Alpha Cardiac Actin (ACTC1) Mutation Mapping to a Domain in Close Contact with Myosin Heavy Chain Leads to a Variety of Congenital Heart Defects, Arrhythmia and Possibly Midline Defects

    PubMed Central

    Augière, Céline; Mégy, Simon; El Malti, Rajae; Boland, Anne; El Zein, Loubna; Verrier, Bernard; Mégarbané, André; Deleuze, Jean-François; Bouvagnet, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Background A Lebanese Maronite family presented with 13 relatives affected by various congenital heart defects (mainly atrial septal defects), conduction tissue anomalies and midline defects. No mutations were found in GATA4 and NKX2-5. Methods and Results A set of 399 poly(AC) markers was used to perform a linkage analysis which peaked at a 2.98 lod score on the long arm of chromosome 15. The haplotype analysis delineated a 7.7 meganucleotides genomic interval which included the alpha-cardiac actin gene (ACTC1) among 36 other protein coding genes. A heterozygous missense mutation was found (c.251T>C, p.(Met84Thr)) in the ACTC1 gene which changed a methionine residue conserved up to yeast. This mutation was absent from 1000 genomes and exome variant server database but segregated perfectly in this family with the affection status. This mutation and 2 other ACTC1 mutations (p.(Glu101Lys) and p.(Met125Val)) which result also in congenital heart defects are located in a region in close apposition to a myosin heavy chain head region by contrast to 3 other alpha-cardiac actin mutations (p.(Ala297Ser),p.(Asp313His) and p.(Arg314His)) which result in diverse cardiomyopathies and are located in a totally different interaction surface. Conclusions Alpha-cardiac actin mutations lead to congenital heart defects, cardiomyopathies and eventually midline defects. The consequence of an ACTC1 mutation may in part be dependent on the interaction surface between actin and myosin. PMID:26061005

  14. Contact material optimization and contact physics in metal-contact microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhenyin

    Metal-contact MEMS switches hold great promise for implementing agile radio frequency (RF) systems because of their small size, low fabrication cost, low power consumption, wide operational band, excellent isolation and exceptionally low signal insertion loss. Gold is often utilized as a contact material for metal-contact MEMS switches due to its excellent electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance. However contact wear and stiction are the two major failure modes for these switches due to its material softness and high surface adhesion energy. To strengthen the contact material, pure gold was alloyed with other metal elements. We designed and constructed a new micro-contacting test facility that closely mimic the typical MEMS operation and utilized this facility to efficiently evaluate optimized contact materials. Au-Ni binary alloy system as the candidate contact material for MEMS switches was systematically investigated. A correlation between contact material properties (etc. microstructure, micro-hardness, electrical resistivity, topology, surface structures and composition) and micro-contacting performance was established. It was demonstrated nano-scale graded two-phase Au-Ni film could possibly yield an improved device performance. Gold micro-contact degradation mechanisms were also systematically investigated by running the MEMS switching tests under a wide range of test conditions. According to our quantitative failure analysis, field evaporation could be the dominant failure mode for highfield (> critical threshold field) hot switching; transient thermal-assisted wear could be the dominant failure mode for low-field hot switching; on the other hand, pure mechanical wear and steady current heating (1 mA) caused much less contact degradation in cold switching tests. Results from low-force (50 muN/micro-contact), low current (0.1 mA) tests on real MEMS switches indicated that continuous adsorbed films from ambient air could degrade the switch contact

  15. Clinical Course of Ophthalmic Findings and Potential Influence Factors of Herpesvirus Infections: 18 Month Follow-Up of a Closed Herd of Lipizzaners

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, James O.; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Tichy, Alexander; Nowotny, Norbert; Nell, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background To date the influence of herpesviruses on the development of equine ocular diseases has not been clearly determined. Objective The purpose of this study was to illustrate the course of equine ocular findings over a period of 18 months at 6 month intervals, in correlation with the results of herpesvirus detection. Methods 266 Lipizzaners in 3 federal states of Austria underwent complete ophthalmologic examination 4 times. Blood samples, nasal- and conjunctival swabs were obtained at the same time and used for the detection of the equid gammaherpesviruses EHV-2 and EHV-5 using consensus herpesvirus PCR and type-specific qPCRs. Ophthalmic findings and results of herpesvirus PCRs were recorded and statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA, and multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the influence of herpesvirus infections and other contributing factors on the presence of ophthalmic findings. Results In the first, second, third and fourth examination period 266, 261, 249 and 230 horses were included, respectively. Ophthalmic findings consistent with herpesvirus infections included conjunctival- and corneal pathologies. Statistical analysis revealed that the probability of positive herpesvirus PCR results decreased with progressing age; however the presence of corneal findings increased over time. At the time of each examination 45.1%, 41.8%, 43.0%, and 57.0% of horses with conjunctival or corneal findings, respectively, were positive for EHV-2 and/or EHV-5. However, 31.6%, 17.6%, 20.1%, and 13.0% of clinically sound horses were positive for these herpesviruses at each examination period, too. Conclusion Based on the results of our study there is a significant influence of young age on EHV-2 and/or EHV-5 infection. Corneal pathologies increased over time and with progressing age. Whether the identified findings were caused by herpesviruses could not be unequivocally determined. PMID:24278206

  16. Impact of Delta 32-CCR5 heterozygosity on HIV-1 genetic evolution and variability--a study of 4 individuals infected with closely related HIV-1 strains.

    PubMed

    Chalmet, Kristen; Van Wanzeele, Filip; Demecheleer, Els; Dauwe, Kenny; Pelgrom, Jolanda; Van Der Gucht, Bea; Vogelaers, Dirk; Plum, Jean; Stuyver, Lieven; Vandekerckhove, Linos; Verhofstede, Chris

    2008-09-30

    A cluster of four patients acutely infected with a genetically almost identical virus, allowed us to investigate genetic variability and disease progression in early HIV-1 infection with minimal interference of virus specific factors. Two of the patients were heterozygous for the 32-bp deletion in the CCR5 coreceptor gene. Both showed a slower disease progression with lower viral load levels and a reduced rate of genetic evolution compared to the patients with normal CCR5 alleles. During 3 years of treatment-free follow-up, the mean pairwise genetic distance increased with 1.45% and 1.58% in the two patients with a 32-bp deletion allele compared to 3.05% and 3.57% in the two patients with normal CCR5 alleles. The observed relation between slower disease progression and a reduced evolutionary rate illustrates the influence of the virus replicative capacity, here most possibly hampered by the CCR5 heterozygosity in two of the four individuals, on the genetic evolution of the virus in the host.

  17. [Contact lens care and maintenance].

    PubMed

    Bloise, L

    2017-04-01

    All contact lenses with replacement schedules longer than daily must be maintained. At each step of their use, the lenses may be contaminated. Contact lens solutions perform the essential functions of cleaning, decontaminating and preserving the lenses to prevent infectious problems and improve wearing comfort. Contact lens contamination essentially comes from hands, cleaning solutions, cases, water and the environment. The pathogenic microorganisms are mainly Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and amoebae. Contact lens deposits may or may not have an organic origin. Their presence increases the risk of infection because they serve as a nutrient matrix for microbes, and they are responsible for wearing discomfort. Contact lens solutions differ in their composition, their mechanism of action and the concentration of the various agents. To prescribe the best lens care system to each wearer and for each material, it is necessary to be very familiar with them. Maintenance is the main cause of discomfort with contact lenses, either through improper use, solution-material incompatibility, or a reaction of the wearer to the components.

  18. Metal contacts to gallium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baenard, W. O.; Myburg, G.; Auret, F. D.; Goodman, S. A.; Meyer, W. E.

    1996-11-01

    In this paper, some aspects that determine the properties of Schottky and ohmic contacts to GaAs are discussed. For Schottky barrier diodes (SBD), we present results of a comprehensive study involving 41 different metals. We pay special attention to Ru and show that its thermal and chemical stability makes it ideal for use in devices operating above room temperature and for experiments involving annealing. Further, we discuss the effect of different metallization methods on SBD properties and show that methods which use energetic particles, such as electron beam deposition and sputter deposition, often result in inferior SBD properties—the consequence of electrically active defects introduced by the energetic particles at and close to the semiconductor surface. The advantages of using Ru as contact material to GaAs are that it forms high quality, thermally stable Schottky contacts to n-GaAs and thermally stable ohmic contacts with low specific contact resistance to p-GaAs. The versatile applicability of Ru contacts makes them extremely important for future use in devices such as heterojunction bipolar transistors and solid state lasers.

  19. Contact Lens Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Contact Lens Care Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... 1088, www.fda.gov/medwatch Learn More about Contact Lens Care Other Tips on Contact Lenses Decorative ...

  20. Rolling-Contact Rheostat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.

    1985-01-01

    Contact noise in rheostats and potentiometers reduced by rolling contact design. Smooth rolling action eliminates sporadic variations in resistance caused by bouncing and stick/slip motion of conventional sliding contacts.

  1. Quantification of diarrhea risk related to wastewater contact in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Aleix; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2012-03-01

    Wastewater reuse contributes to closing the nutrient recycling loop as a sustainable way of managing water resources. Bangkok has over a thousand man-made drainage and irrigation canals for such purposes. Its use for agricultural and recreational purposes has a long tradition in rural and peri-urban areas. However, the continuation of these practices is increasingly questioned since potential health risks are an issue if such practices are not appropriately managed. The microbial and chemical quality of canal water has considerably deteriorated over the last decade, mainly because of discharged, untreated domestic and industrial wastewater. It is important to understand the health risks of wastewater reuse and identify risky behaviors from the most highly exposed actors promote the safe use of wastewater. This study assessed diarrhea infection risks caused by the use of and contact with wastewater in Klong Luang municipality, a peri-urban setting in Northern Bangkok, using quantitative microbial risk assessment. Wastewater samples were collected from canals, sewers at household level, and vegetables grown in the canals for consumption. Samples were also collected from irrigation water from the agricultural fields. Two protozoa, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, were quantified and analyzed by real-time PCR, exposure assessment was conducted, and finally, the risk of infection due to contact with wastewater in different scenarios was calculated. The results showed that canal water and vegetables were heavily contaminated with G. lamblia and E. histolytica. Infection risk was high in tested scenarios and largely exceeded the acceptable risk given by WHO guidelines.

  2. Masses of Early-type contact binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K. C.

    2007-08-01

    In general, the mass ratio derived from photometric analyses, q(pe), agrees quite well with the value derived from double-line spectroscopic binary, q(sp), for wide pairs as well as for the close pairs. Therefore one wishes that masses could be determined for single-line systems with the help of photometric mass ratio. It is believed that the large masses determined for early type contact systems may be not reliable or quite wrong due to misleading photometric solution, mass ratios. Of course this includes some of my old published papers as well. The appearance of continuous light variation of their light curves resembles a system with contact configuration. In general, the temperature difference between the components is relatively well determined from the differential depths of the eclipses. Most of these systems have large temperature differences. In mode 3 (most popular) contact configuration of W-D method would automatically ends up with a very large temperature discontinuity at the interface. Even though some of our (with D. Q. Zhou of Peking University) model calculations on circulation in contact atmosphere did arrive at stable flow. (The mathematics just becomes too difficult to handle.) One can easily argue that such temperature discontinuity in a system can not be stable. If one utilizes the mode 1 configuration of the W-D method, there would not be a temperature discontinuity at the interface but than the temperature difference derived would not agree with the differential depths of eclipses. The key problem comes from the fact that there is only very slight difference in the shape of the light curves between a contact system and a very close semidetached system. Essentially there is no inflection point in the contact light curve while there is a slight inflection point for the latter. Since we are dealing with O and early B stars there are serious stellar winds and wind-wind interaction to be considered. These could well smooth out the slight the

  3. On the structure of contact binaries. I - The contact discontinuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, F. H.; Lubow, S. H.; Anderson, L.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of the interior structure of contact binaries is reviewed, and a simple resolution of the difficulties which plague the theory is suggested. It is proposed that contact binaries contain a contact discontinuity between the lower surface of the common envelope and the Roche lobe of the cooler star. This discontinuity is maintained against thermal diffusion by fluid flow, and the transition layer is thin to the extent that the dynamical time scale is short in comparison with the thermal time scale. The idealization that the transition layer has infinitesimal thickness allows a simple formulation of the structure equations which are closed by appropriate jump conditions across the discontinuity. The further imposition of the standard boundary conditions suffices to define a unique model for the system once the chemical composition, the masses of the two stars, and the orbital separation are specified.

  4. Absence of XMRV and closely related viruses in primary prostate cancer tissues used to derive the XMRV-infected cell line 22Rv1.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, Jaydip; Luk, Ka-Cheung; Tang, Ning; Gaughan, Christina; Klein, Eric A; Kandel, Eugene S; Hackett, John; Silverman, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    The 22Rv1 cell line is widely used for prostate cancer research and other studies throughout the world. These cells were established from a human prostate tumor, CWR22, that was serially passaged in nude mice and selected for androgen independence. The 22Rv1 cells are known to produce high titers of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV). Recent studies suggested that XMRV was inadvertently created in the 1990's when two murine leukemia virus (MLV) genomes (pre-XMRV1 and pre-XMRV-2) recombined during passaging of the CWR22 tumor in mice. The conclusion that XMRV originated from mice and not the patient was based partly on the failure to detect XMRV in early CWR22 xenografts. While that deduction is certainly justified, we examined the possibility that a closely related virus could have been present in primary tumor tissue. Here we report that we have located the original prostate tumor tissue excised from patient CWR22 and have assayed the corresponding DNA by PCR and the tissue sections by fluorescence in situ hybridization for the presence of XMRV or a similar virus. The primary tumor tissues lacked mouse DNA as determined by PCR for intracisternal A type particle DNA, thus avoiding one of the limitations of studying xenografts. We show that neither XMRV nor a closely related virus was present in primary prostate tissue of patient CWR22. Our findings confirm and reinforce the conclusion that XMRV is a recombinant laboratory-generated mouse virus that is highly adapted for human prostate cancer cells.

  5. 76 FR 52024 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Star Tannery, Virginia post office has been filed. It identifies preliminary steps and provides a procedural schedule. Publication of this document will... their views electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  6. Shedding dynamics of Morogoro virus, an African arenavirus closely related to Lassa virus, in its natural reservoir host Mastomys natalensis.

    PubMed

    Borremans, Benny; Vossen, Raphaël; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Gryseels, Sophie; Hughes, Nelika; Van Gestel, Mats; Van Houtte, Natalie; Günther, Stephan; Leirs, Herwig

    2015-05-29

    Arenaviruses can cause mild to severe hemorrhagic fevers. Humans mainly get infected through contact with infected rodents or their excretions, yet little is known about transmission dynamics within rodent populations. Morogoro virus (MORV) is an Old World arenavirus closely related to Lassa virus with which it shares the same host species Mastomys natalensis. We injected MORV in its host, and sampled blood and excretions at frequent intervals. Infection in adults was acute; viral RNA disappeared from blood after 18 days post infection (dpi) and from excretions after 39 dpi. Antibodies were present from 7 dpi and never disappeared. Neonatally infected animals acquired a chronic infection with RNA and antibodies in blood for at least 3 months. The quantified excretion and antibody patterns can be used to inform mathematical transmission models, and are essential for understanding and controlling transmission in the natural rodent host populations.

  7. Shedding dynamics of Morogoro virus, an African arenavirus closely related to Lassa virus, in its natural reservoir host Mastomys natalensis

    PubMed Central

    Borremans, Benny; Vossen, Raphaël; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Gryseels, Sophie; Hughes, Nelika; Van Gestel, Mats; Van Houtte, Natalie; Günther, Stephan; Leirs, Herwig

    2015-01-01

    Arenaviruses can cause mild to severe hemorrhagic fevers. Humans mainly get infected through contact with infected rodents or their excretions, yet little is known about transmission dynamics within rodent populations. Morogoro virus (MORV) is an Old World arenavirus closely related to Lassa virus with which it shares the same host species Mastomys natalensis. We injected MORV in its host, and sampled blood and excretions at frequent intervals. Infection in adults was acute; viral RNA disappeared from blood after 18 days post infection (dpi) and from excretions after 39 dpi. Antibodies were present from 7 dpi and never disappeared. Neonatally infected animals acquired a chronic infection with RNA and antibodies in blood for at least 3 months. The quantified excretion and antibody patterns can be used to inform mathematical transmission models, and are essential for understanding and controlling transmission in the natural rodent host populations. PMID:26022445

  8. Upregulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecules characterizes veins close to granulomatous infiltrates in the renal cortex of cats with feline infectious peritonitis and is indirectly triggered by feline infectious peritonitis virus-infected monocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Acar, Delphine D; Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Baetens, Wendy; Van Bockstael, Sebastiaan; De Gryse, Gaëtan M A; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2016-10-01

    One of the most characteristic pathological changes in cats that have succumbed to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a multifocal granulomatous phlebitis. Although it is now well established that leukocyte extravasation elicits the inflammation typically associated with FIP lesions, relatively few studies have aimed at elucidating this key pathogenic event. The upregulation of adhesion molecules on the endothelium is a prerequisite for stable leukocyte-endothelial cell (EC) adhesion that necessarily precedes leukocyte diapedesis. Therefore, the present work focused on the expression of the EC adhesion molecules and possible triggers of EC activation during the development of FIP. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the endothelial expression of P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) was elevated in veins close to granulomatous infiltrates in the renal cortex of FIP patients compared to non-infiltrated regions and specimens from healthy cats. Next, we showed that feline venous ECs become activated when exposed to supernatant from feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV)-infected monocytes, as indicated by increased adhesion molecule expression. Active viral replication seemed to be required to induce the EC-stimulating activity in monocytes. Finally, adhesion assays revealed an increased adhesion of naive monocytes to ECs treated with supernatant from FIPV-infected monocytes. Taken together, our results strongly indicate that FIPV activates ECs to increase monocyte adhesion by an indirect route, in which proinflammatory factors released from virus-infected monocytes act as key intermediates.

  9. Astrocytes as an HIV Reservoir: Mechanism of HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Guan-Han; Henderson, Lisa; Nath, Avindra

    2016-01-01

    If we have any hope of achieving a cure for HIV infection, close attention to the cell types capable of getting infected with HIV is necessary. Of these cell types, astrocytes are the most ideal cell type for the formation of such a reservoir. These are long-lived cells with a very low turnover rate and are found in the brain and the gastrointestinal tract. Although astrocytes are evidently resistant to infection of cell-free HIV in vitro, these cells are efficiently infected via cell-tocell contact by which immature HIV virions bud off lymphocytes and have the ability to directly bind to CXCR4, triggering the process of fusion in the absence of CD4. In this review, we closely examine the evidence for HIV infection of astrocytes in the brain and the mechanisms for viral entry and regulation in this cell type, and discuss an approach for controlling this viral reservoir.

  10. Complete genomic sequence analyses of the first group A giraffe rotavirus reveals close evolutionary relationship with rotaviruses infecting other members of the Artiodactyla.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Helen; Mulherin, Emily; Matthijnssens, Jelle; McCusker, Matthew P; Collins, P J; Cashman, Olivia; Gunn, Lynda; Beltman, Marijke E; Fanning, Séamus

    2014-05-14

    Group A Rotaviruses (RVA) have been established as significant contributory agents of acute gastroenteritis in young children and many animal species. In 2008, we described the first RVA strain detected in a giraffe calf (RVA/Giraffe-wt/IRL/GirRV/2008/G10P[11]), presenting with acute diarrhoea. Molecular characterisation of the VP7 and VP4 genes revealed the bovine-like genotypes G10 and P[11], respectively. To further investigate the origin of this giraffe RVA strain, the 9 remaining gene segments were sequenced and analysed, revealing the following genotype constellation: G10-P[11]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. This genotype constellation is very similar to RVA strains isolated from cattle or other members of the artiodactyls. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the close relationship between GirRV and RVA strains with a bovine-like genotype constellation detected from several host species, including humans. These results suggest that RVA strain GirRV was the result of an interspecies transmission from a bovine host to the giraffe calf. However, we cannot rule out completely that this bovine-like RVA genotype constellation may be enzootic in giraffes. Future RVA surveillance in giraffes may answer this intriguing question. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Latent Infection Treatment in Indigenous Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yuhara, Lucia Suemi; Sacchi, Flávia Patussi Correia; Croda, Julio

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to identify risk factors associated with latent tuberculosis (TB), examine the development of active disease among contacts, and assess the effectiveness of treating latent infection in indigenous Brazilians from January 2006 to December 2011. This was a retrospective study consisting of 1,371 tuberculosis contacts, 392 of whom underwent treatment for latent infection. Morbidity-from-TB data were obtained from the Information System for Disease Notification (SINAN) database, and the contacts’ data were collected from the clinical records using forms employed by Special Department of Indigenous Health (SESAI) multidisciplinary teams, according to SESAI’s instructions. The variables that were associated with latent infection among the contacts were age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.04) and close contact with a smear-positive index case (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.59–3.22). The variables associated with the development of active TB among the contacts were a tuberculin skin test (TST) ≥10 mm (relative risk [RR]: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.07–1.17), age (RR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.03), and treatment of latent infection (RR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01–0.27). The estimated number of latent infection treatments needed to prevent one case of active TB among the contacts was 51 treatments (95% CI: 33–182). In contacts with TST ≥10 mm, 10 (95% CI: 6–19) latent infection treatments were necessary to prevent one case of active TB. Age and close contact with a smear-positive index case were associated with latent TB. Screening with TST is a high priority among individuals contacting smear-positive index cases. Age and TST are associated with the development of active TB among contacts, and treatment of latent infection is an effective measure to control TB in indigenous communities. PMID:23936264

  12. Contact and contagion: Probability of transmission given contact varies with demographic state in bighorn sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manlove, Kezia R.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Plowright, Raina K.; Cross, Paul C.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding both contact and probability of transmission given contact are key to managing wildlife disease. However, wildlife disease research tends to focus on contact heterogeneity, in part because the probability of transmission given contact is notoriously difficult to measure. Here, we present a first step towards empirically investigating the probability of transmission given contact in free-ranging wildlife.We used measured contact networks to test whether bighorn sheep demographic states vary systematically in infectiousness or susceptibility to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, an agent responsible for bighorn sheep pneumonia.We built covariates using contact network metrics, demographic information and infection status, and used logistic regression to relate those covariates to lamb survival. The covariate set contained degree, a classic network metric describing node centrality, but also included covariates breaking the network metrics into subsets that differentiated between contacts with yearlings, ewes with lambs, and ewes without lambs, and animals with and without active infections.Yearlings, ewes with lambs, and ewes without lambs showed similar group membership patterns, but direct interactions involving touch occurred at a rate two orders of magnitude higher between lambs and reproductive ewes than between any classes of adults or yearlings, and one order of magnitude higher than direct interactions between multiple lambs.Although yearlings and non-reproductive bighorn ewes regularly carried M. ovipneumoniae, our models suggest that a contact with an infected reproductive ewe had approximately five times the odds of producing a lamb mortality event of an identical contact with an infected dry ewe or yearling. Consequently, management actions targeting infected animals might lead to unnecessary removal of young animals that carry pathogens but rarely transmit.This analysis demonstrates a simple logistic regression approach for testing

  13. Contact and contagion: Bighorn sheep demographic states vary in probability of transmission given contact.

    PubMed

    Manlove, Kezia R; Cassirer, E Frances; Plowright, Raina K; Cross, Paul C; Hudson, Peter J

    2017-03-20

    1.Understanding both contact and probability of transmission given contact are key to managing wildlife disease. However, wildlife disease research tends to focus on contact heterogeneity, in part because probability of transmission given contact is notoriously difficult to measure. Here we present a first step toward empirically investigating probability of transmission given contact in free-ranging wildlife. 2.We used measured contact networks to test whether bighorn sheep demographic states vary systematically in infectiousness or susceptibility to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, an agent responsible for bighorn sheep pneumonia. 3.We built covariates using contact network metrics, demographic information, and infection status, and used logistic regression to relate those covariates to lamb survival. The covariate set contained degree, a classic network metric describing node centrality, but also included covariates breaking the network metrics into subsets that differentiated between contacts with yearlings, ewes with lambs, and ewes without lambs, and animals with and without active infections. 4.Yearlings, ewes with lambs, and ewes without lambs showed similar group membership patterns, but direct interactions involving touch occurred at a rate two orders of magnitude higher between lambs and reproductive ewes than between any classes of adults or yearlings, and one order of magnitude higher than direct interactions between lambs. 5.Although yearlings and non-reproductive bighorn ewes regularly carried Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, our models suggest that a contact with an infected reproductive ewe had approximately five times the odds of producing a lamb mortality event of an identical contact with an infected dry ewe or yearling. Consequently, management actions targeting infected animals might lead to unnecessary removal of young animals who carry pathogens but rarely transmit. 6.This analysis demonstrates a simple logistic regression approach for testing a priori

  14. Imported Lassa fever in Germany: surveillance and management of contact persons.

    PubMed

    Haas, Walter H; Breuer, Thomas; Pfaff, Günter; Schmitz, Herbert; Köhler, Päivi; Asper, Marcel; Emmerich, Petra; Drosten, Christian; Gölnitz, Uta; Fleischer, Klaus; Günther, Stephan

    2003-05-15

    This study sought to assess the risk of secondary transmission after import of Lassa fever into Europe. A total of 232 persons exposed to a case of Lassa fever imported into Germany were identified. The level of exposure was determined for 157 persons (68%), and 149 (64%) were tested serologically. High-risk or close contact was reported by 30 (19%) of 157 persons. No symptomatic secondary infections were observed. However, Lassa virus-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies were detected in a serum sample obtained from a physician who examined the index patient on day 9 of illness. The physician received ribavirin prophylaxis and did not develop symptoms of Lassa fever. On the basis of these data, the contact was classified as having a probable secondary infection. The study indicates a low risk of transmission during the initial phase of symptomatic Lassa fever, even with high-risk exposures. The risk may increase with progression of disease and increasing virus load.

  15. Biocidal textiles can help fight nosocomial infections.

    PubMed

    Borkow, Gadi; Gabbay, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    The rates of nosocomial infections, especially by those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, are increasing alarmingly over the globe. Although more rigorous infection control measures are being implemented, it is clear that the current modalities to reduce nosocomial infections are not sufficient. Textiles are an excellent substrate for bacterial growth under appropriate moisture and temperature conditions. Patients shed bacteria and contaminate their pyjamas and sheets. The temperature and humidity between the patients and the bed are appropriate conditions allowing for effective bacterial proliferation. Several studies have found that personnel in contact with contaminated textiles were the source of transmission of the micro-organisms to susceptible patients. Furthermore, it has been reported that bed making in hospitals releases large quantities of micro-organisms into the air, which contaminate the immediate and non-immediate surroundings. Contaminated textiles in hospitals can thus be an important source of microbes contributing to endogenous, indirect-contact, and aerosol transmission of nosocomial related pathogens. We hypothesize that the use of antimicrobial textiles, especially in those textiles that are in close contact with the patients, may significantly reduce bioburden in clinical settings and consequently reduce the risk of nosocomial infections. These textiles should possess broad spectrum biocidal properties. They should be safe for use and highly effective against antibiotic resistant micro-organisms, including those that are commonly involved in hospital-acquired infections, and they should not permit the development of resistant micro-organisms to the active compound.

  16. Skin and soft tissue infections in the military.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Lucy; Morgan, M

    2013-09-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are common in military populations regularly living and training in close contact with each other. The majority of such infections are simple and can be easily treated with antibiotics and appropriate infection control practices. Some, however, can progress to become complex and even life threatening, such as Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-associated staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, or Streptococcus pyogenes necrotising fasciitis, which carry a mortality rate of up to 65% and 30%, respectively. This review focuses on the most important SSTIs and those more commonly affecting military personnel with advice on how they are best managed.

  17. Contact Dermatitis for the Practicing Allergist.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of important practice recommendations from the recently updated Contact Dermatitis Practice Parameter. This updated parameter provides essential recommendations pertaining to clinical history, physical examination, and patch testing evaluation of patients suspected of allergic contact dermatitis. In addition to providing guidance for performing and interpreting closed patch testing, the updated parameter provides concrete recommendations for assessing metal hypersensitivity in patients receiving prosthetic devices, for evaluating workers with occupational contact dermatitis, and also for addressing allergic contact dermatitis in children. Finally, the document provides practical recommendations useful for educating patients regarding avoidance of exposure to known contact sensitizers in the home and at work. The Contact Dermatitis Parameter is designed as a practical, evidence-based clinical tool to be used by allergists and dermatologists who routinely are called upon to evaluate patients with skin disorders.

  18. Metal-nanocarbon contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhite, Patrick; Vyas, Anshul A.; Tan, Jason; Tan, Jasper; Yamada, Toshishige; Wang, Phillip; Park, Jeongwon; Yang, Cary Y.

    2014-05-01

    To realize nanocarbons in general and carbon nanotube (CNT) in particular as on-chip interconnect materials, the contact resistance stemming from the metal-CNT interface must be well understood and minimized. Understanding the complex mechanisms at the interface can lead to effective contact resistance reduction. In this study, we compile existing published results and understanding for two metal-CNT contact geometries, sidewall or side contact and end contact, and address key performance characteristics which lead to low contact resistance. Side contacts typically result in contact resistances >1 kΩ, whereas end contacts, such as that for as-grown vertically aligned CNTs on a metal underlayer, can be substantially lower. The lower contact resistance for the latter is due largely to strong bonding between edge carbon atoms with atoms on the metal surface, while carrier transport across a side-contacted interface via tunneling is generally associated with high contact resistance. Analyses of high-resolution images of interface nanostructures for various metal-CNT structures, along with their measured electrical characteristics, provide the necessary knowledge for continuous improvements of techniques to reduce contact resistance. Such contact engineering approach is described for both side and end-contacted structures.

  19. The effect of contact precautions on hand hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Franca, Sátiro Ribeiro; Marra, Alexandre R; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta; Pavão dos Santos, Oscar Fernando; Teodoro Ramos, Júlio Cesar; Edmond, Michael B

    2013-06-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the most important interventions to prevent health care-associated infections. We compared hand hygiene compliance among health care workers when patients were in contact precautions to compliance when patients were not in contact precautions. Our study failed to show differences in adherence to hand hygiene practices in the care of contact isolation versus noncontact isolation patients.

  20. Anti-Mastigina activities of eight contact lens solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Niszl, I A; Markus, M B; van Deventer, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of eight contact lens solutions on a Mastigina sp., which was associated with the infected eye of a patient, were studied. The solutions which killed the organism promptly were those which are used for gas-permeable and hard contact lenses. Some solutions for soft contact lenses were more effective than others. PMID:8619600

  1. The impact of contact patterns on epidemic dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Qiuju; Shi, Tianyu; Dong, Chao; Yan, Zhijun

    2017-01-01

    In social networks, individuals have relationships with their neighbor nodes (acquaintance contacts) and also randomly contact other nodes without direct links (stranger contacts). However, these two types of contact patterns are rarely considered together. In this paper, we propose a modified SIS (Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible) model in which a node not only contacts neighbor nodes but also randomly contacts other nodes in the network. We implement the model on a scale-free network and study the influence of different types of contact patterns on epidemic dynamics as well as three possible strategies people adopt when disease outbreaks. The results show that a greater preference for acquaintance contacts makes a disease outbreak less likely. Moreover, the best protective strategy to control the disease is to adjust both the contact number and the contact pattern. In addition, the epidemic is more likely to be controlled when individuals take more information into consideration. PMID:28291800

  2. The impact of contact patterns on epidemic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qiuju; Shi, Tianyu; Dong, Chao; Yan, Zhijun

    2017-01-01

    In social networks, individuals have relationships with their neighbor nodes (acquaintance contacts) and also randomly contact other nodes without direct links (stranger contacts). However, these two types of contact patterns are rarely considered together. In this paper, we propose a modified SIS (Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible) model in which a node not only contacts neighbor nodes but also randomly contacts other nodes in the network. We implement the model on a scale-free network and study the influence of different types of contact patterns on epidemic dynamics as well as three possible strategies people adopt when disease outbreaks. The results show that a greater preference for acquaintance contacts makes a disease outbreak less likely. Moreover, the best protective strategy to control the disease is to adjust both the contact number and the contact pattern. In addition, the epidemic is more likely to be controlled when individuals take more information into consideration.

  3. Cryptosporidiosis associated with animal contacts.

    PubMed

    Stantic-Pavlinic, Mirjana; Xiao, Lihua; Glaberman, Scott; Lal, Altaf A; Orazen, Toni; Rataj-Verglez, Aleksandra; Logar, Jernej; Berce, Ingrid

    2003-02-28

    Transmission of Cryptosporidium sp. within the general public was studied. We were looking for a possible risk of infection associated with animal contacts. Investigation of the animal contacts of affected individuals led to the formulation of the hypothesis that animals are a source of cryptosporidiosis. The research was done in the Region of Ljubljana, an area with 587,000 inhabitants during a period of three years. Stool specimens of 338 persons with acute enteric diseases were positive for Cryptosporidium sp. Diagnosis was done with an immunofluorescence test and modified Ziel-Neelsen staining. Processing of statistical data was done with the medical software application EPI INFO 6. According to our questionnaire, direct contact with animals occurred in 49 of the 338 cases of cryptosporidiosis, and was more frequently registered in males (Odds ratio = 1.96). Subgenotyping analysis revealed the presence of two subgenotypes of Cryptosporidium parvum bovine (GPB and GPC) in humans. These data indicate that genetic heterogeneity in C. parvum bovine genotype exists in a localized area and that farm animals can be a source of infection.

  4. Contact lenses and the red eye.

    PubMed

    Millis, E

    1997-01-01

    Patients wearing contact lenses may present with a red eye which may be either of long-standing or of sudden onset. Causes of this redness range from those of a relatively minor nature to infection of such severity that it threatens the patient's sight. This paper describes the specific aspects of the history to be obtained and the examination to be undertaken in these cases. A comprehensive review is provided of the various causes of red eye in the contact lens wearer.

  5. Contact Lens Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... contact lenses to any water: tap, bottled, distilled, lake or ocean water. Never use non-sterile water ( ... from bacteria in swimming pool water, hot tubs, lakes and the ocean Replace your contact lens storage ...

  6. Contact Us about Asbestos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    How to contact EPA for more information on asbestos, including state and regional contacts, EPA’s Asbestos Abatement/Management Ombudsman and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Assistance Information Service (TSCA Hotline).

  7. Emergence of Persistent Infection due to Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Vidit; Moitra, Promit; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2017-02-01

    We explore the emergence of persistent infection in a closed region where the disease progression of the individuals is given by the SIRS model, with an individual becoming infected on contact with another infected individual. We investigate the persistence of contagion qualitatively and quantitatively, under increasing heterogeneity in the partitioning of the population into different disease compartments, as well as increasing heterogeneity in the phases of the disease among individuals within a compartment. We observe that when the initial population is uniform, consisting of individuals at the same stage of disease progression, infection arising from a contagious seed does not persist. However when the initial population consists of randomly distributed refractory and susceptible individuals, a single source of infection can lead to sustained infection in the population, as heterogeneity facilitates the de-synchronization of the phases in the disease cycle of the individuals. We also show how the average size of the window of persistence of infection depends on the degree of heterogeneity in the initial composition of the population. In particular, we show that the infection eventually dies out when the entire initial population is susceptible, while even a few susceptibles among an heterogeneous refractory population gives rise to a large persistent infected set.

  8. Emergence of Persistent Infection due to Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Vidit; Moitra, Promit; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2017-02-01

    We explore the emergence of persistent infection in a closed region where the disease progression of the individuals is given by the SIRS model, with an individual becoming infected on contact with another infected individual. We investigate the persistence of contagion qualitatively and quantitatively, under increasing heterogeneity in the partitioning of the population into different disease compartments, as well as increasing heterogeneity in the phases of the disease among individuals within a compartment. We observe that when the initial population is uniform, consisting of individuals at the same stage of disease progression, infection arising from a contagious seed does not persist. However when the initial population consists of randomly distributed refractory and susceptible individuals, a single source of infection can lead to sustained infection in the population, as heterogeneity facilitates the de-synchronization of the phases in the disease cycle of the individuals. We also show how the average size of the window of persistence of infection depends on the degree of heterogeneity in the initial composition of the population. In particular, we show that the infection eventually dies out when the entire initial population is susceptible, while even a few susceptibles among an heterogeneous refractory population gives rise to a large persistent infected set.

  9. Prevention of health care-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Vincent

    2014-09-15

    Health care-associated infections cause approximately 75,000 deaths annually, in addition to increasing morbidity and costs. Over the past decade, a downward trend in health care-associated infections has occurred nationwide. Basic prevention measures include administrative support, educating health care personnel, and hand hygiene and isolation precautions. Prevention of central line- or catheter-associated infections begins with avoidance of unnecessary insertion, adherence to aseptic technique when inserting, and device removal when no longer necessary. Specific recommendations for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections include use of chlorhexidine for skin preparation, as a component of dressings, and for daily bathing of patients in intensive care units. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common device-related health care-associated infection. Maintaining a closed drainage system below the patient reduces the risk of infection. To prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is associated with high mortality, mechanically ventilated patients should be placed in the semirecumbent position and receive antiseptic oral care. Prevention of surgical site infections includes hair removal using clippers, glucose control, and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Reducing transmission of Clostridium difficile and multidrug-resistant organisms in the hospital setting begins with hand hygiene and contact precautions. Institutional efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing are also strongly recommended. Reducing rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection can be achieved through active surveillance cultures and decolonization therapy with mupirocin.

  10. Emergence of Persistent Infection due to Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vidit; Moitra, Promit; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2017-01-01

    We explore the emergence of persistent infection in a closed region where the disease progression of the individuals is given by the SIRS model, with an individual becoming infected on contact with another infected individual. We investigate the persistence of contagion qualitatively and quantitatively, under increasing heterogeneity in the partitioning of the population into different disease compartments, as well as increasing heterogeneity in the phases of the disease among individuals within a compartment. We observe that when the initial population is uniform, consisting of individuals at the same stage of disease progression, infection arising from a contagious seed does not persist. However when the initial population consists of randomly distributed refractory and susceptible individuals, a single source of infection can lead to sustained infection in the population, as heterogeneity facilitates the de-synchronization of the phases in the disease cycle of the individuals. We also show how the average size of the window of persistence of infection depends on the degree of heterogeneity in the initial composition of the population. In particular, we show that the infection eventually dies out when the entire initial population is susceptible, while even a few susceptibles among an heterogeneous refractory population gives rise to a large persistent infected set. PMID:28145522

  11. Glasses and Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Glasses and Contact Lenses KidsHealth > For Kids > Glasses and Contact Lenses Print A A A What's in this ... together the way they should. But eyeglasses or contact lenses, also called corrective lenses, can help most ...

  12. Contact Lenses on Submarines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    NAVAL SUBMARINE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY SUBMARINE BASE, GROTON, CONN. REPORT NUMBER 1048 CONTACT LENSES ON SUBMARINES... CONTACT LENSES ON SUBMARINES by James F. Socks, CDR, MSC, USN NAVAL SUBMARINE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY REPORT NUMBER 1048 NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH...DRSCHLAB Approved for public release; distribution unlimited SUMMARY PAGE PROBLEM To determine the feasibility of wearing contact lenses aboard

  13. Interfacial closure of contacting surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieutord, F.; Rauer, C.; Moriceau, H.

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the contact between solid surfaces is a long-standing problem which has a strong impact on the physics of many processes such as adhesion, friction, lubrication and wear. Experimentally, the investigation of solid/solid interfaces remains challenging today, due to the lack of experimental techniques able to provide sub-nanometer scale information on interfaces buried between millimeters of materials. Yet, a strong interest exists improving the modeling of contact mechanics of materials in order to adjust their interface properties (e.g., thermal transport, friction). We show here that the essential features of the residual gap between contacting surfaces can be measured using high energy X-ray synchrotron reflectivity. The presence of this nano-gap is general to the contact of solids. In some special case however, it can be removed when attractive forces take over repulsive contributions, depending on both height and wavelength of asperity distributions (roughness). A criterion for this instability is established in the standard case of van der Waals attractive forces and elastic asperity compression repulsive forces (Hertz model). This collapse instability is confirmed experimentally in the case of silicon direct bonding, using high-energy X-ray synchrotron reflectivity and adhesion energy measurements. The possibility to achieve fully closed interfaces at room temperature opens interesting perspectives to build stronger assemblies with smaller thermal budgets.

  14. Atopic and Contact Dermatitis of the Vulva.

    PubMed

    Pichardo-Geisinger, Rita

    2017-09-01

    Pruritus, or itch, is a common vulvar complaint that is often treated empirically as a yeast infection; however, yeast infections are just one of the many conditions that can cause vulvar itch. Ignoring other conditions can prolong pruritus unnecessarily. Atopic dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis are extremely common noninfectious causes of vulvar itch that are often underdiagnosed by nondermatologists. Identifying these conditions and treating them appropriately can significantly improve a patient's quality of life and appropriately decrease health care expenditures by preventing unnecessary additional referrals or follow-up visits and decreasing pharmaceutical costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Contact lens in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL. PMID:23925325

  16. Direct-Write Contacts: Metallization and Contact Formation; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Curtis, C. J.; Miedaner, A.; Pasquarelli, R. M.; Kaydonova, T.; Hersh, P.; Ginley, D. S.

    2008-05-01

    Using direct-write approaches in photovoltaics for metallization and contact formation can significantly reduce the cost per watt of producing photovoltaic devices. Inks have been developed for various materials, such as Ag, Cu, Ni and Al, which can be used to inkjet print metallizations for various kinds of photovoltaic devices. Use of these inks results in metallization with resistivities close to those of bulk materials. By means of inkjet printing a metallization grid can be printed with better resolution, i.e. smaller lines, than screen-printing. Also inks have been developed to deposit transparent conductive oxide films by means of ultrasonic spraying.

  17. Six challenges in measuring contact networks for use in modelling.

    PubMed

    Eames, K; Bansal, S; Frost, S; Riley, S

    2015-03-01

    Contact networks are playing an increasingly important role in epidemiology. A contact network represents individuals in a host population as nodes and the interactions among them that may lead to the transmission of infection as edges. New avenues for data collection in recent years have afforded us the opportunity to collect individual- and population-scale information to empirically describe the patterns of contact within host populations. Here, we present some of the current challenges in measuring empirical contact networks. We address fundamental questions such as defining contact; measurement of non-trivial contact properties; practical issues of bounding measurement of contact networks in space, time and scope; exploiting proxy information about contacts; dealing with missing data. Finally, we consider the privacy and ethical issues surrounding the collection of contact network data.

  18. Contact tracing to control infectious disease: when enough is enough

    PubMed Central

    Brandeau, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Contact tracing (also known as partner notification) is a primary means of controlling infectious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, little work has been done to determine the optimal level of investment in contact tracing. In this paper, we present a methodology for evaluating the appropriate level of investment in contact tracing. We develop and apply a simulation model of contact tracing and the spread of an infectious disease among a network of individuals in order to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of different levels of contact tracing. We show that contact tracing is likely to have diminishing returns to scale in investment: incremental investments in contact tracing yield diminishing reductions in disease prevalence. In conjunction with a cost-effectiveness threshold, we then determine the optimal amount that should be invested in contact tracing. We first assume that the only incremental disease control is contact tracing. We then extend the analysis to consider the optimal allocation of a budget between contact tracing and screening for exogenous infection, and between contact tracing and screening for endogenous infection. We discuss how a simulation model of this type, appropriately tailored, could be used as a policy tool for determining the appropriate level of investment in contact tracing for a specific disease in a specific population. We present an example application to contact tracing for chlamydia control. PMID:18074967

  19. Quantifying social contacts in a household setting of rural Kenya using wearable proximity sensors.

    PubMed

    Kiti, Moses C; Tizzoni, Michele; Kinyanjui, Timothy M; Koech, Dorothy C; Munywoki, Patrick K; Meriac, Milosch; Cappa, Luca; Panisson, André; Barrat, Alain; Cattuto, Ciro; Nokes, D James

    2016-01-01

    Close proximity interactions between individuals influence how infections spread. Quantifying close contacts in developing world settings, where such data is sparse yet disease burden is high, can provide insights into the design of intervention strategies such as vaccination. Recent technological advances have enabled collection of time-resolved face-to-face human contact data using radio frequency proximity sensors. The acceptability and practicalities of using proximity devices within the developing country setting have not been investigated. We present and analyse data arising from a prospective study of 5 households in rural Kenya, followed through 3 consecutive days. Pre-study focus group discussions with key community groups were held. All residents of selected households carried wearable proximity sensors to collect data on their close (<1.5 metres) interactions. Data collection for residents of three of the 5 households was contemporaneous. Contact matrices and temporal networks for 75 individuals are defined and mixing patterns by age and time of day in household contacts determined. Our study demonstrates the stability of numbers and durations of contacts across days. The contact durations followed a broad distribution consistent with data from other settings. Contacts within households occur mainly among children and between children and adults, and are characterised by daily regular peaks in the morning, midday and evening. Inter-household contacts are between adults and more sporadic when measured over several days. Community feedback indicated privacy as a major concern especially regarding perceptions of non-participants, and that community acceptability required thorough explanation of study tools and procedures. Our results show for a low resource setting how wearable proximity sensors can be used to objectively collect high-resolution temporal data without direct supervision. The methodology appears acceptable in this population following

  20. Contact regrowth technique for low-resistance nonalloyed contacts to the hot-electron transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, C. K.; Chen, J.; Morkoc, H.

    1988-01-01

    A novel contact regrowth technique for the formation of extremely low nonalloyed ohmic contacts is reported. The successful demonstration of this technique is reported on an InGaAs/InAlAs hot-electron transistor device. For the investigated InGaAs-based structure, the regrown contacting scheme reported includes an In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As layer, an InAs/GaAs strained-layer superlattice, and an InAs cap, all heavily doped n type with Si. A very low specific contact resistance of 1.8 x 10 to the -7th ohm sq cm to the base layer is obtained. The higher current densities achieved in the transistor characteristics are in close agreement with calculations, and a contact model is presented explaining the poor results of conventional nonalloyed contacts.

  1. Non-contact measurement of contact wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yaxing; Ye, Xuemei; Li, Zhongke; Yue, Kaiduan

    2008-12-01

    The overhead contact system is the power supply unit of the electric locomotive. This article is to introduce our newly developed method to measure the height and pull out value of the contact wire. A carema dolly which can move on railway is applied to bear the weight of the measure equipment; two linear CCD cameras are installed on the dolly symmetrically about the midline of two rails. While the dolly move along the railway, two CCD cameras grasp the image synchronously, and a computer real-time process the images, the height and pull out value can be calculate out from the images.

  2. What can we offer to 3 million MDRTB household contacts in 2016?

    PubMed

    Moore, David A J

    2016-04-01

    The diagnosis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in any individual is the beginning of a prolonged and difficult therapeutic journey. It also marks the moment from which to begin consideration of how to manage close contacts. Preventive therapy for drug-susceptible latent tuberculosis infection has been demonstrated to be effective at reducing the risk of future disease; the stakes are higher when considering prevention of MDR-TB because treatment of active disease is more prolonged and toxic and much less effective. This has encouraged exploration of the potential utility of preventive therapy, with second-line agents, in reducing future incident drug-resistant TB.Three clinical trials of preventive therapy for contacts of patients with MDR-TB are starting in 2015/16; results will not be available until at least 2020, so what should be offered to exposed contacts in the interim?A recent policy brief, arising from a global consultation meeting of international experts, recommended preventive therapy based upon very limited available observational data. However the many known unknowns associated with this approach, include the high proportion of index-contact pairs with discordant drug susceptibility profiles and (even if susceptibilities are shared) the lack of data supporting the use of the selected agents in the treatment of latent infection (rather than active disease).It is important to acknowledge that the alternative to offering preventive therapy is not doing nothing. On the contrary, identified contacts should be maintained under close, active surveillance for 24 months, enabling early detection of active disease in the small proportion amongst whom this may occur. Such patients should benefit from less extensive disease at diagnosis and early access to individualized therapeutic regimens with improved treatment outcomes. Moreover the vast majority of contacts that do not develop disease will benefit from avoidance of potentially toxic

  3. [Periorbital contact eczema].

    PubMed

    Worm, M; Sterry, W

    2005-11-01

    Periorbital contact eczema is most commonly the result of an allergic contact dermatitis whereas other eczematous skin diseases like atopic eczema or seborrheic eczema occur less frequently. Also, other diseases like autoimmune disorders or rosacea need to be considered. Allergic contact dermatitis is a T-cell-mediated immunological response towards ubiquitous contact allergens. Activated T-cells migrate through the vessels into the skin and produce several inflammatory mediators. Epicutaneous patch testing is an important tool for the diagnosis of contact allergy whereby the allergens are analysed in terms of their ability to induce eczematous skin reaction. Until now the short-term use of corticosteroids are is employed for the treatment of allergic contact eczema. Modern substances with an optimal therapeutic index should rather be used.

  4. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Soil-transmitted helminth infections Fact sheet Updated September 2017 Key facts Soil-transmitted helminth infections are caused by different species of parasitic ...

  5. Contact Relations with Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Gunther; Berghammer, Rudolf

    Using relation algebra, we generalize Aumann’s notion of a contact relation and that of a closure operation from powersets to general membership relations and their induced partial orders. We also investigate the relationship between contacts and closures in this general setting and use contacts to establish a one-to-one correspondence between the column space and the row space of a relation.

  6. Contact angle hysteresis explained.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2006-07-04

    A view of contact angle hysteresis from the perspectives of the three-phase contact line and of the kinetics of contact line motion is given. Arguments are made that advancing and receding are discrete events that have different activation energies. That hysteresis can be quantified as an activation energy by the changes in interfacial area is argued. That this is an appropriate way of viewing hysteresis is demonstrated with examples.

  7. HIV and gynaecological infections.

    PubMed

    Sebitloane, Mothshedisi H

    2005-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection primarily affects women during their reproductive years, and the co-existence of gynaecological infections is not surprising, given the fact that HIV is mainly acquired via heterosexual contact. Most gynaecological infections are themselves sexually acquired, and have the potential to increase the risk both of acquiring and transmitting the HI virus. As most sexually transmitted infections are asymptomatic, there is a need to improve methods of diagnosis and algorithms for early detection of sexually transmitted infections. HIV infection, however, particularly advanced disease, may alter the clinical presentation, course and response to conservative treatment for some of the sexually transmitted infections.

  8. Optical contact micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Steven D.

    2014-08-19

    Certain examples provide optical contact micrometers and methods of use. An example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable lenses to receive an object and immobilize the object in a position. The example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable mirrors positioned with respect to the pair of lenses to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses. The example optical contact micrometer includes a microscope to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses via the mirrors; and an interferometer to obtain one or more measurements of the object.

  9. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  10. Host contact and shedding patterns clarify variation in pathogen exposure and transmission in threatened tortoise Gopherus agassizii: implications for disease modelling and management.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Christina M; Nussear, Kenneth E; Esque, Todd C; Emblidge, Patrick G; Sah, Pratha; Bansal, Shweta; Hudson, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Most directly transmitted infections require some form of close contact between infectious and susceptible hosts to spread. Often disease models assume contacts are equal and use mean field estimates of transmission probability for all interactions with infectious hosts. Such methods may inaccurately describe transmission when interactions differ substantially in their ability to cause infection. Understanding this variation in transmission risk may be critical to properly model and manage some infectious diseases. In this study, we investigate how varying exposure and transmission may be key to understanding disease dynamics in the threatened desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii. We created heterogeneity in Mycoplasma agassizii exposure (the putative bacterial agent of a respiratory disease) by varying the duration of interactions between naturally infected and uninfected captive desert tortoises. Using qPCR, we identified new infections and compared models of transmission probability as a function of contact duration and pathogen load. We then examined the contact patterns of a wild tortoise population using proximity loggers to identify heterogeneity in contact duration. The top-ranked model predicting M. agassizii transmission included a dose term defined as the product of the number of days in proximity to an infected host and the infection level of that host. Models predicted low transmission probability for short interactions, unless the infectious host had a high load of M. agassizii: such hosts were predicted to transmit infection at higher rates with any amount of contact. We observed predominantly short-lived interactions in a free-ranging tortoise population and thus, expect transmission patterns in this population to vary considerably with the frequency and duration of high infection levels. Mean field models may misrepresent natural transmission patterns in this and other populations depending on the distribution of high-risk contact and shedding

  11. Social contacts, vaccination decisions and influenza in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ibuka, Yoko; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Sugawara, Tamie; Chapman, Gretchen B; Yamin, Dan; Atkins, Katherine E; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Galvani, Alison P

    2016-01-01

    Background Contact patterns and vaccination decisions are fundamental to transmission dynamics of infectious diseases. We report on age-specific contact patterns in Japan and their effect on influenza vaccination behaviour. Methods Japanese adults (N=3146) were surveyed in Spring 2011 to assess the number of their social contacts within a 24 h period, defined as face-to-face conversations within 2 m, and gain insight into their influenza-related behaviour. We analysed the duration and location of contacts according to age. Additionally, we analysed the probability of vaccination and influenza infection in relation to the number of contacts controlling for individual's characteristics. Results The mean and median reported numbers of daily contacts were 15.3 and 12.0, respectively. School-aged children and young adults reported the greatest number of daily contacts, and individuals had the most contacts with those in the same age group. The age-specific contact patterns were different between men and women, and differed between weekdays and weekends. Children had fewer contacts between the same age groups during weekends than during weekdays, due to reduced contacts at school. The probability of vaccination increased with the number of contacts, controlling for age and household size. Influenza infection among unvaccinated individuals was higher than for those vaccinated, and increased with the number of contacts. Conclusions Contact patterns in Japan are age and gender specific. These contact patterns, as well as their interplay with vaccination decisions and infection risks, can help inform the parameterisation of mathematical models of disease transmission and the design of public health policies, to control disease transmission. PMID:26424846

  12. Reversible temperature exchange upon thermal contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Eugene G.; Pshenichka, Paul F.

    2017-01-01

    According to a well-known principle of thermodynamics, the transfer of heat between two bodies is reversible when their temperatures are infinitesimally close. As we demonstrate, a little-known alternative exists: two bodies with temperatures different by an arbitrary amount can completely exchange their temperatures in a reversible way if split into infinitesimal parts that are brought into thermal contact sequentially.

  13. Experimental infection of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) with SAT-1 and SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Vosloo, W; Swanepoel, S P; Bauman, M; Botha, B; Esterhuysen, J J; Boshoff, C I; Keet, D F; Dekker, A

    2011-04-01

    The potential role of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in the epidemiology and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) SAT types was investigated by experimental infection and detection of virus in excretions using virus isolation on primary pig kidney cell cultures. In two experiments separated by a period of 24 months, groups of four animals were needle infected with a SAT-1 or SAT-2 virus, respectively and two in-contact controls were kept with each group. Viraemia was detected 3-9 days post-infection and virus isolated from mouth washes and faeces only occasionally up to day 13. The SAT-1 virus was transmitted to only one in-contact control animal, probably via saliva that contained virus from vesicles in the mouth of a needle-infected animal. None of the animals infected with the SAT-2 virus had any vesicles in the mouth, and there was no evidence of transmission to the in-contact controls. No virus was detected in probang samples for the duration of the experiments (60 days post-infection), indicating that persistent infection probably did not establish with either of these isolates. Giraffe most likely do not play an important role in FMD dissemination. Transmission of infection would possibly occur only during close contact with other animals when mouth vesicles are evident.

  14. Semiconductor ohmic contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawrylo, F. Z.; Kressel, H.

    1977-01-01

    Contact formed on p-type surface of semiconductor laser has several advantages: highly conductive degenerate region and narrow band gap provides surface for good metal-to-semiconductor contact; lattice parameter of GaAs is 5.6533 A; improved lattice match eases interface strain which reduces interface cracking of semiconductor material.

  15. Factor XII Contact Activation.

    PubMed

    Naudin, Clément; Burillo, Elena; Blankenberg, Stefan; Butler, Lynn; Renné, Thomas

    2017-03-27

    Contact activation is the surface-induced conversion of factor XII (FXII) zymogen to the serine protease FXIIa. Blood-circulating FXII binds to negatively charged surfaces and this contact to surfaces triggers a conformational change in the zymogen inducing autoactivation. Several surfaces that have the capacity for initiating FXII contact activation have been identified, including misfolded protein aggregates, collagen, nucleic acids, and platelet and microbial polyphosphate. Activated FXII initiates the proinflammatory kallikrein-kinin system and the intrinsic coagulation pathway, leading to formation of bradykinin and thrombin, respectively. FXII contact activation is well characterized in vitro and provides the mechanistic basis for the diagnostic clotting assay, activated partial thromboplastin time. However, only in the past decade has the critical role of FXII contact activation in pathological thrombosis been appreciated. While defective FXII contact activation provides thromboprotection, excess activation underlies the swelling disorder hereditary angioedema type III. This review provides an overview of the molecular basis of FXII contact activation and FXII contact activation-associated disease states.

  16. Effect of contact ratio on spur gear dynamic load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Chuen-Huei; Lin, Hsiang Hsi; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1992-01-01

    A computer simulation is presented which shows how the gear contact ratio affects the dynamic load on a spur gear transmission. The contact ratio can be affected by the tooth addendum, the pressure angle, the tooth size (diametral pitch), and the center distance. The analysis presented was performed using the NASA gear dynamics code, DANST. In the analysis, the contact ratio was varied over the range 1.20 to 2.40 by changing the length of the tooth addendum. In order to simplify the analysis, other parameters related to contact ratio were held constant. The contact ratio was found to have a significant influence on gear dynamics. Over a wide range of operating speeds, a contact ratio close to 2.0 minimized dynamic load. For low contact ratio gears (contact ratio less than 2.0), increasing the contact ratio reduced the gear dynamic load. For high contact ratio gears (contact ratio = or greater than 2.0), the selection of contact ratio should take into consideration the intended operating speeds. In general, high contact ratio gears minimized dynamic load better than low contact ratio gears.

  17. Effect of contact ratio on spur gear dynamic load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Chuen-Huei; Lin, Hsiang Hsi; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    A computer simulation is presented which shows how the gear contact ratio affects the dynamic load on a spur gear transmission. The contact ratio can be affected by the tooth addendum, the pressure angle, the tooth size (diametral pitch), and the center distance. The analysis presented was performed using the NASA gear dynamics code, DANST. In the analysis, the contact ratio was varied over the range 1.20 to 2.40 by changing the length of the tooth addendum. In order to simplify the analysis, other parameters related to contact ratio were held constant. The contact ratio was found to have a significant influence on gear dynamics. Over a wide range of operating speeds, a contact ratio close to 2.0 minimized dynamic load. For low contact ratio gears (contact ratio less than 2.0), increasing the contact ratio reduced the gear dynamic load. For high contact ratio gears (contact ratio = or greater than 2.0), the selection of contact ratio should take into consideration the intended operating speeds. In general, high contact ratio gears minimized dynamic load better than low contact ratio gears.

  18. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  19. Adhesive Tape and Intravascular-Catheter-Associated Infections

    PubMed Central

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Livesley, Nigel J

    1999-01-01

    Adhesive tape is placed in close contact with intravascular catheters for extended periods and could theoretically contribute to local infections. We found that 74% of specimens of tape collected in one hospital were colonized by pathogenic bacteria. However, only 5% of specimens had significant growth from an inner layer obtained by discarding the outside layer from each roll. We suggest that adhesive tape is a potential source of pathogenic bacteria and that discarding the outer layer from a partially used roll might be a simple method for reducing the risk of infection to patients. PMID:10354258

  20. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Pregnancy Myths and Tales E. Coli Food Safety for Your Family Salmonella Infections Why ... Important? Staying Healthy During Pregnancy Fevers Food Poisoning E. Coli Food Safety E. Coli Food Poisoning Contact Us ...

  1. Epidemic Contact Tracing via Communication Traces

    PubMed Central

    Farrahi, Katayoun; Emonet, Rémi; Cebrian, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction network, and they may provide a valuable tool for contact tracing. Motivated by this assumption, we propose a model for contact tracing, where an infection is spreading in the physical interpersonal network, which can never be fully recovered; and contact tracing is occurring in a communication network which acts as a proxy for the first. We apply this dual model to a dataset covering 72 students over a 9 month period, for which both the physical interactions as well as the mobile communication traces are known. Our results suggest that a wide range of contact tracing strategies may significantly reduce the final size of the epidemic, by mainly affecting its peak of incidence. However, we find that for low overlap between the face-to-face and communication interaction network, contact tracing is only efficient at the beginning of the outbreak, due to rapidly increasing costs as the epidemic evolves. Overall, contact tracing via mobile phone communication traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks. PMID:24787614

  2. Phylodynamics on local sexual contact networks.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, David A; Kouyos, Roger; Günthard, Huldrych F; Stadler, Tanja

    2017-03-01

    Phylodynamic models are widely used in infectious disease epidemiology to infer the dynamics and structure of pathogen populations. However, these models generally assume that individual hosts contact one another at random, ignoring the fact that many pathogens spread through highly structured contact networks. We present a new framework for phylodynamics on local contact networks based on pairwise epidemiological models that track the status of pairs of nodes in the network rather than just individuals. Shifting our focus from individuals to pairs leads naturally to coalescent models that describe how lineages move through networks and the rate at which lineages coalesce. These pairwise coalescent models not only consider how network structure directly shapes pathogen phylogenies, but also how the relationship between phylogenies and contact networks changes depending on epidemic dynamics and the fraction of infected hosts sampled. By considering pathogen phylogenies in a probabilistic framework, these coalescent models can also be used to estimate the statistical properties of contact networks directly from phylogenies using likelihood-based inference. We use this framework to explore how much information phylogenies retain about the underlying structure of contact networks and to infer the structure of a sexual contact network underlying a large HIV-1 sub-epidemic in Switzerland.

  3. Rolling circle amplification, a powerful tool for genetic and functional studies of complete hepatitis B virus genomes from low-level infections and for directly probing covalently closed circular DNA.

    PubMed

    Margeridon, Séverine; Carrouée-Durantel, Sandra; Chemin, Isabelle; Barraud, Luc; Zoulim, Fabien; Trépo, Christian; Kay, Alan

    2008-09-01

    Complete characterization of the biological properties of hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants requires the generation of full-length genomes. The aim of this study was to develop new tools for the efficient full-length genome amplification of virus from samples with low viral loads. Rolling circle amplification (RCA) was used to amplify full-length HBV genomes from both sera and liver biopsy samples from chronic HBV carriers. Serum-derived relaxed circular HBV DNA could be amplified only after completion and ligation of plus-strand DNA. Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) from liver biopsies could be amplified directly from as few as 13 copies, using RCA, followed by a full-length HBV PCR. Three serial liver biopsy samples were obtained from a lamivudine-resistant patient who cleared detectable serum HBV after adefovir dipivoxil was added to the lamivudine therapy and then seroconverted to anti-HBs. Only the genomes from the last biopsy specimen obtained after the emergence of lamivudine resistance contained the lamivudine resistance-associated mutations rtL180M and rtM204V ("rt" indicates reverse transcriptase domain). Defective genomes were also found in this biopsy sample. Genomes cloned from the liver biopsy specimens were transfected into HuH7 cells to study their replication competence and their susceptibility to lamivudine. RCA is a powerful tool for amplifying full-length HBV genomes and will be especially useful for the study of occult or inactive HBV infections and patients undergoing antiviral treatment. It can also be used to probe HBV cccDNA, the crucial intermediate in viral persistence and the archive of resistance mutations.

  4. The Danger of Using Tap Water with Contact Lenses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Acanthamoeba is a microbe that is very common in tap water. It has two forms: the trophozoite and the cyst. These trophozoites and cysts can stick to the surface of your contact lenses and then infect your eye.

  5. Social contact networks for the spread of pandemic influenza in children and teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Laura M; Glass, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Background Influenza is a viral infection that primarily spreads via fluid droplets from an infected person's coughs and sneezes to others nearby. Social contact networks and the way people interact within them are thus important to its spread. We developed a method to characterize the social contact network for the potential transmission of influenza and then applied the method to school aged children and teenagers. Methods Surveys were administered to students in an elementary, middle and high-school in the United States. The social contact network of a person was conceptualized as a set of groups to which they belong (e.g., households, classes, clubs) each composed of a sub-network of primary links representing the individuals within each group that they contact. The size of the group, number of primary links, time spent in the group, and level of contact along each primary link (near, talking, touching, or kissing) were characterized. Public activities done by groups venturing into the community where random contacts occur (e.g., friends viewing a movie) also were characterized. Results Students, groups and public activities were highly heterogeneous. Groups with high potential for the transmission of influenza were households, school classes, friends, and sports; households decreased and friends and sports increased in importance with grade level. Individual public activity events (such as dances) were also important but lost their importance when averaged over time. Random contacts, primarily in school passing periods, were numerous but had much lower transmission potential compared to those with primary links within groups. Students are highly assortative, interacting mainly within age class. A small number of individual students are identified as likely "super-spreaders". Conclusion High-school students may form the local transmission backbone of the next pandemic. Closing schools and keeping students at home during a pandemic would remove the transmission

  6. Contact precautions for preventing nosocomial transmission of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli - a point/counterpoint review.

    PubMed

    Tschudin-Sutter, Sarah; Lucet, Jean-Christophe; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Zahar, Jean Ralph; Harbarth, Stephan

    2017-04-03

    Contact precautions have been recommended for hospitalized patients colonized or infected with extendend-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. Despite such recommendations, a steady, worldwide increase of ESBL-E. coli has been reported. We discuss arguments in favor and against contact precautions for ESBL- E.coli-carriers.Healthcare settings with high ESBL-E.coli colonization pressure, extended hospital stay and close contact between vulnerable patients may serve as amplification platform further accelerating transmission. However, the evidence base for justifying the implementation of contact precautions for all ESBL-E.coli carriers remains weak.Until more high-level evidence is available, we support the attitude that hospitals and countries should carefully evaluate their decision on whether to implement contact precautions for ESBL-E.coli carriers. It is likely that a large majority of patients and wards do not need to rely on contact precautions for preventing nosocomial ESBL-E.coli transmission in non-epidemic settings, without harming patient-safety, providing sufficient compliance with standard precautions and ongoing surveillance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  8. 76 FR 64134 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... informs the public that an appeal of the closing of the Conception Junction, Missouri post office has been... Junction post office in Conception Junction, Missouri. The petition for review was filed by Richard L... Federal government holidays. Docket section personnel may be contacted via electronic mail at...

  9. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  10. Optical contacting of quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    The strength of the bond between optically contacted quartz surfaces was investigated. The Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) experiment to test the theories of general relativity requires extremely precise measurements. The quartz components of the instruments to make these measurements must be held together in a very stable unit. Optical contacting is suggested as a possible method of joining these components. The fundamental forces involved in optical contacting are reviewed and relates calculations of these forces to the results obtained in experiments.

  11. Variability of contact precaution policies in US emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Pallin, Daniel J; Camargo, Carlos A; Yokoe, Deborah S; Espinola, Janice A; Schuur, Jeremiah D

    2014-03-01

    Contact precautions policies in US emergency departments have not been studied. We surveyed a structured random sample and found wide variation; for example, 45% required contact precautions for stool incontinence or diarrhea, 84% for suspected Clostridium difficile, and 79% for suspected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Emergency medicine departments and organizations should enact policies.

  12. Risk for Tuberculosis Disease Among Contacts with Prior Positive Tuberculin Skin Test: A retrospective Cohort Study, New York City.

    PubMed

    Gounder, Prabhu P; Harris, Tiffany G; Anger, Holly; Trieu, Lisa; Meissner, Jeanne Sullivan; Cadwell, Betsy L; Shashkina, Elena; Ahuja, Shama D

    2015-06-01

    Patients with prior positive tuberculin skin test (TST) results may benefit from prophylaxis after repeat exposure to infectious tuberculosis (TB). To evaluate factors associated with active TB disease among persons with prior positive TST results named as contacts of persons with infectious TB. Population-based retrospective cohort study. A total of 2,933 contacts with prior positive TST results recently exposed to infectious TB identified in New York City's TB registry during the period from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 2003. Contacts developing active TB disease ≤ 4 years after exposure were identified and compared with those who did not, using Poisson regression analysis. Genotyping was performed on selected Mycobacterium tuberculosis-positive isolates. Among contacts with prior positive TST results, 39 (1.3 %) developed active TB disease ≤ 4 years after exposure (≤ 2 years: 34). Risk factors for contacts that were independently associated with TB were age < 5 years (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 19.48; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 7.15-53.09), household exposure (aPR = 2.60;CI = 1.30-5.21), exposure to infectious patients (i.e., cavities on chest radiograph, acid-fast bacilli on sputum smear; aPR = 1.9 3; CI = 1.01-3.71), and exposure to a U.S.-born index patient (aPR = 4.04; CI = 1.95-8.38). Receipt of more than 1 month of treatment for latent TB infection following the current contact investigation was found to be protective (aPR = 0.27; CI =  .08-0.93). Genotype results were concordant with the index patients among 14 of 15 contacts who developed active TB disease and had genotyping results available. Concordant genotype results and a high proportion of contacts developing active TB disease within 2 years of exposure indicate that those with prior positive TST results likely developed active TB disease from recent rather than remote infection. Healthcare providers should consider prophylaxis for contacts with prior TB infection

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis from falcarinol isolated from Schefflera arboricola.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L; Hammershøy, O; Boll, P M

    1986-02-01

    From the plant Schefflera arboricola, which has been reported to cause allergic contact dermatitis, we have isolated and determined the elicitor of allergic contact dermatitis as falcarinol, heptadeca-1,9(Z)-diene-4,6-diyne-3-ol. Three polyacetylenes closely related to falcarinol, namely falcarindiol, falcarinone and dehydrofalcarinone were tested simultaneously. Falcarinol, but not falcarindiol, falcarinone and dehydrofalcarinone, elicited allergic contact dermatitis in a 38-year-old female plant-nursery worker.

  14. SAM Technical Contacts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These technical contacts are available to help with questions regarding method deviations, modifications, sample problems or interferences, quality control requirements, the use of alternative methods, or the need to address analytes or sample types.

  15. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  16. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  17. Contact dermatitis complicating pinnaplasty.

    PubMed

    Singh-Ranger, G; Britto, J A; Sommerlad, B C

    2001-04-01

    Proflavine allergy is uncommon, occurring in approximately 6% of patients attending contact dermatitis clinics. Proflavine wool is used by many surgeons in the UK as a dressing that can be moulded to conform to the contours of a corrected prominent ear. It may have bacteriostatic properties. We present a case where contact dermatitis in response to proflavine developed after pinnaplasty. This caused diagnostic confusion, a lengthened hospital stay and an unsightly hypertrophic scar.

  18. The impact of contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, B.

    1986-10-01

    Scenarios of the impact on human society of radio contact with an extraterrestrial civilization are presented. Some believe that contact with advanced extraterrestrials would quickly devastate the human spirit, while others believe that these super-intelligent beings would show the inhabitants of the earth how to live in peace. It is proposed that the possible existence of extraterrestrial civilizations and the development of means of studying and communicating with them need to be considered.

  19. Contact air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Porth, R

    1999-05-01

    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  20. Lettuce contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Ankle Injury Management (AIM): design of a pragmatic multi-centre equivalence randomised controlled trial comparing Close Contact Casting (CCC) to Open surgical Reduction and Internal Fixation (ORIF) in the treatment of unstable ankle fractures in patients over 60 years.

    PubMed

    Willett, Keith; Keene, David J; Morgan, Lesley; Gray, Bridget; Handley, Robert; Chesser, Tim; Pallister, Ian; Tutton, Elizabeth; Knox, Christopher; Lall, Ranjit; Briggs, Andrew; Lamb, Sarah E

    2014-03-12

    Ankle fractures account for 9% of all fractures with a quarter of these occurring in adults over 60 years. The short term disability and long-term consequences of this injury can be considerable. Current opinion favours open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) over non-operative treatment (fracture manipulation and the application of a standard moulded cast) for older people. Both techniques are associated with complications but the limited published research indicates higher complication rates of fracture malunion (poor position at healing) with casting. The aim of this study is to compare ORIF with a modification of existing casting techniques, Close Contact Casting (CCC). We propose that CCC may offer an equivalent functional outcome to ORIF and avoid the risks associated with surgery. This study is a pragmatic multi-centre equivalence randomised controlled trial. 620 participants will be randomised to receive ORIF or CCC after sustaining an isolated displaced unstable ankle fracture. Participants will be recruited from a minimum of 20 National Health Service (NHS) acute hospitals throughout England and Wales. Participants will be aged over 60 years and be ambulatory prior to injury. Follow-up will be at six weeks and six months after randomisation. The primary outcome is the Olerud & Molander Ankle Score, a functional patient reported outcome measure, at 6 months. Follow-up will also include assessments of mobility, ankle range of movement, health related quality of life and complications. The six-month follow-up will be conducted face-to-face by an assessor blinded to the allocated intervention. A parallel economic evaluation will consider both a health service and a broader societal perspective including the individual and their family. In order to explore patient experience of their treatment and recovery, a purposive sample of 40 patients will also be interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule between 6-10 weeks post treatment. This

  2. Ankle Injury Management (AIM): design of a pragmatic multi-centre equivalence randomised controlled trial comparing Close Contact Casting (CCC) to Open surgical Reduction and Internal Fixation (ORIF) in the treatment of unstable ankle fractures in patients over 60 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ankle fractures account for 9% of all fractures with a quarter of these occurring in adults over 60 years. The short term disability and long-term consequences of this injury can be considerable. Current opinion favours open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) over non-operative treatment (fracture manipulation and the application of a standard moulded cast) for older people. Both techniques are associated with complications but the limited published research indicates higher complication rates of fracture malunion (poor position at healing) with casting. The aim of this study is to compare ORIF with a modification of existing casting techniques, Close Contact Casting (CCC). We propose that CCC may offer an equivalent functional outcome to ORIF and avoid the risks associated with surgery. Methods/Design This study is a pragmatic multi-centre equivalence randomised controlled trial. 620 participants will be randomised to receive ORIF or CCC after sustaining an isolated displaced unstable ankle fracture. Participants will be recruited from a minimum of 20 National Health Service (NHS) acute hospitals throughout England and Wales. Participants will be aged over 60 years and be ambulatory prior to injury. Follow-up will be at six weeks and six months after randomisation. The primary outcome is the Olerud & Molander Ankle Score, a functional patient reported outcome measure, at 6 months. Follow-up will also include assessments of mobility, ankle range of movement, health related quality of life and complications. The six-month follow-up will be conducted face-to-face by an assessor blinded to the allocated intervention. A parallel economic evaluation will consider both a health service and a broader societal perspective including the individual and their family. In order to explore patient experience of their treatment and recovery, a purposive sample of 40 patients will also be interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule between 6-10

  3. Risk Factors for Carbapenemase-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) Acquisition Among Contacts of Newly Diagnosed CP-CRE Patients.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Neiderman, Anat; Braun, Tali; Fallach, Noga; Schwartz, David; Carmeli, Yehuda; Schechner, Vered

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) are extremely drug-resistant pathogens. Screening of contacts of newly identified CP-CRE patients is an important step to limit further transmission. We aimed to determine the risk factors for CP-CRE acquisition among patients exposed to a CP-CRE index patient. METHODS A matched case-control study was performed in a tertiary care hospital in Israel. The study population was comprised of patients who underwent rectal screening for CP-CRE following close contact with a newly identified CP-CRE index patient. Cases were defined as positive tests for CP-CRE. For each case patient, 2 matched controls were randomly selected from the pool of contacts who tested negative for CP-CRE following exposure to the same index case. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS In total, 53 positive contacts were identified in 40 unique investigations (896 tests performed on 735 contacts) between October 6, 2008, and June 7, 2012. bla KPC was the only carbapenemase identified. In multivariate analysis, risk factors for CP-CRE acquisition among contacts were (1) contact with an index patient for ≥3 days (odds ratio [OR], 9.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-48.9), (2) mechanical ventilation (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4-11.9), and (3) carriage or infection with another multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO; OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.0-7.1). Among patients who received antibiotics, cephalosporins were associated with a lower risk of acquisition. CONCLUSIONS Patient characteristics (ventilation and carriage of another MDRO) as well as duration of contact are risk factors for CP-CRE acquisition among contacts. The role of cephalosporins requires further study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-7.

  4. Acanthamoeba, bacterial, and fungal contamination of contact lens storage cases.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, T B; Cursons, R T; Sherwan, J F; Rose, P R

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Microbial corneal infection is the most serious complication of contact lens wear. Contact lens cases are a recognised potential source of pathogens associated with corneal ulcers. METHODS--This survey established the incidence of protozoal, bacterial, and fungal contact lens case contamination in 101 asymptomatic daily wear cosmetic contact lens wearers from a domiciliary contact lens practice. RESULTS--Eighty two (81%) contact lens cases were found to be contaminated, with 19 (19%) sterile. Of all contact lens cases, 78 (77%) grew bacteria, 24 (24%) fungi, and 20 (20%) protozoa. Acanthamoeba spp were isolated from eight (8%) contact lens cases. Fifty six (55%) contact lens cases yielded mixed bacterial contamination. This is the first contact lens case survey in which hydrogen peroxide disinfection was the major method of contact lens disinfection (75% of subjects) and no home made saline was used. All the contaminating organisms were shown to possess the enzyme catalase that breaks down hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. The polymicrobial nature of the biofilms found in many contact lens cases is illustrated electron micrographically. CONCLUSION--Based on data from this and previous studies, the authors conclude with recommendations for contact lens wearers: (1) regular scrubbing of contact lens case interior to disrupt biofilms; (2) exposure of contact lens case to very hot water (> or = 70 degrees C) will kill Acanthamoeba contaminants; (3) allow contact lens case to air dry between uses; (4) if hydrogen peroxide disinfection is preferred, use a two step system; (5) replace contact lens case regularly. Images PMID:7626578

  5. Asymptomatic brucellosis infection in humans: implications for diagnosis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Q; Lu, Y; Yuan, X; Qiu, Y; Xu, J; Li, W; Ke, Y; Yu, Y; Huang, L; Wang, Y; Chen, Z

    2013-09-01

    Human brucellosis is mainly caused by contact with Brucella-infected animals and their secretions and carcasses. Individuals who are continuously in contact with animals are considered to be at a high risk but only some show symptoms and are diagnosed as cases of brucellosis. Here, we showed that asymptomatic brucellosis infections occur among humans. Asymptomatic infections mainly result from less frequent contact with Brucella and/or contact with low-virulence Brucella. In our study, patients with asymptomatic infection had low antibody titres and different contact patterns. Awareness of asymptomatic infection is important for early diagnosis of brucellosis and prevention of chronic infection.

  6. Follicular contact dermatitis revisited: A review emphasizing neomycin-associated follicular contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Follicular contact dermatitis clinically presents as individual papules that include a central hair follicle. Pathologic features involve the follicle and the surrounding dermis: spongiosis and vesicle formation of the follicular epithelium associated with perifollicular and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on follicular contact dermatitis and neomycin. Relevant papers were reviewed and the clinical and pathologic features, the associated chemicals (including a more detailed description of neomycin), the hypothesized pathogenesis, and the management of follicular contact dermatitis were described. Several agents-either as allergens or irritants-have been reported to elicit follicular contact dermatitis. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the selective involvement of the follicles in follicular contact dermatitis: patient allergenicity, characteristics of the agent, vehicle containing the agent, application of the agent, and external factors. The differential diagnosis of follicular contact dermatitis includes not only recurrent infundibulofolliculitis, but also drug eruption, mite infestation, viral infection, and dermatoses that affect hair follicles. The primary therapeutic intervention for follicular contact dermatitis is withdrawal of the causative agent; treatment with a topical corticosteroid preparation may also promote resolution of the dermatitis. In conclusion, follicular contact dermatitis may be secondary to allergens or irritants; topical antibiotics, including neomycin, may cause this condition. Several factors may account for the selective involvement of the hair follicle in this condition. Treatment of the dermatitis requires withdrawal of the associated topical agent; in addition, topical corticosteroids may be helpful to promote resolution of lesions. PMID:25516854

  7. DETAIL ELEVATION OF UPSTREAM PARAPET. NOTE THE CLOSED SPANDRELS WHERE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL ELEVATION OF UPSTREAM PARAPET. NOTE THE CLOSED SPANDRELS WHERE THE BEAM BEARINGS CONTACT THE SLENDER CONCRETE PIERS. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Waikele Canal Bridge and Highway Overpass, Farrington Highway and Waikele Stream, Waipahu, Honolulu County, HI

  8. A noise-resistant ADSA-PH algorithm for superhydrophobic surface's static contact angle evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z. N.

    2017-03-01

    The blur around the contact points significantly decreases the evaluated static contact angle for superhydrophobic surface which is clearly presented in the paper. To improve the accuracy in the evaluated static contact angle for superhydrophobic surface, an accurate static contact angle algorithm, namely ADSA-PH (axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile and height), is proposed. It discards the extracted drop edge points close to the contact points and makes use of the residual points and the drop height to determine the static contact angle. The contact angle errors caused by the blur close to the contact points are significantly reduced. The classical ADSA-P algorithm, the modified selected-plane method and the proposed algorithm are used to evaluate static contact angle. The results validate the proposed algorithm. The accuracy in the evaluated contact angle increases with increasing image resolution. To reduce the error caused by a limitation of image resolution, the minimum allowable image resolutions are presented.

  9. Non-local residue-residue contacts in proteins are more conserved than local ones.

    PubMed

    Noivirt-Brik, Orly; Hazan, Gershon; Unger, Ron; Ofran, Yanay

    2013-02-01

    Non-covalent residue-residue contacts drive the folding of proteins and stabilize them. They may be local-i.e. involve residues that are close in sequence, or non-local. It has been suggested that, in most proteins, local contacts drive protein folding by providing crucial constraints of the conformational space, thus allowing proteins to fold. We compared residues that are involved in local contacts to residues that are involved in non-local contacts and found that, in most proteins, residues in non-local contacts are significantly more conserved evolutionarily than residues in local contacts. Moreover, non-local contacts are more structurally conserved: a contact between positions that are distant in sequence is more likely to exist in many structural homologues compared with a contact between positions that are close in sequence. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of protein folding and may allow for better prediction of critical intra-chain contacts.

  10. The impact of contact angle on the biocompatibility of biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Kara L; Jones, Lyndon

    2010-06-01

    Biomaterials may be defined as artificial materials that can mimic, store, or come into close contact with living biological cells or fluids and are becoming increasingly popular in the medical, biomedical, optometric, dental, and pharmaceutical industries. Within the ophthalmic industry, the best example of a biomaterial is a contact lens, which is worn by approximately 125 million people worldwide. For biomaterials to be biocompatible, they cannot illicit any type of unfavorable response when exposed to the tissue they contact. A characteristic that significantly influences this response is that related to surface wettability, which is often determined by measuring the contact angle of the material. This article reviews the impact of contact angle on the biocompatibility of tissue engineering substrates, blood-contacting devices, dental implants, intraocular lenses, and contact lens materials.

  11. Electrical contacts to nanocrystalline diamond films studied at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, Naotaka; Kato, Yoshimine; Teii, Kungen

    2016-12-01

    Electrical contacts of Ni, NiSi, Cu, Au, Al, and Ti electrodes to an n-type nanocrystalline diamond film are studied at temperatures between room temperature and 500 °C in a vacuum by the transmission line measurement. Direct current-voltage characteristics measured between pairs of electrodes on the film show almost straight lines, typical of ohmic contacts, for all kinds of electrode materials. The measured series resistance is divided into resistance of the film, resistance of the electrode, and the contact resistance between the electrode and film. The Ni electrode has the lowest contact resistance, which decreases from about 380 to 200 mΩ cm2 with temperature. The contact resistance accounts for a large portion of the total resistance at low temperatures. The results confirm that the contact resistance has a close relation with the work function of electrodes such that the larger the work function, the lower the contact resistance.

  12. Joint Contact Stress

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Richard A

    2005-01-01

    A joint's normal mechanical history contributes to the maintenance of articular cartilage and underlying bone. Loading facilitates the flow of nutrients into cartilage and waste products away, and additionally provides the mechanical signals essential for normal cell and tissue maintenance. Deleteriously low or high contact stresses have been presumed to result in joint deterioration, and particular aspects of the mechanical environment may facilitate repair of damaged cartilage. For decades, investigators have explored static joint contact stresses (under some more or less arbitrary condition) as a surrogate of the relevant mechanical history. Contact stresses have been estimated in vitro in many joints and in a number of species, although only rarely in vivo. Despite a number of widely varying techniques (and spatial resolutions) to measure these contact stresses, reported ranges of static peak normal stresses are relatively similar from joint to joint across species, and in the range of 0.5 to 5.0 MPa. This suggests vertebrate diarthrodial joints have evolved to achieve similar mechanical design criteria. Available evidence also suggests some disorders of cartilage deterioration are associated with somewhat higher peak pressures ranging from 1-20 MPa, but overlapping the range of normal pressures. Some evidence and considerable logic suggests static contact stresses per se do not predict cartilage responses, but rather temporal aspects of the contact stress history. Static contact stresses may therefore not be a reasonable surrogate for biomechanical studies. Rather, temporal and spatial aspects of the loading history undoubtedly induce beneficial and deleterious biological responses. Finally, since all articular cartilage experiences similar stresses, the concept of a "weight-bearing" versus a "non-weight-bearing" joint seems flawed, and should be abandoned. PMID:16089079

  13. Contact dermatitis from a prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Carla A; Gaspari, Anthony; Goldner, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Patients wearing a prosthesis face a wide variety of medical problems. Skin complications have long been recognized, but their prevalence is still unknown. The most frequently reported disorders are allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), acroangiodermatitis, epidermoid cysts, epidermal hyperplasia, follicular hyperkeratosis, verrucous hyperplasia, bullous diseases, hyperhidrosis, infections, malignancies, and ulcerations. Contact dermatitis represents one-third of the dermatoses in amputees wearing prostheses. All patients who are suspected of having ACD should be patch tested with standard allergen series as well as materials from the patient's own prosthesis, topical medicaments, moisturizers, and cosmetics. We report a patient with an ACD to mixed dialkyl thiourea present in the rubber parts of his below-the-knee prosthesis. Thiourea derivates are used as accelerators in the manufacture of chloroprene rubber and as fixatives in photography and photocopy paper. Allergy to thiourea is relatively uncommon; different studies have shown a prevalence of 0.7% up to 2.4% in patch-tested patients. Thiourea derivates are often the allergic sources in ACD involving high-grade rubber products made of neoprene such as diving suits, protective goggles, knee braces, and continuous positive airway pressure masks. They are also present in the rubber material of prostheses, as in the case of our patient.

  14. Contact Interface Verification for DYNA3D Scenario 1: Basic Contact

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, L D

    2006-05-10

    A suite of test problems has been developed to examine contact behavior within the nonlinear, three-dimensional, explicit finite element analysis (FEA) code DYNA3D (Lin, 2005). The test problems address the basic functionality of the contact algorithms, including the behavior of various kinematic, penalty, and Lagrangian enforcement formulations. The results from the DYNA3D analyses are compared to closed form solutions to verify the contact behavior. This work was performed as part of the Verification and Validation efforts of LLNL W Program within the NNSA's Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program. DYNA3D models the transient dynamic response of solids and structures including the interactions between disjoint bodies (parts). A wide variety of contact surfaces are available to represent the diverse interactions possible during an analysis, including relative motion (sliding), separation and gap closure (voids), and fixed relative position (tied). The problem geometry may be defined using a combination of element formulations, including one-dimensional beam and truss elements, two-dimensional shell elements, and three-dimensional solid elements. Consequently, it is necessary to consider various element interactions for each contact algorithm being verified. Most of the contact algorithms currently available in DYNA3D are examined; the exceptions are the Type 4--Single Surface Contact and Type 11--SAND algorithms. It is likely that these algorithms will be removed since their functionality is embodied in other, more robust, contact algorithms. The automatic contact algorithm is evaluated using the Type 12 interface. Two other variations of automatic contact, Type 13 and Type 14, offer additional means to adapt the interface domain, but share the same search and restoration algorithms as Type 12. The contact algorithms are summarized in Table 1. This report and associated test problems examine the scenario where one contact surface exists between two

  15. The contact caveat: negative contact predicts increased prejudice more than positive contact predicts reduced prejudice.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Fiona Kate; Paolini, Stefania; Pedersen, Anne; Hornsey, Matthew J; Radke, Helena R M; Harwood, Jake; Rubin, Mark; Sibley, Chris G

    2012-12-01

    Contact researchers have largely overlooked the potential for negative intergroup contact to increase prejudice. In Study 1, we tested the interaction between contact quantity and valence on prejudice toward Black Australians (n = 1,476), Muslim Australians (n = 173), and asylum seekers (n = 293). In all cases, the association between contact quantity and prejudice was moderated by its valence, with negative contact emerging as a stronger and more consistent predictor than positive contact. In Study 2, White Americans (n = 441) indicated how much positive and negative contact they had with Black Americans on separate measures. Although both quantity of positive and negative contact predicted racism and avoidance, negative contact was the stronger predictor. Furthermore, negative (but not positive) contact independently predicted suspicion about Barack Obama's birthplace. These results extend the contact hypothesis by issuing an important caveat: Negative contact may be more strongly associated with increased racism and discrimination than positive contact is with its reduction.

  16. Contact precautions and hand hygiene in veterinary clinics.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Maureen E C

    2015-03-01

    Hand hygiene, contact precautions, and other basic infection control measures are crucial in veterinary clinics, because these facilities can be community mixing pots of animals and people with a wide range of health and disease-carrier states. Veterinary staff must be knowledgeable and well trained regarding when and how to apply situation-appropriate contact precautions and to properly perform hand hygiene. The limited information on the use of contact precautions and hand hygiene practices among veterinary staff suggests that compliance is low. Improving the infection control culture in clinics and in veterinary medicine is critical to achieving better compliance with these practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiology of cases of H5N1 virus infection in Indonesia, July 2005-June 2006.

    PubMed

    Sedyaningsih, Endang R; Isfandari, Siti; Setiawaty, Vivi; Rifati, Lutfah; Harun, Syahrial; Purba, Wilfred; Imari, Sholah; Giriputra, Sardikin; Blair, Patrick J; Putnam, Shannon D; Uyeki, Timothy M; Soendoro, Triono

    2007-08-15

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus was detected in domestic poultry in Indonesia beginning in 2003 and is now widespread among backyard poultry flocks in many provinces. The first human case of H5N1 virus infection in Indonesia was identified in July 2005. Respiratory specimens were collected from persons with suspected H5N1 virus infection and were tested by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and viral culture. Serum samples were tested by a modified hemagglutinin inhibition antibody and/or microneutralization assay. Epidemiological, laboratory, and clinical data were collected through interviews and medical records review. Close contacts of persons with confirmed H5N1 virus infection were investigated. From July 2005 through June 2006, 54 cases of H5N1 virus infection were identified, with a case-fatality proportion of 76%. The median age was 18.5 years, and 57.4% of patients were male. More than one-third of cases occurred in 7 clusters of blood-related family members. Seventy-six percent of cases were associated with poultry contact, and the source of H5N1 virus infection was not identified in 24% of cases. Sporadic and family clusters of cases of H5N1 virus infection, with a high case-fatality proportion, occurred throughout Indonesia during 2005-2006. Extensive efforts are needed to reduce human contact with sick and dead poultry to prevent additional cases of H5N1 virus infection.

  18. Relaxation damping in oscillating contacts

    PubMed Central

    Popov, M.; Popov, V.L.; Pohrt, R.

    2015-01-01

    If a contact of two purely elastic bodies with no sliding (infinite coefficient of friction) is subjected to superimposed oscillations in the normal and tangential directions, then a specific damping appears, that is not dependent on friction or dissipation in the material. We call this effect “relaxation damping”. The rate of energy dissipation due to relaxation damping is calculated in a closed analytic form for arbitrary axially-symmetric contacts. In the case of equal frequency of normal and tangential oscillations, the dissipated energy per cycle is proportional to the square of the amplitude of tangential oscillation and to the absolute value of the amplitude of normal oscillation, and is dependent on the phase shift between both oscillations. In the case of low frequency tangential oscillations with superimposed high frequency normal oscillations, the dissipation is proportional to the ratio of the frequencies. Generalization of the results for macroscopically planar, randomly rough surfaces as well as for the case of finite friction is discussed. PMID:26549011

  19. [Contact dermatitis with Hirudo medicinalis].

    PubMed

    Blaise, S; Le Brun, V; Sparsa, A; Delrous, J-L; Bonnetblanc, J-M

    2002-12-01

    Hirudine is the first natural anti-coagulant ever described. It is used for its anti-coagulant properties in plastic surgery or for the treatment of post-phlebitic diseases. Natural hirudine is extracted from the saliva of the Hirudo medicinalis leech, but it can also be found in crushed leech and included in a cream (Hirucrème). Side effects to hirudine are considered to be rare. We report a contact eczema caused by an extract from the medicinal Hirudo medicinalis leech. This was confirmed by the patch tests. However, we noticed a negativity of these tests with two analogs of the recombinant hirudine. Several cases of contact dermatitis with Hirucreme have been described. The analogs of recombinant hirudine, which share similar biological activity, have a very close molecular structure. They are indicated via the systemic route for thrombopenia related to heparin for the prevention of severe thromboses. The negative patch tests does not allow definite conclusion, but they prove that these molecules do not always lead to cross-allergies.

  20. Solar cell contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, D. L.; Campbell, R. B.; Davis, J. R., Jr.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Sienkiewicz, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    Two experimental contact systems were examined and compared to a baseline contact system consisting of evaporated layers of titanium, palladium, and silver and an electroplated layer of copper. The first experimental contact system consisted of evaporated layers of titanium, nickel, and copper and an electroplated layer of copper. This system performed as well as the baseline system in all respects, including its response to temperature stress tests, to a humidity test, and to an accelerated aging test. In addition, the cost of this system is estimated to be only 43 percent of the cost of the baseline system at a production level of 25 MW/year. The second experimental contact system consisted of evaporated layers of nickel and copper and an electroplated layer of copper. Cells with this system show serious degradation in a temperature stress test at 350 C for 30 minutes. Auger electron spectroscopy was used to show that the evaporated nickel layer is not an adequate barrier to copper diffusion even at temperatures as low as 250 C. This fact brings into question the long-term reliability of this contact system.

  1. School Closings in Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, James; Sludden, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the School District of Philadelphia closed six schools. In 2013, it closed 24. The closure of 30 schools has occurred amid a financial crisis, headlined by the district's $1.35 billion deficit. School closures are one piece of the district's plan to cut expenditures and close its budget gap. The closures are also intended to make…

  2. Gunshot residue patterns on skin in angled contact and near contact gunshot wounds.

    PubMed

    Plattner, T; Kneubuehl, B; Thali, M; Zollinger, U

    2003-12-17

    The goal of this study was the reproduction of shape and pattern of gunshot residues in near contact and contact gunshot wounds by a series of experimental gunshots on a skin and soft tissue model. The aim was to investigate the shape and direction of soot deposits with regard to the muzzle according to different muzzle-target angles, firing distances, type of ammunition and weapon and barrel length. Based on a review of the literature and on the results of the experiments the authors could make the following statements of gunshot residues in angled contact and close contact gunshot: (1) gunshot residues on the target surface can be differentiated in a "inner" and "outer powder soot zone"; (2) the outer powder soot zone is much less visible than the inner powder soot zone and may lack on human skin; (3) with increasing muzzle target distance both inner and outer powder soot halo increase in size and decrease in density; (4) in angled shots the inner powder soot halo shows an eccentric, elliptic shape which points towards the muzzle, regardless of ammunition, calibre and barrel length; (5) the outer powder soot points away from the muzzle in angled contact and close contact shots.

  3. Reconstructing contact network parameters from viral phylogenies.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Rosemary M; Liang, Richard H; Poon, Art F Y

    2016-07-01

    Models of the spread of disease in a population often make the simplifying assumption that the population is homogeneously mixed, or is divided into homogeneously mixed compartments. However, human populations have complex structures formed by social contacts, which can have a significant influence on the rate of epidemic spread. Contact network models capture this structure by explicitly representing each contact which could possibly lead to a transmission. We developed a method based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), a likelihood-free inference strategy, for estimating structural parameters of the contact network underlying an observed viral phylogeny. The method combines adaptive sequential Monte Carlo for ABC, Gillespie simulation for propagating epidemics though networks, and a kernel-based tree similarity score. We used the method to fit the Barabási-Albert network model to simulated transmission trees, and also applied it to viral phylogenies estimated from ten published HIV sequence datasets. This model incorporates a feature called preferential attachment (PA), whereby individuals with more existing contacts accumulate new contacts at a higher rate. On simulated data, we found that the strength of PA and the number of infected nodes in the network can often be accurately estimated. On the other hand, the mean degree of the network, as well as the total number of nodes, was not estimable with ABC. We observed sub-linear PA power in all datasets, as well as higher PA power in networks of injection drug users. These results underscore the importance of considering contact structures when performing phylodynamic inference. Our method offers the potential to quantitatively investigate the contact network structure underlying viral epidemics.

  4. Reconstructing contact network parameters from viral phylogenies

    PubMed Central

    McCloskey, Rosemary M.; Liang, Richard H.; Poon, Art F.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Models of the spread of disease in a population often make the simplifying assumption that the population is homogeneously mixed, or is divided into homogeneously mixed compartments. However, human populations have complex structures formed by social contacts, which can have a significant influence on the rate of epidemic spread. Contact network models capture this structure by explicitly representing each contact which could possibly lead to a transmission. We developed a method based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), a likelihood-free inference strategy, for estimating structural parameters of the contact network underlying an observed viral phylogeny. The method combines adaptive sequential Monte Carlo for ABC, Gillespie simulation for propagating epidemics though networks, and a kernel-based tree similarity score. We used the method to fit the Barabási-Albert network model to simulated transmission trees, and also applied it to viral phylogenies estimated from ten published HIV sequence datasets. This model incorporates a feature called preferential attachment (PA), whereby individuals with more existing contacts accumulate new contacts at a higher rate. On simulated data, we found that the strength of PA and the number of infected nodes in the network can often be accurately estimated. On the other hand, the mean degree of the network, as well as the total number of nodes, was not estimable with ABC. We observed sub-linear PA power in all datasets, as well as higher PA power in networks of injection drug users. These results underscore the importance of considering contact structures when performing phylodynamic inference. Our method offers the potential to quantitatively investigate the contact network structure underlying viral epidemics. PMID:27818787

  5. [Contact glass tonometer].

    PubMed

    Kanngiesser, H; Robert, Y; Dekker, P

    1996-10-01

    This paper present a tonometer incorporated in a contact lens, which allows simultaneous measurement of intraocular pressure and performance ophthalmoscopy. The tonometer can record the pulse curve continuously, which can give us an indication of any circulatory problem. The device is therefore expected to yield additional information useful for the diagnosis of early glaucoma. Te device has three force sensors built in, which allow continuous measurement of the force exerted on the eye surface by the contact lens. The force of the contact lens on the eye can be altered and makes the adjustment of different eye pressures possible. These induced changes of the eye pressure and their influence on the fundus can be checked. We have taken some measurements on enucleated human eyes to compare our device with a Statham tansducer in the vitreous. We found a good correlation. We are currently taking measurements in volunteers. The clinical relevance of these observations and measurements will be examined in a future study.

  6. Cross-contact chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, U. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A system is provided for use with wafers that include multiple integrated circuits that include two conductive layers in contact at multiple interfaces. Contact chains are formed beside the integrated circuits, each contact chain formed of the same two layers as the circuits, in the form of conductive segments alternating between the upper and lower layers and with the ends of the segments connected in series through interfaces. A current source passes a current through the series-connected segments, by way of a pair of current tabs connected to opposite ends of the series of segments. While the current flows, voltage measurements are taken between each of a plurality of pairs of voltage tabs, the two tabs of each pair connected to opposite ends of an interface that lies along the series-connected segments. A plot of interface conductances on normal probability chart enables prediction of the yield of good integrated circuits from the wafer.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Ali; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most important dermatologic disorders worldwide - it can cause significant morbidity and decreased quality of life, as well as having major economic implications and loss of vocational productivity. Patch testing is the most important discovery in allergic contact dermatitis and the best diagnostic modality to date; the thin-layer rapid- use epicutaneous (TRUE) test is a more recent patch test development which has improved the convenience and feasibility of the test. The future of allergic contact dermatitis is bright as we continue to learn more about the science of the disorder, as well as ways to improve diagnosis and patient care. Furthermore, it is important to remember, in this global age, that cooperation between health care providers worldwide is essential.

  8. Cross-contact chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A system is provided for use with wafers that include multiple integrated circuits that include two conductive layers in contact at multiple interfaces. Contact chains are formed beside the integrated circuits, each contact chain formed of the same two layers as the circuits, in the form of conductive segments alternating between the upper and lower layers and with the ends of the segments connected in series through interfaces. A current source passes a current through the series-connected segments, by way of a pair of current tabs connected to opposite ends of the series of segments. While the current flows, voltage measurements are taken between each of a plurality of pairs of voltage tabs, the two tabs of each pair connected to opposite ends of an interface that lies along the series-connected segments. A plot of interface conductances on a normal probability chart, enables prediction of the yield of good integrated circuits from the wafer.

  9. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  10. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  11. Temporomandibular Joint, Closed

    MedlinePlus

    ... form does not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are ... the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and ...

  12. [Infection prevention and control for foodborne infections].

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, Toshihiro

    2012-08-01

    Patients' care for foodborne infections is sometimes very critical, since these patients exerting high copy numbers of contagious pathogens. Recently, Norovirus infection became the most frequent pathogen for large outbreaks in the community and the hospital around the world. Norovirus is alcohol-resistant and highly contagious. For preventing outbreaks of foodborne infections, standard precaution(and contact precaution for diaper changing patients) is required by the CDC's isolation precaution guideline revised at 2007. We need to provide for infection prevention and control in the epidemic winter period not only in healthcare facilities but also for communities.

  13. Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kostner, Lisa; Anzengruber, Florian; Guillod, Caroline; Recher, Mike; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Navarini, Alexander A

    2017-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease caused by a T cell-mediated immune reaction to usually innocuous allergens. ACD can have grave medical and socioeconomic consequences. ACD and irritant contact dermatitis often occur together. A detailed history and clinical examination are crucial and guide patch testing, which is the gold standard to diagnose ACD. T-cell clones persisting in the skin may explain the tendency of ACD to relapse even after years of allergen avoidance. Traditional treatments for ACD are topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapy, retinoids (including the recent alitretinoin), and immunosuppressants. Targeted therapies are lacking.

  14. Spa contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yankura, Jessica A; Marks, James G; Anderson, Bryan E; Adams, David R

    2008-01-01

    Potassium monopersulfate (MPS) is widely used in spa and pool "shock" treatments, yet contact dermatitis associated with MPS has been rarely reported. A patient presented with a generalized scattered dermatitis from the neck down that worsened after spa use. Patch testing elicited a ++ reaction to ammonium persulfate. Contact with ammonium persulfate was ruled out; however, MPS, which can cross-react with ammonium persulfate, was found to be the active ingredient in the patient's spa shock treatments. The dermatitis cleared after the patient switched to a hydrogen peroxide-based shock treatment.

  15. Contact lenses for athletes.

    PubMed

    Spinell, M R

    1993-01-01

    The introduction and development of soft lenses and rigid gas-permeable lenses has ushered in a new era in fitting athletes with contact lenses. Many of the well-known disadvantages associated with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-type lenses have been either eliminated or minimized. Fitting athletes with contact lenses must still be viewed with caution, however, since athletes' visual needs are usually much more demanding than those of the general public. An indiscriminate choice of lens design can adversely affect athletic performance and may even create a hazardous situation. An intelligent choice of lens can provide some subtle advantages that may improve athletic performance and provide the margin for victory.

  16. Contact Heterogeneity and Phylodynamics: How Contact Networks Shape Parasite Evolutionary Trees

    PubMed Central

    O'Dea, Eamon B.; Wilke, Claus O.

    2011-01-01

    The inference of population dynamics from molecular sequence data is becoming an important new method for the surveillance of infectious diseases. Here, we examine how heterogeneity in contact shapes the genealogies of parasitic agents. Using extensive simulations, we find that contact heterogeneity can have a strong effect on how the structure of genealogies reflects epidemiologically relevant quantities such as the proportion of a population that is infected. Comparing the simulations to BEAST reconstructions, we also find that contact heterogeneity can increase the number of sequence isolates required to estimate these quantities over the course of an epidemic. Our results suggest that data about contact-network structure will be required in addition to sequence data for accurate estimation of a parasitic agent's genealogy. We conclude that network models will be important for progress in this area. PMID:21151699

  17. Moving contact line of a volatile fluid.

    PubMed

    Janeček, V; Andreotti, B; Pražák, D; Bárta, T; Nikolayev, V S

    2013-12-01

    Interfacial flows close to a moving contact line are inherently multiscale. The shape of the interface and the flow at meso- and macroscopic scales inherit an apparent interface slope and a regularization length, both named after Voinov, from the microscopic inner region. Here, we solve the inner problem associated with the contact line motion for a volatile fluid at equilibrium with its vapor. The evaporation or condensation flux is then controlled by the dependence of the saturation temperature on interface curvature-the so-called Kelvin effect. We derive the dependencies of the Voinov angle and of the Voinov length as functions of the parameters of the problem. We then identify the conditions under which the Kelvin effect is indeed the mechanism regularizing the contact line motion.

  18. Laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in Malaysia: preparedness and response, April 2014.

    PubMed

    Premila Devi, J; Noraini, W; Norhayati, R; Chee Kheong, C; Badrul, A S; Zainah, S; Fadzilah, K; Hirman, I; Lokman Hakim, S; Noor Hisham, A

    2014-05-08

    On 14 April 2014, the first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection was reported in Malaysia in a man in his mid-fifties, who developed pneumonia with respiratory distress, after returning from a pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia. The case succumbed to his illness three days after admission at a local hospital. The follow-up of 199 close contacts identified through contact tracing and vigilant surveillance did not result in detecting any other confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infection.

  19. Differential Dynamics of Platelet Contact and Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dooyoung; Fong, Karen P.; King, Michael R.; Brass, Lawrence F.; Hammer, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Platelet spreading is critical for hemostatic plug formation and thrombosis. However, the detailed dynamics of platelet spreading as a function of receptor-ligand adhesive interactions has not been thoroughly investigated. Using reflection interference contrast microscopy, we found that both adhesive interactions and PAR4 activation affect the dynamics of platelet membrane contact formation during spreading. The initial growth of close contact area during spreading was controlled by the combination of different immobilized ligands or PAR4 activation on fibrinogen, whereas the growth of the total area of spreading was independent of adhesion type and PAR4 signaling. We found that filopodia extend to their maximal length and then contract over time; and that filopodial protrusion and expansion were affected by PAR4 signaling. Upon PAR4 activation, the integrin αIIbβ3 mediated close contact to fibrinogen substrata and led to the formation of ringlike patterns in the platelet contact zone. A systematic study of platelet spreading of GPVI-, α2-, or β3-deficient platelets on collagen or fibrinogen suggests the integrin α2 is indispensable for spreading on collagen. The platelet collagen receptors GPVI and α2 regulate integrin αIIbβ3-mediated platelet spreading on fibrinogen. This work elucidates quantitatively how receptor-ligand adhesion and biochemical signals synergistically control platelet spreading. PMID:22325269

  20. Contact: Releasing the news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  1. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    PubMed

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. The contact percolation transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tianqi; O'Hern, Corey; Shattuck, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Typical quasistatic compression algorithms for generating jammed packings of athermal, purely repulsive particles begin with dilute configurations and then apply successive compressions with relaxation of the elastic energy allowed between each compression step. It is well-known that during isotropic compression athermal systems with purely repulsive interactions undergo a jamming transition at packing fraction φJ from an unjammed state with zero pressure to a jammed, rigid state with nonzero pressure. Using extensive computer simulations, we show that a novel second-order-like, contact percolation, which signals the formation of a system-spanning cluster of mutually contacting particles, occurs at φP< φJ, preceding the jamming transition. By measuring the number of non-floppy modes of the dynamical matrix, the displacement field between successive compression steps, and the overlap between the adjacency matrix, which represents the network of contacting grains, at φ and φJ, we find that the contact percolation transition also heralds the onset of nontrivial response to applied stress. Highly heterogeneous, cooperative, and non-affine particle motion occurs in unjammed systems significantly below the jamming transition for φP< φ< φJ,

  3. Have Confidence in Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2010-01-01

    In an article in the May-June 2009 "American Psychologist," we discussed a new approach to reducing prejudice and encouraging more positive intergroup relations (Crisp & Turner, 2009). We named the approach imagined intergroup contact and defined it as "the mental simulation of a social interaction with a member or members of an outgroup category"…

  4. Compact contacting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharya, Arun (Inventor); Gottzmann, Christian F. (Inventor); Lockett, Michael J. (Inventor); Schneider, James S. (Inventor); Victor, Richard A. (Inventor); Zawierucha, Robert (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus comprising a rotatable mass of structured packing for mass or heat transfer between two contacting fluids of different densities wherein the packing mass is made up of corrugated sheets of involute shape relative to the axis of the packing mass and form a logarithmic spiral curved counter to the direction of rotation.

  5. Disproportionate Minority Contact.

    PubMed

    Fix, Rebecca L; Cyperski, Melissa A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-04-01

    The overrepresentation of racial/ethnic minorities within the criminal justice system relative to their population percentage, a phenomenon termed disproportionate minority contact, has been examined within general adult and adolescent offender populations; yet few studies have tested whether this phenomenon extends to juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs). In addition, few studies have examined whether offender race/ethnicity influences registration and notification requirements, which JSOs are subject to in some U.S. states. The present study assessed for disproportionate minority contact among general delinquent offenders and JSOs, meaning it aimed to test whether the criminal justice system treats those accused of sexual and non-sexual offenses differently by racial/ethnic group. Furthermore, racial/ethnic group differences in risk, legal classification, and sexual offending were examined for JSOs. Results indicated disproportionate minority contact was present among juveniles with non-sexual offenses and JSOs in Alabama. In addition, offense category and risk scores differed between African American and European American JSOs. Finally, registration classifications were predicted by offending characteristics, but not race/ethnicity. Implications and future directions regarding disproportionate minority contact among JSOs and social and legal policy affecting JSOs are discussed.

  6. Pizza makers' contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lembo, Serena; Lembo, Claudio; Patruno, Cataldo; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Contact eczema to foods, spices, and food additives can occur in occupational and nonoccupational settings in those who grow, handle, prepare, or cook food. Pizza is one of the most eaten foods in every continent, and pizza making is a common work in many countries. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence and the causes of contact dermatitis in pizza makers in Naples. We performed an observational study in 45 pizza makers: all the enrolled subjects had to answer a questionnaire designed to detect personal history of respiratory or cutaneous allergy, atopy; work characteristics and timing were also investigated. Every subject attended the dermatology clinic for a complete skin examination, and when needed, patients were patch tested using the Italian baseline series of haptens integrated with an arbitrary pizza makers series. Our results reported that 13.3% of the enrolled pizza makers (6/45) presented hand eczema, and that 8.9% (4/45) were affected by occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Diallyl disulfide and ammonium persulfate were the responsible substances. Performing patch tests in pizza makers and food handlers affected by hand contact dermatitis is useful. We propose a specific series of haptens for this wide working category.

  7. Contact Efflorescence on Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. D.; Lance, S.; Gordon, J. A.; Ushijima, S.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The phase state of atmospheric aerosols (liquid vs solid) plays an important role in particle growth, cloud formation, climate impact and visibility degradation. In the atmosphere, changes in relative humidity (RH) and temperature cause phase transitions in the atmospheric particulate. Efflorescence, the process of salt crystal nucleation from an aqueous electrolyte solution upon decreasing RH, often occurs at a lower RH than the reverse process of deliquescence. It has been shown that the efflorescence RH can occur at a higher RH in the presence of a heterogeneous surface immersed in a liquid particle. Here we present a new laboratory technique using optically levitated particles to study heterogeneous efflorescence initiated by contact with an external particle. In this work, collisions between aqueous microdroplets and heterogeneous nuclei are monitored in situ using scattered laser light to quantify the number of collisions and to detect phase transitions. We find that when contact initiates the phase transition, efflorescence occurs at a higher RH than when the same heterogeneous nucleus is immersed in the particle. The results of these experiments will be discussed