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Sample records for close contact infections

  1. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative

  2. Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in wild-type turkeys living in close contact with domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Jessup, D A; DaMassa, A J; Lewis, R; Jones, K R

    1983-12-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum was isolated from 2 wild-type turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and 1 domestic turkey living in close contact on a farm in Tehama County, California. Sinusitis was detected in 2 of 14 wild-type turkeys and in 1 of 12 feral broad-breasted bronze turkeys, but in none of several chickens on the premises. The entire mixed flock was captured, sinus aspirates were collected from affected birds, and blood samples were obtained from all birds for serologic testing. Blood samples also were obtained from 10 domestic turkeys on adjacent premises from which breeding stock had been borrowed. The M gallisepticum isolated from sinus aspirates was typed and inoculated into susceptible chickens, resulting in airsacculitis. California wild turkeys with and without histories of exposure to domestic fowl and wild turkeys shipped into California from Texas for release were tested for antibodies to M gallisepticum, using the plate agglutination test. Evidence of M gallisepticum infection was not found in wild turkeys at any location other than the original premises.

  3. SARS Patients and Their Close Contacts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fact Sheet for SARS Patients and Their Close Contacts Format: Select one PDF [256 KB] Recommend on ... that are not now known. What does "close contact" mean? In the context of SARS, close contact ...

  4. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related ... About Contact Lenses Proper Care of Contact Lenses Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  5. Correlation between tuberculin skin test and IGRAs with risk factors for the spread of infection in close contacts with sputum smear positive in pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between the tuberculin skin test (TST) and in vitro interferon-gamma released assays (IGRAs) with risk factors for the spread of infection in smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) contacts. Methods We recruited prospective contacts with smear positive pulmonary TB cases. We looked at human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other conditions of immunosuppression, presence of BCG vaccination and the degree of exposure to the index case. Patients underwent the TST, chest radiography, sputum analysis when necessary, and IGRA assays (QFN-G-IT and T-SPOT.TB). Presence of cough, diagnostic delay (days between first symptoms and TB diagnostic), contact conditions: room size (square meters) and index of overcrowding (square meters per person) were investigated in the index case. Results 156 contacts (119 adults, 37 children) of 66 TB patients were enrolled, 2.4 (1-14) contacts per TB case. The positivity of the TST did not correlate with the risk factors studied: presence of cough (p = 0.929); delayed diagnosis (p = 0.244); room size (p = 0.462); overcrowding (p = 0.800). Both QFN-G-IT and T-SPOT.TB, showed significant association with cough (p = 0.001, and p = 0.007) and room size (p = 0.020, and p = 0.023), respectively. Conclusions Both IGRA associated better than TST with certain host-related risk factors involved in the transmission of disease, such as the presence of cough. PMID:24885850

  6. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among People Having Close Contact with Animals.

    PubMed

    Brandon-Mong, Guo-Jie; Che Mat Seri, Nurul Asma Anati; Sharma, Reuben Sunil-Kumar; Andiappan, Hemah; Tan, Tian-Chye; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection and its risk association among people having close contact with animals. A total of 312 blood samples were collected from veterinary personnel (veterinarian, technicians, and students) and pet owners from veterinary clinics and hospitals in the area of Klang Valley, Malaysia. About 4 cc of blood samples drawn from agreed participants were processed for measurement of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies as well as avidity test of Toxoplasma IgG by ELISA I, II, and III kits. Meanwhile, the demographic profiles and possible risk factors of these participants were also recorded in the standardized data collection sheets. Overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was observed in 62 (19.9%) participants being 7 (18.4%) in veterinarians, 15 (33.3%) in veterinary technicians, 29 (14.9%) in veterinary students, and 11 (31.4%) in pet owners. Of 19.9% Toxoplasma seropositive samples, 18.3% was positive for IgG antibody, 1.0% for IgM antibody, and 0.6% for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Of three different IgG avidity ELISA kits, ELISA III showed high avidity in all five seropositive samples (IgM and IgG/IgM antibodies) indicating chronic Toxoplasma infection which is consistent with no evidence of clinical toxoplasmosis diagnosed during the time of this study. Univariate analysis showed that age group, gender, study population, gardening, task performance, and working duration were significantly associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity. Further analysis by multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that age group of ≥30 years old (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18-0.63, p = 0.001) and working or study duration of >10 years having close contact with animals (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 1.80-14.24, p = 0.002) were identified as significant risks for Toxoplasma infection. Based on the results obtained, a comprehensive Toxoplasma screening and health

  7. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among People Having Close Contact with Animals

    PubMed Central

    Brandon-Mong, Guo-Jie; Che Mat Seri, Nurul Asma Anati; Sharma, Reuben Sunil-Kumar; Andiappan, Hemah; Tan, Tian-Chye; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection and its risk association among people having close contact with animals. A total of 312 blood samples were collected from veterinary personnel (veterinarian, technicians, and students) and pet owners from veterinary clinics and hospitals in the area of Klang Valley, Malaysia. About 4 cc of blood samples drawn from agreed participants were processed for measurement of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies as well as avidity test of Toxoplasma IgG by ELISA I, II, and III kits. Meanwhile, the demographic profiles and possible risk factors of these participants were also recorded in the standardized data collection sheets. Overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was observed in 62 (19.9%) participants being 7 (18.4%) in veterinarians, 15 (33.3%) in veterinary technicians, 29 (14.9%) in veterinary students, and 11 (31.4%) in pet owners. Of 19.9% Toxoplasma seropositive samples, 18.3% was positive for IgG antibody, 1.0% for IgM antibody, and 0.6% for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Of three different IgG avidity ELISA kits, ELISA III showed high avidity in all five seropositive samples (IgM and IgG/IgM antibodies) indicating chronic Toxoplasma infection which is consistent with no evidence of clinical toxoplasmosis diagnosed during the time of this study. Univariate analysis showed that age group, gender, study population, gardening, task performance, and working duration were significantly associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity. Further analysis by multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that age group of ≥30 years old (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18–0.63, p = 0.001) and working or study duration of >10 years having close contact with animals (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 1.80–14.24, p = 0.002) were identified as significant risks for Toxoplasma infection. Based on the results obtained, a comprehensive Toxoplasma screening and health

  8. Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Gregory F.; Minkov, Vladimir; Petrick, Michael

    1984-01-01

    A high temperature heat exchanger with a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

  9. Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

    1981-11-02

    A high temperature heat exchanger is disclosed which has a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

  10. The Formation of Contact and Very Close Binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kisseleva-Eggleton, L; Eggleton, P P

    2007-08-10

    We explore the possibility that all close binaries, i.e. those with periods {approx}< 3 d, including contact (W UMa) binaries, are produced from initially wider binaries (periods of say 10's of days) by the action of a triple companion through the medium of Kozai Cycles with Tidal Friction (KCTF).

  11. Shigella Infections in Household Contacts of Pediatric Shigellosis Patients in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Talukder, Kaisar A.; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Perin, Jamie; Sack, R. Bradley; Sack, David A; Stine, O. Colin; Oldja, Lauren; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Subhra; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Bouwer, Edward; Zhang, Xiaotong; Hasan, Trisheeta N.; Luna, Sharmin J.; Akter, Fatema; Faruque, Abu S.G.

    2015-01-01

    To examine rates of Shigella infections in household contacts of pediatric shigellosis patients, we followed contacts and controls prospectively for 1 week after the index patient obtained care. Household contacts of patients were 44 times more likely to develop a Shigella infection than were control contacts (odds ratio 44.7, 95% CI 5.5–361.6); 29 (94%) household contacts of shigellosis patients were infected with the same species and serotype as the index patient’s. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that 14 (88%) of 16 with infected contacts had strains that were indistinguishable from or closely related to the index patient’s strain. Latrine area fly counts were higher in patient households compared with control households, and 2 patient household water samples were positive for Shigella. We show high susceptibility of household contacts of shigellosis patients to Shigella infections and found environmental risk factors to be targeted in future interventions. PMID:26484778

  12. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Close and Contact Binary Systems using Bipolytropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Kundan

    2016-01-01

    I will present the results of hydrodynamic simulations of close and contact bipolytropic binary systems. This project is motivated by the peculiar case of the red nova, V1309 Sco, which is indeed a merger of a contact binary. Both the stars are believed to have evolved off the main sequence by the time of the merger and possess a small helium core. In order to represent the binary accurately, I need a core-envelope structure for both the stars. I have achieved this using bipolytropes or composite polytropes. For the simulations, I use an explicit 3D Eulerian hydrodynamics code in cylindrical coordinates. I will discuss the evolution and merger scenarios of systems with different mass ratios and core mass fractions as well as the effects due to the treatment of the adiabatic exponent.

  13. Indexing and retrieving motions of characters in close contact.

    PubMed

    Ho, Edmond S L; Komura, Taku

    2009-01-01

    Human motion indexing and retrieval are important for animators due to the need to search for motions in the database which can be blended and concatenated. Most of the previous researches of human motion indexing and retrieval compute the Euclidean distance of joint angles or joint positions. Such approaches are difficult to apply for cases in which multiple characters are closely interacting with each other, as the relationships of the characters are not encoded in the representation. In this research, we propose a topology-based approach to index the motions of two human characters in close contact. We compute and encode how the two bodies are tangled based on the concept of rational tangles. The encoded relationships, which we define as TangleList, are used to determine the similarity of the pairs of postures. Using our method, we can index and retrieve motions such as one person piggy-backing another, one person assisting another in walking, and two persons dancing / wrestling. Our method is useful to manage a motion database of multiple characters. We can also produce motion graph structures of two characters closely interacting with each other by interpolating and concatenating topologically similar postures and motion clips, which are applicable to 3D computer games and computer animation.

  14. An epidemiological cluster pattern of dengue outbreak amongst close contacts in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ang, K T; Ruhaini, I; Chua, K B

    2006-08-01

    Dengue fever is major public health problem especially among the highly urbanized states of Malaysia, such as, Selangor and Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory. We report an epidemiological cluster pattern of dengue outbreak in the district of Gombak, Selangor that may mimic other acute febrile illnesses in which the transmission mode is via close contact. This dengue outbreak consisted of two waves; an initial cluster of three cases (including the first deceased, JI) which occurred between 20th and 21st of July, followed by a later larger cluster of 11 cases that occurred between 1st and 8th of August 2005. This epidemiological clustering pattern of acute dengue virus infection among close contacts suggests an intense rate of dengue virus transmission within the vicinity of the first deceased's house.

  15. Gardnerella Vaginalis Infection and Sexual Contact in Female Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, David L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study found that the incidence of Gardnerella vaginalis infection was not more common in 191 female children who had other evidence of sexual contact than in 144 female children evaluated for possible sexual abuse but with no evidence of sexual contact found or in 31 female children with no suspected sexual contact. (Author/DB)

  16. Human infection by Brucella melitensis: an outbreak attributed to contact with infected goats.

    PubMed

    Wallach, J C; Samartino, L E; Efron, A; Baldi, P C

    1997-12-01

    Although several outbreaks of Brucella melitensis infection have been reported among laboratory workers or goat cheese consumers, outbreaks related to rural labour have been rarely studied. An outbreak of human brucellosis among farm workers of Argentina was studied and revealed a close relationship with an epidemic of caprine abortions which occurred shortly before on the same farm. High rates of B. melitensis infection were found among goats. Active brucellosis was diagnosed in 33 subjects (14 with positive blood culture for B. melitensis), while other 27 did not show evidence of illness. While 25 of the brucellosis active patients were rural workers, only 5 of the healthy subjects were engaged in rural labour. Active brucellosis was diagnosed in 91.3% of the subjects in continuous contact with goats and in 32% of those having an occasional contact with the animals. All the 60 subjects denied consumption of goat cheese or milk. As shown here, epidemic human infections by B. melitensis may develop among people frequently in contact with infected goat herds or goat manure.

  17. Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Peter J.; Looker, Clare; Plumb, Ian D.; Bond, Virginia; Schaap, Ab; Shanaube, Kwame; Muyoyeta, Monde; Vynnycky, Emilia; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Corbett, Elizabeth L.; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; White, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating “close” (shared conversation) and “casual” (shared indoor space) social contacts in 16 Zambian communities and 8 South African communities. We modeled the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in all age groups using these contact patterns, as well as the observed incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in children and the prevalence of tuberculosis disease in adults. A total of 3,528 adults participated in the study. The reported rates of close and casual contact were 4.9 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 4.6, 5.2) and 10.4 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 9.3, 11.6), respectively. Rates of close contact were higher for adults in larger households and rural areas. There was preferential mixing of close contacts within age groups and within sexes. The estimated incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults was 1.5–6 times higher (2.5%–10% per year) than that in children. More than 50% of infections in men, women, and children were estimated to be due to contact with adult men. We conclude that estimates of infection incidence based on surveys in children might underestimate incidence in adults. Most infections may be due to contact with adult men. Treatment and control of tuberculosis in men is critical to protecting men, women, and children from tuberculosis. PMID:26646292

  18. Recommendations for live viral and bacterial vaccines in immunodeficient patients and their close contacts.

    PubMed

    Shearer, William T; Fleisher, Thomas A; Buckley, Rebecca H; Ballas, Zuhair; Ballow, Mark; Blaese, R Michael; Bonilla, Francisco A; Conley, Mary Ellen; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Filipovich, Alexandra H; Fuleihan, Ramsay; Gelfand, Erwin W; Hernandez-Trujillo, Vivian; Holland, Steven M; Hong, Richard; Lederman, Howard M; Malech, Harry L; Miles, Stephen; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Ochs, Hans D; Orange, Jordan S; Puck, Jennifer M; Routes, John M; Stiehm, E Richard; Sullivan, Kathleen; Torgerson, Troy; Winkelstein, Jerry

    2014-04-01

    The present uncertainty of which live viral or bacterial vaccines can be given to immunodeficient patients and the growing neglect of societal adherence to routine immunizations has prompted the Medical Advisory Committee of the Immune Deficiency Foundation to issue recommendations based on published literature and the collective experience of the committee members. These recommendations address the concern for immunodeficient patients acquiring infections from healthy subjects who have not been immunized or who are shedding live vaccine-derived viral or bacterial organisms. Such transmission of infectious agents can occur within the hospital, clinic, or home or at any public gathering. Collectively, we define this type of transmission as close-contact spread of infectious disease that is particularly relevant in patients with impaired immunity who might have an infection when exposed to subjects carrying vaccine-preventable infectious diseases or who have recently received a live vaccine. Immunodeficient patients who have received therapeutic hematopoietic stem transplantation are also at risk during the time when immune reconstitution is incomplete or while they are receiving immunosuppressive agents to prevent or treat graft-versus-host disease. This review recommends the general education of what is known about vaccine-preventable or vaccine-derived diseases being spread to immunodeficient patients at risk for close-contact spread of infection and describes the relative risks for a child with severe immunodeficiency. The review also recommends a balance between the need to protect vulnerable subjects and their social needs to integrate into society, attend school, and benefit from peer education.

  19. Follow-up of Contacts of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Infected Returning Travelers, the Netherlands, 2014.

    PubMed

    Mollers, Madelief; Jonges, Marcel; Pas, Suzan D; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Dirksen, Kees; Jansen, Casper; Gelinck, Luc B S; Leyten, Eliane M S; Thurkow, Ingrid; Groeneveld, Paul H P; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B; Koopmans, Marion P; Timen, Aura

    2015-09-01

    Notification of 2 imported cases of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the Netherlands triggered comprehensive monitoring of contacts. Observed low rates of virus transmission and the psychological effect of contact monitoring indicate that thoughtful assessment of close contacts is prudent and must be guided by clinical and epidemiologic risk factors.

  20. Follow-up of Contacts of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus–Infected Returning Travelers, the Netherlands, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mollers, Madelief; Jonges, Marcel; Pas, Suzan D.; van der Eijk, Annemiek A.; Dirksen, Kees; Jansen, Casper; Gelinck, Luc B.S.; Leyten, Eliane M.S.; Thurkow, Ingrid; Groeneveld, Paul H.P.; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B.; Koopmans, Marion P.

    2015-01-01

    Notification of 2 imported cases of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the Netherlands triggered comprehensive monitoring of contacts. Observed low rates of virus transmission and the psychological effect of contact monitoring indicate that thoughtful assessment of close contacts is prudent and must be guided by clinical and epidemiologic risk factors. PMID:26291986

  1. Follow-up of Contacts of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Infected Returning Travelers, the Netherlands, 2014.

    PubMed

    Mollers, Madelief; Jonges, Marcel; Pas, Suzan D; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Dirksen, Kees; Jansen, Casper; Gelinck, Luc B S; Leyten, Eliane M S; Thurkow, Ingrid; Groeneveld, Paul H P; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B; Koopmans, Marion P; Timen, Aura

    2015-09-01

    Notification of 2 imported cases of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the Netherlands triggered comprehensive monitoring of contacts. Observed low rates of virus transmission and the psychological effect of contact monitoring indicate that thoughtful assessment of close contacts is prudent and must be guided by clinical and epidemiologic risk factors. PMID:26291986

  2. Directional close-contact melting in glacier ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Julia; Schüller, Kai

    2015-04-01

    The Saturnian moon Enceladus shows incidence of liquid water underneath a thick ice sheet cover and is thought to be a potential candidate for extraterrestrial life. However, direct exploration of these subglacial aquatic ecosystems is very challenging. Within the scope of the joint research project 'Enceladus Explorer' (EnEx) (consisting of FH Aachen, RWTH Aachen, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Universität Bremen, TU Braunschweig und Bundeswehr Universität München), initiated by the German Space Agency, a maneuverable close-contact melting probe has been developed. The force-regulated and heater-controlled probe is able to melt against gravity or even on a curved trajectory. Hence, it offers additional degrees of freedom in its melting motion, e.g. for target oriented melting or obstacle avoidance strategies. General feasibility of the concept has been demonstrated in various field tests. However, in order to optimize its design and to adopt it to extraterrestrial missions a simulation model is needed, capable of determining melting velocity and efficiency at given environmental conditions and system configurations. Within this contribution, the physical situation is abstracted into a quasi-stationary mathematical model description, and a numerical solution strategy is developed to compute melting velocity and temperature distribution within the probe and the surrounding ice. We present an inverse solution approach, in which a background velocity field of the ice mimics the melting velocity. The fundamental balance laws are solved with the corresponding melting rate. Following Newton's laws, the resulting force acting on the probe has to balance the contact force exerted by the probe and can hence be used for convergence. We present both, analytical results to a simplified head geometry, as well as results from a simulation model implemented into the open source software Elmer for arbitrary head geometries. The latter can deal with the full 3d situation

  3. Cryptosporidium parvum Infection Following Contact with Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Suler, Denis; Mullins, David; Rudge, Travis; Ashurst, John

    2016-01-01

    Context: Scours, or calf diarrhea, is an infectious gastrointestinal disease commonly found in the calves of dairy farms. It primarily presents with diarrhea that can be life threatening to the animal and is also contagious and threatening to the other livestock. Cryptosporidium is one of the major causes of scours and can be transmitted to humans via fecal-oral route, resulting in diarrheal illnesses. Cryptosporidiosis infection usually occurs as a waterborne outbreak with the potential to affect many people at once. Case Report: We report a case of a 24-year-old female farmer who presented to the emergency department with diarrhea after taking care of ill cattle with similar symptoms. Fecal cultures were positive for Cryptosporidium parvum. Given the patient was immunocompetent, no further treatment was warranted. Conclusion: Confirmed cases should be reported, however, treatment is only recommended in children and immunocompromised adults. Clinicians should educate patients on the importance of proper hygiene and handling techniques in order to decrease transmission and recurrence of the protozoan infection. PMID:27583243

  4. Is the Colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus in Pets Associated with Their Close Contact with Owners?

    PubMed Central

    Bierowiec, Karolina; Płoneczka-Janeczko, Katarzyna; Rypuła, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    In human beings and animals, staphylococci constitute part of the normal microbial population. Staphylococcus aureus could be classified as an opportunistic pathogen because the bacteria are noted in clinically healthy individuals, but when the immune system becomes compromised, they can also cause a wide range of infections. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cats who are in close contact with their owners are at the greatest risk of being colonised with S. aureus. Two groups of cats were investigated: single, pet (domestic) cats that do not have outdoor access; and a local population of feral cats living in urban areas. The prevalence of S. aureus in domestic cats was 19.17%, while it’s prevalence in the feral cat population was only 8.3%; which was statistically significant. Analysis of antibiotic resistance, at the genotypic as well as phenotypic level, showed that S. aureus isolates from pet cats were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant determinants. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in households was 10.21%, while in feral cats it was only 1.4%. In conclusion, this study has revealed a correlation between close contact with humans and a higher risk of the cats being colonised with S. aureus and harbouring the antibiotic resistant determinants. PMID:27227897

  5. Is the Colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus in Pets Associated with Their Close Contact with Owners?

    PubMed

    Bierowiec, Karolina; Płoneczka-Janeczko, Katarzyna; Rypuła, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    In human beings and animals, staphylococci constitute part of the normal microbial population. Staphylococcus aureus could be classified as an opportunistic pathogen because the bacteria are noted in clinically healthy individuals, but when the immune system becomes compromised, they can also cause a wide range of infections. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cats who are in close contact with their owners are at the greatest risk of being colonised with S. aureus. Two groups of cats were investigated: single, pet (domestic) cats that do not have outdoor access; and a local population of feral cats living in urban areas. The prevalence of S. aureus in domestic cats was 19.17%, while it's prevalence in the feral cat population was only 8.3%; which was statistically significant. Analysis of antibiotic resistance, at the genotypic as well as phenotypic level, showed that S. aureus isolates from pet cats were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant determinants. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in households was 10.21%, while in feral cats it was only 1.4%. In conclusion, this study has revealed a correlation between close contact with humans and a higher risk of the cats being colonised with S. aureus and harbouring the antibiotic resistant determinants. PMID:27227897

  6. Molecular Detection and Identification of Zoonotic Microsporidia Spore in Fecal Samples of Some Animals with Close-Contact to Human

    PubMed Central

    ASKARI, Zeinab; MIRJALALI, Hamed; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ZAREI, Zabih; SHOJAEI, Saeideh; REZAEIAN, Tahereh; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Microsporidia species are obligatory intracellular agents that can infect all major animal groups including mammals, birds, fishes and insects. Whereas worldwide human infection reports are increasing, the cognition of sources of infection particularly zoonotic transmission could be helpful. We aimed to detect zoonotic microsporidia spore in fecal samples from some animals with closecontact to human. Methods: Overall, 142 fecal samples were collected from animals with closed-contact to human, during 2012-2013. Trichrome – blue staining were performed and DNA was then extracted from samples, identified positive, microscopically. Nested PCR was also carried out with primers targeting SSU rRNA gene and PCR products were sequenced. Results: From 142 stool samples, microsporidia spores have been observed microscopically in 15 (10.56%) samples. En. cuniculi was found in the faces of 3 (15%) small white mice and 1 (10%) laboratory rabbits(totally 2.81%). Moreover, E. bieneusi was detected in 3 (10%) samples of sheep, 2 (5.12%) cattle, 1 (10%) rabbit, 3 (11.53%) cats and 2 (11.76%) ownership dogs (totally 7.74%). Phylogenetic analysis showed interesting data. This is the first study in Iran, which identified E. bieneusi and En. Cuniculi in fecal samples of laboratory animals with closecontact to human as well as domesticated animal and analyzed them in phylogenetic tree. Conclusion: E. bieneusi is the most prevalent microsporidia species in animals. Our results can also alert us about potentially zoonotic transmission of microsporidiosis. PMID:26622293

  7. Should close contacts of returning travellers with typhoid fever be protected by vaccination?

    PubMed

    Kantele, A

    2015-03-17

    Increasing international travel to areas endemic for typhoid fever correlates with increased risk for travellers to contract the disease. At home, the acutely ill/convalescent patients may pose some risk to their close contacts. In Finland an unofficial guideline suggests vaccination for close contacts of patients with acute typhoid fever; in other developed countries, routine typhoid vaccinations are only recommended to contacts of chronic carriers. This paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of prophylactic/post-exposure typhoid vaccination for contacts of patients with acute disease.

  8. Streptococcal Meningitis Resulting from Contact with an Infected Horse

    PubMed Central

    Downar, James; Willey, Barbara M.; Sutherland, Jeffrey W.; Mathew, Kelly; Low, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of group C streptococcal meningitis in a woman with a history of close animal contact as well as head trauma as a result of a kick by a horse. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures grew Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, as did a throat culture taken from the colt that had kicked her 2 weeks prior to admission. PMID:11376093

  9. A survey of close contact regimes between patients undergoing diagnostic radioisotope procedures and children.

    PubMed

    Greaves, C D; Tindale, W B; Flynn, P J

    1996-07-01

    When following diagnostic radioisotope procedures, UK legislation requires that we advise patients to avoid close contact with children [1, 2]. How does this advice affect the average nuclear medicine patient? Over a 4 month period, 90 patients in contact with children were asked about their home circumstances, how they coped with avoidance of close contact and the problems caused. On average, the patients were in contact with two children with a mean age of 7 years. Thirty-nine per cent of patients spent < 5 h per day and 30% between 5 and 10 h per day in close contact. However, 13% spent 20-24 h in close contact with children. For most patients (55%), it is easy to avoid close contact, but 25% found it difficult or very difficult. The average in-patient received one visit a day from children of 0.5-1 h duration and 65% of children sat on the patient's bed. Restriction of visits was a problem for 14% of patients. Initially, over one-third of the out-patients felt a medium level of anxiety or higher regarding close contact with children. Given more detailed written information and the opportunity to discuss any queries with a member of staff (70% wished to do so), the proportion fell to less than one-tenth. We found it important to question patients carefully, because home circumstances and levels of close contact cannot be deduced from the age of the child or the relationship between the child and the patient. PMID:8843113

  10. Contact Lens Wearer Demographics and Risk Behaviors for Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Cope, Jennifer R; Collier, Sarah A; Rao, Maya M; Chalmers, Robin; Mitchell, G Lynn; Richdale, Kathryn; Wagner, Heidi; Kinoshita, Beth T; Lam, Dawn Y; Sorbara, Luigina; Zimmerman, Aaron; Yoder, Jonathan S; Beach, Michael J

    2015-08-21

    Contact lenses provide safe and effective vision correction for many Americans. However, contact lens wearers risk infection if they fail to wear, clean, disinfect, and store their contact lenses as directed. Over the past decade, CDC has investigated several multistate outbreaks of serious eye infections among contact lens wearers, including Acanthamoeba keratitis. Each investigation identified frequent contact lens hygiene-related risk behaviors among patients. To guide prevention efforts, a population-based survey was used to estimate the number of contact lens wearers aged ≥18 years in the United States. A separate online survey of contact lens wearers assessed the prevalence of contact lens hygiene-related risk behaviors. Approximately 99% of wearers reported at least one contact lens hygiene risk behavior. Nearly one third of contact lens wearers reported having experienced a previous contact lens-related red or painful eye requiring a doctor's visit. An estimated 40.9 million U.S. adults wear contact lenses, and many could be at risk for serious eye infections because of poor contact lens wear and care behaviors. These findings have informed the creation of targeted prevention messages aimed at contact lens wearers such as keeping all water away from contact lenses, discarding used disinfecting solution from the case and cleaning with fresh solution each day, and replacing their contact lens case every 3 months.

  11. Selection versus Structure: Explaining Family Type Differences in Contact with Close Kin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruycker, Trees

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on one aspect of family networks, namely, the frequency of contact with close kin for adults living in different traditional and new family types. Two mechanisms are hypothesized to account for the differences. The first focuses on structural factors such as the number and type of persons in the primary family network,…

  12. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis cases and close human contacts.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T; Kock, M M; Ehlers, M M

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the diversity of Staphylococcus spp. recovered from bovine intramammary infections and humans working in close contact with the animals and to evaluate the susceptibility of the staphylococcal isolates to different antimicrobials. A total of 3,387 milk samples and 79 human nasal swabs were collected from 13 sampling sites in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. In total, 146 Staph. aureus isolates and 102 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were recovered from clinical and subclinical milk samples. Staphylococcusaureus was isolated from 12 (15.2%) of the human nasal swabs and 95 representative CNS were recovered for further characterization. The CNS were identified using multiplex-PCR assays, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and tuf gene sequencing. Seven Staphylococcus spp. were identified among the CNS of bovine origin, with Staph.chromogenes (78.4%) predominating. The predominant CNS species recovered from the human nasal swabs was Staph.epidermidis (80%) followed by Staph.chromogenes (6.3%). The antimicrobial susceptibility of all staphylococcal isolates was evaluated using disk diffusion and was supplemented by screening for specific antimicrobial resistance genes. Ninety-eight (67.1%) Staph.aureus isolates of bovine origin were pansusceptible; 39 (26.7%) isolates were resistant to a single class, and 7 (4.8%) isolates were resistant to 2 classes of antimicrobials. Two Staph. aureus (1.4%) isolates were multidrug-resistant. Resistance to penicillin was common, with 28.8% of the bovine and 75% of the human Staph. aureus isolates exhibiting resistance. A similar observation was made with the CNS, where 37.3% of the bovine and 89.5% of the human isolates were resistant to penicillin. Multidrug-resistance was common among the human CNS, with 39% of the isolates exhibiting resistance to 3 or more classes of antimicrobials. The antimicrobial

  13. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis cases and close human contacts.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T; Kock, M M; Ehlers, M M

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the diversity of Staphylococcus spp. recovered from bovine intramammary infections and humans working in close contact with the animals and to evaluate the susceptibility of the staphylococcal isolates to different antimicrobials. A total of 3,387 milk samples and 79 human nasal swabs were collected from 13 sampling sites in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. In total, 146 Staph. aureus isolates and 102 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were recovered from clinical and subclinical milk samples. Staphylococcusaureus was isolated from 12 (15.2%) of the human nasal swabs and 95 representative CNS were recovered for further characterization. The CNS were identified using multiplex-PCR assays, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and tuf gene sequencing. Seven Staphylococcus spp. were identified among the CNS of bovine origin, with Staph.chromogenes (78.4%) predominating. The predominant CNS species recovered from the human nasal swabs was Staph.epidermidis (80%) followed by Staph.chromogenes (6.3%). The antimicrobial susceptibility of all staphylococcal isolates was evaluated using disk diffusion and was supplemented by screening for specific antimicrobial resistance genes. Ninety-eight (67.1%) Staph.aureus isolates of bovine origin were pansusceptible; 39 (26.7%) isolates were resistant to a single class, and 7 (4.8%) isolates were resistant to 2 classes of antimicrobials. Two Staph. aureus (1.4%) isolates were multidrug-resistant. Resistance to penicillin was common, with 28.8% of the bovine and 75% of the human Staph. aureus isolates exhibiting resistance. A similar observation was made with the CNS, where 37.3% of the bovine and 89.5% of the human isolates were resistant to penicillin. Multidrug-resistance was common among the human CNS, with 39% of the isolates exhibiting resistance to 3 or more classes of antimicrobials. The antimicrobial

  14. Acute haematogenous infection of a closed vertebral fracture.

    PubMed

    Marshman, Laurence A G; Allison, Dale; Molloy, Cynthia J

    2009-12-01

    Acute haematogenous infection of a closed fractures is rare. A 68-year-old diabetic male sustained a burst fracture of a lumbar vertebra (L2) after a fall onto his back. After 5 days of conservative management, he developed a chest infection and amoxicillin was commenced empirically. However, after 6 days his previously moderate focal L2 back pain had become more severe. Pyrexia and systemic inflammatory markers continued to rise despite administration of antibiotics. Blood cultures and a CT-guided biopsy of L2 both revealed Staphylococcus aureus which was sensitive to flucloxacillin. The patient's symptoms and signs gradually normalised following administration of flucloxacillin for 6 weeks, and the use of a cast brace. We conclude that haematogenous infection can be successfully managed non-operatively.

  15. The relative importance of frequency of contacts and duration of exposure for the spread of directly transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    De Cao, Elisabetta; Zagheni, Emilio; Manfredi, Piero; Melegaro, Alessia

    2014-07-01

    The recent availability of survey data on social contact patterns has made possible important advances in the understanding of the social determinants of the spread of close-contact infections, and of the importance of long-lasting contacts for effective transmission to occur. Still, little is known about the relationship between two of the most critical identified factors (frequency of contacts and duration of exposure) and how this relationship applies to different types of infections. By integrating data from two independently collected social surveys (Polymod and time use), we propose a model that combines these two transmission determinants into a new epidemiologically relevant measure of contacts: the number of "suitable" contacts, which is the number of contacts that involve a sufficiently long exposure time to allow for transmission. The validity of this new epidemiological measure is tested against Italian serological data for varicella and parvovirus-B19, with uncertainty evaluated using the Bayesian melding technique. The model performs quite well, indicating that the interplay between time of exposure and contacts is critical for varicella transmission, while for B19 it is the duration of exposure that matters for transmission.

  16. The Impact of Discontinuing Contact Precautions for VRE and MRSA on Device-Associated Infections.

    PubMed

    Edmond, Michael B; Masroor, Nadia; Stevens, Michael P; Ober, Janis; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2015-08-01

    The impact of discontinuing contact precautions for patients with MRSA and VRE colonization/infection on device-associated hospital-acquired infection rates at an academic medical center was investigated in this before-and-after study. In the setting of a strong horizontal infection prevention platform, discontinuation of contact precautions had no impact on device-associated hospital-acquired infection rates. PMID:25915205

  17. Near-Contact Binaries (NCB): Close Binary Systems in a Key Evolutionary Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.

    2007-08-01

    Short-period eclipsing binary systems with EB-type light variations are interesting objects for understanding the evolutionary changes undergone by close binaries. As investigated by many authors (Kalużny, J., Yamasaki, A., Zhai, D. S, Zhang, X. B Hilditch, R. W., McFarlane, T. M, King, D. J, Shaw, J. S., Samec, R. G., Niarchos, P. G., Oh, Kyu-Dong. etc ), a majority of them belong to an important subclass of close binaries called near-contact binaries (NCBs). According to the geometric definition of this subclass, NCBs actually comprise semi-detached, marginal-contact, and marginal-detached systems. They can be in the intermediate stage between detached or semi-detached state and contact state. Therefore, NCBs are the important observational targets which may be lying in key evolutionary states. In this paper, we observed and investigated several NCBs (BL And, GW Tau, RU UMi, GSC3658-0076, UU Lyn, AS Ser, IR Cas, EP Aur). Our results show that the orbital periods of BL And, GW Tau, RU UMi and UU Lyn are decreasing while that of IR Cas is decreasing and oscillating. The mechanisms that could explain the period variations are discussed. Combining the photometric solutions with period variations of these systems, we divide them into four types: BL And is a semi-detached system with the lobe filling primary, RU UMi and EP Aur are the semi-detached system with the lobe filling secondary, GW Tau, UU Lyn and AS Ser are the marginal contact system while GSC3658-0076 is the marginal detached system. Finally, the evolutionary stage of each system is discussed and some statistical relations of NCBs are presented.

  18. Rabies Virus Infection Induces the Formation of Stress Granules Closely Connected to the Viral Factories

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Jovan; Civas, Ahmet; Lagaudrière-Gesbert, Cécile; Blondel, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are membrane-less dynamic structures consisting of mRNA and protein aggregates that form rapidly in response to a wide range of environmental cellular stresses and viral infections. They act as storage sites for translationally silenced mRNAs under stress conditions. During viral infection, SG formation results in the modulation of innate antiviral immune responses, and several viruses have the ability to either promote or prevent SG assembly. Here, we show that rabies virus (RABV) induces SG formation in infected cells, as revealed by the detection of SG-marker proteins Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 1 (G3BP1), T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) in the RNA granules formed during viral infection. As shown by live cell imaging, RABV-induced SGs are highly dynamic structures that increase in number, grow in size by fusion events, and undergo assembly/disassembly cycles. Some SGs localize in close proximity to cytoplasmic viral factories, known as Negri bodies (NBs). Three dimensional reconstructions reveal that both structures remain distinct even when they are in close contact. In addition, viral mRNAs synthesized in NBs accumulate in the SGs during viral infection, revealing material exchange between both compartments. Although RABV-induced SG formation is not affected in MEFs lacking TIA-1, TIA-1 depletion promotes viral translation which results in an increase of viral replication indicating that TIA-1 has an antiviral effect. Inhibition of PKR expression significantly prevents RABV-SG formation and favors viral replication by increasing viral translation. This is correlated with a drastic inhibition of IFN-B gene expression indicating that SGs likely mediate an antiviral response which is however not sufficient to fully counteract RABV infection. PMID:27749929

  19. Contact Lens-Related Corneal Infections - United States, 2005-2015.

    PubMed

    Cope, Jennifer R; Collier, Sarah A; Srinivasan, Krithika; Abliz, Erkinay; Myers, Ann; Millin, Courtney J; Miller, Andrew; Tarver, Michelle E

    2016-01-01

    Keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) can result from contact lens wear or other causes. Keratitis from all causes, including contact lens wear, results in approximately 1 million clinic and emergency department visits annually, with an estimated cost of $175 million in direct health care expenditures in 2010 (1). Approximately 41 million U.S. residents wear contact lenses, and in 2014, >99% of contact lens wearers surveyed reported at least one behavior that puts them at risk for a contact lens-related eye infection (2). The Center for Devices and Radiological Health at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates contact lenses as medical devices, and certain adverse events related to contact lenses are reported to FDA's Medical Device Report (MDR) database. To describe contact lens-related corneal infections reported to the FDA, 1,075 contact lens-related MDRs containing the terms "ulcer" or "keratitis" reported to FDA during 2005-2015 were analyzed. Among these 1,075 reports, 925 (86.0%) were reported by a contact lens manufacturer and 150 (14.0%) by an eye care provider or patient. Overall, 213 (19.8%) reports described a patient who had a central corneal scar, had a decrease in visual acuity, or required a corneal transplant following the event. Among the reports, 270 (25.1%) described modifiable factors known to be associated with an increased risk for contact lens-related corneal infections, including sleeping in contact lenses or poor contact lens hygiene; the remainder did not provide details that permitted determination of associated factors. Continued efforts to educate contact lens wearers about prevention of contact lens-related eye infections are needed.

  20. Contact Lens-Related Corneal Infections - United States, 2005-2015.

    PubMed

    Cope, Jennifer R; Collier, Sarah A; Srinivasan, Krithika; Abliz, Erkinay; Myers, Ann; Millin, Courtney J; Miller, Andrew; Tarver, Michelle E

    2016-01-01

    Keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) can result from contact lens wear or other causes. Keratitis from all causes, including contact lens wear, results in approximately 1 million clinic and emergency department visits annually, with an estimated cost of $175 million in direct health care expenditures in 2010 (1). Approximately 41 million U.S. residents wear contact lenses, and in 2014, >99% of contact lens wearers surveyed reported at least one behavior that puts them at risk for a contact lens-related eye infection (2). The Center for Devices and Radiological Health at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates contact lenses as medical devices, and certain adverse events related to contact lenses are reported to FDA's Medical Device Report (MDR) database. To describe contact lens-related corneal infections reported to the FDA, 1,075 contact lens-related MDRs containing the terms "ulcer" or "keratitis" reported to FDA during 2005-2015 were analyzed. Among these 1,075 reports, 925 (86.0%) were reported by a contact lens manufacturer and 150 (14.0%) by an eye care provider or patient. Overall, 213 (19.8%) reports described a patient who had a central corneal scar, had a decrease in visual acuity, or required a corneal transplant following the event. Among the reports, 270 (25.1%) described modifiable factors known to be associated with an increased risk for contact lens-related corneal infections, including sleeping in contact lenses or poor contact lens hygiene; the remainder did not provide details that permitted determination of associated factors. Continued efforts to educate contact lens wearers about prevention of contact lens-related eye infections are needed. PMID:27538244

  1. Susceptible-infected-recovered epidemics in dynamic contact networks.

    PubMed

    Volz, Erik; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2007-12-01

    Contact patterns in populations fundamentally influence the spread of infectious diseases. Current mathematical methods for epidemiological forecasting on networks largely assume that contacts between individuals are fixed, at least for the duration of an outbreak. In reality, contact patterns may be quite fluid, with individuals frequently making and breaking social or sexual relationships. Here, we develop a mathematical approach to predicting disease transmission on dynamic networks in which each individual has a characteristic behaviour (typical contact number), but the identities of their contacts change in time. We show that dynamic contact patterns shape epidemiological dynamics in ways that cannot be adequately captured in static network models or mass-action models. Our new model interpolates smoothly between static network models and mass-action models using a mixing parameter, thereby providing a bridge between disparate classes of epidemiological models. Using epidemiological and sexual contact data from an Atlanta high school, we demonstrate the application of this method for forecasting and controlling sexually transmitted disease outbreaks. PMID:17878137

  2. WZ Cephei: A Close Binary at the Beginning of Contact Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.

    2009-12-01

    Photometric photoelectric data of the short-period close binary system, WZ Cephei, are presented. A new photometric analysis with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney method confirmed that it is a shallow contact binary (f ~ 13.3%) with a high level of spot activity on the primary component. Combining new determined times of light minimum with the others published in the literature, the period change of the binary star is investigated. A periodic variation, with a period of 34.2 years and an amplitude of 0fd013, was discovered to be superimposed on a long-term period decrease (dP/dt = -8.8 × 10-8 days year-1). Both the secular period decrease and the shallow contact configuration suggest that this binary system is at the beginning of contact phase. It is on the way to evolving into a normal overcontact phase via secular angular momentum loss and/or mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive one. The period oscillation can be explained either by the light-time effect due to the presence of a third body or by magnetic activity. On the one hand, if it is caused by the light-time effect, the mass and the orbital radius of the additional body should be m 3 = 0.17 M sun and a 3 = 26.6 AU, respectively, when this body is coplanar to the orbit of the eclipsing pair. On the other hand, since the system shows high levels of spot activity, the period oscillation may be explained as a consequence of magnetic cycles. In this case, the required variation of the quadrupole moment is calculated to be 9.2 × 1049 g cm2.

  3. Clonal Differences between Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) Recovered from Children and Animals Living in Close Contact in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Dione, Michel M.; Ikumapayi, Usman N.; Saha, Debasish; Mohammed, Nuredin I.; Geerts, Stanny; Ieven, Margareta; Adegbola, Richard A.; Antonio, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is an important cause of invasive bacterial disease and associated with mortality in Africa. However, little is known about the environmental reservoirs and predominant modes of transmission. Our study aimed to study the role of domestic animals in the transmission of NTS to humans in rural area of The Gambia. Methodology Human NTS isolates were obtained through an active population-based case-control surveillance study designated to determine the aetiology and epidemiology of enteric infections covering 27,567 Gambian children less than five years of age in the surveillance area. Fourteen children infected with NTS were traced back to their family compounds and anal swabs collected from 210 domestic animals present in their households. Identified NTSs were serotyped and genotyped by multi-locus sequencing typing. Principal Findings NTS was identified from 21/210 animal sources in the households of the 14 infected children. Chickens carried NTS more frequently than sheep and goats; 66.6%, 28.6% and 4.8% respectively. The most common NTS serovars were S. Colindale in humans (21.42%) and S. Poona in animals (14.28%). MLST on the 35 NTS revealed four new alleles and 24 sequence types (ST) of which 18 (75%) STs were novel. There was no overlap in serovars or genotypes of NTS recovered from humans or animal sources in the same household. Conclusion Our results do not support the hypothesis that humans and animals in close contact in the same household carry genotypically similar Salmonella serovars. These findings form an important baseline for future studies of transmission of NTS in humans and animals in Africa. PMID:21655353

  4. Polymicrobial Infection of the Cornea Due to Contact Lens Wear

    PubMed Central

    Sızmaz, Selçuk; Bingöllü, Sibel; Erdem, Elif; Kibar, Filiz; Koltaş, Soner; Yağmur, Meltem; Ersöz, Reha

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old male presented with pain and redness in his left eye. He had a history of wearing contact lenses. His ophthalmic examination revealed a large corneal ulcer with surrounding infiltrate. Cultures were isolated from the contact lenses, lens solutions, storage cases, and conjunctivae of both eyes and also corneal scrapings of the left eye. Fortified vancomycin and amikacin drops were started hourly. Culture results of conjunctivae of each eye and left cornea were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; cultures from the contact lenses, lens solution and storage case of both eyes revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. Polymerase chain reaction of the corneal scraping was positive for Acanthameoba. The topical antibiotics were changed with ones that both bacteria were sensitive to and anti-amoebic therapy was added. The patient had two recurrences following initial presentation despite intensive therapy. Keratitis occurred due to multiple pathogens; the relapsing course despite adequate therapy is potentially associated with this polymicrobial etiology. PMID:27800266

  5. Increased risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in household child contacts exposed to passive tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Saranya; Karnani, Nisha; Connell, David W; Millington, Kerry A; Dosanjh, Davinder; Bakir, Mustafa; Soysal, Ahmet; Deeks, Jonathan; Lalvani, Ajit

    2014-12-01

    Risk factors associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection were investigated in a prospective cohort of household child tuberculosis contacts. A significantly increased risk of acquiring infection was associated with exposure to passive cigarette smoke, higher number of index cases, younger age and reduced household monthly income.

  6. Mycobacterium marinum infection following contact with reptiles: vivarium granuloma.

    PubMed

    Bouricha, Mehdi; Castan, Bernard; Duchene-Parisi, Elisabeth; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-04-01

    A 19-year-old man presented with a 1.5-cm nodule on the first dorsal metacarpal ray. The patient denied having contact with fish tanks or fish, but recalled handling many reptiles without gloves in the vivarium where he worked. A culture of a skin biopsy specimen yielded Mycobacterium marinum. The clinical outcome was favourable after a 2-week course of intramuscular gentamicin (180 mg daily) combined with a 6-week course of oral clarithromycin (500 mg twice a day). Doctors should be aware that vivariums, in addition to fish tanks, can be sources of M. marinum exposure. PMID:24530276

  7. Mycobacterium marinum infection following contact with reptiles: vivarium granuloma.

    PubMed

    Bouricha, Mehdi; Castan, Bernard; Duchene-Parisi, Elisabeth; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-04-01

    A 19-year-old man presented with a 1.5-cm nodule on the first dorsal metacarpal ray. The patient denied having contact with fish tanks or fish, but recalled handling many reptiles without gloves in the vivarium where he worked. A culture of a skin biopsy specimen yielded Mycobacterium marinum. The clinical outcome was favourable after a 2-week course of intramuscular gentamicin (180 mg daily) combined with a 6-week course of oral clarithromycin (500 mg twice a day). Doctors should be aware that vivariums, in addition to fish tanks, can be sources of M. marinum exposure.

  8. Genotype Analysis of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Children and Chickens Living in Close Contact

    PubMed Central

    Kariuki, S.; Gilks, C.; Kimari, J.; Obanda, A.; Muyodi, J.; Waiyaki, P.; Hart, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates from rectal swabs from 62 chickens and stools from 42 children living in close contact with chickens on the same farms in Kiambu district, Kenya, were compared for their genetic relatedness. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles broadly categorized isolates from the children and from the chickens into two separate clusters: the majority (144; 85.5%) of the E. coli isolates from children were multidrug resistant, while the majority (216; 87.1%) of the E. coli isolates from chickens were either fully susceptible or resistant only to tetracycline. Sixty- and 100- to 110-MDA plasmids were found to encode the transferable resistance to co-trimoxazole and tetracycline. HindIII restriction endonuclease digestion of the 60- and 100- to 110-MDA plasmids produced four distinct patterns for isolates from children and three distinct patterns for isolates from chickens. XbaI digestion of genomic DNA followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis produced 14 distinct clusters. There were six distinct PFGE clusters among the isolates from children, while among the isolates from chickens there were seven distinct clusters. Only one PFGE cluster contained isolates from both children and chickens, with the isolates displaying an approximately 60% coefficient of similarity. This study showed that although several different genotypes of E. coli were isolated from children and chickens from the same farms, the E. coli strains from these two sources were distinct. PMID:9925570

  9. Lack of Marburg Virus Transmission From Experimentally Infected to Susceptible In-Contact Egyptian Fruit Bats.

    PubMed

    Paweska, Janusz T; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Fenton, Karla A; Graves, Kerry; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A; Moolla, Naazneen; Leman, Patricia; Weyer, Jacqueline; Storm, Nadia; McCulloch, Stewart D; Scott, Terence P; Markotter, Wanda; Odendaal, Lieza; Clift, Sarah J; Geisbert, Thomas W; Hale, Martin J; Kemp, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) were inoculated subcutaneously (n = 22) with Marburg virus (MARV). No deaths, overt signs of morbidity, or gross lesions was identified, but microscopic pathological changes were seen in the liver of infected bats. The virus was detected in 15 different tissues and plasma but only sporadically in mucosal swab samples, urine, and fecal samples. Neither seroconversion nor viremia could be demonstrated in any of the in-contact susceptible bats (n = 14) up to 42 days after exposure to infected bats. In bats rechallenged (n = 4) on day 48 after infection, there was no viremia, and the virus could not be isolated from any of the tissues tested. This study confirmed that infection profiles are consistent with MARV replication in a reservoir host but failed to demonstrate MARV transmission through direct physical contact or indirectly via air. Bats develop strong protective immunity after infection with MARV.

  10. Experience with Morgan perfusion contact lens in treating eye infections and burns.

    PubMed

    Oppong, M C

    1975-09-01

    The effects of a new therapeutic perfusion contact lens upon heavy infections and severe burns had been observed in 30 cases. We conclude that this method is advantageous, where there is a shortage of nursing personnel. We also consider the advisability of instructing sick bay attendants in large factories and military personnel in the use of the contact lens in order to bridge the critical phase between injury and hospital treatment.

  11. Mitochondrial dynamics and viral infections: A close nexus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohsin; Syed, Gulam Hussain; Kim, Seong-Jun; Siddiqui, Aleem

    2015-10-01

    Viruses manipulate cellular machinery and functions to subvert intracellular environment conducive for viral proliferation. They strategically alter functions of the multitasking mitochondria to influence energy production, metabolism, survival, and immune signaling. Mitochondria either occur as heterogeneous population of individual organelles or large interconnected tubular network. The mitochondrial network is highly susceptible to physiological and environmental insults, including viral infections, and is dynamically maintained by mitochondrial fission and fusion. Mitochondrial dynamics in tandem with mitochondria-selective autophagy 'mitophagy' coordinates mitochondrial quality control and homeostasis. Mitochondrial dynamics impacts cellular homeostasis, metabolism, and innate-immune signaling, and thus can be major determinant of the outcome of viral infections. Herein, we review how mitochondrial dynamics is affected during viral infections and how this complex interplay benefits the viral infectious process and associated diseases.

  12. Patterns of direct and indirect contact between cattle and badgers naturally infected with tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Drewe, J A; O'Connor, H M; Weber, N; McDonald, R A; Delahay, R J

    2013-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis is transmitted between cattle and badgers (Meles meles) in the UK and Ireland but it is unclear where or when transmission occurs. We investigated direct and indirect interactions between badgers and cattle using automated proximity loggers on animals and at badger latrines located on pasture, in an area of south-west England with a high-density badger population. Direct contacts (interactions within 1.4 m) between badgers and cattle at pasture were very rare (four out of >500000 recorded animal-to-animal contacts) despite ample opportunity for interactions to occur. Indirect interactions (visits to badger latrines by badgers and cattle) were two orders of magnitude more frequent than direct contacts: 400 visits by badgers and 1700 visits by cattle were recorded. This suggests that indirect contacts might be more important than direct contacts in terms of disease transmission at pasture. The TB infection status of individual badgers (ascribed with 93% accuracy using three diagnostic tests) did not affect the frequency or duration of their visits to latrines located on pasture grazed by cattle. Nevertheless, there was wide variation in contact behaviour between individuals, which highlights the importance of understanding heterogeneity in contact patterns when developing strategies to control disease spread in wildlife and livestock.

  13. Social buffering and contact transmission: network connections have beneficial and detrimental effects on Shigella infection risk among captive rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Beisner, Brianne; Vandeleest, Jessica; Atwill, Edward; McCowan, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    In social animals, group living may impact the risk of infectious disease acquisition in two ways. On the one hand, social connectedness puts individuals at greater risk or susceptibility for acquiring enteric pathogens via contact-mediated transmission. Yet conversely, in strongly bonded societies like humans and some nonhuman primates, having close connections and strong social ties of support can also socially buffer individuals against susceptibility or transmissibility of infectious agents. Using social network analyses, we assessed the potentially competing roles of contact-mediated transmission and social buffering on the risk of infection from an enteric bacterial pathogen (Shigella flexneri) among captive groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Our results indicate that, within two macaque groups, individuals possessing more direct and especially indirect connections in their grooming and huddling social networks were less susceptible to infection. These results are in sharp contrast to several previous studies that indicate that increased (direct) contact-mediated transmission facilitates infectious disease transmission, including our own findings in a third macaque group in which individuals central in their huddling network and/or which initiated more fights were more likely to be infected. In summary, our findings reveal that an individual’s social connections may increase or decrease its chances of acquiring infectious agents. They extend the applicability of the social buffering hypothesis, beyond just stress and immune-function-related health benefits, to the additional health outcome of infectious disease resistance. Finally, we speculate that the circumstances under which social buffering versus contact-mediated transmission may occur could depend on multiple factors, such as living condition, pathogen-specific transmission routes, and/or an overall social context such as a group’s social stability. PMID:27812426

  14. Opening closed minds: the combined effects of intergroup contact and need for closure on prejudice.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Kristof; Roets, Arne; Van Hiel, Alain

    2011-04-01

    Five studies tested whether need for closure (NFC) moderates the relation between intergroup contact and prejudice toward immigrants. The results consistently showed that intergroup contact was more strongly associated with reduced levels of prejudice among people high in NFC compared to people low in NFC. Studies 1 (N = 138 students) and 2 (N = 294 adults) demonstrated this moderator effect on subtle, modern, and blatant racism. Study 2 also replicated the moderator effect for extended contact. An experimental field study (Study 3; N = 60 students) provided evidence of the causal direction of the moderator effect. Finally, Studies 4 (N = 125 students) and 5 (N = 135 adults) identified intergroup anxiety as the mediator through which the moderator effect influences modern and blatant racism as well as hostile tendencies toward immigrants. The role of motivated cognition in the relation between intergroup contact and prejudice is discussed.

  15. Distance of the contact glide in the closing masticatory stroke during mastication of three types of food.

    PubMed

    Rilo, B; Fernández-Formoso, N; Mora, M J; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Santana, U

    2009-08-01

    This study was designed to characterize the distance of the contact glide in the closing masticatory stroke in healthy adult subjects, during chewing of three types of food (crustless bread, chewing gum and peanuts). Mandibular movements (masticatory movements and laterality movements with dental contact) were registered using a gnathograph (MK-6I Diagnostic System) on the right and left side during unilateral chewing of the three food types. Length of dental contact was measured in masticatory cycle, which is defined as where the terminal part of the chewing cycles could be superimposed on the pathways taken by the mandible during lateral excursions with occlusal contacts. The length of dental contact during mastication of chewing gum is 1.46 +/- 1 mm, during chewing of soft bread is 1.38 +/- 0.7 mm and during chewing of peanuts is 1.45 +/- 0.9 mm. There is no significant difference in the lengths of dental contact during mastication of three types of foods that enable direct tooth gliding. PMID:19453848

  16. Distance of the contact glide in the closing masticatory stroke during mastication of three types of food.

    PubMed

    Rilo, B; Fernández-Formoso, N; Mora, M J; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Santana, U

    2009-08-01

    This study was designed to characterize the distance of the contact glide in the closing masticatory stroke in healthy adult subjects, during chewing of three types of food (crustless bread, chewing gum and peanuts). Mandibular movements (masticatory movements and laterality movements with dental contact) were registered using a gnathograph (MK-6I Diagnostic System) on the right and left side during unilateral chewing of the three food types. Length of dental contact was measured in masticatory cycle, which is defined as where the terminal part of the chewing cycles could be superimposed on the pathways taken by the mandible during lateral excursions with occlusal contacts. The length of dental contact during mastication of chewing gum is 1.46 +/- 1 mm, during chewing of soft bread is 1.38 +/- 0.7 mm and during chewing of peanuts is 1.45 +/- 0.9 mm. There is no significant difference in the lengths of dental contact during mastication of three types of foods that enable direct tooth gliding.

  17. The mathematical models of electromagnetic field dynamics and heat transfer in closed electrical contacts including Thomson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharin, Stanislav; Sarsengeldin, Merey; Kassabek, Samat

    2016-08-01

    We represent mathematical models of electromagnetic field dynamics and heat transfer in closed symmetric and asymmetric electrical contacts including Thomson effect, which are essentially nonlinear due to the dependence of thermal and electrical conductivities on temperature. Suggested solutions are based on the assumption of identity of equipotentials and isothermal surfaces, which agrees with experimental data and valid for both linear and nonlinear cases. Well known Kohlrausch temperature-potential relation is analytically justified.

  18. Transmission dynamics of pancreas disease (PD) in a Norwegian fjord: aspects of water transport, contact networks and infection pressure among salmon farms.

    PubMed

    Stene, A; Viljugrein, H; Yndestad, H; Tavornpanich, S; Skjerve, E

    2014-02-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) in marine salmon farming is caused by salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV). Virus survival, infection pressure and contact networks among farms influence the potential of PD to spread. The present study aims to explore contact networks and infection pressure and their ability to explain transmission dynamics of PD in a Norwegian fjord. In this study, we included all records of PD by subtype 3 (SPDV3) in the study population from the first reported in August 2006 to the last reported in November 2009. Using logistic regression analyses, we found that contact network by water transport explained better transmission of PD than contact networks defined by ownership or close distance to infected farms. Hydrodynamic modelling can be a valuable tool to forecast the spread of PD and thereby take actions to reduce the transmission. Knowing the risk of getting infected, it is important to avoid water transport from infected farms when new cohorts are transferred to sea water, and to have conscious control regarding management operations between farms.

  19. Infection risk associated with a closed luer access device.

    PubMed

    Adams, D; Karpanen, T; Worthington, T; Lambert, P; Elliott, T S J

    2006-03-01

    The potential for microbial contamination associated with a recently developed needleless closed luer access device (CLAD) (Q-Syte; Becton Dickinson, Sandy, UT, USA) was evaluated in vitro. Compression seals of 50 multiply activated Q-Syte devices were inoculated with Staphylococcus epidermidis NCTC 9865 in 25% (v/v) human blood and then disinfected with 70% (v/v) isopropyl alcohol followed by flushing with 0.9% (w/v) sterile saline. Forty-eight of 50 (96%) saline flushes passed through devices that had been activated up to a maximum of 70 times remained sterile. A further 25 Q-Syte CLADs that had undergone multiple activations were challenged with prefilled 0.9% (w/v) sterile saline syringes, the external luer tips of which had been inoculated with S. epidermidis NCTC 9865 prior to accessing the devices. None of the devices that had been accessed up to 70 times allowed passage of micro-organisms, despite challenge micro-organisms being detected on both the syringe tip after activation and the compression seals before decontamination. These findings suggest that the Q-Syte CLAD may be activated up to 70 times with no increased risk of microbial contamination within the fluid pathway. The device may also offer protection from the external surface of syringe tips contaminated with micro-organisms. PMID:16406139

  20. Potential for Non-Contact ACL Injury Between Step-Close-Jump and Hop-Jump Tasks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-I; Gu, Chin-Yi; Chen, Wei-Ling; Chang, Mu-San

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the kinematics and kinetics during the landing of hop-jump and step-close-jump movements in order to provide further inferring that the potential risk of ACL injuries. Eleven elite male volleyball players were recruited to perform hop-jump and step-close-jump tasks. Lower extremity kinematics and ground reaction forces during landing in stop-jump tasks were recorded. Lower extremity kinetics was calculated by using an inverse dynamic process. Step-close-jump tasks demonstrated smaller peak proximal tibia anterior shear forces during the landing phase. In step-close-jump tasks, increasing hip joint angular velocity during initial foot-ground contact decreased peak posterior ground reaction force during the landing phase, which theoretically could reduce the risk of ACL injury. Key pointsThe different landing techniques required for these two stop-jump tasks do not necessarily affect the jump height.Hop-jump decreased the hip joint angular velocity at initial foot contact with ground, which could lead to an increasing peak posterior GRF during the landing phase.Hop-jump decreased hip and knee joint angular flexion displacement during the landing, which could increase the peak vertical loading rate during the landing phase.

  1. Prosthetic Arteriovenous Graft Contact Dermatitis Masquerading as an Arteriovenous Graft Infection in a Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ramagiri-Vinod, Nagadarshini; Tahir, Hassan; Narukonda, Sandhya; Joshi, Medha

    2016-01-01

    Prosthetic arteriovenous (AV) graft is the second most common vascular access of choice in hemodialysis patients. Rare complications of such grafts are increasingly seen due to rising population of patients on hemodialysis. Infections and thrombosis are the most common complications. Though metallic implants are known to cause hypersensitivity skin reactions, prosthetic AV grafts are rarely known to cause such kind of reactions due to inert nature of materials used in their preparation. We present a case of 54-year-old male who developed contact dermatitis after AV graft creation which was mistreated initially as infection. PMID:27493977

  2. Serological Study of An Imported Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome and His Close Contacts in China, 2015.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen Ling; Wang, Hui Juan; Deng, Yao; Song, Tie; Lan, Jia Ming; Wu, Gui Zhen; Ke, Chang Wen; Tan, Wen Jie

    2016-03-01

    The first imported Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) case in China was identified in May 2015. We determined the kinetics of antibody (IgG and IgM) and neutralizing antibodies against MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in this case before discharge. Moreover, no seroconversion was found among 53 close contacts by anti-MERS IgG antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of paired serum samples. These findings suggest that neither community nor nosocomial transmission of MERS-CoV occurred in China. PMID:27109133

  3. Dynamics of African swine fever virus shedding and excretion in domestic pigs infected by intramuscular inoculation and contact transmission.

    PubMed

    Guinat, Claire; Reis, Ana Luisa; Netherton, Christopher L; Goatley, Lynnette; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Dixon, Linda

    2014-09-26

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly virulent swine pathogen that has spread across Eastern Europe since 2007 and for which there is no effective vaccine or treatment available. The dynamics of shedding and excretion is not well known for this currently circulating ASFV strain. Therefore, susceptible pigs were exposed to pigs intramuscularly infected with the Georgia 2007/1 ASFV strain to measure those dynamics through within- and between-pen transmission scenarios. Blood, oral, nasal and rectal fluid samples were tested for the presence of ASFV by virus titration (VT) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Serum was tested for the presence of ASFV-specific antibodies. Both intramuscular inoculation and contact transmission resulted in development of acute disease in all pigs although the experiments indicated that the pathogenesis of the disease might be different, depending on the route of infection. Infectious ASFV was first isolated in blood among the inoculated pigs by day 3, and then chronologically among the direct and indirect contact pigs, by day 10 and 13, respectively. Close to the onset of clinical signs, higher ASFV titres were found in blood compared with nasal and rectal fluid samples among all pigs. No infectious ASFV was isolated in oral fluid samples although ASFV genome copies were detected. Only one animal developed antibodies starting after 12 days post-inoculation. The results provide quantitative data on shedding and excretion of the Georgia 2007/1 ASFV strain among domestic pigs and suggest a limited potential of this isolate to cause persistent infection.

  4. [Water contacts in dracunculiasis-infected patients in Mali: transmission risk activities].

    PubMed

    Etard, J F; Kodio, B; Traoré, S; Audibert, M

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study lies in the identification of human activities responsible for the transmission of the Guinea worm in an endemic village in Diema Region in Mali. Human water contacts observations started after a census followed by the implementation of a bi-monthly notification system, carried out from May to November 1993. Water contacts were noticed and observed from the mid-July to the end of November of the same year. The first case of dracunculiasis observed was randomly drawn out of a list of the families with obvious cases. The patent case activities involving either surface water, traditional wells or bore-hole water were recorded for 10 consecutive days. During this observation period, contacts made by other patients with the same water sources were also recorded. After 14 days, the case list was updated and a new case selected out of families previously selected. This cycle was repeated until the end of the study period. A "contact at risk for transmission" was defined by a close correspondence between the location of the worm's emergence and the surface of the skin exposed to water, within two weeks following emergence. Contacts were described according to water sources, activities in relation to water, date, gender and age. Observations were made on 103 patients who had 2506 activities in relation with a water body: 1132 of these activities implied a skin contact with the water. Only 133 (9%) of these water contacts were at risk for transmission, 75% took place during the months of August and September, 80% were related to surface waters and 20% to traditional wells. Woman household activities and boys games were the major activities at risk, in contrast to economic activities (watering cattle). The low proportion of "at risk activities" evaluated in this study suggests that a small number of water contacts is sufficient to maintain the transmission. The case implications of the current eradication strategy might not be sufficient alone to break

  5. Infection dynamics in structured populations with disease awareness based on neighborhood contact history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lang

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, continuing efforts have been directed to revealing the effect of human behavioral responses in the spread of infectious diseases. In this paper, we propose an implementation mechanism of disease awareness via individual self-perception from neighborhood contact histories (NCHs), where each individual is capable of memorizing a sequence of his infectious contacts earlier time, and adaptively adjusting the contact rate with his neighboring individuals as a preventive strategy from risks of exposure to infection. Both analytical and numerical results show that the NCH-based self-perceived awareness is a simple, but efficient disease control measure, which can greatly reduce the outbreak size of infectious diseases. We further examine the effects of a centralized disease control measure, which corresponds, for comparison, to an NCH-independent and uniformly aroused disease awareness. We find our proposed strategy outperforms the centralized one in a much larger and more practical range of epidemiological parameters, which also highlight the importance of the NCH-based awareness information in guidance of the individual protective behavior against infectious diseases.

  6. Salmonellosis outbreak due to chicken contact leading to a foodborne outbreak associated with infected delicatessen workers.

    PubMed

    Hedican, Erin; Miller, Ben; Ziemer, Brian; LeMaster, Pam; Jawahir, Selina; Leano, Fe; Smith, Kirk

    2010-08-01

    Salmonella is the most common bacterial cause of foodborne outbreaks in the United States. Starting in June 2007, investigation of a cluster of Salmonella Montevideo cases with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns resulted in the identification of an outbreak associated with contact with chickens purchased from a single hatchery. Nine Minnesota cases from May through August 2007 were part of this outbreak. Cases with the outbreak PFGE pattern of Salmonella Montevideo continued to occur in Minnesota after August, but none of these cases reported chicken contact. The majority of these cases resided in the same town in rural Minnesota. Routine interviews revealed that all cases from these counties purchased groceries from the same local grocery store, with two specifically reporting consuming items from the grocery store delicatessen in the week before illness. As a result, an investigation into the delicatessen was initiated. Illness histories and stool samples were collected from all delicatessen employees, and food and environmental samples were collected. None of the employees reported experiencing recent gastrointestinal symptoms, but the outbreak PFGE subtype of Salmonella Montevideo was identified from stool from two food workers. Food and environmental samples collected tested negative for Salmonella. One of the positive employees reported having chickens at home, but the animals did not test positive for Salmonella. The positive food workers were excluded from work until they had two consecutive negative stool cultures for Salmonella. There was no evidence of ongoing transmission thereafter. This was an outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infections that began as an animal-contact-associated outbreak which subsequently resulted in a foodborne outbreak associated with infected food workers. These outbreaks illustrate the complex epidemiology of salmonellosis.

  7. Novel Closing Method Using Subcutaneous Continuous Drain for Preventing Surgical Site Infections in Radical Cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Yasuhiko; Ando, Ryosuke; Nakane, Akihiro; Etani, Toshiki; Iida, Keitaro; Akita, Hidetoshi; Okamura, Takehiko; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after radical cystectomy, a new closing method using subcutaneous continuous aspiration drain was developed and compared to the conventional closing method. The new method involved (a) closed aspiration with an indwelling aspiration drain without suture of the subcutaneous fat and (b) covering with hydrocolloid wound dressing after suture of the dermis with 4-0 absorbable thread and reinforcement using strips. The incidence of SSI was significantly improved by using the new method. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analysis associated with SSI revealed that the new closing method was statistically correlated with 85% reduction of SSI (odds ratio: 0.15, 95% confidence interval: 0.03–0.69).Our new method using continuous aspiration with subcutaneous drain is useful for preventing SSI through removal of effusions and reduction of dead space by apposition of the subcutaneous fat. PMID:24734201

  8. Should we use closed or open infusion containers for prevention of bloodstream infections?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hospitalized patients in critical care settings are at risk for bloodstream infections (BSI). Most BSIs originate from a central line (CL), and they increase length of stay, cost, and mortality. Open infusion containers may increase the risk of contamination and administration-related (CLAB) because they allow the entry of air into the system, thereby also providing an opportunity for microbial entry. Closed infusion containers were designed to overcome this flaw. However, open infusion containers are still widely used throughout the world. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of switching from open (glass, burettes, and semi-rigid) infusion containers to closed, fully collapsible, plastic infusion containers (Viaflex®) on the rate and time to onset of central line-associated bloodstream infections CLABs. Methods An open label, prospective cohort, active healthcare-associated infection surveillance, sequential study was conducted in four ICUs in Mexico. Centers for Disease Control National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance Systems definitions were used to define device-associated infections. Results A total of 1,096 adult patients who had a central line in place for >24 hours were enrolled. The CLAB rate was significantly higher during the open versus the closed container period (16.1 versus 3.2 CLAB/1000 central line days; RR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.11-0.36, P < 0.0001). The probability of developing CLAB remained relatively constant in the closed container period (1.4% Days 2-4 to 0.5% Days 8-10), but increased in the open container period (4.9% Days 2-4 to 5.4% Days 8-10). The chance of acquiring a CLAB was significantly decreased (81%) in the closed container period (Cox proportional hazard ratio 0.19, P < 0.0001). Mortality was statistically significantly lower during the closed versus the open container period (23.4% versus 16.1%; RR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.54-0.88, P < 0.01). Conclusions Closed infusion containers significantly reduced

  9. Lack of Transmission among Close Contacts of Patient with Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Imported into the United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Breakwell, Lucy; Pringle, Kimberly; Chea, Nora; Allen, Donna; Allen, Steve; Richards, Shawn; Pantones, Pam; Sandoval, Michelle; Liu, Lixia; Vernon, Michael; Conover, Craig; Chugh, Rashmi; DeMaria, Alfred; Burns, Rachel; Smole, Sandra; Gerber, Susan I; Cohen, Nicole J; Kuhar, David; Haynes, Lia M; Schneider, Eileen; Kumar, Alan; Kapoor, Minal; Madrigal, Marlene; Swerdlow, David L; Feikin, Daniel R

    2015-07-01

    In May 2014, a traveler from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was the first person identified with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in the United States. To evaluate transmission risk, we determined the type, duration, and frequency of patient contact among health care personnel (HCP), household, and community contacts by using standard questionnaires and, for HCP, global positioning system (GPS) tracer tag logs. Respiratory and serum samples from all contacts were tested for MERS-CoV. Of 61 identified contacts, 56 were interviewed. HCP exposures occurred most frequently in the emergency department (69%) and among nurses (47%); some HCP had contact with respiratory secretions. Household and community contacts had brief contact (e.g., hugging). All laboratory test results were negative for MERS-CoV. This contact investigation found no secondary cases, despite case-patient contact by 61 persons, and provides useful information about MERS-CoV transmission risk. Compared with GPS tracer tag recordings, self-reported contact may not be as accurate. PMID:26079176

  10. Lack of Transmission among Close Contacts of Patient with Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Imported into the United States, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Breakwell, Lucy; Pringle, Kimberly; Chea, Nora; Allen, Donna; Allen, Steve; Richards, Shawn; Pantones, Pam; Sandoval, Michelle; Liu, Lixia; Vernon, Michael; Conover, Craig; Chugh, Rashmi; DeMaria, Alfred; Burns, Rachel; Smole, Sandra; Gerber, Susan I.; Cohen, Nicole J; Kuhar, David; Haynes, Lia M.; Schneider, Eileen; Kumar, Alan; Kapoor, Minal; Madrigal, Marlene; Swerdlow, David L.

    2015-01-01

    In May 2014, a traveler from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was the first person identified with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in the United States. To evaluate transmission risk, we determined the type, duration, and frequency of patient contact among health care personnel (HCP), household, and community contacts by using standard questionnaires and, for HCP, global positioning system (GPS) tracer tag logs. Respiratory and serum samples from all contacts were tested for MERS-CoV. Of 61 identified contacts, 56 were interviewed. HCP exposures occurred most frequently in the emergency department (69%) and among nurses (47%); some HCP had contact with respiratory secretions. Household and community contacts had brief contact (e.g., hugging). All laboratory test results were negative for MERS-CoV. This contact investigation found no secondary cases, despite case-patient contact by 61 persons, and provides useful information about MERS-CoV transmission risk. Compared with GPS tracer tag recordings, self-reported contact may not be as accurate. PMID:26079176

  11. Quantitative Proteomic Analyses of Human Cytomegalovirus-Induced Restructuring of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Contacts at Late Times of Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aiping; Williamson, Chad D.; Wong, Daniel S.; Bullough, Matthew D.; Brown, Kristy J.; Hathout, Yetrib; Colberg-Poley, Anamaris M.

    2011-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contacts, known as mitochondria-associated membranes, regulate important cellular functions including calcium signaling, bioenergetics, and apoptosis. Human cytomegalovirus is a medically important herpesvirus whose growth increases energy demand and depends upon continued cell survival. To gain insight into how human cytomegalovirus infection affects endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contacts, we undertook quantitative proteomics of mitochondria-associated membranes using differential stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture strategy and liquid chromatography-tandem MS analysis. This is the first reported quantitative proteomic analyses of a suborganelle during permissive human cytomegalovirus infection. Human fibroblasts were uninfected or human cytomegalovirus-infected for 72 h. Heavy mitochondria-associated membranes were isolated from paired unlabeled, uninfected cells and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture-labeled, infected cells and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem MS analysis. The results were verified by a reverse labeling experiment. Human cytomegalovirus infection dramatically altered endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contacts by late times. Notable is the increased abundance of several fundamental networks in the mitochondria-associated membrane fraction of human cytomegalovirus-infected fibroblasts. Chaperones, including HSP60 and BiP, which is required for human cytomegalovirus assembly, were prominently increased at endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contacts after infection. Minimal translational and translocation machineries were also associated with endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contacts and increased after human cytomegalovirus infection as were glucose regulated protein 75 and the voltage dependent anion channel, which can form an endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial calcium signaling complex. Surprisingly, mitochondrial metabolic enzymes and cytosolic

  12. Hospital contacts with infection and risk of schizophrenia: a population-based cohort study with linkage of Danish national registers.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Philip R; Benros, Michael E; Mortensen, Preben B

    2014-11-01

    Infections and immune responses have been suggested to play an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Several studies have reported associations between maternal infections during pregnancy and the child's risk of schizophrenia; however, infection during childhood and adolescence unrelated to maternal infection during pregnancy has not been studied to nearly the same extent and the results are far from conclusive. Data were drawn from 2 population-based registers, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. We used a historical population-based cohort design and selected all individuals born in Denmark between 1981 and 1996 (n = 843 390). We identified all individuals with a first-time hospital contact with schizophrenia from 1991 through 2010. Out of the 3409 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, a total of 1549 individuals had had a hospital contact with infection before their schizophrenia diagnosis (45%). Our results indicate that individuals who have had a hospital contact with infection are more likely to develop schizophrenia (relative risk [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.32-1.51) than individuals who had not had such a hospital contact. Bacterial infection was the type of infection that was associated with the highest risk of schizophrenia (RR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.47-1.82). Our study does not exclude that a certain type of infection may have a specific effect; yet, it does suggest that schizophrenia is associated with a wide range of infections. This association may be due to inflammatory responses affecting the brain or genetic and environmental risk factors aggregating in families.

  13. TRANSMISSION AND RISK FACTORS FOR LATENT TUBERCULOSIS INFECTIONS AMONG INDEX CASE-MATCHED HOUSEHOLD CONTACTS.

    PubMed

    Faksri, Kiatichai; Reechaipichitkul, Wipa; Pimrin, Wilailuk; Bourpoern, Janpen; Prompinij, Supapim

    2015-05-01

    An understanding of the risk factors associated with acquiring and transmitting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is required for controlling tuberculosis (TB). We aimed to determine the risk factors and transmission factors for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in northeastern Thailand. Household contact persons (n = 70) and matched index patients with pulmonary TB (n = 42) who presented to Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand were interviewed from September 1, 2012 to March 31, 2014. LTBI was determined by positive results on both a tuberculin skin test and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test. Multivariate analysis of host and environmental risk factors was performed. Among contact persons, being aged 20 years (adjusted OR=14.0; 95% CI: 1.2-159.5), having a family relationship with a TB subject such as being a spouse or parent (adjusted OR=24.9; 95% CI: 2.4-263.9) and exposure to a TB subject for 5 hours/day (adjusted OR=9.2; 95% CI: 1.4-58.1) were risk factors for LTBI. Having a high bacillary load (adjusted OR=2; 95% CI: 1.26-3.17) or a moderate bacillary load (adjusted OR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.04-1.84) among TB subjects correlated with increased transmissibility compared to having a low bacillary load. The type of dwelling and density of household members were not found to be risk factors for LTBI in our study. We conclude being aged 20 years and having a relationship with a TB patient as a spouse or parent were risk factors for acquiring LTBI, and having a higher bacillary load was a risk factor for transmitting TB. Keywords: latent tuberculosis infection, transmission factor, risk factor, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, interferon-gamma release assay, Thailand PMID:26521523

  14. Familiarity breeds contempt: combining proximity loggers and GPS reveals female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) avoiding close contact with neighbors.

    PubMed

    Tosa, Marie I; Schauber, Eric M; Nielsen, Clayton K

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions can influence infectious disease dynamics, particularly for directly transmitted pathogens. Therefore, reliable information on contact frequency within and among groups can better inform disease modeling and management. We compared three methods of assessing contact patterns: (1) space-use overlap (volume of interaction [VI]), (2) direct contact rates measured by simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) locations (<10 m apart), and (3) direct contact rates measured by proximity loggers (PLs; 1-m detection) among female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We calculated the PL∶GPS contact ratios to see whether both devices reveal similar contact patterns and thus predict similar pathogen transmission patterns. Contact rates measured by GPS and PLs were similarly high for two within-group dyads (pairs of deer in the same social groups). Dyads representing separate but neighboring groups (high VI) had PL∶GPS contact ratios near zero, whereas dyads further apart (intermediate VI) had higher PL∶GPS contact ratios. Social networks based on PL contacts showed the fewest connected individuals and lowest mean centrality measures; network metrics were intermediate when based on GPS contacts and greatest when based on VI. Thus, the VI network portrayed animals to be more uniformly and strongly connected than did the PL network. We conclude that simultaneous GPS locations, compared with PLs, substantially underestimate the impact of group membership on direct contact rates of female deer and make networks appear more connected. We also present evidence that deer coming within the general vicinity of each other are less likely to come in close contact if they are in neighboring social groups than deer whose home ranges overlap little if at all. Combined, these results provide evidence that direct transmission of disease agents among female and juvenile white-tailed deer is likely to be constrained both spatially and by social structure, more

  15. High Rate of Intestinal Colonization with Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Organisms in Household Contacts of Infected Community Patients▿

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, Aránzazu; Grill, Fabio; Coque, Teresa M.; Pintado, Vicente; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael; Cobo, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Fecal carriage of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms was detected in 70% of index cases of patients (n = 40) with community-acquired infections due to ESBL producers and reached 16.7% in household contacts (n = 54). A total of 66% of ESBL-producing organisms from index cases were indistinguishable from isolates from household contacts by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Patients with community infections and members of their households represent a reservoir for ESBL producers, increasing dispersal of resistance in healthy people. PMID:18562591

  16. Close relationships and safer sex among HIV-infected men with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Norman, L R; Kennedy, M; Parish, K

    1998-06-01

    The present study sought to inform future behavioural intervention efforts by obtaining information from HIV-positive heterosexual men with haemophilia about their attitudes towards close relationships, attitudes towards risk reduction practices, and actual risk reduction practices. HIV-infected males with haemophilia (n = 358) responded to a self-administered questionnaire. Men who reported being involved in a close relationship (n = 237) were compared to men who said that they were not involved at the time of data collection (n = 121). Involved men were more likely than uninvolved men to agree that close relationships provide benefits such as physical intimacy and communication, and that these benefits are important. Men who were not involved perceived more negative consequences of discussing HIV risk reduction with partners (including partner rejection and negative emotional reactions) than did involved men and were much more concerned about the potential negative consequences of risk reduction discussions. Involvement was associated with having disclosed HIV-seropositivity and having discussed HIV risk reduction. Risk reduction interventions for men with haemophilia who are not involved in close, sexual relationships should address positive and negative attitudes towards close relationships and towards discussing risk reduction. Interventions should emphasize communication skills and rehearsal of serostatus disclosure as well as of risk reduction discussions.

  17. Extended Release of an Anti–Heparan Sulfate Peptide From a Contact Lens Suppresses Corneal Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Buhrman, Jason S.; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Gemeinhart, Richard A.; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To prolong the release of a heparan sulfate binding peptide, G2-C, using a commercially available contact lens as a delivery vehicle and to demonstrate the ability of the released peptide to block herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of corneal HSV-1 infection. Methods Commercially available contact lenses were immersed in peptide solution for 5 days prior to determining the release of the peptide at various time points. Cytotoxicity of the released samples was determined by MTT and cell cycle analysis, and the functional activity of the released samples were assessed by viral entry, and viral spread assay using human corneal epithelial cells (HCE). The ability to suppress infection in human and pig cornea ex vivo and mouse in vivo models were also assessed. Results Peptide G2-C was released through the contact lens. Following release for 3 days, the peptide showed significant activity by inhibiting HSV-1 viral entry and spread in HCE cells. Significant suppression of infection was also observed in the ex vivo and in vivo experiments involving corneas. Conclusions Extended release of an anti–HS peptide through a commercially available contact lens can generate significant anti–HSV-1 activity and provides a new and effective way to control corneal herpes. PMID:26780322

  18. Exposure to Schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural area of Brazil. I: water contact.

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli, A; Bethony, J; Fraga, L A; LoVerde, P T; Correa-Oliveira, R; Kloos, H

    2001-02-01

    The study of water contact patterns in rural Brazil presents unique challenges due to widely dispersed settlement patterns, the ubiquity of water contact sites, and the privatization of water resources. This study addresses these challenges by comparing the two most widely used methods of assessing water contact behaviour: direct observation and survey. The results of a 7-day direct observation of water contact were compared with water contact surveys administered 1 week after and then 1 year after the direct observation study. The direct observation study recorded a water contact rate higher than reported by other investigators (3.2 contacts per person per day); however, 75% of these contacts were for females and consisted mainly of domestic activities occurring around the household. A comparison of the frequency of water contact activities between the direct observation and the two surveys revealed several important points. First, no significant differences were found between methods for routine water contact activities (e.g. bathing), indicating that participants were able to accurately self-report some types of water contact activities. Second, significant differences were found in the recording of water contact activities that took place outside the observation area, indicating that direct observation may under-report water contact activities in areas where contact sites are dispersed widely. Third, significant differences between the direct observation and the survey method were more common for males than for females, indicating that the combination of widespread water contact sites and gender-specific division of labour may result in under-reporting of male contacts by direct observation methods. In short, despite the limitations in the recording of duration and body exposure, the survey method may more accurately record the frequency of water contact activities than direct observation methods in areas of widely dispersed water contact sites. Hence, surveys

  19. Latent Tuberculosis Infection Diagnostic and Treatment Cascade among Contacts in Primary Health Care in a City of Sao Paulo State, Brazil: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a tool for global TB control, especially in close contacts. But data is scarce in high burden countries, under field conditions, including data on the benefits of LTBI management. Objective To analyze the LTBI diagnosis and treatment cascade among contacts in primary health care (PHC) services in São José do Rio Preto—SP, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional design, conducted with contacts of pulmonary TB patients followed in all PHC services. Data was collected from May to September 2014 in the Reporting System for TB cases (TBWEB) and Reporting System for Chemoprophylaxis. Medical records and treatment follow-up forms were reviewed and all the nurses responsible for TB in PHC services were interviewed. Results Among 336 contacts included, 267 (79.4%) were screened for TB or LTBI, according to the presence or not of respiratory symptoms. Among those contacts screened, 140 (52.4%) were symptomatic, 9 (3.4%) had TB disease, 106/221 (48%) had positive TST result, meeting the criteria for LTBI treatment, and 64/106 (60.4%) actually started it. Overall, among 267 screened, only 64 (24%) started LTBI treatment. The completion rates of treatment among the contacts who started it, those with positive TST result and those screened were 56.3% (36/64), 16.3% (36/221) and 13.5% (36/267), respectively. Nurses claimed that asymptomatic TB contacts pay no attention to preventive health care and do not seek medical care as they do not have symptoms of the disease. In reviewing the medical records, high proportions of contacts without evaluation, incomplete assessment, incorrect records of contraindication for LTBI treatment, lack of notes regarding the identification and evaluation of contacts were identified. Conclusions There is a need for better organization of the surveillance and investigation routine for contacts in PHC, considering the reorganization of the work process and the features of the

  20. INDUCTION OF CARDIAC LESIONS, CLOSELY RESEMBLING THOSE OF RHEUMATIC FEVER, IN RABBITS FOLLOWING REPEATED SKIN INFECTIONS WITH GROUP A STREPTOCOCCI

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, George E.; Swift, Homer F.

    1949-01-01

    Cardiac lesions, closely resembling those found in rheumatic fever, have developed in rabbits that sickened following multiple, successive skin infections with several serological types of group A streptococci. PMID:18129867

  1. Additional Evaluation of the Point-of-Contact Circulating Cathodic Antigen Assay for Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.; Kittur, Nupur; Ochola, Elizabeth; Cooper, Philip J.; Campbell, Carl H.; King, Charles H.; Colley, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the urine-based point-of-contact cathodic circulating antigen test (POC-CCA) in Schistosoma mansoni-endemic settings in Africa indicate it has good sensitivity in detecting infections, but in areas of low prevalence, the POC-CCA can be positive for persons who are egg-negative by Kato-Katz stool assays. We examined the POC-CCA assay for: (a) batch-to-batch stability; (b) intra-reader and inter-reader variability; (c) day-to-day variability compared to Kato-Katz stool assays, and (d) to see if praziquantel (PZQ) treatment converted Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals to POC-CCA negativity. We found essentially no batch-to-batch variation, negligible intra-reader variability (2%), and substantial agreement for inter-reader reliability. Some day-to-day variation was observed over 5 days of urine collection, but less than the variation in Kato-Katz stool assays over 3 days. To evaluate the effect of treatment on Kato-Katz(−)/POC-CCA(+) children, 149 children in an area of 10–15% prevalence who were Kato-Katz(−) based on 3 stool samples but POC-CCA(+) were enrolled. Seven days after treatment (PZQ 40 mg/kg) samples were again collected and tested. Almost half (47%) POC-CCA positive children turned negative. Those still POC-CCA positive received a second treatment, and 34% of them turned POC-CCA negative upon this second treatment. Most who remained POC-CCA positive shifted each time to a “lesser” POC-CCA “level of positivity.” The data suggest that most Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals harbor low-intensity infections, and each treatment kills all or some of their adult worms. The data also suggest that when evaluated by a more sensitive assay, the effective cure rates for PZQ are significantly less than those inferred from fecal testing. These findings have public health significance for the mapping and monitoring of Schistosoma infections and in planning the transition from schistosomiasis morbidity control to

  2. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization Among Household Contacts of Patients With Skin Infections: Risk Factors, Strain Discordance, and Complex Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Loren G.; Eells, Samantha J.; Taylor, Alexis R.; David, Michael Z.; Ortiz, Nancy; Zychowski, Diana; Kumar, Neha; Cruz, Denise; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Daum, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The USA300 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) genetic background has rapidly emerged as the predominant cause of community-associated S. aureus infections in the U.S. However, epidemiologic characteristics of S. aureus household transmission are poorly understood. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional study of adults and children with S. aureus skin infections and their household contacts in Los Angeles and Chicago. Subjects were surveyed for S. aureus colonization of the nares, oropharynx, and inguinal region and risk factors for S. aureus disease. All isolates underwent genetic typing. Results. We enrolled 1162 persons (350 index patients and 812 household members). The most common infection isolate characteristic was ST8/SCCmec IV, PVL+ MRSA (USA300) (53%). S. aureus colonized 40% (137/350) of index patients and 50% (405/812) of household contacts. A nares-only survey would have missed 48% of S. aureus and 51% of MRSA colonized persons. Sixty-five percent of households had >1 S. aureus genetic background identified and 26% of MRSA isolates in household contacts were discordant with the index patients' infecting MRSA strain type. Factors independently associated (P < .05) with the index strain type colonizing household contacts were recent skin infection, recent cephalexin use, and USA300 genetic background. Conclusions. In our study population, USA300 MRSA appeared more transmissible among household members compared with other S. aureus genetic backgrounds. Strain distribution was complex; >1 S. aureus genetic background was present in many households. S. aureus decolonization strategies may need to address extra-nasal colonization and the consequences of eradicating S. aureus genetic backgrounds infrequently associated with infection. PMID:22474221

  3. Solid-to-fluid DNA transition inside HSV-1 capsid close to the temperature of infection

    SciTech Connect

    Sae-Ueng, Udom; Li, Dong; Zuo, Xiaobing; Huffman, Jamie B.; Homa, Fred L.; Rau, Donald; Evilevitch, Alex

    2014-10-01

    DNA in the human Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsid is packaged to a tight density. This leads to tens of atmospheres of internal pressure responsible for the delivery of the herpes genome into the cell nucleus. In this study we show that, despite its liquid crystalline state inside the capsid, the DNA is fluid-like, which facilitates its ejection into the cell nucleus during infection. We found that the sliding friction between closely packaged DNA strands, caused by interstrand repulsive interactions, is reduced by the ionic environment of epithelial cells and neurons susceptible to herpes infection. However, variations in the ionic conditions corresponding to neuronal activity can restrict DNA mobility in the capsid, making it more solid-like. This can inhibit intranuclear DNA release and interfere with viral replication. In addition, the temperature of the human host (37 °C) induces a disordering transition of the encapsidated herpes genome, which reduces interstrand interactions and provides genome mobility required for infection.

  4. Evidence of infection with organisms producing Shiga-like toxins in household contacts of children with the hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lopez, E L; Diaz, M; Devoto, S; Grinstein, S; Woloj, M; Murray, B E; Rubeglio, E; Mendilaharzu, F; Turco, M; Vasquez, M

    1991-01-01

    We conducted a prospective study in 87 household contacts of 51 children with hemolytic uremic syndrome to determine the frequency of infection with Shiga-like toxin-producing bacteria. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms occurred in only 1 of 87 contacts. Free fecal toxin was detected in 25 of 64 (39%) of the household members. Neutralization with specific antisera to Shiga-like toxins I and II (SLT-I, SLT-II) revealed that in 6 of these household contacts only SLT-I was present in stool, in 10 only SLT-II was present and in 9 both toxins were found. Thirty-three percent of the hemolytic uremic syndrome families in which 2 or more members were studied had more than 1 household member with free fecal toxin in stool. None of the household contacts was found to have E. coli O157:H7 in feces. Serum samples were available in 77 household contacts; 75% (58 of 77) had serum neutralizing titers of greater than or equal to 1:4 to 1 or both toxins. In those contacts for whom paired sera were available, seroconversion was found in 10 of 24 (42%). These data show that household contacts of children with hemolytic uremic syndrome are commonly colonized with Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli and seroconversion to Shiga-like toxins occurs frequently in family members of children with hemolytic uremic syndrome.

  5. Contact of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and uninfected CD4+ T lymphocytes is highly cytolytic for both cells.

    PubMed Central

    Heinkelein, M; Sopper, S; Jassoy, C

    1995-01-01

    Individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) experience a marked loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes, leading to fatal immunodeficiency. The mechanisms causing the depletion of these cells are not yet understood. In this study, we observed that CD4+ T lymphocytes from HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected and uninfected individuals rapidly lysed B lymphoblasts expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein on the cell surface and Jurkat cells expressing the complete virus. Contact of uninfected CD4+ T cells with envelope glycoprotein-expressing cells also resulted in the lysis of the uninfected CD4+ T cells. Cytolysis did not require priming or in vitro stimulation of the CD4+ T cells and was not restricted by major histocompatibility complex molecules. Cytotoxicity was inhibited by soluble CD4 and anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies that block binding of CD4 to gp120. In addition, neutralizing anti-CD4 and anti-gp120 monoclonal antibodies which block postbinding membrane fusion events and syncytium formation also inhibited cell lysis, suggesting that identical mechanisms in HIV-infected cultures underlie cell-cell fusion and the cytolysis observed. However, cytotoxicity was not always accompanied by the formation of visible syncytia. Rapid cell lysis after contact of uninfected and HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells may explain CD4+ T-cell depletion in the absence of detectable syncytia in infected individuals. Moreover, because of its vigor, lysis of envelope-expressing targets by contact with unprimed CD4+ T lymphocytes may at first glance resemble antigen-specific immune responses and should be excluded when cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in infected individuals and vaccinees are evaluated. PMID:7474110

  6. Rapamycin increases RSV RNA levels and survival of RSV-infected dendritic cell depending on T cell contact.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento de Freitas, Deise; Gassen, Rodrigo Benedetti; Fazolo, Tiago; Souza, Ana Paula Duarte de

    2016-10-01

    The macrolide rapamycin inhibits mTOR (mechanist target of rapamycin) function and has been broadly used to unveil the role of mTOR in immune responses. Inhibition of mTOR on dendritic cells (DC) can influence cellular immune response and the survival of DC. RSV is the most common cause of hospitalization in infants and is a high priority candidate to vaccine development. In this study we showed that rapamycin treatment on RSV-infected murine bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) decreases the frequency of CD8(+)CD44(high) T cells. However, inhibition of mTOR on RSV-infected BMDC did not modify the activation phenotype of these cells. RSV-RNA levels increase when infected BMDC were treated with rapamycin. Moreover, we observed that rapamycin diminishes apoptosis cell death of RSV-infected BMDC co-culture with T cells and this effect was abolished when the cells were co-cultured in a transwell system that prevents cell-to-cell contact or migration. Taken together, these data indicate that rapamycin treatment present a toxic effect on RSV-infected BMDC increasing RSV-RNA levels, affecting partially CD8 T cell differentiation and also increasing BMDC survival in a mechanism dependent on T cell contact. PMID:27466155

  7. Rapamycin increases RSV RNA levels and survival of RSV-infected dendritic cell depending on T cell contact.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento de Freitas, Deise; Gassen, Rodrigo Benedetti; Fazolo, Tiago; Souza, Ana Paula Duarte de

    2016-10-01

    The macrolide rapamycin inhibits mTOR (mechanist target of rapamycin) function and has been broadly used to unveil the role of mTOR in immune responses. Inhibition of mTOR on dendritic cells (DC) can influence cellular immune response and the survival of DC. RSV is the most common cause of hospitalization in infants and is a high priority candidate to vaccine development. In this study we showed that rapamycin treatment on RSV-infected murine bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) decreases the frequency of CD8(+)CD44(high) T cells. However, inhibition of mTOR on RSV-infected BMDC did not modify the activation phenotype of these cells. RSV-RNA levels increase when infected BMDC were treated with rapamycin. Moreover, we observed that rapamycin diminishes apoptosis cell death of RSV-infected BMDC co-culture with T cells and this effect was abolished when the cells were co-cultured in a transwell system that prevents cell-to-cell contact or migration. Taken together, these data indicate that rapamycin treatment present a toxic effect on RSV-infected BMDC increasing RSV-RNA levels, affecting partially CD8 T cell differentiation and also increasing BMDC survival in a mechanism dependent on T cell contact.

  8. Lone Star Tick-Infecting Borreliae Are Most Closely Related to the Agent of Bovine Borreliosis

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Stephen M.; Armstrong, Philip M.; Smith, Ronald D.; Telford, Sam R.

    2001-01-01

    Although Borrelia theileri, the agent of bovine borreliosis, was described at the turn of the century (in 1903), its relationship with borreliae causing Lyme disease or relapsing fever remains undescribed. We tested the previously published hypothesis that spirochetes infecting Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) may comprise B. theileri by analyzing the 16S ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) and flagellin genes of these spirochetes. B. theileri, the Amblyomma agent, and B. miyamotoi formed a natural group or clade distinct from but most closely related to that of the relapsing fever spirochetes. B. theileri and the Amblyomma agent were 97 and 98% similar at the nucleotide level within the analyzed portions of the 16S rDNA and the flagellin gene respectively, suggesting a recent divergence. The agent of bovine borreliosis might be explored as a surrogate antigen for the as-yet-uncultivatable Amblyomma agent in studies designed to explore the etiology of a Lyme disease-like infection associated with Lone Star ticks. PMID:11158095

  9. Infection by Mycobacterium leprae of household contacts of lepromatous leprosy patients from a post-elimination leprosy region of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cardona-Castro, Nora M; Restrepo-Jaramillo, Sandra; Gil de la Ossa, Myriam; Brennan, Patrick J

    2005-11-01

    The Leprosy Control Program of Antioquia, (post-elimination leprosy state of Colombia), had registered by 1999, 56 lepromatous leprosy patients and their household contacts (HHC). Our interest was to detect Mycobacterium leprae infection in these HHC. Clinical examination, acid-fast bacillary staining (AFB) in nasal secretions, and slit skin samples, IgM anti-PGL-I in serum and Lepromine A (Mitsuda) reactivity were tested. Two hundred forty eight HHC were studied, 49% were male. After clinical examination, two HHC were diagnosed as multi bacillary patients; 13% showed positive IgM anti-PGL-I titers; Mitsuda reaction (> or = 4 mm) was positive in 59%; AFB was negative in all samples, except in the two new patients. HHC were classified according to test results. Group 1: two new multi bacillary patients. Group 2: 15 HHC seropositive, Mitsuda-negative. Group 3: 13 HHC seropositive, Mitsuda-positive. Group 4: 130 HHC seronegative, Mitsuda-positive. Group 5: 88 HHC seronegative, Mitsuda-negative. These results are an indication that the transmission of the infection is still happening in a region considered in the post elimination phase. The two new patients represent an infection source for others contacts, and groups 2 and 3 are infected HHC that could develop the disease in future. Follow up of high risk population is necessary to achieve real elimination of leprosy.

  10. Infection.

    PubMed

    Miclau, Theodore; Schmidt, Andrew H; Wenke, Joseph C; Webb, Lawrence X; Harro, Janette M; Prabhakara, Ranjani; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2010-09-01

    Musculoskeletal infection is a clinical problem with significant direct healthcare costs. The prevalence of infection after closed, elective surgery is frequently estimated to be less than 2%, but in severe injuries, posttraumatic infection rates have been reported as 10% or greater. Although clinical infections are found outside the realm of medical devices, it is clear that the enormous increase of infections associated with the use of implants presents a major challenge worldwide. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of musculoskeletal infections.

  11. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Gregory F.; Minkov, Vladimir; Petrick, Michael

    1988-01-05

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  12. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Gregory F.; Minkov, Vladimir; Petrick, Michael

    1988-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  13. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

    1981-11-02

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system is described in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  14. SDSS J001641-000925: THE FIRST STABLE RED DWARF CONTACT BINARY WITH A CLOSE-IN STELLAR COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.-B.; Jiang, L.-Q.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E. G.; He, J.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Wang, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhou, X.; Liu, N. P.; Fernández Lajús, E.; Soonthornthum, B.; Rattanasoon, S.; Aukkaravittayapun, S.

    2015-01-10

    SDSS J001641-000925 is the first red dwarf contact binary star with an orbital period of 0.19856 days that is one of the shortest known periods among M-dwarf binary systems. The orbital period was detected to be decreasing rapidly at a rate of P-dot ∼8 s yr{sup −1}. This indicated that SDSS J001641-000925 was undergoing coalescence via a dynamical mass transfer or loss and thus this red dwarf contact binary is dynamically unstable. To understand the properties of the period change, we monitored the binary system photometrically from 2011 September 2 to 2014 October 1 by using several telescopes in the world and 25 eclipse times were determined. It is discovered that the rapid decrease of the orbital period is not true. This is contrary to the prediction that the system is merging driven by rapid mass transfer or loss. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the observed minus calculated (O–C) diagram shows a cyclic oscillation with an amplitude of 0.00255 days and a period of 5.7 yr. The cyclic variation can be explained by the light travel time effect via the presence of a cool stellar companion with a mass of M {sub 3}sin i' ∼ 0.14 M {sub ☉}. The orbital separation between the third body and the central binary is about 2.8 AU. These results reveal that the rarity of red dwarf contact binaries could not be explained by rapidly dynamical destruction and the presence of the third body helps to form the red dwarf contact binary.

  15. Healthcare Worker Contact Networks and the Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Donald E.; Hlady, Christopher S.; Kanade, Gaurav; Pemmaraju, Sriram V.; Polgreen, Philip M.; Segre, Alberto M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive approach to using electronic medical records (EMR) for constructing contact networks of healthcare workers in a hospital. This approach is applied at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC) – a 3.2 million square foot facility with 700 beds and about 8,000 healthcare workers – by obtaining 19.8 million EMR data points, spread over more than 21 months. We use these data to construct 9,000 different healthcare worker contact networks, which serve as proxies for patterns of actual healthcare worker contacts. Unlike earlier approaches, our methods are based on large-scale data and do not make any a priori assumptions about edges (contacts) between healthcare workers, degree distributions of healthcare workers, their assignment to wards, etc. Preliminary validation using data gathered from a 10-day long deployment of a wireless sensor network in the Medical Intensive Care Unit suggests that EMR logins can serve as realistic proxies for hospital-wide healthcare worker movement and contact patterns. Despite spatial and job-related constraints on healthcare worker movement and interactions, analysis reveals a strong structural similarity between the healthcare worker contact networks we generate and social networks that arise in other (e.g., online) settings. Furthermore, our analysis shows that disease can spread much more rapidly within the constructed contact networks as compared to random networks of similar size and density. Using the generated contact networks, we evaluate several alternate vaccination policies and conclude that a simple policy that vaccinates the most mobile healthcare workers first, is robust and quite effective relative to a random vaccination policy. PMID:24386075

  16. Opening the Door to Zero New HIV Infections in Closed Settings

    PubMed Central

    Tadion, Alexander; Hsu, Lee-Nah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Prisons and other closed settings are high-risk environments for HIV and tuberculosis (TB) transmission. Prisoners often experience overcrowded living conditions and violence—including sexual assault—increasing their vulnerability to HIV and TB. However, high infection rates in prisons affect both prisoners and prison employees. Both groups, in interacting with their families and their communities, represent a potential risk of HIV transmission outside the prison setting. National HIV and TB strategies should therefore include measures to prevent transmission and increase access to HIV-related services in prisons. Courts have progressively recognized the human rights of prisoners, including the right to health and access to HIV-related services. A number of national and regional court decisions have affirmed that prison authorities have a duty of care to prisoners and an obligation to ensure that prisoners have access to HIV prevention measures and treatment. Policies and programs on HIV, AIDS, and TB for prison workplaces that are aligned with the ILO’s international labor standards can benefit both prisoners and prison employees. In particular, the ILO’s HIV and AIDS Recommendation, 2010 (No. 200) affirms the principle of universal access to HIV services and provides guidance for the HIV/TB response in prison settings. PMID:27781007

  17. Isolation and characterization of five lytic bacteriophages infecting a Vibrio strain closely related to Vibrio owensii.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan-Ping; Gong, Ting; Jost, Günter; Liu, Wen-Hua; Ye, De-Zan; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Vibrio owensii is a potential bacterial pathogen in marine aquaculture system. In this study, five lytic phages specific against Vibrio strain B8D, closely related to V. owensii, were isolated from seawater of an abalone farm. The phages were characterized with respect to morphology, genome size, growth phenotype, as well as thermal, and pH stability. All phages were found to belong to the family Siphoviridae with long noncontractile tails and terminal fibers. Restriction analysis indicated that the five phages were dsDNA viruses with molecular weights ranging from c. 30 to 48 kb. One-step growth experiments revealed that the phages were heterogeneous in latent periods (10-70 min), rise periods (40-70 min), and burst sizes [23-331 plaque-forming units (PFU) per infected cell] at the same host strain. All phages were thermal stable and were tolerant to a wide range of pH. The results indicated that these phages could be potential candidates of a phage cocktail for biological control of V. owensii in aquaculture systems.

  18. A novel mycovirus closely related to hypoviruses that infects the plant pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiatao; Xiao, Xueqiong; Fu, Yanping; Liu, Huiquan; Cheng, Jiasen; Ghabrial, Said A; Li, Guoqing; Jiang, Daohong

    2011-09-15

    Three dsRNA segments, two similarly sized at 9.5kbp and a third one of approximately 3.6kbp, were extracted from a hypovirulent strain SZ-150 of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The complete cDNA sequence of one of the two large dsRNA segment (10398bp, excluding the poly (A) tail) reveals a single ORF that encodes a polyprotein with conserved domains of putative papain-like protease, UDP glucose/sterol glycosyltransferase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and viral RNA Helicase. This virus is closely related to Cryphonectria hypovirus (CHV) 3/GH2 and CHV4/SR2 in the family Hypoviridae and designated as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 1 (SsHV1/SZ-150). The satellite-like 3.6kbp dsRNA segment (S-dsRNA) shares high sequence identity with the 5'-UTR of SsHV1/SZ-150. SsHV1/SZ-150 alone is not the primary causal agent for hypovirulence of strain SZ-150 since strains without the S-dsRNA show normal phenotype. This is the first report of a naturally occurring hypovirus that infects a fungus other than Cryphonectria parasitica. PMID:21813149

  19. Effect of Skin-To-Skin Contact on Preterm Infant Skin Barrier Function and Hospital-Acquired Infection

    PubMed Central

    Abouelfettoh, Amel; Ludington-Hoe, Susan M.; Burant, Chris J.; Visscher, Marty O.

    2011-01-01

    Background The preterm infants' skin is structurally and functionally immature at birth because of immature stratum corneum barrier function, leading to problems with fluid loses, thermoregulation, and infection. Two parameters of barrier function can be non-invasively assessed: Stratum Corneum Hydration (SCH) and Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL). Skin-to-Skin Care (SSC) is the proposed independent variable that might affect barrier function by decreasing TEWL and increasing SCH, thereby improving stratum corneum barrier function and consequently decreasing the rate of infection. No study of SSC's effects on TEWL and SCH of preterm infants could be found. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 5 daily Skin-to-Skin Contact sessions on infant skin hydration (SCH), transepidermal evaporated water loss (TEWL), and on SCH when TEWL was controlled, and on the presence of hospital acquired infection. Methods A one-group pretest-test-posttest design with 10 preterm infants (28 - 30 wks GA < 32 wks postmenstrual age, and no infection at entry). Test = 90 minutes of SSC; pre-test and post-test = 30 minutes each of prone positioning in an incubator. SCH and TEWL were taken on Days 1 and 5 at the beginning, middle and end of each period using Multi-Probe Adaptor. A 3 X 3 X 2 Repeated Measures Mixed Models Design, including a covariate, was used to analyze level of Skin Hydration. Specifically, the model tested comparisons in SCH made across repetitions, time, and days, as well as all possible interactions while controlling for TEWL. Descriptive statistics described the number of positive blood cultures during hospitalization and the presence of infections four weeks post-discharge. Results Significant differences in skin hydration were found across TIME (Pre-SSC, SSC, Post-SSC) (F = 21.86; p < 0.001). One infant had a positive blood culture during hospitalization; no infants had signs of infection by 4 weeks post-discharge. Conclusions The study has begun

  20. African Great Apes Are Naturally Infected with Roseoloviruses Closely Related to Human Herpesvirus 7

    PubMed Central

    Lavergne, Anne; Donato, Damien; Gessain, Antoine; Niphuis, Henk; Nerrienet, Eric; Verschoor, Ernst J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Primates are naturally infected with herpesviruses. During the last 15 years, the search for homologues of human herpesviruses in nonhuman primates allowed the identification of numerous viruses belonging to the different herpesvirus subfamilies and genera. No simian homologue of human herpesvirus 7 (HHV7) has been reported to date. To investigate the putative existence of HHV7-like viruses in African great apes, we applied the consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primers (CODEHOP) program-mediated PCR strategy to blood DNA samples from the four common chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes verus, P. t. ellioti, P. t. troglodytes, and P. t. schweinfurthii), pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus), as well as lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). This study led to the discovery of a novel roseolovirus close to HHV7 in each of these nonhuman primate species and subspecies. Generation of the partial glycoprotein B (1,111-bp) and full-length DNA polymerase (3,036/3,042-bp) gene sequences allowed the deciphering of their evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that HHV7 and its African great ape homologues formed well-supported monophyletic lineages whose topological resemblance to the host phylogeny is suggestive of virus-host codivergence. Notably, the evolutionary branching points that separate HHV7 from African great ape herpesvirus 7 are remarkably congruent with the dates of divergence of their hosts. Our study shows that African great apes are hosts of human herpesvirus homologues, including HHV7 homologues, and that the latter, like other DNA viruses that establish persistent infections, have cospeciated with their hosts. IMPORTANCE Human herpesviruses are known to possess simian homologues. However, surprisingly, none has been identified to date for human herpesvirus 7 (HHV7). This study is the first to describe simian homologues of HHV7. The extensive search performed on almost all African great ape species and subspecies, i

  1. A nice day for an infection? Weather conditions and social contact patterns relevant to influenza transmission.

    PubMed

    Willem, Lander; Van Kerckhove, Kim; Chao, Dennis L; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Although there is no doubt that significant morbidity and mortality occur during annual influenza epidemics, the role of contextual circumstances, which catalyze seasonal influenza transmission, remains unclear. Weather conditions are believed to affect virus survival, efficiency of transmission and host immunity, but seasonality may also be driven by a tendency of people to congregate indoors during periods of bad weather. To test this hypothesis, we combined data from a social contact survey in Belgium with local weather data. In the absence of a previous in-depth weather impact analysis of social contact patterns, we explored the possibilities and identified pitfalls. We found general dominance of day-type (weekend, holiday, working day) over weather conditions, but nonetheless observed an increase in long duration contacts ([Formula: see text]1 hour) on regular workdays with low temperatures, almost no precipitation and low absolute humidity of the air. Interestingly, these conditions are often assumed to be beneficial for virus survival and transmission. Further research is needed to establish the impact of the weather on social contacts. We recommend that future studies sample over a broad spectrum of weather conditions and day types and include a sufficiently large proportion of holiday periods and weekends. PMID:23155399

  2. A nice day for an infection? Weather conditions and social contact patterns relevant to influenza transmission.

    PubMed

    Willem, Lander; Van Kerckhove, Kim; Chao, Dennis L; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Although there is no doubt that significant morbidity and mortality occur during annual influenza epidemics, the role of contextual circumstances, which catalyze seasonal influenza transmission, remains unclear. Weather conditions are believed to affect virus survival, efficiency of transmission and host immunity, but seasonality may also be driven by a tendency of people to congregate indoors during periods of bad weather. To test this hypothesis, we combined data from a social contact survey in Belgium with local weather data. In the absence of a previous in-depth weather impact analysis of social contact patterns, we explored the possibilities and identified pitfalls. We found general dominance of day-type (weekend, holiday, working day) over weather conditions, but nonetheless observed an increase in long duration contacts ([Formula: see text]1 hour) on regular workdays with low temperatures, almost no precipitation and low absolute humidity of the air. Interestingly, these conditions are often assumed to be beneficial for virus survival and transmission. Further research is needed to establish the impact of the weather on social contacts. We recommend that future studies sample over a broad spectrum of weather conditions and day types and include a sufficiently large proportion of holiday periods and weekends.

  3. Cell-to-Cell Contact as an Efficient Mode of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection of Diverse Human Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Shosuke; Nishikawa, Jun; Takada, Kenzo

    1998-01-01

    We show clear evidence for direct infection of various human epithelial cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in vitro. The successful infection was achieved by using recombinant EBV (Akata strain) carrying a selective marker gene but without any other artificial operations, such as introduction of the known EBV receptor (CD21) gene or addition of polymeric immunoglobulin A against viral gp350 in culture. Of 21 human epithelial cell lines examined, 18 became infected by EBV, as ascertained by the detection of EBV-determined nuclear antigen (EBNA) 1 expression in the early period after virus exposure, and the following selection culture easily yielded a number of EBV-infected clones from 15 cell lines. None of the human fibroblasts and five nonhuman-derived cell lines examined was susceptible to the infection. By comparison, cocultivation with virus producers showed ≈800-fold-higher efficiency of infection than cell-free infection did, suggesting the significance of direct cell-to-cell contact as a mode of virus spread in vivo. Most of the epithelial cell lines infectable with EBV were negative for CD21 expression at the protein and mRNA levels. The majority of EBV-infected clones established from each cell line invariably expressed EBNA1, EBV-encoded small RNAs, rightward transcripts from the BamHI-A region of the virus genome, and latent membrane protein (LMP) 2A, but not the other EBNAs or LMP1. This restricted form of latent viral gene expression, which is a central issue for understanding epithelial oncogenesis by EBV, resembled that seen in EBV-associated gastric carcinoma and LMP1-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The results indicate that direct infection of epithelial cells by EBV may occur naturally in vivo, and this could be mediated by an unidentified, epithelium-specific binding receptor for EBV. The EBV convertants are viewed, at least in terms of viral gene expression, as in vitro analogs of EBV-associated epithelial tumor cells, thus facilitating

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection involves activation of its iron acquisition system in response to fascial contact

    PubMed Central

    Kim, M.; Christley, S.; Khodarev, N. N.; Fleming, I.; Huang, Y.; Chang, E.; Zaborina, O.; Alverdy, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Wound infections are traditionally thought to occur when microbial burden exceeds the innate clearance capacity of host immune system. Here we introduce the idea that the wound environment itself plays a significant contributory role to wound infection. Methods We developed a clinically relevant murine model of soft tissue infection to explore the role of activation of microbial virulence in response to tissue factors as a mechanism by which pathogenic bacteria cause wound infections. Mice underwent abdominal skin incision and light muscle injury with a crushing forceps versus skin incision alone followed by topical inoculation of P. aeruginosa. Mice were sacrificed on postoperative day 6 and abdominal tissues analyzed for clinical signs of wound infection. To determine if specific wound tissues components induce bacterial virulence, P. aeruginosa was exposed to skin, fascia, and muscle. Results Gross wound infection due to P. aeruginosa was observed to be significantly increased in injured tissues vs non-injured (80% vs 10%) tissues (n=20/group, p<0.0001). Exposure of P. aeruginosa to individual tissue components demonstrated that fascia significantly induced bacterial virulence as judged by the production of pyocyanin, a redox-active phenazine compound known to kill immune cells. Whole genome transcriptional profiling of P. aeruginosa exposed to fascia demonstrated activation of multiple genes responsible for the synthesis of the iron scavenging molecule pyochelin. Conclusion We conclude that wound elements, in particular fascia, may play a significant role in enhancing the virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis of clinical wound infection. PMID:25807409

  5. Closed Catheter Access System Implementation in Reducing the Bloodstream Infection Rate in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rundjan, Lily; Rohsiswatmo, Rinawati; Paramita, Tiara Nien; Oeswadi, Chrissela Anindita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bloodstream infection (BSI) is one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality encountered in a neonatal intensive care unit, especially in developing countries. Despite the implementation of infection control practices, such as strict hand hygiene, the BSI rate in our hospital is still high. The use of a closed catheter access system to reduce BSI related to intravascular catheter has hitherto never been evaluated in our hospital. Objective: To determine the effects of closed catheter access system implementation in reducing the BSI rate in preterm neonates with low birth weight. Methods: Randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 low birth weight preterm infants hospitalized in the neonatal unit at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia from June to September 2013. Randomized subjects either received a closed or non-closed catheter access system. Subjects were monitored for 2 weeks for the development of BSI based on clinical signs, abnormal infection parameters, and blood culture. Results: Closed catheter access system implementation gave a protective effect toward the occurrence of culture-proven BSI (relative risk 0.095, 95% CI 0.011–0.85, p = 0.026). Risk of culture-proven BSI in the control group was 10.545 (95% CI 1.227–90.662, p = 0.026). BSI occurred in 75% of neonates without risk factors of infection in the control group compared to none in the study group. Conclusion: The use of a closed catheter access system reduced the BSI in low birth weight preterm infants. Choosing the right device design, proper disinfection of device, and appropriate frequency of connector change should be done simultaneously. PMID:25853110

  6. IFNγ Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Risk of Infection and Disease in Household Contacts of Tuberculosis Patients in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Nancy D.; Marín, Diana M.; López, Lucelly; Henao, Hanna M.; Martínez, Teresita; Villa, Liliana; Barrera, Luis F.; Ortiz, Blanca L.; Ramírez, María E.; Montes, Carlos J.; Oquendo, María C.; Arango, Lisandra M.; Riaño, Felipe; Aguirre, Carlos; Bustamante, Alberto; Belisle, John T.; Dobos, Karen; Mejía, Gloria I.; Giraldo, Margarita R.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Robledo, Jaime; Arbeláez, María P.; Rojas, Carlos A.; García, Luis F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Household contacts (HHCs) of pulmonary tuberculosis patients are at high risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and early disease development. Identification of individuals at risk of tuberculosis disease is a desirable goal for tuberculosis control. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) using specific M. tuberculosis antigens provide an alternative to tuberculin skin testing (TST) for infection detection. Additionally, the levels of IFNγ produced in response to these antigens may have prognostic value. We estimated the prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection by IGRA and TST in HHCs and their source population (SP), and assessed whether IFNγ levels in HHCs correlate with tuberculosis development. Methods A cohort of 2060 HHCs was followed for 2–3 years after exposure to a tuberculosis case. Besides TST, IFNγ responses to mycobacterial antigens: CFP, CFP-10, HspX and Ag85A were assessed in 7-days whole blood cultures and compared to 766 individuals from the SP in Medellín, Colombia. Isoniazid prophylaxis was not offered to child contacts because Colombian tuberculosis regulations consider it only in children under 5 years, TST positive without BCG vaccination. Results Using TST 65.9% of HHCs and 42.7% subjects from the SP were positive (OR 2.60, p<0.0001). IFNγ response to CFP-10, a biomarker of M. tuberculosis infection, tested positive in 66.3% HHCs and 24.3% from the SP (OR = 6.07, p<0.0001). Tuberculosis incidence rate was 7.0/1000 person years. Children <5 years accounted for 21.6% of incident cases. No significant difference was found between positive and negative IFNγ responders to CFP-10 (HR 1.82 95% CI 0.79–4.20 p = 0.16). However, a significant trend for tuberculosis development amongst high HHC IFNγ producers was observed (trend Log rank p = 0.007). Discussion CFP-10-induced IFNγ production is useful to establish tuberculosis infection prevalence amongst HHC and identify those at highest risk of disease. The high

  7. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics: a review on legislation, usage, infections, and contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-02-01

    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market is dominated by a few preservatives: parabens, formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. Allergy to preservatives is one of the main reasons for contact eczema caused by cosmetics. Concentration of the same preservative in similar products varies greatly, and this may indicate that some cosmetic products are over preserved. As development and elicitation of contact allergy is dose dependent, over preservation of cosmetics potentially leads to increased incidences of contact allergy. Very few studies have investigated the antimicrobial efficiency of preservatives in cosmetics, but the results indicate that efficient preservation is obtainable with concentrations well below the maximum allowed.

  8. Risk factors for infection and disease in child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young children exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis have a high risk of disease progression following infection. This study aimed to determine risk factors for M. tuberculosis infection and disease in children following exposure to adults with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB). Methods Cross-sectional study; all children aged < 5 years, routinely referred per local guidelines to the provincial specialist MDR-TB clinic, Western Cape Province, South Africa, following identification as contacts of adult MDR-TB source cases, were eligible for enrolment from May 2010 through April 2011. Demographic, clinical and social characteristics were collected. All children underwent HIV and tuberculin skin testing. Results Of 228 children enrolled (median age: 30 months), 102 (44.7%) were classified as infected. Of these, 15 (14.7%) had TB disease at enrolment. Of 217 children tested for HIV, 8 (3.7%) were positive. In adjusted analysis, child’s age (AOR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.13-1.91; p = 0.002) and previous TB treatment history (AOR: 2.51; 95% CI: 1.22-5.17; p = 0.01) were independent risk factors for infection. Increasing age of the MDR-TB source case (AOR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.45-1.00; p = 0.05) was protective and source case alcohol use (AOR: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.29-5.22; p = 0.007) was associated with increased odds of infection in adjusted analysis. Decreasing age of the child (p = 0.01) and positive HIV status (AOR: 25.3; 95% CI: 1.63-393; p = 0.01) were associated with prevalent TB disease. Conclusion A high proportion of children exposed to MDR-TB are infected or diseased. Early contact tracing might provide opportunities to prevent the progression to TB disease in children identified as having been exposed to MDR-TB. PMID:23977834

  9. Bacterial infections from aquatic species: potential for and prevention of contact zoonoses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As aquaculture production and consumption of aquacultural products increases, the possibility of zoonotic infection from either handling or ingestion of these products also increases. The principal pathogens acquired topically from fish or shellfish through spine/pincer puncture or open wounds are ...

  10. Intestinal mucosal mast cells in normal and nematode-infected rat intestines are in intimate contact with peptidergic nerves.

    PubMed Central

    Stead, R H; Tomioka, M; Quinonez, G; Simon, G T; Felten, S Y; Bienenstock, J

    1987-01-01

    Inflammatory or allergic conditions, as well as situations where healing and repair processes occur, are characterized by the presence of increased numbers of mast cells. Previous work on the effect of neuropeptides on mast cell mediator release showed that only substance P caused such release from intestinal mucosal mast cells [Shanahan, F., Denburg, J. A., Fox, J., Bienenstock, J. & Befus, A. D. (1985) J. Immunol. 135, 1331-1337]. Accordingly, we investigated the microanatomical relationship between mast cells and enteric nerves in normal rat intestine and parasite-infected rat intestine, in which mucosal mast cell hyperplasia occurs. Combined immunohistochemistry for neuron-specific enolase and staining with alcian blue at pH 0.5 was employed on paraffin-embedded sections of normal and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rat jejunum. Sixty-seven percent of intestinal mucosal mast cells were touching subepithelial nerves, and an additional 20% were within 2 micron of nerves. Assessment of the proportion of the lamina propria occupied by mast cells (12.5%), the average mast cell area (121 +/- 28 microns 2), and the density of enteric nerves (one per 788 +/- 151 microns 2) suggested that the association was 5 times greater than would be expected by chance alone (P less than 0.0001). In consecutive sections, the nerves in contact with mast cells were also shown to contain substance P and/or calcitonin-gene-related peptide. Electron microscopy confirmed this association: 8% of the mast cells in infected rats exhibited membrane-membrane contact with unmyelinated axons containing 70- to 170-nm dense-core vesicles, and an additional 31% were situated less than 250 nm from nerves. Other mast cells appeared to embrace nerve bundles through the projection of lamellopodia. These data provide systematic quantitative evidence that a structural foundation for communication between the immune and nervous systems exists in the rat gastrointestinal tract. Images PMID:2437589

  11. Infection-induced behavioural changes reduce connectivity and the potential for disease spread in wild mice contact networks

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Patricia C.; Block, Per; König, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Infection may modify the behaviour of the host and of its conspecifics in a group, potentially altering social connectivity. Because many infectious diseases are transmitted through social contact, social connectivity changes can impact transmission dynamics. Previous approaches to understanding disease transmission dynamics in wild populations were limited in their ability to disentangle different factors that determine the outcome of disease outbreaks. Here we ask how social connectivity is affected by infection and how this relationship impacts disease transmission dynamics. We experimentally manipulated disease status of wild house mice using an immune challenge and monitored social interactions within this free-living population before and after manipulation using automated tracking. The immune-challenged animals showed reduced connectivity to their social groups, which happened as a function of their own behaviour, rather than through conspecific avoidance. We incorporated these disease-induced changes of social connectivity among individuals into models of disease outbreaks over the empirically-derived networks. The models revealed that changes in host behaviour frequently resulted in the disease being contained to very few animals, as opposed to becoming widespread. Our results highlight the importance of considering the role that behavioural alterations during infection can have on social dynamics when evaluating the potential for disease outbreaks. PMID:27548906

  12. Infection-induced behavioural changes reduce connectivity and the potential for disease spread in wild mice contact networks.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Patricia C; Block, Per; König, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Infection may modify the behaviour of the host and of its conspecifics in a group, potentially altering social connectivity. Because many infectious diseases are transmitted through social contact, social connectivity changes can impact transmission dynamics. Previous approaches to understanding disease transmission dynamics in wild populations were limited in their ability to disentangle different factors that determine the outcome of disease outbreaks. Here we ask how social connectivity is affected by infection and how this relationship impacts disease transmission dynamics. We experimentally manipulated disease status of wild house mice using an immune challenge and monitored social interactions within this free-living population before and after manipulation using automated tracking. The immune-challenged animals showed reduced connectivity to their social groups, which happened as a function of their own behaviour, rather than through conspecific avoidance. We incorporated these disease-induced changes of social connectivity among individuals into models of disease outbreaks over the empirically-derived networks. The models revealed that changes in host behaviour frequently resulted in the disease being contained to very few animals, as opposed to becoming widespread. Our results highlight the importance of considering the role that behavioural alterations during infection can have on social dynamics when evaluating the potential for disease outbreaks. PMID:27548906

  13. Contrasting infection susceptibility of the Japanese macaques and cynomolgus macaques to closely related malaria parasites, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium cynomolgi.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Kawai, Satoru; Katakai, Yuko; Takahashi, Hideo; Nakade, Toru; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Horii, Toshihiro; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2015-06-01

    Although the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax is closely related to Asian Old World monkey malaria parasites, there are no reports of P. vivax infections in macaques. In this study, we compared the infectivity of P. vivax and Plasmodium cynomolgi in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). The Japanese macaques were highly susceptible to P. cynomolgi but not to P. vivax, whereas cynomolgus macaques showed mild/limited P. cynomolgi infection and were, also, not susceptible to P. vivax. Serotyping and amino acid sequence comparison of erythrocyte surface Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC) indicate that the Japanese macaque DARC sequence is nearly identical to that of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaques. This suggests that the macaques share a common mechanism for preventing P. vivax infection. Comparison of amino acid sequences of the Duffy-binding-like (DBL) domain from several different Plasmodium species suggests that P. vivax DBLs will not bind to macaque DARCs, which can explain the lack of P. vivax infectivity. The DBL sequence analyses also suggest that P. cynomolgi DBLs may target Japanese macaque erythrocytes through a DARC-independent interaction.

  14. Case Report: Emergence of bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected calves in a closed herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to have significant economic impact on the cattle industry worldwide. The virus is primarily maintained in the cattle population due to persistently infected animals. Herd surveillance along with good vaccination programs and biosecurity practices are the...

  15. Trimethoprim and rifampin in combination for chemoprophylaxis of household contacts of patients with invasive infections due to Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed Central

    Daum, R S; Glode, M P; Ambrosino, D; Halsey, N; Goldmann, D A; Mather, F J; Russell, R; Kamon, J; Murray, M; Band, J D

    1983-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of rifampin-trimethoprim in fixed combination (3.75:1) to rifampin alone in the eradication of Haemophilus influenzae type b carriage among contacts of patients with invasive infection caused by this organism. The study population was composed of 127 index patients and 620 contacts. Twenty-six percent of contacts were colonized. Rifampin-trimethoprim eradicated carriage in 77.6% of contacts (71.1% in contacts less than 5 years, 84.2% in contacts greater than or equal to 5 years) whereas rifampin eradicated carriage in 69.9% of contacts (56.4% in contacts less than 5 years, 81.8% in contacts greater than or equal to 5 years). A single isolate resistant to rifampin and rifampin-trimethoprim was encountered. The eradication rate achieved with this regimen of rifampin-trimethoprim was too low to recommend its routine use. However, a higher dose or longer course might merit clinical trial. PMID:6607027

  16. Widespread infection with hemotropic mycoplasmas in bats in Spain, including a hemoplasma closely related to "Candidatus Mycoplasma hemohominis".

    PubMed

    Millán, Javier; López-Roig, Marc; Delicado, Verónica; Serra-Cobo, Jordi; Esperón, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Molecular analyses of blood samples revealed infection with hemoplasmas in 97% of 31 cave bats captured in three caves in North-Eastern Spain. The characterization of 1250 bp of the 16S rRNA gene in 29 of the positive bats identified two different groups of sequences. Twenty-two Schreibers' bats (Miniopterus schreibersii) and one long-eared bat (Myotis capaccinii) shared one group, composed of seven closely related sequences. These sequences showed an identity of about 97% with "Candidatus Mycoplasma hemohominis" and the phylogenetic branch including bat and human sequences showed a 100% bootstrap value, supporting a close phylogenetic relationship between these hemoplasmas. The second group, representing a potentially novel species, was composed of a single sequence shared by six Schreibers' bats that had 91% identity with the recently reported hemoplasma from little brown bats in North America. Large bat aggregations in roosting caves probably benefits intra and inter-species transmission explaining the high observed prevalence.

  17. Widespread infection with hemotropic mycoplasmas in bats in Spain, including a hemoplasma closely related to "Candidatus Mycoplasma hemohominis".

    PubMed

    Millán, Javier; López-Roig, Marc; Delicado, Verónica; Serra-Cobo, Jordi; Esperón, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Molecular analyses of blood samples revealed infection with hemoplasmas in 97% of 31 cave bats captured in three caves in North-Eastern Spain. The characterization of 1250 bp of the 16S rRNA gene in 29 of the positive bats identified two different groups of sequences. Twenty-two Schreibers' bats (Miniopterus schreibersii) and one long-eared bat (Myotis capaccinii) shared one group, composed of seven closely related sequences. These sequences showed an identity of about 97% with "Candidatus Mycoplasma hemohominis" and the phylogenetic branch including bat and human sequences showed a 100% bootstrap value, supporting a close phylogenetic relationship between these hemoplasmas. The second group, representing a potentially novel species, was composed of a single sequence shared by six Schreibers' bats that had 91% identity with the recently reported hemoplasma from little brown bats in North America. Large bat aggregations in roosting caves probably benefits intra and inter-species transmission explaining the high observed prevalence. PMID:25655409

  18. Inferring the degree of incipient speciation in secondary contact zones of closely related lineages of Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup)

    PubMed Central

    Dufresnes, C; Bonato, L; Novarini, N; Betto-Colliard, C; Perrin, N; Stöck, M

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive isolation between lineages is expected to accumulate with divergence time, but the time taken to speciate may strongly vary between different groups of organisms. In anuran amphibians, laboratory crosses can still produce viable hybrid offspring >20 My after separation, but the speed of speciation in closely related anuran lineages under natural conditions is poorly studied. Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) offer an excellent system to address this question, comprising several lineages that arose at different times and form secondary contact zones. Using mitochondrial and nuclear markers, we previously demonstrated that in Sicily, B. siculus and B. balearicus developed advanced reproductive isolation after Plio-Pleistocene divergence (2.6 My, 3.3–1.9), with limited historic mtDNA introgression, scarce nuclear admixture, but low, if any, current gene flow. Here, we study genetic interactions between younger lineages of early Pleistocene divergence (1.9 My, 2.5–1.3) in northeastern Italy (B. balearicus, B. viridis). We find significantly more, asymmetric nuclear and wider, differential mtDNA introgression. The population structure seems to be molded by geographic distance and barriers (rivers), much more than by intrinsic genomic incompatibilities. These differences of hybridization between zones may be partly explained by differences in the duration of previous isolation. Scattered research on other anurans suggests that wide hybrid zones with strong introgression may develop when secondary contacts occur <2 My after divergence, whereas narrower zones with restricted gene flow form when divergence exceeds 3 My. Our study strengthens support for this rule of thumb by comparing lineages with different divergence times within the same radiation. PMID:24713825

  19. Subacute autonomic and sensory neuropathy closely related to cytomegalovirus infection preceded by frequent syncopal attacks.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Koichi; Namekawa, Michito; Kondo, Soichi; Ono, Sayaka; Nakano, Imaharu

    2016-08-31

    A 73-year-old woman who had hypertension developed a slight fever and general malaise with laboratory-proven hepatic dysfunction as well as frequent syncopal attacks 3 months before admission to our hospital. One month later, she developed urinary retention and distal limb numbness. Upon admission, her neurological examination showed reduced limb tendon reflexes, glove and stocking-type numbness, and diminished senses of touch, temperature, pain, and distal leg vibration and position. Serum cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM antibody and CMV IgG antibody were elevated on admission, and both decreased thereafter, confirming CMV infection. No serum anti-ganglioside antibody was detected. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed a mild pleocytosis and elevated proteins. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes of the tibial and peroneal nerve were slightly reduced. Sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitudes of the median and ulnar nerves were reduced, and sural SNAP was not evoked. Systolic blood pressure dropped 48 mmHg when the patient assumed a standing position from a supine one, demonstrating orthostatic hypotension, and a cold pressor test was abnormal, both indicating an obvious hypofunction of the sympathetic nerve. The postganglionic autonomic nerve appeared to be damaged because the accumulation of [(123)I] meta-iodobenzylguanidine was reduced on myocardial scintigraphy. These findings combined together led us to make a diagnosis of subacute autonomic and sensory neuropathy associated with CMV infection in this case. Following an eventless administration of oral fludrocortisones, intravenous immuno-globulin (IVIg) was given after one month of the hospitalization with a remarkable reduction of the syncope. This case is instructive in two points. One is that there may be a couple of months with syncope alone before the sensory disturbance appearance, and the other is that IVIg may be considerably effective for the patient-annoying syncopes. To our knowledge, this

  20. Rapid Point-of-Contact Tool for Mapping and Integrated Surveillance of Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus Infection.

    PubMed

    Steel, Cathy; Golden, Allison; Stevens, Eric; Yokobe, Lindsay; Domingo, Gonzalo J; de los Santos, Tala; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-08-01

    Elimination programs for Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus are in critical need of sensitive, specific, and point-of-contact (POC) tools that can be used for surveillance years beyond cessation of mass drug administration when infection intensities are low. Previously, Wb123 and Ov16 were identified individually as potential filarial antigens for an antibody-based POC test. The present study compares single-antigen Wb123- and Ov16-based POC tests with an integrated configuration to detect antibodies to Wb123 and Ov16 simultaneously. Wb123 and Ov16 isolates were striped onto lateral flow strips containing anti-IgG4. Sera from W. bancrofti-, O. volvulus-, and other helminth-infected or -uninfected individuals were added to the strips with buffer. Strips were read for the appearance of a positive or negative test line for both antigens at 20 min and following drying. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated for the single-antigen and biplex strips. Single and biplex lateral flow strips showed nearly identical results, with >90% sensitivity for Ov16 and >92% sensitivity for Wb123. Overall specificities for the single and biplex tests were 98% and 96% for Ov16 and Wb123, respectively. Biplex tests performed as well as the single-antigen tests regardless of the intensity of patient IgG4 response. The high sensitivity and specificity make these new biplex tests extremely useful for POC long-term surveillance following mass drug administration in Africa that should reduce time and cost in areas where bancroftian filariasis and onchocerciasis are coendemic. PMID:26018537

  1. Rapid Point-of-Contact Tool for Mapping and Integrated Surveillance of Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Cathy; Golden, Allison; Stevens, Eric; Yokobe, Lindsay; Domingo, Gonzalo J.; de los Santos, Tala

    2015-01-01

    Elimination programs for Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus are in critical need of sensitive, specific, and point-of-contact (POC) tools that can be used for surveillance years beyond cessation of mass drug administration when infection intensities are low. Previously, Wb123 and Ov16 were identified individually as potential filarial antigens for an antibody-based POC test. The present study compares single-antigen Wb123- and Ov16-based POC tests with an integrated configuration to detect antibodies to Wb123 and Ov16 simultaneously. Wb123 and Ov16 isolates were striped onto lateral flow strips containing anti-IgG4. Sera from W. bancrofti-, O. volvulus-, and other helminth-infected or -uninfected individuals were added to the strips with buffer. Strips were read for the appearance of a positive or negative test line for both antigens at 20 min and following drying. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated for the single-antigen and biplex strips. Single and biplex lateral flow strips showed nearly identical results, with >90% sensitivity for Ov16 and >92% sensitivity for Wb123. Overall specificities for the single and biplex tests were 98% and 96% for Ov16 and Wb123, respectively. Biplex tests performed as well as the single-antigen tests regardless of the intensity of patient IgG4 response. The high sensitivity and specificity make these new biplex tests extremely useful for POC long-term surveillance following mass drug administration in Africa that should reduce time and cost in areas where bancroftian filariasis and onchocerciasis are coendemic. PMID:26018537

  2. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection and antibodies against Stx2 and Stx1 in household contacts of children with enteropathic hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Kerstin; Sarkim, Volkan; Bitzan, Martin; Karmali, Mohamed A; Bobrowski, Christoph; Ruder, Hans; Laufs, Rainer; Sobottka, Ingo; Petric, Martin; Karch, Helge; Müller-Wiefel, Dirk E

    2002-05-01

    Ninety-five household contacts (aged 2 months to 73 years) of patients with enteropathic hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) were investigated for the presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to Shiga toxins Stx2 and Stx1 by Western blot assay. Thirty-one percent of the household contacts and 19% of 327 controls had anti-Stx2 IgG (heavy and light chain [H + L]), 5 and 8%, respectively, had anti-Stx1 IgG (H + L), and 3 and 2%, respectively, had both anti-Stx2 and anti-Stx1 IgG (H + L). The incidence of infections with Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was determined based on the following diagnostic criteria: STEC isolation, detection of stx gene sequences, free fecal Stx in stool filtrates, and serum IgM antibodies against E. coli O157 lipopolysaccharide. Evidence of STEC infection was observed in 25 household contacts, of whom 18 (72%) were asymptomatic and represented a potential source of infection. Six of 13 (46%) household contacts with Stx2-producing E. coli O157:H7 in stool culture developed anti-Stx2 IgG (H + L), compared to 71% of Stx2-associated HUS cases. In individuals showing anti-Stx2 IgG (H + L), the antibody response was directed against the B subunit in 69% of household contacts and 71% of controls, in contrast to 28% of HUS patients. In this investigation controls had a significant increase of the median of IgM antibodies to O157 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with age, up to the fifth decade. The lack of disease in household contacts with B subunit-specific antibodies, as well as the significantly higher median of anti-O157 LPS IgM antibodies in controls beyond 4.9 years of age, suggests a protective role for anti-Stx and anti-O157 LPS antibodies.

  3. Memory B cell responses to Vibrio cholerae O1 lipopolysaccharide are associated with protection against infection from household contacts of patients with cholera in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sweta M; Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Mohasin, M; Riyadh, M Asrafuzzaman; Leung, Daniel T; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; Weil, Ana A; Aktar, Amena; Nazim, Mohammad; LaRocque, Regina C; Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Harris, Jason B

    2012-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 causes cholera, a dehydrating diarrheal disease. We have previously shown that V. cholerae-specific memory B cell responses develop after cholera infection, and we hypothesize that these mediate long-term protective immunity against cholera. We prospectively followed household contacts of cholera patients to determine whether the presence of circulating V. cholerae O1 antigen-specific memory B cells on enrollment was associated with protection against V. cholerae infection over a 30-day period. Two hundred thirty-six household contacts of 122 index patients with cholera were enrolled. The presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific IgG memory B cells in peripheral blood on study entry was associated with a 68% decrease in the risk of infection in household contacts (P = 0.032). No protection was associated with cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB)-specific memory B cells or IgA memory B cells specific to LPS. These results suggest that LPS-specific IgG memory B cells may be important in protection against infection with V. cholerae O1.

  4. The Japanese ladybirds, Coccinula crotchi and Coccinula sinensis, are infected with very closely related strains of male-killing Flavobacterium.

    PubMed

    Elnagdy, Sherif; Messing, Susan; Majerus, Michael E N

    2014-12-01

    Male-killing is 1 of 4 known strategies that inherited parasitic endosymbionts have evolved to manipulate their host's reproduction. In early male-killing, infected male offspring are killed early in embryogenesis. Within the Insecta, male-killing bacteria have been found in a wide range of hosts. The Coccinellidae families of beetles, better known as ladybirds, are particularly prone to male-killer invasion. In samples of the coccinellid, Coccinula crotchi, from Japan, a new male-killing bacterium was revealed by phenotypic assay. Molecular genetic analysis revealed the identity to be a tetracycline-sensitive Flavobacterium that causes female-biased offspring sex ratio. Furthermore, that Flavobacterium strain was found to be closely related to the Flavobacterium causing male-killing in the congeneric Japanese coccinellid, Coccinula sinensis, which was collected from the same region. However, we found slightly different Flavobacterium strains infecting C. sinensis from regions with different environmental conditions. This may be an indication of horizontal transmission of male-killing Flavobacterium between these 2 ladybird spices. Finally, environmental conditions may affect the spread of male-killing bacteria among their hosts. PMID:24124002

  5. The Japanese ladybirds, Coccinula crotchi and Coccinula sinensis, are infected with very closely related strains of male-killing Flavobacterium.

    PubMed

    Elnagdy, Sherif; Messing, Susan; Majerus, Michael E N

    2014-12-01

    Male-killing is 1 of 4 known strategies that inherited parasitic endosymbionts have evolved to manipulate their host's reproduction. In early male-killing, infected male offspring are killed early in embryogenesis. Within the Insecta, male-killing bacteria have been found in a wide range of hosts. The Coccinellidae families of beetles, better known as ladybirds, are particularly prone to male-killer invasion. In samples of the coccinellid, Coccinula crotchi, from Japan, a new male-killing bacterium was revealed by phenotypic assay. Molecular genetic analysis revealed the identity to be a tetracycline-sensitive Flavobacterium that causes female-biased offspring sex ratio. Furthermore, that Flavobacterium strain was found to be closely related to the Flavobacterium causing male-killing in the congeneric Japanese coccinellid, Coccinula sinensis, which was collected from the same region. However, we found slightly different Flavobacterium strains infecting C. sinensis from regions with different environmental conditions. This may be an indication of horizontal transmission of male-killing Flavobacterium between these 2 ladybird spices. Finally, environmental conditions may affect the spread of male-killing bacteria among their hosts.

  6. Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Three Zoo Elephants and a Human Contact - Oregon, 2013.

    PubMed

    Zlot, Amy; Vines, Jennifer; Nystrom, Laura; Lane, Lindsey; Behm, Heidi; Denny, Justin; Finnegan, Mitch; Hostetler, Trevor; Matthews, Gloria; Storms, Tim; DeBess, Emilio

    2016-01-08

    In 2013, public health officials in Multnomah County, Oregon, started an investigation of a tuberculosis (TB) outbreak among elephants and humans at a local zoo. The investigation ultimately identified three bull elephants with active TB and 118 human contacts of the elephants. Ninety-six (81%) contacts were evaluated, and seven close contacts were found to have latent TB infection. The three bulls were isolated and treated (elephants with TB typically are not euthanized) to prevent infection of other animals and humans, and persons with latent infection were offered treatment. Improved TB screening methods for elephants are needed to prevent exposure of human contacts.

  7. Bagaza virus is pathogenic and transmitted by direct contact in experimentally infected partridges, but is not infectious in house sparrows and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Francisco; Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Elizalde, Maia; Figuerola, Jordi; Soriguer, Ramón C; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Bagaza virus (BAGV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging to the Ntaya serocomplex. In 2010, a disease outbreak was reported in Cádiz (Southern Spain) affecting game birds (red-legged partridges and common pheasants). In this work, red-legged partridges were inoculated experimentally with infectious BAGV isolated from this outbreak in order to make a complete clinical and analytical assessment of the disease caused by the pathogen in this species. Viral load (by real-time RT-PCR) in blood, oral and cloacal swabs, and feathers, and neutralizing antibody titres (by VNT) were measured. In order to determine direct contact transmission, non-inoculated partridges were caged together with the inoculated ones. To assess infectiousness in other species, house sparrows and mice were also inoculated with the virus. All the inoculated partridges were clinically affected, and 30% of them died. All the infected individuals lost weight, with larger losses being recorded in females. Conversely, no mortality or disease symptoms were observed in the sparrows or mice. Remarkably, all the contact partridges acquired the infection by direct (non-vectored) transmission. This study confirms that the red-legged partridge is a susceptible host for BAGV infection, and that this pathogen is transmitted by direct contact. Long-lasting viral loads detected in calami of immature feathers demonstrate that feather sampling could be a useful strategy in active surveillance programs for early detection of BAGV. PMID:26338714

  8. Bagaza virus is pathogenic and transmitted by direct contact in experimentally infected partridges, but is not infectious in house sparrows and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Francisco; Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Elizalde, Maia; Figuerola, Jordi; Soriguer, Ramón C; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Bagaza virus (BAGV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging to the Ntaya serocomplex. In 2010, a disease outbreak was reported in Cádiz (Southern Spain) affecting game birds (red-legged partridges and common pheasants). In this work, red-legged partridges were inoculated experimentally with infectious BAGV isolated from this outbreak in order to make a complete clinical and analytical assessment of the disease caused by the pathogen in this species. Viral load (by real-time RT-PCR) in blood, oral and cloacal swabs, and feathers, and neutralizing antibody titres (by VNT) were measured. In order to determine direct contact transmission, non-inoculated partridges were caged together with the inoculated ones. To assess infectiousness in other species, house sparrows and mice were also inoculated with the virus. All the inoculated partridges were clinically affected, and 30% of them died. All the infected individuals lost weight, with larger losses being recorded in females. Conversely, no mortality or disease symptoms were observed in the sparrows or mice. Remarkably, all the contact partridges acquired the infection by direct (non-vectored) transmission. This study confirms that the red-legged partridge is a susceptible host for BAGV infection, and that this pathogen is transmitted by direct contact. Long-lasting viral loads detected in calami of immature feathers demonstrate that feather sampling could be a useful strategy in active surveillance programs for early detection of BAGV.

  9. Pathogenesis of highly virulent African swine fever virus in domestic pigs exposed via intraoropharyngeal, intranasopharyngeal, and intramuscular inoculation, and by direct contact with infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Howey, Erin B; O'Donnell, Vivian; de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Borca, Manuel V; Arzt, Jonathan

    2013-12-26

    To investigate the pathogenesis of African swine fever virus (ASFV), domestic pigs (n=18) were challenged with a range (10(2)-10(6) 50% hemadsorbing doses (HAD50)) of the highly virulent ASFV-Malawi strain by inoculation via the intraoropharyngeal (IOP), intranasopharyngeal (INP), or intramuscular (IM) routes. A subsequent contact challenge experiment was performed in which six IOP-inoculated donor pigs were allowed to have direct contact (DC) with six naïve pigs for exposure times that varied from 24 to 72 h. All challenge routes resulted in clinical progression and postmortem lesions similar to those previously described in experimental and natural infection. The onset of clinical signs occurred between 1 and 7 days post inoculation (dpi) and included pyrexia with variable progression to obtundation, hematochezia, melena, moribundity and death with a duration of 4-11 days. Viremia was first detected between 4 and 5 dpi in all inoculation groups whereas ASFV shedding from the nasal cavity and tonsil was first detected at 3-9 dpi. IM and DC were the most consistent modes of infection, with 12/12 (100%) of pigs challenged by these routes becoming infected. Several clinical and virological parameters were significantly different between IM and DC groups indicating dissimilarity between these modes of infection. Amongst the simulated natural routes, INP inoculation resulted in the most consistent progression of disease across the widest range of doses whilst preserving simulation of natural exposure and therefore may provide a superior system for pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy investigation.

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns in bacterial abundance, production and viral infection in a temporarily open/closed southern African estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, E. L.; Froneman, P. W.

    2008-05-01

    The spatial and temporal patterns in bacterial abundance, biomass, production, nanoflagellate abundance and the loss of bacterial production due to viral lysis were investigated in a temporarily open/closed estuary along the eastern seaboard of southern Africa over the period May 2006 to April 2007. Bacterial abundance, biomass and production ranged between 1.00 × 10 9 and 4.93 × 10 9 cells l -1, 32.43 and 108.59 μg C l -1 and 0.01 and 1.99 μg C l -1 h -1, respectively. With a few exceptions there were no significant spatial patterns in the values ( P > 0.05). Bacterial abundance, biomass and production, however, demonstrated a distinct temporal pattern with the lowest values consistently recorded during the winter months. Bacterial dynamics showed no effect of mouth opening events. Nanoflagellate and bacterial abundances were significantly correlated to one another ( P < 0.05) suggesting a strong predator-prey relationship. The frequency of visibly infected bacterial cells and the number of virus particles within each bacterial cell during the study demonstrated no significant temporal or spatial pattern ( P > 0.05) and ranged from 0.5 to 6.1% and 12.0 to 37.5 virus particles per bacterium, respectively. Viral infection and lysis was thus a constant source of bacterial mortality throughout the year. The estimated percentage of bacterial production removed by viral lysis ranged between 7.8 and 88.9% (mean = 30.3%) of the total which suggests that viral lysis represents a very important source of bacterial mortality during the study.

  11. A Multi-Disciplinary Review of the Potential Association between Closed-Suction Drains and Surgical Site Infection

    PubMed Central

    Reiffel, Alyssa J.; Barie, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the putative advantages conferred by closed-suction drains (CSDs), the widespread utilization of post-operative drains has been questioned due to concerns regarding both efficacy and safety, particularly with respect to the risk of surgical site infection (SSI). Although discipline-specific reports exist delineating risk factors associated with SSI as they relate to the presence of CSDs, there are no broad summary studies to examine this issue in depth. Methods The pertinent medical literature exploring the relationship between CSDs and SSI across multiple surgical disciplines was reviewed. Results Across most surgical disciplines, studies to evaluate the risk of SSI associated with routine post-operative CSD have yielded conflicting results. A few studies do suggest an increased risk of SSI associated with drain placement, but are usually associated with open drainage and not the use of CSDs. No studies whatsoever attribute a decrease in the incidence of SSI (including organ/space SSI) to drain placement. Conclusions Until additional, rigorous randomized trials are available to address the issue definitively, we recommend judicious use and prompt, timely removal of CSDs. Given that the evidence is scant and weak to suggest that CSD use is associated with increased risk of SSI, there is no justification for the prolongation of antibiotic prophylaxis to “cover” an indwelling drain. PMID:23718273

  12. Close contacts between carbonyl oxygen atoms and aromatic centers in protein structures: pi...pi or lone-pair...pi interactions?

    PubMed

    Jain, Alok; Purohit, Chandra Shekhar; Verma, Sandeep; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2007-08-01

    Lone-pair...pi and, more recently, pi...pi interactions have been studied in small molecule crystal structures, and they are the focus of attention in some biomolecules. In this study, we have systematically analyzed 500 high-resolution protein structures (resolution < or =1.8 A) and identified 286 examples in which carbonyl oxygen atoms approach the aromatic centers within a distance of 3.5 A. Contacts involving backbone carbonyl oxygens are frequently observed in helices and, to some extent, in strands. Geometrical characterization indicates that these contacts have geometry in between that of an ideal pi...pi and a lone-pair...pi interaction. Quantum mechanical calculations using 6-311++G** basis sets reveal that these contacts give rise to energetically favorable interactions and, along with MD simulations, indicate that such interactions could stabilize secondary structures.

  13. Two closely related members of Arabidopsis 13-LOXs, LOX3 and LOX4, reveal distinct functions in response to plantparasitic nematode infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The responses of two closely related members of Arabidopsis 13-lipoxygenase (13-LOX), LOX3 and LOX4, to infection by the sedentary nematodes root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) and cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) were analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings. Tissue localization of LO...

  14. Virological Consequences of Early Events following Cell-Cell Contact between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected and Uninfected CD4+ Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Eliana; Bona, Roberta; Muratori, Claudia; Federico, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected cells transmit viral products to uninfected CD4+ cells very rapidly. However, the natures of the transmitted viral products and the mechanism of transmission, as well as the relative virological consequences, have not yet been fully clarified. We studied the virological events occurring a few hours after contact between HIV-1-infected and uninfected CD4+ cells using a coculture cell system in which the virus expression in target cells could be monitored through the induction of a green fluorescent protein reporter gene driven by HIV-1 long terminal repeats. Within 16 h of coculture, we observed two phenomena not related to the cell-free virus infection, i.e., the formation of donor-target cell fusions and a fusion-independent internalization of viral particles likely occurring at least in part through intercellular connections. Both events depended on the expression of Env and CD4 in donor and target cells, respectively, whereas the HIV-1 internalization required clathrin activity in target cells. Importantly, both phenomena were also observed in cocultures of primary CD4+ lymphocytes, while primary macrophages supported only HIV-1 endocytosis. By investigating the virological consequences of these events, we noticed that while fused cells released infectious HIV-1 particles, albeit with reduced efficiency compared with donor cells, no virus expression was detectable upon HIV-1 endocytosis in target cells. In sum, the HIV-1 transmission following contact between an HIV-1-infected and an uninfected CD4+ cell can occur through different mechanisms, leading to distinguishable virological outcomes. PMID:18508887

  15. Full-length genome sequence of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infecting a captive agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) is closely related to SIVrcm infecting wild red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Liegeois, Florian; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Foupouapouognini, Yacouba; Nerrienet, Eric; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2010-12-01

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are lentiviruses that infect an extensive number of wild African primate species. Here we describe for the first time SIV infection in a captive agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) from Cameroon. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome sequence of SIVagi-00CM312 showed that this novel virus fell into the SIVrcm lineage and was most closely related to a newly characterized SIVrcm strain (SIVrcm-02CM8081) from a wild-caught red-capped mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) from Cameroon. In contrast to red-capped mangabeys, no 24 bp deletion in CCR5 has been observed in the agile mangabey. Further studies on wild agile mangabeys are needed to determine whether agile and red-capped mangabeys are naturally infected with the same SIV lineage, or whether this agile mangabey became infected with an SIVrcm strain in captivity. However, our study shows that agile mangabeys are susceptible to SIV infection.

  16. [Contact tracing and partner notification among a cohort of HIV-1 infected patients. A prospective study carried out in Palermo in 2012].

    PubMed

    Dalle Nogare, Fabrizio; Di Lorenzo, Francesco; Sanfilippo, Adriana; Dalle Nogare, Ernesto Renato; Arena, Nunzia; Prestileo, Tullio

    2014-09-01

    Introduction. Contact tracing and partner notification are tools to prevent the spread of the HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. These tools protect the rights of the individual contrasting healthcare policies that encourage dangerous kinds of discrimination. Objective. Pointing out the opinion of a sample of HIV-1 infected patients about the possibility of starting a support helpdesk for contract tracing and partner notification. Design and setting. A survey about contact tracing and partner notification procedures was conducted through anonymous questionnaires filled by a sample of 110 HIV-infected patients, involved in a follow-up stage at the Infectious Diseases Outpatients Clinic from the Civic Hospital Benfratelli in Palermo. The survey took place in May 2012. Results. An efficient partner notification is considered essential, both to protect people with whom the patient has come into contact and to contribute to the reduction of HIV spread. The questions dealing with this issue recorded more than 90% of positive answers. The questions about protecting the privacy during the diagnosis notification processes enlightened that notifying the partner is always felt as a greater need compared to the risk of losing one's own privacy; in fact, the positive answers were 81%. As for the role played by the physician during the contact tracing and partner notification process, 34% of the interviewees think that the physician should ask the patient to disclose the names of partners with whom he/she had a risky behavior. Finally, as for the question concerning how partner notification should happen, the results showed that 31% of the interviewees declare to be favorable to a full mandate by the physician, while just above 25% would choose to notify it personally, even though with the physician's help. Conclusion. Overall, the survey showed that more than 70% of people interviewed are favorable to a personal notification, against 25% of the interviewees who

  17. Infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle following intra-nasopharyngeal inoculation or contact exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the purpose of developing an improved experimental model for studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, three different experimental systems based on natural or simulated-natural virus exposure were compared under standardized experimental conditions. Antemortem infecti...

  18. An investigation of the simultaneously recorded occlusal contact and surface electromyographic activity of jaw-closing muscles for patients with temporomandibular disorders and a scissors-bite relationship.

    PubMed

    Qi, Kun; Guo, Shao-Xiong; Xu, YiFei; Deng, Qi; Liu, Lu; Li, Baoyong; Wang, Mei-Qing

    2016-06-01

    Surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity of the masseter and anterior temporalis (TA) muscles has been reported to be associated with occlusion and orofacial pain. However, our recent report did not reveal an association between the side of orofacial pain and the side showing higher or lower level of SEMG activity of masseter or TA. The present purpose was to re-test this association in patients who had unilateral scissors-bite relationship. Thirty-two unilateral scissors-bite femalepatients complaining of unilateral orofacial pain (n=15) or TMJ sounds (n=17) were enrolled to simultaneously record contacts, force distribution of occlusion, and SEMG activity of masseter and TA during centric maximal voluntary clenching (MVC). The results indicated that neither orofacial pain nor the TMJ sounds had an association with the masseter's SEMG values, while scissors-bite had (P<0.05). A lower SEMG value for masseter was found on the scissors-bite side where there was a smaller number of contacts and a lower biting force distribution (P<0.05). No such association was revealed in TA. In conclusion, in patients with unilateral TMD symptom(s) and scissors-bite, the jawclosing muscles' SEMG activity during centric MVC was associated with the scissors-bite rather than the symptoms of orofacial pain or TMJ sounds. PMID:27111032

  19. A contact mechanics based model for partially-closed randomly distributed surface microcracks and their effect on acoustic nonlinearity in Rayleigh surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhardt, Tobias; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2016-02-01

    This research investigates the modeling of randomly distributed surface-breaking microcracks and the dependency of higher harmonic generation in Rayleigh surface waves on microcrack density. The microcrack model is based on micromechanical considerations of rough surface contact. An effective stress-strain relationship is derived to describe the nonlinear behavior of a single microcrack and implemented into a finite-element model via a hyperelastic constitutive law. Finite-element simulations of nonlinear wave propagation in a solid with distributed surface microcracks are performed for a range of microcrack densities. The evolution of fundamental and second harmonic amplitudes along the propagation distance is studied and the acoustic nonlinearity parameter is calculated. The results show that the nonlinearity parameter increases with crack density. While, for small crack densities (dilute concentration of microcracks) a proportionality between crack density and acoustic nonlinearity is observed, this is not valid for higher crack densities, as the microcracks start to interact.

  20. [HORIZONTAL TRANSMISSION OF HBV INFECTION IN MIGRANTSFROM A HYPERENDEMIC AREA TO THEIR CONTACTS IN A LOW ENDEMICITY AREA IN PERU

    PubMed

    Cabezas, César; Anaya, Elizabeth; Bartalesi, Filippo; Sánchez, Jaime

    1997-01-01

    Migration of inhabitants from high endemicity to low endemicity areas, where the majority of population is susceptible, implies a risk of transmission. This factor suggested the study of the presence of HBV infection on migrants from Huanta and in their host communities in Lima.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty families from a human settlement in the District of San Juan de Lurigancho, Lima, were chosen at random. This sample included migrant families and people who had born in Lima.The members of these families were subjected to a survey to obtain demographic data and possible risk factor for HBV infection, and venous blood sample was obtained to determine HBV serological markers by ELIZA techniques.RESULTS: A total of 215 people were evaluated, 130 (60,5%) were female, and 85 (39,5%) were male. There were 9 (4,2%) HbsAg carriers; 4 (1,9%) of them were born in Huanta; the other 5 (2,3%) were born in Lima, and had never been to Huanta. They were under 20 years of age. No significant association was found between the presence of HbsAg and the use of injectables, blood transfusions, tatoos, previous surgery, dental extractions or sexual relations.CONCLUSION: The presence of HbsAg carrier on people born in Lima, with no "classical" risk factor for HBV infection, could be associated with carriers migrating from a hyperendemic HBV area, suggesting a mechanism of horizontal transmission. PMID:12219100

  1. Asymptomatic rectal mucosal lesions and hepatitis B surface antigen at sites of sexual contact in homosexual men with persistent hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Reiner, N E; Judson, F N; Bond, W W; Francis, D P; Petersen, N J

    1982-02-01

    To ascertain why active and passive oral-anal and genital anal intercourse correlate strongly with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in homosexual men, we studied 22 men with HBV infection for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in gingival and anorectal mucosa, feces, and semen. Thirteen of 22 (59%) patients had asymptomatic rectal mucosal lesions consisting of punctate bleeding points. Seventy-seven percent of swabbed specimens from lesions, 62% from feces, 59% from rectal mucosa, and 50% from anal canal mucosa contained HBsAg. Sera diluted serially and tested for HBsAg by radioimmunoassay showed that men with serum titers of 105 or greater were more likely to have HBsAg in specimens from lesions (p = 0.034), feces (p = 0.032), and normal mucosa (p = 0.001) than men with titers under 10 5. Asymptomatic rectal bleeding is frequent in homosexual men with persistent HBV infection. Rectal mucosa, feces, and anal canal mucosa become contaminated with HBsAg, creating a setting for de facto parenteral transmission when there is contact with oral or urethral mucosa. PMID:7059064

  2. Vaccination against rubella: Analysis of the temporal evolution of the age-dependent force of infection and the effects of different contact patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaku, M.; Coutinho, F. A.; Azevedo, R. S.; Burattini, M. N.; Lopez, L. F.; Massad, E.

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the temporal evolution of the age-dependent force of infection and incidence of rubella, after the introduction of a very specific vaccination program in a previously nonvaccinated population where rubella was in endemic steady state. We deduce an integral equation for the age-dependent force of infection, which depends on a number of parameters that can be estimated from the force of infection in a steady state prior to the vaccination program. We present the results of our simulations, which are compared with observed data. We also examine the influence of contact patterns among members of a community on the age-dependent intensity of transmission of rubella and on the results of vaccination strategies. As an example of the theory proposed, we calculate the effects of vaccination strategies for four communities from Caieiras (Brazil), Huixquilucan (Mexico), Finland, and the United Kingdom. The results for each community differ considerably according to the distinct intensity and pattern of transmission in the absence of vaccination. We conclude that this simple vaccination program is not very efficient (very slow) in the goal of eradicating the disease. This gives support to a mixed strategy, proposed by Massad et al., accepted and implemented by the government of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

  3. A Familial Cluster of Human Brucellosis Attributable to Contact with Imported Infected Goats in Shuyang, Jiangsu Province, China, 2013.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhongming; Huang, Yong; Liu, Genyan; Zhou, Weizhong; Xu, Xilou; Zhang, Zibing; Shen, Qing; Tang, Fenyang; Zhu, Yefei

    2015-10-01

    Brucellosis remains a serious public health issue in developing countries, including China. On August 8, 2013, four cases of brucellosis from one extended family were reported at Shuyang County, Jiangsu Province, China. Active case finding was performed to identify the source and the risk factors of the infection and to prevent additional cases. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used for molecular subtyping analysis. Six people from two extended families met the case definition for brucellosis infection; four were blood culture positive for Brucella melitensis biotype 3. Four additional family members were found seropositive by using a serological test. Isolates from the four patients were indistinguishable by MLVA profiling, displaying a unique type for Jiangsu Province. Field epidemiological data combined with MLVA genotyping supported a common source of the isolates from the different patients. We recommend stronger reinforcement measures for animal quarantine practices, enhanced cooperation with veterinary service organizations, and implementation of measures that strengthen public education on brucellosis to prevent further human outbreaks in Jiangsu Province. PMID:26149866

  4. A Familial Cluster of Human Brucellosis Attributable to Contact with Imported Infected Goats in Shuyang, Jiangsu Province, China, 2013.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhongming; Huang, Yong; Liu, Genyan; Zhou, Weizhong; Xu, Xilou; Zhang, Zibing; Shen, Qing; Tang, Fenyang; Zhu, Yefei

    2015-10-01

    Brucellosis remains a serious public health issue in developing countries, including China. On August 8, 2013, four cases of brucellosis from one extended family were reported at Shuyang County, Jiangsu Province, China. Active case finding was performed to identify the source and the risk factors of the infection and to prevent additional cases. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used for molecular subtyping analysis. Six people from two extended families met the case definition for brucellosis infection; four were blood culture positive for Brucella melitensis biotype 3. Four additional family members were found seropositive by using a serological test. Isolates from the four patients were indistinguishable by MLVA profiling, displaying a unique type for Jiangsu Province. Field epidemiological data combined with MLVA genotyping supported a common source of the isolates from the different patients. We recommend stronger reinforcement measures for animal quarantine practices, enhanced cooperation with veterinary service organizations, and implementation of measures that strengthen public education on brucellosis to prevent further human outbreaks in Jiangsu Province.

  5. Infection of Mast Cells with Live Streptococci Causes a Toll-Like Receptor 2- and Cell-Cell Contact-Dependent Cytokine and Chemokine Response ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rönnberg, Elin; Guss, Bengt; Pejler, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are strongly implicated in immunity toward bacterial infection, but the molecular mechanisms by which MCs contribute to the host response are only partially understood. We addressed this issue by examining the direct effects of a Gram-positive pathogen, Streptococcus equi, on bone marrow-derived MCs (BMMCs). Ultrastructural analysis revealed extensive formation of dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum in response to bacterial infection, indicating strong induction of protein synthesis. However, the BMMCs did not show signs of extensive degranulation, and this was supported by only slow release of histamine in response to infection. Coculture of live bacteria with BMMCs caused a profound secretion of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL7/MCP-3, CXCL2/MIP-2, CCL5/RANTES, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-12, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, as shown by antibody-based cytokine/chemokine arrays and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In contrast, heat-inactivated bacteria caused only minimal cytokine/chemokine release. The cytokine/chemokine responses were substantially attenuated in Toll-like receptor 2-deficient BMMCs and were strongly dependent on cell-cell contacts between bacteria and BMMCs. Gene chip microarray analysis confirmed a massively upregulated expression of the genes coding for the secreted cytokines and chemokines and also identified a pronounced upregulation of numerous additional genes, including transcription factors, signaling molecules, and proteases. Together, the present study outlines MC-dependent molecular events associated with Gram-positive infection and thus provides an advancement in our understanding of how MCs may contribute to host defense toward bacterial insults. PMID:19933827

  6. Impact of Co-Infections and BCG Immunisation on Immune Responses among Household Contacts of Tuberculosis Patients in a Ugandan Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Biraro, Irene A.; Egesa, Moses; Toulza, Frederic; Levin, Jonathan; Cose, Stephen; Joloba, Moses; Smith, Steven; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Katamba, Achilles; Elliott, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis incidence in resource poor countries remains high. We hypothesized that immune modulating co-infections such as helminths, malaria, and HIV increase susceptibility to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), thereby contributing to maintaining the tuberculosis epidemic. Methods Adults with sputum-positive tuberculosis (index cases) and their eligible household contacts (HHCs) were recruited to a cohort study between May 2011 and January 2012. HHCs were investigated for helminths, malaria, and HIV at enrolment. HHCs were tested using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFN) assay at enrolment and six months later. Overnight whole blood culture supernatants from baseline QFN assays were analyzed for cytokine responses using an 11-plex Luminex assay. Associations between outcomes (LTBI or cytokine responses) and exposures (co-infections and other risk factors) were examined using multivariable logistic and linear regression models. Results We enrolled 101 index cases and 291 HHCs. Among HHCs, baseline prevalence of helminths was 9% (25/291), malaria 16% (47/291), HIV 6% (16/291), and LTBI 65% (179/277). Adjusting for other risk factors and household clustering, there was no association between LTBI and any co-infection at baseline or at six months: adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI); p-value) at baseline for any helminth, 1.01 (0.39–2.66; 0.96); hookworm, 2.81 (0.56–14.14; 0.20); malaria, 1.06 (0.48–2.35; 0.87); HIV, 0.74 (0.22–2.47; 0.63). HHCs with LTBI had elevated cytokine responses to tuberculosis antigens but co-infections had little effect on cytokine responses. Exploring other risk factors, Th1 cytokines among LTBI-positive HHCs with BCG scars were greatly reduced compared to those without scars: (adjusted geometric mean ratio) IFNγ 0.20 (0.09–0.42), <0.0001; IL-2 0.34 (0.20–0.59), <0.0001; and TNFα 0.36 (0.16–0.79), 0.01. Conclusions We found no evidence that co-infections increase the risk of LTBI, or

  7. Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Contact dermatitis Overview Contact dermatitis: Many health care workers ... to touching her face while wearing latex gloves. Contact dermatitis: Overview Almost everyone gets this type of ...

  8. Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  9. Interspecies spread of Staphylococcus aureus clones among companion animals and human close contacts in a veterinary teaching hospital. A cross-sectional study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Drougka, Eleanna; Foka, Antigoni; Koutinas, Christos K; Jelastopulu, Eleni; Giormezis, Nikolaos; Farmaki, Ourania; Sarrou, Styliani; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Petinaki, Efthimia; Spiliopoulou, Iris

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence among companion animals and veterinary personnel (VP) was investigated. Strains' molecular characteristics were evaluated in order to assess S. aureus transmission. Specimens (224) from colonized and infected sites of 102 animals (92 dogs, 10 cats) and 18 VP were collected during 2012 and 2013. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the disk diffusion method and Etest. mecA, mecC, tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin) and lukF/lukS-PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL) genes were investigated by PCR. Genotypes were identified by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec), accessory gene regulator group (agr), spa and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). S. aureus prevalence among pets and VP was 36.3% (37/102) and 38.9% (7/18), respectively. Younger companion animals, those living in rural areas, having a disease upon admission or Coagulase-negative staphylococci co-carriage showed significantly higher prevalence of S. aureus isolation (p<0.05). Twenty-six pets and five VP carried PVL-positive S. aureus. In total, 60 S. aureus strains were recovered (53 from pets, seven from VP) of which 16 were MRSA (26.7%), 12 mecA- and four mecC-positive. MRSA showed higher resistance rates against other antimicrobials as compared to methicillin-susceptible ones. Strains were classified by MLST in 13 STs, with the predominance of ST80 and ST15. In MRSA, SCCmec types II, IV and XI were identified. The most frequent spa types were t5559 and t7558. Fifty-six strains were classified into 15 PFGE types. Comparison of genetic markers shows that identical or very similar strains disseminate among animals and VP. Companion animals harbor PVL-positive clones constituting a possible source for transmission to humans.

  10. Interspecies spread of Staphylococcus aureus clones among companion animals and human close contacts in a veterinary teaching hospital. A cross-sectional study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Drougka, Eleanna; Foka, Antigoni; Koutinas, Christos K; Jelastopulu, Eleni; Giormezis, Nikolaos; Farmaki, Ourania; Sarrou, Styliani; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Petinaki, Efthimia; Spiliopoulou, Iris

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence among companion animals and veterinary personnel (VP) was investigated. Strains' molecular characteristics were evaluated in order to assess S. aureus transmission. Specimens (224) from colonized and infected sites of 102 animals (92 dogs, 10 cats) and 18 VP were collected during 2012 and 2013. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the disk diffusion method and Etest. mecA, mecC, tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin) and lukF/lukS-PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL) genes were investigated by PCR. Genotypes were identified by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec), accessory gene regulator group (agr), spa and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). S. aureus prevalence among pets and VP was 36.3% (37/102) and 38.9% (7/18), respectively. Younger companion animals, those living in rural areas, having a disease upon admission or Coagulase-negative staphylococci co-carriage showed significantly higher prevalence of S. aureus isolation (p<0.05). Twenty-six pets and five VP carried PVL-positive S. aureus. In total, 60 S. aureus strains were recovered (53 from pets, seven from VP) of which 16 were MRSA (26.7%), 12 mecA- and four mecC-positive. MRSA showed higher resistance rates against other antimicrobials as compared to methicillin-susceptible ones. Strains were classified by MLST in 13 STs, with the predominance of ST80 and ST15. In MRSA, SCCmec types II, IV and XI were identified. The most frequent spa types were t5559 and t7558. Fifty-six strains were classified into 15 PFGE types. Comparison of genetic markers shows that identical or very similar strains disseminate among animals and VP. Companion animals harbor PVL-positive clones constituting a possible source for transmission to humans. PMID:26948298

  11. Evaluation of point-of-contact circulating cathodic antigen assays for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in low-, moderate-, and high-prevalence schools in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Foo, Karen T; Blackstock, Anna J; Ochola, Elizabeth A; Matete, Daniel O; Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Montgomery, Susan P; Karanja, Diana M S; Secor, W Evan

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of a point-of-contact circulating cathodic antigen assay (POC-CCA) to detect schistosome infections in primary school children (N = 1,801) living in areas with low, moderate, and high Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in western Kenya. The commercially available assay (CCA-1) and a second, experimental formulation (CCA-2) were compared against Kato-Katz stool examinations and an anti-schistosome enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A latent class model based on the four tests was used to establish "true infection status" in three different zones based on their distance from Lake Victoria. As a screening tool for community treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, the Kato-Katz examination was in closest agreement with the latent class model, followed by the experimental CCA-2, soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) ELISA, and CCA-1, which had high sensitivity compared with the other tests but was consistently the least specific. Our experience suggests that POC-CCA tests offer a field-friendly alternative to Kato-Katz, but need further interpretation for appropriate field use. PMID:25870418

  12. Evaluation of point-of-contact circulating cathodic antigen assays for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in low-, moderate-, and high-prevalence schools in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Foo, Karen T; Blackstock, Anna J; Ochola, Elizabeth A; Matete, Daniel O; Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Montgomery, Susan P; Karanja, Diana M S; Secor, W Evan

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of a point-of-contact circulating cathodic antigen assay (POC-CCA) to detect schistosome infections in primary school children (N = 1,801) living in areas with low, moderate, and high Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in western Kenya. The commercially available assay (CCA-1) and a second, experimental formulation (CCA-2) were compared against Kato-Katz stool examinations and an anti-schistosome enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A latent class model based on the four tests was used to establish "true infection status" in three different zones based on their distance from Lake Victoria. As a screening tool for community treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, the Kato-Katz examination was in closest agreement with the latent class model, followed by the experimental CCA-2, soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) ELISA, and CCA-1, which had high sensitivity compared with the other tests but was consistently the least specific. Our experience suggests that POC-CCA tests offer a field-friendly alternative to Kato-Katz, but need further interpretation for appropriate field use.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of highly photoresponsive fullerenyl dyads with a close chromophore antenna–C60 contact and effective photodynamic potential†

    PubMed Central

    Padmawar, Prashant A.; Rogers-Haley, Joy E.; So, Grace; Canteenwala, Taizoon; Thota, Sammaiah; Tan, Loon-Seng; Pritzker, Kenneth; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Kurup, Divya Balachandran; Hamblin, Michael R.; Wilson, Brian; Urbas, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a new class of photoresponsive C60–DCE–diphenylaminofluorene nanostructures and their intramolecular photoinduced energy and electron transfer phenomena. Structural modification was made by chemical conversion of the keto group in C60(>DPAF-Cn) to a stronger electron-withdrawing 1,1-dicyanoethylenyl (DCE) unit leading to C60(>CPAF-Cn) with an increased electronic polarization of the molecule. The modification also led to a large bathochromic shift of the major band in visible spectrum giving measureable absorption up to 600 nm and extended the photoresponsive capability of C60–DCE–DPAF nanostructures to longer red wavelengths than C60(>DPAF-Cn). Accordingly, C60(>CPAF-Cn) may allow 2γ-PDT using a light wavelength of 1000–1200 nm for enhanced tissue penetration depth. Production efficiency of singlet oxygen by closely related C60(>DPAF-C2M) was found to be comparable with that of tetraphenylporphyrin photosensitizer. Remarkably, the 1O2 quantum yield of C60(>CPAF-C2M) was found to be nearly 6-fold higher than that of C60(>DPAF-C2M), demonstrating the large light-harvesting enhancement of the CPAF-C2M moiety and leading to more efficient triplet state generation of the C60> cage moiety. This led to highly effective killing of HeLa cells by C60(>CPAF-C2M) via photodynamic therapy (200 J cm−2 white light). We interpret the phenomena in terms of the contributions by the extended π-conjugation and stronger electron-withdrawing capability associated with the 1,1-dicyanoethylenyl group compared to that of the keto group. PMID:20890406

  14. The early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs infected by contact: a quantitative time-course study using TaqMan RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Alexandersen, S; Oleksiewicz, M B; Donaldson, A I

    2001-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, economically important virus disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The objective of the present study was to examine the early pathogenesis of FMD in pigs by a quantitative time-course study. Under experimental conditions, recipient pigs were infected by contact with donor pigs affected by FMD. Every 24 h from day 1 to day 4 after exposure, two recipient pigs were selected randomly, killed and necropsied. A range of tissues were analysed by a quantitative TaqMan RT-PCR method and by titration of FMD virus on primary bovine thyroid cells. The titres of virus determined by assay in cell culture and calculated from the quantitative TaqMan data correlated strongly (r>0.9), thereby establishing the validity of the TaqMan calculations. The data indicated that the replication of virus in the lungs contributes only in small part to airborne virus excretion. Sites in the pharynx, trachea and nasal mucosa are probably more important in that regard. The sites of earliest virus infection and possibly replication in recipient pigs appeared to be in the pharynx (soft palate, tonsil and floor of pharynx). The data indicated that FMD virus replication in pigs is rapid and that the majority of virus amplification occurs in the skin. A model for the progression of infection is proposed, indicating initial spread from the pharyngeal region, through regional lymph nodes and via the blood to epithelial cells, resulting in several cycles of virus amplification and spread.

  15. The Avian XPR1 Gammaretrovirus Receptor Is under Positive Selection and Is Disabled in Bird Species in Contact with Virus-Infected Wild Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Carrie; Buckler-White, Alicia; Wollenberg, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Xenotropic mouse leukemia viruses (X-MLVs) are broadly infectious for mammals except most of the classical strains of laboratory mice. These gammaretroviruses rely on the XPR1 receptor for entry, and the unique resistance of laboratory mice is due to two mutations in different putative XPR1 extracellular loops. Cells from avian species differ in susceptibility to X-MLVs, and 2 replacement mutations in the virus-resistant chicken XPR1 (K496Q and Q579E) distinguish it from the more permissive duck and quail receptors. These substitutions align with the two mutations that disable the laboratory mouse XPR1. Mutagenesis of the chicken and duck genes confirms that residues at both sites are critical for virus entry. Among 32 avian species, the 2 disabling XPR1 mutations are found together only in the chicken, an omnivorous, ground-dwelling fowl that was domesticated in India and/or Southeast Asia, which is also where X-MLV-infected house mice evolved. The receptor-disabling mutations are also present separately in 5 additional fowl and raptor species, all of which are native to areas of Asia populated by the virus-infected subspecies Mus musculus castaneus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the avian XPR1 gene is under positive selection at sites implicated in receptor function, suggesting a defensive role for XPR1 in the avian lineage. Contact between bird species and virus-infected mice may thus have favored selection of mouse virus-resistant receptor orthologs in the birds, and our data suggest that similar receptor-disabling mutations were fixed in mammalian and avian species exposed to similar virus challenges. PMID:23843647

  16. Natural and experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the United States with an Ehrlichia sp. closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium.

    PubMed

    Yabsley, Michael J; Loftis, Amanda D; Little, Susan E

    2008-04-01

    An Ehrlichia sp. (Panola Mountain [PM] Ehrlichia sp.) closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium was recently detected in a domestic goat experimentally infested with lone star ticks (LSTs, Amblyomma americanum) collected from Georgia, USA. The infected goat exhibited pyrexia and mild clinical pathologic abnormalities consistent with ehrlichiosis. At least two other Ehrlichia species (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii) are maintained in nature by a cycle involving LSTs as the primary vector and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginanus) as a known or suspected reservoir. To investigate the possibility that white-tailed deer are potential hosts of the PM Ehrlichia sp., whole blood samples collected from 87 wild deer from 2000 to 2002 were screened with a species-specific nested PCR assay targeting the citrate synthase gene. In addition, two laboratory-raised white-tailed deer fawns were each infested with 120 wild-caught LST adults from Missouri, USA, and blood samples were periodically collected and tested for the PM Ehrlichia sp. Of 87 deer tested from 20 locations in the southeastern United States, three (3%) deer from Arkansas, North Carolina, and Virginia were positive for the PM Ehrlichia sp. Wild-caught ticks transmitted the PM Ehrlichia sp. to one of two deer fawns, and colony-reared nymphal LSTs acquired the organism from the deer, maintained it transstadially as they molted to adults, and transmitted the PM Ehrlichia sp. to two naïve fawns. These findings indicate that white-tailed deer are naturally and experimentally susceptible to infection with an Ehrlichia sp. closely related to E. ruminantium and are able to serve as a source of infection to LSTs. PMID:18436670

  17. Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass) infusion containers. Methods A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases) and patients without CLABSI (controls) were matched for admission departments, gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Costs were estimated according to micro-costing approach. In the cost effectiveness analysis, the cost component was assessed as the difference between production costs while effectiveness was measured by CLABSI rate (number of CLABSI per 1000 central line days) associated with the two infusion containers. Results A total of 43 cases of CLABSI were compared with 97 matched controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 62.1 and 66.6 years, respectively (p = 0.143); 56% of the cases and 57% of the controls were females (p = 0.922). The mean length of stay of cases and controls was 17.41 and 8.55 days, respectively (p < 0.001). Overall, the mean total costs of patients with and without CLABSI were € 18,241 and € 9,087, respectively (p < 0.001). On average, the extra cost for drugs was € 843 (p < 0.001), for supplies € 133 (p = 0.116), for lab tests € 171 (p < 0.001), and for specialist visits € 15 (p = 0.019). The mean extra cost for hospital stay (overhead) was € 7,180 (p < 0.001). The closed infusion container was a dominant strategy. It resulted in lower CLABSI rates (3.5 vs. 8.2 CLABSIs per 1000 central line days for closed vs. open infusion container) without any significant difference in total production costs. The higher acquisition cost of the closed infusion container was offset by savings incurred in other phases of production, especially waste management. Conclusions CLABSI results in

  18. ELECTRIC CONTACT MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Grear, J.W. Jr.

    1959-03-10

    A switch adapted to maintain electrical connections under conditions of vibration or acceleration is described. According to the invention, thc switch includes a rotatable arm carrying a conductive bar arranged to close against two contacts spaced in the same plane. The firm and continuous engagement of the conductive bar with the contacts is acheived by utilizeing a spring located betwenn the vbar and athe a rem frzme and slidable mounting the bar in channel between two arms suspendef from the arm frame.

  19. The Ankle Injury Management (AIM) trial: a pragmatic, multicentre, equivalence randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation comparing close contact casting with open surgical reduction and internal fixation in the treatment of unstable ankle fractures in patients aged over 60 years.

    PubMed Central

    Keene, David J; Mistry, Dipesh; Nam, Julian; Tutton, Elizabeth; Handley, Robert; Morgan, Lesley; Roberts, Emma; Gray, Bridget; Briggs, Andrew; Lall, Ranjit; Chesser, Tim Js; Pallister, Ian; Lamb, Sarah E; Willett, Keith

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Close contact casting (CCC) may offer an alternative to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) surgery for unstable ankle fractures in older adults. OBJECTIVES We aimed to (1) determine if CCC for unstable ankle fractures in adults aged over 60 years resulted in equivalent clinical outcome compared with ORIF, (2) estimate cost-effectiveness to the NHS and society and (3) explore participant experiences. DESIGN A pragmatic, multicentre, equivalence randomised controlled trial incorporating health economic evaluation and qualitative study. SETTING Trauma and orthopaedic departments of 24 NHS hospitals. PARTICIPANTS Adults aged over 60 years with unstable ankle fracture. Those with serious limb or concomitant disease or substantial cognitive impairment were excluded. INTERVENTIONS CCC was conducted under anaesthetic in theatre by surgeons who attended training. ORIF was as per local practice. Participants were randomised in 1 : 1 allocation via remote telephone randomisation. Sequence generation was by random block size, with stratification by centre and fracture pattern. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Follow-up was conducted at 6 weeks and, by blinded outcome assessors, at 6 months after randomisation. The primary outcome was the Olerud-Molander Ankle Score (OMAS), a patient-reported assessment of ankle function, at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were quality of life (as measured by the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions, Short Form questionnaire-12 items), pain, ankle range of motion and mobility (as measured by the timed up and go test), patient satisfaction and radiological measures. In accordance with equivalence trial US Food and Drug Administration guidance, primary analysis was per protocol. RESULTS We recruited 620 participants, 95 from the pilot and 525 from the multicentre phase, between June 2010 and November 2013. The majority of participants, 579 out of 620 (93%), received the allocated treatment; 52 out of 275 (19%) who received CCC later

  20. Latent tuberculosis infection, tuberculin skin test and vitamin D status in contacts of tuberculosis patients: a cross-sectional and case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Deficient serum vitamin D levels have been associated with incidence of tuberculosis (TB), and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). However, to our knowledge, no studies on vitamin D status and tuberculin skin test (TST) conversion have been published to date. The aim of this study was to estimate the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D) status with LTBI prevalence and TST conversion in contacts of active TB in Castellon (Spain). Methods The study was designed in two phases: cross-sectional and case-control. From November 2009 to October 2010, contacts of 42 TB patients (36 pulmonary, and 6 extra-pulmonary) were studied in order to screen for TB. LTBI and TST conversion cases were defined following TST, clinical, analytic and radiographic examinations. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) on a COBAS® 410 ROCHE® analyzer. Logistic regression models were used in the statistical analysis. Results The study comprised 202 people with a participation rate of 60.1%. Only 20.3% of the participants had a sufficient serum 25(OH)D (≥ 30 ng/ml) level. In the cross-sectional phase, 50 participants had LTBI and no association between LTBI status and serum 25(OH)D was found. After 2 months, 11 out of 93 negative LTBI participants, without primary prophylaxis, presented TST conversion with initial serum 25(OH)D levels: a:19.4% (7/36): < 20 ng/ml, b:12.5% (4/32):20-29 ng/ml, and c:0%(0/25) ≥ 30 ng/ml. A sufficient serum 25(OH)D level was a protector against TST conversion a: Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.00; b: OR = 0.49 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-2.66); and c: OR = 0.10 (95% CI 0.00-0.76), trends p = 0.019, adjusted for high exposure and sputum acid-fast bacilli positive index cases. The mean of serum level 25(OH)D in TST conversion cases was lower than controls,17.5 ± 5.6 ng/ml versus 25.9 ± 13.7 ng/ml (p = 0.041). Conclusions The results suggest that sufficient serum 25(OH)D levels protect against

  1. A Prototype Antifungal Contact Lens

    PubMed Central

    Ciolino, Joseph B.; Hudson, Sarah P.; Mobbs, Ashley N.; Hoare, Todd R.; Iwata, Naomi G.; Fink, Gerald R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To design a contact lens to treat and prevent fungal ocular infections. Methods. Curved contact lenses were created by encapsulating econazole-impregnated poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) films in poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) by ultraviolet photopolymerization. Release studies were conducted in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C with continuous shaking. The contact lenses and their release media were tested in an antifungal assay against Candida albicans. Cross sections of the pre- and postrelease contact lenses were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and by Raman spectroscopy. Results. Econazole-eluting contact lenses provided extended antifungal activity against Candida albicans fungi. Fungicidal activity varied in duration and effectiveness depending on the mass of the econazole-PLGA film encapsulated in the contact lens. Conclusions. An econazole-eluting contact lens could be used as a treatment for fungal ocular infections. PMID:21527380

  2. Infection.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Gaurav; Nagornaya, Natalya; Post, M Judith D

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is useful in the diagnosis and management of infections of the central nervous system. Typically, imaging findings at the outset of the disease are subtle and nonspecific, but they often evolve to more definite imaging patterns in a few days, with less rapidity than for stroke but faster than for neoplastic lesions. This timing is similar to that of noninfectious inflammatory brain disease, such as multiple sclerosis. Fortunately, imaging patterns help to distinguish the two kinds of processes. Other than for sarcoidosis, the meninges are seldom involved in noninfectious inflammation; in contrast, many infectious processes involve the meninges, which then enhance with contrast on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, brain infection causes a vast array of imaging patterns. Although CT is useful when hemorrhage or calcification is suspected or bony detail needs to be determined, MRI is the imaging modality of choice in the investigation of intracranial infections. Imaging sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging help in accurately depicting the location and characterizing pyogenic infections and are particularly useful in differentiating bacterial infections from other etiologies. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is extremely useful for the detection of hemorrhage. Although MR spectroscopy findings can frequently be nonspecific, certain conditions such as bacterial abscesses show a relatively specific spectral pattern and are useful in diagnosing and constituting immediate therapy. In this chapter we review first the imaging patterns associated with involvement of various brain structures, such as the epidural and subdural spaces, the meninges, the brain parenchyma, and the ventricles. Involvement of these regions is illustrated with bacterial infections. Next we illustrate the patterns associated with viral and prion diseases, followed by mycobacterial and fungal infections, to conclude with a review of imaging findings

  3. Spatial analyses of wildlife contact networks

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephen; Abbasi, Babak; Shah, Shrupa; Telfer, Sandra; Begon, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Datasets from which wildlife contact networks of epidemiological importance can be inferred are becoming increasingly common. A largely unexplored facet of these data is finding evidence of spatial constraints on who has contact with whom, despite theoretical epidemiologists having long realized spatial constraints can play a critical role in infectious disease dynamics. A graph dissimilarity measure is proposed to quantify how close an observed contact network is to being purely spatial whereby its edges are completely determined by the spatial arrangement of its nodes. Statistical techniques are also used to fit a series of mechanistic models for contact rates between individuals to the binary edge data representing presence or absence of observed contact. These are the basis for a second measure that quantifies the extent to which contacts are being mediated by distance. We apply these methods to a set of 128 contact networks of field voles (Microtus agrestis) inferred from mark–recapture data collected over 7 years and from four sites. Large fluctuations in vole abundance allow us to demonstrate that the networks become increasingly similar to spatial proximity graphs as vole density increases. The average number of contacts, , was (i) positively correlated with vole density across the range of observed densities and (ii) for two of the four sites a saturating function of density. The implications for pathogen persistence in wildlife may be that persistence is relatively unaffected by fluctuations in host density because at low density is low but hosts move more freely, and at high density is high but transmission is hampered by local build-up of infected or recovered animals. PMID:25411407

  4. Impact of latent infection treatment in indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Yuhara, Lucia Suemi; Sacchi, Flávia Patussi Correia; Croda, Julio

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to identify risk factors associated with latent tuberculosis (TB), examine the development of active disease among contacts, and assess the effectiveness of treating latent infection in indigenous Brazilians from January 2006 to December 2011. This was a retrospective study consisting of 1,371 tuberculosis contacts, 392 of whom underwent treatment for latent infection. Morbidity-from-TB data were obtained from the Information System for Disease Notification (SINAN) database, and the contacts' data were collected from the clinical records using forms employed by Special Department of Indigenous Health (SESAI) multidisciplinary teams, according to SESAI's instructions. The variables that were associated with latent infection among the contacts were age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.04) and close contact with a smear-positive index case (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.59-3.22). The variables associated with the development of active TB among the contacts were a tuberculin skin test (TST) ≥10 mm (relative risk [RR]: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.07-1.17), age (RR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.03), and treatment of latent infection (RR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01-0.27). The estimated number of latent infection treatments needed to prevent one case of active TB among the contacts was 51 treatments (95% CI: 33-182). In contacts with TST ≥10 mm, 10 (95% CI: 6-19) latent infection treatments were necessary to prevent one case of active TB. Age and close contact with a smear-positive index case were associated with latent TB. Screening with TST is a high priority among individuals contacting smear-positive index cases. Age and TST are associated with the development of active TB among contacts, and treatment of latent infection is an effective measure to control TB in indigenous communities. PMID:23936264

  5. Towards harmonised procedures in wildlife epidemiological investigations: a serosurvey of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Beerli, Olivia; Blatter, Sohvi; Boadella, Mariana; Schöning, Janne; Schmitt, Sarah; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a (re-)emerging disease in European countries, including Switzerland. This study assesses the seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland, because wild boar are potential maintenance hosts of these pathogens. The study employs harmonised laboratory methods to facilitate comparison with the situation in other countries. Eighteen out of 743 blood samples tested seropositive (2.4%, CI: 1.5-3.9%) by ELISA, and the results for 61 animals previously assessed using culture and PCR indicated that this serological test was not 100% specific for M. bovis, cross-reacting with M. microti. Nevertheless, serology appears to be an appropriate test methodology in the harmonisation of wild boar testing throughout Europe. In accordance with previous findings, the low seroprevalence found in wild boar suggests wildlife is an unlikely source of the M. bovis infections recently detected in cattle in Switzerland. This finding contrasts with the epidemiological situation pertaining in southern Spain.

  6. Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

    MedlinePlus

    CMV mononucleosis; Cytomegalovirus (CMV) ... Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is very common. The infection is spread by: Blood transfusions Organ transplants Respiratory droplets Saliva Sexual contact ...

  7. Social Contacts and Mixing Patterns Relevant to the Spread of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mossong, Joël; Hens, Niel; Jit, Mark; Beutels, Philippe; Auranen, Kari; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Massari, Marco; Salmaso, Stefania; Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; Wallinga, Jacco; Heijne, Janneke; Sadkowska-Todys, Malgorzata; Rosinska, Magdalena; Edmunds, W. John

    2008-01-01

    Background Mathematical modelling of infectious diseases transmitted by the respiratory or close-contact route (e.g., pandemic influenza) is increasingly being used to determine the impact of possible interventions. Although mixing patterns are known to be crucial determinants for model outcome, researchers often rely on a priori contact assumptions with little or no empirical basis. We conducted a population-based prospective survey of mixing patterns in eight European countries using a common paper-diary methodology. Methods and Findings 7,290 participants recorded characteristics of 97,904 contacts with different individuals during one day, including age, sex, location, duration, frequency, and occurrence of physical contact. We found that mixing patterns and contact characteristics were remarkably similar across different European countries. Contact patterns were highly assortative with age: schoolchildren and young adults in particular tended to mix with people of the same age. Contacts lasting at least one hour or occurring on a daily basis mostly involved physical contact, while short duration and infrequent contacts tended to be nonphysical. Contacts at home, school, or leisure were more likely to be physical than contacts at the workplace or while travelling. Preliminary modelling indicates that 5- to 19-year-olds are expected to suffer the highest incidence during the initial epidemic phase of an emerging infection transmitted through social contacts measured here when the population is completely susceptible. Conclusions To our knowledge, our study provides the first large-scale quantitative approach to contact patterns relevant for infections transmitted by the respiratory or close-contact route, and the results should lead to improved parameterisation of mathematical models used to design control strategies. PMID:18366252

  8. Use of two novel approaches to discriminate between closely related host microRNAs that are manipulated by Toxoplasma gondii during infection.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, Gusti M; Boothroyd, John C

    2010-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenously encoded regulatory RNAs that function to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in a wide variety of eukaryotes. Within organisms, some mature miRNAs, such as paralogous miRNAs, have nearly identical nucleotide sequences, which makes them virtually indistinguishable from one another by conventional hybridization-based approaches. Here we describe two inexpensive, sensitive methods for rapidly discriminating between paralogous miRNAs or other closely related miRNAs and for quantifying their abundance. The first approach is a sequential ribonuclease-protection and primer-extension assay; the second approach is a primer-extension assay that employs short oligonucleotide probes to exacerbate the instability of mismatched probe:miRNA hybrids. Both approaches are rapid and can be easily performed in their entirety using common laboratory equipment. As a proof of concept, we have used these methods to determine the exact identities of the human miR-17 family members that are increased by infection with the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. These methods can be used to rapidly and inexpensively discriminate between any closely related miRNAs in any organism.

  9. Close encounters of the infectious kind: methods to measure social mixing behaviour

    PubMed Central

    READ, J. M.; EDMUNDS, W. J.; RILEY, S.; LESSLER, J.; CUMMINGS, D. A. T.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A central tenet of close-contact or respiratory infection epidemiology is that infection patterns within human populations are related to underlying patterns of social interaction. Until recently, few researchers had attempted to quantify potentially infectious encounters made between people. Now, however, several studies have quantified social mixing behaviour, using a variety of methods. Here, we review the methodologies employed, suggest other appropriate methods and technologies, and outline future research challenges for this rapidly advancing field of research. PMID:22687447

  10. Hantavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... can enter the air. People can get the disease if they breathe infected air or come into contact with rodents or their urine or droppings. You cannot catch it from people. Early symptoms of HPS include ...

  11. Contact hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Baggish, M S; Barbot, J

    1983-06-01

    In 1907 innovations in optics and illumination made by Maximilian Nitze were applied to hysteroscopy by Charles David, who wrote a treatise of hysteroscopy. David improved illumination by placing an electric incandescent bulb at the intrauterine end of his endoscope and also sealed the distal end of the tube with a piece of glass. The history of the contact endoscope that the authors personally used is connected to the invention by Vulmiere (1952) of a revolutionary illumination process in endoscopy--the "cold light" process. The components of cold light consist of a powerful external light source that is transmitted via a special optical guide into the endometrial cavity. The 1st application of his principle (1963) was an optical trochar contained in a metallic sheath. This simple endoscope was perfected, and in 1973 Barbot and Parent, in France, began to use it to examine the uterine cavity. Discussion focuses on methods, instrumentation, method for examination (grasping the instrument, setup, light source, anesthesia, dilatation, technique, and normal endometrium); cervical neoplasia; nonneoplastic lesions of the endometrium (endometrial polyp, submucous myoma, endometrial hyperplasia); intrauterine device localization; neoplastic lesions of the endometrium; precursors (adenocarcinoma); hysteroscopy in pregnancy (embryoscopy, hydatidiform mole, postpartum hemorrhage, incomplete abortion, spontaneous abortion, induced abortions, and amnioscopy); and examinations of children and infants. The contact endoscope must make light contact with the structure to be viewed. The principles of contact endoscopy depend on an interpretation of color, contour, vascular pattern, and a sense of touch. These are computed together and a diagnosis is made on the basis of previously learned clinical pathologic correlations. The contact endoscope is composed of 3 parts: an optical guide; a cylindric chamber that collects and traps ambient light; and a magnifying eyepiece. The phase of

  12. 76 FR 57768 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the Sharpsburg post office in Sharpsburg, Iowa. The petition...

  13. 76 FR 49800 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the post office in Masonville, Iowa. The petition was filed...

  14. 76 FR 31645 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... should contact the person identified in FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source for case... determination to close the Valley Falls Station in Cumberland, Rhode Island. The petition was filed online...

  15. 76 FR 48924 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Service's determination to close the post office in Thayer, Iowa. The petition was filed by Mike...

  16. 76 FR 49801 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the post office in Monroe, Arkansas. The petition was filed...

  17. 76 FR 51436 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the post office in Sublime, Texas. The petition was filed...

  18. 76 FR 49799 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the post office in Ulman, Missouri. The petition was filed...

  19. 76 FR 60559 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the Smyrna post office in Smyrna, New York. The petition...

  20. 76 FR 60563 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the Algoma post office in Algoma, Mississippi. The petition...

  1. 76 FR 59452 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the Ellisburg post office in Ellisburg, New York. The...

  2. 76 FR 48923 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Service's determination to close the post office in Hoxie, Arkansas. The petition was filed by...

  3. 76 FR 51435 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... electronically should contact the person identified in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source... Postal Service's determination to close the post office in Grant, Iowa. The petition was filed...

  4. Social contact networks and disease eradicability under voluntary vaccination.

    PubMed

    Perisic, Ana; Bauch, Chris T

    2009-02-01

    Certain theories suggest that it should be difficult or impossible to eradicate a vaccine-preventable disease under voluntary vaccination: Herd immunity implies that the individual incentive to vaccinate disappears at high coverage levels. Historically, there have been examples of declining coverage for vaccines, such as MMR vaccine and whole-cell pertussis vaccine, that are consistent with this theory. On the other hand, smallpox was globally eradicated by 1980 despite voluntary vaccination policies in many jurisdictions. Previous modeling studies of the interplay between disease dynamics and individual vaccinating behavior have assumed that infection is transmitted in a homogeneously mixing population. By comparison, here we simulate transmission of a vaccine-preventable SEIR infection through a random, static contact network. Individuals choose whether to vaccinate based on infection risks from neighbors, and based on vaccine risks. When neighborhood size is small, rational vaccinating behavior results in rapid containment of the infection through voluntary ring vaccination. As neighborhood size increases (while the average force of infection is held constant), a threshold is reached beyond which the infection can break through partially vaccinated rings, percolating through the whole population and resulting in considerable epidemic final sizes and a large number vaccinated. The former outcome represents convergence between individually and socially optimal outcomes, whereas the latter represents their divergence, as observed in most models of individual vaccinating behavior that assume homogeneous mixing. Similar effects are observed in an extended model using smallpox-specific natural history and transmissibility assumptions. This work illustrates the significant qualitative differences between behavior-infection dynamics in discrete contact-structured populations versus continuous unstructured populations. This work also shows how disease eradicability in

  5. Screening for Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-Infected Individuals at First Contact after HIV Diagnosis: The Experience of a Large Clinical Center in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Focà, Emanuele; Magro, Paola; Motta, Davide; Compostella, Silvia; Casari, Salvatore; Bonito, Andrea; Brianese, Nigritella; Ferraresi, Alice; Rodari, Paola; Pezzoli, Maria Chiara; Quiros-Roldan, Eugenia; Castelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Neurocognitive disorders are emerging, probably underestimated, complications in HIV-infected people. The aim of the study was to assess neurocognitive profiles of newly detected HIV-infected patients. We performed an observational retrospective single-cohort study. Illiterates and patients with neurologic symptoms or previous psychiatric diagnosis were excluded. Neuropsychological profiles were assessed using a validated battery of neuropsychological tests. We included 206 patients; with males representing the majority of them (85%). Risk factors for HIV acquisition were unprotected sexual intercourse (homo/bisexual in 39.8% and heterosexual in 60.2%). Thirty-nine patients (18.9%) were previous injection drug users, while 41 (19.9%) were alcohol abusers. Mean education was 11.1 years (SD--standard deviation--3.7). A high prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND, 47.1%) was present in HIV-infected patients: particularly, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) was found in 30.6%, mild neurocognitive disorder (MND) in 15% and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in 1.5%. Male gender, low degree of education, AIDS diagnosis and gepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection were factors independently associated with HAND in a multivariable logistic regression model. Our data suggest that patient-specific factors and AIDS diagnosis have a certain kind of impact in HAND occurrence. A complete neuropsychological screening must be recommended in all patients at HIV-infection diagnosis. PMID:27023519

  6. Screening for Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-Infected Individuals at First Contact after HIV Diagnosis: The Experience of a Large Clinical Center in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Focà, Emanuele; Magro, Paola; Motta, Davide; Compostella, Silvia; Casari, Salvatore; Bonito, Andrea; Brianese, Nigritella; Ferraresi, Alice; Rodari, Paola; Pezzoli, Maria Chiara; Quiros-Roldan, Eugenia; Castelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Neurocognitive disorders are emerging, probably underestimated, complications in HIV-infected people. The aim of the study was to assess neurocognitive profiles of newly detected HIV-infected patients. We performed an observational retrospective single-cohort study. Illiterates and patients with neurologic symptoms or previous psychiatric diagnosis were excluded. Neuropsychological profiles were assessed using a validated battery of neuropsychological tests. We included 206 patients; with males representing the majority of them (85%). Risk factors for HIV acquisition were unprotected sexual intercourse (homo/bisexual in 39.8% and heterosexual in 60.2%). Thirty-nine patients (18.9%) were previous injection drug users, while 41 (19.9%) were alcohol abusers. Mean education was 11.1 years (SD—standard deviation—3.7). A high prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND, 47.1%) was present in HIV-infected patients: particularly, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) was found in 30.6%, mild neurocognitive disorder (MND) in 15% and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in 1.5%. Male gender, low degree of education, AIDS diagnosis and gepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection were factors independently associated with HAND in a multivariable logistic regression model. Our data suggest that patient-specific factors and AIDS diagnosis have a certain kind of impact in HAND occurrence. A complete neuropsychological screening must be recommended in all patients at HIV-infection diagnosis. PMID:27023519

  7. [Contact lens-related keratitis].

    PubMed

    Steiber, Zita; Berta, András; Módis, László

    2013-11-10

    Nowadays, keratitis, corneal infection due to wearing contact lens means an increasingly serious problem. Neglected cases may lead to corneal damage that can cause blindness in cases of otherwise healthy eyes. Early diagnosis based on the clinical picture and the typical patient history is an important way of prevention. Prophylaxis is substantial to avoid bacterial and viral infection that is highly essential in this group of diseases. Teaching contact lens wearers the proper contact lens care, storage, sterility, and hygiene regulations is of great importance. In case of corneal inflammation early accurate diagnosis supported by microbiological culture from contact lenses, storage boxes or cornea is very useful. Thereafter, targeted drug therapy or in therapy-resistant cases surgical treatment may even be necessary in order to sustain suitable visual acuity.

  8. Contact with farming environment as a major risk factor for Shiga toxin (Vero cytotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli O157 infection in humans.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, S. J.; Adak, G. K.; Gilham, C.

    2001-01-01

    In a prospective, unmatched case-control study of sporadic Shiga toxin (Vero cytotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157) infection in England, exposure to the farming environment emerged strongly as a risk factor (adjusted odds ratio = 2.45; 95% confidence intervals = 1.49-4.02; p=0.0004) posing further challenges and opportunities for prevention. PMID:11747741

  9. Rate of tuberculosis infection in children and adolescents with household contact with adults with active pulmonary tuberculosis as assessed by tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assays.

    PubMed

    Ferrarini, M A G; Spina, F G; Weckx, L Y; Lederman, H M; De Moraes-Pinto, M I

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection was evaluated in Brazilian immunocompetent children and adolescents exposed and unexposed (control group) to adults with active pulmonary TB. Both groups were analysed by clinical and radiological assessment, TST, QFT-IT and T-SPOT.TB. The three tests were repeated after 8 weeks in the TB-exposed group if results were initially negative. Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) were treated and tests were repeated after treatment. Fifty-nine TB-exposed and 42 controls were evaluated. Rate of infection was 69·5% and 9·5% for the exposed and control groups, respectively. The exposed group infection rate was 61% assessed by TST, 57·6% by T-SPOT.TB, and 59·3%, by QFT-IT. No active TB was diagnosed. Agreement between the three tests was 83·1% and 92·8% in the exposed and control groups, respectively. In the exposed group, T-SPOT.TB added four TB diagnoses [16%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·6-30·4] and QFT-IT added three TB diagnoses (12%, 95% CI 0-24·7) in 25 individuals with negative tuberculin skin test (TST). Risk factors associated to TB infection were contact with an adult with active TB [0-60 days: odds ratio (OR) 6·9; >60 days: OR 27·0] and sleeping in the same room as an adult with active TB (OR 5·2). In Brazilian immunocompetent children and adolescents, TST had a similar performance to interferon-gamma release assays and detected a high rate of LTBI.

  10. Types of Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Types of Contact Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) Decorative (Plano) Contact Lenses Soft Contact Lenses Soft contact lenses are made of soft, ...

  11. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  12. The Efficacy of Continuous Negative Pressure and Irrigation Treatment Inside the Wound by a Closed System in Reconstruction of All Layers of the Cranium Accompanying Infection and Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Mai; Rikimaru, Hideaki; Migita, Hisashi; Sakata, Kensuke; Kiyokawa, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    There have been many reports to date with respect to treatments on reconstruction of the cranium without accompanying infections following trauma and tumor resection. The morality is, however, high in patients observed with generation of cranial bone defect of all layers accompanying infection and cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and moreover, there are barely any reports on such cases because of the reconstruction thereof being very difficult. In this study, the authors were able to cure such 2 cases by carrying out continuous negative pressure and irrigation treatment inside the wound by a closed system following transplant of free latissimus dorsi muscle flap. This method is believed to be very effective for cranial bone defect of all layers accompanying infection and cerebrospinal fluid leakage, in which treatment was determined to be very difficult. PMID:26674903

  13. An adenovirus 4 outbreak amongst staff in a pediatric ward manifesting as keratoconjunctivitis-a possible failure of contact and aerosol infection control.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Elizabeth; Erez, Joanne C; Kirk-Granger, Helen R; Collins, Elizabeth; Tang, Julian W

    2016-05-01

    An adenovirus serotype 4 outbreak was identified on a pediatric ward involving 4 members of the health care staff. Two inpatients on the ward at the time (1 immunocompromised) were shedding this virus from their respiratory tracts and could have acted as independent index cases for the staff infections. Significantly, upon investigation, it was found that staff members were unaware that adenoviruses are not completely eliminated by alcohol gel handrubs and that soap and water handwashing is also required. PMID:26804304

  14. Design an easy-to-use infection screening system for non-contact monitoring of vital-signs to prevent the spread of pandemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanghao; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Matsuoka, Ayumu; Miyata, Keisuke; Chen, Chris; Ueda, Akiko; Kim, Seokjin; Hakozaki, Yukiya; Abe, Shigeto; Takei, Osamu; Matsui, Takemi

    2014-01-01

    The outbreak of infectious diseases such as influenza, dengue fever, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are threatening the global health. Especially, developing countries in the South-East Asia region have been at serious risk. Rapid and highly reliable screening of infection is urgently needed during the epidemic season at mass gathering places, such as airport quarantine facilities, public health centers, and hospital outpatients units, etc. To meet this need, our research group is currently developing a multiple vital-signs based infection screening system that can perform human medical inspections within 15 seconds. This system remotely monitors facial temperature, heart and respiration rates using a thermopile array and a 24-GHz microwave radar, respectively. In this work, we redesigned our previous system to make a higher performance with a user-friendly interface. Moreover, the system newly included a multivariable logistic regression model (MLRM) to determine the possibility of infection. We tested the system on 34 seasonal influenza patients and 35 normal control subjects at the Japan Self-Defense Forces Central Hospital. The sensitivity and specificity of the screening system using the MLRM were 85.3% and 88.6%, respectively.

  15. Attempts to control clothes-borne infection in a burn unit, 3. An open-roofed plastic isolator or plastic aprons to prevent contact transfer of bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Ransjö, U.

    1979-01-01

    An open-roofed plastic isolator was built in a single patient isolation room in a burn unit. It was designed to prevent contact contamination only, as this had been shown to be the important route of cross-colonization in the unit. To exclude any possible effect on airborne transfer of bacteria, the isolator was first examined by means of an airborne particle tracer of the same size as bacteria-carrying particles. Such experiments indicated that the isolator might prevent some transfer out of but not into the isolator. This was not confirmed in simulated nursing experiments nor in a patient study, where the air counts of bacteria were practically the same inside and outside the isolator wall. Two patients only were nursed in the isolator. Both patients acquired exogenous colonizations from other patients, one with Ps. aeruginosa and the other with S. aureus. Nursing in the isolator was difficult and staff-demanding. In simulated nursing experiments, plastic aprons and gauntlets as the only protective measures against contact contamination gave as much protection to a mock patient as did the isolator. S. aureus were released from nurses' clothes more easily during work with the isolator than in open nursing with aprons and gauntlets. In conclusion, the isolator did not seem to be a realistic alternative to impermeable clothes such as plastic aprons as a means of preventing clothes-borne cross-contamination between burn patients. Images Plate 2 Plate 1 PMID:109499

  16. Microscale hydrodynamics near moving contact lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garoff, Stephen; Chen, Q.; Rame, Enrique; Willson, K. R.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrodynamics governing the fluid motions on a microscopic scale near moving contact lines are different from those governing motion far from the contact line. We explore these unique hydrodynamics by detailed measurement of the shape of a fluid meniscus very close to a moving contact line. The validity of present models of the hydrodynamics near moving contact lines as well as the dynamic wetting characteristics of a family of polymer liquids are discussed.

  17. Semiconductor ohmic contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawrylo, Frank Zygmunt (Inventor); Kressel, Henry (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A semiconductor device has one surface of P type conductivity material having a wide energy bandgap and a large crystal lattice parameter. Applied to the P type surface of the semiconductor device is a degenerate region of semiconductor material, preferably a group III-V semiconductor material, having a narrower energy bandgap. The degenerate region is doped with tin to increase the crystal lattice of the region to more closely approximate the crystal lattice of the one surface of the semiconductor device. The degenerate region is compensatingly doped with a P type conductivity modifier. An electrical contact is applied to one surface of the degenerate region forming an ohmic contact with the semiconductor device.

  18. A live-attenuated chimeric PCV2 vaccine based on subtype 2b is transmitted to contact pigs but is not upregulated by concurrent infection with PPV and PRRSV and is efficacious in a triple challenge co-infection model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of a new live-attenuated chimeric PCV1/2b vaccine. Forty-six, 21-day-old, PCV2-naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of six groups (Negative controls, positive controls, Vac-0, Vac-0-PCV2, Contact-PCV2, Vac-28-PCV2). All pigs we...

  19. Nosocomial viral respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Graman, P S; Hall, C B

    1989-12-01

    Nosocomial infections with respiratory tract viruses, particularly influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses, account for the majority of serious nosocomial viral disease. Chronically ill, immunocompromised, elderly, and very young hosts are especially vulnerable to potentially life-threatening involvement of the lower respiratory tract. Effective preventive strategies are based upon early accurate viral diagnosis and an appreciation of the epidemiology and mechanisms of transmission for each viral agent. Influenza viruses spread via airborne dispersion of small particle aerosols, resulting in explosive outbreaks; control measures emphasize immunization and chemoprophylaxis of susceptible patients and personnel, and isolation of those already infected. Transmission of respiratory syncytial virus, in contrast, seems to require closer contact, with virus passed on hands, fomites, or in large droplets inoculated into the eyes and nose at close range. Strategies for control of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus are designed to interrupt hand carriage and inoculation of virus onto mucous membranes.

  20. Second outbreak of infection with a rare Cryptosporidium parvum genotype in schoolchildren associated with contact with lambs/goat kids at a holiday farm in Norway.

    PubMed

    Lange, H; Johansen, O H; Vold, L; Robertson, L J; Anthonisen, I L; Nygard, K

    2014-10-01

    In March 2012, a second outbreak of Cryptosporidium parvum affected children following a stay at a holiday farm in Norway; the first outbreak occurred in 2009. We studied a cohort of 145 schoolchildren who had visited the farm, of which 40 (28%) were cases. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in faecal samples from humans, goat kids and lambs. Molecular studies revealed C. parvum subtype IIa A19G1R1 in all samples including human samples from the 2009 outbreak. A dose-response relationship was found between the number of optional sessions with animals and illness, increasing from two sessions [risk ratio (RR) 2·7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·6-11·5] to six sessions (RR 8·0, 95% CI 1·7-37·7). The occurrence of two outbreaks 3 years apart, with the same subtype of C. parvum, suggests that the parasite is established in the farm's environment. We recommend greater emphasis on hand hygiene and routines related to animal contact.

  1. [Closing diastemas].

    PubMed

    Vieira, L C; Pereira, J C; Coradazzi, J L; Francischone, C E

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe a clinical case of closing upper central incisives diastema, reconstructiva of a conoid upper lateral and the rechaping of an upper canine to a lateral incisive. The material used was composite resin.

  2. A record system for contact tracing.

    PubMed Central

    Satin, A

    1977-01-01

    A system for recording information on patients and contacts was developed during a research project designed to measure the effectiveness of contact tracing. The record system has proved valuable in contact tracing, cross-referencing patients and their contacts, defining the characteristics of the patient and contact populations, and providing information for research and management. The value of a standardised system has been accepted by health workers who appreciate that its purpose is to increase efficiency and improve the care of infected persons. By October 1976 health workers in 16 clinics in the United Kingdom had started to use the system. PMID:576849

  3. Outbreak-related Hendra virus infection in a NSW pet dog.

    PubMed

    Halim, Sherly; Polkinghorne, Ben; Bell, Greg; van den Berg, Debra; Sheppeard, Vicky

    2015-09-30

    Hendra virus (HeV) infection is a zoonosis of importance in Australia. An outbreak of HeV occurred on the mid-north coast region of New South Wales (NSW) in June and July 2013. Four unvaccinated horses on four separate properties were confirmed to have HeV infection. A pet dog that had close contact with one of the horses was also confirmed to be infected with HeV. This paper documents the response to the canine infection and the resulting change to the public health management of HeV infection.

  4. Outbreak-related Hendra virus infection in a NSW pet dog.

    PubMed

    Halim, Sherly; Polkinghorne, Ben; Bell, Greg; van den Berg, Debra; Sheppeard, Vicky

    2015-09-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) infection is a zoonosis of importance in Australia. An outbreak of HeV occurred on the mid-north coast region of New South Wales (NSW) in June and July 2013. Four unvaccinated horses on four separate properties were confirmed to have HeV infection. A pet dog that had close contact with one of the horses was also confirmed to be infected with HeV. This paper documents the response to the canine infection and the resulting change to the public health management of HeV infection. PMID:26536509

  5. An experimental model to analyse the risk of introduction of a duck-originated H5 low-pathogenic avian influenza virus in poultry through close contact and contaminative transmission.

    PubMed

    Claes, G; Marché, S; Dewulf, J; Van Den Berg, T; Lambrecht, B

    2014-09-01

    Aquatic wild birds are often carriers of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs). If H5 and H7 LPAIVs are transmitted to poultry and have the opportunity to circulate, a highly pathogenic AIV may arise. Contact with aquatic wild birds is one of the most important ways in which these LPAIVs can be introduced into poultry flocks. In this study, the transmissibility of a duck-originated H5 LPAIV between ducks and chickens was analysed in a series of animal experiments, using different transmission routes. Results indicate that the outcome of virus intake by chickens exposed to infectious ducks depends on the way the virus is presented. Faecally contaminated drinking water proved to be the most efficient route by which the virus can be transmitted to chickens. The results from this study also suggest that some duck-originated H5 LPAIVs may be introduced to poultry but do not have the potential to become established in poultry populations.

  6. Infection Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... These steps are part of infection control. Proper hand washing is the most effective way to prevent the spread of infections in hospitals. If you are a patient, don't be afraid to remind friends, family and health care providers to wash their hands before getting close to you. Other ...

  7. Study of device use adjusted rates in health care-associated infections after implementation of "bundles" in a closed-model medical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Venkatram, Sindhaghatta; Rachmale, Sonal; Kanna, Balavenkatesh

    2010-03-01

    "Bundles" strategies improve health care-associated infection (HCAI) rates in medical intensive care units (MICUs). However, few studies have analyzed HCAI rates adjusted for the device removal component of the bundles. An observational study of adult MICU patients while using bundles to prevent HCAIs associated with endovascular catheters, mechanical ventilation, and urinary tract catheters was conducted. The HCAI rates, unadjusted and adjusted for device use, were calculated using incidence rate ratios (unadjusted IRRs [uIRR] and adjusted IRRs [aIRR], respectively). Among 4550 study patients, HCAIs declined from 47 in 2004 to 10 in 2005, 8 in 2006, and 3 in 2007. Catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) rates decreased from 10.77 to 1.67 per 1000 central line days (uIRR, 0.155; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.18; P < .0001). Foley-related urinary tract infections (CA-UTI) decreased from 6.23 to 0.63 per 1000 device days (uIRR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.08-0.19; P < .0001). Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) per 1000 ventilator days diminished from 2.17 to 0.62 (uIRR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.21-0.38; P < .0001). After adjustment for device use, aIRRs of CRBSI (0.14; 95% CI, 0.11-0.18), UTI (0.09; 95% CI, 0.06-0.12), and VAP (0.33; 95% CI, 0.22-0.47) declined significantly (P < .00001). Implementing comprehensive bundle strategies reduces HCAI beyond the impact of device removal.

  8. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  9. Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Intrahepatic Covalently Closed Circular DNA and Serum Viral Markers in Treatment-Naive Patients with Acute and Chronic HBV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhengsheng; Liu, Yan; Li, Baosen; Sun, Ying; Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Shuhong; Cai, Shaoping; Yao, Weimin; Xin, Shaojie; Lu, Fengmin; Xu, Dongping

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the relationships of intrahepatic cccDNA with serum HBsAg and with HBV DNA in treatment-naive patients throughout acute and chronic HBV infection. Methods A total of 120 patients who had a liver biopsy were enrolled, including 19 with acute hepatitis B (AHB), and 101 patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB) of whom were 10 in immune-tolerant (IT) phase, 59 in immune-clearance (IC) phase, 8 in low-replicative (LR) phase, and 24 in HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH) phase. Intrahepatic cccDNA, serum HBsAg and serum HBV DNA levels were comparatively analyzed. Results The median intrahepatic cccDNA levels were 0.18 4.80, 3.81, 0.22 and 0.97 copies/cell for patients with AHB, CHB-IT, CHB-IC, CHB-LR, and CHB-ENH, respectively. In AHB patients, intrahepatic cccDNA was positively correlated with serum HBsAg (r = 0.665, P = 0.003), as well as serum HBV DNA (r = 0.536, P = 0.022). In CHB patients, intrahepatic cccDNA was positively correlated with serum HBsAg in the IC phase (r = 0.392, P = 0.005), and with serum HBV DNA in the IC phase (r = 0.301, P = 0.036) and ENH phase (r = 0.588, P = 0.013). HBV replicative efficiency, defined as the ratio of serum HBV DNA to intrahepatic cccDNA, was obviously lower in AHB and CHB-LR patients than in CHB-IT, CHB-IC and CHB-ENH patients (0.70 and 0.53 vs. 1.12, 1.09 and 0.99, P<0.001, values were logarithmic transformed for analysis). In CHB-IC patients, HBV replicative efficiency was positively correlated with histological activity index of liver inflammation (r = 0.308, P = 0.009). Conclusion Serum HBsAg and HBV DNA levels may reflect the amount of active intrahepatic cccDNA in treatment-naive AHB and CHB-IC patients. Reduced intrahepatic cccDNA and HBV replicative efficiency may imply effective immune control of HBV infection. PMID:24551214

  10. Impact of Latent Infection Treatment in Indigenous Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yuhara, Lucia Suemi; Sacchi, Flávia Patussi Correia; Croda, Julio

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to identify risk factors associated with latent tuberculosis (TB), examine the development of active disease among contacts, and assess the effectiveness of treating latent infection in indigenous Brazilians from January 2006 to December 2011. This was a retrospective study consisting of 1,371 tuberculosis contacts, 392 of whom underwent treatment for latent infection. Morbidity-from-TB data were obtained from the Information System for Disease Notification (SINAN) database, and the contacts’ data were collected from the clinical records using forms employed by Special Department of Indigenous Health (SESAI) multidisciplinary teams, according to SESAI’s instructions. The variables that were associated with latent infection among the contacts were age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.04) and close contact with a smear-positive index case (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.59–3.22). The variables associated with the development of active TB among the contacts were a tuberculin skin test (TST) ≥10 mm (relative risk [RR]: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.07–1.17), age (RR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.03), and treatment of latent infection (RR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01–0.27). The estimated number of latent infection treatments needed to prevent one case of active TB among the contacts was 51 treatments (95% CI: 33–182). In contacts with TST ≥10 mm, 10 (95% CI: 6–19) latent infection treatments were necessary to prevent one case of active TB. Age and close contact with a smear-positive index case were associated with latent TB. Screening with TST is a high priority among individuals contacting smear-positive index cases. Age and TST are associated with the development of active TB among contacts, and treatment of latent infection is an effective measure to control TB in indigenous communities. PMID:23936264

  11. Skin and soft tissue infections in the military.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Lucy; Morgan, M

    2013-09-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are common in military populations regularly living and training in close contact with each other. The majority of such infections are simple and can be easily treated with antibiotics and appropriate infection control practices. Some, however, can progress to become complex and even life threatening, such as Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-associated staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, or Streptococcus pyogenes necrotising fasciitis, which carry a mortality rate of up to 65% and 30%, respectively. This review focuses on the most important SSTIs and those more commonly affecting military personnel with advice on how they are best managed. PMID:24109144

  12. Skin and soft tissue infections in the military.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Lucy; Morgan, M

    2013-09-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are common in military populations regularly living and training in close contact with each other. The majority of such infections are simple and can be easily treated with antibiotics and appropriate infection control practices. Some, however, can progress to become complex and even life threatening, such as Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-associated staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, or Streptococcus pyogenes necrotising fasciitis, which carry a mortality rate of up to 65% and 30%, respectively. This review focuses on the most important SSTIs and those more commonly affecting military personnel with advice on how they are best managed.

  13. Absence of XMRV and Closely Related Viruses in Primary Prostate Cancer Tissues Used to Derive the XMRV-Infected Cell Line 22Rv1

    PubMed Central

    Das Gupta, Jaydip; Luk, Ka-Cheung; Tang, Ning; Gaughan, Christina; Klein, Eric A.; Kandel, Eugene S.; Hackett, John; Silverman, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    The 22Rv1 cell line is widely used for prostate cancer research and other studies throughout the world. These cells were established from a human prostate tumor, CWR22, that was serially passaged in nude mice and selected for androgen independence. The 22Rv1 cells are known to produce high titers of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV). Recent studies suggested that XMRV was inadvertently created in the 1990's when two murine leukemia virus (MLV) genomes (pre-XMRV1 and pre-XMRV-2) recombined during passaging of the CWR22 tumor in mice. The conclusion that XMRV originated from mice and not the patient was based partly on the failure to detect XMRV in early CWR22 xenografts. While that deduction is certainly justified, we examined the possibility that a closely related virus could have been present in primary tumor tissue. Here we report that we have located the original prostate tumor tissue excised from patient CWR22 and have assayed the corresponding DNA by PCR and the tissue sections by fluorescence in situ hybridization for the presence of XMRV or a similar virus. The primary tumor tissues lacked mouse DNA as determined by PCR for intracisternal A type particle DNA, thus avoiding one of the limitations of studying xenografts. We show that neither XMRV nor a closely related virus was present in primary prostate tissue of patient CWR22. Our findings confirm and reinforce the conclusion that XMRV is a recombinant laboratory-generated mouse virus that is highly adapted for human prostate cancer cells. PMID:22615748

  14. Shedding dynamics of Morogoro virus, an African arenavirus closely related to Lassa virus, in its natural reservoir host Mastomys natalensis

    PubMed Central

    Borremans, Benny; Vossen, Raphaël; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Gryseels, Sophie; Hughes, Nelika; Van Gestel, Mats; Van Houtte, Natalie; Günther, Stephan; Leirs, Herwig

    2015-01-01

    Arenaviruses can cause mild to severe hemorrhagic fevers. Humans mainly get infected through contact with infected rodents or their excretions, yet little is known about transmission dynamics within rodent populations. Morogoro virus (MORV) is an Old World arenavirus closely related to Lassa virus with which it shares the same host species Mastomys natalensis. We injected MORV in its host, and sampled blood and excretions at frequent intervals. Infection in adults was acute; viral RNA disappeared from blood after 18 days post infection (dpi) and from excretions after 39 dpi. Antibodies were present from 7 dpi and never disappeared. Neonatally infected animals acquired a chronic infection with RNA and antibodies in blood for at least 3 months. The quantified excretion and antibody patterns can be used to inform mathematical transmission models, and are essential for understanding and controlling transmission in the natural rodent host populations. PMID:26022445

  15. Irritant Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Irritant Contact Dermatitis Information for adults A A A This ... severe involvement in the patient's armpit. Overview Irritant contact dermatitis is an inflammatory rash caused by direct ...

  16. Contact Lens Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Contact Lens Risks Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... redness blurred vision swelling pain Serious Hazards of Contact Lenses Symptoms of eye irritation can indicate a ...

  17. Contact Lens Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Contact Lens Care Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... 1088, www.fda.gov/medwatch Learn More about Contact Lens Care Other Tips on Contact Lenses Decorative ...

  18. Contact Lens Solution Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Contact Lens Solution Toxicity Information for adults A A A This image shows a reaction to contact lens solution. The prominent blood vessels and redness ...

  19. Staphylococcus intermedius infections: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nancy; Neilan, Anne M; Klompas, Michael

    2013-01-22

    Staphylococcus intermedius is part of the normal skin and oral flora of dogs. Case reports of human infections are rare, but the true incidence is unknown because the pathogen is frequently misidentified as Staphylococcus aureus. Reported cases range from soft tissue infections to brain abscess. Most reported cases in humans have been related to dog exposure. We report a case of a 73 year old female with S. intermedius surgical wound infection one month following a left elbow total arthroplasty. This is the first reported human case of S. intermedius infection of a mechanical prosthesis. The presumed source of infection was the patient's dog. The patient was treated with vancomycin, then switched to cefazolin and rifampin once susceptibilities were known. Case reports suggest that patients generally respond well to tailored antibiotics with complete or near-complete recovery. S. intermedius should be included in the differential diagnosis of invasive infection amongst patients with close contact with dogs.

  20. Staphylococcus Intermedius Infections: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nancy; Neilan, Anne M.; Klompas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus intermedius is part of the normal skin and oral flora of dogs. Case reports of human infections are rare, but the true incidence is unknown because the pathogen is frequently misidentified as Staphylococcus aureus. Reported cases range from soft tissue infections to brain abscess. Most reported cases in humans have been related to dog exposure. We report a case of a 73 year old female with S. intermedius surgical wound infection one month following a left elbow total arthroplasty. This is the first reported human case of S. intermedius infection of a mechanical prosthesis. The presumed source of infection was the patient’s dog. The patient was treated with vancomycin, then switched to cefazolin and rifampin once susceptibilities were known. Case reports suggest that patients generally respond well to tailored antibiotics with complete or near-complete recovery. S. intermedius should be included in the differential diagnosis of invasive infection amongst patients with close contact with dogs. PMID:24470954

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of closely related potyviruses infecting sweet potato determined by genomic characterization of Sweet potato virus G and Sweet potato virus 2.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Xu, Donglin; Abad, Jorge; Li, Ruhui

    2012-08-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences of Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2) were determined to be 10,800 and 10,731 nucleotides, respectively, excluding the 3'-poly(A) tail. Their genomic organizations are typical of potyviruses, encoding a polyprotein which is likely cleaved into 10 mature proteins by three viral proteinases. Conserved motifs of orthologous proteins of viruses in the genus Potyvirus are found in corresponding positions of both viruses. Pairwise comparisons of individual protein sequences of the two viruses with those of 78 other potyviruses show that P1 protein and coat protein (CP) of both viruses are significantly large, with the SPVG CP as the largest among the all the known species of the genus Potyvirus. The extended N-terminal region of the P1 protein is conserved in the potyviruses and ipomovirus infecting sweet potato. A novel ORF, PISPO, is identified within the P1 region of SPVG, SPV2, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), and Sweet potato virus C (SPVC). The C-terminal half of CP is highly conserved among SPFMV, SPVC, SPVG, SPV2, and Sweet potato virus-Zimbabwe. Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced CP amino acid sequences supports the view that these five viruses are grouped together in a SPFMV lineage. The analysis also reveals that Sweet potato virus Y and Ipomoea vein mosaic virus are grouped with SPV2 as one species, and these two viruses should be consolidated with SPV2.

  2. Management of invasive group A streptococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Waddington, Claire S; Snelling, Thomas L; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2014-11-01

    Invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) disease in children includes deep soft tissue infection, bacteraemia, bacteraemic pneumonia, meningitis and osteomyelitis. The expression of toxins and super antigens by GAS can complicate infection by triggering an overwhelming systemic inflammatory response, referred to as streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). The onset and progression of GAS disease can be rapid, and the associated mortality high. Prompt antibiotics therapy and early surgical debridement of infected tissue are essential. Adjunctive therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin and hyperbaric therapy may improve outcomes in severe disease. Nosocomial outbreaks and secondary cases in close personal contacts are not uncommon; infection control measures and consideration of prophylactic antibiotics to those at high risk are important aspects of disease control. To reduce a substantial part of the global burden of GAS disease, an affordable GAS vaccine with efficacy against a broad number of strains is needed.

  3. On the structure of contact binaries. I - The contact discontinuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, F. H.; Lubow, S. H.; Anderson, L.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of the interior structure of contact binaries is reviewed, and a simple resolution of the difficulties which plague the theory is suggested. It is proposed that contact binaries contain a contact discontinuity between the lower surface of the common envelope and the Roche lobe of the cooler star. This discontinuity is maintained against thermal diffusion by fluid flow, and the transition layer is thin to the extent that the dynamical time scale is short in comparison with the thermal time scale. The idealization that the transition layer has infinitesimal thickness allows a simple formulation of the structure equations which are closed by appropriate jump conditions across the discontinuity. The further imposition of the standard boundary conditions suffices to define a unique model for the system once the chemical composition, the masses of the two stars, and the orbital separation are specified.

  4. Complete genomic sequence analyses of the first group A giraffe rotavirus reveals close evolutionary relationship with rotaviruses infecting other members of the Artiodactyla.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Helen; Mulherin, Emily; Matthijnssens, Jelle; McCusker, Matthew P; Collins, P J; Cashman, Olivia; Gunn, Lynda; Beltman, Marijke E; Fanning, Séamus

    2014-05-14

    Group A Rotaviruses (RVA) have been established as significant contributory agents of acute gastroenteritis in young children and many animal species. In 2008, we described the first RVA strain detected in a giraffe calf (RVA/Giraffe-wt/IRL/GirRV/2008/G10P[11]), presenting with acute diarrhoea. Molecular characterisation of the VP7 and VP4 genes revealed the bovine-like genotypes G10 and P[11], respectively. To further investigate the origin of this giraffe RVA strain, the 9 remaining gene segments were sequenced and analysed, revealing the following genotype constellation: G10-P[11]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. This genotype constellation is very similar to RVA strains isolated from cattle or other members of the artiodactyls. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the close relationship between GirRV and RVA strains with a bovine-like genotype constellation detected from several host species, including humans. These results suggest that RVA strain GirRV was the result of an interspecies transmission from a bovine host to the giraffe calf. However, we cannot rule out completely that this bovine-like RVA genotype constellation may be enzootic in giraffes. Future RVA surveillance in giraffes may answer this intriguing question.

  5. Complete genomic sequence analyses of the first group A giraffe rotavirus reveals close evolutionary relationship with rotaviruses infecting other members of the Artiodactyla.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Helen; Mulherin, Emily; Matthijnssens, Jelle; McCusker, Matthew P; Collins, P J; Cashman, Olivia; Gunn, Lynda; Beltman, Marijke E; Fanning, Séamus

    2014-05-14

    Group A Rotaviruses (RVA) have been established as significant contributory agents of acute gastroenteritis in young children and many animal species. In 2008, we described the first RVA strain detected in a giraffe calf (RVA/Giraffe-wt/IRL/GirRV/2008/G10P[11]), presenting with acute diarrhoea. Molecular characterisation of the VP7 and VP4 genes revealed the bovine-like genotypes G10 and P[11], respectively. To further investigate the origin of this giraffe RVA strain, the 9 remaining gene segments were sequenced and analysed, revealing the following genotype constellation: G10-P[11]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. This genotype constellation is very similar to RVA strains isolated from cattle or other members of the artiodactyls. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the close relationship between GirRV and RVA strains with a bovine-like genotype constellation detected from several host species, including humans. These results suggest that RVA strain GirRV was the result of an interspecies transmission from a bovine host to the giraffe calf. However, we cannot rule out completely that this bovine-like RVA genotype constellation may be enzootic in giraffes. Future RVA surveillance in giraffes may answer this intriguing question. PMID:24582453

  6. Prevention of health care-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Vincent

    2014-09-15

    Health care-associated infections cause approximately 75,000 deaths annually, in addition to increasing morbidity and costs. Over the past decade, a downward trend in health care-associated infections has occurred nationwide. Basic prevention measures include administrative support, educating health care personnel, and hand hygiene and isolation precautions. Prevention of central line- or catheter-associated infections begins with avoidance of unnecessary insertion, adherence to aseptic technique when inserting, and device removal when no longer necessary. Specific recommendations for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections include use of chlorhexidine for skin preparation, as a component of dressings, and for daily bathing of patients in intensive care units. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common device-related health care-associated infection. Maintaining a closed drainage system below the patient reduces the risk of infection. To prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is associated with high mortality, mechanically ventilated patients should be placed in the semirecumbent position and receive antiseptic oral care. Prevention of surgical site infections includes hair removal using clippers, glucose control, and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Reducing transmission of Clostridium difficile and multidrug-resistant organisms in the hospital setting begins with hand hygiene and contact precautions. Institutional efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing are also strongly recommended. Reducing rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection can be achieved through active surveillance cultures and decolonization therapy with mupirocin.

  7. Measuring Social Contacts in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Lowery-North, Douglas W.; Hertzberg, Vicki Stover; Elon, Lisa; Cotsonis, George; Hilton, Sarah A.; Vaughns, Christopher F.; Hill, Eric; Shrestha, Alok; Jo, Alexandria; Adams, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious individuals in an emergency department (ED) bring substantial risks of cross infection. Data about the complex social and spatial structure of interpersonal contacts in the ED will aid construction of biologically plausible transmission risk models that can guide cross infection control. Methods and Findings We sought to determine the number and duration of contacts among patients and staff in a large, busy ED. This prospective study was conducted between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2010. Two 12-hour shifts per week were randomly selected for study. The study was conducted in the ED of an urban hospital. There were 81 shifts in the planned random sample of 104 (78%) with usable contact data, during which there were 9183 patient encounters. Of these, 6062 (66%) were approached to participate, of which 4732 (78%) agreed. Over the course of the year, 88 staff members participated (84%). A radiofrequency identification (RFID) system was installed and the ED divided into 89 distinct zones structured so copresence of two individuals in any zone implied a very high probability of contact <1 meter apart in space. During study observation periods, patients and staff were given RFID tags to wear. Contact events were recorded. These were further broken down with respect to the nature of the contacts, i.e., patient with patient, patient with staff, and staff with staff. 293,171 contact events were recorded, with a median of 22 contact events and 9 contacts with distinct individuals per participant per shift. Staff-staff interactions were more numerous and longer than patient-patient or patient-staff interactions. Conclusions We used RFID to quantify contacts between patients and staff in a busy ED. These results are useful for studies of the spread of infections. By understanding contact patterns most important in potential transmission, more effective prevention strategies may be implemented. PMID:23990915

  8. SARS: hospital infection control and admission strategies.

    PubMed

    Ho, Pak-Leung; Tang, Xiao-Ping; Seto, Wing-Hong

    2003-11-01

    Nosocomial clustering with transmission to health care workers, patients and visitors is a prominent feature of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Hospital outbreaks of SARS typically occurred within the first week after admission of the very first SARS cases when the disease was not recognized and before isolation measures were implemented. In the majority of nosocomial infections, there was a history of close contact with a SARS patient, and transmission occurred via large droplets, direct contact with infectious material or by contact with fomites contaminated by infectious material. In a few instances, potential airborne transmission was reported in association with endotracheal intubation, nebulised medications and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation of SARS patients. In all SARS-affected countries, nosocomial transmission of the disease was effectively halted by enforcement of routine standard, contact and droplet precautions in all clinical areas and additional airborne precautions in the high-risk areas. In Hong Kong, where there are few private rooms for patient isolation, some hospitals have obtained good outcome by having designated SARS teams and separate wards for patient triage, confirmed SARS cases and step-down of patients in whom SARS had been ruled out. In conclusion, SARS represents one of the new challenges for those who are involved in hospital infection control. As SARS might re-emerge, all hospitals should take advantage of the current SARS-free interval to review their infection control programmes, alert mechanisms, response capability and to repair any identified inadequacies.

  9. Large deformation contact mechanics of long rectangular membranes. I. Adhesionless contact

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Abhishek; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2013-01-01

    In part I of this work, we study adhesionless contact of a long rectangular elastic membrane with a rigid substrate. Our model is based on finite strain theory and is valid for arbitrarily large deformations. Both frictionless and no-slip contact conditions are considered. Exact closed form solutions are obtained for frictionless contact. For small contact, the differences between these two contact conditions are small. However, significant differences occur for large contacts. For example, frictionless contact predicts a maximum pressure (and contact region) beyond which there is no solution; while the no-slip model places no restriction on both quantities. The effect of adhesion will be considered in part II of this work. PMID:24353471

  10. Contact Dermatitis in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Janice L; Perez, Caroline; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-08-01

    Contact dermatitis is an umbrella term that describes the skin's reaction to contacted noxious or allergenic substances. The two main categories of contact dermatitis are irritant type and allergic type. This review discusses the signs, symptoms, causes, and complications of contact dermatitis. It addresses the testing, treatment, and prevention of contact dermatitis. Proper management of contact dermatitis includes avoidance measures for susceptible children. Implementation of a nickel directive (regulating the use of nickel in jewelry and other products that come into contact with the skin) could further reduce exposure to the most common allergens in the pediatric population. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e287-e292.]. PMID:27517356

  11. Anti-Mastigina activities of eight contact lens solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Niszl, I A; Markus, M B; van Deventer, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of eight contact lens solutions on a Mastigina sp., which was associated with the infected eye of a patient, were studied. The solutions which killed the organism promptly were those which are used for gas-permeable and hard contact lenses. Some solutions for soft contact lenses were more effective than others. PMID:8619600

  12. 76 FR 68795 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source for case-related information for advice on alternatives to... received three petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Rembrandt...

  13. 76 FR 72728 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source for case-related information for advice on alternatives to... petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Swaledale post office in...

  14. 76 FR 69297 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source for case-related information for advice on alternatives to... received two petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the East Poland...

  15. 76 FR 68793 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source for case-related information for advice on alternatives... Commission received two petitions for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the...

  16. 76 FR 76774 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source for case-related information for advice on alternatives to... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Spring Lake post...

  17. 76 FR 72727 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT section as the source for case-related information for advice on alternatives to... received a petition for review of the Postal Service's determination to close the Lafayette post office...

  18. Microbial contamination of contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water of contact lens wearers.

    PubMed

    Üstüntürk, Miray; Zeybek, Zuhal

    2012-11-01

    Contact lenses have been widely used as an alternative to spectacles both in developed and developing countries. However, under certain circumstances, adverse responses can occur during contact lens wear and several microorganisms--including bacteria, fungi, and free living amoebae--can cause several eye infections in wearers. Extended wear of contact lenses is the major risk factor of eye infections such as microbial keratitis, besides contaminated contact lens storage case, contaminated lens care solutions, and inaccurate contact lens handling. In this study, we collected contact lens storage case and domestic tap water samples from 50 asymptomatic contact lens wearers. We determined that total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 45 (90 %), Gram negative rod bacteria were isolated in 20 (40 %), Pseudomonas spp. were isolated in 2 (4 %) and fungi were isolated in 18 (36 %) out of 50 contact lens storage cases. Free living amoebae were not detected in investigated contact lens storage cases. At the same time, out of 50, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 34 (68 %), fungi were isolated in 15 (30 %) and free living amoebae were isolated in 15 (30 %) domestic tap water samples. No Gram-negative rod bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in investigated water samples. Two contact lens case samples and two tap water samples were excluded from the analysis for Pseudomonas spp. for technical reasons. According to our findings, inadequate contact lens maintenance during lens wear may result in the contamination of contact lens storage cases. This situation can lead to severe eye infections in contact lens wearers over time.

  19. Population-based contact investigation of a cluster of tuberculosis cases in a small village.

    PubMed

    Castilla, J; Palmera, R; Navascués, A; Abeti, M; Guillermo, A; Irisarri, F; Jiménez, M S; García Cenoz, M; Barricarte, A

    2009-10-01

    A cluster of five cases of tuberculosis (TB) in persons aged 19-23 years who were not close contacts was detected in a small village in Spain in 2006. All culture isolates had the same chromosomal-DNA restriction pattern. Contact investigations of family members, friends, workmates and schoolmates were complemented with tuberculin screening offered to the resident population born between 1976 and 1995. Expanded contact tracing detected two new cases of TB, 27 tuberculin conversions and an excess of latent tuberculosis infections (LTI) in persons born between 1978 and 1990. The contacts of two cases had a significantly elevated prevalence of LTI. Two secondary cases of TB, 33.3% of those diagnosed with LTI and 47.8% of the converters were unaware of any contact with the TB cases, but had frequented some of the same bars. This study suggests that a considerable percentage of the episodes of TB transmission in young people may escape detection in conventional contact studies.

  20. Tuberculosis Contact Investigations--United States, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Young, Kai H; Ehman, Melissa; Reves, Randall; Peterson Maddox, Brandy L; Khan, Awal; Chorba, Terence L; Jereb, John

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is transmitted through the air from an infectious patient (index patient) to other persons (contacts) who share space. Exposure to M. tuberculosis can result in tuberculosis (TB) disease or latent TB infection (LTBI), which has no clinical symptoms or radiologic evidence of disease. The cycle of transmission can be ended by isolating and treating patients with TB disease, examining contacts, and treating LTBI to prevent progression to TB disease. CDC systematically collects aggregate data on contact investigations from the 50 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico. Data from 2003-2012 were analyzed for trends in yields from contact investigations, in terms of numbers of contacts elicited and examined and the estimated number of TB cases averted through treatment of LTBI among contacts in 2012. During 2003-2012, the number of TB cases decreased, while the number of contacts listed per index patient with contacts elicited increased. In 2012, U.S. public health authorities reported 9,945 cases of TB disease (1) and 105,100 contacts. Among these contacts, 84,998 (80.9%) were examined; TB was diagnosed in 532 (0.6%) and LTBI in 15,411 (18.1%). Among contacts with LTBI, 10,137 (65.8%) started treatment, and 6,689 (43.4% of all contacts with LTBI) completed treatment. By investigating contacts in 2012, an estimated 128 TB cases (34% of all potential cases) over the initial 5 years were averted, but an additional 248 cases (66%) might have been averted if all potentially contagious TB patients had contacts elicited, all contacts were examined, and all infected contacts completed treatment. Enhancing contact investigation activities, particularly by ensuring completion of treatment by contacts recently infected with M. tuberculosis, is essential to achieve the goal of TB elimination.

  1. [Microsporidia and cryptosporidia coinfection in an HIV-infected newborn].

    PubMed

    Abdelmalek, R; Anane, S; Chabchoub, N; Essid, R; Aoun, K; Chaabéne, T Ben; Bouratbine, A

    2011-05-01

    Microsporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis are emerging opportunistic infections responsible for intestinal manifestations that are often severe in immunocompromised patients. A case of microsporidiosis-cryptosporidiosis coinfection is reported in an HIV-infected newborn. The patient was a 17-day-old female, exclusively breastfed and with no contact with animals. Microsporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis were diagnosed after systematic screening in stool samples using both specific staining and PCR. Two species of microsporidia, Encephalitozoon intestinalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Cryptosporidium hominis were identified. The contamination of the newborn probably resulted from direct human-to-human transmission during close contact with the mother (who had diarrhea and refused stool sampling). This report highlights the usefulness of the screening of intestinal microsporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis in HIV-infected subjects for better management.

  2. Prospective immunological follow-up in household contacts of Mexican leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Amezcua, M E; Escobar-Gutiérrez, A; Barba-Rubio, J; Cázares, J V; Mayén, E; Chávez-Núñez, M; Peña, R C; Rodríguez, R; Pastén, S

    1990-12-01

    A 6-year prospective study of 79 household contacts of leprosy cases was made in order to correlate the development of the disease with their specific T-cell immunity, measured by the Mitsuda test, and levels of anti-Mycobacterium leprae antibodies determined in three consecutive observations with the FLA-ABS test. Overall in the contacts, 71.7% were Mitsuda positive and 93.6% showed seropositivity, without regard to their age, sex, or leprosy type of their index case. Households were divided into lower-risk and higher-risk groups according to either the paucibacillary or multibacillary character of their index case. The lower-risk group consisted of 19 contacts of 2 tuberculoid (TT) and 5 indeterminate cases. The higher-risk group was made up of 60 household contacts of 18 active lepromatous (LL) cases. All but two contacts in the former group had a positive Mitsuda reaction; the most common antibody titer was 1:160, with a tendency to stabilize or decrease over time. In the two Mitsuda-negative contacts, increased antibody levels were observed. In the higher-risk group, 61.6% were Mitsuda positive and showed a humoral profile similar to those Mitsuda positive in the lower-risk group. In most of the Mitsuda-negative LL contacts, the antibody levels remained constant or progressively increased, suggesting a high probability of active subclinical infection. This assumption was partially supported by the finding of a new borderline lepromatous (BL) leprosy case in the Mitsuda-negative LL contact group. Nevertheless, the contribution of the close and extensive contact with a multibacilliferous case as a risk factor was difficult to evaluate because of the small size of the sample studied. PMID:2280115

  3. Contact reactions to food.

    PubMed

    Killig, Claudia; Werfel, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Cutaneous adverse reactions to foods, spices, and food additives can occur both in occupational and nonoccupational settings in those who grow, handle, prepare, or cook food. Because spices are also utilized in cosmetics and perfumes, other exposures are encountered that can result in adverse cutaneous reactions. This article describes the reaction patterns that can occur upon contact with foods, including irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. The ingestion of culprit foods by sensitized individuals can provoke a generalized eczematous rash, referred to as systemic contact dermatitis. Other contact reactions to food include contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis provoked by high-molecular-weight food proteins often encountered in patients with atopic dermatitis. Phototoxic and photoallergic contact dermatitis are also considered.

  4. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of allergic contact dermatitis include nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and topical antibiotic ointments and creams. Frequent ... construction workers who are in contact with cement. Rubber chemicals are found in gloves, balloons, elastic in ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It ... the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By ...

  6. Contact solution algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielking, John T.

    1989-01-01

    Two algorithms for obtaining static contact solutions are described in this presentation. Although they were derived for contact problems involving specific structures (a tire and a solid rubber cylinder), they are sufficiently general to be applied to other shell-of-revolution and solid-body contact problems. The shell-of-revolution contact algorithm is a method of obtaining a point load influence coefficient matrix for the portion of shell surface that is expected to carry a contact load. If the shell is sufficiently linear with respect to contact loading, a single influence coefficient matrix can be used to obtain a good approximation of the contact pressure distribution. Otherwise, the matrix will be updated to reflect nonlinear load-deflection behavior. The solid-body contact algorithm utilizes a Lagrange multiplier to include the contact constraint in a potential energy functional. The solution is found by applying the principle of minimum potential energy. The Lagrange multiplier is identified as the contact load resultant for a specific deflection. At present, only frictionless contact solutions have been obtained with these algorithms. A sliding tread element has been developed to calculate friction shear force in the contact region of the rolling shell-of-revolution tire model.

  7. Glasses and Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Glasses and Contact Lenses KidsHealth > For Kids > Glasses and Contact Lenses Print A A A Text Size What's ... together the way they should. But eyeglasses or contact lenses, also called corrective lenses, can help most ...

  8. CONTACT URTICARIA: PRESENT SCENARIO

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Ruchi; Alikhan, Ali; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-01-01

    Immunological contact urticaria is a hypersensitivity reaction that appears on the skin following contact with an eliciting substance. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanism and pathogenesis of this reaction have altered its classification, diagnosis, and treatment. We discuss classification, epidemiology, diagnosis, testing, and treatment options that are available to patients with contact urticaria. PMID:20161861

  9. Interfacial closure of contacting surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieutord, F.; Rauer, C.; Moriceau, H.

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the contact between solid surfaces is a long-standing problem which has a strong impact on the physics of many processes such as adhesion, friction, lubrication and wear. Experimentally, the investigation of solid/solid interfaces remains challenging today, due to the lack of experimental techniques able to provide sub-nanometer scale information on interfaces buried between millimeters of materials. Yet, a strong interest exists improving the modeling of contact mechanics of materials in order to adjust their interface properties (e.g., thermal transport, friction). We show here that the essential features of the residual gap between contacting surfaces can be measured using high energy X-ray synchrotron reflectivity. The presence of this nano-gap is general to the contact of solids. In some special case however, it can be removed when attractive forces take over repulsive contributions, depending on both height and wavelength of asperity distributions (roughness). A criterion for this instability is established in the standard case of van der Waals attractive forces and elastic asperity compression repulsive forces (Hertz model). This collapse instability is confirmed experimentally in the case of silicon direct bonding, using high-energy X-ray synchrotron reflectivity and adhesion energy measurements. The possibility to achieve fully closed interfaces at room temperature opens interesting perspectives to build stronger assemblies with smaller thermal budgets.

  10. Contact lens in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Varsha M; Mandathara, Preeji S; Dumpati, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL. PMID:23925325

  11. Experimental infection of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) with SAT-1 and SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Vosloo, W; Swanepoel, S P; Bauman, M; Botha, B; Esterhuysen, J J; Boshoff, C I; Keet, D F; Dekker, A

    2011-04-01

    The potential role of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in the epidemiology and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) SAT types was investigated by experimental infection and detection of virus in excretions using virus isolation on primary pig kidney cell cultures. In two experiments separated by a period of 24 months, groups of four animals were needle infected with a SAT-1 or SAT-2 virus, respectively and two in-contact controls were kept with each group. Viraemia was detected 3-9 days post-infection and virus isolated from mouth washes and faeces only occasionally up to day 13. The SAT-1 virus was transmitted to only one in-contact control animal, probably via saliva that contained virus from vesicles in the mouth of a needle-infected animal. None of the animals infected with the SAT-2 virus had any vesicles in the mouth, and there was no evidence of transmission to the in-contact controls. No virus was detected in probang samples for the duration of the experiments (60 days post-infection), indicating that persistent infection probably did not establish with either of these isolates. Giraffe most likely do not play an important role in FMD dissemination. Transmission of infection would possibly occur only during close contact with other animals when mouth vesicles are evident.

  12. Experimental infection of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) with SAT-1 and SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Vosloo, W; Swanepoel, S P; Bauman, M; Botha, B; Esterhuysen, J J; Boshoff, C I; Keet, D F; Dekker, A

    2011-04-01

    The potential role of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in the epidemiology and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) SAT types was investigated by experimental infection and detection of virus in excretions using virus isolation on primary pig kidney cell cultures. In two experiments separated by a period of 24 months, groups of four animals were needle infected with a SAT-1 or SAT-2 virus, respectively and two in-contact controls were kept with each group. Viraemia was detected 3-9 days post-infection and virus isolated from mouth washes and faeces only occasionally up to day 13. The SAT-1 virus was transmitted to only one in-contact control animal, probably via saliva that contained virus from vesicles in the mouth of a needle-infected animal. None of the animals infected with the SAT-2 virus had any vesicles in the mouth, and there was no evidence of transmission to the in-contact controls. No virus was detected in probang samples for the duration of the experiments (60 days post-infection), indicating that persistent infection probably did not establish with either of these isolates. Giraffe most likely do not play an important role in FMD dissemination. Transmission of infection would possibly occur only during close contact with other animals when mouth vesicles are evident. PMID:26353052

  13. Direct-Write Contacts: Metallization and Contact Formation; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Curtis, C. J.; Miedaner, A.; Pasquarelli, R. M.; Kaydonova, T.; Hersh, P.; Ginley, D. S.

    2008-05-01

    Using direct-write approaches in photovoltaics for metallization and contact formation can significantly reduce the cost per watt of producing photovoltaic devices. Inks have been developed for various materials, such as Ag, Cu, Ni and Al, which can be used to inkjet print metallizations for various kinds of photovoltaic devices. Use of these inks results in metallization with resistivities close to those of bulk materials. By means of inkjet printing a metallization grid can be printed with better resolution, i.e. smaller lines, than screen-printing. Also inks have been developed to deposit transparent conductive oxide films by means of ultrasonic spraying.

  14. Six challenges in measuring contact networks for use in modelling.

    PubMed

    Eames, K; Bansal, S; Frost, S; Riley, S

    2015-03-01

    Contact networks are playing an increasingly important role in epidemiology. A contact network represents individuals in a host population as nodes and the interactions among them that may lead to the transmission of infection as edges. New avenues for data collection in recent years have afforded us the opportunity to collect individual- and population-scale information to empirically describe the patterns of contact within host populations. Here, we present some of the current challenges in measuring empirical contact networks. We address fundamental questions such as defining contact; measurement of non-trivial contact properties; practical issues of bounding measurement of contact networks in space, time and scope; exploiting proxy information about contacts; dealing with missing data. Finally, we consider the privacy and ethical issues surrounding the collection of contact network data.

  15. Contact Tracing for Imported Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, China, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min; Zhong, Haojie; Hou, Jie; Wang, Jun; Li, Jiansen; Wu, Jie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan; Zhang, Yonghhui

    2016-01-01

    Confirmation of an imported case of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in China triggered intensive contact tracing and mandatory monitoring. Using a hotline and surveillance video footage was effective for tracing all 110 identified contacts. Contact monitoring detected no secondary transmission of infection in China. PMID:27532887

  16. Contact Tracing for Imported Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, China, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min; Song, Tie; Zhong, Haojie; Hou, Jie; Wang, Jun; Li, Jiansen; Wu, Jie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan; Zhang, Yonghhui

    2016-09-01

    Confirmation of an imported case of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in China triggered intensive contact tracing and mandatory monitoring. Using a hotline and surveillance video footage was effective for tracing all 110 identified contacts. Contact monitoring detected no secondary transmission of infection in China. PMID:27532887

  17. Host contact and shedding patterns clarify variation in pathogen exposure and transmission in threatened tortoise Gopherus agassizii: implications for disease modelling and management.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Christina M; Nussear, Kenneth E; Esque, Todd C; Emblidge, Patrick G; Sah, Pratha; Bansal, Shweta; Hudson, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Most directly transmitted infections require some form of close contact between infectious and susceptible hosts to spread. Often disease models assume contacts are equal and use mean field estimates of transmission probability for all interactions with infectious hosts. Such methods may inaccurately describe transmission when interactions differ substantially in their ability to cause infection. Understanding this variation in transmission risk may be critical to properly model and manage some infectious diseases. In this study, we investigate how varying exposure and transmission may be key to understanding disease dynamics in the threatened desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii. We created heterogeneity in Mycoplasma agassizii exposure (the putative bacterial agent of a respiratory disease) by varying the duration of interactions between naturally infected and uninfected captive desert tortoises. Using qPCR, we identified new infections and compared models of transmission probability as a function of contact duration and pathogen load. We then examined the contact patterns of a wild tortoise population using proximity loggers to identify heterogeneity in contact duration. The top-ranked model predicting M. agassizii transmission included a dose term defined as the product of the number of days in proximity to an infected host and the infection level of that host. Models predicted low transmission probability for short interactions, unless the infectious host had a high load of M. agassizii: such hosts were predicted to transmit infection at higher rates with any amount of contact. We observed predominantly short-lived interactions in a free-ranging tortoise population and thus, expect transmission patterns in this population to vary considerably with the frequency and duration of high infection levels. Mean field models may misrepresent natural transmission patterns in this and other populations depending on the distribution of high-risk contact and shedding

  18. Non-contact measurement of contact wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yaxing; Ye, Xuemei; Li, Zhongke; Yue, Kaiduan

    2008-12-01

    The overhead contact system is the power supply unit of the electric locomotive. This article is to introduce our newly developed method to measure the height and pull out value of the contact wire. A carema dolly which can move on railway is applied to bear the weight of the measure equipment; two linear CCD cameras are installed on the dolly symmetrically about the midline of two rails. While the dolly move along the railway, two CCD cameras grasp the image synchronously, and a computer real-time process the images, the height and pull out value can be calculate out from the images.

  19. What can we offer to 3 million MDRTB household contacts in 2016?

    PubMed

    Moore, David A J

    2016-04-01

    The diagnosis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in any individual is the beginning of a prolonged and difficult therapeutic journey. It also marks the moment from which to begin consideration of how to manage close contacts. Preventive therapy for drug-susceptible latent tuberculosis infection has been demonstrated to be effective at reducing the risk of future disease; the stakes are higher when considering prevention of MDR-TB because treatment of active disease is more prolonged and toxic and much less effective. This has encouraged exploration of the potential utility of preventive therapy, with second-line agents, in reducing future incident drug-resistant TB.Three clinical trials of preventive therapy for contacts of patients with MDR-TB are starting in 2015/16; results will not be available until at least 2020, so what should be offered to exposed contacts in the interim?A recent policy brief, arising from a global consultation meeting of international experts, recommended preventive therapy based upon very limited available observational data. However the many known unknowns associated with this approach, include the high proportion of index-contact pairs with discordant drug susceptibility profiles and (even if susceptibilities are shared) the lack of data supporting the use of the selected agents in the treatment of latent infection (rather than active disease).It is important to acknowledge that the alternative to offering preventive therapy is not doing nothing. On the contrary, identified contacts should be maintained under close, active surveillance for 24 months, enabling early detection of active disease in the small proportion amongst whom this may occur. Such patients should benefit from less extensive disease at diagnosis and early access to individualized therapeutic regimens with improved treatment outcomes. Moreover the vast majority of contacts that do not develop disease will benefit from avoidance of potentially toxic

  20. Temporomandibular Joint, Closed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Health > The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Main Content Title: The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Description: The temporomandibular joint connects the lower ...

  1. [Contact dermatitis in Dakar].

    PubMed

    Niang, S O

    2007-01-01

    Because of the widespread repartition of allergens, allergic contact dermatitis is the most common inflammatory skin disease. It's the best model of dilated hypersensibility mediated by T lymphocytes cells. Atopic dermatitis and irritative dermatitis are to be distinguished to contact dermatitis. The aetiological diagnosis is the most important step of management of patients with that disease because it's the best way to avoid recurrences. The identification of cause is based on aetiological interrogatory and epicutaneous tests with 23 allergens completed with personnel products and specialised tests. Contact dermatitis can be classified according to results of aetiological management. In occupational contact dermatitis, contact dermatitis due to drugs, to metals, cosmetics, clothes and accessory and proteins. Management of patients with contact dermatitis is based on individual eviction, protection, cosmetovigilance, declaration of occupational dermatosis and allergovigilance. PMID:19102084

  2. New contact measures for the protein docking problem

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhof, H.P.

    1997-12-01

    We have developed and implemented a parallel distributed algorithm for the rigid-body protein docking problem. The algorithm is based on a new fitness function for evaluating the surface matching of a given conformation. The fitness function is defined as the weighted sum of two contact measures, the geometric contact measure and the chemical contact measure. The geometric contact measure measures the {open_quotes}size{close_quotes} of the contact area of two molecules. It is a potential function that counts the {open_quotes}van der Waals contacts{close_quotes} between the atoms of the two molecules (the algorithm does not compute the Lennard-Jones potential). The chemical contact measure is also based on the {open_quotes}van der Waals contacts{close_quotes} principle: We consider all atoms pairs that have a {open_quotes}van der Waals{close_quotes} contact, but instead of adding a constant for each pair (a, b), we add a {open_quotes}chemical weight{close_quotes} that depends on the atom pair (a, b). We tested our docking algorithm with a test set that contains the test examples of Norel et al. and Fischer et al. and compared the results of our docking algorithm with the results of Norel et al., Fischer et al. and Meyer et al. In 32 of 35 test examples the best conformation with respect to the fitness function was an approximation of the real conformation. 37 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Alterations in Helicobacter pylori Triggered by Contact with Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Elizabeth M.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.; Cover, Timothy L.

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori lives within the mucus layer of the human stomach, in close proximity to gastric epithelial cells. While a great deal is known about the effects of H. pylori on human cells and the specific bacterial products that mediate these effects, relatively little work has been done to investigate alterations in H. pylori that may be triggered by bacterial contact with human cells. In this review, we discuss the spectrum of changes in bacterial physiology and morphology that occur when H. pylori is in contact with gastric epithelial cells. Several studies have reported that cell contact causes alterations in H. pylori gene transcription. In addition, H. pylori contact with gastric epithelial cells promotes the formation of pilus-like structures at the bacteria–host cell interface. The formation of these structures requires multiple genes in the cag pathogenicity island, and these structures are proposed to have an important role in the type IV secretion system-dependent process through which CagA enters host cells. Finally, H. pylori contact with epithelial cells can promote bacterial replication and the formation of microcolonies, phenomena that are facilitated by the acquisition of iron and other nutrients from infected cells. In summary, the gastric epithelial cell surface represents an important niche for H. pylori, and upon entry into this niche, the bacteria alter their behavior in a manner that optimizes bacterial proliferation and persistent colonization of the host. PMID:22919609

  4. Potential impact of a ventilation intervention for influenza in the context of a dense indoor contact network in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaolei; Wei, Jianjian; Cowling, Benjamin J; Li, Yuguo

    2016-11-01

    Emerging diseases may spread rapidly through dense and large urban contact networks. We constructed a simple but novel dual-contact network model to account for both airborne contact and close contact of individuals in the densely populated city of Hong Kong. The model was then integrated with an existing epidemiological susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model, and we used a revised Wells-Riley model to estimate infection risks by the airborne route and an exponential dose-response model for risks by the contact and droplet routes. A potential outbreak of partially airborne influenza was examined, assuming different proportions of transmission through the airborne route. Our results show that building ventilation can have significant effects in airborne transmission-dominated conditions. Moreover, even when the airborne route only contributes 20% to the total infection risk, increasing the ventilation rate has a strong influence on transmission dynamics, and it also can achieve control effects similar to those of wearing masks for patients, isolation and vaccination.

  5. Potential impact of a ventilation intervention for influenza in the context of a dense indoor contact network in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaolei; Wei, Jianjian; Cowling, Benjamin J; Li, Yuguo

    2016-11-01

    Emerging diseases may spread rapidly through dense and large urban contact networks. We constructed a simple but novel dual-contact network model to account for both airborne contact and close contact of individuals in the densely populated city of Hong Kong. The model was then integrated with an existing epidemiological susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model, and we used a revised Wells-Riley model to estimate infection risks by the airborne route and an exponential dose-response model for risks by the contact and droplet routes. A potential outbreak of partially airborne influenza was examined, assuming different proportions of transmission through the airborne route. Our results show that building ventilation can have significant effects in airborne transmission-dominated conditions. Moreover, even when the airborne route only contributes 20% to the total infection risk, increasing the ventilation rate has a strong influence on transmission dynamics, and it also can achieve control effects similar to those of wearing masks for patients, isolation and vaccination. PMID:27351145

  6. Optical contact micrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Steven D.

    2014-08-19

    Certain examples provide optical contact micrometers and methods of use. An example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable lenses to receive an object and immobilize the object in a position. The example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable mirrors positioned with respect to the pair of lenses to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses. The example optical contact micrometer includes a microscope to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses via the mirrors; and an interferometer to obtain one or more measurements of the object.

  7. Asymptomatic brucellosis infection in humans: implications for diagnosis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Q; Lu, Y; Yuan, X; Qiu, Y; Xu, J; Li, W; Ke, Y; Yu, Y; Huang, L; Wang, Y; Chen, Z

    2013-09-01

    Human brucellosis is mainly caused by contact with Brucella-infected animals and their secretions and carcasses. Individuals who are continuously in contact with animals are considered to be at a high risk but only some show symptoms and are diagnosed as cases of brucellosis. Here, we showed that asymptomatic brucellosis infections occur among humans. Asymptomatic infections mainly result from less frequent contact with Brucella and/or contact with low-virulence Brucella. In our study, patients with asymptomatic infection had low antibody titres and different contact patterns. Awareness of asymptomatic infection is important for early diagnosis of brucellosis and prevention of chronic infection.

  8. Modeling Epidemics Spreading on Social Contact Networks

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZHAOYANG; WANG, HONGGANG; WANG, CHONGGANG; FANG, HUA

    2016-01-01

    Social contact networks and the way people interact with each other are the key factors that impact on epidemics spreading. However, it is challenging to model the behavior of epidemics based on social contact networks due to their high dynamics. Traditional models such as susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model ignore the crowding or protection effect and thus has some unrealistic assumption. In this paper, we consider the crowding or protection effect and develop a novel model called improved SIR model. Then, we use both deterministic and stochastic models to characterize the dynamics of epidemics on social contact networks. The results from both simulations and real data set conclude that the epidemics are more likely to outbreak on social contact networks with higher average degree. We also present some potential immunization strategies, such as random set immunization, dominating set immunization, and high degree set immunization to further prove the conclusion.

  9. Language Contact: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Sarah G.

    This book surveys situations in which language contact arises and focuses on what happens to the languages themselves: sometimes nothing, sometimes the incorporation of new words, sometimes the spread of new sounds and sentence structures across many languages and wide swathes of territory. It outlines the origins and results of contact-induced…

  10. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  11. Contact dermatitis in athletes.

    PubMed

    Kockentiet, Brett; Adams, Brian B

    2007-06-01

    Athletes face numerous hazards in their daily activities. An athlete's skin, in particular, endures repeated exposure to trauma, heat, moisture, and numerous allergens and chemicals. These factors combine with other unique and less well-defined genetically predisposing factors in the athlete's skin to cause both allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). As with other cases of contact dermatitis, these eruptions in athletes present as a spectrum of acute to subacute to chronic dermatitis. Recognizing the unique environmental irritants and allergens encountered by athletes is paramount to facilitate appropriate therapy and prevention. This review comprehensively examines the literature on contact dermatitis in athletes. The different types of contact dermatitis have been classified under sport-specific subheadings. Furthermore, within each subheading, both ACD and ICD types are discussed.

  12. Epidemic contact tracing via communication traces.

    PubMed

    Farrahi, Katayoun; Emonet, Rémi; Cebrian, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction network, and they may provide a valuable tool for contact tracing. Motivated by this assumption, we propose a model for contact tracing, where an infection is spreading in the physical interpersonal network, which can never be fully recovered; and contact tracing is occurring in a communication network which acts as a proxy for the first. We apply this dual model to a dataset covering 72 students over a 9 month period, for which both the physical interactions as well as the mobile communication traces are known. Our results suggest that a wide range of contact tracing strategies may significantly reduce the final size of the epidemic, by mainly affecting its peak of incidence. However, we find that for low overlap between the face-to-face and communication interaction network, contact tracing is only efficient at the beginning of the outbreak, due to rapidly increasing costs as the epidemic evolves. Overall, contact tracing via mobile phone communication traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks. PMID:24787614

  13. Effect of contact ratio on spur gear dynamic load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Chuen-Huei; Lin, Hsiang Hsi; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1992-01-01

    A computer simulation is presented which shows how the gear contact ratio affects the dynamic load on a spur gear transmission. The contact ratio can be affected by the tooth addendum, the pressure angle, the tooth size (diametral pitch), and the center distance. The analysis presented was performed using the NASA gear dynamics code, DANST. In the analysis, the contact ratio was varied over the range 1.20 to 2.40 by changing the length of the tooth addendum. In order to simplify the analysis, other parameters related to contact ratio were held constant. The contact ratio was found to have a significant influence on gear dynamics. Over a wide range of operating speeds, a contact ratio close to 2.0 minimized dynamic load. For low contact ratio gears (contact ratio less than 2.0), increasing the contact ratio reduced the gear dynamic load. For high contact ratio gears (contact ratio = or greater than 2.0), the selection of contact ratio should take into consideration the intended operating speeds. In general, high contact ratio gears minimized dynamic load better than low contact ratio gears.

  14. Rhizopus Keratitis Associated with Poor Contact Lens Hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Warner, David B.; WrightIII, Hugh E.; Rosenbaum, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Rhizopus keratitis in a young woman with poor contact lens hygiene. The mold was highly sensitive to treatment with amphotericin 0.15% drops, after a relatively prompt diagnosis. Obtaining cultures of both corneal infiltrates and presumably infected contact lenses may help to avoid a delay in proper treatment. PMID:26889155

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  16. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  17. Optical contacting of quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    The strength of the bond between optically contacted quartz surfaces was investigated. The Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) experiment to test the theories of general relativity requires extremely precise measurements. The quartz components of the instruments to make these measurements must be held together in a very stable unit. Optical contacting is suggested as a possible method of joining these components. The fundamental forces involved in optical contacting are reviewed and relates calculations of these forces to the results obtained in experiments.

  18. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  19. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  20. Contacting American Overseas Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, David

    1993-01-01

    Provides contacts for architects or educational consultants who wish to work overseas. Cites a directory, newsletters, newspapers, and associations focused on educators involved with independent overseas schools that are organized around the United States curriculum. (MLF)

  1. Relay contact monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, V.

    1994-01-11

    A switching system for switching on and off heating and air conditioning units in an environmental control system. The switching system includes a thermostat and a relay conductively coupled to the thermostat. The relay has a contact, which is responsive to a change signal for changing its position. The system further includes a programmable monitor having predetermined positions stored in a memory. The monitor is conductively coupled to the contact and to the thermostat for continually determining the position of the contact, and for sending a change signal to the relay for switching the position of the contact, as needed, to be in conformance with a predetermined position stored in the memory. 3 figs.

  2. The impact of contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, B.

    1986-10-01

    Scenarios of the impact on human society of radio contact with an extraterrestrial civilization are presented. Some believe that contact with advanced extraterrestrials would quickly devastate the human spirit, while others believe that these super-intelligent beings would show the inhabitants of the earth how to live in peace. It is proposed that the possible existence of extraterrestrial civilizations and the development of means of studying and communicating with them need to be considered.

  3. Infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Thomas J; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2016-02-27

    Infective endocarditis occurs worldwide, and is defined by infection of a native or prosthetic heart valve, the endocardial surface, or an indwelling cardiac device. The causes and epidemiology of the disease have evolved in recent decades with a doubling of the average patient age and an increased prevalence in patients with indwelling cardiac devices. The microbiology of the disease has also changed, and staphylococci, most often associated with health-care contact and invasive procedures, have overtaken streptococci as the most common cause of the disease. Although novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have emerged, 1 year mortality has not improved and remains at 30%, which is worse than for many cancers. Logistical barriers and an absence of randomised trials hinder clinical management, and longstanding controversies such as use of antibiotic prophylaxis remain unresolved. In this Seminar, we discuss clinical practice, controversies, and strategies needed to target this potentially devastating disease.

  4. Lettuce contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.

  5. Water contact behavior and schistosomiasis in an upper Egyptian village.

    PubMed

    Kloos, H; Higashi, G I; Cattani, J A; Schlinski, V D; Mansour, N S; Murrell, K D

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary findings of a study of the role of microspatial behavior and local ecological circumstances in the persistence of Schistosoma haematobium infection in El Ayaisha village, Upper Egypt, are presented. Twelve types of water contact activities were studied in three cohorts of 274,324 and 392 male students aged 5-16 during a 2-year period. Swimming and playing resulted in more frequent and intensive contact with potentially infective water and in more pollution of snail habitats with schistosome eggs than any other type of activity. Irrigation was probably not a major cause of S. haematobium infection in schoolboys and drinking water and fishing carried the smallest risk for this age group. Mapping and discriminate analysis of infection and transmission indicators revealed spatial associations between water contact, schistosome transmission and infection among the various age groups. The highest egg excretion rates in individuals and the highest prevalence rates were noted in the neighborhoods nearest to the canals. Water contact and contamination of water by the heavily infected school age boys is seasonally concentrated during the summer, when intermediate host snails and infective cercariae are also most common in the water. Frequency, type and duration of water contact change with age together with types of water bodies used, causing corresponding changes in exposure risk. Nevertheless, other factors, including acquired immunity, preexisting infections, chemotherapy and the effect of the study on the normal water contact behavior of the study population must also be evaluated. Contact with the Nile and the canals by the general nonschool population of El Ayaisha was studied to verify the observations among the schoolboys and to study socially linked activities and the transmission potential of the various transmission sites. Results are evaluated in regard to the feasibility of various schistosomiasis control measures in El Ayaisha.

  6. Management of infectious fractures with "Non-Contact Plate" (NCP) method.

    PubMed

    Alemdar, Celil; Azboy, Ibrahim; Atiç, Ramazan; Özkul, Emin; Gem, Mehmet; Kapukaya, Ahmet

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of internal fixation with Non-Contact Plating (NCP) after deep infection caused by previous surgeries of the tibia or femur fractures. The study included 15 patients (4 female and 11 male). The mean age patients was 36.6 years (range, 21-64 years). There were 6 femur and 9 tibia fractures. The mean follow-up period was 25.7 months (range, 15-45 months). The study comprised 11 open and 4 closed fractures. External fixator was used in 3, plate in 4, and intramedullary nail in 8 patients for index surgery. Deep infection was diagnosed via clinical findings, laboratory parameters, and microbiological evaulation. Deep infection was diagnosed within a mean period of 5.5 weeks (range, 2-10 weeks). The infecting organism was methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 5, methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) in 6, pseudomonas auroginosa in 2, and enterobacteriacea in 2 patients. Union achieved in all patients. Mean time to union was 17 (range, 11-38) weeks. Delayed union was observed in 3 patients who required additional surgeries. Of these one patient developed osteomyelitis. The NCP is an effective alternative method in the treatment of deep infection encountered after internal or external fixation for the tibia, or femur fractures.

  7. Management of infectious fractures with "Non-Contact Plate" (NCP) method.

    PubMed

    Alemdar, Celil; Azboy, Ibrahim; Atiç, Ramazan; Özkul, Emin; Gem, Mehmet; Kapukaya, Ahmet

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of internal fixation with Non-Contact Plating (NCP) after deep infection caused by previous surgeries of the tibia or femur fractures. The study included 15 patients (4 female and 11 male). The mean age patients was 36.6 years (range, 21-64 years). There were 6 femur and 9 tibia fractures. The mean follow-up period was 25.7 months (range, 15-45 months). The study comprised 11 open and 4 closed fractures. External fixator was used in 3, plate in 4, and intramedullary nail in 8 patients for index surgery. Deep infection was diagnosed via clinical findings, laboratory parameters, and microbiological evaulation. Deep infection was diagnosed within a mean period of 5.5 weeks (range, 2-10 weeks). The infecting organism was methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 5, methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) in 6, pseudomonas auroginosa in 2, and enterobacteriacea in 2 patients. Union achieved in all patients. Mean time to union was 17 (range, 11-38) weeks. Delayed union was observed in 3 patients who required additional surgeries. Of these one patient developed osteomyelitis. The NCP is an effective alternative method in the treatment of deep infection encountered after internal or external fixation for the tibia, or femur fractures. PMID:26435249

  8. Risk Factors for Carbapenemase-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) Acquisition Among Contacts of Newly Diagnosed CP-CRE Patients.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Neiderman, Anat; Braun, Tali; Fallach, Noga; Schwartz, David; Carmeli, Yehuda; Schechner, Vered

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) are extremely drug-resistant pathogens. Screening of contacts of newly identified CP-CRE patients is an important step to limit further transmission. We aimed to determine the risk factors for CP-CRE acquisition among patients exposed to a CP-CRE index patient. METHODS A matched case-control study was performed in a tertiary care hospital in Israel. The study population was comprised of patients who underwent rectal screening for CP-CRE following close contact with a newly identified CP-CRE index patient. Cases were defined as positive tests for CP-CRE. For each case patient, 2 matched controls were randomly selected from the pool of contacts who tested negative for CP-CRE following exposure to the same index case. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS In total, 53 positive contacts were identified in 40 unique investigations (896 tests performed on 735 contacts) between October 6, 2008, and June 7, 2012. bla KPC was the only carbapenemase identified. In multivariate analysis, risk factors for CP-CRE acquisition among contacts were (1) contact with an index patient for ≥3 days (odds ratio [OR], 9.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-48.9), (2) mechanical ventilation (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4-11.9), and (3) carriage or infection with another multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO; OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.0-7.1). Among patients who received antibiotics, cephalosporins were associated with a lower risk of acquisition. CONCLUSIONS Patient characteristics (ventilation and carriage of another MDRO) as well as duration of contact are risk factors for CP-CRE acquisition among contacts. The role of cephalosporins requires further study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-7.

  9. Contact precautions and hand hygiene in veterinary clinics.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Maureen E C

    2015-03-01

    Hand hygiene, contact precautions, and other basic infection control measures are crucial in veterinary clinics, because these facilities can be community mixing pots of animals and people with a wide range of health and disease-carrier states. Veterinary staff must be knowledgeable and well trained regarding when and how to apply situation-appropriate contact precautions and to properly perform hand hygiene. The limited information on the use of contact precautions and hand hygiene practices among veterinary staff suggests that compliance is low. Improving the infection control culture in clinics and in veterinary medicine is critical to achieving better compliance with these practices.

  10. Follicular contact dermatitis revisited: A review emphasizing neomycin-associated follicular contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Follicular contact dermatitis clinically presents as individual papules that include a central hair follicle. Pathologic features involve the follicle and the surrounding dermis: spongiosis and vesicle formation of the follicular epithelium associated with perifollicular and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on follicular contact dermatitis and neomycin. Relevant papers were reviewed and the clinical and pathologic features, the associated chemicals (including a more detailed description of neomycin), the hypothesized pathogenesis, and the management of follicular contact dermatitis were described. Several agents-either as allergens or irritants-have been reported to elicit follicular contact dermatitis. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the selective involvement of the follicles in follicular contact dermatitis: patient allergenicity, characteristics of the agent, vehicle containing the agent, application of the agent, and external factors. The differential diagnosis of follicular contact dermatitis includes not only recurrent infundibulofolliculitis, but also drug eruption, mite infestation, viral infection, and dermatoses that affect hair follicles. The primary therapeutic intervention for follicular contact dermatitis is withdrawal of the causative agent; treatment with a topical corticosteroid preparation may also promote resolution of the dermatitis. In conclusion, follicular contact dermatitis may be secondary to allergens or irritants; topical antibiotics, including neomycin, may cause this condition. Several factors may account for the selective involvement of the hair follicle in this condition. Treatment of the dermatitis requires withdrawal of the associated topical agent; in addition, topical corticosteroids may be helpful to promote resolution of lesions. PMID:25516854

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A ... weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can cause AIDS ( ...

  12. Depigmented contact dermatitis due to incense.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, R; Matsunaga, K; Arima, Y

    1987-05-01

    A 63-year-old male school teacher with itchy depigmented macules on his left dorsum manus, left shoulder and abdomen presented at our clinic on 8 July 1986. He had practiced the incense ceremony for about 15 years, and had burnt several incenses and sandalwood. 48 h closed patch testing revealed perfume in the incenses was the cause. We assumed that perfume in the incense was volatized in air when incense was burnt; skin surface contact occurred with airborne particle, which dissolved in sebum; thus allergic contact dermatitis accompanied by depigmentation might arise.

  13. Transmission of Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus infection from horses to humans.

    PubMed

    Pelkonen, Sinikka; Lindahl, Susanne B; Suomala, Päivi; Karhukorpi, Jari; Vuorinen, Sakari; Koivula, Irma; Väisänen, Tia; Pentikäinen, Jaana; Autio, Tiina; Tuuminen, Tamara

    2013-07-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a zoonotic pathogen for persons in contact with horses. In horses, S. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen, but human infections associated with S. zooepidemicus are often severe. Within 6 months in 2011, 3 unrelated cases of severe, disseminated S. zooepidemicus infection occurred in men working with horses in eastern Finland. To clarify the pathogen's epidemiology, we describe the clinical features of the infection in 3 patients and compare the S. zooepidemicus isolates from the human cases with S. zooepidemicus isolates from horses. The isolates were analyzed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and sequencing of the szP gene. Molecular typing methods showed that human and equine isolates were identical or closely related. These results emphasize that S. zooepidemicus transmitted from horses can lead to severe infections in humans. As leisure and professional equine sports continue to grow, this infection should be recognized as an emerging zoonosis.

  14. Transmission of Streptococcus equi Subspecies zooepidemicus Infection from Horses to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Susanne B.; Suomala, Päivi; Karhukorpi, Jari; Vuorinen, Sakari; Koivula, Irma; Väisänen, Tia; Pentikäinen, Jaana; Autio, Tiina; Tuuminen, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a zoonotic pathogen for persons in contact with horses. In horses, S. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen, but human infections associated with S. zooepidemicus are often severe. Within 6 months in 2011, 3 unrelated cases of severe, disseminated S. zooepidemicus infection occurred in men working with horses in eastern Finland. To clarify the pathogen’s epidemiology, we describe the clinical features of the infection in 3 patients and compare the S. zooepidemicus isolates from the human cases with S. zooepidemicus isolates from horses. The isolates were analyzed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and sequencing of the szP gene. Molecular typing methods showed that human and equine isolates were identical or closely related. These results emphasize that S. zooepidemicus transmitted from horses can lead to severe infections in humans. As leisure and professional equine sports continue to grow, this infection should be recognized as an emerging zoonosis. PMID:23777752

  15. The contact caveat: negative contact predicts increased prejudice more than positive contact predicts reduced prejudice.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Fiona Kate; Paolini, Stefania; Pedersen, Anne; Hornsey, Matthew J; Radke, Helena R M; Harwood, Jake; Rubin, Mark; Sibley, Chris G

    2012-12-01

    Contact researchers have largely overlooked the potential for negative intergroup contact to increase prejudice. In Study 1, we tested the interaction between contact quantity and valence on prejudice toward Black Australians (n = 1,476), Muslim Australians (n = 173), and asylum seekers (n = 293). In all cases, the association between contact quantity and prejudice was moderated by its valence, with negative contact emerging as a stronger and more consistent predictor than positive contact. In Study 2, White Americans (n = 441) indicated how much positive and negative contact they had with Black Americans on separate measures. Although both quantity of positive and negative contact predicted racism and avoidance, negative contact was the stronger predictor. Furthermore, negative (but not positive) contact independently predicted suspicion about Barack Obama's birthplace. These results extend the contact hypothesis by issuing an important caveat: Negative contact may be more strongly associated with increased racism and discrimination than positive contact is with its reduction.

  16. Relaxation damping in oscillating contacts.

    PubMed

    Popov, M; Popov, V L; Pohrt, R

    2015-01-01

    If a contact of two purely elastic bodies with no sliding (infinite coefficient of friction) is subjected to superimposed oscillations in the normal and tangential directions, then a specific damping appears, that is not dependent on friction or dissipation in the material. We call this effect "relaxation damping". The rate of energy dissipation due to relaxation damping is calculated in a closed analytic form for arbitrary axially-symmetric contacts. In the case of equal frequency of normal and tangential oscillations, the dissipated energy per cycle is proportional to the square of the amplitude of tangential oscillation and to the absolute value of the amplitude of normal oscillation, and is dependent on the phase shift between both oscillations. In the case of low frequency tangential oscillations with superimposed high frequency normal oscillations, the dissipation is proportional to the ratio of the frequencies. Generalization of the results for macroscopically planar, randomly rough surfaces as well as for the case of finite friction is discussed. PMID:26549011

  17. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Contact Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Kundan; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Frank, Juhan; Marcello, Dominic; Motl, Patrick M.; Staff, Jan E.

    2015-01-01

    The motivation for our project is the peculiar case of the 'red nova" V1309 Sco which erupted in September 2008. The progenitor was, in fact, a contact binary system. We are developing a simulation of contact binaries, so that their formation, structural, and merger properties could be studied using hydrodynamics codes. The observed transient event was the disruption of the secondary star by the primary, and their subsequent merger into one star; hence to replicate this behavior, we need a core-envelope structure for both the stars. We achieve this using a combination of Self Consistant Field (SCF) technique and composite polytropes, also known as bipolytropes. So far we have been able to generate close binaries with various mass ratios. Another consequence of using bipolytropes is that according to theoretical calculations, the radius of a star should expand when the core mass fraction exceeds a critical value, resulting in interesting consequences in a binary system. We present some initial results of these simulations.

  18. Relaxation damping in oscillating contacts

    PubMed Central

    Popov, M.; Popov, V.L.; Pohrt, R.

    2015-01-01

    If a contact of two purely elastic bodies with no sliding (infinite coefficient of friction) is subjected to superimposed oscillations in the normal and tangential directions, then a specific damping appears, that is not dependent on friction or dissipation in the material. We call this effect “relaxation damping”. The rate of energy dissipation due to relaxation damping is calculated in a closed analytic form for arbitrary axially-symmetric contacts. In the case of equal frequency of normal and tangential oscillations, the dissipated energy per cycle is proportional to the square of the amplitude of tangential oscillation and to the absolute value of the amplitude of normal oscillation, and is dependent on the phase shift between both oscillations. In the case of low frequency tangential oscillations with superimposed high frequency normal oscillations, the dissipation is proportional to the ratio of the frequencies. Generalization of the results for macroscopically planar, randomly rough surfaces as well as for the case of finite friction is discussed. PMID:26549011

  19. Contact Lenses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Brenda ... on the surface of the eye. They correct vision like eyeglasses do and are safe when used ...

  20. Contact Interface Verification for DYNA3D Scenario 1: Basic Contact

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, L D

    2006-05-10

    A suite of test problems has been developed to examine contact behavior within the nonlinear, three-dimensional, explicit finite element analysis (FEA) code DYNA3D (Lin, 2005). The test problems address the basic functionality of the contact algorithms, including the behavior of various kinematic, penalty, and Lagrangian enforcement formulations. The results from the DYNA3D analyses are compared to closed form solutions to verify the contact behavior. This work was performed as part of the Verification and Validation efforts of LLNL W Program within the NNSA's Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program. DYNA3D models the transient dynamic response of solids and structures including the interactions between disjoint bodies (parts). A wide variety of contact surfaces are available to represent the diverse interactions possible during an analysis, including relative motion (sliding), separation and gap closure (voids), and fixed relative position (tied). The problem geometry may be defined using a combination of element formulations, including one-dimensional beam and truss elements, two-dimensional shell elements, and three-dimensional solid elements. Consequently, it is necessary to consider various element interactions for each contact algorithm being verified. Most of the contact algorithms currently available in DYNA3D are examined; the exceptions are the Type 4--Single Surface Contact and Type 11--SAND algorithms. It is likely that these algorithms will be removed since their functionality is embodied in other, more robust, contact algorithms. The automatic contact algorithm is evaluated using the Type 12 interface. Two other variations of automatic contact, Type 13 and Type 14, offer additional means to adapt the interface domain, but share the same search and restoration algorithms as Type 12. The contact algorithms are summarized in Table 1. This report and associated test problems examine the scenario where one contact surface exists between two

  1. Molecular mechanisms that control endothelial cell contacts.

    PubMed

    Vestweber, D

    2000-02-01

    Endothelial cell contacts control the permeability of the blood vessel wall. This allows the endothelium to form a barrier for solutes, macromolecules, and leukocytes between the vessel lumen and the interstitial space. Loss of this barrier function in pathophysiological situations can lead to extracellular oedema. The ability of leukocytes to enter tissue at sites of inflammation is dependent on molecular mechanisms that allow leukocytes to adhere to the endothelium and to migrate through the endothelial cell layer and the underlying basal lamina. It is a commonly accepted working hypothesis that inter-endothelial cell contacts are actively opened and closed during this process. Angiogenesis is another important process that requires well-controlled regulation of inter-endothelial cell contacts. The formation of new blood vessels by sprouting from pre-existing vessels depends on the loosening of established endothelial cell contacts and the migration of endothelial cells that form the outgrowing sprouts. This review focuses on the molecular composition of endothelial cell surface proteins and proteins of the cytoskeletal undercoat of the plasma membrane at sites of inter-endothelial cell contacts and discusses the current knowledge about the potential role of such molecules in the regulation of endothelial cell contacts. PMID:10685062

  2. Self-contact elimination by membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Grant M; Yamada, Soichiro

    2013-11-19

    Mutual, homophilic cell-cell adhesion between epithelial cells is required for proper maintenance of epithelial barrier function. Whereas opposing membranes from neighboring cells rapidly assemble junctional complexes, self-contacting membranes curiously do not, suggesting that cells have the ability to prevent the maturation of self-junctions. Using a self-contact-inducing microfabricated substrate, we show that self-contacts of normal epithelial cells are rapidly eliminated by membrane fusion between two opposing plasma membranes of a single cell. This membrane fusion is most frequently observed in E-cadherin-expressing epithelial cells, but not in fibroblasts. The efficiency of self-contact elimination depends on extracellular calcium concentration and the level of E-cadherin, suggesting that E-cadherin, although not required, enhances membrane fusion efficiency by bringing opposing membranes into close apposition to one another. Additionally, Rho-associated protein kinase inhibition decreases self-contact-induced membrane fusion of epithelial cells, suggesting that this fusion may be mechanically regulated through the actin-myosin network. This self-contact-induced membrane fusion is a key elimination mechanism for unwanted self-junctions and may be a feature of cell self-recognition. PMID:24191042

  3. Reconstructing contact network parameters from viral phylogenies

    PubMed Central

    McCloskey, Rosemary M.; Liang, Richard H.; Poon, Art F.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Models of the spread of disease in a population often make the simplifying assumption that the population is homogeneously mixed, or is divided into homogeneously mixed compartments. However, human populations have complex structures formed by social contacts, which can have a significant influence on the rate of epidemic spread. Contact network models capture this structure by explicitly representing each contact which could possibly lead to a transmission. We developed a method based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), a likelihood-free inference strategy, for estimating structural parameters of the contact network underlying an observed viral phylogeny. The method combines adaptive sequential Monte Carlo for ABC, Gillespie simulation for propagating epidemics though networks, and a kernel-based tree similarity score. We used the method to fit the Barabási-Albert network model to simulated transmission trees, and also applied it to viral phylogenies estimated from ten published HIV sequence datasets. This model incorporates a feature called preferential attachment (PA), whereby individuals with more existing contacts accumulate new contacts at a higher rate. On simulated data, we found that the strength of PA and the number of infected nodes in the network can often be accurately estimated. On the other hand, the mean degree of the network, as well as the total number of nodes, was not estimable with ABC. We observed sub-linear PA power in all datasets, as well as higher PA power in networks of injection drug users. These results underscore the importance of considering contact structures when performing phylodynamic inference. Our method offers the potential to quantitatively investigate the contact network structure underlying viral epidemics.

  4. 76 FR 67770 - Post Office Closing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... electronic filing. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen L. Sharfman, General Counsel, at (202) 789-6820... close the Fairfield post office in Fairfield, Kentucky. The petition for review was filed by William T.... Application for Suspension of Determination. In addition to his Petition, William T. Trent, Mayor of the...

  5. 31 CFR 25.303 - Closing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... an FMS Loan made by DSAA, as the case may be, DSAA will communicate with the Borrower's contact... of an FMS Loan made by the FFB and guaranteed by DSAA, as the case may be, the FFB will communicate..., drafts, and others for payment will not be accepted. (c) Changes in the closing date. If a Borrower...

  6. 31 CFR 25.303 - Closing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... an FMS Loan made by DSAA, as the case may be, DSAA will communicate with the Borrower's contact... of an FMS Loan made by the FFB and guaranteed by DSAA, as the case may be, the FFB will communicate..., drafts, and others for payment will not be accepted. (c) Changes in the closing date. If a Borrower...

  7. 31 CFR 25.303 - Closing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an FMS Loan made by DSAA, as the case may be, DSAA will communicate with the Borrower's contact... of an FMS Loan made by the FFB and guaranteed by DSAA, as the case may be, the FFB will communicate..., drafts, and others for payment will not be accepted. (c) Changes in the closing date. If a Borrower...

  8. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  9. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  10. [Experimental and natural infection with the enzootic leukosis virus of cattle].

    PubMed

    Hofírek, B; Horín, P; Granátová, M; Machatková, M; Franz, J; Svoboda, I; Blecha, J

    1986-03-01

    A trial was performed with heifers at the age of six to seven months. The animals were experimentally infected with the lymphocytes of a virus-productive donor. Infection was produced in all the nine cases, as demonstrated by means of the positive syncytial test. As indicated by the results of the trial, the antibodies to the enzootic bovine leucosis virus (BLV) were produced soon after experimental infection. A high sensitivity of the serum-neutralization test and the ELISA method was demonstrated in this connection: by these methods, the antibodies were identified already two to three weeks after experimental infection whereas by the immunodiffusion test they could be detected only after five weeks. Twenty-four animals were exposed to natural contact infection. Within 270 days of the trial, the disease after contact was recorded only in one heifer out of the four that were in close contact with the experimentally infected animals. In this case, as compared with experimental infection, the antibodies were produced much later--after 85 to 93 days. Leucosis was recorded in none of the remaining animals. The reasons why such a favourable result was obtained were the thorough disinfection of the stables after blood collections and the strict observance of the aseptic conditions. The results of experimental infection in three cows were identical with those obtained in young cattle. In the experimentally infected dairy cows, antibodies in milk were determined by the ELISA method. As found, in milk the antibodies to BLV appear two to three weeks later than they do in serum. The ELISA method of BLV antibody detection can be used for the identification of infected animals in herds where enzootic bovine leucosis occurs. PMID:3010532

  11. Pigeons are resistant to experimental infection with H7N9 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuehuan; Yang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Xiuqing; Chen, Jiming; Yao, Jiezhang; Song, Yanjun; Lin, Jian; Han, Chunhua; Duan, Huijuan; Zhao, Jicheng; Pan, Jie; Xie, Jia

    2015-10-01

    To determine the susceptibility of pigeons to the newly emerged avian influenza virus subtype H7N9, we experimentally infected three different types of pigeons (meat, town, and racing) with two different doses (2 × 10(4) or 2 × 10(5) EID50) of H7N9 avian influenza virus A/Chicken/China/2013 by either intranasal and intraocular inoculation (IN + IO) or intravenous injection (IV). In addition, the potential transmission of H7N9 to pigeons by direct close contact with experimentally infected pigeons and chickens was assessed. Results showed that none of the experimentally infected pigeons exhibited any clinical signs regardless of the infection route and dose. Of the 12 racing pigeons that were randomly selected and necropsied, none of them had any gross lesions. In agreement with this finding, virus was not isolated from all pigeons. No detectable H7-specific antibodies were found in any pigeon. In contrast, 11 of 31 chickens that were either directly infected with H7N9 by IN + IO inoculation or by contact with IN + IO-infected chickens had conjunctivitis. Virus was isolated from all 31 chickens and H7-specific antibodies were detected in these chickens. However, none of the IV-infected chickens or chickens in direct contact with IV-infected chickens had any clinical signs. No virus was isolated from these chickens and no H7-specific antibody was detected. Overall, we conclude that pigeons are less or not susceptible to the H7N9 virus at the doses used and are not likely to serve as a reservoir for the virus. However, the virus does cause conjunctivitis in chickens and can transmit to susceptible hosts by direct contact.

  12. Photometric Study of Near Contact Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Qian, S.

    2009-08-01

    Near Contact Binary (NCB) is a kind of close binary in which both components fill or nearly fill their critical Roche Lobes. They are not in contact like W UMa systems, and show EB-type light variations. These characters make the NCB an interesting object. They are important observational targets which may be lying in key evolutionary states. According to the geometric definition of this subclass, NCBs actually comprise semi-detached with primary filling (SD1) or secondary filling (SD2), marginal-contact (C), and marginal-detached (D) systems. We have observed a group of NCBs (e.g. BL and, GW Tau, AS Ser, UU Lyn, RU UMi, GSC3658-0076 etc. ) and constructed an evolutionary sequence of case A mass transfer in observation. Finally, the available orbital period variations and absolute parameters of NCBs are collected and the preliminary statistical results are presented.

  13. Have Confidence in Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2010-01-01

    In an article in the May-June 2009 "American Psychologist," we discussed a new approach to reducing prejudice and encouraging more positive intergroup relations (Crisp & Turner, 2009). We named the approach imagined intergroup contact and defined it as "the mental simulation of a social interaction with a member or members of an outgroup category"…

  14. The Language Contact Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Barbara F.; Dewey, Dan P.; Segalowitz, Norman; Halter, Randall

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to gather data of various sorts--demographics, language-learning history, contact with native speakers, use of the language in the field--as they relate to participants in SLA research studies are inherent to understanding more about language acquisition and use. Scholars frequently develop questionnaires of their own, which are rarely…

  15. Thermal Contact Conductance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The performance of cryogenic instruments is often a function of their operating temperature. Thus, designers of cryogenic instruments often are required to predict the operating temperature of each instrument they design. This requires accurate thermal models of cryogenic components which include the properties of the materials and assembly techniques used. When components are bolted or otherwise pressed together, a knowledge of the thermal performance of such joints are also needed. In some cases, the temperature drop across these joints represents a significant fraction of the total temperature difference between the instrument and its cooler. While extensive databases exist on the thermal properties of bulk materials, similar databases for pressed contacts do not. This has often lead to instrument designs that avoid pressed contacts or to the over-design of such joints at unnecessary expense. Although many people have made measurements of contact conductances at cryogenic temperatures, this data is often very narrow in scope and even more often it has not been published in an easily retrievable fashion, if published at all. This paper presents a summary of the limited pressed contact data available in the literature.

  16. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    PubMed

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands. PMID:23233303

  17. Contact sensitivity to proflavine.

    PubMed

    Goh, C L

    1986-09-01

    Proflavine lotion is a commonly used topical antiseptic in the tropics, but its sensitizing potential was never emphasized and many who developed allergic contact dermatitis were never aware of it. In a study of 45 patients, most presented with acute or subacute dermatitis which started on the arms and legs. Concomitant cutaneous sensitivity to other medicaments and lanolin occurred in 66% of the patients.

  18. [Current contact allergens].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W; Lessmann, H; Schnuch, A

    2011-10-01

    Ever-changing exposure to contact allergens, partly due to statutory directives (e.g. nickel, chromate, methyldibromo glutaronitrile) or recommendations from industrial associations (e.g. hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde), requires on-going epidemiologic surveillance of contact allergy. In this paper, the current state with special focus in fragrances and preservatives is described on the basis of data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) of the year 2010. In 2010, 12,574 patients were patch tested in the dermatology departments belonging to the IVDK. Nickel is still the most frequent contact allergen. However the continuously improved EU nickel directive already has some beneficial effect; sensitization frequency in young women is dropping. In Germany, chromate-reduced cement has been in use now for several years, leading to a decline in chromate sensitization in brick-layers. Two fragrance mixes are part of the German baseline series; they are still relevant. The most important fragrances in these mixes still are oak moss absolute and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. However, in relation to these leading allergens, sensitization frequency to other fragrances contained in the mixes seems to be increasing. Among the preservatives, MCI/MI has not lost its importance as contact allergen, in contrast to MDBGN. Sources of MCI/MI sensitization obviously are increasingly found in occupational context. Methylisothiazolinone is a significant allergen in occupational settings, and less frequently in body care products.

  19. Contact Efflorescence on Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. D.; Lance, S.; Gordon, J. A.; Ushijima, S.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The phase state of atmospheric aerosols (liquid vs solid) plays an important role in particle growth, cloud formation, climate impact and visibility degradation. In the atmosphere, changes in relative humidity (RH) and temperature cause phase transitions in the atmospheric particulate. Efflorescence, the process of salt crystal nucleation from an aqueous electrolyte solution upon decreasing RH, often occurs at a lower RH than the reverse process of deliquescence. It has been shown that the efflorescence RH can occur at a higher RH in the presence of a heterogeneous surface immersed in a liquid particle. Here we present a new laboratory technique using optically levitated particles to study heterogeneous efflorescence initiated by contact with an external particle. In this work, collisions between aqueous microdroplets and heterogeneous nuclei are monitored in situ using scattered laser light to quantify the number of collisions and to detect phase transitions. We find that when contact initiates the phase transition, efflorescence occurs at a higher RH than when the same heterogeneous nucleus is immersed in the particle. The results of these experiments will be discussed in the context of understanding contact nucleation on a mechanistic level and predicting the relative importance of contact efflorescence in the atmosphere.

  20. Multigrid contact detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Kejing; Dong, Shoubin; Zhou, Zhaoyao

    2007-03-01

    Contact detection is a general problem of many physical simulations. This work presents a O(N) multigrid method for general contact detection problems (MGCD). The multigrid idea is integrated with contact detection problems. Both the time complexity and memory consumption of the MGCD are O(N) . Unlike other methods, whose efficiencies are influenced strongly by the object size distribution, the performance of MGCD is insensitive to the object size distribution. We compare the MGCD with the no binary search (NBS) method and the multilevel boxing method in three dimensions for both time complexity and memory consumption. For objects with similar size, the MGCD is as good as the NBS method, both of which outperform the multilevel boxing method regarding memory consumption. For objects with diverse size, the MGCD outperform both the NBS method and the multilevel boxing method. We use the MGCD to solve the contact detection problem for a granular simulation system based on the discrete element method. From this granular simulation, we get the density property of monosize packing and binary packing with size ratio equal to 10. The packing density for monosize particles is 0.636. For binary packing with size ratio equal to 10, when the number of small particles is 300 times as the number of big particles, the maximal packing density 0.824 is achieved.

  1. Compact contacting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharya, Arun (Inventor); Gottzmann, Christian F. (Inventor); Lockett, Michael J. (Inventor); Schneider, James S. (Inventor); Victor, Richard A. (Inventor); Zawierucha, Robert (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus comprising a rotatable mass of structured packing for mass or heat transfer between two contacting fluids of different densities wherein the packing mass is made up of corrugated sheets of involute shape relative to the axis of the packing mass and form a logarithmic spiral curved counter to the direction of rotation.

  2. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    PubMed

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands.

  3. Contact: Releasing the news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  4. 75 FR 29769 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special...). Contact Person: Shamala K. Srinivas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Research Programs Review...

  5. Direct-contact heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricard, A.

    The working principle of direct contact heat exchanger, where heat transfer takes place between two immiscible fluids coming into direct contact, is described. Typical direct contact devices are outlined. A better understanding of the principles involved and the development of computational models for multiphase subsytems are concluded as stimulus for direct contact heat and mass transfer applications.

  6. Dermatophyte infections.

    PubMed

    Hainer, Barry L

    2003-01-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi that require keratin for growth. These fungi can cause superficial infections of the skin, hair, and nails. Dermatophytes are spread by direct contact from other people (anthropophilic organisms), animals (zoophilic organisms), and soil (geophilic organisms), as well as indirectly from fomites. Dermatophyte infections can be readily diagnosed based on the history, physical examination, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopy. Diagnosis occasionally requires Wood's lamp examination and fungal culture or histologic examination. Topical therapy is used for most dermatophyte infections. Cure rates are higher and treatment courses are shorter with topical fungicidal allylamines than with fungistatic azoles. Oral therapy is preferred for tinea capitis, tinea barbae, and onychomycosis. Orally administered griseofulvin remains the standard treatment for tinea capitis. Topical treatment of onychomycosis with ciclopirox nail lacquer has a low cure rate. For onychomycosis, "pulse" oral therapy with the newer imidazoles (itraconazole or fluconazole) or allylamines (terbinafine) is considerably less expensive than continuous treatment but has a somewhat lower mycologic cure rate. The diagnosis of onychomycosis should be confirmed by KOH microscopy, culture, or histologic examination before therapy is initiated, because of the expense, duration, and potential adverse effects of treatment.

  7. Coronatine Facilitates Pseudomonas syringae Infection of Arabidopsis Leaves at Night.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Shweta; Roy, Debanjana; Chitrakar, Reejana; Price, Lenore; Breitbach, Zachary S; Armstrong, Daniel W; Melotto, Maeli

    2016-01-01

    In many land plants, the stomatal pore opens during the day and closes during the night. Thus, periods of darkness could be effective in decreasing pathogen penetration into leaves through stomata, the primary sites for infection by many pathogens. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 produces coronatine (COR) and opens stomata, raising an intriguing question as to whether this is a virulence strategy to facilitate bacterial infection at night. In fact, we found that (a) biological concentration of COR is effective in opening dark-closed stomata of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, (b) the COR defective mutant Pst DC3118 is less effective in infecting Arabidopsis in the dark than under light and this difference in infection is reduced with the wild type bacterium Pst DC3000, and (c) cma, a COR biosynthesis gene, is induced only when the bacterium is in contact with the leaf surface independent of the light conditions. These findings suggest that Pst DC3000 activates virulence factors at the pre-invasive phase of its life cycle to infect plants even when environmental conditions (such as darkness) favor stomatal immunity. This functional attribute of COR may provide epidemiological advantages for COR-producing bacteria on the leaf surface. PMID:27446113

  8. Coronatine Facilitates Pseudomonas syringae Infection of Arabidopsis Leaves at Night

    PubMed Central

    Panchal, Shweta; Roy, Debanjana; Chitrakar, Reejana; Price, Lenore; Breitbach, Zachary S.; Armstrong, Daniel W.; Melotto, Maeli

    2016-01-01

    In many land plants, the stomatal pore opens during the day and closes during the night. Thus, periods of darkness could be effective in decreasing pathogen penetration into leaves through stomata, the primary sites for infection by many pathogens. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 produces coronatine (COR) and opens stomata, raising an intriguing question as to whether this is a virulence strategy to facilitate bacterial infection at night. In fact, we found that (a) biological concentration of COR is effective in opening dark-closed stomata of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, (b) the COR defective mutant Pst DC3118 is less effective in infecting Arabidopsis in the dark than under light and this difference in infection is reduced with the wild type bacterium Pst DC3000, and (c) cma, a COR biosynthesis gene, is induced only when the bacterium is in contact with the leaf surface independent of the light conditions. These findings suggest that Pst DC3000 activates virulence factors at the pre-invasive phase of its life cycle to infect plants even when environmental conditions (such as darkness) favor stomatal immunity. This functional attribute of COR may provide epidemiological advantages for COR-producing bacteria on the leaf surface. PMID:27446113

  9. Contact Graph Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  10. [Contact dermatitis from Agave americana].

    PubMed

    de la Cueva, Pablo; González-Carrascosa, Mateo; Campos, Minia; Leis, Vicente; Suárez, Ricardo; Lázaro, Pablo

    2005-10-01

    Numerous plant species and their derivatives can cause skin reactions through a variety of mechanisms: irritative contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact urticaria and photodermatitis. We present a case of irritative contact dermatitis after exposure to the sap of Agave americana. The skin symptoms in this case have only been described on rare occasions; although this condition usually presents with a papulovesicular rash, in this patient it appeared as purpuric lesions in the contact area.

  11. Relationship between airborne detection of influenza A virus and the number of infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Cesar A; Romagosa, Anna; Dee, Scott A; Gramer, Marie R; Morrison, Robert B; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-05-01

    Influenza A virus infects a wide range of species including both birds and mammals (including humans). One of the key routes by which the virus can infect populations of animals is by aerosol transmission. This study explored the relationship between number of infected pigs and the probability of detecting influenza virus RNA in bioaerosols through the course of an acute infection. Bioaerosols were collected using a cyclonic collector in two groups of 7 week-old pigs that were experimentally infected by exposure with a contact infected pig (seeder pig). After contact exposure, individual pig nasal swab samples were collected daily and air samples were collected three times per day for 8 days. All samples were tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT)-PCR targeting the influenza virus matrix gene. All pigs' nasal swabs became influenza virus RRT-PCR positive upon exposure to the infected seeder pig. Airborne influenza was detected in 28/43 (65%) air samples. The temporal dynamics of influenza virus detection in air samples was in close agreement with the nasal shedding pattern in the infected pigs. First detection of positive bioaerosols happened at 1 day post contact (DPC). Positive bioaerosols were consistently detected between 3 and 6 DPC, a time when most pigs were also shedding virus in nasal secretions. Overall, the odds of detecting a positive air sample increased 2.2 times for every additional nasal swab positive pig in the group. In summary, there was a strong relationship between the number of pigs shedding influenza virus in nasal secretions and the generation of bioaerosols during the course of an acute infection.

  12. Relationship between airborne detection of influenza A virus and the number of infected pigs

    PubMed Central

    Corzo, Cesar A.; Romagosa, Anna; Dee, Scott; Gramer, Marie; Morrison, Robert B; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A virus infects a wide range of species including both birds and mammals (including humans). One of the key routes by which the virus can infect populations of animals is by aerosol transmission. This study explored the relationship between number of infected pigs and the probability of detecting influenza virus RNA in bioaerosols through the course of an acute infection. Bioaerosols were collected using a cyclonic collector in two groups of 7 week-old pigs that were experimentally infected by exposure with a contact infected pig (seeder pig). After contact exposure, individual pig nasal swab samples were collected daily and air samples were collected three times per day for 8 days. All samples were tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT)-PCR targeting the influenza virus matrix gene. All pigs' nasal swabs became influenza virus RRT-PCR positive upon exposure to the infected seeder pig. Airborne influenza was detected in 28/43 (65%) air samples. The temporal dynamics of influenza virus detection in air samples was in close agreement with the nasal shedding pattern in the infected pigs. First detection of positive bioaerosols happened at 1 day post contact (DPC). Positive bioaerosols were consistently detected between 3 and 6 DPC, a time when most pigs were also shedding virus in nasal secretions. Overall, the odds of detecting a positive air sample increased 2.2 times for every additional nasal swab positive pig in the group. In summary, there was a strong relationship between the number of pigs shedding influenza virus in nasal secretions and the generation of bioaerosols during the course of an acute infection. PMID:23164957

  13. Relationship between airborne detection of influenza A virus and the number of infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Cesar A; Romagosa, Anna; Dee, Scott A; Gramer, Marie R; Morrison, Robert B; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-05-01

    Influenza A virus infects a wide range of species including both birds and mammals (including humans). One of the key routes by which the virus can infect populations of animals is by aerosol transmission. This study explored the relationship between number of infected pigs and the probability of detecting influenza virus RNA in bioaerosols through the course of an acute infection. Bioaerosols were collected using a cyclonic collector in two groups of 7 week-old pigs that were experimentally infected by exposure with a contact infected pig (seeder pig). After contact exposure, individual pig nasal swab samples were collected daily and air samples were collected three times per day for 8 days. All samples were tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT)-PCR targeting the influenza virus matrix gene. All pigs' nasal swabs became influenza virus RRT-PCR positive upon exposure to the infected seeder pig. Airborne influenza was detected in 28/43 (65%) air samples. The temporal dynamics of influenza virus detection in air samples was in close agreement with the nasal shedding pattern in the infected pigs. First detection of positive bioaerosols happened at 1 day post contact (DPC). Positive bioaerosols were consistently detected between 3 and 6 DPC, a time when most pigs were also shedding virus in nasal secretions. Overall, the odds of detecting a positive air sample increased 2.2 times for every additional nasal swab positive pig in the group. In summary, there was a strong relationship between the number of pigs shedding influenza virus in nasal secretions and the generation of bioaerosols during the course of an acute infection. PMID:23164957

  14. Measles virus spread by cell-cell contacts: uncoupling of contact-mediated receptor (CD46) downregulation from virus uptake.

    PubMed

    Firsching, R; Buchholz, C J; Schneider, U; Cattaneo, R; ter Meulen, V; Schneider-Schaulies, J

    1999-07-01

    CD46, which serves as a receptor for measles virus (MV; strain Edmonston), is rapidly downregulated from the cell surface after contact with viral particles or infected cells. We show here that the same two CD46 complement control protein (CCP) domains responsible for primary MV attachment mediate its downregulation. Optimal downregulation efficiency was obtained with CD46 recombinants containing CCP domains 1 and 2, whereas CCP 1, alone and duplicated, induced a slight downregulation. Using persistently infected monocytic/promyelocytic U937 cells which release very small amounts of infectious virus, and uninfected HeLa cells as contact partners, we then showed that during contact the formation of CD46-containing patches and caps precedes CD46 internalization. Nevertheless, neither substances inhibiting capping nor the fusion-inhibiting peptide Z-D-Phe-L-Phe-Gly-OH (FIP) blocked CD46 downregulation. Thus, CD46 downregulation can be uncoupled from fusion and subsequent virus uptake. Interestingly, in that system cell-cell contacts lead to a remarkably efficient infection of the target cells which is only partially inhibited by FIP. The finding that the contact of an infected with uninfected cells results in transfer of infectious viral material without significant (complete) fusion of the donor with the recipient cell suggests that microfusion events and/or FIP-independent mechanisms may mediate the transfer of MV infectivity from cell to cell. PMID:10364272

  15. Contact dynamics math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.

  16. /Au Back Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Naba R.; Compaan, Alvin D.; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-08-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of CdTe thin-film solar cells with Cu-free MoO3- x /Au back contacts. CdTe solar cells with sputtered CdTe absorbers of thicknesses from 0.5 to 1.75 μm were fabricated on Pilkington SnO2:F/SnO2-coated soda-lime glasses coated with a 60- to 80-nm sputtered CdS layer. The MoO3- x /Au back contact layers were deposited by thermal evaporation. The incorporation of MoO3- x layer was found to improve the open circuit voltage ( V OC) but reduce the fill factor of the ultrathin CdTe cells. The V OC was found to increase as the CdTe thickness increased.

  17. [Contact allergy to cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Goossens, A; Merckx, L

    1997-12-01

    This article gives the results of contact allergic reactions to cosmetics seen between 1985 and 1990 (462 patients investigated) and between 1991 and 1996 (486 patients investigated). Perfume components remain the most frequently occurring allergens in cosmetics. They are followed by preservative agents, a class within which important shifts have occurred over time (e.g. as with the isothiazolinone mixture). Excipients and certainly emulsifiers (e.g. cocamidopropylbetaine) are potentially not only irritants but also allergens. Among the "active" or category-specific ingredients, oxidative hair dyes, based on paraphenylenediamine and derivatives, and nail care products, based on (meth)acrylates are particularly apt to cause professional dermatoses. Finally, the share of sunscreens as cosmetic allergens remains limited, which may well be because a contact or photocontactallergy is often not recognized since the differential diagnosis with a primary sun intolerance is not always obvious.

  18. Contact dermatitis from propolis.

    PubMed

    Wanscher, B

    1976-04-01

    Two patients with contact dermatitis due to the natural product propolis (bee glue) are reported. They presented perioral eczema and stomatitis which were recalcitrant until propolis was considered as the cause. Patch tests with propolis preparations were positive in both patients, and, furthermore, in the second patient the lesions relapsed after provocation tests. European standard patch test including balsam of Peru were negative. The complexity of propolis, its supposed anti-inflammatory effect due to flavonoids, and the sensitizing agents originating mainly from the poplar trees are discussed together with the cross-sensitization to balsam of Peru. Contact dermatitis due to propolis should be considered in unexplained eczemas, mainly perioral but also in other areas, as propolis preparations are available also as ointments and cosmetic creams.

  19. School Closings in Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, James; Sludden, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the School District of Philadelphia closed six schools. In 2013, it closed 24. The closure of 30 schools has occurred amid a financial crisis, headlined by the district's $1.35 billion deficit. School closures are one piece of the district's plan to cut expenditures and close its budget gap. The closures are also intended to…

  20. Contact dermatitis in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Contact dermatitis in pediatric population is a common but (previously) under recognized disease. It is usually divided into the allergic and the irritant forms. The diagnosis is usually obtained with the patch test technique after conducting a thorough medical history and careful physical examination but patch testing in infants may be particularly difficult, and false-positive reactions may occur. This study also provides an overview of the most common allergens in pediatric population and discusses various therapeutic modalities. PMID:20205907

  1. Contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, M; Forsyth, A

    1989-02-01

    125 children under the age of 12 years were patch tested over a period of 7 years. 60 (48%) of the children had 1 or more positive (+ve) reactions, of which 92% (55/60) were considered relevant. The most common allergens were metals (35 + ves), fragrances (24 + ves) and rubber compounds (11 + ves). 40 of the children were also tested for contact urticaria against food additives and fragrances, of whom 20 were positive (benzoic acid 14, cinnamaldehyde 12).

  2. Contact stress sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  3. Contact stress sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2014-02-11

    A method for producing a contact stress sensor that includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  4. Functional modular contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, Angela J.; Cowan, Melissa; Lähdesmäki, Ilkka; Lingley, Andrew; Otis, Brian; Parviz, Babak A.

    2009-08-01

    Tear fluid offers a potential route for non-invasive sensing of physiological parameters. Utilization of this potential depends on the ability to manufacture sensors that can be placed on the surface of the eye. A contact lens makes a natural platform for such sensors, but contact lens polymers present a challenge for sensor fabrication. This paper describes a microfabrication process for constructing sensors that can be integrated into the structure of a functional contact lens in the future. To demonstrate the capabilities of the process, an amperometric glucose sensor was fabricated on a polymer substrate. The sensor consists of platinum working and counter electrodes, as well as a region of indium-tin oxide (ITO) for glucose oxidase immobilization. An external silver-silver chloride electrode was used as the reference electrode during the characterization experiments. Sensor operation was validated by hydrogen peroxide measurements in the 10- 20 μM range and glucose measurements in the 0.125-20 mM range.

  5. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  6. ER–endosome contact sites: molecular compositions and functions

    PubMed Central

    Raiborg, Camilla; Wenzel, Eva M; Stenmark, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the existence of numerous contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and endosomes in mammalian cells. Such contacts increase during endosome maturation and play key roles in cholesterol transfer, endosome positioning, receptor dephosphorylation, and endosome fission. At least 7 distinct contact sites between the ER and endosomes have been identified to date, which have diverse molecular compositions. Common to these contact sites is that they impose a close apposition between the ER and endosome membranes, which excludes membrane fusion while allowing the flow of molecular signals between the two membranes, in the form of enzymatic modifications, or ion, lipid, or protein transfer. Thus, ER–endosome contact sites ensure coordination of molecular activities between the two compartments while keeping their general compositions intact. Here, we review the molecular architectures and cellular functions of known ER–endosome contact sites and discuss their implications for human health. PMID:26041457

  7. Characteristics of mild dengue virus infection in Thai children.

    PubMed

    Yoon, In-Kyu; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Hermann, Laura; Buddhari, Darunee; Scott, Thomas W; Jarman, Richard G; Aldstadt, Jared; Nisalak, Ananda; Thammapalo, Suwich; Bhoomiboonchoo, Piraya; Mammen, Mammen P; Green, Sharone; Gibbons, Robert V; Endy, Timothy P; Rothman, Alan L

    2013-12-01

    A four-year longitudinal cohort and geographic cluster study in rural Thailand was conducted to characterize the clinical spectrum of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Symptomatic DENV infections in the cohort were detected by active school absence-based surveillance that triggered cluster investigations around ill cohort children. Data from 189 cohort children with symptomatic DENV infection and 126 contact children in the clusters with DENV infection were analyzed. Of infected contacts, only 19% were asymptomatic; 81% were symptomatic, but only 65.9% reported fever. Symptom-based case definitions were unreliable for diagnosis. Symptomatic infections in contacts were milder with lower DENV RNA levels than the cohort. Infections in contacts with fever history were more likely to have detectable DENV RNA than infections without fever history. Mild infections identified by cluster investigations account for a major proportion of all DENV infections. These findings are relevant for disease burden assessments, transmission modeling, and determination of vaccine impact.

  8. Dual contact pogo pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, Stephen McGarry

    2015-01-20

    A contact assembly includes a base and a pair of electrical contacts supported by the base. A first end of the first electrical contact corresponds to a first end of the base and is configured to engage a first external conductive circuit element. A first end of the second electrical contact also corresponds to the first end of the base and is configured to engage a second external conductive circuit element. The first contact and the second contact are electrically isolated from one another and configured to compress when engaging an external connector element. The base includes an aperture positioned on a second end of the base outboard of a second end of the first and second electrical contacts. The aperture presents a narrowing shape with a wide mouth distal the electrical contacts and a narrow internal through-hole proximate the electrical contacts.

  9. Dual contact pogo pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, Stephen McGarry

    2016-06-21

    A contact assembly includes a base and a pair of electrical contacts supported by the base. A first end of the first electrical contact corresponds to a first end of the base and is configured to engage a first external conductive circuit element. A first end of the second electrical contact also corresponds to the first end of the base and is configured to engage a second external conductive circuit element. The first contact and the second contact are electrically isolated from one another and configured to compress when engaging an external connector element. The base includes an aperture positioned on a second end of the base outboard of a second end of the first and second electrical contacts. The aperture presents a narrowing shape with a wide mouth distal the electrical contacts and a narrow internal through-hole proximate the electrical contacts.

  10. Contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone*

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios; Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Andrade, Ana Regina Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative found in cosmetic and industrial products. Contact dermatitis caused by either methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI or Kathon CG) or MI has shown increasing frequency. The latter is preferably detected through epicutaneous testing with aqueous MI 2000 ppm, which is not included in the Brazilian standard tray. We describe a series of 23 patients tested using it and our standard tray. A case with negative reaction to MCI/MI and positive to MI is emphasized. PMID:26734880

  11. Adhesion in hydrogel contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J. R.; Jay, G. D.; Kim, K.-S.; Bothun, G. D.

    2016-05-01

    A generalized thermomechanical model for adhesion was developed to elucidate the mechanisms of dissipation within the viscoelastic bulk of a hyperelastic hydrogel. Results show that in addition to the expected energy release rate of interface formation, as well as the viscous flow dissipation, the bulk composition exhibits dissipation due to phase inhomogeneity morphological changes. The mixing thermodynamics of the matrix and solvent determines the dynamics of the phase inhomogeneities, which can enhance or disrupt adhesion. The model also accounts for the time-dependent behaviour. A parameter is proposed to discern the dominant dissipation mechanism in hydrogel contact detachment.

  12. Adhesive Contact Sweeper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive contact sweeper removes hair and particles vacuum cleaner leaves behind, without stirring up dust. Also cleans loose rugs. Sweeper holds commercially available spools of inverted adhesive tape. Suitable for use in environments in which air kept free of dust; optics laboratories, computer rooms, and areas inhabited by people allergic to dust. For carpets, best used in tandem with vacuum cleaner; first pass with vacuum cleaner removes coarse particles, and second pass with sweeper extracts fine particles. This practice extends useful life of adhesive spools.

  13. Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Bale, James F.; Miner, Lonnie; Petheram, Susan J.

    2002-05-01

    Intrauterine infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV), a betaherpesvirus, remains the most frequent congenital virus infection in many regions of the world. Although most CMV-infected newborns lack signs of CMV infection, approximately 10% have signs that can consist of low birth weight, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, skin rash, microcephaly, and chorioretinitis. Neonates with signs of CMV infection at birth have high rates of audiologic and neurodevelopmental sequelae. Although postnatal therapy with ganciclovir transiently reduces virus shedding and may lessen the audiologic consequences of CMV in some infected infants, additional strategies are needed to prevent congenital CMV disease and to improve the neurodevelopmental prognosis of infants infected with CMV in utero. Some cases of intrauterine infections can be prevented in susceptible women by avoiding contact with the urine or saliva of young children who may be shedding CMV. Vaccines against CMV remain in the experimental stages of development. Termination of pregnancy can be offered to women whose infants have evidence of intrauterine CMV infection and sonographic signs of central nervous system damage. Infants who survive symptomatic intrauterine infections have high rates of neurodevelopmental sequelae and require comprehensive evaluation and therapy through center and home-based early intervention programs. PMID:11931729

  14. Someone You Are Close to May Get the Smallpox Vaccine: What You Should Know and Do

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Are Close to May Get the Smallpox Vaccine: What You Should Know and Do There are ... contact with is thinking about getting the smallpox vaccine. (“Close contact” means anyone living in your household. ...

  15. Elastic contact mechanics: percolation of the contact area and fluid squeeze-out.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J; Prodanov, N; Krick, B A; Rodriguez, N; Mulakaluri, N; Sawyer, W G; Mangiagalli, P

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of fluid flow at the interface between elastic solids with rough surfaces depends sensitively on the area of real contact, in particular close to the percolation threshold, where an irregular network of narrow flow channels prevails. In this paper, numerical simulation and experimental results for the contact between elastic solids with isotropic and anisotropic surface roughness are compared with the predictions of a theory based on the Persson contact mechanics theory and the Bruggeman effective medium theory. The theory predictions are in good agreement with the experimental and numerical simulation results and the (small) deviation can be understood as a finite-size effect. The fluid squeeze-out at the interface between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces is studied. We present results for such high contact pressures that the area of real contact percolates, giving rise to sealed-off domains with pressurized fluid at the interface. The theoretical predictions are compared to experimental data for a simple model system (a rubber block squeezed against a flat glass plate), and for prefilled syringes, where the rubber plunger stopper is lubricated by a high-viscosity silicon oil to ensure functionality of the delivery device. For the latter system we compare the breakloose (or static) friction, as a function of the time of stationary contact, to the theory prediction.

  16. The nuclear contact and the photoabsorption cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnea, Nir

    2015-04-01

    A few years ago, S. Tan suggested that the properties of universal quantum gases depend on a new characteristic quantity. This quantity, the contact, describes the probability of two particles coming close to each other, i.e. it is a measure of the number of close particle pairs in the system. Utilizing the contact, this theory predicts the energy, pressure and other properties of the system. It was proven right in a series of ultracold atomic experiments. In my talk I will present a generalization of Tan's contact to nuclear systems, introducing the various nuclear contacts, taking into account all possible pair configurations. The leading neutron-proton contact is then evaluated from medium energy photodisintegration experiments. To this end, the Levinger quasi-deuteron model of nuclear photodisintegration is reformulated, and the bridge between the Levinger constant and the contact is established. Using experimental evaluations of Levinger's constant the value of the neutron-proton contact in finite nuclei and in symmetric nuclear matter is extracted, and compared to the universal theory. Assuming isospin symmetry it is proposed to evaluate the neutron-neutron contact through measurement of photonuclear spin correlated neutron-proton pairs.

  17. The impact of contact tracing in clustered populations.

    PubMed

    House, Thomas; Keeling, Matt J

    2010-03-01

    The tracing of potentially infectious contacts has become an important part of the control strategy for many infectious diseases, from early cases of novel infections to endemic sexually transmitted infections. Here, we make use of mathematical models to consider the case of partner notification for sexually transmitted infection, however these models are sufficiently simple to allow more general conclusions to be drawn. We show that, when contact network structure is considered in addition to contact tracing, standard "mass action" models are generally inadequate. To consider the impact of mutual contacts (specifically clustering) we develop an improvement to existing pairwise network models, which we use to demonstrate that ceteris paribus, clustering improves the efficacy of contact tracing for a large region of parameter space. This result is sometimes reversed, however, for the case of highly effective contact tracing. We also develop stochastic simulations for comparison, using simple re-wiring methods that allow the generation of appropriate comparator networks. In this way we contribute to the general theory of network-based interventions against infectious disease. PMID:20361048

  18. No evidence for ape Plasmodium infections in humans in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Délicat-Loembet, Lucresse; Rougeron, Virginie; Ollomo, Benjamin; Arnathau, Céline; Roche, Benjamin; Elguero, Eric; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okougha, Alain-Prince; Mve Ondo, Bertrand; Boundenga, Larson; Houzé, Sandrine; Galan, Maxime; Nkoghé, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric M; Durand, Patrick; Paupy, Christophe; Renaud, François; Prugnolle, Franck

    2015-01-01

    African great apes are naturally infected by a multitude of Plasmodium species most of them recently discovered, among which several are closely related to human malaria agents. However, it is still unknown whether these animals can serve as source of infections for humans living in their vicinity. To evaluate this possibility, we analysed the nature of Plasmodium infections from a bank of 4281 human blood samples collected in 210 villages of Gabon, Central Africa. Among them, 2255 were detected positive to Plasmodium using molecular methods (Plasmodium Cytochrome b amplification). A high throughput sequencing technology (454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, Roche) was then used to identify the Plasmodium species present within each positive sample. Overall, we identified with confidence only three species infecting humans in Gabon: P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale. None of the species known to infect non-human primates in Central Africa was found. Our study shows that ape Plasmodium parasites of the subgenus Laverania do not constitute a frequent source of infection for humans. It also suggests that some strong host genetic barriers must exist to prevent the cross species transmission of ape Plasmodium in a context of ever increasing contacts between humans and wildlife.

  19. No Evidence for Ape Plasmodium Infections in Humans in Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Ollomo, Benjamin; Arnathau, Céline; Roche, Benjamin; Elguero, Eric; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okougha, Alain-Prince; Mve Ondo, Bertrand; Boundenga, Larson; Houzé, Sandrine; Galan, Maxime; Nkoghé, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric M.; Durand, Patrick; Paupy, Christophe; Renaud, François; Prugnolle, Franck

    2015-01-01

    African great apes are naturally infected by a multitude of Plasmodium species most of them recently discovered, among which several are closely related to human malaria agents. However, it is still unknown whether these animals can serve as source of infections for humans living in their vicinity. To evaluate this possibility, we analysed the nature of Plasmodium infections from a bank of 4281 human blood samples collected in 210 villages of Gabon, Central Africa. Among them, 2255 were detected positive to Plasmodium using molecular methods (Plasmodium Cytochrome b amplification). A high throughput sequencing technology (454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, Roche) was then used to identify the Plasmodium species present within each positive sample. Overall, we identified with confidence only three species infecting humans in Gabon: P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale. None of the species known to infect non-human primates in Central Africa was found. Our study shows that ape Plasmodium parasites of the subgenus Laverania do not constitute a frequent source of infection for humans. It also suggests that some strong host genetic barriers must exist to prevent the cross species transmission of ape Plasmodium in a context of ever increasing contacts between humans and wildlife. PMID:26039338

  20. Contact Lenses in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, David W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes results of a three-item questionnaire returned by 43 Michigan institutions expressing views on wearing contact lenses in chemical laboratories. Questions focused on eye protection, type of protection, and use of contact lenses. (SK)

  1. 7 CFR 58.731 - Closing and sealing containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Closing and sealing containers. 58.731 Section 58.731... Procedures § 58.731 Closing and sealing containers. Pouches, liners, or containers having product contact... means, so as to assure against contamination. Each container in addition to other required...

  2. 36 CFR 1194.25 - Self contained, closed products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Self contained, closed... § 1194.25 Self contained, closed products. (a) Self contained products shall be usable by people with... touchscreens or contact-sensitive controls, an input method shall be provided that complies with § 1194.23...

  3. Hypothesis: {open_quotes}Rogue cell{close_quotes}-type chromosomal damage in lymphocytes is associated with infection with the JC human polyoma virus and has implications for oncopenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.; Glover, T.; Burgess, A.

    1996-04-02

    The hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers against the JC and BK polyoma viruses (JCV and BKV, respectively) are significantly elevated in individuals exhibiting {open_quotes}rogue{close_quotes} cells among their cultured lymphocytes. However, the elevation is so much greater with respect to JCV that the BKV elevation could readily be explained by cross reactivity to the capsid protein of these two closely related viruses. The JCV exhibits highly sequence homology with the simian papovavirus, simian virus 40 (SV40), and inoculation of human fetal brain cells with JCV produces polyploidy and chromosomal damage very similar to that produced by SV40. We suggest, by analogy with the effects of SV40, that these changes are due to the action of the viral large tumor antigen, a pluripotent DNA binding protein that acts in both transcription and replication. The implications of these findings for oncogenesis are briefly discussed. 45 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. [Systemic contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Daria; Gomułka, Krzysztof; Dziemieszonek, Paulina; Panaszek, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) is a skin inflammation occurring in a patient after systemic administration of a hapten, which previously caused an allergic contact skin reaction in the same person. Most frequently, hypersensitivity reactions typical for SCD occur after absorption of haptens with food or inhalation. Haptens occur mainly in the forms of metals and compounds present in natural resins, preservatives, food thickeners, flavorings and medicines. For many years, several studies have been conducted on understanding the pathogenesis of SCD in which both delayed type hypersensitivity (type IV) and immediate type I are observed. Components of the complement system are also suspected to attend there. Helper T cells (Th) (Th1 and Th2), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc), and NK cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SCD. They secrete a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, regulatory T cells (Tregs) have an important role. They control and inhibit activity of the immune system during inflammation. Tregs release suppressor cytokines and interact directly with a target cell through presentation of immunosuppressive particles at the cell surface. Diagnostic methods are generally the patch test, oral provocation test, elimination diet and lymphocyte stimulation test. There are many kinds of inflammatory skin reactions caused by systemic haptens' distribution. They are manifested in a variety of clinical phenotypes of the disease. PMID:26943310

  5. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  6. [Genetics of contact allergy].

    PubMed

    Schnuch, A

    2011-10-01

    The genetics of contact allergy (CA) is still only partly understood, despite decades of research. This might be due to inadequately defined phenotypes used in the past. Therefore we suggested studying an extreme phenotype, namely, polysensitization (sensitization to 3 or more unrelated allergens). Another approach to unravel the genetics of CA has been the study of candidate genes. In this review, we summarize studies on the associations between genetic variation (e.g. SNPs) in certain candidate genes and CA. The following polymorphisms and mutations were studied: (1) filaggrin, (2) N-acetyltransferase (NAT1 and 2), (3) glutathione-S-transferase (GST M and T), (4) manganese superoxide dismutase, (5) angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), (6) tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and (7) interleukin-16 (IL16). The polymorphisms of NAT1/2, GST M/T, ACE, TNF, and IL16 were shown to be associated with an increased risk of CA. In one of our studies, the increased risk conferred by the TNF and IL16 polymorphisms was confined to polysensitized individuals. Other relevant candidate genes may be identified by studying diseases related to CA in terms of clinical symptoms, a more general pathology (inflammation) and possibly an overlapping genetic background, such as irritant contact dermatitis. PMID:21904893

  7. Multiregion contact systems for modelling STD epidemics.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Smith, T E

    This paper elicits properties of some multiregional contact systems for STD infections that are intended to assist the understanding of disease control strategies. To this end, a space-time SIS model is described that maintains the symmetry of contact that is inherent in the formation of sexual partnerships. It is demonstrated how the characteristic stability conditions of this model provide a framework for understanding the potential for sustained transmission after the introduction of the agent into a given region. Then, more complex SI specifications are derived that are particularly relevant to the transmission of HIV. These extensions include the introduction of alternative modes of travel and behavioural adaptations made in response to the circulation of HIV and the incidence of AIDS. The discussion suggests some additions to the systems that might enhance their applicability in practice.

  8. Contact lens-associated nocardial necrotizing scleritis.

    PubMed

    Rush, Ryan B

    2013-08-01

    A 52 year-old, contact lens-wearing man presented with progressive right eye pain and redness for one month. He had been evaluated and treated for necrotizing scleritis by multiple eye care specialists prior to presentation. He underwent a complete systemic work-up for both autoimmune and infectious causes of scleritis, including a culture. The culture revealed heavy growth of Nocardia asteroides complexes. The patient was treated with topical amikacin and oral Bactrim. Following several weeks of antibiotic treatment, the patient's infection resolved completely, and his visual acuity returned to baseline status. Nocardia is a rare but potentially devastating cause of necrotizing scleritis that may affect contact lens wearers without an associated keratitis. Prompt recognition and early treatment with appropriate antimicrobial agents are critical to achieve a favorable outcome. PMID:23908577

  9. Infection and Co-infection with Helminths and Plasmodium among School Children in Côte d’Ivoire: Results from a National Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yapi, Richard B.; Hürlimann, Eveline; Houngbedji, Clarisse A.; Ndri, Prisca B.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Soro, Gotianwa; Kouamé, Ferdinand N.; Vounatsou, Penelope; Fürst, Thomas; N’Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Background Helminth infection and malaria remain major causes of ill-health in the tropics and subtropics. There are several shared risk factors (e.g., poverty), and hence, helminth infection and malaria overlap geographically and temporally. However, the extent and consequences of helminth-Plasmodium co-infection at different spatial scales are poorly understood. Methodology This study was conducted in 92 schools across Côte d’Ivoire during the dry season, from November 2011 to February 2012. School children provided blood samples for detection of Plasmodium infection, stool samples for diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) and Schistosoma mansoni infections, and urine samples for appraisal of Schistosoma haematobium infection. A questionnaire was administered to obtain demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data. Multinomial regression models were utilized to determine risk factors for STH-Plasmodium and Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Principal Findings Complete parasitological and questionnaire data were available for 5,104 children aged 5-16 years. 26.2% of the children were infected with any helminth species, whilst the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 63.3%. STH-Plasmodium co-infection was detected in 13.5% and Schistosoma-Plasmodium in 5.6% of the children. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that boys, children aged 10 years and above, and activities involving close contact to water were significantly and positively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection. Boys, wells as source of drinking water, and water contact were significantly and positively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Access to latrines, deworming, higher socioeconomic status, and living in urban settings were negatively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection; whilst use of deworming drugs and access to modern latrines were negatively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Conclusions/Significance More than 60% of the

  10. Determination of the Actual Contact Surface of a Brush Contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Ragnar

    1944-01-01

    The number of partial contact surfaces of a brush-ring contact is measured by means of a statistical method. The particular brush is fitted with wicks - that is, insulated and cemented cylinders of brush material, terminating in the brush surface. The number of partial contact surfaces can be computed from the length of the rest periods in which such wicks remain without current. Resistance measurements enable the determination of the size of the contact surfaces. The pressure in the actual contact surface of a recently bedded brush is found to be not much lower than the Brinell hardness of the brush.

  11. Infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Holland, Thomas L; Baddour, Larry M; Bayer, Arnold S; Hoen, Bruno; Miro, Jose M; Fowler, Vance G

    2016-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare, life-threatening disease that has long-lasting effects even among patients who survive and are cured. IE disproportionately affects those with underlying structural heart disease and is increasingly associated with health care contact, particularly in patients who have intravascular prosthetic material. In the setting of bacteraemia with a pathogenic organism, an infected vegetation may form as the end result of complex interactions between invading microorganisms and the host immune system. Once established, IE can involve almost any organ system in the body. The diagnosis of IE may be difficult to establish and a strategy that combines clinical, microbiological and echocardiography results has been codified in the modified Duke criteria. In cases of blood culture-negative IE, the diagnosis may be especially challenging, and novel microbiological and imaging techniques have been developed to establish its presence. Once diagnosed, IE is best managed by a multidisciplinary team with expertise in infectious diseases, cardiology and cardiac surgery. Antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of IE remains controversial. Efforts to develop a vaccine that targets common bacterial causes of IE are ongoing, but have not yet yielded a commercially available product. PMID:27582414

  12. Force-closed grasping with two hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraza, Jose-Antonio N.; Yun, Xiaoping

    1993-10-01

    Two-handed grasping of rigid objects in 2D space is studied. The hands considered in this article are either flat-surface palms or grippers with two angular-motion fingers. Presented in this article is a condition that establishes the existence of force-closed grasping without the knowledge of the shape of the grasped object and of the exact contact locations on the palms or fingers. Further, an algorithm is developed that determines force-closed grasping based on the position and orientation of the two hands.

  13. Contact position sensor using constant contact force control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturdevant, Jay (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A force control system (50) and method are provided for controlling a position contact sensor (10) so as to produce a constant controlled contact force therewith. The system (50) includes a contact position sensor (10) which has a contact probe (12) for contacting the surface of a target to be measured and an output signal (V.sub.o) for providing a position indication thereof. An actuator (30) is provided for controllably driving the contact position sensor (10) in response to an actuation control signal (I). A controller (52) receives the position indication signal (V.sub.o) and generates in response thereto the actuation control signal (I) so as to provide a substantially constant selective force (F) exerted by the contact probe (12). The actuation drive signal (I) is generated further in response to substantially linear approximation curves based on predetermined force and position data attained from the sensor (10) and the actuator (30).

  14. Surviving a School Closing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witt, Peter M.; Moccia, Josephine

    2011-01-01

    When a beloved school closes, community emotions run high. De Witt and Moccia, administrators in the Averill Park School District in upstate New York, describe how their district navigated through parents' anger and practical matters in closing a small neighborhood elementary school and transferring all its students to another school. With a group…

  15. Contact dermatitis to Vicks VapoRub.

    PubMed

    Noiles, Kristin; Pratt, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Vicks VapoRub (VVR) is a commonly used inhalant ointment that helps relieve symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. It contains several plant substances, including turpentine oil, eucalyptus oil, and cedar leaf oil, which can potentially irritate or sensitize the skin, as well as camphor, menthol, nutmeg oil, and thymol. Although many reports describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to the various constituents in VVR ointment, there are no cases of VVR directly causing ACD. We present a case of a patient who developed an ACD secondary to application of her VVR.

  16. Contact dermatitis to Vicks VapoRub.

    PubMed

    Noiles, Kristin; Pratt, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Vicks VapoRub (VVR) is a commonly used inhalant ointment that helps relieve symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. It contains several plant substances, including turpentine oil, eucalyptus oil, and cedar leaf oil, which can potentially irritate or sensitize the skin, as well as camphor, menthol, nutmeg oil, and thymol. Although many reports describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to the various constituents in VVR ointment, there are no cases of VVR directly causing ACD. We present a case of a patient who developed an ACD secondary to application of her VVR. PMID:20487662

  17. Contact dermatitis in blacks.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Maibach, H I

    1988-07-01

    Black skin is characterized by structural and functional differences such as increased stratum corneum cohesion, melanin content, and stratum corneum layers. These differences seem to make black skin difficult for irritants and light to penetrate, thus explaining the common opinion that skin in blacks is harder and develops contact dermatitis less frequently. The paucity of interpretable epidemiologic data and of clinical and experimental studies does not permit confirmation of this hypothesis, and the few data available are controversial. This article describes the main physiologic differences between black and white barrier function and reviews the literature on irritation, sensitization, and transcutaneous penetration. We found that the data are still too incomplete to generalize on the resistance, or lack thereof, of black skin (versus white skin) to chemical irritation, sensitization, and penetration. PMID:3048818

  18. Update on contact lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Michel, M S; Köhrmann, K U; Alken, P

    2000-11-01

    Despite the development of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, endoscopic stone removal, with or without intracorporeal lithotripsy, is still an effective minimally invasive alternative for special indications. There is no defined all-purpose lithotripsy procedure for contact lithotripsy. The choice of the lithotripsy procedure for endoscopic stone disintegration depends on a number of different factors, the main one being stone localization. Small calibre, flexible probes (electrohydraulic, pneumatic, laser) are especially appropriate for ureterorenoscopy, but the speed of stone disintegration is a limiting factor. In contrast, large calibre rigid probes (ultrasound) are clearly more effective, but are unsuitable in size for flexible ureterorenoscopy. This indicates that the type and size of the endoscope decisively influences the choice of devices for endoscopic stone disintegration. Additional inhibiting factors are the flexibility or the rigidity of the instrument and the diameter of the working channel. It must be noted that total costs are not only calculated on the purchase of the equipment, but must also cover disposable materials.

  19. Contact dermatitis to fragrances.

    PubMed

    Santucci, B; Cristaudo, A; Cannistraci, C; Picardo, M

    1987-02-01

    2 groups of patients (1200 and 1500 respectively) were patch tested with different concentrations of perfume mix and fragrance raw materials. The study was to evaluate the incidence of contact dermatitis to fragrances in Roma, Italy, and the influence of limited variations in fragrance and perfume mix concentrations on patch test responses. The results showed that a decrease in the perfume mix concentration from 16% to 8% correlated with a decrease in the % of positive patients (from 5.2% to 3.6%). Variations in the concentration of fragrance raw materials did not influence the % of positive reactions in the 2 groups. The perfume mixture at 16% or 8% gave some positive results, without a corresponding reaction to any of the constituents, that were not related to an excited skin syndrome.

  20. Contact dermatitis in blacks.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Maibach, H I

    1988-07-01

    Black skin is characterized by structural and functional differences such as increased stratum corneum cohesion, melanin content, and stratum corneum layers. These differences seem to make black skin difficult for irritants and light to penetrate, thus explaining the common opinion that skin in blacks is harder and develops contact dermatitis less frequently. The paucity of interpretable epidemiologic data and of clinical and experimental studies does not permit confirmation of this hypothesis, and the few data available are controversial. This article describes the main physiologic differences between black and white barrier function and reviews the literature on irritation, sensitization, and transcutaneous penetration. We found that the data are still too incomplete to generalize on the resistance, or lack thereof, of black skin (versus white skin) to chemical irritation, sensitization, and penetration.

  1. Contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Santucci, B; Picardo, M; Iavarone, C; Trogolo, C

    1985-04-01

    A study was carried out on 50 workers in a floriculture centre to evaluate the incidence of contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria. 3 subjects gave positive reactions to aqueous and ethanolic extracts of cut flowers, stems and leaves. By column chromatography, the allergen was isolated and its chemical structure identified as 6-tuliposide A by proton magnetic resonance and carbon-13 magnetic resonance. Only 6-tuliposide A was isolated from cut flowers, and this gave positive reactions when patch tested at 0.01%; a-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone at 10(-5) (v/v) was positive in the same 3 subjects. Other lactones (gamma-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone, alantolactone, isoalantolactone) were negative at all concentrations used.

  2. Contact sensing from force measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bicchi, Antonio; Salisbury, J. K.; Brock, David L.

    1993-01-01

    This article addresses contact sensing (i.e., the problem of resolving the location of a contact, the force at the interface, and the moment about the contact normals). Called 'intrinsic' contact sensing for the use of internal force and torque measurements, this method allows for practical devices that provide simple, relevant contact information in practical robotic applications. Such sensors have been used in conjunction with robot hands to identify objects, determine surface friction, detect slip, augment grasp stability, measure object mass, probe surfaces, and control collision and for a variety of other useful tasks. This article describes the theoretical basis for their operation and provides a framework for future device design.

  3. Subclinical Infection with Avian Influenza A H5N1 Virus in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Weikel, Joachim; Möstl, Karin; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Wodak, Eveline; Bagó, Zoltan; Vanek, Elisabeth; Benetka, Viviane; Hess, Michael; Thalhammer, Johann G.

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza A virus subtype H5N1 was transmitted to domestic cats by close contact with infected birds. Virus-specific nucleic acids were detected in pharyngeal swabs from 3 of 40 randomly sampled cats from a group of 194 animals (day 8 after contact with an infected swan). All cats were transferred to a quarantine station and monitored for clinical signs, virus shedding, and antibody production until day 50. Despite unfamiliar handling, social distress and the presence of other viral and nonviral pathogens that caused illness and poor health and compromised the immune systems, none of the cats developed clinical signs of influenza. There was no evidence of horizontal transmission to other cats because only 2 cats developed antibodies against H5N1 virus. PMID:17479886

  4. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog’s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  5. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses.

  6. 42 CFR 483.65 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Requirements for Long Term Care Facilities § 483.65 Infection control. The facility must establish and maintain an infection... prohibit employees with a communicable disease or infected skin lesions from direct contact with...

  7. 42 CFR 483.65 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Requirements for Long Term Care Facilities § 483.65 Infection control. The facility must establish and maintain an infection... prohibit employees with a communicable disease or infected skin lesions from direct contact with...

  8. 42 CFR 483.65 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Requirements for Long Term Care Facilities § 483.65 Infection control. The facility must establish and maintain an infection... prohibit employees with a communicable disease or infected skin lesions from direct contact with...

  9. 42 CFR 483.65 - Infection control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Requirements for Long Term Care Facilities § 483.65 Infection control. The facility must establish and maintain an infection... prohibit employees with a communicable disease or infected skin lesions from direct contact with...

  10. Active alignment/contact verification system

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, William M.

    2000-01-01

    A system involving an active (i.e. electrical) technique for the verification of: 1) close tolerance mechanical alignment between two component, and 2) electrical contact between mating through an elastomeric interface. For example, the two components may be an alumina carrier and a printed circuit board, two mating parts that are extremely small, high density parts and require alignment within a fraction of a mil, as well as a specified interface point of engagement between the parts. The system comprises pairs of conductive structures defined in the surfaces layers of the alumina carrier and the printed circuit board, for example. The first pair of conductive structures relate to item (1) above and permit alignment verification between mating parts. The second pair of conductive structures relate to item (2) above and permit verification of electrical contact between mating parts.

  11. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    PubMed

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation.

  12. Reducing contact resistance in graphene devices through contact area patterning.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua T; Franklin, Aaron D; Farmer, Damon B; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos D

    2013-04-23

    Performance of graphene electronics is limited by contact resistance associated with the metal-graphene (M-G) interface, where unique transport challenges arise as carriers are injected from a 3D metal into a 2D-graphene sheet. In this work, enhanced carrier injection is experimentally achieved in graphene devices by forming cuts in the graphene within the contact regions. These cuts are oriented normal to the channel and facilitate bonding between the contact metal and carbon atoms at the graphene cut edges, reproducibly maximizing "edge-contacted" injection. Despite the reduction in M-G contact area caused by these cuts, we find that a 32% reduction in contact resistance results in Cu-contacted, two-terminal devices, while a 22% reduction is achieved for top-gated graphene transistors with Pd contacts as compared to conventionally fabricated devices. The crucial role of contact annealing to facilitate this improvement is also elucidated. This simple approach provides a reliable and reproducible means of lowering contact resistance in graphene devices to bolster performance. Importantly, this enhancement requires no additional processing steps.

  13. Point contacts in encapsulated graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Handschin, Clevin; Fülöp, Bálint; Csonka, Szabolcs; Makk, Péter; Blanter, Sofya; Weiss, Markus; Schönenberger, Christian; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2015-11-02

    We present a method to establish inner point contacts with dimensions as small as 100 nm on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) encapsulated graphene heterostructures by pre-patterning the top-hBN in a separate step prior to dry-stacking. 2- and 4-terminal field effect measurements between different lead combinations are in qualitative agreement with an electrostatic model assuming point-like contacts. The measured contact resistances are 0.5–1.5 kΩ per contact, which is quite low for such small contacts. By applying a perpendicular magnetic field, an insulating behaviour in the quantum Hall regime was observed, as expected for inner contacts. The fabricated contacts are compatible with high mobility graphene structures and open up the field for the realization of several electron optical proposals.

  14. Meningococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a type of bacteria that cause serious infections. The most common infection is meningitis, which is an inflammation of the ... also cause other problems, including a serious bloodstream infection called sepsis. Meningococcal infections can spread from person ...

  15. Transmissibility of Tuberculosis among School Contacts: An Outbreak Investigation in a Boarding Middle School, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Mai-Juan; Yang, Yang; Wang, Hai-Bin; Zhu, Yi-Fan; Fang, Li-Qun; An, Xiao-Ping; Wan, Kang-Lin; Whalen, Christopher C.; Yang, Xiao-Xian; Lauzardo, Michael; Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Cao, Jin-Feng; Tong, Yi-Gang; Dai, Er-Hei; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) outbreak occurred in a boarding middle school of China. We explored its probable sources and quantified the transmissibility and pathogenicity of TB. Clinical evaluation, tuberculin skin testing and chest radiography were conducted to identify TB cases. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates underwent genotyping analysis to identify the outbreak source. A chain-binomial transmission model was used to evaluate transmissibility and pathogenicity of TB. A total of 46 active cases were ascertained among 258 students and 15 teachers/staff, an attack rate of 16.8%. Genetic analyses revealed two groups of M. tuberculosis cocirculating during the outbreak and possible importation from local communities. Secondary attack rates among students were 4.1% (2.9%, 5.3%) within grade and 7.9% (4.9%, 11%) within class. An active TB case was estimated to infect 8.4 (7.2, 9.6) susceptible people on average. The smear-positive cases were 28 (8, 101) times as infective as smear-negative cases. Previous BCG vaccination could reduce the probability of developing symptoms after infection by 70% (1.4%, 91%). The integration of clinical evaluation, genetic sequencing, and statistical modeling greatly enhanced our understanding of TB transmission dynamics. Timely diagnosis of smear-positive cases, especially in the early phase of the outbreak, is the key to preventing further spread among close contacts. PMID:25757905

  16. A contact map matching approach to protein structure similarity analysis.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Raquel C; Lopes, Carlos Eduardo R; Fernandes, Fernando A; da Silveira, Carlos Henrique; Santoro, Marcelo M; Carceroni, Rodrigo L; Meira, Wagner; Araújo, Arnaldo de A

    2006-01-01

    We modeled the problem of identifying how close two proteins are structurally by measuring the dissimilarity of their contact maps. These contact maps are colored images, in which the chromatic information encodes the chemical nature of the contacts. We studied two conceptually distinct image-processing algorithms to measure the dissimilarity between these contact maps; one was a content-based image retrieval method, and the other was based on image registration. In experiments with contact maps constructed from the protein data bank, our approach was able to identify, with greater than 80% precision, instances of monomers of apolipoproteins, globins, plastocyanins, retinol binding proteins and thioredoxins, among the monomers of Protein Data Bank Select. The image registration approach was only slightly more accurate than the content-based image retrieval approach. PMID:16819709

  17. Lam6 Regulates the Extent of Contacts between Organelles.

    PubMed

    Elbaz-Alon, Yael; Eisenberg-Bord, Michal; Shinder, Vera; Stiller, Sebastian Berthold; Shimoni, Eyal; Wiedemann, Nils; Geiger, Tamar; Schuldiner, Maya

    2015-07-01

    Communication between organelles is crucial for eukaryotic cells to function as one coherent unit. An important means of communication is through membrane contact sites, where two organelles come into close proximity allowing the transport of lipids and small solutes between them. Contact sites are dynamic in size and can change in response to environmental or cellular stimuli; however, how this is regulated has been unclear. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lam6 resides in several central contact sites: ERMES (ER/mitochondria encounter structure), vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch), and NVJ (nuclear vacuolar junction). We show that Lam6 is sufficient for expansion of contact sites under physiological conditions and necessary for coordination of contact site size. Given that Lam6 is part of a large protein family and is conserved in vertebrates, our work opens avenues for investigating the underlying principles of organelle communication.

  18. Bacterial Landlines: Contact-dependent Signaling in Bacterial Populations

    PubMed Central

    Blango, Matthew G.; Mulvey, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Bacterial populations utilize a variety of signaling strategies to exchange information, including the secretion of quorum-sensing molecules and contact-dependent signaling cascades. Although quorum sensing has received the bulk of attention for many years, contact-dependent signaling is forging a niche in the research world with the identification of novel systems and the emergence of more mechanistic data. Contact-dependent signaling is likely a common strategy by which bacteria in close contact, such as within biofilms, can modulate the growth and behavior of both siblings and competitors. Ongoing work with diverse bacterial systems, including Myxococcus xanthus, pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, Bacillus subtilis, and dissimilatory metal-reducing soil bacteria, is providing increasingly detailed insight into the dynamic mechanisms and potential of contact-dependent signaling processes. PMID:19246237

  19. Relationship between proximal tooth open contacts and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Jernberg, G R; Bakdash, M B; Keenan, K M

    1983-09-01

    ONE HUNDRED FOUR adult subjects (mean age 42.8 years, SD = 16.3 years) with unilateral open contacts were assessed interproximally for periodontal status at both the open and contralateral closed contact. An open contact was defined by unrestricted passage of unwaxed dental floss through the interproximal area. Gingival index, crevicular bleeding, probing depth, attachment level, debris, calculus and tendency for food impaction in each study area were recorded. Less debris was seen at open contacts (P less than 0.001). However, increased probing depth (0.27 mm, P = 0.002) and attachment loss (0.48 mm, P less than 0.001) were found at the open contacts. Small but statistically significant relationships were observed between side to side differences in food impaction and both probing depth (P = 0.005) and attachment level (P = 0.006). Differences in calculus index and attachment level were associated similarly (P = 0.003).

  20. Lam6 Regulates the Extent of Contacts between Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz-Alon, Yael; Eisenberg-Bord, Michal; Shinder, Vera; Stiller, Sebastian Berthold; Shimoni, Eyal; Wiedemann, Nils; Geiger, Tamar; Schuldiner, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Summary Communication between organelles is crucial for eukaryotic cells to function as one coherent unit. An important means of communication is through membrane contact sites, where two organelles come into close proximity allowing the transport of lipids and small solutes between them. Contact sites are dynamic in size and can change in response to environmental or cellular stimuli; however, how this is regulated has been unclear. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lam6 resides in several central contact sites: ERMES (ER/mitochondria encounter structure), vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch), and NVJ (nuclear vacuolar junction). We show that Lam6 is sufficient for expansion of contact sites under physiological conditions and necessary for coordination of contact site size. Given that Lam6 is part of a large protein family and is conserved in vertebrates, our work opens avenues for investigating the underlying principles of organelle communication. PMID:26119743

  1. Accidental infection of veterinary personnel with Mycobacterium tuberculosis at necropsy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Posthaus, H; Bodmer, T; Alves, L; Oevermann, A; Schiller, I; Rhodes, S G; Zimmerli, S

    2011-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the main cause of human tuberculosis. Infection in companion animals is mainly acquired from close contact to a diseased human patient and hence rarely diagnosed in countries with low tuberculosis incidence rates. Therefore the general awareness of the disease might be low. Here we report the potential risk of infection for veterinary personnel with M. tuberculosis during the clinical and pathological examination of a dog with unexpected disseminated tuberculosis. The dog had presented with symptoms of a central nervous system disease; rapid deterioration prevented a complete clinical workup, however. Post-mortem examination revealed systemic mycobacteriosis, and M. tuberculosis was identified by PCR amplification of DNA extracts from paraffin-embedded tissue sections and spoligotyping. Contact investigations among the owners and veterinary personnel using an IFN-γ release assay indicated that the index dog did not infect humans during its lifetime. Serological and IFN-γ release assay results of one of two cats in direct contact with the index dog, however, suggested that transmission of M. tuberculosis might have occurred. Importantly, all three pathologists performing the necropsy on the dog tested positive. Accidental infection was most likely due to inhalation of M. tuberculosis containing aerosols created by using an electric saw to open the brain cavity. As a consequence routine necropsy procedures have been adapted and a disease surveillance program, including tuberculosis, has been initiated. Our results highlight the importance of disease awareness and timely diagnosis of zoonotic infectious agents in optimizing work safety for veterinary personnel. PMID:21146334

  2. The investigation of a tuberculosis outbreak in the closed environment of a U.S. Navy ship, 1987.

    PubMed

    DiStasio, A J; Trump, D H

    1990-08-01

    A sailor on a U.S. Navy ship had smear-positive, cavitary, pulmonary tuberculosis. Contact investigation of the entire ship's crew found 216 new reactors to tuberculin skin test (24.5%) among 881 previously tuberculin-negative sailors. The risk for new infection was highest among sailors in the patient's department (relative risk, 4.4; 95% confidence interval 3.7, 5.3); 95% (15/16) of sailors in his division were new reactors. While crewmembers in all departments were at risk for a new tuberculosis infection, working and berthing in compartments that were distant from those of the index case were protective. The ship's closed ventilation system contributed to the outbreak.

  3. Determination of the contact line for protective goggles

    SciTech Connect

    Boyarov, M.M.; Kaiyumov, Kh.M.; Larina, Zh.G.; Zhuk, G.V.

    1982-11-01

    The contact line of protective goggles of closed type should correspond to the anthropometric structure of the face and head, whose dimensional characteristics vary from one person to another. It is therefore desirable to determine average statistical values characterizing the line of contact. Up to now, the parameters of the contact line have been determined from practical experience in the design of protective goggles in view of the absence of scientific data on the detailed structure of the face and head. This organization has devised a special stereophotogrammetric apparatus and a method of defining the parameters required in the design of means of protecting the eyes and face.

  4. Staying in touch: the molecular era of organelle contact sites.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, Yael; Schuldiner, Maya

    2011-11-01

    Membrane contact sites (MCS) are close appositions between two organelles that facilitate both signaling and the passage of ions and lipids from one cellular compartment to another. Despite the fact that MCS have been observed for over 50 years now, we still know very little about the molecular machinery required to create them or their structure, function and regulation. In this review, we focus on the three best-characterized contact sites to date: the nucleus-vacuole junction and mitochondria-ER and plasma membrane-ER contact sites. In addition, we discuss principles arising from recent research and highlight several unanswered questions in the field.

  5. Pseudo Algebraically Closed Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bary-Soroker, Lior

    2009-07-01

    This PhD deals with the notion of pseudo algebraically closed (PAC) extensions of fields. It develops a group-theoretic machinery, based on a generalization of embedding problems, to study these extensions. Perhaps the main result is that although there are many PAC extensions, the Galois closure of a proper PAC extension is separably closed. The dissertation also contains the following subjects. The group theoretical counterpart of pseudo algebraically closed extensions, the so-called projective pairs. Applications to seemingly unrelated subjects, e.g., an analog of Dirichlet's theorem about primes in arithmetic progression for polynomial rings in one variable over infinite fields.

  6. Contact voltage-induced softening of RF microelectromechanical system gold-on-gold contacts at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, D.; Krim, J.; Walker, M. J.

    2010-08-15

    A series of experiments were performed in vacuum environments to investigate the impact of rf micromechanical system switch contact voltage versus resistance for gold-on-gold contacts at cryogenic temperatures. The purpose of this work was twofold as follows: (1) to examine whether asperity heating models already validated for high temperature contacts were also applicable at cryogenic temperatures and (2) to explore the implications and validity of prior suggestions that contact temperatures between 338 and 373 K are high enough to dissociate adsorbed film and/or push them aside but low enough to prevent asperities from becoming soft and adherent. Measurements on two distinct switch types, fabricated at independent laboratories, were performed in the temperature range 79-293 K and for contact voltages ranging from 0.01 to 0.13 V. Contact resistance values at all temperatures were observed to be lower for higher contact voltages, consistent with the aforementioned asperity heating models, whereby increased contact currents are associated with increased heating and softening effects. In situ removal of adsorbed species by oxygen plasma cleaning resulted in switch adhesive failure. Switches that had not been cleaned meanwhile exhibited distinct reductions in resistance at contact temperatures close to 338 K, consistent with suggestions that films begin to desorb, disassociate, and/or be pushed aside at that temperature.

  7. Effects of hydriding and ageing of Pd nanoparticles to contact between nanoparticles and quartz and contacts among nanoparticles investigated by the pump-probe technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Guanghua; Jiao, Weiyan; Yang, Linpo; Wu, Xingzhi; Chen, Minrui; Gao, Renxi; Li, Yan; Xie, Bo; Liu, Jiaqi; Han, Min; Song, Yinglin; Qu, Shiliang

    2016-09-01

    Closely contacted Pd nanoparticles with average size of 8 nm are uniformly deposited on quartz. The ageing, hydriding, hydriding and then ageing of the nanoparticles are characterized by the transmission electron microscopy, optical extinction spectrum, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which show little chemical and crystallographic change. The contact between the nanoparticles and quartz and contacts among the nanoparticles are investigated by the pump-probe technique. The contact between nanoparticles and quartz looses with the ageing, hydriding, hydriding and then ageing of the nanoparticles, and the contacts among nanoparticles loose with the ageing whereas compresses with the hydriding.

  8. Hysteresis during contact angles measurement.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M Elena; Fuentes, Javier; Cerro, Ramon L; Savage, Michael D

    2010-03-15

    A theory, based on the presence of an adsorbed film in the vicinity of the triple contact line, provides a molecular interpretation of intrinsic hysteresis during the measurement of static contact angles. Static contact angles are measured by placing a sessile drop on top of a flat solid surface. If the solid surface has not been previously in contact with a vapor phase saturated with the molecules of the liquid phase, the solid surface is free of adsorbed liquid molecules. In the absence of an adsorbed film, molecular forces configure an advancing contact angle larger than the static contact angle. After some time, due to an evaporation/adsorption process, the interface of the drop coexists with an adsorbed film of liquid molecules as part of the equilibrium configuration, denoted as the static contact angle. This equilibrium configuration is metastable because the droplet has a larger vapor pressure than the surrounding flat film. As the drop evaporates, the vapor/liquid interface contracts and the apparent contact line moves towards the center of the drop. During this process, the film left behind is thicker than the adsorbed film and molecular attraction results in a receding contact angle, smaller than the equilibrium contact angle.

  9. General Differential Contact Identities for Macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landy, Jonathan; Pincus, P. A.; Jho, YongSeok

    2015-10-01

    We discuss general Maxwell identities relating a macromolecule's charge, the forces acting at its surface, and the osmotic pressure of the solution in which it sits. The identities are closely related to the contact value relations that hold for certain special geometries, but are more general. In particular, the Maxwell identities can be applied to any macromolecule geometry, and they hold both within and outside of mean-field theory. Examples illustrate that combining the identities with approximate treatments of screening can often return simple, accurate osmotic pressure estimates.

  10. General Differential Contact Identities for Macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Landy, Jonathan; Pincus, P A; Jho, YongSeok

    2015-10-16

    We discuss general Maxwell identities relating a macromolecule's charge, the forces acting at its surface, and the osmotic pressure of the solution in which it sits. The identities are closely related to the contact value relations that hold for certain special geometries, but are more general. In particular, the Maxwell identities can be applied to any macromolecule geometry, and they hold both within and outside of mean-field theory. Examples illustrate that combining the identities with approximate treatments of screening can often return simple, accurate osmotic pressure estimates.

  11. Determining a Surrogate Contact Pair in a Hertzian Contact Problem.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Anthony P; Brannon, Rebecca M

    2011-04-01

    Laboratory testing of contact phenomena can be prohibitively expensive if the interacting bodies are geometrically complicated. This work demonstrates means to mitigate such problems by exploiting the established observation that two geometrically dissimilar contact pairs may exhibit the same contact mechanics. Specific formulas are derived that allow a complicated Hertzian contact pair to be replaced with an inexpensively manufactured and more easily fixtured surrogate pair, consisting of a plane and a spheroid, which has the same (to second-order accuracy) contact area and pressure distribution as the original complicated geometry. This observation is elucidated by using direct tensor notation to review a key assertion in Hertzian theory; namely, geometrically complicated contacting surfaces can be described to second-order accuracy as contacting ellipsoids. The surrogate spheroid geometry is found via spectral decomposition of the original pair's combined Hessian tensor. Some numerical examples using free-form surfaces illustrate the theory, and a laboratory test validates the theory under a common scenario of normally compressed convex surfaces. This theory for a Hertzian contact substitution may be useful in simplifying the contact, wear, or impact testing of complicated components or of their constituent materials.

  12. Closed Large Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Large Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. When the cell centers are cloudy and the main sinking motion is concentrated at cell ...

  13. [Health examination in future at the era of low tuberculosis incidence--from contacts examination toward active epidemiological studies].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hideo; Shirai, Chika

    2013-03-01

    test in Tokyo: Hideo MAEDA (Bureau of Social Welfare and Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Government). 2. Contact investigation of a tuberculosis outbreak: Kenichi MIYAMOTO (Takaido Community Health Center). We have experienced a TB outbreak in integrated junior and senior high school in Tokyo. Index patient was a student with persistent respiratory symptoms for six months before diagnosis of sputum smear-positive TB. Public health center started contact investigation immediately. QFT-positive rates were high in close contacts, especially in classmates. Additionally, a student outside of contact investigation was diagnosed as TB and considered to be infected from the first patient by VNTR analysis. Therefore, public health center expanded QFT-tests to all students and teachers in this school. Finally, 9 students and 2 teachers in this school were diagnosed as sputum smear-negative TB by contact investigation. 3. Utilization of molecular epidemiological procedure in contact investigation in Kyoto City: Masahiro ITO (Public Health Center of Kyoto City) Molecular epidemiological procedure using VNTR analysis has been used for contact investigation of tuberculosis since January 2011 in Kyoto City. One hundred forty four strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patients with tuberculosis were investigated and 130 strains were fully analyzed. Fourteen clusters were found and the number of strains included in the cluster was ranged from two to 11. Epidemiological relationship between patients in one cluster was found, however, significant relationship in another clusters was not demonstrated. It was suggested that VNTR analysis is useful for molecular epidemiological analysis of tuberculosis. 4. The population based molecular epidemiological studies and QFT test in a contact examination: Riyo FUJIYAMA, Keisuke MATSUBAYASHI, Setsuko MIZUSHIRI, Junko HIGUCHIL Chika SHIRAI, Yuko KATAGAMI, Mieko CHIHARA, Akihiro IJICHI (Kobe City Public Health Center), Kentaro ARIKAWA, Noriko

  14. Isolated pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae in heterosexual male contacts.

    PubMed

    Thomson-Glover, Rebecca; Brown, Ruth; Edirisinghe, Damitha N

    2013-12-01

    Pharyngeal infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in heterosexual men is thought to be of low prevalence and the value of routinely testing this group of patients is uncertain. We present two cases of NG, isolated only in the pharynx, in asymptomatic heterosexual male contacts. The presence of pharyngeal NG was found irrespective of direct oropharyngeal sexual exposure.

  15. Female elk contacts are neither frequency nor density dependent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Paul C.; Creech, Tyler G.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Manlove, Kezia R.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Henningsen, John C.; Rogerson, Jared D.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Creely, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Identifying drivers of contact rates among individuals is critical to understanding disease dynamics and implementing targeted control measures. We studied the interaction patterns of 149 female elk (Cervus canadensis) distributed across five different regions of western Wyoming over three years, defining a contact as an approach within one body length (∼2 m). Using hierarchical models that account for correlations within individuals, pairs, and groups, we found that pairwise contact rates within a group declined by a factor of three as group sizes increased 33-fold. Per capita contact rates, however, increased with group size according to a power function, such that female elk contact rates fell in between the predictions of density- or frequency-dependent disease models. We found similar patterns for the duration of contacts. Our results suggest that larger elk groups are likely to play a disproportionate role in the disease dynamics of directly transmitted infections in elk. Supplemental feeding of elk had a limited impact on pairwise interaction rates and durations, but per capita rates were more than two times higher on feeding grounds. Our statistical approach decomposes the variation in contact rate into individual, dyadic, and environmental effects, and provides insight into factors that may be targeted by disease control programs. In particular, female elk contact patterns were driven more by environmental factors such as group size than by either individual or dyad effects.

  16. Female elk contacts are neither frequency nor density dependent.

    PubMed

    Cross, P C; Creech, T G; Ebinger, M R; Manlove, K; Irvine, K; Henningsen, J; Rogerson, J; Scurlock, B M; Creel, S

    2013-09-01

    Identifying drivers of contact rates among individuals is critical to understanding disease dynamics and implementing targeted control measures. We studied the interaction patterns of 149 female elk (Cervus canadensis) distributed across five different regions of western Wyoming over three years, defining a contact as an approach within one body length (-2 min). Using hierarchical models that account for correlations within individuals, pairs, and groups, we found that pairwise contact rates within a group declined by a factor of three as group sizes increased 33-fold. Per capita contact rates, however, increased with group size according to a power function, such that female elk contact rates fell in between the predictions of density- or frequency-dependent disease models. We found similar patterns for the duration of contacts. Our results suggest that larger elk groups are likely to play a disproportionate role in the disease dynamics of directly transmitted infections in elk. Supplemental feeding of elk had a limited impact on pairwise interaction rates and durations, but per capita rates were more than two times higher on feeding grounds. Our statistical approach decomposes the variation in contact rate into individual, dyadic, and environmental effects, and provides insight into factors that may be targeted by disease control programs. In particular, female elk contact patterns were driven more by environmental factors such as group size than by either individual or dyad effects. PMID:24279278

  17. Non Contact Measuring Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando D.; Sebastiao, Pedro; Henriques, Bernardo G.

    1989-01-01

    One of the problems of the production of cables is the measurement of the thickness plastic cover at the production line. If for some reason the thickness of the plastic is smaller than the minimum necessary several meters of cable may be lost. If the problem exists in the middle of a long cable and the default is not detected in time, the loss will be significant. To solve this problem it is possible to use automatic measuring machines which may detect a default as soon as it happens. It is also possible to interact with the production line in order to avoid any losses. In this paper it is presented a non contact measuring machine, developed for this purpose. The machine uses a laser which is scanned through a field of 80 mm. The interruption of the beam gives information about the external dimension of the object. The technical study of the resolution, sensitivity and precision are presented on the paper. Also the hardware solution and the software are presented. The machine has an interface which allows communication with a PC. The PC may receive information from several measuring units and to interact with machines installed at the production line. The prototype is finished and is going to be tested in the industry.

  18. Sexually transmitted infections in polygamous mating systems

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, Ben; Gupta, Sunetra

    2013-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are often associated with chronic diseases and can have severe impacts on host reproductive success. For airborne or socially transmitted pathogens, patterns of contact by which the infection spreads tend to be dispersed and each contact may be of very short duration. By contrast, the transmission pathways for STIs are usually characterized by repeated contacts with a small subset of the population. Here we review how heterogeneity in sexual contact patterns can influence epidemiological dynamics, and present a simple model of polygyny/polyandry to illustrate the impact of biased mating systems on disease incidence and pathogen virulence. PMID:23339239

  19. Contact pressure-aided spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bregar, Maksimilijan; Bürmen, Miran; Aljancic, Uroš; Cugmas, Blaž; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2014-02-01

    Contact pressure induced by manually operated fiber optic probes can significantly affect the optical properties of the studied tissue. If the contact pressure and the changes in optical properties are measured properly, then the complementary information can be used to obtain additional insight into the tissue physiology. However, as reliable assessment of the contact pressure in the existing diffuse reflectance setups is difficult, the impact of contact pressure is usually neglected or considered as a source of errors. We introduce a measurement system for controlled application of contact pressure and for the acquisition of diffuse reflectance spectra, which is suitable for in vivo studies and for overcoming the limitations of the existing measurement setups. A spectral-contact-pressure plane is proposed to present the combined information, highlighting the unique tissue response to the applied pressure.

  20. A tire contact solution technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielking, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    An efficient method for calculating the contact boundary and interfacial pressure distribution was developed. This solution technique utilizes the discrete Fourier transform to establish an influence coefficient matrix for the portion of the pressurized tire surface that may be in the contact region. This matrix is used in a linear algebra algorithm to determine the contact boundary and the array of forces within the boundary that are necessary to hold the tire in equilibrium against a specified contact surface. The algorithm also determines the normal and tangential displacements of those points on the tire surface that are included in the influence coefficient matrix. Displacements within and outside the contact region are calculated. The solution technique is implemented with a finite-element tire model that is based on orthotropic, nonlinear shell of revolution elements which can respond to nonaxisymmetric loads. A sample contact solution is presented.

  1. Protein folding using contact maps.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, M; Domany, E

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the problem of representations of protein structure and give the definition of contact maps. We present a method to obtain a three-dimensional polypeptide conformation from a contact map. We also explain how to deal with the case of nonphysical contact maps. We describe a stochastic method to perform dynamics in contact map space. We explain how the motion is restricted to physical regions of the space. First, we introduce the exact free energy of a contact map and discuss two simple approximations to it. Second, we present a method to derive energy parameters based on perception learning. We prove in an extensive number of situations that the pairwise contact approximation both when alone and when supplemented with a hydrophobic term is unsuitable for stabilizing proteins' native states. PMID:10668399

  2. Contact dermatitis to homomenthyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Rietschel, R L; Lewis, C W

    1978-03-01

    Two patients with follicular dermatitis were found to have a contact sensitivity to homomenthyl salicylate, a sunscreening chemical present in a commercially available suntan lotion. One patient did not use the product, but her boyfriend did, and contact between the two individuals resulted in a follicular dermatitis developing in her. A second patient with contact dermatitis to homomenthyl salicylate also had a follicular eruption. Both patients appear to represent true allergic sensitivities.

  3. Point contact silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    A new type of silicon solar cell has been developed. It is called the point-contact cell because the metal semiconductor contacts are restricted to an array of small points on the back of the cell. The point contact cell has recently demonstrated 22 percent conversion efficiency at one sun and 27.5 percent at 100 suns under an AM1.5 spectrum.

  4. Method for forming metal contacts

    DOEpatents

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  5. [Reasons for adult immunization -- prevention of most frequent respiratory infections].

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Endre

    2014-11-01

    The adult vaccination is utilized insufficiently as a preventive method currently, even the incidence and mortality of vaccine-preventable infections is very high in the elderly and patients with immunocompromised conditions. They should be protected due to many reasons: the rate of these individuals are getting higher in the population, the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy is limited and becoming more significant due to antibiotic resistance, the quality of life in survivors of severe infections is deteriorated, resulting huge burden to the individual and society as well. The impaired functions of immune system with the advancing age cause higher morbidity and mortality especially in respiratory infections, it is representing in the incidence and high lethality of community acquired pneumonia in older adults. Beyond the old polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) the inclusion of new conjugate vaccine (PCV13) means a significant improvement in the prevention of pneumococcal infections, providing a possibility to prevent not just pneumococcal infections with bacteraemia caused by serotypes presented in the vaccine, but non-bacteraemic pneumonias as well. The necessity of flu vaccines cannot be stressed enough even the vaccines is not so effective in elderly than in younger adults: annual immunization against influenza administering together with pneumococcal vaccination decrease significantly the number, severity and complications in older adults as well. Further improvement in protection of immunocompromised patients is the establishment of cocoon immunity with the vaccination of close contacts.

  6. Comparison of Environmental MRSA Levels on High-Touch Surfaces in Contact Isolation and Noncontact Isolation Patient Rooms.

    PubMed

    Villamaria, Frank C; Berlanga, Gemma; Liao, I-Chia; Ganachari-Mallappa, Nagaraja; Stock, Eileen M; Zeber, John E; Jinadatha, Chetan

    2015-12-01

    Environmental samples were collected from 100 hospital rooms, 32 noncontact rooms, and 68 contact isolation rooms. We isolated 202 and 1,830 MRSA colonies in noncontact and contact isolation rooms, respectively. The study identified MRSA isolates in hospital rooms of patients without colonization or infection with MRSA. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(12):1472-1475.

  7. Two-Year Follow-up Study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigen-Driven IFN-γ Responses and Macrophage sCD14 Levels After Tuberculosis Contact.

    PubMed

    Druszczynska, Magdalena; Wlodarczyk, Marcin; Kielnierowski, Grzegorz; Kawka, Malwina; Rudnicka, Wieslawa

    2016-06-01

    Clinical data regarding the prediction of active tuberculosis (TB) development in close TB contacts are scarce. To address this problem, we performed a 2-year follow-up study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) antigen-driven IFN-gamma responses and serum levels of soluble macrophage CD14 receptor in individuals with recent or prolonged M.tb exposure. Between June 2011 and June 2013, we studied 60 healthy Polish adults with recent household or long-term work TB contact and individuals without known M.tb exposure. All of them underwent baseline and repeated testing with IGRA (IFN-gamma release assay) and serum sCD14 ELISA quantification. Frequencies of IGRA results differed at the baseline and follow-up testing. IGRA reversions were noticed in almost one-third of Work TB Contacts and no participants from the Household TB Contact group. IGRA conversions were found in 40 % of Household TB Contacts. No correlation between the IGRA result and the sCD14 level was observed. IFN-γ variability has important implications for clinical practice and requires caution in interpreting the results to distinguish new infections from nonspecific inter-individual variations in cytokine responses. The impairment of IFN-γ response in some individuals with prolonged M.tb exposure representing a resistant immune status does not allow considering IGRA results as reliable and credible. Monitoring the serum sCD14 level can reduce the likelihood of a false prediction of active TB development in close TB contacts showing an M.tb-specific increase in the IFN-gamma production in repeated IGRA testing. PMID:27570313

  8. Ion Implanted Passivated Contacts for Interdigitated Back Contacted Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Young, David L.; Nemeth, William; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Reedy, Robert; Bateman, Nicholas; Stradins, Pauls

    2015-06-14

    We describe work towards an interdigitated back contacted (IBC) solar cell utilizing ion implanted, passivated contacts. Formation of electron and hole passivated contacts to n-type CZ wafers using tunneling SiO2 and ion implanted amorphous silicon (a-Si) are described. P and B were ion implanted into intrinsic amorphous Si films at several doses and energies. A series of post-implant anneals showed that the passivation quality improved with increasing annealing temperatures up to 900 degrees C. The recombination parameter, Jo, as measured by a Sinton lifetime tester, was Jo ~ 14 fA/cm2 for Si:P, and Jo ~ 56 fA/cm2 for Si:B contacts. The contact resistivity for the passivated contacts, as measured by TLM patterns, was 14 milliohm-cm2 for the n-type contact and 0.6 milliohm-cm2 for the p-type contact. These Jo and pcontact values are encouraging for forming IBC cells using ion implantation to spatially define dopants.

  9. Grafts in "closed" rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Scattolin, A; D'Ascanio, L

    2013-06-01

    Rhinoplasty is a fascinating and complex surgical procedure aiming at attaining a well-functioning and aesthetically pleasant nose. The use of grafts is of the utmost importance for the nasal surgeon to achieve such results. However, the philosophy and technical use of nasal grafts are different in "closed" and "open" rhinoplasty. The aim of this paper is not detailed description of the numerous grafts reported in the literature; we will describe the main principles of grafts use in "closed" rhinoplasty derived from our experience, with special reference to the philosophical and technical differences in their employment between "closed" and "open" rhinoplasty. Some cases are reported as an example of graft use in "endonasal" approach rhinoplasty.

  10. A preliminary study of viral metagenomics of French bat species in contact with humans: identification of new mammalian viruses.

    PubMed

    Dacheux, Laurent; Cervantes-Gonzalez, Minerva; Guigon, Ghislaine; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Vandenbogaert, Mathias; Maufrais, Corinne; Caro, Valérie; Bourhy, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of viral zoonosis epidemics has become a major public health issue. A profound understanding of the viral population in key animal species acting as reservoirs represents an important step towards this goal. Bats harbor diverse viruses, some of which are of particular interest because they cause severe human diseases. However, little is known about the diversity of the global population of viruses found in bats (virome). We determined the viral diversity of five different French insectivorous bat species (nine specimens in total) in close contact with humans. Sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing with Illumina technology and a dedicated bioinformatics analysis pipeline were used on pooled tissues (brain, liver and lungs). Comparisons of the sequences of contigs and unassembled reads provided a global taxonomic distribution of virus-related sequences for each sample, highlighting differences both within and between bat species. Many viral families were present in these viromes, including viruses known to infect bacteria, plants/fungi, insects or vertebrates, the most relevant being those infecting mammals (Retroviridae, Herpesviridae, Bunyaviridae, Poxviridae, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae, Bornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae). In particular, we detected several new mammalian viruses, including rotaviruses, gammaretroviruses, bornaviruses and bunyaviruses with the identification of the first bat nairovirus. These observations demonstrate that bats naturally harbor viruses from many different families, most of which infect mammals. They may therefore constitute a major reservoir of viral diversity that should be analyzed carefully, to determine the role played by bats in the spread of zoonotic viral infections.

  11. [Nosocomial urinary infections].

    PubMed

    Butreau-Lemaire, M; Botto, H

    1997-09-01

    The concept of nosocomial urinary tract infection now corresponds to a precise definition. It is generally related to bladder catheterization, constitutes the most frequent form of nosocomial infection (30 to 50% of infections), and represents the third most frequent portal of entry of bacteraemia. The organism most frequently isolated is Escherichia coli; but the flora is changing and the ecological distribution is continually modified. Despite their usually benign nature, these nosocomial infections can nevertheless influence hospital mortality; they increase the hospital stay by an average of 2.5 days and their treatment represents a large share of the antibiotic budget. Prevention of these infections is therefore essential, with particular emphasis on simple and universally accessible measures: very precise indications for vesical catheterization, use of closed circuit drainage, maximal asepsis when handling catheters, after washing the hands.

  12. Molecular dynamics study of contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small to full contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunyan; Persson, Bo

    2008-03-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. We study the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load [1-4]. For high load the contact area approaches to the nominal contact area (i.e., complete contact), and the interfacial separation approaches to zero. The present results may be very important for soft solids, e.g., rubber, or for very smooth surfaces, where complete contact can be reached at moderate high loads without plastic deformation of the solids. References: [1] C. Yang and B.N.J. Persson, arXiv:0710.0276, (to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett.) [2] B.N.J. Persson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 125502 (2007) [3] L. Pei, S. Hyun, J.F. Molinari and M.O. Robbins, J. Mech. Phys. Sol. 53, 2385 (2005) [4] M. Benz, K.J. Rosenberg, E.J. Kramer and J.N. Israelachvili, J. Phy. Chem. B.110, 11884 (2006)

  13. Forcing contact inhibition of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Roycroft, Alice; Mayor, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Contact inhibition of locomotion drives a variety of biological phenomenon, from cell dispersion to collective cell migration and cancer invasion. New imaging techniques have allowed contact inhibition of locomotion to be visualised in vivo for the first time, helping to elucidate some of the molecules and forces involved in this phenomenon.

  14. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-01-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies. PMID:27748361

  15. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  16. Forcing contact inhibition of locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Roycroft, Alice; Mayor, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Contact inhibition of locomotion drives a variety of biological phenomenon, from cell dispersion to collective cell migration and cancer invasion. New imaging techniques have allowed contact inhibition of locomotion to be visualised in vivo for the first time, helping to elucidate some of the molecules and forces involved in this phenomenon. PMID:25981318

  17. Contact modeling for robotics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lafarge, R.A.; Lewis, C.

    1998-08-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the authors are developing the ability to accurately predict motions for arbitrary numbers of bodies of arbitrary shapes experiencing multiple applied forces and intermittent contacts. In particular, the authors are concerned with the simulation of systems such as part feeders or mobile robots operating in realistic environments. Preliminary investigation of commercial dynamics software packages led them to the conclusion that they could use commercial software to provide everything they needed except for the contact model. They found that ADAMS best fit their needs for a simulation package. To simulate intermittent contacts, they need collision detection software that can efficiently compute the distances between non-convex objects and return the associated witness features. They also require a computationally efficient contact model for rapid simulation of impact, sustained contact under load, and transition to and from contact conditions. This paper provides a technical review of a custom hierarchical distance computation engine developed at Sandia, called the C-Space Toolkit (CSTk). In addition, they describe an efficient contact model using a non-linear damping term developed by SNL and Ohio State. Both the CSTk and the non-linear damper have been incorporated in a simplified two-body testbed code, which is used to investigate how to correctly model the contact using these two utilities. They have incorporated this model into the ADAMS software using the callable function interface. An example that illustrates the capabilities of the 9.02 release of ADAMS with their extensions is provided.

  18. Varicella infection modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Katherine A.; Finley, Patrick D.; Moore, Thomas W.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Martin, Nathaniel; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Evans, Leland B.; Berger, Taylor Eugen

    2013-09-01

    Infectious diseases can spread rapidly through healthcare facilities, resulting in widespread illness among vulnerable patients. Computational models of disease spread are useful for evaluating mitigation strategies under different scenarios. This report describes two infectious disease models built for the US Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) motivated by a Varicella outbreak in a VA facility. The first model simulates disease spread within a notional contact network representing staff and patients. Several interventions, along with initial infection counts and intervention delay, were evaluated for effectiveness at preventing disease spread. The second model adds staff categories, location, scheduling, and variable contact rates to improve resolution. This model achieved more accurate infection counts and enabled a more rigorous evaluation of comparative effectiveness of interventions.

  19. Contact lens management of keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Downie, Laura E; Lindsay, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    Contact lenses are the primary form of visual correction for patients with keratoconus. Contemporary advances in contact lens designs and materials have significantly expanded the available fitting options for patients with corneal ectasia. Furthermore, imaging technology, such as corneal topography and anterior segment optical coherence tomography, can be applied to both gain insight into corneal microstructural changes and to guide contact lens fitting. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the range of contact lens modalities, including soft lenses, hybrid designs, rigid lenses, piggyback configurations, corneo-scleral, mini-scleral and scleral lenses that are currently available for the optical management of keratoconus. The review also discusses the importance of monitoring for disease progression in patients with keratoconus, in particular children, who tend to undergo more rapid progressive changes, so as to facilitate appropriate modification to contact lens fitting and/or potential referral for corneal collagen cross-linking treatment, as appropriate. PMID:26104589

  20. Closing the Loop Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    Closing the Loop (CTL) is a science curriculum designed to introduce students to integrated waste management through awareness. This document presents five lesson plans focusing on developing an understanding of natural resources, solid wastes, conservation, and the life of landfills. Contents include: (1) "What Are Natural Resources?"; (2)…

  1. Closing the Performance Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Cheryl G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the principal of a K-2, 400-student suburban elementary school near Flint, Michigan, worked with her staff and superintendent to develop and implement a strategic plan to close the student achievement gap. Reports significant improvement in reading and math scores after 1 year. (PKP)

  2. Review: The Closing Circle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Two views of prominent biologists are presented side-by-side. Focal point is Barry Commoner's book, The Closing Circle, with a subsequent review by Paul Ehrlich. Growth of population, increases in affluence, and increased pollution from products of technology are considered. (BL)

  3. Closed Small Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... (right)   The structure of tightly packed "closed cells" in a layer of marine stratocumulus over the southeastern Pacific Ocean ... into interesting structures such as those shown here. These cells are notably small, with diameters ranging from 10-15 kilometers, instead ...

  4. Tuberculosis incidence among contacts of active pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Cailleaux-Cezar, M.; de A. Melo, D.; Xavier, G. M.; de Salles, C. L. G.; de Mello, F. C. Q.; Ruffino-Netto, A.; Golub, J. E.; Efron, A.; Chaisson, R. E.; Conde, M. B.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND Treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) in Brazil is recommended only in the case of contacts of pulmonary smear-positive TB patients aged ≤15 years with a tuberculin skin test (TST) ≥10 mm and no previous bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination or with a TST ≥15 mm regardless of previous BCG vaccination. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the 2-year incidence and predictors of TB among contacts who did not meet the Brazilian criteria for LTBI treatment. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. Contacts aged between 12 and 15 years and those aged >15 years who did not meet the Brazilian criteria for LTBI treatment were enrolled in the study. RESULTS TB incidence was 3.2% (22/667), with an estimated TB rate of 1649 per 100 000 population. Risk of TB was greater among the 349 contacts with TST ≥5 mm (5.4%) compared to the 318 contacts with TST < 5 mm (0.9%; RR 6.04, 95%CI 1.7–20.6). CONCLUSION The high incidence of TB among contacts who did not meet the Brazilian criteria for LTBI treatment strongly suggests that these criteria should be reviewed. Furthermore, even among BCG-vaccinated contacts, TST induration ≥5 mm was the only variable that predicted the development of TB disease within 2 years. PMID:19146746

  5. The Type III Secretion Translocation Pore Senses Host Cell Contact

    PubMed Central

    Armentrout, Erin I.; Rietsch, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are nano-syringes used by a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens to promote infection by directly injecting effector proteins into targeted host cells. Translocation of effectors is triggered by host-cell contact and requires assembly of a pore in the host-cell plasma membrane, which consists of two translocator proteins. Our understanding of the translocation pore, how it is assembled in the host cell membrane and its precise role in effector translocation, is extremely limited. Here we use a genetic technique to identify protein-protein contacts between pore-forming translocator proteins, as well as the T3SS needle-tip, that are critical for translocon function. The data help establish the orientation of the translocator proteins in the host cell membrane. Analysis of translocon function in mutants that break these contacts demonstrates that an interaction between the pore-forming translocator PopD and the needle-tip is required for sensing host cell contact. Moreover, tethering PopD at a dimer interface also specifically prevents host-cell sensing, arguing that the translocation pore is actively involved in detecting host cell contact. The work presented here therefore establishes a signal transduction pathway for sensing host cell contact that is initiated by a conformational change in the translocation pore, and is subsequently transmitted to the base of the apparatus via a specific contact between the pore and the T3SS needle-tip. PMID:27022930

  6. Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... bandages or handling medical devices After using the bathroom After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing Ask ... Contact CDC–INFO Healthcare-associated Infections Data and Statistics HAI Data: Progress Report HAI Data: Progress Report ...

  7. CORRIGENDUM: Multiscale electrical contact resistance in clustered contact distribution Multiscale electrical contact resistance in clustered contact distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangyoung; Cho, Hyun; Jang, Yong Hoon

    2010-06-01

    The authors wish to explain the similarity between some figures in the above paper (hereafter called the JPD paper) and in their other publication, Lee S, Jang Y H and Kim W 2008 Effects of nanosized contact spots on thermal contact resistance J. Appl. Phys.103 074308 (hereafter called the JAP paper), and to explain the differences between the two papers, which are not explicitly stated in the JPD paper. The main objective of the JAP paper is to calculate the thermal contact resistance of the nanosized contact spots in multiscale contact. During the process of multiscale analysis, the thermal conductivity varies, especially below the phonon mean free path. The JPD paper deals with the electrical contact resistance in the multiscale contact distribution with an assumption of constant electrical resistivity, which is known as a different kind of physics in a larger characteristic length scale. There are similar figures in the JPD paper and the JAP paper: figures 6, 7 and 8 in the JPD paper and figures 3, 4 and 5 in the JAP paper. Two research works were performed on the basis of a specific microcontact distribution. In the JAP paper, the scale of the contact distribution is in the range of the phonon mean free path of Si, which is a very small size of contact distribution. In the JPD paper, the scale of contact distribution is in the continuum scale, which is larger than the phonon mean free path. In addition, due to the characteristics of a fractal surface which repeatedly generates a similar shape of contact distribution in the different length scales, the shape of contact distribution looks similar, but the total sizes of domain in the JPD and JAP figures are different. The projected areas L × L of fractal surface of the JAP paper and JPD paper are 10 μm × 10 μm and 10 mm × 10 mm, respectively. The length scale is already stated in the JAP paper, but not in the JPD paper. Thus, we have to state that the figures were adapted from the JAP paper without clear

  8. Hookworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... The last 2 types also occur in animals. Hookworm disease is common in the moist tropics and ...

  9. Vaginal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Two common vaginal infections are bacterial vaginosis and yeast infections . Bacterial vaginosis (BV) happens when a certain ... increases the chances that you’ll get BV. Yeast infections happen when a fungus (a type of ...

  10. Staphylococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... of bacteria. There are over 30 types, but Staphylococcus aureus causes most staph infections (pronounced "staff infections"), including ... Some staph bacteria such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) are resistant to certain antibiotics, making infections harder ...

  11. Whipworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the large intestine with a type of roundworm. ... Whipworm infection is caused by the roundworm Trichuris trichiura. It is a common infection that mainly affects children. Children may become infected if they swallow soil contaminated with whipworm ...

  12. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  13. Bone Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the body, bones can get infected. The infections are usually bacterial, but can also be fungal. ... bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent ...

  14. Detailed Contact Data and the Dissemination of Staphylococcus aureus in Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Obadia, Thomas; Silhol, Romain; Opatowski, Lulla; Temime, Laura; Legrand, Judith; Thiébaut, Anne C. M.; Herrmann, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Close proximity interactions (CPIs) measured by wireless electronic devices are increasingly used in epidemiological models. However, no evidence supports that electronically collected CPIs inform on the contacts leading to transmission. Here, we analyzed Staphylococcus aureus carriage and CPIs recorded simultaneously in a long-term care facility for 4 months in 329 patients and 261 healthcare workers to test this hypothesis. In the broad diversity of isolated S. aureus strains, 173 transmission events were observed between participants. The joint analysis of carriage and CPIs showed that CPI paths linking incident cases to other individuals carrying the same strain (i.e. possible infectors) had fewer intermediaries than predicted by chance (P < 0.001), a feature that simulations showed to be the signature of transmission along CPIs. Additional analyses revealed a higher dissemination risk between patients via healthcare workers than via other patients. In conclusion, S. aureus transmission was consistent with contacts defined by electronically collected CPIs, illustrating their potential as a tool to control hospital-acquired infections and help direct surveillance. PMID:25789632

  15. Follow up of an immunocompromised contact group of a case of open pulmonary tuberculosis on a renal unit.

    PubMed Central

    Drobniewski, F. A.; Ferguson, J.; Barritt, K.; Higgins, R. M.; Higgon, M.; Neave, D.; Uttley, A. H.; O'Sullivan, D.; Hay, A.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The organisation, management, outcome and cost of follow up of a large group of mainly immunocompromised patients and healthcare workers who were exposed to a staff member of a London renal unit with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis are described. METHODS--Following British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines, 576 close contacts were identified and divided into three groups: (1) 303 renal patients including 61 with renal transplants; (2) 90 surgical patients; and (3) 183 staff members. Screened contacts were interviewed, completed a symptoms questionnaire, and were offered a chest radiograph and Heaf or Mantoux test if appropriate with referral to a chest physician if required. RESULTS--Overall, 524 (85%) living contacts have been screened: 243 (97%) renal (first screening), 63 (70%) surgical, and 135 (74%) staff contacts. Thirty one transplant patients were prescribed isoniazid chemoprophylaxis. Fifty two renal patients had died before screening and 11 deaths occurred after first interview. One case of tuberculosis epidemiologically related to the index case was diagnosed on clinical criteria. A review of the case records and/or death certificates and entries on to tuberculosis registers indicated no further cases. The cost of the investigation was estimated to be approximately franc25 000, or franc44 per contact screened, with staff costs comprising 79% of the total. CONCLUSIONS--Undiagnosed tuberculosis in healthcare workers working with immunosuppressed patients can lead to large and expensive follow up studies. The applicability of the 1990 and 1994 BTS guidelines to the investigation of tuberculosis in an immunocompromised nosocomial group, and the role of the infection control doctor and the consultant in Communicable Disease Control in overlapping nosocomial and community incidents, are discussed. PMID:7570438

  16. Revisiting mask contact hole measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Masaru; Gallagher, Emily; Ceperley, Daniel; Brunner, Timothy; Bowley, Reg; McGuire, Anne

    2006-10-01

    Contact holes represent one of the biggest critical dimension (CD) mask metrology challenges for 45nm technology mask development. The challenge is a consequence of both wafer and mask sensitivities. Large mask error factors and the small process windows found when contact holes are imaged on wafers impose very tight mask specifications for CD uniformity. The resultant CD error budget leaves little room for mask metrology. Current advanced mask metrology deploys a CD-SEM to characterize the mask contact hole CD uniformity. Measuring a contact hole is complex since it is inherently two-dimensional and is not always well-characterized by one-dimensional x- and y-axis measurements. This paper will investigate contact metrics such as line edge roughness (LER), region of interest (ROI) size, area, and CD sampling methods. The relative merits of each will be explored. Ultimately, an understanding of the connection between what is physically measured on the mask and what impacts wafer imaging must be understood. Simulations will be presented to explore the printability of a contact hole's physical attributes. The results will be summarized into a discussion of optimal contact hole metrology for 45nm technology node masks.

  17. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication of elliptical contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The determination of the minimum film thickness within contact is considered for both fully flooded and starved conditions. A fully flooded conjunction is one in which the film thickness is not significantly changed when the amount of lubricant is increased. The fully flooded results presented show the influence of contact geometry on minimum film thickness as expressed by the ellipticity parameter and the dimensionless speed, load, and materials parameters. These results are applied to materials of high elastic modulus (hard EHL), such as metal, and to materials of low elastic modulus(soft EHL), such as rubber. In addition to the film thickness equations that are developed, contour plots of pressure and film thickness are given which show the essential features of elastohydrodynamically lubricated conjunctions. The crescent shaped region of minimum film thickness, with its side lobes in which the separation between the solids is a minimum, clearly emerges in the numerical solutions. In addition to the 3 presented for the fully flooded results, 15 more cases are used for hard EHL contacts and 18 cases are used for soft EHL contacts in a theoretical study of the influence of lubricant starvation on film thickness and pressure. From the starved results for both hard and soft EHL contacts, a simple and important dimensionless inlet boundary distance is specified. This inlet boundary distance defines whether a fully flooded or a starved condition exists in the contact. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact are shown for conditions.

  18. The dynamic effect on mechanical contacts between nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weifu

    2013-12-21

    The rich behaviors of high-speed mechanical contacts at the nanoscale have been studied. The seldom observed elastic-plastic transition governed by Hertz and Thornton models has been clearly unveiled, the origins of the hardening effect and the deformation mechanism of nanoscale plasticity have been discussed in terms of structural changes after compression and a series of physical quantities are measured including contact forces, contact radius, contact stress, coefficient of restitution and total impact time. Our simulation results closely resemble experiments and/or theoretical predictions: (i) when impact speed v is higher than Y/ρc0, the elastic-plastic deformation transition occurs, (ii) the yielded apparent elastic modulus and hardness are larger than those of the bulk, (iii) the initiating yield stress Y and hardness P0 still satisfy P0 ≈ 1.6Y, (iv) particle's volume decreases during compression, (v) contact radius a follows a [proportionality] v(2/5), (vi) at v ≥ 2000 m s(-1), the coefficient of restitution follows e [proportionality] v(-1/4) and (vii) the total time of impact follows Tc [proportionality] v(-1/5). However, there also exist many quantitative differences. The contact radius and final contact radius are underestimated by the continuum predictions while the total impact time is overestimated, but all of them reasonably agree with theoretical predictions with an increase of contact area and impact speed. The theoretical equation is adapted to predict the final contact radius during normal impact, in which the contact radius at zero load is also formulated. PMID:24186146

  19. Survival of norovirus surrogate on various food-contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kim, An-Na; Park, Shin Young; Bae, San-Cheong; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Ha, Sang-Do

    2014-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is an environmental threat to humans, which spreads easily from one infected person to another, causing foodborne and waterborne diseases. Therefore, precautions against NoV infection are important in the preparation of food. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of murine norovirus (MNV), as a NoV surrogate, on six different food-contact surfaces: ceramic, wood, rubber, glass, stainless steel, and plastic. We inoculated 10(5) PFU of MNV onto the six different surface coupons that were then kept at room temperature for 28 days. On the food-contact surfaces, the greatest reduction in MNV was 2.28 log10 PFU/coupon, observed on stainless steel, while the lowest MNV reduction was 1.29 log10 PFU/coupon, observed on wood. The rank order of MNV reduction, from highest to lowest, was stainless steel, plastic, rubber, glass, ceramic, and wood. The values of d R (time required to reduce the virus by 90%) on survival plots of MNV determined by a modified Weibull model were 277.60 h (R(2) = 0.99) on ceramic, 492.59 h (R(2) = 0.98) on wood, 173.56 h on rubber (R(2) = 0.98), 97.18 h (R(2) = 0.94) on glass, 91.76 h (R(2) = 0.97) on stainless steel, and 137.74 h (R(2) = 0.97) on plastic. The infectivity of MNV on all food-contact surfaces remained after 28 days. These results show that MNV persists in an infective state on various food-contact surfaces for long periods. This study may provide valuable information for the control of NoV on various food-contact surfaces, in order to prevent foodborne disease.

  20. Contact Pressure and Shear Stress Analysis on Conforming Contact Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Haruo; Imou, Akitoshi

    Two methods to solve a conforming contact problem are proposed. First method is general and can be applicable to the contact case between elastic arbitrary shape bodies. For verification FEA is performed on the convex-concave sphere contact, and the result of this method is well corresponding to the FEA result. However, the accuracy deteriorates when the mesh aspect ratio is extremely large. This phenomenon is caused by the usage of numerical integration for the calculation of influence coefficient. The second method is devised to avoid this problem, while this improved method is applicable only to the case when the contact area can be considered to be on a cylinder surface. By using this method, the contact pressure can be obtained without the deterioration even in the case of edge load occurring between ball bearing race shoulder and ball. The results of the contact pressure and the shear stress that is necessary for bearing life estimation are compared with the FEA result, which showed well correspondence.

  1. [Contact allergy from cigarette smoking].

    PubMed

    Rat, J P; Larregue, M

    1987-04-01

    Usually, recorded cases of allergic contact dermatitis to tobacco are confined to occupational diseases and involve agricultural workers and those engaged in manufacturing or selling the products, all of whom are in contact with tobacco leaves. We have found three cases of contact dermatitis caused by cigarette smoke, which are not occupational disease. We do not know what offending agent is, but in one case the patient is allergic to perfume and this may be the factor responsible, since she smokes only flavoured cigarettes. In addition, we need to know whether the allergen only appears during combustion and is therefore present only in cigarette smoke.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis from ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Warshaw, Erin M

    2014-09-01

    Ketoconazole is a widely used imidazole antifungal agent. True contact allergy to topical ketoconazole is rare, and few cases of patients with contact allergy to ketoconazole have been reported. We present the case of a patient with a history of undiagnosed recurrent dermatitis who developed acute facial swelling and pruritus after using ketoconazole cream and shampoo for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Patch testing revealed true contact allergy to ketoconazole without cross-reactivity to 4 other imidazole antifungals. Review of the patient's medical record suggested that prior incidences of dermatitis might have been due to ketoconazole exposure. When the patient avoided this imidazole agent, the dermatitis resolved. PMID:25279470

  3. Closed-loop anesthesia.

    PubMed

    LE Guen, Morgan; Liu, Ngai; Chazot, Thierry; Fischler, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Automated anesthesia which may offer to the physician time to control hemodynamic and to supervise neurological outcome and which may offer to the patient safety and quality was until recently consider as a holy grail. But this field of research is now increasing in every component of general anesthesia (hypnosis, nociception, neuromuscular blockade) and literature describes some successful algorithms - single or multi closed-loop controller. The aim of these devices is to control a predefined target and to continuously titrate anesthetics whatever the patients' co morbidities and surgical events to reach this target. Literature contains many randomized trials comparing manual and automated anesthesia and shows feasibility and safety of this system. Automation could quickly concern other aspects of anesthesia as fluid management and this review proposes an overview of closed-loop systems in anesthesia.

  4. Novel vertical silicon photodiodes based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Yelena; Shauly, Eitan; Paz, Yaron

    2015-12-01

    The classical concept of silicon photodiodes comprises of a planar design characterized by heavily doped emitters. Such geometry has low collection efficiency of the photons absorbed close to the surface. An alternative, promising, approach is to use a vertical design. Nevertheless, realization of such design is technologically challenged, hence hardly explored. Herein, a novel type of silicon photodiodes, based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts, is presented. These contacts can be prepared up to 10 μm in depth, without showing any leakage current associated with the increase in the contact area. Consequently, the trenched photodiodes revealed better performance than no-trench photodiodes. A simple two dimensional model was developed, allowing to estimate the conditions under which a vertical design has the potential to have better performance than that of a planar design. At large, the deeper the trench is, the better is the vertical design relative to the planar (up to 10 μm for silicon). The vertical design is more advantageous for materials characterized by short diffusion lengths of the carriers. Salicided polysilicon trenched contacts open new opportunities for the design of solar cells and image sensors. For example, these contacts may passivate high contact area buried contacts, by virtue of the conformity of polysilicon interlayer, thus lowering the via resistance induced recombination enhancement effect.

  5. Novel vertical silicon photodiodes based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Yelena; Shauly, Eitan; Paz, Yaron

    2015-12-07

    The classical concept of silicon photodiodes comprises of a planar design characterized by heavily doped emitters. Such geometry has low collection efficiency of the photons absorbed close to the surface. An alternative, promising, approach is to use a vertical design. Nevertheless, realization of such design is technologically challenged, hence hardly explored. Herein, a novel type of silicon photodiodes, based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts, is presented. These contacts can be prepared up to 10 μm in depth, without showing any leakage current associated with the increase in the contact area. Consequently, the trenched photodiodes revealed better performance than no-trench photodiodes. A simple two dimensional model was developed, allowing to estimate the conditions under which a vertical design has the potential to have better performance than that of a planar design. At large, the deeper the trench is, the better is the vertical design relative to the planar (up to 10 μm for silicon). The vertical design is more advantageous for materials characterized by short diffusion lengths of the carriers. Salicided polysilicon trenched contacts open new opportunities for the design of solar cells and image sensors. For example, these contacts may passivate high contact area buried contacts, by virtue of the conformity of polysilicon interlayer, thus lowering the via resistance induced recombination enhancement effect.

  6. Laterally closed lattice homomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumi, Mohamed Ali; Toumi, Nedra

    2006-12-01

    Let A and B be two Archimedean vector lattices and let be a lattice homomorphism. We call that T is laterally closed if T(D) is a maximal orthogonal system in the band generated by T(A) in B, for each maximal orthogonal system D of A. In this paper we prove that any laterally closed lattice homomorphism T of an Archimedean vector lattice A with universal completion Au into a universally complete vector lattice B can be extended to a lattice homomorphism of Au into B, which is an improvement of a result of M. Duhoux and M. Meyer [M. Duhoux and M. Meyer, Extended orthomorphisms and lateral completion of Archimedean Riesz spaces, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 98 (1984) 3-18], who established it for the order continuous lattice homomorphism case. Moreover, if in addition Au and B are with point separating order duals (Au)' and B' respectively, then the laterally closedness property becomes a necessary and sufficient condition for any lattice homomorphism to have a similar extension to the whole Au. As an application, we give a new representation theorem for laterally closed d-algebras from which we infer the existence of d-algebra multiplications on the universal completions of d-algebras.

  7. Breast prosthesis infection and pets: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lenne, A.; Defourny, L.; Lafosse, A.; Martin, M.; Vandercam, B.; Berlière, M.; Lengelé, B.; Rodriguez-Villalobos, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pets are not always the human’s best friends, particularly in the presence of comorbidities such as wounds. The following case report describes a Pasteurella multocida infection of a reconstructive breast implant due to a close contact between a cat and its owner. Presentation of case A 33-year-old woman developed a breast implant infection 13 days after an immediate breast reconstruction following a mastectomy for a multifocal ductal carcinoma. The wound was explored surgically and the implant removed. Culture extracted from fluid around the prosthesis evidenced the presence of P. multocida, a Gram-negative coccobacillus which is present in the oral commensal flora of cats and dogs. Conclusion In the case of breast infection, surgical revision – with or without removal of the implant – is required in order to carry out a meticulous intraoperative cleaning. Antibiotherapy is always necessary in such cases. Particularly when patients presenting comorbidities are concerned, the focus must be put on avoiding close contact of the wound with pets. PMID:27084983

  8. Limited novel influenza A (H1N1) 09 infection in travelling high‐school tour group

    PubMed Central

    Mardani, Janine; Calder, Lester; Laurie, Karen; Barr, Ian; Kelso, Anne; Jones, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Mardani et al. (2011) Limited novel influenza A (H1N1) 09 infection in travelling high‐school tour group. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(1), 47–51. Background  A single case of novel influenza A (H1N1) 09 infection was identified by PCR among a New Zealand high‐school group that toured California in April 2009. Close monitoring of the tour group and their New Zealand contacts identified 11 other tour members with respiratory symptoms who were investigated. In all nine instances where nasopharyngeal swabs were indicated, tests were negative for novel influenza A (H1N1) 09 by PCR. Objective  To determine whether serology could identify any cases of novel influenza A (H1N1) 09 that had not been detected by PCR. Methods  Acute and convalescent serological testing for antibodies against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and seasonal A (H1N1) influenza viruses using haemagglutination inhibition assays and microneutralisation assays. Results  Serological analysis of symptomatic tour members identified a further possible case of novel influenza A (H1N1) 09 infection. The possible case had not been tested by PCR because he or she had already received prophylaxis with oseltamivir. Conclusions  These findings suggest infection among tour group members was limited despite prolonged periods of close contact during travel. Furthermore, multiple public health interventions are likely to have effectively prevented an outbreak following the tour group’s return. PMID:21138540

  9. Contact and capillary forces at the nanometer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shengfeng

    In this thesis I use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the physics of nanoasperity contacts and contrast their behavior to predictions of traditional continuum theories. Contact area plays a central role in continuum theories of friction and adhesion. In Chapter II, I use simulations of nanoscopic contacts between clean surfaces with simple geometry to show that it is difficult to extend the continuum notion of contact to the atomic scale. Definitions of contact area based on interatomic forces have a strong dependence on temperature, atomic structure of the surfaces in contact, and length of time interval during which the contact area is measured. Even for atomically flat surfaces, contact area grows linearly with the load pushing surfaces together, and pressures comparable to the ideal hardness are needed to achieve full contact at typical temperatures. A simple harmonic mean-field theory is developed that provides a quantitative description of this behavior and explains why the instantaneous forces on atoms are found to have a universal exponential distribution. The mean field theory also describes single-asperity contact by a spherical tip. The static and kinetic friction for this latter geometry are shown to have different scaling with load and the effect of contact stiffness on kinetic friction is explored. The properties of these clean surfaces are strongly dependent on the detailed atomic structure of the solids. However, experimental surfaces are typically coated with an adsorbed layer of small molecules from the surrounding air. In Chapter III, I study the effect of an adsorbed monolayer on contact and friction of nanoasperities. Results show that monolayers reduce sensitivity to atomic structure and lead to a friction that scales more linearly with load than with contact area. Three different measures of contact area are studied and their load dependence is compared with the continuum prediction. In Chapter IV, I study capillary adhesion

  10. Starved elastohydrodynamic lubricated elliptical contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical study of the influence of lubricant starvation on film thickness and pressure in hard and soft elliptical elastohydrodynamic contacts is presented. From the results for both hard and soft EHL contacts a simple and important dimensionless inlet boundary distance is specified. This inlet boundary defines whether a fully flooded or a starved condition exists in the contact. Furthermore it is found that the film thickness for a starved condition could be written in dimensionless terms as a function of the inlet distance parameter and the film thickness for a fully flooded condition. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact are shown for fully flooded and starved conditions. The theoretical findings are compared directly with results obtained experimentally.

  11. Contact vitiligo: etiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Singh, P; Singh, J; Agarwal, U S; Bhargava, R K

    2003-01-01

    Fifty patients of contact vitiligo were studied. Etiological agents of contact vitiligo were identified by clinical history, distribution of lesions and patch testing with suspected material. All patients were advised to avoid the suspected agent and treated with PUVASOL and topical steroid. Out of 50 patients (Male 8%, Female 92% age 14-60 years)., etiological agent of contact vitiligo was found to be sticking bindi alone in 24 (48%), while bindi along with other etiological agents were found to be purse, foot wear, plastic watch strap, lipstick and tooth paste in 14 (28%) cases. 14 (28%) patients also had disseminated lesions of vitiligo along with contact vitiligo. Positive reaction with patch testing was observed in 18 (36%) while depigmentation was seen in 4 (8%) cases. We observed that response of treatment was better in patients with shorter duration of disease while poor response was seen in patients with longer duration of disease. PMID:17642819

  12. Transition metal contacts to graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Politou, Maria De Gendt, Stefan; Heyns, Marc; Asselberghs, Inge; Radu, Iuliana; Conard, Thierry; Richard, Olivier; Martens, Koen; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Tokei, Zsolt; Lee, Chang Seung; Sayan, Safak

    2015-10-12

    Achieving low resistance contacts to graphene is a common concern for graphene device performance and hybrid graphene/metal interconnects. In this work, we have used the circular Transfer Length Method (cTLM) to electrically characterize Ag, Au, Ni, Ti, and Pd as contact metals to graphene. The consistency of the obtained results was verified with the characterization of up to 72 cTLM structures per metal. Within our study, the noble metals Au, Ag and Pd, which form a weaker bond with graphene, are shown to result in lower contact resistance (Rc) values compared to the more reactive Ni and Ti. X-ray Photo Electron Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization for the latter have shown the formation of Ti and Ni carbides. Graphene/Pd contacts show a distinct intermediate behavior. The weak carbide formation signature and the low Rc values measured agree with theoretical predictions of an intermediate state of weak chemisorption of Pd on graphene.

  13. Racial Disparity in Police Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Criminologists agree the race disparity in arrests cannot be fully explained by differences in criminal behavior. We examine social environment factors that may lead to racial differences in police contact in early adolescence, including family, peers, school, and community. Data are from 331 8th-grade students. Blacks were almost twice as likely as Whites to report a police contact. Blacks reported more property crime but not more violent crime than Whites. Police contacts were increased by having a parent who had been arrested, a sibling involved in criminal activity, higher observed reward for negative behavior, having school disciplinary actions, and knowing adults who engaged in substance abuse or criminal behavior. Race differences in police contacts were partially attributable to more school discipline. PMID:24363956

  14. Contact allergy to oleamidopropyl dimethylamine.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A G; Liem, D H

    1984-11-01

    Contact allergy to the cationic emulsifier oleamidopropyl dimethylamine was demonstrated in 3 patients. In every case the emulsifier was present in a particular brand of body lotion. Patch test concentrations of 0.1% and 0.5% in water are proposed; slightly higher concentrations may induce irritant responses. Although these are the first documented cases of contact allergy to oleamidopropyl dimethylamine, it is argued that hypersensitivity to this compound may not be rare.

  15. Pose and motion from contact

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Y.B.; Erdmann, M.

    1999-05-01

    In the absence of vision, grasping an object often relies on tactile feedback from the fingertips. As the finger pushes the object, the fingertip can feel the contact point move. If the object is known in advance, from this motion the finger may infer the location of the contact point on the object, and thereby, the object pose. This paper primarily investigates the problem of determining the pose (orientation and position) and motion (velocity and angular velocity) of a planar object with known geometry from such contact motion generated by pushing. A dynamic analysis of pushing yields a nonlinear system that relates through contact the object pose and motion to the finger motion. The contact motion on the fingertip thus encodes certain information about the object pose. Nonlinear observability theory is employed to show that such information is sufficient for the finger to observe not only the pose, but also the motion of the object. Therefore, a sensing strategy can be realized as an observer of the nonlinear dynamic system. Two observers are subsequently introduced. The first observer, based on the work of Gautheir, Hammouri, and Othman (1992), has its gain determined by the solution of a Lyapunov-like equation; it can be activated at any time instant during a push. The second observer, based on Newton`s method, solves for the initial (motionless) object pose from three intermediate contact points during a push. Under the Coulomb-friction model, the paper deals with support friction in the plane and/or contact friction between the finger and the object. Extensive simulations have been done to demonstrate the feasibility of the two observers. Preliminary experiments (with an Adept robot) have also been conducted. A contact sensor has been implemented using strain gauges.

  16. [Contact sensitization to external agents].

    PubMed

    Erdmann, S M; Merk, H-F

    2003-04-01

    The following review describes contact sensitization to topically applied medications--especially topical dermatological agents--and to external agents in the broadest sense. Particularly skin care products constitute a special source for sensitization due to their widespread use. Especially fragrances and preservatives in cosmetics play an important global role in eliciting contact allergies. Because of the extremely broad spectrum covered by the active and adjuvant ingredients contained in external agents, the following discussion focuses on specific substance groups.

  17. Contact sensitivity to oak moss.

    PubMed

    Gonçalo, S; Cabral, F; Gonçalo, M

    1988-11-01

    Oak moss allergy was the principle allergen in contact sensitivity to perfumes (45%); 31 patients reacting to oak moss were studied. The sensitivity was attributed to contact with perfumes in 20, lichens in 7 and unknown in 4. Atranorin was the most frequent allergen, followed by usnic, evernic and fumarprotocetraric acids. Concomitant allergy occurred to several lichen acids and also to balsam of Peru, colophony and other fragrance components.

  18. Method for lubricating contacting surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, Michael T.; Ohlhausen, James A.; Asay, David B.; Kim, Seong H.

    2011-12-06

    A method is provided for tribological lubrication of sliding contact surfaces, where two surfaces are in contact and in motion relative to each other, operating in a vapor-phase environment containing at least one alcohol compound at a concentration sufficiently high to provide one monolayer of coverage on at least one of the surfaces, where the alcohol compound continuously reacts at the surface to provide lubrication.

  19. Contact sensitivity to oak moss.

    PubMed

    Gonçalo, S; Cabral, F; Gonçalo, M

    1988-11-01

    Oak moss allergy was the principle allergen in contact sensitivity to perfumes (45%); 31 patients reacting to oak moss were studied. The sensitivity was attributed to contact with perfumes in 20, lichens in 7 and unknown in 4. Atranorin was the most frequent allergen, followed by usnic, evernic and fumarprotocetraric acids. Concomitant allergy occurred to several lichen acids and also to balsam of Peru, colophony and other fragrance components. PMID:3233955

  20. Characterization of contact structures for the spread of infectious diseases in a pork supply chain in northern Germany by dynamic network analysis of yearly and monthly networks.

    PubMed

    Büttner, K; Krieter, J; Traulsen, I

    2015-04-01

    A major risk factor in the spread of diseases between holdings is the transport of live animals. This study analysed the animal movements of the pork supply chain of a producer group in Northern Germany. The parameters in-degree and out-degree, ingoing and outgoing infection chain, betweenness and ingoing and outgoing closeness were measured using dynamic network analysis to identify holdings with central positions in the network and to characterize the overall network topology. The potential maximum epidemic size was also estimated. All parameters were calculated for three time periods: the 3-yearly network, the yearly and the monthly networks. The yearly and the monthly networks were more fragmented than the 3-yearly network. On average, one-third of the holdings were isolated in the yearly networks and almost three quarters in the monthly networks. This represented an immense reduction in the number of holdings participating in the trade of the monthly networks. The overall network topology showed right-skewed distributions for all calculated centrality parameters indicating that network resilience was high concerning the random removal of holdings. However, for a targeted removal of holdings according to their centrality, a rapid fragmentation of the trade network could be expected. Furthermore, to capture the real importance of holdings for disease transmission, indirect trade contacts (infection chain) should be considered. In contrast to the parameters regarding direct trade contacts (degree), the infection chain parameter did not underestimate the potential risk of disease transmission. This became more obvious, the longer the observed time period was. For all three time periods, the results for the estimation of the potential maximum epidemic size illustrated that the outgoing infection chain should be chosen. It considers the chronological order and the directed nature of the contacts and has no restrictions such as the strongly connected components of a

  1. Case-control study of risk factors for human infection with a new zoonotic paramyxovirus, Nipah virus, during a 1998-1999 outbreak of severe encephalitis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Parashar, U D; Sunn, L M; Ong, F; Mounts, A W; Arif, M T; Ksiazek, T G; Kamaluddin, M A; Mustafa, A N; Kaur, H; Ding, L M; Othman, G; Radzi, H M; Kitsutani, P T; Stockton, P C; Arokiasamy, J; Gary, H E; Anderson, L J

    2000-05-01

    An outbreak of encephalitis affecting 265 patients (105 fatally) occurred during 1998-1999 in Malaysia and was linked to a new paramyxovirus, Nipah, that infected pigs, humans, dogs, and cats. Most patients were pig farmers. Clinically undetected Nipah infection was noted in 10 (6%) of 166 community-farm controls (persons from farms without reported encephalitis patients) and 20 (11%) of 178 case-farm controls (persons from farms with encephalitis patients). Case patients (persons with Nipah infection) were more likely than community-farm controls to report increased numbers of sick/dying pigs on the farm (59% vs. 24%, P=.001) and were more likely than case-farm controls to perform activities requiring direct contact with pigs (86% vs. 50%, P=.005). Only 8% of case patients reported no contact with pigs. The outbreak stopped after pigs in the affected areas were slaughtered and buried. Direct, close contact with pigs was the primary source of human Nipah infection, but other sources, such as infected dogs and cats, cannot be excluded. PMID:10823779

  2. Case-control study of risk factors for human infection with a new zoonotic paramyxovirus, Nipah virus, during a 1998-1999 outbreak of severe encephalitis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Parashar, U D; Sunn, L M; Ong, F; Mounts, A W; Arif, M T; Ksiazek, T G; Kamaluddin, M A; Mustafa, A N; Kaur, H; Ding, L M; Othman, G; Radzi, H M; Kitsutani, P T; Stockton, P C; Arokiasamy, J; Gary, H E; Anderson, L J

    2000-05-01

    An outbreak of encephalitis affecting 265 patients (105 fatally) occurred during 1998-1999 in Malaysia and was linked to a new paramyxovirus, Nipah, that infected pigs, humans, dogs, and cats. Most patients were pig farmers. Clinically undetected Nipah infection was noted in 10 (6%) of 166 community-farm controls (persons from farms without reported encephalitis patients) and 20 (11%) of 178 case-farm controls (persons from farms with encephalitis patients). Case patients (persons with Nipah infection) were more likely than community-farm controls to report increased numbers of sick/dying pigs on the farm (59% vs. 24%, P=.001) and were more likely than case-farm controls to perform activities requiring direct contact with pigs (86% vs. 50%, P=.005). Only 8% of case patients reported no contact with pigs. The outbreak stopped after pigs in the affected areas were slaughtered and buried. Direct, close contact with pigs was the primary source of human Nipah infection, but other sources, such as infected dogs and cats, cannot be excluded.

  3. Mechanisms of rolling contact spalling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A. M.; Kulkarni, S. M.; Bhargava, V.; Hahn, G. T.; Rubin, C. A.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study aimed at analyzing the mechanical material interactions responsible for rolling contact spalling of the 440 C steel, high pressure oxygen turbopump bearings are presented. A coupled temperature displacement finite element analysis of the effects of friction heating under the contact is presented. The contact is modelled as a stationary, heat generating, 2 dimensional indent in an elastic perfectly plastic half-space with heat fluxes up to 8.6 x 10000 KW/m sq comparable to those generated in the bearing. Local temperatures in excess of 1000 C are treated. The calculations reveal high levels of residual tension after the contact is unloaded and cools. Efforts to promote Mode 2/Mode 3 fatigue crack growth under cyclic torsion in hardened 440 C steel are described. Spalls produced on 440 C steel by a 3 ball/rod rolling contact testing machine were studied with scanning microscopy. The shapes of the cyclic, stress strain hysteresis loops displayed by hardened 440 C steel in cyclic torsion at room temperature are defined for the plastic strain amplitudes encountered in rolling/sliding contact. Results of these analyses are discussed in detail.

  4. Evidence for transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 26 through direct contact.

    PubMed

    Batten, Carrie; Darpel, Karin; Henstock, Mark; Fay, Petra; Veronesi, Eva; Gubbins, Simon; Graves, Samantha; Frost, Lorraine; Oura, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mechanisms of transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 26 (BTV-26) in goats. A previous study, which investigated the pathogenicity and infection kinetics of BTV-26 in goats, unexpectedly revealed that one control goat may have been infected through a direct contact transmission route. To investigate the transmission mechanisms of BTV-26 in more detail an experimental infection study was carried out in which three goats were infected with BTV-26, three goats were kept uninfected, but were housed in direct contact with the infected goats, and an additional four goats were kept in indirect contact separated from infected goats by metal gates. This barrier allowed the goats to have occasional face-to-face contact in the same airspace, but feeding, watering, sampling and environmental cleaning was carried out separately. The three experimentally infected goats did not show clinical signs of BTV, however high levels of viral RNA were detected and virus was isolated from their blood. At 21 dpi viral RNA was detected in, and virus was isolated from the blood of the three direct contact goats, which also seroconverted. The four indirect barrier contact goats remained uninfected throughout the duration of the experiment. In order to assess replication in a laboratory model species of Culicoides biting midge, more than 300 Culicoides sonorensis were fed a BTV-26 spiked blood meal and incubated for 7 days. The dissemination of BTV-26 in individual C. sonorensis was inferred from the quantity of virus RNA and indicated that none of the insects processed at day 7 possessed transmissible infections. This study shows that BTV-26 is easily transmitted through direct contact transmission between goats, and the strain does not seem to replicate in C. sonorensis midges using standard incubation conditions.

  5. Saturated Activity: Very Close, Detached Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Slavek M.

    It is proposed to obtain EUVE spectra of 4 close, synchronized, late-type binary stars with orbital/rotational periods shorter than 1.2 day, to study stellar coronal activity at very high, saturated levels. Among stars of spectral types between late-F to mid-K, only components of very close binary systems (and very rare young stars) can have such short rotational periods. Together with the EGO-1 and EGO-2 results for DH Leo and TZ CrB obtained by others, the spectra will be utilized in a comprehensive discussion of the saturated stellar activity, in relation to and in contrast with, the previously obtained by us spectra of the single, rapidly-rotating young star, AB Dor (P=0.51 day, EGO-1) and of two contact binary systems, 44i Boo (P=0.27 day) and VW Cep (P=0.28 day, EGO-2).

  6. Crane-Load Contact Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Cox, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An electronic instrument has been developed as a prototype of a portable crane-load contact sensor. Such a sensor could be helpful in an application in which the load rests on a base in a horizontal position determined by vertical alignment pins (see Figure 1). If the crane is not positioned to lift the load precisely vertically, then the load can be expected to swing once it has been lifted clear of the pins. If the load is especially heavy, large, and/or fragile, it could hurt workers and/or damage itself and nearby objects. By indicating whether the load remains in contact with the pins when it has been lifted a fraction of the length of the pins, the crane-load contact sensor helps the crane operator determine whether it is safe to lift the load clear of the pins: If there is contact, then the load is resting against the sides of the pins and, hence, it may not be safe to lift; if contact is occasionally broken, then the load is probably not resting against the pins, so it should be safe to lift. It is assumed that the load and base, or at least the pins and the surfaces of the alignment holes in the load, are electrically conductive, so the instrument can use electrical contact to indicate mechanical contact. However, DC resistance cannot be used as an indicator of contact for the following reasons: The load and the base are both electrically grounded through cables (the load is grounded through the lifting cable of the crane) to prevent discharge of static electricity. In other words, the DC resistance between the load and the pins is always low, as though they were always in direct contact. Therefore, instead of DC resistance, the instrument utilizes the AC electrical impedance between the pins and the load. The signal frequency used in the measurement is high enough (.1 MHz) that the impedance contributed by the cables and the electrical ground network of the building in which the crane and the base are situated is significantly greater than the contact

  7. Rings from Close Encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Weve recently discovered narrow sets of rings around two minor planets orbiting in our solar system. How did these rings form? A new study shows that they could be a result of close encounters between the minor planets and giants like Jupiter or Neptune.Unexpected Ring SystemsPositions of the centaurs in our solar system (green). Giant planets (red), Jupiter trojans (grey), scattered disk objects (tan) and Kuiper belt objects (blue) are also shown. [WilyD]Centaurs are minor planets in our solar system that orbit between Jupiter and Neptune. These bodies of which there are roughly 44,000 with diameters larger than 1 km have dynamically unstable orbits that cross paths with those of one or more giant planets.Recent occultation observations of two centaurs, 10199 Chariklo and 2060 Chiron, revealed that these bodies both host narrow ring systems. Besides our four giant planets, Chariklo and Chiron are the only other bodies in the solar system known to have rings. But how did these rings form?Scientists have proposed several models, implicating collisions, disruption of a primordial satellite, or dusty outgassing. But a team of scientists led by Ryuki Hyodo (Paris Institute of Earth Physics, Kobe University) has recently proposed an alternative scenario: what if the rings were formed from partial disruption of the centaur itself, after it crossed just a little too close to a giant planet?Tidal Forces from a GiantHyodo and collaborators first used past studies of centaur orbits to estimate that roughly 10% of centaurs experience close encounters (passing within a distance of ~2x the planetary radius) with a giant planet during their million-year lifetime. The team then performed a series of simulations of close encounters between a giant planet and a differentiated centaur a body in which the rocky material has sunk to form a dense silicate core, surrounded by an icy mantle.Some snapshots of simulation outcomes (click for a closer look!) for different initial states of

  8. Navy closes Antarctic unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After 42 years as a key participant in the United States Antarctic Program (USAP), the U.S. Navy held a ceremony on February 20 to commemorate the closing of its Naval Antarctic Support Unit stationed in New Zealand. The Navy originally had announced its decision to "disestablish" the unit in 1993, citing new global priorities with the end of the Cold War.The Navy will continue to provide limited flight support to the USAP through the end of the 1998-1999 austral research season.

  9. Acute urethritis due to Neisseria meningitidis group A acquired by orogenital contact: case report.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A P; Wolff, J; Atia, W

    1989-01-01

    A case of heterosexual transmission of Neisseria meningitidis group A by fellatio, which resulted in acute purulent urethritis in the male partner, is presented. The emotional impact of a mistaken diagnosis of gonococcal infection and the need to treat asymptomatic throat carriage in sexual contacts makes early recognition of meningococcal infection important in this unusual circumstance. PMID:2502493

  10. Partial slip in mesoscale contacts: dependence on contact size.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Sylvia; Petri, Judith; Johannsmann, Diethelm

    2013-09-01

    Using acoustic resonators, we have studied the occurrence and the magnitude of partial slip between glass spheres and polymer surfaces. The measurement relies on the shifts of resonance frequency and bandwidth, Δf and ΔΓ, induced by the contact as well as the dependence of Δf and ΔΓ on the amplitude of oscillation. One often finds a decrease of Δf at elevated amplitudes, which goes back to partial slip (also "microslip"). Building on two different models of partial slip, we derive the frequency-amplitude relation from the force-displacement relation. In accordance with both models, the bandwidth is found to increase with amplitude in the partial slip regime. For the highest amplitudes and largest spheres investigated, one observes a decrease of bandwidth with amplitude, which is interpreted as a transition to gross slip. Deviating from both models of partial slip, Δf is sometimes found to be independent of amplitude in the low-amplitude range. Constant Δf implies linear force-displacement relations. The critical amplitude for the onset of partial slip depends on the contact radius, where partial slip is more pronounced for larger contacts. This finding can be explained by a smooth stress profile at the edge of the contact with no singularity. The stress at the edge might be lowered by nanoscale roughness, by capillary forces, or by the inability of the two surfaces to reestablish a sticking contact at the turning point of the oscillation.

  11. Ferromagnetic tunnel contacts to graphene: Contact resistance and spin signal

    SciTech Connect

    Cubukcu, M.; Laczkowski, P.; Vergnaud, C.; Marty, A.; Attané, J.-P.; Notin, L.; Vila, L. Jamet, M.; Martin, M.-B.; Seneor, P.; Anane, A.; Deranlot, C.; Fert, A.; Auffret, S.; Ducruet, C.

    2015-02-28

    We report spin transport in CVD graphene-based lateral spin valves using different magnetic contacts. We compared the spin signal amplitude measured on devices where the cobalt layer is directly in contact with the graphene to the one obtained using tunnel contacts. Although a sizeable spin signal (up to ∼2 Ω) is obtained with direct contacts, the signal is strongly enhanced (∼400 Ω) by inserting a tunnel barrier. In addition, we studied the resistance-area product (R.A) of a variety of contacts on CVD graphene. In particular, we compared the R.A products of alumina and magnesium oxide tunnel barriers grown by sputtering deposition of aluminum or magnesium and subsequent natural oxidation under pure oxygen atmosphere or by plasma. When using an alumina tunnel barrier on CVD graphene, the R.A product is high and exhibits a large dispersion. This dispersion can be highly reduced by using a magnesium oxide tunnel barrier, as for the R.A value. This study gives insight in the material quest for reproducible and efficient spin injection in CVD graphene.

  12. Measuring The Contact Resistances Of Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Simple method devised to measure contact resistances of photovoltaic solar cells. Method uses readily available equipment and applicable at any time during life of cell. Enables evaluation of cell contact resistance, contact-end resistance, contact resistivity, sheet resistivity, and sheet resistivity under contact.

  13. RF Sputtering of Gold Contacts On Niobium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    Reliable gold contacts are deposited on niobium by combination of RF sputtering and photolithography. Process results in structures having gold only where desired for electrical contact. Contacts are stable under repeated cycling from room temperature to 4.2 K and show room-temperature contact resistance as much as 40 percent below indium contacts made by thermalcompression bonding.

  14. Solar cell with back side contacts

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  15. Clusters of Hantavirus Infection, Southern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cantoni, Gustavo E.; Calanni, Liliana M.; Resa, Amanda J.; Herrero, Eduardo R.; Iacono, Marisa A.; Enria, Delia A.; Cappa, Stella M. González

    2007-01-01

    Person-to-person transmission of a hantavirus was first confirmed during a 1996 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Argentina, where Andes virus is endemic. To identify other episodes of secondary transmission, we reviewed reports of 51 hantavirus infection cases from this region (November 1993–June 2005). Nine clusters involving 20 cases (39.2%) were found. Two patients, who had symptoms 3 weeks after they shared risks for rodent exposure, were considered a cluster. The other 8 clusters each began with an index case, which was almost always fatal, followed 19–40 days later by the illness of >1 person who had close and prolonged contact with the index case-patient. Person-to-person transmission was considered the probable source of these 8 clusters. The probability of initiating secondary cases was 41% for patients who died versus 4% for those who survived (p = 0.005). Interpersonal transmission of Andes virus infection should be considered even when rodent exposure cannot be definitively excluded. PMID:17370522

  16. Contact in Context: An Examination of Social Settings on Whites' Attitudes toward Interracial Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bryan R.; Jacobson, Cardell K.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from a "New York Times" poll conducted in 2000, we analyze whites' approval of interracial marriage by examining the contexts in which whites have contact with blacks. The contexts can be ordered by the type of contact they provide, from close and personal to distant or hierarchical. The results of our analysis show that the type of…

  17. Modular and hierarchical structure of social contact networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yuanzheng; Song, Zhichao; Qiu, Xiaogang; Song, Hongbin; Wang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Social contact networks exhibit overlapping qualities of communities, hierarchical structure and spatial-correlated nature. We propose a mixing pattern of modular and growing hierarchical structures to reconstruct social contact networks by using an individual’s geospatial distribution information in the real world. The hierarchical structure of social contact networks is defined based on the spatial distance between individuals, and edges among individuals are added in turn from the modular layer to the highest layer. It is a gradual process to construct the hierarchical structure: from the basic modular model up to the global network. The proposed model not only shows hierarchically increasing degree distribution and large clustering coefficients in communities, but also exhibits spatial clustering features of individual distributions. As an evaluation of the method, we reconstruct a hierarchical contact network based on the investigation data of a university. Transmission experiments of influenza H1N1 are carried out on the generated social contact networks, and results show that the constructed network is efficient to reproduce the dynamic process of an outbreak and evaluate interventions. The reproduced spread process exhibits that the spatial clustering of infection is accordant with the clustering of network topology. Moreover, the effect of individual topological character on the spread of influenza is analyzed, and the experiment results indicate that the spread is limited by individual daily contact patterns and local clustering topology rather than individual degree.

  18. Diffusion of Antimicrobials Across Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Zambelli, Alison M.; Brothers, Kimberly M.; Hunt, Kristin M.; Romanowski, Eric G.; Nau, Amy C.; Dhaliwal, Deepinder K.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To measure the diffusion of topical preparations of moxifloxacin, amphotericin B (AmB), and polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) through silicone hydrogel (SH) contact lenses in vitro. Methods Using an in vitro model, the diffusion of three antimicrobials through SH contact lenses was measured. Diffused compounds were measured using a spectrophotometer at set time points over a period of four hours. The amount of each diffused antimicrobial was determined by comparing the experimental value to a standard curve. A biological assay was performed to validate the contact lens diffusion assay by testing antimicrobial activity of diffused material against lawns of susceptible bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis) and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Experiments were repeated at least two times with a total of at least 4 independent replicates. Results Our data show detectable moxifloxacin and PHMB diffusion through SH contact lenses at 30 minutes, while amphotericin B diffusion remained below the limit of detection within the 4 hour experimental period. In the biological assay, diffused moxifloxacin demonstrated microbial killing starting at 20 minutes on bacterial lawns, whereas PHMB and amphotericin B failed to demonstrate killing on microbial lawns over the course of the 60 minute experiment. Conclusions In vitro diffusion assays demonstrate limited penetration of certain anti-infective agents through silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Further studies regarding the clinical benefit of using these agents along with bandage contact lens use for corneal pathology are warranted. PMID:25806673

  19. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  20. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1985-08-20

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.