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Sample records for close pg1159 binary

  1. DETECTION OF IRON IN PG1159 STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, Klaus; Rauch, Thomas; Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2010-08-10

    Up to now, iron had not been found in any hydrogen-deficient (pre-) white dwarf of spectral type PG1159, despite intense searching in a number of objects. Consequently, an iron deficiency was claimed, in some cases at least 1 dex. The primary indicators were UV lines of Fe VII. Therefore, the search was confined to relatively cool PG1159 stars (T{sub eff} {approx}<150,000 K), otherwise Fe is too strongly ionized for a significant population of Fe VII. In this Letter, we announce the discovery of iron in the very hottest PG1159 stars (T{sub eff} = 150,000-200,000 K; RX J2117.1+3412, K 1-16, Longmore 4, NGC 246, H1504+65), based on the identification of the Fe X {lambda}{lambda}979.3, 1022.9 lines in spectra obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. Surprisingly, our analysis results in a solar iron abundance for these stars. It is conspicuous that they are among the most massive PG1159 stars (0.71-0.82 M{sub sun}), in contrast to those objects for which strongest Fe deficiency was claimed (0.53-0.56 M{sub sun}).

  2. Iron Abundance in the Prototype PG 1159 Star, GW Vir Pulsator PG 1159-035, and Related Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.; Kurucz, R. L.

    2011-01-01

    We performed an iron abundance determination of the hot, hydrogen deficient post-AGB star PG 1159-035. which is the prototype of the PG 1159 spectral class and the GW Vir pulsators, and of two related objects (PG 1520+525, PG 1144+005), based on the first detection of Fe VIII lines in stellar photospheres. In another PG 1159 star. PG 1424+535. we detect Fe VII lines. In all four stars, each within T(sub eff) = 110,000-150,000 K, we find a solar iron abundance. This result agrees with our recent abundance analysis of the hottest PG 1159 stars (T(sub eff) = 150,000-200,000 K) that exhibit Fe x lines. On the whole, we find that the PG 1159 stars are not significantly iron deficient, in contrast to previous notions.

  3. Discovery of a new PG 1159 (GW Vir) pulsator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.; Fraga, Luciano; Winget, Don Earl; Bell, Keaton; Córsico, Alejandro H.; Werner, Klaus

    2014-08-01

    We report the discovery of pulsations in the spectroscopic PG 1159 type pre-white dwarf SDSS J075415.12 + 085232.18. Analysis of the spectrum by Werner et al. indicated Teff = 120 000 ± 10 000 K, log g = 7.0 ± 0.3, mass {M}=0.52 ± 0.02 M_{⊙}, C/He = 0.33 by number. We obtained time series images with the SOAR 4.1 m telescope and 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope at McDonald Observatory and show the star is also a variable PG 1159 type star, with dominant period of 525 s.

  4. The domains of instability for the pulsating PG1159 stars.

    SciTech Connect

    Quirion, P.-O.; Fontaine, Gilles.; Brassard, Pierre; Herwig, F. H.

    2004-01-01

    The fact that we find pulsating and nonpulsating stars mixed together in the PG 1159 region of the log g - T{sub eff} diagram has been a long standing puzzle. The poor understanding of the driving mechanism in those stars has been the reason why it has taken so long to address properly this problem. Following the work of Saio (1996) and Gautschy (1997) based on the OPAL opacities, Quirion, Fontaine, & Brassard (2004) recently showed that we are now able to understand and reproduce the ranges of observed periods in the pulsating PG 1159 stars in terms of the original {kappa}-mechanism associated with the partial ionization of the K-shell electrons of C and O which, along with He, make up the composition of the envelope of those stars. Contrary to others, those three studies agree in that no composition gradients are needed between the atmospheric layers and the driving region. Furthermore, the cohabitation of pulsating and nonpulsating PG 1159 stars is naturally explained in terms of a dispersion in atmospheric parameters and in terms of a variation in surface composition from star to star. In particular, the most He-rich stars tend to be stable. We go beyond the findings discussed by Quirion et al. (2004) in this paper, and present the results of additional calculations aimed at describing better the role of the chemical composition (in particular the role of metallicity) as well as that of the stellar mass on the boundaries of the instability domain in the log g - T{sub eff} plane.

  5. The Far-Ultraviolet Spectra of "Cool" PG1159 Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra (912-1190 A) of two members of the PG1159 spectral class, which consists of hydrogen-deficient (pre-) white dwarfs with effective temperatures in the range T(sub eff) = 75000-200000 K. As two representatives of the cooler objects, we have selected PG1707+427 (T(sub eff) = 85000 K) and PG1424+535 (T(sub eff) = 110000 K), complementing a previous study of the hotter prototype PG1159-035 (T(sub eff) = 140000 K). The helium-dominated atmospheres are strongly enriched in carbon and oxygen, therefore, their spectra are dominated by lines from C III-IV and O III-VI, many of which were never observed before in hot stars. In addition, lines of many other metals (N, F, Ne, Si, P, S, Ar, Fe) are detectable, demonstrating that observations in this spectral region are most rewarding when compared to the near-ultraviolet and optical wavelength bands. We perform abundance analyses of these species and derive upper limits for several undetected light and heavy metals including iron-group and trans-iron elements. The results are compared to predictions of stellar evolution models for neutron-capture nucleosynthesis and good agreement is found.

  6. The far-ultraviolet spectra of "cool" PG 1159 stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.

    2015-10-01

    We present a comprehensive study of Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra (912-1190 Å) of two members of the PG 1159 spectral class, which consists of hydrogen-deficient (pre-) white dwarfs with effective temperatures in the range Teff = 75 000-200 000 K. As two representatives of the cooler objects, we have selected PG 1707+427 (Teff = 85 000 K) and PG 1424+535 (Teff = 110 000 K), complementing a previous study of the hotter prototype PG 1159-035 (Teff = 140 000 K). The helium-dominated atmospheres are strongly enriched in carbon and oxygen, therefore, their spectra are dominated by lines from C iii-iv and O iii-vi, many of which were never observed before in hot stars. In addition, lines of many other metals (N, F, Ne, Si, P, S, Ar, Fe) are detectable, demonstrating that observations in this spectral region are most rewarding when compared to the near-ultraviolet and optical wavelength bands. We perform abundance analyses of these species and derive upper limits for several undetected light and heavy metals including iron-group and trans-iron elements. The results are compared to predictions of stellar evolution models for neutron-capture nucleosynthesis and good agreement is found. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. Asteroseismology of the PG 1159 star PG 0122+200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, J.-N.; Vauclair, G.; Solheim, J.-E.; Chevreton, M.; Dolez, N.; O'Brien, M. S.; Kim, S.-L.; Park, B.-G.; Handler, G.; Medupe, R.; Wood, M.; Gonzalez Perez, J.; Hashimoto, O.; Kinugasa, K.; Taguchi, H.; Kambe, E.; Provencal, J.; Dreizler, S.; Schuh, S.; Leibowitz, E.; Lipkin, Y.; Zhang, X.-B.; Paparo, M.; Szeidl, B.; Virághalmy, G.; Zsuffa, D.

    2007-05-01

    Context: The variable pre-white dwarf PG 1159 stars (GW Vir) are g-mode non-radial pulsators. Asteroseismology puts strong constraints on their global parameters and internal structure. PG 0122+200 defines the red edge of the instability strip and its evolutionary timescale is predicted to be dominated by neutrino emission. Its study offers the opportunity to better understand the instability mechanism and to validate the physics of the neutrino production in dense plasma. Aims: To achieve such a goal requires determining precisely its fundamental parameters. This is the goal of this paper. Methods: We present new multi-site photometric observations obtained in 2001 and 2002. Together with previous data, they allow us to detect 23 frequencies, composed of 7 triplets and 2 single frequencies, which are used to constrain its internal structure and derive its fundamental parameters. Results: All the observed frequencies correspond to ℓ=1 g-modes. The period distribution shows a signature of mode trapping from which we constrain the He-rich envelope mass fraction to be -6.0≤ log(qy) ≤ -5.3. The comparison of the mode trapping amplitudes among GW Vir stars suggests that the mass-loss efficiency must decrease significantly below T_eff≤ 140 kK. We measure an average period spacing of 22.9 s from which we derive a mass of 0.59±0.02 M⊙. From the triplets we measure a mean rotational splitting of 3.74 μHz and a rotational period of 1.55 days. We derive an upper limit to the magnetic field of B≤4×103 G. The luminosity (log L/L⊙ = 1.3±0.5) and the distance (D = 0.7^+1.0_-0.4 kpc) are only weakly constrained due to the large uncertainty on the spectroscopically derived surface gravity and the absence of a measured parallax. Conclusions: From the asteroseismic mass, the ratio of the neutrino luminosity on the photon luminosity is 1.6±0.2 confirming that the PG 0122+200 evolutionary time scale should be dominated by neutrino cooling. A measurement of dot{P} for

  8. The detection of photospheric X-ray pulsations from PG 1159-035 with EXOSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Holberg, J. B.; Grauer, A. D.; Winget, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The detection of soft X-ray pulsations from the hot, helium-rich, degenerate object, PG 1159-035 is reported. These observations, obtained with the Low Energy experiment on EXOSAT, show the presence of large-amplitude soft X-ray (44-150 A) pulsations analogous to several of the low-amplitude, nonradial, g-mode pulsations which are observed in the optical. These soft X-ray pulsations, with periods of 516 s, 524 s, and 539 s, arise from the photosphere of PG 1159-035 and constitute the first observations of stellar atmospheric pulsational phenomena in the X-ray band.

  9. IUE spectrophotometry of the hot helium-rich PG1159 DO degenerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sion, E. M.; Liebert, J.; Starrfield, S.; Wesemael, F.

    1984-12-01

    The PG1159 degenerates represent the hottest spectroscopic subgroup of DO stars. Their optical spectra are characterized by broad HeII (lambda 4686) absorption and several transitions of CIV, NIII and CIII. High resolution MMT scans reveal central emission reversals. The discovery of complex, non-radial pulsations in four members of the class underscores the need for accurate temperatures, gravities and abundances for these object. Low resolution IUE spectra of four PG1159 stars, PG1151-029, PG1424+535, PG1520+525 were obtained, as well as an additional image of PG1159-035 and an optical ultraviolet spectrum of PG2131+066. IUE (SWP) spectra suggest the presence of numerous metallic absorption features of CIV (lambda 1550), NV (lambda 1240) and a few unidentified features. The metal absorption lines and HEII (lambda 1640) have equivalent widths of a few angstroms. IUE/optical energy distributions are considered. Tentative identifications of CIV absorptions and possibly, weak OVI features in optical ultraviolet reticon spectra suggest a probable link to the subluminous Wolf-Rayet OV5 I planetary nuclei. The PG1159 DO degenerates are the hottest known (Te 100,000K), high gravity (log g 7 ) objects.

  10. Determination of Mass-Loss Rates of PG 1159 Stars from Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koesterke, Lars; Werner, Klaus

    1998-06-01

    We determine the mass-loss rates of four hot, low-gravity PG 1159 stars that are regarded as immediate descendants of Wolf-Rayet central stars of planetary nebulae (i.e., early spectral type [WCE]). The sample consists of classical hydrogen-deficient PG 1159 stars (K1-16, NGC 246, and RX J2117.1+3412) as well as one object of the very rare ``hybrid'' subtype, which also exhibits hydrogen lines (NGC 7094). The sample is complemented by the famous [WC]-PG 1159 transition object Abell 78. Our analysis is based on the O VI λλ1032, 1038 resonance line, which is the strongest wind feature in these objects. Far-UV observations were performed with the Berkeley spectrograph during the ORFEUS-SPAS II mission. One spectrum is taken from archive data of the ORFEUS-SPAS I mission, and another one was obtained with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope during the Astro-2 mission. We find mass-loss rates in the range log(Ṁ/Msolar yr-1)=-8,...,-7, as compared to the [WCE] stars that have mass-loss rates of about log(Ṁ/Msolar yr-1)=-5.5,...,-6.5. By comparing with theory, we conclude that the wind of PG 1159 stars is driven by radiation pressure. Based on the development and utilization of ORFEUS (Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometers), a collaboration of the Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Tübingen, the Space Astrophysics Group of the University of California at Berkeley, and the Landessternwarte Heidelberg.

  11. Low-mass, helium-enriched PG 1159 stars: a possible evolutionary origin and implications for their pulsational stability properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaus, L. G.; Córsico, A. H.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.

    2007-06-01

    Aims: We examine a recently-proposed evolutionary scenario that could explain the existence of the low-mass, helium-enriched PG 1159 stars. We focus in particular on studying the pulsational stability properties of the evolutionary models predicted by such a scenario. Methods: We assess the overstability of pulsation g-modes of stellar models as evolution proceeds in the PG 1159 domain. Stellar models are extracted from the full evolution of a 1-M⊙ model star that experiences its first thermal pulse as a late thermal pulse (LTP) after leaving the AGB. The evolutionary stages corresponding to the born-again episode and the subsequent helium sub-flashes are taken into account in detail. Results: Under reasonable assumptions of mass-loss rate, the evolutionary scenario reproduces the high helium abundances observed in some PG 1159 stars. We find that, despite the high helium abundance in the driving layers, a narrow region exists in the log T_eff-log~g diagram for which the helium-enriched PG 1159 sequence exhibits unstable pulsation modes with periods in the range 500 to 1600 s. In particular, the nonpulsating helium-enriched PG 1159 star, MCT 0130-1937, is located outside the theoretical instability domain. Our results suggest that MCT 0130-1937 is a real non-pulsating star and that the lack of pulsations should not be attributed to unfavorable geometry. Conclusions: Our study hints at a consistent picture between the evolutionary scenario that could explain the existence of helium-enriched PG 1159 stars and the nonvariable nature of MCT 0130-1937. We also present theoretical support for the unusually high helium abundance observed in the nonpulsating PG 1159 star HS 1517+7403. We suggest that HS 1517+7403 could be a transition object linking the low-mass helium-rich O(He) stars with the helium-enriched PG 1159 stars via the evolutionary connection K1-27 → HS 1517+7403 → MCT 0130-1937.

  12. A Search for Hot Pulsators Similar to PG1159-035 and the Central Star of K1-16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, H. E.; Grauer, A. D.; Liebert, J.; Fleming, T.; Green, R. F.

    The variations of PG 1159-035 (GW Vir) were discovered by McGraw et al. (1979). This object is the prototype of a new class of pulsating stars located in an instability strip at the left-hand edge of the HR diagram. PG 1159-035 and the spectroscopically similar objects PG 1707+427 and PG 2131+066 (Bond et al. 1984) display complex non-radial modes with periodicities of order 10 minutes. Grauer and Bond (1984) recently discovered that the central star of the planetary nebula Kohoutek 1-16 also exhibits similar pulsation properties, with dominant periodicities of 25 - 28 minutes.

  13. Trace Metals in PG1159 Stars and the First Identification of Metal Line Forbidden Components in Astrophysical Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.; Hoyer, D.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.; Quinet, P.

    2017-03-01

    We report on results of our spectroscopic analysis of five PG1159 stars. The measured abundances of trace elements are in agreement with the intershell composition of Asymptotic Giant Branch stellar models. We also report on our discovery of forbidden components of C IV lines. This is the first detection of forbidden components from elements heavier than helium in astrophysical sources.

  14. Asteroseismology of the DOV star PG 1159 - 035 with the Whole Earth Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, D. E.; Nather, R. E.; Clemens, J. C.; Provencal, J.; Kleinman, S. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Wood, M. A.; Claver, C. F.; Frueh, M. L.; Grauer, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from 264.1 hr of nearly continuous time-series photometry on the pulsating prewhite dwarf star (DPV) PG 1159 - 035. The power spectrum of the data set is completely resolved into 125 individual frequencies; 101 of them are identified with specific quantized pulsation modes, and the rest are completely consistent with such modal assignment. It is argued that the luminosity variations are certainly the result of g-mode pulsations. Although the amplitudes of some of the peaks exhibit significant variations on the time scales of a year or so, the underlying frequency structure of the pulsations is stable over much longer intervals. The existing linear theory is invoked to determine, or strongly constrain, many of the fundamental physical parameters describing this star. Its mass is found to be 0.586 solar mass, is rotation period 1.38 days, its magnetic field less than 6000 G, its pulsation and rotation axes to be aligned, and its outer layers to be compositionally stratified.

  15. The far-ultraviolet spectra of two hot PG 1159 stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.

    2016-09-01

    PG 1159 stars are hot, hydrogen-deficient (pre-) white dwarfs with atmospheres mainly composed of helium, carbon, and oxygen. The unusual surface chemistry is the result of a late helium-shell flash. Observed element abundances enable us to test stellar evolution models quantitatively with respect to their nucleosynthesis products formed near the helium-burning shell of the progenitor asymptotic giant branch stars. Because of the high effective temperatures (Teff), abundance determinations require ultraviolet spectroscopy and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmosphere analyses. Up to now, we have presented results for the prototype of this spectral class and two cooler members (Teff in the range 85 000-140 000 K). Here we report on the results for two even hotter stars (PG 1520+525 and PG 1144+005, both with Teff = 150 000 K) which are the only two objects in this temperature-gravity region for which useful far-ultraviolet spectra are available, and revisit the prototype star. Previous results on the abundances of some species are confirmed, while results on others (Si, P, S) are revised. In particular, a solar abundance of sulphur is measured in contrast to earlier claims of a strong S deficiency that contradicted stellar evolution models. For the first time, we assess the abundances of Na, Al, and Cl with newly constructed non-LTE model atoms. Besides the main constituents (He, C, O), we determine the abundances (or upper limits) of N, F, Ne, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, and Fe. Generally, good agreement with stellar models is found.

  16. The Far-Ultraviolet Spectra of Two Hot PG1159 Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    PG 1159 stars are hot, hydrogen-deficient (pre-) white dwarfs with atmospheres mainly composed of helium, carbon, and oxygen. The unusual surface chemistry is the result of a late helium-shell flash. Observed element abundances enable us to test stellar evolution models quantitatively with respect to their nucleosynthesis products formed near the helium-burning shell of the progenitor asymptotic giant branch stars. Because of the high effective temperatures (T(sub eff)), abundance determinations require ultraviolet spectroscopy and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmosphere analyses. Up to now, we have presented results for the prototype of this spectral class and two cooler members (T(sub eff) in the range 85,000-140,000 K). Here we report on the results for two even hotter stars (PG 1520+525 and PG 1144+005, both with T(sub eff) = 150,000 K) which are the only two objects in this temperature-gravity region for which useful far-ultraviolet spectra are available, and revisit the prototype star. Previous results on the abundances of some species are confirmed, while results on others (Si, P, S) are revised. In particular, a solar abundance of sulphur is measured in contrast to earlier claims of a strong S deficiency that contradicted stellar evolution models. For the first time, we assess the abundances of Na, Al, andCl with newly constructed non-LTE model atoms. Besides the main constituents (He, C, O), we determine the abundances (or upper limits) of N, F, Ne, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, and Fe. Generally, good agreement with stellar models is found.

  17. Weak metal lines in optical high-resolution Very Large Telescope and Keck spectra of "cool" PG 1159 stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.

    2014-09-01

    PG 1159 stars are very hot (effective temperatures Teff = 75 000-200 000 K), hydrogen-deficient (pre-) white dwarfs. They probably are the result of a late helium-shell flash that laid bare the He, C, and O rich intershell matter of the progenitor Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star. Their chemical surface composition thus allows to conclude on details of AGB-star nucleosynthesis. Due to their very high effective temperatures, detailed spectral analyses are usually completely reliant on ultraviolet observations, except for some species in the hottest PG 1159 stars (Teff ≳ 130 000 K), which do exhibit highly excited lines from the CNO elements and neon (C iv, N v, O vi, Ne vii-viii) in optical spectra. Particularly problematic are, however, the coolest members of the PG 1159 class that exclusively show C iv lines in the optical. Access to the nitrogen abundance is important to decide which of the late-thermal pulse evolutionary scenarios was experienced by a particular star, while a high oxygen abundance is an important marker that the star could pulsate. In the present paper, we investigate high-resolution high signal-to-noise optical spectra of three "cool" PG 1159 stars (PG 0122+200, PG 2131+066, MCT 0130-1937, Teff = 80 000-95 000 K). With the help of non-LTE model atmospheres and synthetic spectra, we are able to identify a large number of weak CNO lines (C iii, N iv, O iii-v) that were not detected before in these stars. They allow abundance determinations and enable us to constrain the effective temperature to high precision through ionization equilibria without the requirement to access the ultraviolet spectral range.

  18. The high-resolution spectrum of the pulsating, pre-white dwarf star PG 1159-035 (GW VIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, James; Wesemael, F.; Husfeld, D.; Wehrse, R.; Starrfield, S. G.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution and low-resolution UV spectra and a high-resolution optical spectrum were obtained for PG 1159-035, revealing apparent photospheric absorption features with defined cores from N V 1240 A, N IV 1270 A, O V 1371 A, and C IV 1550 A. The photospheric velocity derived using all of these lines except for C IV is about +35 km/s. Equivalent-width measurements determined for all of the features may provide a tighter constraint on the photospheric temperature in a detailed model atmosphere analysis treating the CNO ions.

  19. Discovery of oxygen in the PG 1159 degenerate stars - A direct evolutionary link to O VI planetary nebula nuclei and confirmation of pulsation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sion, E. M.; Liebert, J.; Starrfield, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery of strong O VI absorption/emission lines in five members of the PG 1159 degenerate stars is reported. It is shown that the optical spectra are dominated by C IV, O VI, and He II, with no detectable N lines. It is confirmed that the planetary nebula-central star, K1-16, which is found to be a pulsating star by Grauer and Bond (1984), is a member of the spectroscopic group. The detection of strong oxygen features in the photospheres of the objects provides support of the prediction of Starrfield et al. (1984). The properties of the PG 1159 stars are compared with the so-called O VI central stars of planetary nebulae and both groups of stars are found to have similar spectral features, temperatures, and luminosities. The implications of the O VI/PG 1159 evolutionary link are assessed.

  20. Discovery of oxygen in the PG 1159 degenerate stars - A direct evolutionary link to O VI planetary nebula nuclei and confirmation of pulsation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sion, E. M.; Liebert, J.; Starrfield, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery of strong O VI absorption/emission lines in five members of the PG 1159 degenerate stars is reported. It is shown that the optical spectra are dominated by C IV, O VI, and He II, with no detectable N lines. It is confirmed that the planetary nebula-central star, K1-16, which is found to be a pulsating star by Grauer and Bond (1984), is a member of the spectroscopic group. The detection of strong oxygen features in the photospheres of the objects provides support of the prediction of Starrfield et al. (1984). The properties of the PG 1159 stars are compared with the so-called O VI central stars of planetary nebulae and both groups of stars are found to have similar spectral features, temperatures, and luminosities. The implications of the O VI/PG 1159 evolutionary link are assessed.

  1. Discovery of oxygen in the PG 1159 degenerate stars - A direct evolutionary link to O VI planetary nebula nuclei and confirmation of pulsation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sion, E. M.; Liebert, J.; Starrfield, S. G.

    1985-05-01

    The discovery of strong O VI absorption/emission lines in five members of the PG 1159 degenerate stars is reported. It is shown that the optical spectra are dominated by C IV, O VI, and He II, with no detectable N lines. It is confirmed that the planetary nebula-central star, K1-16, which is found to be a pulsating star by Grauer and Bond (1984), is a member of the spectroscopic group. The detection of strong oxygen features in the photospheres of the objects provides support of the prediction of Starrfield et al. (1984). The properties of the PG 1159 stars are compared with the so-called O VI central stars of planetary nebulae and both groups of stars are found to have similar spectral features, temperatures, and luminosities. The implications of the O VI/PG 1159 evolutionary link are assessed.

  2. The photometric behaviour of the peculiar PG 1159 star HS 2324+3944 at high frequency resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvotti, R.; Dreizler, S.; Handler, G.; Jiang, X. J.

    1999-02-01

    We present the results from 135 hours of nearly continuous time series photometry on the ``hybrid'' (H-rich) PG 1159 variable star HS 2324+3944, obtained in August-September 1997. The power spectrum of the data shows several frequencies (about 20 or more), concentrated in three narrow and very crowded regions near 475, 390 and 950 mu Hz in decreasing amplitude order. Most (if not all) of the peaks in the latter region are linear combinations of the high-amplitude frequencies between 455 and 500 mu Hz. If we divide the data set into two equal parts, the power spectra are different. This is probably due to a not sufficiently long (and therefore not completely resolved) light curve; nevertheless an alternative hypothesis of a single damped oscillator may not be completely ruled out. If we adopt the first hypothesis, the high concentration of peaks between 455 and 500 mu Hz suggests the presence of both l=1 and l=2 high-overtone nonradial g-modes. The insufficient frequency resolution of our data does not allow to obtain definite precision asteroseismology results. Nevertheless a spacing of the signals is observed, probably due to stellar rotation with a period of 2.3 days. If the signal spacing was due to the successive overtones, the period spacings would be equal to 18.8 (l=1) and 10.4 (l=2) s. Based on observations obtained at the McDonald, Loiano and Beijing Observatories and at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.

  3. Enanas blancas post-AGB deficientes en Hidrógeno: su evolución espectral PG1159-DB-DQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Córsico, A. H.; Serenelli, A. M.; Scóccola, C. G.; García-Berro, E.

    This work explore the formation and evolution of hydrogen-deficient post-AGB white dwarfs. To this end, we compute the complete evolution of an initially 2.7 M sun star from the ZAMS through the thermally pulsing and mass-loss phases to the white dwarf stage. Particular attention is given to the chemical abundance changes during the whole evolution. The evolution is extended to the domain of the helium-rich, carbon-contaminated DQ white dwarfs to exploring the possible evolutionary connection PG1159-DB-DQ.

  4. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  5. ON THE POSSIBLE EXISTENCE OF SHORT-PERIOD g-MODE INSTABILITIES POWERED BY NUCLEAR-BURNING SHELLS IN POST-ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH H-DEFICIENT (PG1159-TYPE) STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Corsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Kepler, S. O. E-mail: althaus@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar E-mail: jgperez@iac.es

    2009-08-20

    We present a pulsational stability analysis of hot post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) H-deficient pre-white dwarf stars with active He-burning shells. The stellar models employed are state-of-the-art equilibrium structures representative of PG1159 stars derived from the complete evolution of the progenitor stars, through the thermally pulsing AGB phase and born-again episode. On the basis of fully nonadiabatic pulsation computations, we confirmed theoretical evidence for the existence of a separate PG1159 instability strip in the log T {sub eff}-log g diagram characterized by short-period g-modes excited by the {epsilon}-mechanism. This instability strip partially overlaps the already known GW Vir instability strip of intermediate/long-period g-modes destabilized by the classical {kappa}-mechanism acting on the partial ionization of C and/or O in the envelope of PG1159 stars. We found that PG1159 stars characterized by thick He-rich envelopes and located inside this overlapping region could exhibit both short and intermediate/long periods simultaneously. As a natural application of our results, we study the particular case of VV 47, a pulsating planetary nebula nucleus (PG1159 type) that is particularly interesting because it has been reported to exhibit a rich and complex pulsation spectrum including a series of unusually short pulsation periods. We found that the long periods exhibited by VV 47 can be readily explained by the classical {kappa}-mechanism, while the observed short-period branch below {approx}300 s could correspond to modes triggered by the He-burning shell through the {epsilon}-mechanism, although more observational work is needed to confirm the reality of these short-period modes. Were the existence of short-period g-modes in this star convincingly confirmed by future observations, VV 47 could be the first known pulsating star in which both the {kappa}-mechanism and the {epsilon}-mechanism of mode driving are simultaneously operating.

  6. Commission 42: Close Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, Ignasi; Richards, Mercedes T.; Rucinski, Slavek; Bradstreet, David H.; Harmanec, Petr; Kaluzny, Janusz; Mikolajewska, Joanna; Munari, Ulisse; Niarchos, Panagiotis; Olah, Katalin; Pribulla, Theodor; Scarfe, Colin D.; Torres, Guillermo

    2012-04-01

    The present report covers the main developments in the field of close binaries during the triennium 2009-2012. In addition to scientific publications, there have been several opportunities for direct interaction of researchers working on close binaries. A number of meetings focused on more or less specific topics have taken place during this past years but the highlight for Commission 42 is arguably IAU Symposium 282 held in 2011 in Slovakia. The meeting exploited a strong connection in the methodology and tools used by close binary studies and the rapidly advancing field of exoplanet research. After all, exoplanetary systems are mostly discovered and studied using techniques employed by analyses of close binaries for decades. Modelling of exoplanet radial velocity curves and transiting planet light curves are just particular cases of single-lined and eclipsing binary systems, respectively, with very unequal component properties. As shown by IAU Symposium 282, the synergies between the two fields are strong and potentially very useful. Found below is a summary of the main scientific topics and conclusions from this very successful Symposium.

  7. Close supermassive binary black holes.

    PubMed

    Gaskell, C Martin

    2010-01-07

    It has been proposed that when the peaks of the broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are significantly blueshifted or redshifted from the systemic velocity of the host galaxy, this could be a consequence of orbital motion of a supermassive black-hole binary (SMBB). The AGN J1536+0441 ( = SDSS J153636.22+044127.0) has recently been proposed as an example of this phenomenon. It is proposed here instead that J1536+0441 is an example of line emission from a disk. If this is correct, the lack of clear optical spectral evidence for close SMBBs is significant, and argues either that the merging of close SMBBs is much faster than has generally been hitherto thought, or if the approach is slow, that when the separation of the binary is comparable to the size of the torus and broad-line region, the feeding of the black holes is disrupted.

  8. Close Binaries, Triples, and Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanborn, Jason; Zavala, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Observations of the variable radio source b Per (HR1324) are part of an ongoing survey of close binary systems using the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer. Historical observations of b Per include sparse photometric and spectroscopic observations dating back to 1923, clearly showing this object to be a non-eclipsing, single-lined ellipsoidal variable. This is where the story for b Per stopped until recent inclusion of optical interferometric data which led to the detection of a third, long-period component. As the interferometric observations continue to build up so to is the understanding of this binary system, with the modeled orbital parameters pointing to an edge-on orientation that may allow for the detection of an eclipse by the long-period component. These types of eclipse events are quite rare for long-period binaries due to the nearly edge-on orientation required for their detection, leaving open the opportunity for more traditional methods of observation to add to the body of knowledge concerning this understudied system. Here we present the latest observational data of the b Per system along with an introduction to the best fit orbital parameters governing the eclipsing nature of this complex triple-system.

  9. Close binary neutron star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marronetti, Pedro

    1999-12-01

    We present a method to calculate solutions to the initial value problem in (3 + 1) general relativity corresponding to binary neutron-star systems (BNS) in irrotational quasi-equilibrium orbits. The initial value equations are solved using a conformally flat spatial metric tensor. The stellar fluid dynamics corresponds to that of systems with zero vorticity in the inertial reference frame. Irrotational systems like the ones analyzed in the present work are likely to resemble the final stages of the evolution of neutron-star binaries, thus providing insights on the inspiral process. The fluid velocity is derived from the gradient of a scalar potential. A numerical program was developed to solve the elliptic equations for the metric fields and the fluid velocity potential. We discuss the different numerical techniques employed to achieve high resolution across the stellar volume, as well as the methods used to find solutions to the Poisson-like equations with their corresponding boundary conditions. We present sequences of quasi-stable circular orbits which conserve baryonic mass. These sequences mimic the time evolution of the inspiral and are obtained without solving the complex evolution equations. They also provide sets of initial value data for future time evolution codes, which should be valid very close to the final merger. We evaluate the emission of gravitational radiation during the evolution through multipole expansions methods.

  10. Measuring Close Binary Stars with Speckle Interferometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Measuring Close Binary Stars with Speckle Interferometry Keith T. Knox Air Force Research Laboratory ABSTRACT Speckle interferometry...Labeyrie, 1970) is a well-tested and still used method for detecting and measuring binary stars that are closer together than the width of the...orientation of the binary star system (Horch, 1996, Tokovinin, 2010). In this talk, a method for analyzing the fringes in the power spectrum will be

  11. Classification of close binary systems by Svechnikov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dryomova, G. N.

    The paper presents the historical overview of classification schemes of eclipsing variable stars with the foreground of advantages of the classification scheme by Svechnikov being widely appreciated for Close Binary Systems due to simplicity of classification criteria and brevity.

  12. Mass flow in close binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Mccluskey, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    The manner of mass flow in close binary systems is examined with a special view to the role of the so-called critical Roche (or Jacobian) lobe, taking into consideration relevant physical conditions such as radiation pressure that may affect the restricted three-body problem treatment. The mass does not necessarily flow from component one to component two through the L1 point to form a gaseous ring surrounding the latter. These considerations are applied to X-ray binaries with early-type optical components, such as Cyg X-1 (HDE 226868) and 3U 1700 - 37 (HD 153919). In the two bright close binary systems Beta Lyr and UW CMa, which are believed to be undergoing dynamic mass transfer, recent Copernicus observations show that the gas giving rise to the prominent ultraviolet emission lines surrounds the entire binary system rather than merely component two. Implications of these observations are also discussed.

  13. Tidal evolution in close binary systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopal, Z.

    1972-01-01

    Mathematical outline of the theory of tidal evolution in close binary systems of secularly constant total momentum. Following a general outline of the problem the basic expressions for the energy and momenta of close binaries consisting of components of arbitrary internal structure are established, and the maximum and minimum values of the energy (kinetic and potential) which such systems can attain for a given amount of total momentum are investigated. These results are compared with the actual facts encountered in binaries with components whose internal structure (and, therefore, rotational momenta) are known from evidence furnished by the observed rates of apsidal advance. The results show that all such systems whether of detached or semidetached type - disclose that more than 99% of their total momenta are stored in the orbital momentum. The sum of the rotational momenta of the constituent components amounts to less than 1% of the total -a situation characteristic of a state close to the minimum energy for given total momentum.

  14. Terrestrial Planet Formation Around Close Binary Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Quintana, Elisa V.

    2003-01-01

    Most stars reside in multiple star systems; however, virtually all models of planetary growth have assumed an isolated single star. Numerical simulations of the collapse of molecular cloud cores to form binary stars suggest that disks will form within such systems. Observations indirectly suggest disk material around one or both components within young binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such circumstellar disks, they can remain in stable orbits within the binary star systems for eons. We are simulating the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets around close binary stars, using a new, ultrafast, symplectic integrator that we have developed for this purpose. The sum of the masses of the two stars is one solar mass, and the initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet growth within our Solar System and in the Alpha Centauri wide binary star system. Giant planets &are included in the simulations, as they are in most simulations of the late stages of terrestrial planet accumulation in our Solar System. When the stars travel on a circular orbit with semimajor axis of up to 0.1 AU about their mutual center of mass, the planetary embryos grow into a system of terrestrial planets that is statistically identical to those formed about single stars, but a larger semimajor axis and/or a significantly eccentric binary orbit can lead to significantly more dynamically hot terrestrial planet systems.

  15. Terrestrial Planet Formation Around Close Binary Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Quintana, Elisa V.

    2003-01-01

    Most stars reside in multiple star systems; however, virtually all models of planetary growth have assumed an isolated single star. Numerical simulations of the collapse of molecular cloud cores to form binary stars suggest that disks will form within such systems. Observations indirectly suggest disk material around one or both components within young binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such circumstellar disks, they can remain in stable orbits within the binary star systems for eons. We are simulating the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets around close binary stars, using a new, ultrafast, symplectic integrator that we have developed for this purpose. The sum of the masses of the two stars is one solar mass, and the initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet growth within our Solar System and in the Alpha Centauri wide binary star system. Giant planets &are included in the simulations, as they are in most simulations of the late stages of terrestrial planet accumulation in our Solar System. When the stars travel on a circular orbit with semimajor axis of up to 0.1 AU about their mutual center of mass, the planetary embryos grow into a system of terrestrial planets that is statistically identical to those formed about single stars, but a larger semimajor axis and/or a significantly eccentric binary orbit can lead to significantly more dynamically hot terrestrial planet systems.

  16. Terrestrial planet formation surrounding close binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, Elisa V.; Lissauer, Jack J.

    2006-11-01

    Most stars reside in binary/multiple star systems; however, previous models of planet formation have studied growth of bodies orbiting an isolated single star. Disk material has been observed around both components of some young close binary star systems. Additionally, it has been shown that if planets form at the right places within such disks, they can remain dynamically stable for very long times. Herein, we numerically simulate the late stages of terrestrial planet growth in circumbinary disks around 'close' binary star systems with stellar separations 0.05 AU⩽a⩽0.4 AU and binary eccentricities 0⩽e⩽0.8. In each simulation, the sum of the masses of the two stars is 1 M, and giant planets are included. The initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet formation within our Solar System by Chambers [Chambers, J.E., 2001. Icarus 152, 205-224], and around each individual component of the α Centauri AB binary star system by Quintana et al. [Quintana, E.V., Lissauer, J.J., Chambers, J.E., Duncan, M.J., 2002. Astrophys. J. 576, 982-996]. Multiple simulations are performed for each binary star system under study, and our results are statistically compared to a set of planet formation simulations in the Sun-Jupiter-Saturn system that begin with essentially the same initial disk of protoplanets. The planetary systems formed around binaries with apastron distances Q≡a(1+e)≲0.2 AU are very similar to those around single stars, whereas those with larger maximum separations tend to be sparcer, with fewer planets, especially interior to 1 AU. We also provide formulae that can be used to scale results of planetary accretion simulations to various systems with different total stellar mass, disk sizes, and planetesimal masses and densities.

  17. Division G Commission 42: Close Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Pribulla, Theodor; Ribas, Ignasi; Bradstreet, David H.; Dreschsel, Horst; Maceroni, Carla; Mikolajewska, Joanna; Munari, Ulisse; Prsa, Andrej; Scharfe, Colin; Southworth, John; Trimble, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    Commission 42 began life as Photometric Double Stars in 1948 at the 7th General Assembly in Zurich, under the presidency of Zdenek Kopal. As early as 1961, then General Secretary Lukas Plaut recommended a merger between C42 and C26, Double Stars, one of the original 32 commissions going back to 1919-22 (first president Aitken, assistant director at Lick). C42 became Close Binary Stars in 1970, at the 14th GA in Brighton (the first one I attended). Table 1 shows the presidents of C42, and vice presidents, from when the office started, through the history of the Commission.

  18. Winds of Massive, Main Sequence Close Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, R. H.; Pachoulakis, I.; Pfeiffer, R. J.; Stickland, D. J.

    1996-12-01

    We have undertaken a systematic study of the geometry, structure, and interactions of the stellar winds of massive, close binaries as evidenced by the N V, Si IV and C IV UV resonance lines in IUE spectra. Only binaries for which wind-contaminated light curves indicate conspicuous flows are analyzed. This contribution summarizes our results for HD 159176, Y Cyg, and CW Cep that have emerged from a two-step analysis: (a) A modified version of the SEI code is employed to calculate steady-state, composite-wind model line profiles for observed wind lines. The (modeled - observed) wind-line residuals contain evidence for photospheric and wind eclipses and for wind interactions. (b) These residuals are subsequently modeled by a binary wind interaction code for the purposes of disentangling the contributions from the individual interactions and for searching for colliding wind shock fronts. Iteration between these two steps ensures compatibility of the two parameter sets. As a result, the parameters describing the individual winds, density enhancements, and shocks are determined consistently.

  19. Evolution of close binary systems: Observational aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Detached close binary systems define the main sequence band satisfactorily, but very little is known about the masses of giants and supergiants. High dispersion international ultraviolet explorer satellite observations promise an improvement, since blue companions are now frequently found to late type supergiants. Mu Sagittaril and in particular Xi Aurigae are discussed in more detail. The barium star abundance anomaly appears to be due to mass transfer in interacting systems. The symbiotic stars are another type of binary systems containing late type giants; several possible models for the hotter star and for the type of interaction are discussed. The W Serpentis stars appear to be Algols in the rapid phase of mass transfer, but a possible link relating them to the symbiotics is also indicated. Evidence of hot circumstellar plasmas has now been found in several ordinary Algols; there may exist a smooth transition between very quiescent Algols and the W Serpentis stars. Beta Lyrae is discussed in the light of new spectrophotometric results.

  20. The Formation of Contact and Very Close Binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kisseleva-Eggleton, L; Eggleton, P P

    2007-08-10

    We explore the possibility that all close binaries, i.e. those with periods {approx}< 3 d, including contact (W UMa) binaries, are produced from initially wider binaries (periods of say 10's of days) by the action of a triple companion through the medium of Kozai Cycles with Tidal Friction (KCTF).

  1. NONLINEAR TIDES IN CLOSE BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Nevin N.; Arras, Phil; Quataert, Eliot; Burkart, Josh

    2012-06-01

    We study the excitation and damping of tides in close binary systems, accounting for the leading-order nonlinear corrections to linear tidal theory. These nonlinear corrections include two distinct physical effects: three-mode nonlinear interactions, i.e., the redistribution of energy among stellar modes of oscillation, and nonlinear excitation of stellar normal modes by the time-varying gravitational potential of the companion. This paper, the first in a series, presents the formalism for studying nonlinear tides and studies the nonlinear stability of the linear tidal flow. Although the formalism we present is applicable to binaries containing stars, planets, and/or compact objects, we focus on non-rotating solar-type stars with stellar or planetary companions. Our primary results include the following: (1) The linear tidal solution almost universally used in studies of binary evolution is unstable over much of the parameter space in which it is employed. More specifically, resonantly excited internal gravity waves in solar-type stars are nonlinearly unstable to parametric resonance for companion masses M' {approx}> 10-100 M{sub Circled-Plus} at orbital periods P Almost-Equal-To 1-10 days. The nearly static 'equilibrium' tidal distortion is, however, stable to parametric resonance except for solar binaries with P {approx}< 2-5 days. (2) For companion masses larger than a few Jupiter masses, the dynamical tide causes short length scale waves to grow so rapidly that they must be treated as traveling waves, rather than standing waves. (3) We show that the global three-wave treatment of parametric instability typically used in the astrophysics literature does not yield the fastest-growing daughter modes or instability threshold in many cases. We find a form of parametric instability in which a single parent wave excites a very large number of daughter waves (N Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 3}[P/10 days] for a solar-type star) and drives them as a single coherent unit with

  2. Einstein observations of selected close binaries and shell stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinan, E. F.; Koch, R. H.; Plavec, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Several evolved close binaries and shell stars were observed with the IPC aboard the HEAO 2 Einstein Observatory. No eclipsing target was detected, and only two of the shell binaries were detected. It is argued that there is no substantial difference in L(X) for eclipsing and non-eclipsing binaries. The close binary and shell star CX Dra was detected as a moderately strong source, and the best interpretation is that the X-ray flux arises primarily from the corona of the cool member of the binary at about the level of Algol-like or RS CVn-type sources. The residual visible-band light curve of this binary has been modeled so as to conform as well as possible with this interpretation. HD 51480 was detected as a weak source. Substantial background information from IUE and ground scanner measurements are given for this binary. The positions and flux values of several accidentally detected sources are given.

  3. Equilibrium, stability, and orbital evolution of close binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Dong; Rasio, Frederic A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    1994-01-01

    We present a new analytic study of the equilibrium and stability properties of close binary systems containing polytropic components. Our method is based on the use of ellipsoidal trial functions in an energy variational principle. We consider both synchronized and nonsynchronized systems, constructing the compressible generalizations of the classical Darwin and Darwin-Riemann configurations. Our method can be applied to a wide variety of binary models where the stellar masses, radii, spins, entropies, and polytropic indices are all allowed to vary over wide ranges and independently for each component. We find that both secular and dynamical instabilities can develop before a Roche limit or contact is reached along a sequence of models with decreasing binary separation. High incompressibility always makes a given binary system more susceptible to these instabilities, but the dependence on the mass ratio is more complicated. As simple applications, we construct models of double degenerate systems and of low-mass main-sequence star binaries. We also discuss the orbital evoltuion of close binary systems under the combined influence of fluid viscosity and secular angular momentum losses from processes like gravitational radiation. We show that the existence of global fluid instabilities can have a profound effect on the terminal evolution of coalescing binaries. The validity of our analytic solutions is examined by means of detailed comparisons with the results of recent numerical fluid calculations in three dimensions.

  4. ON THE LIKELIHOOD OF PLANET FORMATION IN CLOSE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Jang-Condell, Hannah

    2015-02-01

    To date, several exoplanets have been discovered orbiting stars with close binary companions (a ≲ 30 AU). The fact that planets can form in these dynamically challenging environments implies that planet formation must be a robust process. The initial protoplanetary disks in these systems from which planets must form should be tidally truncated to radii of a few AU, which indicates that the efficiency of planet formation must be high. Here, we examine the truncation of circumstellar protoplanetary disks in close binary systems, studying how the likelihood of planet formation is affected over a range of disk parameters. If the semimajor axis of the binary is too small or its eccentricity is too high, the disk will have too little mass for planet formation to occur. However, we find that the stars in the binary systems known to have planets should have once hosted circumstellar disks that were capable of supporting planet formation despite their truncation. We present a way to characterize the feasibility of planet formation based on binary orbital parameters such as stellar mass, companion mass, eccentricity, and semimajor axis. Using this measure, we can quantify the robustness of planet formation in close binaries and better understand the overall efficiency of planet formation in general.

  5. Photometric studies of close binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varricatt, Watson P.

    2000-06-01

    Two eclipsing binary stars of the Algol type, RZ Cassiopeiae and R Canis Majoris, are observed in the near IR photometric bands J and K and the light curves are analysed using the Wilson - Devinney light curve synthesis program. Existing light curves of these systems in the optical bands are also analysed with the same program. In the case of RZ Cas, the J & K band light curves gave higher values of bolometric albedo of the secondary star, compared to what is expected theoretically. Also the near IR light curves yielded lower values of derived values of the temperature of the secondary star T2. These two factors are considered as the indication of the presence of a dark spot on the back side of the secondary star and the values of the spot parameter are derived using the model. For R CMa, T2 was found to increase towards the near IR wavelengths, from the optical bands. This is interpreted as due to the presence of localized gas in the system. Also T2 derived from the Hα light curves is found to be higher than that derived from the neighbouring bands. This is explained as due to the difference in the photospheric absorption of Hα in the photospheres of the primary and the secondary. The moments of primary minima follow the periodic O-C curve observed for R CMa, giving more faith in the presence of a third body in the system, which was proposed before. But the nature of the third body, if present, is still uncovered.

  6. Mass-transfer in close binary and their companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Zhu, Liying; Li, Linjia

    2016-07-01

    Secular and/or cyclical orbital period variations of close binaries can be derived by analyzing the (O-C) diagram. The secular variations are usually explained as mass transfer between components, while the most plausible explanation of the cyclic period changes is the light-travel time effect (LTTE) through the presence of a third body. Mass transfer and additional companions in close binary systems are important for understanding the formation and evolution of the systems. Here, UV light curves of several close binaries based on the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) observations are presented and analyzed with the Wilson-Devinney (W-D) method. Then, based on those light-curve solutions and new analysis of the orbital period variations, the multiplicity, geometrical structure and evolution state of targets are discussed.

  7. THE CLOSE BINARY FRACTION OF DWARF M STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Benjamin M.; Blake, Cullen H.; Knapp, Gillian R.

    2012-01-10

    We describe a search for close spectroscopic dwarf M star binaries using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to address the question of the rate of occurrence of multiplicity in M dwarfs. We use a template-fitting technique to measure radial velocities from 145,888 individual spectra obtained for a magnitude-limited sample of 39,543 M dwarfs. Typically, the three or four spectra observed for each star are separated in time by less than four hours, but for {approx}17% of the stars, the individual observations span more than two days. In these cases we are sensitive to large-amplitude radial velocity variations on timescales comparable to the separation between the observations. We use a control sample of objects having observations taken within a four-hour period to make an empirical estimate of the underlying radial velocity error distribution and simulate our detection efficiency for a wide range of binary star systems. We find the frequency of binaries among the dwarf M stars with a < 0.4 AU to be 3%-4%. Comparison with other samples of binary stars demonstrates that the close binary fraction, like the total binary fraction, is an increasing function of primary mass.

  8. On orbital circulation in late-type close binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassoul, Jean-Louis

    1995-05-01

    In a coeval sample of late-type binary stars, all close binaries with periods shorter than a cutoff period have circular orbits, whereas close binaries with larger periods display eccentric orbits. The observed cutoff periods are found to increase monotonically with the evolutionary age of the sample. The three theories based on the tidal-torque mechanism are quite ineffective during the main-sequence lifetime of a late-type binary, being operative during the pre-main-sequence contraction phase only. On the contrary, the observed distribution of cutoff periods with age is consistent with the hydrodynamical mechanism, since it is the only one that meets the test of absolute calibration for late-type binaries evolving on the main sequence - i.e., given plausible values for the Reynolds number in the surface layers, the theoretical circularization time does not exceed the sample age at cutoff period. However, because this mechanism may not be equally efficient during a contraction phase, it is pointed out that the tidal-torque mechanism can be responsible for orbital circularization during the pre-main-sequence phase - the hydrodynamical mechanism being fully responsible for orbital circularization during the main-sequence phase. Such a solution, which has been hitherto ignored, is quite a plausible one since the two competing mechanisms are not mutually exclusive - each one being operative for different values of the parameters.

  9. KIC 7177553: A QUADRUPLE SYSTEM OF TWO CLOSE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, H.; Borkovits, T.; Rappaport, S. A.; Ngo, H.; Mawet, D.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Forgács-Dajka, E. E-mail: borko@electra.bajaobs.hu E-mail: hngo@caltech.edu E-mail: szilard.csizmadia@dlr.de

    2016-03-01

    KIC 7177553 was observed by the Kepler satellite to be an eclipsing eccentric binary star system with an 18-day orbital period. Recently, an eclipse timing study of the Kepler binaries has revealed eclipse timing variations (ETVs) in this object with an amplitude of ∼100 s and an outer period of 529 days. The implied mass of the third body is that of a super-Jupiter, but below the mass of a brown dwarf. We therefore embarked on a radial velocity (RV) study of this binary to determine its system configuration and to check the hypothesis that it hosts a giant planet. From the RV measurements, it became immediately obvious that the same Kepler target contains another eccentric binary, this one with a 16.5-day orbital period. Direct imaging using adaptive optics reveals that the two binaries are separated by 0.″4 (∼167 AU) and have nearly the same magnitude (to within 2%). The close angular proximity of the two binaries and very similar γ velocities strongly suggest that KIC 7177553 is one of the rare SB4 systems consisting of two eccentric binaries where at least one system is eclipsing. Both systems consist of slowly rotating, nonevolved, solar-like stars of comparable masses. From the orbital separation and the small difference in γ velocity, we infer that the period of the outer orbit most likely lies in the range of 1000–3000 yr. New images taken over the next few years, as well as the high-precision astrometry of the Gaia satellite mission, will allow us to set much narrower constraints on the system geometry. Finally, we note that the observed ETVs in the Kepler data cannot be produced by the second binary. Further spectroscopic observations on a longer timescale will be required to prove the existence of the massive planet.

  10. Five-color band ultraviolet photometry of fourteen close binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Mccluskey, G. E.; Wu, C.-C.

    1981-01-01

    Photometric observations obtained with the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite in five ultraviolet wavelength regions for 14 close binaries are presented. Strong excess far-ultraviolet flux is detected in four objects. The binaries TT Hya, RX Cas, and SX Cas exhibit a pronounced excess of far-ultraviolet flux, which is thought to be the result of mass transfer phenomena in these systems. Observations of the binary R Ara show very peculair variations; its far ultraviolet flux at 1550 A brightened by 0.4 mag between phases 0.7 and 0.8, while its near ultraviolet flux at 3300 A decreased by 0.5 mag over this same half-day interval. The A0 II-III component in the system RZ Sct is seen to dominate the ultraviolet spectrum.

  11. The Missing Magnetic WDs in Detached Close Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovmassian, G.; Gonzalez-Buitrago, D.; Zharikov, S.

    2017-03-01

    A substantial fraction of isolated white dwarfs (WDs) are strongly magnetic. An even higher number of magnetic WDs are reported in cataclysmic variables (CVs). However, we have been struggling to find them in detached, close binaries. Recently, we identified a pair of such systems with K star companions. We suggest that we could not recognize them because they replicate CV behavior by fueling accretion onto the WD through the coupled magnetic fields of the WD and chromospherically active K star.

  12. Colliding stellar winds in O-type close binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gies, Douglas R.

    1991-01-01

    A study of the stellar wind properties of O-type close binary systems is presented. The main objective of this program was to search for colliding winds in four systems, AO Cas, iota Ori, Plaskett's star, and 29 UW CMa, through an examination of high dispersion UV spectra from IUE and optical spectra of the H alpha and He I lambda 6678 emission lines.

  13. Massive close binaries with early-type components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polushina, T. S.

    A brief review of the study of massive close binaries system with the hot components carried out in Kourovka astronomical observatory is presented including such systems as CC Cas, SZ Cam, UU Cas, V368 Cas, BH Cen, SV Cen, LY Aur, V701 Sco. An attempt to explain the results of observations by the presence of circumstellar matter has been made. Some estimates of the circumstellar matter parameters are obtained.

  14. A statistical study of close binary systems: testing evolutionary models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leão, I. C.; de Medeiros, J. R.

    2003-08-01

    The evolution of stars in close binary systems differs from that of their single counterparts essentially in two main aspects: (i) the rotation of each component is directly affected by tidal interactions, which determine the evolution of orbital parameters and rotations of the system, and (ii) the evolutionary tracks of the stars run in considerably different ways when the mass transfer process begins, which occurs when the primary evolves sufficiently and reaches its Roche limit. The present work brings a confrontation between observational data, including orbital parameters, rotation and age, and theoretical predictions obtained from detailed models of binary systems evolution. For this study we have selected a sample of binary systems, mostly with a F-, G- or K-type primary component, with orbital parameters and rotational velocity available in the literature. For the theoretical predictions we have used stellar evolutionary models by Claret 1998 (A&AS 131, 395) and Schaller et al. 1992 (A&AS 96, 269) combined with models of binary orbital parameters evolution by Zahn 1977 (A&A 57, 383) and Zahn 1978 (A&A 67, 162). The preliminary results point for a good agreement between the observed orbital eccentricity, orbital and rotational periods and the predicted values as a function of stellar age. In addition, we present an analysis of the relationship between Vrot/Vk (where Vrot and Vk are, respectively, the rotational and keplerian velocities) and the stellar fractional radius, to rediscuss the synchronization process between rotation and orbital motions.

  15. Evolution of Cool Close Binaries - Approach to Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stępień, K.

    2011-06-01

    As a part of a larger project, a set of 27 evolutionary models of cool close binaries was computed under the assumption that their evolution is influenced by the magnetized winds blowing from both components. Short period binaries with the initial periods of 1.5 d, 2.0 d and 2.5 d were considered. For each period three values of 1.3 Msun, 1.1 Msun and 0.9 Msun were taken as the initial masses of the more massive components. The initial masses of the less massive components were adjusted to avoid extreme mass ratios. Here the results of the computations of the first evolutionary phase are presented, which starts from the initial conditions and ends when the more massive component reaches its critical Roche lobe. In all considered cases this phase lasts for several Gyr. For binaries with the higher total mass and/or longer initial periods this time is equal to, or longer than the main sequence life time of the more massive component. For the remaining binaries it amounts to a substantial fraction of this life time. From the statistical analysis of models, the predicted period distribution of detached binaries with periods shorter than 2 d was obtained and compared to the observed distribution from the ASAS data. An excellent agreement was obtained under the assumption that the period distribution in this range is determined solely by magnetic braking (MB), i.e., the mass and angular momentum loss due to the magnetized winds, as considered in the present paper. This result indicates, in particular, that virtually all cool detached binaries with periods of a few tenths of a day, believed to be the immediate progenitors of W UMa-type stars, were formed from young detached systems with periods around 2-3 d. MB is the dominant formation mechanism of cool contact binaries. It operates on the time scale of several Gyr rendering them rather old, with age of 6-10 Gyr. The results of the present analysis will be used as input data to investigate the subsequent evolution of the

  16. Physical parameters and multiplicity of five southern close eclipsing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, T.; Kiss, L. L.; Mészáros, Sz.; Vinkó, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.

    2007-04-01

    Aims:We detected tertiary components of close binaries from spectroscopy and light curve modelling, investigated the light-travel time effect and the possibility of magnetic activity cycles, measured mass ratios for unstudied systems, and derived absolute parameters. Methods: We carried out new photometric and spectroscopic observations of five bright (< V >< 10.5 mag) close eclipsing binaries, predominantly in the southern skies. We obtained full Johnson BV light curves, which were modelled with the Wilson-Devinney code. Radial velocities were measured with the cross-correlation method using IAU radial velocity standards as spectral templates. Period changes were studied with the O-C method, utilising published epochs of minimum light (XY Leo) and ASAS photometry (VZ Lib). Results: For three objects (DX Tuc, QY Hya, V870 Ara), absolute parameters have been determined for the first time. We spectroscopically detected the tertiary components in XY Leo and VZ Lib and discovered one in QY Hya. For XY Leo we updated the light-time effect parameters and detected a secondary periodicity of about 5100 d in the O-C diagram that may hint at the existence of short-period magnetic cycles. A combination of recent photometric data shows that the orbital period of the tertiary star in VZ Lib is likely to be over 1500 d. QY Hya is a semi-detached X-ray active binary in a triple system with K and M-type components, while V870 Ara is a contact binary with the third smallest spectroscopic mass ratio for a W UMa star to date (q = 0.082 ± 0.030). Being close to the theoretical minimum for contact binaries, this small mass ratio suggests that V870 Ara has the potential of constraining evolutionary scenarios of binary mergers. The inferred distances to these systems are compatible with the Hipparcos parallaxes. Based on observations made at the Siding Spring Observatory, Australia. Light curves and radial velocity data are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp

  17. NEAs' Binaries and Planetary Close Encounters -Stability and Lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Rosana; Winter, O.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): In the present work we considered the effects of close encounters, suffered by hypothetical NEAs binaries, with Earth, Mercury and Venus, in order to determine the stability of their satellites as a function of the encounter conditions. In addition, knowing the conditions that leads to the loss (by ejection or collisions) of the most internal satellites, we are able to estimate the frequency of such encounters, and thus, determine the expected lifetime of the NEAs binaries. The methodology consisted on numerically simulate a system composed by the Sun, the planets of the Solar System, and a sample of 2100 NEAs, for a period of 10 Myr (predict NEAs' lifetime). All close encounters with the planets closer than 100 planet's radius were registered. The next step consisted on simulate a representative sample of those registered close encounters, through numerical integration, considering the planet, the asteroid that perform the close encounter, and a cloud of satellites around the asteroid. The largest radial distance for which all the satellites survive (no collision or ejection) was defined as the critical radius - Rc, given as a function of the encounter parameters (relative velocity and impact parameter). For the Earth, we found that the close encounters with impact parameter and relative velocity capable to remove the most internal satellites of the NEAs (Rc < 5 km), are very frequent. We found that 93% of the asteroids of the group Atens suffer an encounter within this limit in 10 Myrs, and that 50% of these encounters happen in approximately 330.000 years. For the Apollos we found that 60% of the asteroids suffer such encounters, and that 50% of then happen in approximately 700.000 years. Such results indicate that, in fact, the lifetime of the binaries is strongly influencied by the planetary close encounters, proving to be significantly shorter than the predicted lifetime of the NEAs. The contribution of the planets Mercury

  18. UNDERSTANDING THE EVOLUTION OF CLOSE BINARY SYSTEMS WITH RADIO PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.

    2014-05-01

    We calculate the evolution of close binary systems (CBSs) formed by a neutron star (behaving as a radio pulsar) and a normal donor star, which evolve either to a helium white dwarf (HeWD) or to ultra-short orbital period systems. We consider X-ray irradiation feedback and evaporation due to radio pulsar irradiation. We show that irradiation feedback leads to cyclic mass transfer episodes, allowing CBSs to be observed in between episodes as binary radio pulsars under conditions in which standard, non-irradiated models predict the occurrence of a low-mass X-ray binary. This behavior accounts for the existence of a family of eclipsing binary systems known as redbacks. We predict that redback companions should almost fill their Roche lobe, as observed in PSR J1723-2837. This state is also possible for systems evolving with larger orbital periods. Therefore, binary radio pulsars with companion star masses usually interpreted as larger than expected to produce HeWDs may also result in such quasi-Roche lobe overflow states, rather than hosting a carbon-oxygen WD. We found that CBSs with initial orbital periods of P{sub i} < 1 day evolve into redbacks. Some of them produce low-mass HeWDs, and a subgroup with shorter P{sub i} becomes black widows (BWs). Thus, BWs descend from redbacks, although not all redbacks evolve into BWs. There is mounting observational evidence favoring BW pulsars to be very massive (≳ 2 M {sub ☉}). As they should be redback descendants, redback pulsars should also be very massive, since most of the mass is transferred before this stage.

  19. Circumstellar material around the massive close binary DH Cephei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The expanding atmosphere of the massive close binary DH Cephei is analyzed on the basis of data from ground-based polarimetry and spaceborne UV observations obtained with the IUE satellite. The mass loss from the system is estimated to be about 2 x 10 to the -6th solar mass/yr. This material can be divided into three classes: (1) wind material, which is hot gas driven from the stars via radiation pressure and reaching terminal velocity at a distance of 5a or greater; (2) scattering material, which may be the result of colliding winds or instabilities in the wind flow; and (3) small (0.1 micron) dust grains. The latter may originate in the cold high-density boundary formed as the wind from the binary plows into the ambient interstellar medium or, alternatively, may be the residue of the formation of stellar components.

  20. Close Binary Progenitors and Ejected Companions of Thermonuclear Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, S.; Kupfer, T.; Heber, U.; Nemeth, P.; Ziegerer, E.; Irrgang, A.; Schindewolf, M.; Marsh, T. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Barlow, B. N.; Bloemen, S.

    2017-03-01

    Hot subdwarf stars (sdO/Bs) are evolved core helium-burning stars with very thin hydrogen envelopes, which can be formed by common envelope ejection. Close sdB binaries with massive white dwarf (WD) companions are potential progenitors of thermonuclear supernovae type Ia (SN Ia). We discovered such a progenitor candidate as well as a candidate for a surviving companion star, which escapes from the Galaxy. More candidates for both types of objects have been found by cross-matching known sdB stars with proper motion and light curve catalogues. We found 72 sdO/B candidates with high Galactic restframe velocities, 12 of them might be unbound to our Galaxy. Furthermore, we discovered the second-most compact sdB+WD binary known. However, due to the low mass of the WD companion, it is unlikely to be a SN Ia progenitor.

  1. CLOSE STELLAR BINARY SYSTEMS BY GRAZING ENVELOPE EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Soker, Noam

    2015-02-20

    I suggest a spiral-in process in which a stellar companion grazes the envelope of a giant star while both the orbital separation and the giant radius shrink simultaneously, forming a close binary system. The binary system might be viewed as evolving in a constant state of 'just entering a common envelope (CE) phase.' In cases where this process takes place, it can be an alternative to CE evolution where the secondary star is immersed in the giant's envelope. Grazing envelope evolution (GEE) is made possible only if the companion manages to accrete mass at a high rate and launches jets that remove the outskirts of the giant envelope, hence preventing the formation of a CE. The high accretion rate is made possible by the accretion disk launching jets which efficiently carry the excess angular momentum and energy from the accreted mass. The orbital decay itself is caused by the gravitational interaction of the secondary star with the envelope inward of its orbit, i.e., dynamical friction (gravitational tide). Mass loss through the second Lagrangian point can carry additional angular momentum and envelope mass. The GEE lasts for tens to hundreds of years. The high accretion rate, with peaks lasting from months to years, might lead to a bright object referred to as the intermediate luminosity optical transient (Red Novae; Red Transients). A bipolar nebula and/or equatorial ring are formed around the binary remnant.

  2. Observations of eight close binaries with the Einstein Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluskey, G. E., Jr.; Kondo, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Eight close binaries were observed with the Imaging Proportional Counter aboard the Einstein Observatory. The binaries R Ara, Zeta Aur, RZ Cas, 31 Cyg, Delta Lib, U Sge, RZ Sct, and RW Tau all show strong indications of active mass flow in their ground-based and/or ultraviolet spectra. The systems R Ara, RZ Cas, 31 Cyg, Delta Lib, and U Sge were detected as X-ray sources while only upper limits on the X-ray luminosities of Zeta Aur, RZ Sct, and RW Tau could be determined. Nondetection of the latter three is probably attributable to their distance. With the exception of 31 Cyg which has an X-ray luminosity of about 10 to the 32nd erg/s, the detected sources have X-ray luminosities in the range 10 to the 30th-31st erg/s. These luminosities are approximately equal to those observed for single stars of similar spectral types. It appears that the X-ray luminosity of 31 Cyg is at least 60 times higher than that of Zeta Aur.

  3. Period Studies of Close Binaries, AO Cam and AW Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chun-Hwey; Han, Won-Yong; Nha, Il-Seong

    1992-06-01

    Photoelectric observations of close binary stars, AO Cam and AW Cam, were made during the 1984 observing season with the 61cm reflector at the Sobaeksan Observatory. One time of primary minimum for AO Cam and three primary epochs for AW Cam were derived from the observation of these two system. Times of minimum light of these two binaries collected from literature were analyzed with a least square fitting method. New improved light elements for AO Cam and AW Cam were determined. The orbital period of AO Cam had been constant from October, 1980(JD 2444520) to February, 1985(JD 2446107). However, one secondary time of minimum(JD 2447864.7879) of AO Cam published recently by Mullis and Faulkner(1991) shows large deviation of about 4.6 minutes (0.d0032) from the one predicted by our new light elements. Future observations of times of minima for this system are needed to test this period change. The orbital period of AW Cam has been constant as P = 0d77134645 for about sixty years from the early 1930's to the present.

  4. Close PMS Binaries Evolution - Hints for Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez De Castro, Ana; Bisikalo, Dmitry; Sytov, Alexey; Ustamujic, Sabina

    2016-07-01

    In close PMS systems, accretion disks can either take up or release angular momentum and the details of evolution depend on the mass ratio between the two stars and on the orbit eccentricity (Artymowicz & Lubow, 1994; Bate & Bonnell, 1997; Hanawa et al., 2010, de Val Borro et al., 2011, Shi et al., 2012). Highly eccentric orbits favour the formation of spiral waves within the inner disk that do channel the flow as the accreting gas streams onto each star. In this framework, PMS binaries represent a special kind of interacting binaries where the circumbinary disk mediates in the star-star interaction as a continuous supply of angular momentum (and matter) to the system. The most general configuration consists of a circumbinary disk with inner radius about three times the semimajor axis and a variable distribution of matter within the hole. Circumstellar structures similar to disks are occasionally formed around the stars chanelling the accretion flow. The ultraviolet radiation generated by the stars and the accretion shocks can be used to map the distribution of matter in the hole and the CS environment (Gómez de Castro et al. 2016). In this contribution we describe monitoring strategies to map the variable distribution of CS matter in these systems and its extension to the study of exoplanetary systems hosting hot Jupiters.

  5. MAGNETOSPHERIC ACCRETION IN CLOSE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ardila, David R.; Jonhs-Krull, Christopher; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Quijano-Vodniza, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    The transfer of matter between a circumbinary disk and a young binary system remains poorly understood, obscuring the interpretation of accretion indicators. To explore the behavior of these indicators in multiple systems, we have performed the first systematic time-domain study of young binaries in the ultraviolet. We obtained far- and near-ultraviolet HST/COS spectra of the young spectroscopic binaries DQ Tau and UZ Tau E. Here we focus on the continuum from 2800 to 3200 Å and on the C iv doublet (λλ1548.19, 1550.77 Å) as accretion diagnostics. Each system was observed over three or four consecutive binary orbits, at phases ∼0, 0.2, 0.5, and 0.7. Those observations are complemented by ground-based U-band measurements. Contrary to model predictions, we do not detect any clear correlation between accretion luminosity and phase. Further, we do not detect any correlation between C iv flux and phase. For both stars the appearance of the C iv line is similar to that of single Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), despite the lack of stable long-lived circumstellar disks. However, unlike the case in single CTTSs, the narrow and broad components of the C iv lines are uncorrelated, and we argue that the narrow component is powered by processes other than accretion, such as flares in the stellar magnetospheres and/or enhanced activity in the upper atmosphere. We find that both stars contribute equally to the narrow component C iv flux in DQ Tau, but the primary dominates the narrow component C iv emission in UZ Tau E. The C iv broad component flux is correlated with other accretion indicators, suggesting an accretion origin. However, the line is blueshifted, which is inconsistent with its origin in an infall flow close to the star. It is possible that the complicated geometry of the region, as well as turbulence in the shock region, are responsible for the blueshifted line profiles.

  6. A Period Study of the Close Binary V508 Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albayrak, Berahitdin

    The short-period (0d.34) close binary V508 Oph was observed in 2005 and four new times of minima were derived. All of the available times of minima, including the new ones, covering 69 years were analyzed. It was shown that the period change of the system is very complex. Two possible period oscillations with periods of 24.73 and 9.91 years and amplitudes of about 0.011 and 0.002 day, respectively, were found to superimpose on upward parabolic change, indicating a secular period increase at a rate of dp/dt = 4.24 × 10-9 days yr-1. The mechanisms that could explain the period changes of the system are discussed.

  7. RADIO ASTROMETRY OF THE CLOSE ACTIVE BINARY HR 5110

    SciTech Connect

    Abbuhl, E.; Mutel, R. L.; Lynch, C.; Güedel, M.

    2015-09-20

    The close active binary HR 5110 was observed at six epochs over 26 days using a global very long baseline interferometry array at 15.4 GHz. We used phase referencing to determine the position of the radio centroid at each epoch with an uncertainty significantly smaller than the component separation. After correcting for proper motion and parallax, we find that the centroid locations of all six epochs have barycenter separations consistent with an emission source located on the KIV secondary, and not in an interaction region between the stars or on the F primary. We used a homogeneous power-law gyrosynchrotron emission model to reproduce the observed flux densities and fractional circular polarization. The resulting ranges of mean magnetic field strength and relativistic electron densities are of the order of 10 G and 10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}, respectively, in the source region.

  8. The Ruinous Influence of Close Binary Companions on Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Ireland, Michael; Mann, Andrew; Huber, Daniel; Dupuy, Trent J.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of solar-type stars are found in binary systems, and the dynamical influence of binary companions is expected to profoundly influence planetary systems. However, the difficulty of identifying planets in binary systems has left the magnitude of this effect uncertain; despite numerous theoretical hurdles to their formation and survival, at least some binary systems clearly host planets. We present high-resolution imaging of nearly 500 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) obtained using adaptive-optics imaging and nonredundant aperture-mask interferometry on the Keck II telescope. We super-resolve some binary systems to projected separations of under 5 AU, showing that planets might form in these dynamically active environments. However, the full distribution of projected separations for our planet-host sample more broadly reveals a deep paucity of binary companions at solar-system scales. When the binary population is parametrized with a semimajor axis cutoff a cut and a suppression factor inside that cutoff S bin, we find with correlated uncertainties that inside acut = 47 +59/-23 AU, the planet occurrence rate in binary systems is only Sbin = 0.34 +0.14/-0.15 times that of wider binaries or single stars. Our results demonstrate that a fifth of all solar-type stars in the Milky Way are disallowed from hosting planetary systems due to the influence of a binary companion.

  9. The Ruinous Influence of Close Binary Companions on Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Ireland, Michael; Mann, Andrew; Huber, Daniel; Dupuy, Trent J.

    2017-06-01

    The majority of solar-type stars are found in binary systems, and the dynamical influence of binary companions is expected to profoundly influence planetary systems. However, the difficulty of identifying planets in binary systems has left the magnitude of this effect uncertain; despite numerous theoretical hurdles to their formation and survival, at least some binary systems clearly host planets. We present high-resolution imaging of nearly 500 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) obtained using adaptive-optics imaging and nonredundant aperture-mask interferometry on the Keck II telescope. We super-resolve some binary systems to projected separations of under 5 AU, showing that planets might form in these dynamically active environments. However, the full distribution of projected separations for our planet-host sample more broadly reveals a deep paucity of binary companions at solar-system scales. When the binary population is parametrized with a semimajor axis cutoff a cut and a suppression factor inside that cutoff S bin, we find with correlated uncertainties that inside acut = 47 +59/-23 AU, the planet occurrence rate in binary systems is only Sbin = 0.34+0.14/-0.15 times that of wider binaries or single stars. Our results demonstrate that a fifth of all solar-type stars in the Milky Way are disallowed from hosting planetary systems due to the influence of a binary companion.

  10. Simulations of stripped core-collapse supernovae in close binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimoldi, Alex; Portegies Zwart, Simon; Rossi, Elena Maria

    2016-03-01

    We perform smoothed-particle hydrodynamical simulations of the explosion of a helium star in a close binary system, and study the effects of the explosion on the companion star as well as the effect of the presence of the companion on the supernova remnant. By simulating the mechanism of the supernova from just after core bounce until the remnant shell passes the stellar companion, we are able to separate the various phenomena leading to the final system parameters. In the final system, we measure the mass stripping and ablation from, and the additional velocity imparted to, the companion stars. Our results agree with recent work showing smaller values for these quantities compared to earlier estimates. We do find some differences, however, particularly in the velocity gained by the companion, which can be explained by the different ejecta structure that naturally results from the explosion in our simulations. These results indicate that predictions based on extrapolated Type Ia simulations should be revised. We also examine the structure of the supernova ejecta shell. The presence of the companion star produces a conical cavity in the expanding supernova remnant, and loss of material from the companion causes the supernova remnant to be more metal-rich on one side and more hydrogen-rich (from the companion material) around the cavity. Following the impact of the shell, we examine the state of the companion after being heated by the shock.

  11. Photometric Modelling of Close Binary Star CN And

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassur, D. M. Z.; Khodadadi, A.

    2006-03-01

    The results of two color photometry of active close binary CN And are presented and analyzed. The light curves of the system are obviously asymmetric, with the primary maximum brighter than the sec-ondary maximum, which is known as the O'Conell effect. The most plau-sible explanation of the asymmetry is expected to be due to spot activity of the primary component. For the determination of physical and geometrical parameters, the most new version of W--D code was used, but the presence of asymmetry prevented the convergence of the method when the whole light curves were used. The solutions were obtained by applying mode 3 of W--D code to the first half of the light curves, assuming synchronous rota-tion and zero eccentricity. Absolute parameters of the system were obtained from combining the photometric solution with spectroscopic data obtained from radial velocity curve analysis. The results indicate the poor thermal contact of the components and transit primary minimum. Finally the O--C diagram was analyzed. It was found that the orbital period of the system is changing with a rate of dP/dt =-2 2 6-10??? 10 which corresponds to mass transfer from more massive component to less massive with the rate of dM/dt ?4 82-10??? 8 M sun year.

  12. Irradiation effects in close binaries in an electron scattering medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, B. A.; Srinivasa Rao, M.

    2016-03-01

    In a close binary system, the effects of irradiation are studied from an extended surface of the secondary component on the atmosphere of the primary. Primary and the secondary components are assumed to have equal radii and the thickness of the atmosphere is assumed to be twice that of the stellar radius of the primary component. Self radiation of the primary component (Ss) is calculated through a numerical solution of line transfer equation in the comoving frame with Compton broadening due to electron scattering. The solution is developed through discrete space theory to deal with different velocities in a spherically expanding medium. The irradiation from the secondary (SI) is calculated using one dimensional rod model. It is assumed to be one, five and ten times the self radiation. The total source function (S=Ss+SI) is the sum of the source functions due to self radiation and that due to irradiation. The line fluxes are computed along the line of sight by using the above source functions. Line profiles are also computed for different line center optical depths along the line of sight of the observer at infinity.

  13. Close binaries in near and shallow contact stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.; Zejda, M.; Mikulášek, Z.

    2013-02-01

    After a detailed investigation of new observations obtained by small telescopes, we found a group of near and shallow contact binaries with decreasing period including BS Vul, MR Com, EP Cep, ES Cep and V369 Cep. BS Vul and V369 Cep are primary-filling near-contact binaries, while MR Com, EP Cep and ES Cep are shallow contact binaries. With their decrease in period, BS Vul and V369 Cep will evolve to the shallow-contact systems with higher mass ratios, just like ES Cep. The period decease of shallow contact binaries could be caused by the combined effect of the thermal relaxation oscillation (TRO) and variable angular momentum loss (AML). This produces contact binaries in oscillating circles that evolve towards the lower mass ratio direction. That means systems resemble ES Cep will evolve to those systems with lower mass ratio, such as MR Com and EP Cep.

  14. Orbit determination of close binary systems using lucky imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rica, F. M.; Barrena, R.; Vázquez, G.; Henríquez, J. A.; Hernández, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present relative positions of visual binaries observed in 2009 with the FastCam 'lucky-imaging' camera mounted on the 1.5-m Carlos Sánchez Telescope at the Observatorio del Teide. We obtained 424 CCD observations (averaged in 198 mean relative positions) of 157 binaries with angular separations in the range 0.14-15.40 arcsec, with a median separation of 0.51 arcsec. For a given system, each CCD image represents the sum of the best 10-25 per cent images from 1000-5000 short-exposure frames. Derived internal errors were 7 mas in ρ and 1?2 (9 mas) in θ. When comparing to systems with very well known orbits, we find that the rms deviation in ρ residuals is 23 mas, while the rms deviation in θ residuals is 0?73/ρ. We confirmed 18 Hipparcos binaries and we report new companions to BVD 36 A and J 621 B. For binaries with preliminary orbital parameters, the relative radial velocity was estimated as well. We also present four new revised orbits computed for LDS 873, BU 627 A-BC, BU 628 and HO 197 AB. This work discusses the first results on visual binaries using the FastCam lucky-imaging camera.

  15. Kepler eclipsing binary stars. IV. Precise eclipse times for close binaries and identification of candidate three-body systems

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Kyle E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Prša, Andrej; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-02-01

    We present a catalog of precise eclipse times and analysis of third-body signals among 1279 close binaries in the latest Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog. For these short-period binaries, Kepler's 30 minute exposure time causes significant smearing of light curves. In addition, common astrophysical phenomena such as chromospheric activity, as well as imperfections in the light curve detrending process, can create systematic artifacts that may produce fictitious signals in the eclipse timings. We present a method to measure precise eclipse times in the presence of distorted light curves, such as in contact and near-contact binaries which exhibit continuously changing light levels in and out of eclipse. We identify 236 systems for which we find a timing variation signal compatible with the presence of a third body. These are modeled for the light travel time effect and the basic properties of the third body are derived. This study complements J. A. Orosz et al. (in preparation), which focuses on eclipse timing variations of longer period binaries with flat out-of-eclipse regions. Together, these two papers provide comprehensive eclipse timings for all binaries in the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog, as an ongoing resource freely accessible online to the community.

  16. Triple interactions involving close binaries in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, S. L. W.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction of a circularized tidal binary system with a third star is studied statistically through the results of about 70,000 numerical scattering experiments. The stars involved are taken to be identical polytropes, with radii equal to one-third of the initial binary separation. The effects of nonzero stellar radii are included by calculating an approximation to the energy dissipated by tidal interactions and estimating the energy lost through physical collisions. These are then used to modify the interaction cross sections obtained in the point-mass approximation. It is found that, for a wide range of assumptions about the details of the triple interactions and the stars' structure, the net rate at which tidal binaries heat the stellar system is substantially reduced (by as much as a factor of 20) below that obtained when the binaries are treated simply as point masses. The most likely outcome of a triple encounter is the coalescence of two, or all three, of the stars involved.

  17. Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Scott R.; Christophorou, Loucas G.

    1990-01-01

    Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue of the combined physio-electric properties of the mixture components.

  18. A catalogue of potentially bright close binary gravitational wave sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbink, Ronald F.

    1985-01-01

    This is a current print-out of results of a survey, undertaken in the spring of 1985, to identify those known binary stars which might produce significant gravitational wave amplitudes at earth, either dimensionless strain amplitudes exceeding a threshold h = 10(exp -21), or energy fluxes exceeding F = 10(exp -12) erg cm(exp -2) s(exp -1). All real or putative binaries brighter than a certain limiting magnitude (calculated as a function of primary spectral type, orbital period, orbital eccentricity, and bandpass) are included. All double degenerate binaries and Wolf-Rayet binaries with known or suspected orbital periods have also been included. The catalog consists of two parts: a listing of objects in ascending order of Right Ascension (Equinox B1950), followed by an index, listing of objects by identification number according to all major stellar catalogs. The object listing is a print-out of the spreadsheets on which the catalog is currently maintained. It should be noted that the use of this spreadsheet program imposes some limitations on the display of entries. Text entries which exceed the cell size may appear in truncated form, or may run into adjacent columns. Greek characters are not available; they are represented here by the first two or three letters of their Roman names, the first letter appearing as a capital or lower-case letter according to whether the capital or lower-case Greek character is represented. Neither superscripts nor subscripts are available; they appear here in normal position and type-face. The index provides the Right Ascension and Declination of objects sorted by catalogue number.

  19. A catalogue of potentially bright close binary gravitational wave sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webbink, Ronald F.

    This is a current print-out of results of a survey, undertaken in the spring of 1985, to identify those known binary stars which might produce significant gravitational wave amplitudes at earth, either dimensionless strain amplitudes exceeding a threshold h = 10-21, or energy fluxes exceeding F = 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1. All real or putative binaries brighter than a certain limiting magnitude (calculated as a function of primary spectral type, orbital period, orbital eccentricity, and bandpass) are included. All double degenerate binaries and Wolf-Rayet binaries with known or suspected orbital periods have also been included. The catalog consists of two parts: a listing of objects in ascending order of Right Ascension (Equinox B1950), followed by an index, listing of objects by identification number according to all major stellar catalogs. The object listing is a print-out of the spreadsheets on which the catalog is currently maintained. It should be noted that the use of this spreadsheet program imposes some limitations on the display of entries. Text entries which exceed the cell size may appear in truncated form, or may run into adjacent columns. Greek characters are not available; they are represented here by the first two or three letters of their Roman names, the first letter appearing as a capital or lower-case letter according to whether the capital or lower-case Greek character is represented. Neither superscripts nor subscripts are available; they appear here in normal position and type-face. The index provides the Right Ascension and Declination of objects sorted by catalogue number.

  20. Searching Planets Around Some Selected Eclipsing Close Binary Stars Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiroglu, Ilham; Slowikowska, Agnieszka; Krzeszowski, Krzysztof; Zejmo, M. Michal; Er, Hüseyin; Goździewski, Krzysztof; Zola, Stanislaw; Koziel-Wierzbowska, Dorota; Debski, Bartholomew; Ogloza, Waldemar; Drozdz, Marek

    2016-07-01

    We present updated O-C diagrams of selected short period eclipsing binaries observed since 2009 with the T100 Telescope at the TUBITAK National Observatory (Antalya, Turkey), the T60 Telescope at the Adiyaman University Observatory (Adiyaman, Turkey), the 60cm at the Mt. Suhora Observatory of the Pedagogical University (Poland) and the 50cm Cassegrain telescope at the Fort Skala Astronomical Observatory of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland. All four telescopes are equipped with sensitive, back-illuminated CCD cameras and sets of wide band filters. One of the targets in our sample is a post-common envelope eclipsing binary NSVS 14256825. We collected more than 50 new eclipses for this system that together with the literature data gives more than 120 eclipse timings over the time span of 8.5 years. The obtained O-C diagram shows quasi-periodic variations that can be well explained by the existence of the third body on Jupiter-like orbit. We also present new results indicating a possible light time travel effect inferred from the O-C diagrams of two other binary systems: HU Aqr and V470 Cam.

  1. The formation of close binary systems by dynamical interactions and orbital decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bate, Matthew R.; Bonnell, Ian A.; Bromm, Volker

    2002-11-01

    We present results from the first hydrodynamical star formation calculation to demonstrate that close binary stellar systems (separations <~ 10 au) need not be formed directly by fragmentation. Instead, a high frequency of close binaries can be produced through a combination of dynamical interactions in unstable multiple systems and the orbital decay of initially wider binaries. Orbital decay may occur as a result of gas accretion and/or the interaction of a binary with its circumbinary disc. These three mechanisms avoid the problems associated with the fragmentation of optically thick gas to form close systems directly. They also result in a preference for close binaries to have roughly equal-mass components because dynamical exchange interactions and the accretion of gas with high specific angular momentum drive mass ratios towards unity. Furthermore, because of the importance of dynamical interactions, we find that stars with greater masses ought to have a higher frequency of close companions, and that many close binaries ought to have wide companions. These properties are in good agreement with the results of observational surveys.

  2. The Impact of Stellar Multiplicity on Planetary Systems. I. The Ruinous Influence of Close Binary Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Ireland, Michael J.; Huber, Daniel; Mann, Andrew W.; Dupuy, Trent J.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamical influence of binary companions is expected to profoundly influence planetary systems. However, the difficulty of identifying planets in binary systems has left the magnitude of this effect uncertain; despite numerous theoretical hurdles to their formation and survival, at least some binary systems clearly host planets. We present high-resolution imaging of 382 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) obtained using adaptive-optics imaging and nonredundant aperture-mask interferometry on the Keck II telescope. Among the full sample of 506 candidate binary companions to KOIs, we super-resolve some binary systems to projected separations of <5 au, showing that planets might form in these dynamically active environments. However, the full distribution of projected separations for our planet-host sample more broadly reveals a deep paucity of binary companions at solar-system scales. For a field binary population, we should have found 58 binary companions with projected separation ρ < 50 au and mass ratio q > 0.4 we instead only found 23 companions (a 4.6σ deficit), many of which must be wider pairs that are only close in projection. When the binary population is parametrized with a semimajor axis cutoff a cut and a suppression factor inside that cutoff S bin, we find with correlated uncertainties that inside {a}{cut}={47}-23+59 au, the planet occurrence rate in binary systems is only {S}{bin}={0.34}-0.15+0.14 times that of wider binaries or single stars. Our results demonstrate that a fifth of all solar-type stars in the Milky Way are disallowed from hosting planetary systems due to the influence of a binary companion.

  3. The effects of close binaries on the magnetic activity of M dwarfs as probed using close white dwarf companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    I present a study of close white dwarf (WD) and M dwarf (dM) binary systems (WD+dM) to examine the effects that close companions have on magnetic field generation in dMs. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 spectroscopic database, I constructed a sample of 1756 WD+dM high-quality pairs. I show that early-type dMs (close binary systems are more likely to be magnetically active (as measured by Hα emission) and remain active longer than field dMs. Late-type dMs (>M4), where stars become fully convective, the activity fraction and activity lifetimes of WD+dM binary systems become more comparable to those of the field dMs. The implications of having a close binary companion may include: increased stellar rotation through disk disruption, tidal effects, and/or angular momentum exchange. Thus, the similarity in activity between late-type field dMs and late-type dMs with close companions is likely due to the mechanism generating magnetic fields being less sensitive to the effects caused by a close companion; namely, increased stellar rotation. Using a subset of 181 close WD+dM pairs, matched to the time-domain SDSS Stripe 82 catalog, I show that enhanced magnetic activity extends to the flaring behavior of dMs in close binaries. Specifically, early spectral type dMs (M0-M4), in close WD+dM pairs, are two orders of magnitude more likely to flare than field dMs, whereas late-type dMs (M4-M6) in close WD+dM pairs flare as frequently or less than the late-type field dM sample. To test whether the presence of a close companion leads to star-star interactions, I searched for correlations between the WD occultations and flares from the dM member in KOI-256, an eclipsing WD+dM system. I find no correlations between the flaring activity of the dM and the WD occultations, indicating the there are no obvious signs of star-star interactions at work. In addition, the dM member of KOI-256 flares more than any other dM observed by Kepler and shows evidence

  4. Millions of Multiples: Detecting and Characterizing Close-separation Binary Systems in Synoptic Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terziev, Emil; Law, Nicholas M.; Arcavi, Iair; Baranec, Christoph; Bloom, Joshua S.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chorida, Pravin; Das, H. K.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kraus, Adam L.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Nugent, Peter; Ofek, Eran O.; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Riddle, Reed; Sullivan, Mark; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.

    2013-06-01

    The direct detection of binary systems in wide-field surveys is limited by the size of the stars' point-spread functions (PSFs). A search for elongated objects can find closer companions, but is limited by the precision to which the PSF shape can be calibrated for individual stars. Based on a technique from weak-lensing analysis, we have developed the BinaryFinder algorithm to search for close binaries by using precision measurements of PSF ellipticity across wide-field survey images. We show that the algorithm is capable of reliably detecting binary systems down to ≈1/5 of the seeing limit, and can directly measure the systems' position angles, separations, and contrast ratios. To verify the algorithm's performance we evaluated 100,000 objects in Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) wide-field-survey data for signs of binarity, and then used the Robo-AO robotic laser adaptive optics system to verify the parameters of 44 high-confidence targets. We show that BinaryFinder correctly predicts the presence of close companions with a <11% false-positive rate, measures the detected binaries' position angles within 1° to 4° (depending on signal-to-noise ratio and separation), and separations within 25%, and weakly constrains their contrast ratios. When applied to the full PTF data set, we estimate that BinaryFinder will discover and characterize ~450,000 physically associated binary systems with separations <2 arcsec and magnitudes brighter than mR = 18. New wide-field synoptic surveys with high sensitivity and sub-arcsecond angular resolution, such as LSST, will allow BinaryFinder to reliably detect millions of very faint binary systems with separations as small as 0.1 arcsec.

  5. MILLIONS OF MULTIPLES: DETECTING AND CHARACTERIZING CLOSE-SEPARATION BINARY SYSTEMS IN SYNOPTIC SKY SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Terziev, Emil; Law, Nicholas M.; Arcavi, Iair; Baranec, Christoph; Bui, Khanh; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Riddle, Reed; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chorida, Pravin; Das, H. K.; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Kraus, Adam L.; Nugent, Peter; Ofek, Eran O.; Sullivan, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The direct detection of binary systems in wide-field surveys is limited by the size of the stars' point-spread functions (PSFs). A search for elongated objects can find closer companions, but is limited by the precision to which the PSF shape can be calibrated for individual stars. Based on a technique from weak-lensing analysis, we have developed the BinaryFinder algorithm to search for close binaries by using precision measurements of PSF ellipticity across wide-field survey images. We show that the algorithm is capable of reliably detecting binary systems down to Almost-Equal-To 1/5 of the seeing limit, and can directly measure the systems' position angles, separations, and contrast ratios. To verify the algorithm's performance we evaluated 100,000 objects in Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) wide-field-survey data for signs of binarity, and then used the Robo-AO robotic laser adaptive optics system to verify the parameters of 44 high-confidence targets. We show that BinaryFinder correctly predicts the presence of close companions with a <11% false-positive rate, measures the detected binaries' position angles within 1 Degree-Sign to 4 Degree-Sign (depending on signal-to-noise ratio and separation), and separations within 25%, and weakly constrains their contrast ratios. When applied to the full PTF data set, we estimate that BinaryFinder will discover and characterize {approx}450,000 physically associated binary systems with separations <2 arcsec and magnitudes brighter than m{sub R} = 18. New wide-field synoptic surveys with high sensitivity and sub-arcsecond angular resolution, such as LSST, will allow BinaryFinder to reliably detect millions of very faint binary systems with separations as small as 0.1 arcsec.

  6. Mass Flow in the Close Binary V342 Aquilae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, C. N.; Polidan, R. S.; Welty, A.; Wade, R.; Etzel, P. B.; Bruhweiler, F. C.

    1995-12-01

    Preliminary analysis of the eclipsing binary V342 Aquilae indicates it is undergoing an extremely active phase of mass flow. Three observational datasets provide complete orbital phase coverage of the 3.39 day period across a wide band; IUE spectroscopic data, photometric uvbyRI data, and optical spectroscopy data. IUE observations made in 1991, 1993 and 1995 include 88 low resolution SWP and LWP spectra spanning from 1150 to 3200 Angstroms. The uvbyRI optical photometry data (P. Etzel) were obtained simultaneously with the 1993 IUE observations. Limited KPNO 2.1 meter telescope optical data (A. Welty) covering from 3840 to 9000 Angstroms were taken in 1994. Our UV spectra show very pronounced Fe II absorption lines arising from ground and metastable levels, indicating an extensive circumstellar shell in the system. The strength of this absorption shows both an orbital and a cycle-to-cycle variability. The eclipse spectra display very strong emission from lines such as C II at 1335 Angstroms, Si IV at 1400 Angstroms, and C IV at 1550 Angstroms, with a striking similarity to the eclipse spectra of TT Hydrae. Based upon these data, we have deduced the effective temperatures, spectral types and orbital geometry of the two stars. The UV spectra show the primary is approximately a late B star and the secondary is a late G star. We also present velocity curve results from the optical data along with the resulting mass ratio estimate. Our ongoing analysis aims to understand the unusually large rate of mass flow occuring in V342 Aquilae. P.B.E. acknowledges support under NSF grant AST-9115104.

  7. Formation of close binary black holes merging due to gravitational-wave radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutukov, A. V.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The conditions for the formation of close-binary black-hole systems merging over the Hubble time due to gravitational-wave radiation are considered in the framework of current ideas about the evolution of massive close-binary systems. The original systems whose mergers were detected by LIGO consisted of main-sequence stars with masses of 30-100 M ⊙. The preservation of the compactness of a binary black hole during the evolution of its components requires either the formation of a common envelope, probably also with a low initial abundance of metals, or the presence of a "kick"—a velocity obtained during a supernova explosion accompanied by the formation of a black hole. In principle, such a kick can explain the relatively low frequency of mergers of the components of close-binary stellar black holes, if the characteristic speed of the kick exceeds the orbital velocities of the system components during the supernova explosion. Another opportunity for the components of close-binary systems to approach each other is related to their possible motion in a dense molecular cloud.

  8. A Multi-wavelength Study of the Close M-dwarf Eclipsing Binary System BX Tri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdelwitz, V.; Czesla, S.; Robrade, J.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first detailed X-ray study of the close dMe binary system BX Tri, whose optical variation has been continously monitored in the frame of the DWARF project (Pribulla et al.(2012)). We observed BX Tri with XMM-Newton for two full orbital periods and confirm that the system is an ultra-active M-dwarf binary showing frequent flares and an X-ray luminosity close to the saturation limit. The strong magnetic activity could have influenced the angular momentum evolution of the system via magnetic braking.

  9. Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, S.R.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1988-04-27

    Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue if the combines physio-electric properties of the mixture components. 9 figs.

  10. Measurements of Close Visual Binaries with a 280 mm Reflector and the ASI 290MM Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serot, J.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the measurements of 305 visual binary stars obtained between Feb and Oct 2016 with an 11" reflector telescope and a ASI 290MM CMOS-based camera. Binaries with a secondary component up to mag 12 or as close as 0.5 arcsec could be routinely measured. Exceptionally, pairs with very faint secondary components (up to mag 13) or with separation at the theoretical diffraction limit (0.4 arcsec) have also been measured. We also point out several binaries with known orbits for which our measurement, together with the latest ones, suggest a recalculation of the orbit. Finally, we report the discovery of a yet unobserved component for the star A 303 (WDS 21555+2724).

  11. On the Evolution, Numbers, and Characteristics of Close-Binary Supersoft Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiStefano, R.; Nelson, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to perform detailed evolutionary calculations is essential to the development of a well-defined and testable binary model. Unfortunately, traditional evolutionary calculations cannot be used to follow a significant fraction of possible close-binary supersoft sources (CBSS's). It is therefore important to examine the in-put physics carefully, to be sure that all relevant and potentially important physical processes are included. In this paper we continue a line of research begun last year, and explore the role that winds are expected to play in the evolution of CBSS's. We find that at least a subset of the systems that seemed to be candidates for common envelope evolution may survive, if radiation emitted by the white dwarf drives winds from the system. We study the effects of winds on the binary evolution of CBSS's, and compute the number and characteristics of CBSS's expected to be presently active in galaxies such as our own or M31.

  12. The Optical Identification of Close White Dwarf Binaries in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha; Farmer, Alison J.; Seto, Naoki

    2004-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is expected to detect close white dwarf binaries (CWDBs) through their gravitational radiation. Around 3000 binaries will be spectrally resolved at frequencies greater than 3 mHz, and their positions on the sky will be determined to an accuracy ranging from a few tens of arcminutes to a degree or more. Because of the small binary separation, the optical light curves of >~30% of these CWDBs are expected to show eclipses, giving a unique signature for identification in follow-up studies of the LISA error boxes. While the precise optical location improves binary parameter determination with LISA data, the optical light curve captures additional physics of the binary, including the individual sizes of the stars in terms of the orbital separation. To optically identify a substantial fraction of CWDBs and thus localize them very accurately, a rapid monitoring campaign is required, capable of imaging a square degree or more in a reasonable time, at intervals of 10-100 s, to magnitudes between 20 and 25. While the detectable fraction can be up to many tens of percent of the total resolved LISA CWDBs, the exact fraction is uncertain because of unknowns related to the WD spatial distribution and potentially interesting physics, such as induced tidal heating of the WDs due to their small orbital separation.

  13. DI Hya: A Near-contact Binary with a Close-in Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, W.-P.; Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Zhou, X.; Zhao, E.-G.; Zhang, J.

    2017-03-01

    DI Hya is a short-period eclipsing binary and its classification has been discussed by several authors. New four-color light curves were obtained and have been analyzed together with the data from Manimanis & Niarchos simultaneously using the W-D method. The binary turns out to be a near-contact system where both components are filling or nearly filling their critical Roche lobes. The secondary has a temperature difference of ΔT ≃ -2800 K. The orbital period investigation has been ignored so far. All charge-coupled devices (CCD) and pe times of light minima are used for period analysis, showing that a cyclic variation with a short period of 1.46 years and a small semi-amplitude of 0.0034 days and a downward parabolic variation with a rate of \\dot{P}=-2.98(+/- 0.32)× {10}-7 {days} {{yr}}-1. The short period and small semi-amplitude cyclic variations were analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of a close-in tertiary binary with an orbital separation shorter than 1.57(±0.31) au. Orbital properties of this close-in companion should provide valuable information on the formation of this short-period binary and stellar dynamical interaction. The downward parabolic change may be caused by angular momentum loss via an enhanced stellar wind of the more evolved secondary star.

  14. Tidal Interaction among Red Giants Close Binary Systems in APOGEE Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Meng; Arras, Phil; Majewski, Steven R.; Troup, Nicholas William; Weinberg, Nevin N.

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the newly discovered close binary systems in the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-1), the tidal evolution of binaries containing a red giant branch (RGB) star with a stellar or substellar companion was investigated. The tide raised by the companion in the RGB star leads to exchange of angular momentum between the orbit and the stellar spin, causing the orbit to contract. The tidal dissipation rate is computed using turbulent viscosity acting on the equilibrium tidal flow, where careful attention is paid to the effects of reduced viscosity for close-in companions. Evolutionary models for the RGB stars, from the zero-age main sequence to the present, were acquired from the MESA code. "Standard" turbulent viscosity gives rise to such a large orbital decay that many observed systems have decay times much shorter than the RGB evolution time. Several theories for "reduced" turbulent viscosity are investigated, and reduce the number of systems with uncomfortably short decay times.

  15. Tidal evolution of close binary stars. I - Revisiting the theory of the equilibrium tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahn, J.-P.

    1989-01-01

    The theory of the equilibrium tide in stars that possess a convective envelope is reexamined critically, taking recent developments into account and treating thermal convection in the most consistent way within the mixing-length approach. The weak points are identified and discussed, in particular, the reduction of the turbulent viscosity when the tidal period becomes shorter than the convective turnover time. An improved version is derived for the secular equations governing the dynamical evolution of close binaries of such type.

  16. Three close binaries in different evolutionary stages in the old open cluster NGC 188

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.; Liu, L.; He, J. J.; Liu, N. P.; Zhao, E. G.; Zhang, J.; Wang, J. J.; Soonthornthum, B.

    2014-02-01

    NGC 188 is a good laboratory for studying the formation and evolution of W UMa type contact binaries due to its rich populations of them. We present a detailed photometric study of three short-period close binaries, EP Cep, ES Cep, and V369 Cep, in the old open cluster NGC 188 based on our two-set photometric observations. We discovered that both EP Cep and ES Cep are shallow-contact binaries with continuously decreasing periods. The difference is in their mass ratios. EP Cep has an extremely low-mass ratio, q = 0.15, while ES Cep has a relatively high-mass ratio, q = 0.69, indicating that they lie in different evolutionary stages. ES Cep is likely a newly formed contact binary via a Case A mass transfer, while EP Cep is an evolved system and may be on the oscillations caused by the combined effect of the thermal relaxation oscillation and the variable angular momentum loss. For another system, V369 Cep, we found that it is a primary-filling near-contact binary. Both the semidetached configuration and the continuous decrease in the orbital period indicate that it is undergoing a mass transfer from the primary component to the secondary one. This conclusion is in agreement with the excess luminosity seen in the light curves on the ingress of the secondary minimum produced by the impact of the mass transfer. All of the results suggest that V369 Cep is evolving into contact, and a shallow-contact high-mass ratio system similar to ES Cep will be formed. Then, it will evolve into a low-mass ratio contact binary just like EP Cep, and finally merge into a rapidly rotating single star.

  17. Orbital circularization of close binary stars on the pre-main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliullin, Kh. F.; Khaliullina, A. I.

    2011-03-01

    The numerical computations of the circularization of close binary systems at the pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stage of evolution (reported by Zahn and Bouchet in their now well-known paper) are repeated for an extended stellar mass interval of M= 0.1-2.7 M⊙, based on modern evolutionary pre-MS stellar models and on the modified Zahn theory. The new results mostly corroborate those obtained by Zahn and Bouchet in the mass interval M= 0.5-1.25 M⊙ covered by their work. To compare the theoretically expected results with observations, a catalogue is compiled of 70 eclipsing binaries with eccentric orbits and bona fide photometric elements and masses. The pre-MS lifetimes of all these systems are computed as fractions of the circularization time-scale tPMS/tcirc in terms of the Zahn theory and assuming the conservation of angular momentum L. All systems of this catalogue fill almost uniformly the entire domain of the eobs-tPMS/tcirc diagram independently of tPMS/tcirc[i.e. the (tPMS/tcirc)cr= 4 threshold does not separate circular and eccentric systems in this diagram]. This result shows that the computations of the orbital circularization at the pre-MS stage based on the concept of the conservation of L have nothing to do with the actually observed distribution of the eccentricities of close binary systems. The results obtained lead us to the following conclusions. (i) Binaries appear to cross the Hayashi phase in a more detached state than we observe them on the MS, and therefore they are unaffected by tidal circularization at this stage. (ii) Binaries must lose an appreciable fraction of their angular momentum while evolving from the Hayashi phase to the zero-age main sequence. This loss may be a result of the dynamic interaction with the parent disc and other components of the multiple system.

  18. Numerical Simulations of Close and Contact Binary Systems Having Bipolytropic Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Kundan; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Motl, Patrick M.; Marcello, Dominic; Frank, Juhan

    2017-01-01

    I present the results of the numerical simulations of the mass transfer in close and contact binary systems with both stars having a bipolytropic (composite polytropic) equation of state. The initial binary systems are obtained by a modifying Hachisu’s self-consistent field technique. Both the stars have fully resolved cores with a molecular weight jump at the core-envelope interface. The initial properties of these simulations are chosen such that they satisfy the mass-radius relation, composition and period of a late W-type contact binary system. The simulations are carried out using two different Eulerian hydrocodes, Flow-ER with a fixed cylindrical grid, and Octo-tiger with an AMR capable cartesian grid. The detailed comparison of the simulations suggests an agreement between the results obtained from the two codes at different resolutions. The set of simulations can be treated as a benchmark, enabling us to reliably simulate mass transfer and merger scenarios of binary systems involving bipolytropic components.

  19. P-type Planet–Planet Scattering: Kepler Close Binary Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yan-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    A hydrodynamical simulation shows that a circumbinary planet will migrate inward to the edge of the disk cavity. If multiple planets form in a circumbinary disk, successive migration will lead to planet–planet scattering (PPS). PPS of Kepler-like circumbinary planets is discussed in this paper. The aim of this paper is to answer how PPS affects the formation of these planets. We find that a close binary has a significant influence on the scattering process. If PPS occurs near the unstable boundary of a binary, about 10% of the systems can be completely destroyed after PPS. In more than 90% of the systems, there is only one planet left. Unlike the eccentricity distribution produced by PPS in a single star system, the surviving planets generally have low eccentricities if PPS take place near the location of the currently found circumbinary planets. In addition, the ejected planets are generally the innermost of two initial planets. The above results depend on the initial positions of the two planets. If the initial positions of the planets are moved away from the binary, the evolution tends toward statistics similar to those around single stars. In this process, the competition between the planet–planet force and the planet-binary force makes the eccentricity distribution of surviving planets diverse. These new features of P-type PPS will deepen our understanding of the formation of these circumbinary planets.

  20. Binary dislocation junction formation and strength in hexagonal close-packed crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Chi -Chin; Aubry, Sylvie; Arsenlis, Athanasios; ...

    2015-12-17

    This work examines binary dislocation interactions, junction formation and junction strengths in hexagonal close-packed (hcp ) crystals. Through a line-tension model and dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, the interaction and dissociation of different sets of binary junctions are investigated involving one dislocation on the (011¯0) prismatic plane and a second dislocation on one of the following planes: (0001) basal, (11¯00) prismatic, (11¯01) primary pyramidal, or (2¯112) secondary pyramidal. Varying pairs of Burgers vectors are chosen from among the common types the basal type < a > 1/3 < 112¯0 >, prismatic type < c > <0001>, and pyramidal type < a+cmore » > 1/3 < 112¯3¯ >. For binary interaction due to dislocation intersection, both the analytical results and DD-simulations indicate a relationship between symmetry of interaction maps and the relative magnitude of the Burgers vectors that constitute the junction. Using analytical formulae, a simple regressive model is also developed to represent the junction yield surface. The equation is treated as a degenerated super elliptical equation to quantify the aspect ratio and tilting angle. Lastly, the results provide analytical insights on binary dislocation interactions that may occur in general hcp metals.« less

  1. Binary dislocation junction formation and strength in hexagonal close-packed crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chi -Chin; Aubry, Sylvie; Arsenlis, Athanasios; Chung, Peter C.

    2015-12-17

    This work examines binary dislocation interactions, junction formation and junction strengths in hexagonal close-packed (hcp ) crystals. Through a line-tension model and dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, the interaction and dissociation of different sets of binary junctions are investigated involving one dislocation on the (011¯0) prismatic plane and a second dislocation on one of the following planes: (0001) basal, (11¯00) prismatic, (11¯01) primary pyramidal, or (2¯112) secondary pyramidal. Varying pairs of Burgers vectors are chosen from among the common types the basal type < a > 1/3 < 112¯0 >, prismatic type < c > <0001>, and pyramidal type < a+c > 1/3 < 112¯3¯ >. For binary interaction due to dislocation intersection, both the analytical results and DD-simulations indicate a relationship between symmetry of interaction maps and the relative magnitude of the Burgers vectors that constitute the junction. Using analytical formulae, a simple regressive model is also developed to represent the junction yield surface. The equation is treated as a degenerated super elliptical equation to quantify the aspect ratio and tilting angle. Lastly, the results provide analytical insights on binary dislocation interactions that may occur in general hcp metals.

  2. The Formation Process of Massive Close Spectroscopic Binaries: The Fission Hypothesis Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinnecker, H.; Ostriker, J.

    2013-06-01

    The vast majority of massive Main-Sequence stars (M>20 Mo) seem to be born in close interactive binary systems (Chini et al. 2012, Sana et al. 2012). The very process by which these systems form is still a mystery and has received little attention so far. Because the binary separation is so tight (less than 1AU), break-up of a critically rotating protostar ("fission") remains an interesting possibility. However, standard current star formation theory treats fission as unlikely (cf. Tohline 2002, ARAA). We question this view and investigate minimum energy states of compressible polytropic analogs to the well-known incompressible MacLaurin spheroids. Dynamical non-axisymmetric instability at a critical ratio of rotational to gravitational energy (cf. Ostriker and Bodenheimer 1973) during the shrinkage of an accreting, rapidly rotating, bloated, massive protostar AFTER ACCRETION DECLINES may provide the conditions for break-up into a close binary system. Time dependent hydro-dynamical simulations are required to either confirm or reject this hypothesis.

  3. Absolute Parameters of Early-Type Close Binaries in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesslinger, S.; Drechsel, H.

    2006-08-01

    A project is presented which aims at high-precision determination of absolute parameters of close early-type eclipsing binaries in the LMC. We will use multi-object spectrographs (MOS) to measure RV curves of a large number of program stars selected from the MACHO archive. Spectroscopic mass ratios will be used as input for our light curve analysis code MORO. Application of the Simplex-based algorithm FITSB2 will achieve spectrum disentangling and fitting of NLTE model (TLUSTY) atmospheres, yielding orbital and atmospheric parameters. The method was extensively tested by application to time series of synthetic binary spectra for the expected range of S/N and MOS instrumental resolution. log g and T eff were reestablished with a precision of better than 5%, radial velocity amplitudes with errors of <3%. An important by-product of our project will be the improvement of the distance modulus of the LMC, a topic which is still being intensely discussed.

  4. The Strength of Binary Junctions in Hexagonal Close-Packed Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    L , Figueiredo RB, Ungár T, Langdon TG. Mater Sci Eng A 2010;528:533. [27] Kuwano N, Tsuruda T, Kida Y, Miyake H, Hiramatsu K, Shibata T. Phys Stat...The Strength of Binary Junctions in Hexagonal Close-Packed Crystals by C.-C. Wu, P. W. Chung, S. Aubry, L . B. Munday, and A. Arsenlis...Packed Crystals C.-C. Wu Oak Ridge Affiliated Universities P. W. Chung and L . B. Munday Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL

  5. Basic physical properties of the close binary V497 Cep in the open cluster NGC 7160

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakut, K.; Tarasov, A. E.; İbanoğlu, C.; Harmanec, P.; Kalomeni, B.; Holmgren, D. E.; Božić, H.; Eenens, P.

    2003-07-01

    New light and radial-velocity curves of V497 Cep , a binary in the open cluster NGC 7160, were obtained and the linear ephemeris of the system was refined to HJD (Min I) = (2 446 299.1596 +/- 0.0064) + (1.2028287d +/- 0.0000015d ) x E. The first light and radial-velocity curve solutions allowed us to derive the basic physical properties of this astrophysically important binary. It was found that the observed light variation of V497 Cep consists of a strong ellipticity effect and a small contribution from grazing eclipses. A comparison of masses and radii of V497 Cep with theoretical evolutionary tracks indicates that both binary components are very close to the zero-age main sequence. A comparison of disentangled line profiles of the He I 6678 line with synthetic, rotationally broadened line profiles indicates that the rotation of both stars is synchronized with the orbital revolution as expected. This finding increases the credibility of our solutions. We find E(B-V)=0fm39 . The distance to the cluster NGC 7160 was found to be about 760 (+/- 100) pc which agrees well with other available estimates. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/1087

  6. Mapping the magnetospheric structure at outburst of the pre-main sequence close binary AK Sco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez De Castro, Ana

    2013-10-01

    Pre-main sequence {PMS} binaries are surrounded by circumbinary disks from which matter falls onto both components. The material dragged from the circumbinary disk flows onto each star through independent streams channelled by the variable gravitational field. The action of the bar-like potential is most prominent in high eccentricity systems made of two equal mass stars. AK Sco is a unique PMS system composed of two F5 stars that get as close as 11.3 stellar radii at periastron {e=0.47}. AK Sco is an ideal laboratory to study matter infall in binaries and its role in orbit circularization. Our team has reported recently, the discovery of an unexpected 1.3mHz ultra low frequency {ULF} oscillation in the ultraviolet light curve at periastron passage. The oscillation lasted 0.6% of the orbital period. According to our numerical simulations, the cirscumstellar structures get in contact at periastron producing an accretion outburst that triggered of the oscillation. If confirmed, this would unveil a new mechanism for angular momentum loss during pre-main sequence evolution and a new type of interacting binary. The objective of this project is to identify the source of the oscillation and the physical structure of the accretion flow before, during and after the oscillation is triggered. Since the accretion flow radiates in the ultraviolet range, this study requires an ultraviolet {UV} spectroscopic monitoring.

  7. The close binary frequency of Wolf-Rayet stars as a function of metallicity in M31 and M33

    SciTech Connect

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip E-mail: phil.massey@lowell.edu

    2014-07-01

    Massive star evolutionary models generally predict the correct ratio of WC-type and WN-type Wolf-Rayet stars at low metallicities, but underestimate the ratio at higher (solar and above) metallicities. One possible explanation for this failure is perhaps single-star models are not sufficient and Roche-lobe overflow in close binaries is necessary to produce the 'extra' WC stars at higher metallicities. However, this would require the frequency of close massive binaries to be metallicity dependent. Here we test this hypothesis by searching for close Wolf-Rayet binaries in the high metallicity environments of M31 and the center of M33 as well as in the lower metallicity environments of the middle and outer regions of M33. After identifying ∼100 Wolf-Rayet binaries based on radial velocity variations, we conclude that the close binary frequency of Wolf-Rayets is not metallicity dependent and thus other factors must be responsible for the overabundance of WC stars at high metallicities. However, our initial identifications and observations of these close binaries have already been put to good use as we are currently observing additional epochs for eventual orbit and mass determinations.

  8. A classical model for closed-loop diagrams of binary liquid mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Schnitzler, J.v.; Prausnitz, J.M. |

    1994-03-01

    A classical lattice model for closed-loop temperature-composition phase diagrams has been developed. It considers the effect of specific interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, between dissimilar components. This van Laar-type model includes a Flory-Huggins term for the excess entropy of mixing. It is applied to several liquid-liquid equilibria of nonelectrolytes, where the molecules of the two components differ in size. The model is able to represent the observed data semi-quantitatively, but in most cases it is not flexible enough to predict all parts of the closed loop quantitatively. The ability of the model to represent different binary systems is discussed. Finally, attention is given to a correction term, concerning the effect of concentration fluctuations near the upper critical solution temperature.

  9. THE DOUBLE-DEGENERATE NUCLEUS OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA TS 01: A CLOSE BINARY EVOLUTION SHOWCASE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovmassian, Gagik; Richer, Michael G.; Yungelson, Lev; Rauch, Thomas; Suleimanov, Valery; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Stasinska, Grazyna; Tomsick, John; Wilms, Joern; Morisset, Christophe; Pena, Miriam

    2010-05-01

    We present a detailed investigation of SBS 1150+599A, a close binary star hosted by the planetary nebula PN G135.9+55.9 (TS 01). The nebula, located in the Galactic halo, is the most oxygen-poor known to date and is the only one known to harbor a double degenerate core. We present XMM-Newton observations of this object, which allowed the detection of the previously invisible component of the binary core, whose existence was inferred so far only from radial velocity (RV) and photometric variations. The parameters of the binary system were deduced from a wealth of information via three independent routes using the spectral energy distribution (from the infrared to X-rays), the light and RV curves, and a detailed model atmosphere fitting of the stellar absorption features of the optical/UV component. We find that the cool component must have a mass of 0.54 {+-} 0.2 M{sub sun}, an average effective temperature, T{sub eff}, of 58,000 {+-} 3000 K, a mean radius of 0.43 {+-} 0.3 R{sub sun}, a gravity, log g = 5.0 {+-} 0.3, and that it nearly fills its Roche lobe. Its surface elemental abundances are found to be: 12 + log He/H = 10.95 {+-} 0.04 dex, 12 + log C/H = 7.20 {+-} 0.3 dex, 12 + log N/H < 6.92, and 12 + log O/H < 6.80, in overall agreement with the chemical composition of the planetary nebula. The hot component has T{sub eff} = 160-180 kK, a luminosity of about {approx}10{sup 4} L{sub sun} and a radius slightly larger than that of a white dwarf. It is probably bloated and heated as a result of intense accretion and nuclear burning on its surface in the past. The total mass of the binary system is very close to the Chandrasekhar limit. This makes TS 01 one of the best Type Ia supernova progenitor candidates. We propose two possible scenarios for the evolution of the system up to its present stage.

  10. High energy neutrino absorption and its effects on stars in close X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaisser, T. K.; Stecker, F. W.

    1986-01-01

    The physics and astrophysics of high energy neutrino production and interactions in close X-ray binary systems are studied. These studies were stimulated by recent observations of ultrahigh energy gamma-rays and possibly other ultrahigh energy particles coming from the directions of Cygnus X-3 and other binary systems and possessing the periodicity characteristics of these systems. Systems in which a compact object, such as a neutron star, is a strong source of high energy particles which, in turn, produce photons, neutronos and other secondary particles by interactions in the atmosphere of the companion star were considered. The highest energy neutrinos are absorbed deep in the companion and the associated energy deposition may be large enough to effect its structure or lead to its ultimate disruption. This neutrino heating was evaluated, starting with a detailed numerical calculation of the hadronic cascade induced in the atmosphere of the companion star. For some theoretical models, the resulting energy deposition from neutrino absorption may be so great as to disrupt the companion star over an astronomically small timescale of the order of 10,000 years. Even if the energy deposition is smaller, it may still be high enough to alter the system substantially, perhaps leading to quenching of high energy signals from the source. Given the cosmic ray luminosities required to produce the observed gamma rays from cygnus X-3 and LMX X-4, such a situation may occur in these sources.

  11. Characterization of close visual binaries from the AstraLux Large M Dwarf Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergfors, C.; Brandner, W.; Bonnefoy, M.; Schlieder, J.; Janson, M.; Henning, Th.; Chauvin, G.

    2016-03-01

    We present Very Large Telescope/Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (VLT/SINFONI) J, H + K spectra of seven close visual pairs in M dwarf binary/triple systems, discovered or observed by the AstraLux M dwarf survey. We determine the spectral types to within ±1.0 subclasses from comparison to template spectra and the strength of K-band water absorption, and derive effective temperatures. The results are compared to optical spectral types of the unresolved binary/multiple systems, and we confirm that our photometric method to derive spectral types in the AstraLux M dwarf survey is accurate. We look for signs of youth such as chromospheric activity and low surface gravity, and find an age in the range 0.25-1 Gyr for the GJ 852 system. Strong Li absorption is detected in optical spectra of the triple system J024902 obtained with the Fiberfed Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (FEROS) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO)-Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) 2.2 m telescope. The equivalent width of the absorption suggests an age consistent with the β Pic moving group. However, further observations are needed to establish group membership. Ongoing orbital monitoring will provide dynamical masses and thus calibration of evolutionary models for low mass stars.

  12. Speckle Interferometry of Four Close Binaries: First Results of the Tierra Astronomical Institute Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, Rick; Goldbaum, Jesse; Boyce, Pat; Harwell, Robert; Hillburn, Jerry; Rowe, Dave; Sadjadi, Sina; Westergren, Donald; Genet, Russell

    2017-04-01

    This paper documents first use for speckle interferometry of the Tierra Astronomical Institute’s 24-inch telescope, located at Terra Del Sol, some 60-miles east of San Diego, CA. Measurements are reported for four close binary systems - STF2173AB, D15, STF2205, and HSD2685 - observed over the weekend of July 1-3, 2016. The objectives of this engineering checkout run were to evaluate the integration of the telescope and ZWO ASI 290MM high speed CMOS camera, and to establish observational procedures for future speckle observations, including those made with advanced high school and college student researchers. Difficulties encountered in the checkout are described, along with suggestions for overcoming them in the next run.

  13. X-ray accretion signatures in the close CTTS binary V4046 Sagittarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, H. M.; Liefke, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Robrade, J.; Ness, J.-U.

    2006-11-01

    We present Chandra HETGS observations of the classical T Tauri star (CTTS) V4046 Sgr. The He-like triplets of O VII, Ni IX, and Si XIII are clearly detected. Similar to the CTTS TW Hya and BP Tau, the forbidden lines of O VII and Ne IX are weak compared to the intercombination line, indicating high plasma densities in the X-ray emitting regions. The Si XIII triplet, however, is within the low-density limit, in agreement with the predictions of the accretion funnel infall model with an additional stellar corona. V4046 Sgr is the first close binary exhibiting these features. Together with previous high-resolution X-ray data on TW Hya and BP Tau, and in contrast to T Tau, now three out of four CTTS show evidence of accretion funnels.

  14. Accuracy and effectualness of closed-form, frequency-domain waveforms for nonspinning black hole binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Damour, Thibault; Nagar, Alessandro; Trias, Miquel

    2011-01-15

    The coalescences of binary black hole systems, here taken to be nonspinning, are among the most promising sources for gravitational wave (GW) ground-based detectors, such as LIGO and Virgo. To detect the GW signals emitted by binary black holes and measure the parameters of the source, one needs to have in hand a bank of GW templates that are both effectual (for detection) and accurate (for measurement). We study the effectualness and the accuracy of the two types of parametrized banks of templates that are directly defined in the frequency domain by means of closed-form expressions, namely, 'post-Newtonian' (PN) and 'phenomenological' models. In the absence of knowledge of the (continuous family of) exact waveforms, our study assumes as fiducial, target waveforms the ones generated by the most accurate version of the effective-one-body formalism, calibrated upon a few high-accuracy numerical-relativity (NR) waveforms. We find that, for initial GW detectors the use, at each point of parameter space, of the best closed-form template (among PN and phenomenological models) leads to an effectualness >97% over the entire mass range and >99% in an important fraction of parameter space; however, when considering advanced detectors, both of the closed-form frequency-domain models fail to be effectual enough in significant domains of the two-dimensional [total mass and mass ratio] parameter space. Moreover, we find that, for both initial and advanced detectors, the two closed-form frequency-domain models fail to satisfy the minimal required accuracy standard in a very large domain of the two-dimensional parameter space. In addition, a side result of our study is the determination, as a function of the mass ratio, of the maximum frequency at which a frequency-domain PN waveform can be 'joined' onto a NR-calibrated effective-one-body waveform without undue loss of accuracy. In the case of mass ratios larger than 4 ratio 1 this maximum frequency occurs well before the last

  15. Gravitational recoil from binary black hole mergers: The close-limit approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Yunes, Nicolas; Laguna, Pablo

    2006-12-15

    The coalescence of a binary black hole system is one of the main sources of gravitational waves that present and future detectors will study. Apart from the energy and angular momentum that these waves carry, for unequal-mass binaries there is also a net flux of linear momentum that implies a recoil velocity of the resulting final black hole in the opposite direction. Due to the relevance of this phenomenon in astrophysics, in particular, for galaxy merger scenarios, there have been several attempts to estimate the magnitude of this velocity. Since the main contribution to the recoil comes from the last orbit and plunge, an approximation valid at the last stage of coalescence is well motivated for this type of calculation. In this paper, we present a computation of the recoil velocity based on the close-limit approximation scheme, which gives excellent results for head-on and grazing collisions of black holes when compared to full numerical relativistic calculations. We obtain a maximum recoil velocity of {approx}57 km/s for a symmetric mass ratio {eta}=M{sub 1}M{sub 2}/(M{sub 1}+M{sub 2}){sup 2}{approx}0.19 and an initial proper separation of 4M, where M is the total Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) mass of the system. This separation is the maximum at which the close-limit approximation is expected to provide accurate results. Therefore, it cannot account for the contributions due to inspiral and initial merger. If we supplement this estimate with post-Newtonian (PN) calculations up to the innermost stable circular orbit, we obtain a lower bound for the recoil velocity, with a maximum around 80 km/s. This is a lower bound because it neglects the initial merger phase. We can however obtain a rough estimate by using PN methods or the close-limit approximation. Since both methods are known to overestimate the amount of radiation, we obtain in this way an upper bound for the recoil with maxima in the range of 214-240 km/s. We also provide nonlinear fits to these estimated

  16. Spectroscopy of close visual binary components of the stable shell star 1 Delphini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubát, Jiří; Kubátová, Brankica; Doležalová, Barbora; Iliev, Lubomir; Šlechta, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    Stable shell stars are ideal objects for studying basic physical principles of the formation of disks in Be stars. If these stars have a close unresolved visual companion, its contribution toward the modelling of the disk cannot be overlooked, as is sometimes done. The study aims to spectroscopically resolve close visual binary Be (shell) star 1 Del, which up to now was only resolved by speckle or micrometric measurements. The integral field spectroscopy obtained by the SINFONI spectrograph at the VLT telescope in the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in the infrared region was used; we supplemented these observations with visual spectroscopy with the Perek Telescope at the Ondřejov Observatory. Spectra of 1 Del were successfully resolved, and, for the first time, spectra of 1 Del B were obtained. We found that 1 Del A is a Be/shell star, while 1 Del B is not an emission-line object. Based on observations collected with the Perek 2-m Telescope at the Ondřejov Observatory, Czech Republic and the SINFONI spectrograph at UT4-Yepun in ESO during the observing programme 093.D-0172.The reduced spectra as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A22

  17. The close binary properties of massive stars in the Milky Way and low-metallicity Magellanic Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, Maxwell; Di Stefano, Rosanne

    2013-12-01

    In order to understand the rates and properties of Type Ia and Type Ib/c supernovae, X-ray binaries, gravitational wave sources, and gamma-ray bursts as a function of galactic environment and cosmic age, it is imperative that we measure how the close binary properties of O- and B-type stars vary with metallicity. We have studied eclipsing binaries with early B main-sequence primaries in three galaxies with different metallicities: the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively) and the Milky Way (MW). The observed fractions of early B stars that exhibit deep eclipses 0.25 < Δm (mag) < 0.65 and orbital periods 2 < P (days) < 20 in the MW, LMC, and SMC span a narrow range of (0.7-1.0)%, which is a model-independent result. After correcting for geometrical selection effects and incompleteness toward low-mass companions, we find for early B stars in all three environments (1) a close binary fraction of (22 ± 5)% across orbital periods 2 < P (days) < 20 and mass ratios q = M {sub 2}/M {sub 1} > 0.1, (2) an intrinsic orbital period distribution slightly skewed toward shorter periods relative to a distribution that is uniform in log P, (3) a mass-ratio distribution weighted toward low-mass companions, and (4) a small, nearly negligible excess fraction of twins with q > 0.9. Our fitted parameters derived for the MW eclipsing binaries match the properties inferred from nearby, early-type spectroscopic binaries, which further validates our results. There are no statistically significant trends with metallicity, demonstrating that the close binary properties of massive stars do not vary across metallicities –0.7 < log(Z/Z {sub ☉}) < 0.0 beyond the measured uncertainties.

  18. Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1988-06-28

    An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

  19. Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; Hunter, Scott R.

    1990-01-01

    An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc.

  20. Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1990-06-26

    An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

  1. KEPLER-14b: A MASSIVE HOT JUPITER TRANSITING AN F STAR IN A CLOSE VISUAL BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Buchhave, Lars A.; Latham, David W.; Carter, Joshua A.; Desert, Jean-Michel; Torres, Guillermo; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Charbonneau, David B.; Dupree, Andrea K.; Fressin, Francois; Bryson, Stephen T.; Howell, Steve B.; Ciardi, David R.; Fischer, Debra A.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Isaacson, Howard; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2011-11-01

    We present the discovery of a hot Jupiter transiting an F star in a close visual (0.''3 sky projected angular separation) binary system. The dilution of the host star's light by the nearly equal magnitude stellar companion ({approx}0.5 mag fainter) significantly affects the derived planetary parameters, and if left uncorrected, leads to an underestimate of the radius and mass of the planet by 10% and 60%, respectively. Other published exoplanets, which have not been observed with high-resolution imaging, could similarly have unresolved stellar companions and thus have incorrectly derived planetary parameters. Kepler-14b (KOI-98) has a period of P = 6.790 days and, correcting for the dilution, has a mass of M{sub p} = 8.40{sup +0.35}{sub -0.34} M{sub J} and a radius of R{sub p} = 1.136{sup +0.073}{sub -0.054} R{sub J}, yielding a mean density of {rho}{sub p} = 7.1 {+-} 1.1 g cm{sup -3}.

  2. What Simulations Tell Us About White Dwarf Evolution in AM CVn Close Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we review the three most likely evolutionary channels that may result in AM CVn close binaries leading to white dwarf supernovae as evolutionary endpoints. To determine the likely evolutionary path for an AM CVn system, masses are needed. To find the secondary-to-primary mass ratio, a recent hypothesis suggests using the positive superhump period from Stage A of the superoutburst light curve rather than Stage B. To determine the most likely evolutionary track for this system, we compare observational data with values from three 3D SPH numerical simulations, one simulation for each of the potential evolutionary channels for AM CVn system SDSS J090221.35+38941.9. In this work, we explain why the white dwarf channel may be eliminated for this system. As for the other two channels, we find that the simulated parameters for the CV channel looks most promising for the primary white dwarf J0902 to reach supernova type Ia. However, a comparison of simulated and observed positive superhump period excess values suggests that the helium star channel is more likely, although the results do not support a supernova as the white dwarf primary's endpoint.

  3. Light curves of the latest FUor: Indication of a close binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackstein, M.; Haas, M.; Kóspál, Á.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Chini, R.; Ábrahám, P.; Moór, A.; Pozo Nuñez, F.; Ramolla, M.; Westhues, Ch.; Kaderhandt, L.; Fein, Ch.; Barr Domínguez, A.; Hodapp, K.-W.

    2015-10-01

    We monitored the recent FUor 2MASS J06593158-0405277 (V960 Mon) since November 2009 at various observatories and multiple wavelengths. After the outburst by nearly 2.9 mag in r around September 2014 the brightness gently fades until April 2015 by nearly 1 mag in U and 0.5 mag in z. Thereafter the brightness at λ> 5000 Å was constant until June 2015 while the shortest wavelengths (U,B) indicate a new rise, similar to that seen for the FUor V2493 Cyg (HBC722). Our near-infrared (NIR) monitoring between December 2014 and April 2015 shows a smaller outburst amplitude (~2 mag) and a smaller (0.2-0.3 mag) post-outburst brightness decline. Optical and NIR color-magnitude diagrams indicate that the brightness decline is caused by growing extinction. The post-outburst light curves are modulated by an oscillating color-neutral pattern with a period of about 17 days and an amplitude declining from ~0.08 mag in October 2014 to ~0.04 mag in May 2015. The properties of the oscillating pattern lead us to suggest the presence of a close binary with eccentric orbit. The light curve Table is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/582/L12

  4. The variable stars program of Júlia observatory & computer tomography insight into the surrounding structures of the close binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahýl, V.; Gajtanska, M.

    2016-03-01

    Before all we introduce our observatory named "Júlia", with its technical equipment and with its scientific observational program. The core of our paper there is the presentation of the achieved results in the DSLR observations of the selected eclipsing binaries. The results obtained in this field after the change to the observations with the CCD Camera MI G2-1600 will be also presented. Finally we present and prove our possibilities in the modeling of the surrounding of the close binaries by the computer tomography method.

  5. A systematic search for close supermassive black hole binaries in the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Stern, Daniel; Drake, Andrew J.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Donalek, Ciro; Glikman, Eilat; Larson, Steve; Christensen, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Hierarchical assembly models predict a population of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. These are not resolvable by direct imaging but may be detectable via periodic variability (or nanohertz frequency gravitational waves). Following our detection of a 5.2-year periodic signal in the quasar PG 1302-102, we present a novel analysis of the optical variability of 243 500 known spectroscopically confirmed quasars using data from the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS) to look for close (<0.1 pc) SMBH systems. Looking for a strong Keplerian periodic signal with at least 1.5 cycles over a baseline of nine years, we find a sample of 111 candidate objects. This is in conservative agreement with theoretical predictions from models of binary SMBH populations. Simulated data sets, assuming stochastic variability, also produce no equivalent candidates implying a low likelihood of spurious detections. The periodicity seen is likely attributable to either jet precession, warped accretion discs or periodic accretion associated with a close SMBH binary system. We also consider how other SMBH binary candidates in the literature appear in CRTS data and show that none of these are equivalent to the identified objects. Finally, the distribution of objects found is consistent with that expected from a gravitational-wave-driven population. This implies that circumbinary gas is present at small orbital radii and is being perturbed by the black holes. None of the sources is expected to merge within at least the next century. This study opens a new unique window to study a population of close SMBH binaries that must exist according to our current understanding of galaxy and SMBH evolution.

  6. Transient mass transfer caused by local surface heating in close binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modisette, J. J.; Kondo, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The surge of mass from one component of a binary system resulting from local surface heating is analyzed. The impact of such surges on the companion can produce transient phenomena such as those seen in X-ray binaries, RS CVn objects, and cataclysmic variables. The heating may be caused by nonlinear g-mode oscillations or by X-ray heating by the companion in X-ray binaries, among other possible mechanisms. As an example, model calculations have been performed for a surge, triggered by a relatively moderate local heating, in a hypothetical X-ray binary; the results show that such a surge can account for X-ray turn-ons.

  7. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: The nature of accretion disks of close binary stars: overreflection instability and developed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, A. M.; Bisikalo, D. V.

    2008-06-01

    The current status of the physics of accretion disks in close binary stars is reviewed, with an emphasis on the hydrodynamic overreflection instability, which is a factor leading to the accretion disk turbulence. The estimated turbulent viscosity coefficients are in good agreement with observations and explain the high angular momentum transfer rate and the measured accretion rate. Based on the observations, a power-law spectrum for the developed turbulence is obtained.

  8. THE QUASI-ROCHE LOBE OVERFLOW STATE IN THE EVOLUTION OF CLOSE BINARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING A RADIO PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of close binary systems formed by a normal (solar composition), intermediate-mass-donor star together with a neutron star. We consider models including irradiation feedback and evaporation. These nonstandard ingredients deeply modify the mass-transfer stages of these binaries. While models that neglect irradiation feedback undergo continuous, long-standing mass-transfer episodes, models including these effects suffer a number of cycles of mass transfer and detachment. During mass transfer, the systems should reveal themselves as low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), whereas when they are detached they behave as binary radio pulsars. We show that at these stages irradiated models are in a Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) state or in a quasi-RLOF state. Quasi-RLOF stars have radii slightly smaller than their Roche lobes. Remarkably, these conditions are attained for an orbital period as well as donor mass values in the range corresponding to a family of binary radio pulsars known as ''redbacks''. Thus, redback companions should be quasi-RLOF stars. We show that the characteristics of the redback system PSR J1723-2837 are accounted for by these models. In each mass-transfer cycle these systems should switch from LMXB to binary radio pulsar states with a timescale of approximately one million years. However, there is recent and fast growing evidence of systems switching on far shorter, human timescales. This should be related to instabilities in the accretion disk surrounding the neutron star and/or radio ejection, still to be included in the model having the quasi-RLOF state as a general condition.

  9. How eclipse time variations, eclipse duration variations, and radial velocities can reveal S-type planets in close eclipsing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshagh, M.; Heller, R.; Dreizler, S.

    2016-12-01

    While about a dozen transiting planets have been found in wide orbits around an inner, close stellar binary (so-called "P-type planets"), no planet has yet been detected orbiting only one star (a so-called "S-type planet") in an eclipsing binary. This is despite a large number of eclipsing binary systems discovered with the Kepler telescope. Here we propose a new detection method for these S-type planets, which uses a correlation between the stellar radial velocities (RVs), eclipse timing variations (ETVs), and eclipse duration variations (EDVs). We test the capability of this technique by simulating a realistic benchmark system and demonstrate its detectability with existing high-accuracy RV and photometry instruments. We illustrate that, with a small number of RV observations, the RV-ETV diagrams allows us to distinguish between prograde and retrograde planetary orbits and also the planetary mass can be estimated if the stellar cross-correlation functions can be disentangled. We also identify a new (though minimal) contribution of S-type planets to the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect in eclipsing stellar binaries. We finally explore possible detection of exomoons around transiting luminous giant planets and find that the precision required to detect moons in the RV curves of their host planets is of the order of cm s-1 and therefore not accessible with current instruments.

  10. How eclipse time variations, eclipse duration variations, and radial velocities can reveal S-type planets in close eclipsing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshagh, M.; Heller, R.; Dreizler, S.

    2017-04-01

    While about a dozen transiting planets have been found in wide orbits around an inner, close stellar binary (so-called P-type planets), no planet has yet been detected orbiting only one star (a so-called S-type planet) in an eclipsing binary. This is despite a large number of eclipsing binary systems discovered with the Kepler telescope. Here we propose a new detection method for these S-type planets, which uses a correlation between the stellar radial velocities (RVs), eclipse timing variations (ETVs) and eclipse duration variations (EDVs). We test the capability of this technique by simulating a realistic benchmark system and demonstrate its detectability with existing high-accuracy RV and photometry instruments. We illustrate that with a small number of RV observations, the RV-ETV diagrams allows us to distinguish between prograde and retrograde planetary orbits and also the planetary mass can be estimated if the stellar cross-correlation functions can be disentangled. We also identify a new (though minimal) contribution of S-type planets to the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect in eclipsing stellar binaries. We finally explore possible detection of exomoons around transiting luminous giant planets and find that the precision required to detect moons in the RV curves of their host planets is of the order of cm s-1 and therefore not accessible with current instruments.

  11. Long term evolution of surface features on the unusual close binary V361 Lyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, T. A.

    2009-02-01

    V361 Lyr has been recognized as an unusual, possibly unique, pre-contact binary which is though to be evolving from a detached binary system into a W UMa contact binary system due to Angular Momentum Loss (AML) and mass transfer. The mass transfer and resulting hot spot on the secondary star allow the physics of accretion to be studied without the normal difficulties of disks and winds that are present in T Tauri stars. I present light curves obtained over a 10 year period as part of long term monitoring program obtained with a variety of telescopes, collect all available times of minima from the literature along with those determined from the light curves and determine the rate of period change.

  12. Close encounters of the third-body kind. [intruding bodies in binary star systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. B.; Benz, W.; Hills, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    We simulated encounters involving binaries of two eccentricities: e = 0 (i.e., circular binaries) and e = 0.5. In both cases the binary contained a point mass of 1.4 solar masses (i.e., a neutron star) and a 0.8 solar masses main-sequence star modeled as a polytrope. The semimajor axes of both binaries were set to 60 solar radii (0.28 AU). We considered intruders of three masses: 1.4 solar masses (a neutron star), 0.8 solar masses (a main-sequence star or a higher mass white dwarf), and 0.64 solar masses (a more typical mass white dwarf). Our strategy was to perform a large number (40,000) of encounters using a three-body code, then to rerun a small number of cases with a three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code to determine the importance of hydrodynamical effects. Using the results of the three-body runs, we computed the exchange across sections, sigma(sub ex). From the results of the SPH runs, we computed the cross sections for clean exchange, denoted by sigma(sub cx); the formation of a triple system, denoted by sigma(sub trp); and the formation of a merged binary with an object formed from the merger of two of the stars left in orbit around the third star, denoted by sigma(sub mb). For encounters between either binary and a 1.4 solar masses neutron star, sigma(sub cx) approx. 0.7 sigma(sub ex) and sigma(sub mb) + sigma(sub trp) approx. 0.3 sigma(sub ex). For encounters between either binary and the 0.8 solar masses main-sequence star, sigma(sub cx) approx. 0.50 sigma(sub ex) and sigma(sub mb) + sigma(sub trp) approx. 1.0 sigma(sub ex). If the main sequence star is replaced by a main-sequence star of the same mass, we have sigma(sub cx) approx. 0.5 sigma(sub ex) and sigma(sub mb) + sigma(sub trp) approx. 1.6 sigma(sub ex). Although the exchange cross section is a sensitive function of intruder mass, we see that the cross section to produce merged binaries is roughly independent of intruder mass. The merged binaries produced have semi

  13. Close encounters of the third-body kind. [intruding bodies in binary star systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. B.; Benz, W.; Hills, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    We simulated encounters involving binaries of two eccentricities: e = 0 (i.e., circular binaries) and e = 0.5. In both cases the binary contained a point mass of 1.4 solar masses (i.e., a neutron star) and a 0.8 solar masses main-sequence star modeled as a polytrope. The semimajor axes of both binaries were set to 60 solar radii (0.28 AU). We considered intruders of three masses: 1.4 solar masses (a neutron star), 0.8 solar masses (a main-sequence star or a higher mass white dwarf), and 0.64 solar masses (a more typical mass white dwarf). Our strategy was to perform a large number (40,000) of encounters using a three-body code, then to rerun a small number of cases with a three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code to determine the importance of hydrodynamical effects. Using the results of the three-body runs, we computed the exchange across sections, sigma(sub ex). From the results of the SPH runs, we computed the cross sections for clean exchange, denoted by sigma(sub cx); the formation of a triple system, denoted by sigma(sub trp); and the formation of a merged binary with an object formed from the merger of two of the stars left in orbit around the third star, denoted by sigma(sub mb). For encounters between either binary and a 1.4 solar masses neutron star, sigma(sub cx) approx. 0.7 sigma(sub ex) and sigma(sub mb) + sigma(sub trp) approx. 0.3 sigma(sub ex). For encounters between either binary and the 0.8 solar masses main-sequence star, sigma(sub cx) approx. 0.50 sigma(sub ex) and sigma(sub mb) + sigma(sub trp) approx. 1.0 sigma(sub ex). If the main sequence star is replaced by a main-sequence star of the same mass, we have sigma(sub cx) approx. 0.5 sigma(sub ex) and sigma(sub mb) + sigma(sub trp) approx. 1.6 sigma(sub ex). Although the exchange cross section is a sensitive function of intruder mass, we see that the cross section to produce merged binaries is roughly independent of intruder mass. The merged binaries produced have semi

  14. Optical observations of close binaries with the Mark III Stellar Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, X. P.; Shao, M.; Colavita, M. M.; Armstrong, T.; Mozurkewich, D.

    1990-01-01

    For the first time, four spectroscopic binaries have been directly resolved with the Mark III Stellar Interferometer. Observations in 1988 and 1989 were analyzed, and visual orbits for four binaries have been determined. The semimajor axes for Beta Tri, Alpha Equ, Alpha And and Beta Ari are approximately 0.008 arcsec, 0.012 arcsec, 0.024 arcsec and 0.037 arcsec, respectively. The magnitude differences between two components are 0.5, 0.7, 1.8 and 2.6 mag, respectively. All of the orbital elements for Alpha And and Beta Ari were determined from interferometric data only, and agree well with spectroscopic observations. Predictions of relative position between the two components for these binaries are consistent with the measurements to less than 0.001 arcsec. Combined with data from spectroscopy, masses and distance for the double-lined spectroscopic binary Beta Ari are derived, and the results indicate that both components of Beta Ari agree well with the empirical mass-luminosity relation.

  15. Hot subdwarf stars in close-up view. I. Rotational properties of subdwarf B stars in close binary systems and nature of their unseen companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, S.; Heber, U.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Edelmann, H.; Napiwotzki, R.; Kupfer, T.; Müller, S.

    2010-09-01

    The origin of hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) is still unclear. About half of the known sdBs are in close binary systems for which common envelope ejection is the most likely formation channel. Little is known about this dynamic phase of binary evolution. Since most of the known sdB systems are single-lined spectroscopic binaries, it is difficult to derive masses and unravel the companions' nature, which is the aim of this paper. Due to the tidal influence of the companion in close binary systems, the rotation of the primary becomes synchronised to its orbital motion. In this case it is possible to constrain the mass of the companion, if the primary mass, its projected rotational velocity as well as its surface gravity are known. For the first time we measured the projected rotational velocities of a large sdB binary sample from high resolution spectra. We analysed a sample of 51 sdB stars in close binaries, 40 of which have known orbital parameters comprising half of all such systems known today. Synchronisation in sdB binaries is discussed both from the theoretical and the observational point of view. The masses and the nature of the unseen companions could be constrained in 31 cases. We found orbital synchronisation most likely to be established in binaries with orbital periods shorter than 1.2 d. Only in five cases it was impossible to decide whether the sdB's companion is a white dwarf or an M dwarf. The companions to seven sdBs could be clearly identified as late M stars. One binary may have a brown dwarf companion. The unseen companions of nine sdBs are white dwarfs with typical masses. The mass of one white dwarf companion is very low. In eight cases (including the well known system KPD1930+2752) the companion mass exceeds 0.9~M_⊙, four of which even exceed the Chandrasekhar limit indicating that they may be neutron stars. Even stellar mass black holes are possible for the most massive companions. The distribution of the inclinations of the systems with low

  16. The first photometric investigation of the neglected close binary star AQ Com

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N.-P.; Qian, S.-B.; Wang, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G.; Snoonthornthum, B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhou, X.

    2014-10-01

    AQ Com is a W UMa-type binary star with a period of 0.28133 days that was discovered about fifty years ago. However, it was neglected for photometric investigation. Complete light curves in Rc and Ic bands are presented that show a positive O'Conell effect. The light maxima following the primary minima are higher than the other ones in both bands. Photometric solutions obtained with the W-D (Wilson and Devinney) method suggest that AQ Com is a contact binary with a contact degree of f = 21.4 (± 6.2) % . It is found that the contact binary is a W-type system with a mass ratio of q = 2.86 where the less massive component is hotter than the more massive one in a common convective envelope. The asymmetries of the light curves are explained by two dark spots on the more massive component. By combining several determined times of light minimum with the others compiled from the literature, it is detected that the Observed-Calculated (O-C) curve may display a cyclic change with a period of 8.5 years and an amplitude of 0.0016 days. The cyclic oscillation may be caused by the presence of a cool third stellar object at an orbital separation of about ∼ 4.2 AU. However, more data are needed to confirm the existence of the third body.

  17. Tomographic Separation of Composite Spectra. XI. The Physical Properties of the Massive Close Binary HD 100213 (TU Muscae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Laura R.; Ouzts, Cynthia; Gies, Douglas R.

    2008-07-01

    We present the results of a Doppler tomographic reconstruction of the UV spectra of the double-lined, O binary HD 100213 based on observations made with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). We used cross-correlation methods to obtain radial velocities, confirm the orbital elements, estimate the UV flux ratio, and determine projected rotational velocities. The individual component spectra are classified as O7 V + O8 V using UV criteria defined by Penny, Gies, & Bagnuolo. We present a model fit of the eclipsing light curve from observations from the Hipparcos satellite and published observations of Andersen & Gronbech. We derive an orbital inclination, i = 77.7°+/- 1.0°. This analysis indicates that both stars are currently experiencing Roche lobe overflow (RLOF), which confirms earlier results that this is one of only a few massive contact binaries. Our derived masses, Mp/M⊙ = 16.7 +/- 0.4 and Ms/M⊙ = 10.4 +/- 0.4, are significantly lower than those computed from the Doppler shifts of lines in the optical spectrum. We suggest that the difference occurs because mutual irradiation decreases the upper atmospheric temperature gradient in the inward-facing hemispheres of both stars, which makes lower excitation lines appear weaker there and shifts their center of light away from the center of mass. We compare the current state of HD 100213 with predicted outcomes of massive close binary evolutionary models, and suggest that the system is currently in a very slow case AA mass transfer stage.

  18. A LARGE SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR CLOSE SUPERMASSIVE BINARY AND RAPIDLY RECOILING BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Eracleous, Michael; Boroson, Todd A.; Halpern, Jules P.; Liu Jia

    2012-08-01

    We have carried out a systematic search for subparsec supermassive black hole (BH) binaries among z {approx}< 0.7 Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars. These are predicted by models of supermassive BH and host galaxy coevolution, therefore their census and population properties constitute an important test of these models. In our working hypothesis, one of the two BHs accretes at a much higher rate than the other and carries with it the only broad emission line region of the system, making the system analogous to a single-lined spectroscopic binary star. Accordingly, we used spectroscopic principal component analysis to search for broad H{beta} emission lines that are displaced from the quasar rest frame by |{Delta} v| {approx}> 1000 km s{sup -1}. This method also yields candidates for rapidly recoiling BHs. Of the 88 candidates, several were previously reported in the literature. We found a correlation between the peak offset and skewness of the broad H{beta} profiles, suggesting a common physical explanation for these profiles. We carried out follow-up spectroscopic observations of 68 objects to search for changes in the peak velocities of the H{beta} lines. We measured statistically significant changes in 14 objects, with implied accelerations between -120 and +120 km s{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. Interpreting the offset broad emission lines as signatures of supermassive binaries is subject to many caveats. Many more follow-up observations over a long temporal baseline are needed to characterize the variability pattern of the broad lines and test that it is consistent with orbital motion. The possibility that some of the objects in this sample are rapidly recoiling BHs remains open.

  19. Accretion, ablation and propeller evolution in close millisecond pulsar binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Paul D.; Taam, Ronald E.

    2013-12-01

    A model for the formation and evolution of binary millisecond radio pulsars in systems with low mass companions (<0.1 M⊙) is investigated using a binary population synthesis technique. Taking into account the non conservative evolution of the system due to mass loss from an accretion disk as a result of propeller action and from the companion via ablation by the pulsar, the transition from the accretion powered to rotation powered phase is investigated. It is shown that the operation of the propeller and ablation mechanisms can be responsible for the formation and evolution of black widow millisecond pulsar systems from the low mass X-ray binary phase at an orbital period of ˜0.1 day. For a range of population synthesis input parameters, the results reveal that a population of black widow millisecond pulsars characterized by orbital periods as long as ˜0.4 days and companion masses as low as ˜0.005 M⊙ can be produced. The orbital periods and minimum companion mass of this radio millisecond pulsar population critically depend on the thermal bloating of the semi-degenerate hydrogen mass losing component, with longer orbital periods for a greater degree of bloating. Provided that the radius of the companion is increased by about a factor of 2 relative to a fully degenerate, zero temperature configuration, an approximate agreement between observed long orbital periods and theoretical modeling of hydrogen rich donors can be achieved. We find no discrepancy between the estimated birth rates for LMXBs and black widow systems, which on average are and respectively.

  20. A study of the reflection effect in close spectroscopic binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, K.-Y.; Rhein, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Four W Ursae Majoris-type binaries were investigated using the simple model of blackbody solid spheres. Numerical computations were carried out for the rotationally broadened profiles of spectral lines Sr II (4077.7) and Ca I (4226.7) and the mean radial velocities. These mean velocities at different phases outside eclipses were compared with sinusoidal values of the radial velocity curve for point masses. Within the present accuracy of observations, the reflection effect is small and may be neglected in the analysis of radial velocity curves.

  1. Starspot migration in close binaries: A fast parameters evaluation from large sky surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debski, B.; Zola, S.

    2017-06-01

    We developed a method that allows to classify the light curves of eclipsing binaries of the W UMa type (EW) with respect to their intrinsic variability. The algorithm measures several features of light curves, such as the amplitude of the O'Connell effect, the separation and location of maxima brightness as well as depths of the minima in subsequent orbital periods. This method is capable of distinguishing systems with presumed magnetic activity present from these without it, as well as recognizing systems with starspots migration and those with other types of intrinsic variability manifestation. The classification is done in an automatic way without a time consuming, visual inspection of light curves.

  2. The formation of a helium white dwarf in a close binary system with diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.

    2004-07-01

    We study the evolution of a system composed of a 1.4-Msolar neutron star and a normal, solar composition star of 2 Msolar in orbit with a period of 1 d. Calculations were performed employing the binary HYDRO code presented by Benvenuto & De Vito that handle the mass transfer rate in a fully implicit way. We then included the main standard physical ingredients together with the diffusion processes and a proper outer boundary condition. We have assumed fully non-conservative mass transfer episodes. In order to study the interplay of mass loss episodes and diffusion we considered evolutionary sequences with and without diffusion in which all Roche lobe overflows (RLOFs) produce mass transfer. Another two sequences in which thermonuclearly driven RLOFs were not allowed to drive mass transfer have been computed with and without diffusion. As far as we are aware, this study represents the first binary evolution calculations in which diffusion is considered. The system produces a helium white dwarf of ~0.21 Msolar in an orbit with a period of ~4.3 d for the four cases. We find that mass transfer episodes induced by hydrogen thermonuclear flashes drive a tiny amount of mass transfer. As diffusion produces stronger flashes, the amount of hydrogen-rich matter transferred is slightly higher than in the models without diffusion. We find that diffusion is the main agent in determining the evolutionary time-scale of low-mass white dwarfs even in the presence of mass transfer episodes.

  3. A close-pair binary in a distant triple supermassive black hole system.

    PubMed

    Deane, R P; Paragi, Z; Jarvis, M J; Coriat, M; Bernardi, G; Fender, R P; Frey, S; Heywood, I; Klöckner, H-R; Grainge, K; Rumsey, C

    2014-07-03

    Galaxies are believed to evolve through merging, which should lead to some hosting multiple supermassive black holes. There are four known triple black hole systems, with the closest black hole pair being 2.4 kiloparsecs apart (the third component in this system is at 3 kiloparsecs), which is far from the gravitational sphere of influence (about 100 parsecs for a black hole with mass one billion times that of the Sun). Previous searches for compact black hole systems concluded that they were rare, with the tightest binary system having a separation of 7 parsecs (ref. 10). Here we report observations of a triple black hole system at redshift z = 0.39, with the closest pair separated by about 140 parsecs and significantly more distant from Earth than any other known binary of comparable orbital separation. The effect of the tight pair is to introduce a rotationally symmetric helical modulation on the structure of the large-scale radio jets, which provides a useful way to search for other tight pairs without needing extremely high resolution observations. As we found this tight pair after searching only six galaxies, we conclude that tight pairs are more common than hitherto believed, which is an important observational constraint for low-frequency gravitational wave experiments.

  4. The close binary central star of the planetary nebula Abell 41 - A helium-rich subdwarf primary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R. F.; Liebert, J.; Wesemael, F.

    1984-05-01

    He II, He I, and H absorption features were detected in spectroscopy with 2 A resolution of the Abell 41 planetary nebula central star, which was recently reported by Grauer and Bond to be a close binary with a 2 hour 43 minute period. This subdwarf O spectrum has been analyzed with a grid of hot, high-gravity, LTE atmosphere models. T(eff) = 50,000 + or 5000 K, log g = 6 + or - 1, n(He)/n(H) = 10 exp -1.0 + or - 1. This temperature is a factor of 1.4-2.9 lower than the range used by Grauer and Bond, and the required secondary star heating is considerably reduced. Nevertheless, close agreement is found with their estimates for the distance, reddening, and the systemic parameters for the binary star. Their interpretation of Abell 41 as a precataclysmic variable object remains valid for a cool main-sequence or hotter evolved secondary star. The object should be a promising target for high-resolution (coude/echelle) follow-up spectroscopy.

  5. CYCLIC VARIATIONS OF ORBITAL PERIOD AND LONG-TERM LUMINOSITY IN CLOSE BINARY RT ANDROMEDAE

    SciTech Connect

    Manzoori, Davood

    2009-12-15

    Solutions of standard VR light curves for the eclipsing binary RT And were obtained using the PHOEBE program (ver. 0.3a). Absolute parameters of the stellar components were then determined, enabling them to be positioned on the mass-luminosity diagram. Times of minima data ({sup O} - C curve) were analyzed using the method of Kalimeris et al. A cyclic variation in the orbital period and brightness, with timescales of about 11.89 and 12.50 yr were found, respectively. This is associated with a magnetic activity cycle modulating the orbital period of RT And via the Applegate mechanism. To check the consistency of the Applegate model, we have estimated some related parameters of the RT And system. The calculated parameters were in accordance with those estimated by Applegate for other similar systems, except B, the subsurface magnetic field of which shows a rather high value for RT And.

  6. Tomographic Separation of Composite Spectra. VI. The Physical Properties of the Massive Close Binary HD 152248

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Laura R.; Gies, Douglas R.; Bagnuolo, William G., Jr.

    1999-06-01

    We present the results of a Doppler tomographic reconstruction of the UV spectra of the double-lined O binary HD 152248 based on observations made with IUE. We used cross-correlation methods to obtain radial velocities, confirm the orbital elements, estimate the UV flux ratio, and determine projected rotational velocities. The individual component spectra are classified as O7 I + O7 I using UV criteria defined by Penny, Gies, & Bagnuolo. We present a model fit of the eclipsing light curve from which we derive an orbital inclination, i=72deg+/-3deg. This analysis indicates that neither star is currently experiencing Roche lobe overflow. We place the individual components in the theoretical H-R diagram and show that the individual masses (Mp/Msolar=24.2+/-2.0 Ms/Msolar=25.8+/-2.0) derived from the combined spectroscopic and photometric analysis are significantly lower than those computed from evolutionary tracks for single stars.

  7. A VERY CLOSE BINARY BLACK HOLE IN A GIANT ELLIPTICAL GALAXY 3C 66B AND ITS BLACK HOLE MERGER

    SciTech Connect

    Iguchi, Satoru; Okuda, Takeshi; Sudou, Hiroshi E-mail: okuda@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.j

    2010-12-01

    Recent observational results provide possible evidence that binary black holes (BBHs) exist in the center of giant galaxies and may merge to form a supermassive black hole in the process of their evolution. We first detected a periodic flux variation on a cycle of 93 {+-} 1 days from the 3 mm monitor observations of a giant elliptical galaxy 3C 66B for which an orbital motion with a period of 1.05 {+-} 0.03 yr had been already observed. The detected signal period being shorter than the orbital period can be explained by taking into consideration the Doppler-shifted modulation due to the orbital motion of a BBH. Assuming that the BBH has a circular orbit and that the jet axis is parallel to the binary angular momentum, our observational results demonstrate the presence of a very close BBH that has a binary orbit with an orbital period of 1.05 {+-} 0.03 yr, an orbital radius of (3.9 {+-} 1.0) x 10{sup -3} pc, an orbital separation of (6.1{sup +1.0} {sub -0.9}) x 10{sup -3} pc, a larger black hole mass of (1.2{sup +0.5} {sub -0.2}) x 10{sup 9} M {sub sun}, and a smaller black hole mass of (7.0{sup +4.7} {sub -6.4}) x 10{sup 8} M {sub sun}. The BBH decay time of (5.1{sup +60.5} {sub -2.5}) x 10{sup 2} yr provides evidence for the occurrence of black hole mergers. This Letter will demonstrate the interesting possibility of black hole collisions to form a supermassive black hole in the process of evolution, one of the most spectacular natural phenomena in the universe.

  8. Exploring the Tidal Effects of Close Binaries on Be Star Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panoglou, D.; Carciofi, A. C.; Okazaki, A.; Rivinius, T.

    2016-11-01

    As the majority of massive stars, Be stars are often members of a binary system. The companion star might be a compact star emitting X-rays, a hot subdwarf O or B star that emits in the UV range or a low-mass main sequence star, which is a case difficult to detect. Whatever the nature of the companion, it interacts in multiple ways with the Be decretion disk: as a source of high energy particles, through radiative interaction, or via tidal interaction. In this work we focus in the study of the tidal effects between the two stars. In the past, a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code has been used to explore the effect of the value of viscosity, assuming that the disk is isothermal and the two stars have co-planar and aligned or slightly misaligned orbits. We are going to use the same smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, in order to explore the evolution of the system more thoroughly, not only expanding to further ranges of the parameter space, but also in the cases of counter-aligned and misaligned orbits. With our simulations we expect to give an insight on the conditions that maximize the tidal interaction, and more specifically the effect of the viscosity parameter, the orbital period, the eccentricity, and the tilt of the stellar rotational axis with respect to the orbital plane.

  9. A possible close supermassive black-hole binary in a quasar with optical periodicity.

    PubMed

    Graham, Matthew J; Djorgovski, S G; Stern, Daniel; Glikman, Eilat; Drake, Andrew J; Mahabal, Ashish A; Donalek, Ciro; Larson, Steve; Christensen, Eric

    2015-02-05

    Quasars have long been known to be variable sources at all wavelengths. Their optical variability is stochastic and can be due to a variety of physical mechanisms; it is also well-described statistically in terms of a damped random walk model. The recent availability of large collections of astronomical time series of flux measurements (light curves) offers new data sets for a systematic exploration of quasar variability. Here we report the detection of a strong, smooth periodic signal in the optical variability of the quasar PG 1302-102 with a mean observed period of 1,884 ± 88 days. It was identified in a search for periodic variability in a data set of light curves for 247,000 known, spectroscopically confirmed quasars with a temporal baseline of about 9 years. Although the interpretation of this phenomenon is still uncertain, the most plausible mechanisms involve a binary system of two supermassive black holes with a subparsec separation. Such systems are an expected consequence of galaxy mergers and can provide important constraints on models of galaxy formation and evolution.

  10. Tomographic Separation of Composite Spectra. IV. The Physical Properties of the Massive Close Binary DH Cephei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Laura R.; Gies, Douglas R.; Bagnuolo, William G., Jr.

    1997-07-01

    We present the results of a Doppler tomographic reconstruction of the UV spectra of the double-lined, O binary DH Cephei based on observations made with the International Ultraviolet Explorer. We describe cross-correlation methods we use to obtain precise radial velocities, and we present a radial velocity curve based on combined optical and UV measurements. We also show how we use fits of the cross-correlation functions to estimate the UV flux ratio and projected rotational velocities. The individual component spectra are classified as O6 V + O7 V using UV criteria defined by Penny, Gies, & Bagnuolo. We place the individual components in the theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagram using the distance modulus and reddening estimated for its home cluster, NGC 7380, and we find that the stars are larger than estimates from prior studies of the ``ellipsoidal'' light variations. We reconsider the ellipsoidal light curve and show that there is a range in acceptable stellar radii (as a function of orbital inclination). We discuss the constraints on inclination and system masses based on cluster distance modulus, presumed synchronous rotation, and on consistency with masses derived from evolutionary tracks (which involves the issue of the temperature calibration of O stars). We find that primary and secondary masses of 39-50 M⊙ and 35-45 M⊙, respectively, satisfy all the constraints from spectroscopy, photometry, distance modulus, and single-star evolutionary tracks.

  11. WASP-20 Is a Close Visual Binary with a Transiting Hot Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Daniel F.; Southworth, John; Smalley, Barry

    2016-12-01

    We announce the discovery that WASP-20 is a binary stellar system, consisting of two components separated by 0.2578 ± 0.″0007 on the sky, with a flux ratio of 0.4639 ± 0.0015 in the K-band. It has previously been assumed that the system consists of a single F9 V star, with photometric and radial velocity signals consistent with a low-density transiting giant planet. With a projected separation of approximately 60 au between the two components, the detected planetary signals almost certainly originate from the brighter of the two stars. We reanalyze previous observations allowing for two scenarios, “planet transits A” and “planet transits B,” finding that both cases remain consistent with a transiting gas giant. However, we rule out the “planet transits B” scenario because the observed transit duration requires star B to be significantly evolved, and therefore have an age much greater than star A. We outline further observations that can be used to confirm this finding. Our preferred “planet transits A” scenario results in the measured mass and radius of the planet increasing by 4σ and 1σ, respectively.

  12. Massive unseen companions to hot faint underluminous stars from SDSS (MUCHFUSS). Analysis of seven close subdwarf B binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, S.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Napiwotzki, R.; Østensen, R. H.; Heber, U.; Hirsch, H.; Kupfer, T.; Müller, S.; Tillich, A.; Barlow, B. N.; Oreiro, R.; Ottosen, T. A.; Copperwheat, C.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.

    2011-02-01

    The project Massive Unseen Companions to Hot Faint Underluminous Stars from SDSS (MUCHFUSS) aims at finding hot subdwarf stars with massive compact companions like massive white dwarfs (M > 1.0 M⊙), neutron stars or stellar mass black holes. The existence of such systems is predicted by binary evolution theory and recent discoveries indicate that they exist in our Galaxy. First results are presented for seven close binary sdBs with short orbital periods ranging from ≃ 0.21 d to 1.5 d. The atmospheric parameters of all objects are compatible with core helium-burning stars. The companions are most likely white dwarfs. In one case the companion could be shown to be a white dwarf by the absence of light-curve variations. However, in most cases late type main sequence stars cannot be firmly excluded. Comparing our small sample with the known population of close sdB binaries we show that our target selection method aiming at massive companions is efficient. The minimum companion masses of all binaries in our sample are high compared to the reference sample of known sdB binaries. Based on observations at the Paranal Observatory of the European Southern Observatory for programme number 081.D-0819. Based on observations at the La Silla Observatory of the European Southern Observatory for programmes number 082.D-0649 and 084.D-0348. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). Based on observations with the William Herschel Telescope and the Isaac Newton Telescope operated both by the Isaac Newton Group at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias on the island of La Palma, Spain. Based on observations with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope operated by the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the Ministerio da Ciłncia e

  13. Hot subdwarf stars in close-up view. II. Rotational properties of single and wide binary subdwarf B stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, S.; Heber, U.

    2012-07-01

    Subluminous B stars (sdBs) form the extremely hot end of the horizontal branch and are therefore related to the blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars. While the rotational properties of BHB stars have been investigated extensively, studies of sdB stars have concentrated on close binaries that are influenced by tidal interactions between their components. Here we present a study of 105 sdB stars, which are either single stars or in wide binaries where tidal effects become negligible. The projected rotational velocities have been determined by measuring the broadening of metal lines using high-resolution optical spectra. All stars in our sample are slow rotators (vrotsini < 10 km s-1). Furthermore, the vrotsini-distributions of single sdBs are similar to those of hot subdwarfs in wide binaries with main-sequence companions as well as close binary systems with unseen companions and periods exceeding ≃1.2 d. We show that blue horizontal and extreme horizontal branch stars are also related in terms of surface rotation and angular momentum. Hot BHB stars (Teff > 11 500 K) with diffusion-dominated atmospheres are slow rotators like the hot subdwarf stars located on the extreme horizontal branch, which lost more envelope and therefore angular momentum in the red-giant phase. The uniform rotation distributions of single and wide binary sdBs pose a challenge to our understanding of hot subdwarf formation. Especially the high fraction of helium white dwarf mergers predicted by theory seems to be inconsistent with the results presented here. Based on observations at the Paranal Observatory of the European Southern Observatory for programmes number 165.H-0588(A), 167.D-0407(A), 071.D-0380(A) and 072.D-0487(A). Based on observations at the La Silla Observatory of the European Southern Observatory for programmes number 073.D-0495(A), 074.B-0455(A), 076.D-0355(A), 077.D-0515(A) and 078.D-0098(A). Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at

  14. Closed-loop phase diagrams, vaporization, and multicriticality in binary liquid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caflisch, Robert G.; Walker, James S.

    1983-09-01

    The coupled Potts-Ising models of Walker and Vause, which successfully describe closed-loop phase diagrams in hydrogen-bonding mixtures, are generalized to encompass the vapor phase, and are studied using position-space renormalization-group techniques. Global phase diagrams are generated, exhibiting such features as miscibility-immiscibility criticality, liquid-vapor critical points, critical end points, and bicritical and tricritical points. In addition, new types of phase diagrams are found, involving upper and lower azeotropes, for example, which are expected to be physically realizable in experimental systems.

  15. A copula-based closed-form binary logit choice model for accommodating spatial correlation across observational units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Chandra R.; Sener, Ipek N.

    2009-09-01

    This study focuses on accommodating spatial dependency in data indexed by geographic location. In particular, the emphasis is on accommodating spatial error correlation across observational units in binary discrete choice models. We propose a copula-based approach to spatial dependence modeling based on a spatial logit structure rather than a spatial probit structure. In this approach, the dependence between the logistic error terms of different observational units is directly accommodated using a multivariate logistic distribution based on the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstein (FGM) copula. The approach represents a simple and powerful technique that results in a closed-form analytic expression for the joint probability of choice across observational units, and is straightforward to apply using a standard and direct maximum likelihood inference procedure. There is no simulation machinery involved, leading to substantial computation gains relative to current methods to address spatial correlation. The approach is applied to teenagers’ physical activity participation levels, a subject of considerable interest in the public health, transportation, sociology, and adolescence development fields. The results indicate that failing to accommodate heteroscedasticity and spatial correlation can lead to inconsistent and inefficient parameter estimates, as well as incorrect conclusions regarding the elasticity effects of exogenous variables.

  16. Commission 42: Close Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Slavek M.; Ribas, Ignasi; Giménez, Alvaro; Harmanec, Petr; Hilditch, Ronald W.; Kaluzny, Janusz; Niarchos, Panayiotis; Nordström, Birgitta; Oláh, Katalin; Richards, Mercedes T.; Scarfe, Colin D.; Sion, Edward M.; Torres, Guillermo; Vrielmann, Sonja

    2010-05-01

    During the commission business session, the past President presented the new Organizing Committee which was selected by the OC through a e-mail vote conducted during the months before the Rio de Janeiro General Assembly. The new OC will consist of Ignasi Ribas (President), Mercedes Richards (Vice President), and Slavek Rucinski (Past President) with the members: David Bradstreet, Petr Harmanec, Janusz Kaluzny, Joanna Mikolajewska, Ulisse Munari, Panos Niarchos, Katalin Olah, Theo Pribulla, Colin Scarfe and Guillermo Torres.

  17. How Cool Is That? An IRTF/SPEX Spectroscopic Study of the Close Binary T Tauri System V4046 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Carter-Thaxton; Rapson, V.; Sargent, B. A.; Kastner, J. H.; Rayner, J.

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained near-IR (1-5 micron) spectroscopy of the nearby, close binary T Tauri system V4046 Sgr AB with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) SPEX spectrometer. Our motivation is to assess the potential discrepancies between optical and near-IR spectral classifications of this and other young, late-type stars. Such (optical vs. near-IR) spectral type discrepancies have important implications for the application of pre-main sequence (pre-MS) evolutionary tracks to infer the ages and masses of pre-MS stars; V4046 Sgr AB provides an important test case in this regard, due to the stringent constraints on its system mass (a total of ~1.8 Msun, with roughly equal-mass components) that are imposed by interferometic CO imaging of its extended circumbinary disk combined with its relatively well-determined age 12 Myr) and distance 73 pc). We performed equivalent width measurements of diagnostic absorption lines and broad scaling relation measurements to facilitate comparisons between our SPEX near-IR observations and those of IRTF spectral standards. Our preliminary results point to a composite near-IR spectral type for V4046 Sgr AB that is later than the (mid-K) type previously determined from optical spectroscopy. This discrepancy is consistent with that found for other T Tauri stars (most notably, for TW Hya), emphasizing the need for caution in relying on a specific wavelength regime to obtain pre-MS stellar spectral classifications and (hence) determinations of pre-MS age and mass. Support for this research is provided by by National Science Foundation grant AST-1108950 to RIT C.T. Smith's research at RIT was supported by a NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates program grant to RIT's Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science.

  18. First multicolour polarimetry of TeV γ-ray binary HESS J0632+057 close to periastron passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, R. V.; Potter, S. B.; Townsend, L. J.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of UBVRI polarimetry of the TeV γ-ray binary HESS J0632+057 obtained on 2015 March 24 (JD 245 7106) and 2015 December 12 (JD 245 7369). The detected polarization values of HESS J0632+057, just after periastron passage (March 24), are higher than all previously published values (pV ˜ 4.2 per cent), and the position angle (Θobs ˜ 171°-172°) is also different by ˜6°-10° from previously published values. The data obtained just before the subsequent periastron passage (December 12) show a statistically lower polarization in all photometric bands (pV ˜3.9 per cent) and a different position angle Θobs ˜ 167°-168°. From observations of a nearby field star, the interstellar component of the measured polarization was estimated as p_{is}V ˜ 0.65 per cent and Θis ˜ 153°. This estimate was used with the previous `V'-band estimation by the `field-stars method' (p_{is}V ˜ 2 per cent and Θis ˜ 165°) of Yudin to identify the wavelength dependence of the intrinsic polarization in HESS J0632+057. It was found that after subtraction of the interstellar component (for both pis estimates), the wavelength dependence of the intrinsic polarization in HESS J0632+057 is essentially flat. We propose that the formation of an additional source of polarization or some perturbation of circumstellar material at this orbital phase can explain the changes in the level of polarization in HESS J0632+057 close to periastron passage.

  19. Mass loss out of close binaries. The formation of Algol-type systems, completed with case B RLOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rensbergen, W.; de Greve, J. P.; Mennekens, N.; Jansen, K.; de Loore, C.

    2011-04-01

    Context. Several authors have previously introduced liberal evolution of interacting binaries, with the purpose of meeting various observed binary characteristics better than with conservative evolution. Since Algols are eclipsing binaries, the distribution of their orbital periods is known precisely. The distribution of their mass ratios contains, however, more uncertainties. We try to reproduce these two distributions theoretically using a liberal scenario in which the gainer star can lose mass into interstellar space as a consequence of its rapid rotation and the energy of a hot spot. Aims: In a recent paper we calculated the liberal evolution of binaries with a B-type primary at birth where mass transfer starts during core hydrogen burning of the donor. In this paper we include the cases where mass transfer starts during shell hydrogen burning, and it is our aim to reproduce the observed distributions of the system parameters of Algol-type semidetached systems. Methods: Our calculations reveal the amount of time that an Algol binary lives with a well-defined value of mass ratio and orbital period. We used these data to simulate the distribution of mass ratios and orbital periods of Algols. Results: Binaries with a late B-type initial primary hardly lose any mass, whereas those with an early B primary evolve in a nonconservative way. Conservative binary evolution predicts only ~12% of Algols with a mass ratio q above 0.4. This value is raised up to ~17% using our scenario of liberal evolution, which is still far below the ~45% that is observed. Conclusions: Observed orbital periods of Algol binaries longer than one day are faithfully reproduced by our liberal scenario. Mass ratios are reproduced better than with conservative evolution, but the resemblance is still poor.

  20. SDSS J001641-000925: THE FIRST STABLE RED DWARF CONTACT BINARY WITH A CLOSE-IN STELLAR COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.-B.; Jiang, L.-Q.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E. G.; He, J.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Wang, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhou, X.; Liu, N. P.; Fernández Lajús, E.; Soonthornthum, B.; Rattanasoon, S.; Aukkaravittayapun, S.

    2015-01-10

    SDSS J001641-000925 is the first red dwarf contact binary star with an orbital period of 0.19856 days that is one of the shortest known periods among M-dwarf binary systems. The orbital period was detected to be decreasing rapidly at a rate of P-dot ∼8 s yr{sup −1}. This indicated that SDSS J001641-000925 was undergoing coalescence via a dynamical mass transfer or loss and thus this red dwarf contact binary is dynamically unstable. To understand the properties of the period change, we monitored the binary system photometrically from 2011 September 2 to 2014 October 1 by using several telescopes in the world and 25 eclipse times were determined. It is discovered that the rapid decrease of the orbital period is not true. This is contrary to the prediction that the system is merging driven by rapid mass transfer or loss. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the observed minus calculated (O–C) diagram shows a cyclic oscillation with an amplitude of 0.00255 days and a period of 5.7 yr. The cyclic variation can be explained by the light travel time effect via the presence of a cool stellar companion with a mass of M {sub 3}sin i' ∼ 0.14 M {sub ☉}. The orbital separation between the third body and the central binary is about 2.8 AU. These results reveal that the rarity of red dwarf contact binaries could not be explained by rapidly dynamical destruction and the presence of the third body helps to form the red dwarf contact binary.

  1. SDSS J001641-000925: The First Stable Red Dwarf Contact Binary with a Close-in Stellar Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.-B.; Jiang, L.-Q.; Fernández Lajús, E.; Soonthornthum, B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E. G.; He, J.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Wang, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Rattanasoon, S.; Aukkaravittayapun, S.; Zhou, X.; Liu, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    SDSS J001641-000925 is the first red dwarf contact binary star with an orbital period of 0.19856 days that is one of the shortest known periods among M-dwarf binary systems. The orbital period was detected to be decreasing rapidly at a rate of \\dot{P}˜ {8} s yr-1. This indicated that SDSS J001641-000925 was undergoing coalescence via a dynamical mass transfer or loss and thus this red dwarf contact binary is dynamically unstable. To understand the properties of the period change, we monitored the binary system photometrically from 2011 September 2 to 2014 October 1 by using several telescopes in the world and 25 eclipse times were determined. It is discovered that the rapid decrease of the orbital period is not true. This is contrary to the prediction that the system is merging driven by rapid mass transfer or loss. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the observed minus calculated (O-C) diagram shows a cyclic oscillation with an amplitude of 0.00255 days and a period of 5.7 yr. The cyclic variation can be explained by the light travel time effect via the presence of a cool stellar companion with a mass of M 3sin i' ~ 0.14 M ⊙. The orbital separation between the third body and the central binary is about 2.8 AU. These results reveal that the rarity of red dwarf contact binaries could not be explained by rapidly dynamical destruction and the presence of the third body helps to form the red dwarf contact binary.

  2. Binary stars.

    PubMed

    Paczynacuteski, B

    1984-07-20

    Most stars in the solar neighborhood are either double or multiple systems. They provide a unique opportunity to measure stellar masses and radii and to study many interesting and important phenomena. The best candidates for black holes are compact massive components of two x-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1 and LMC X-3. The binary radio pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 provides the best available evidence for gravitational radiation. Accretion disks and jets observed in close binaries offer a very good testing ground for models of active galactic nuclei and quasars.

  3. Close-packed SiO 2/poly(methyl methacrylate) binary nanoparticles-coated polyethylene separators for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jang-Hoon; Cho, Joo-Hyun; Park, Woong; Ryoo, Dongjo; Yoon, Su-Jin; Kim, Jong Hun; Jeong, Yeon Uk; Lee, Sang-Young

    In an endeavour to improve not only the thermal shrinkage but also the electrochemical performance of separators in lithium-ion batteries, a novel composite separator is developed, i.e., a close-packed SiO 2/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) binary nanoparticles-coated polyethylene (PE) separator. The introduction of SiO 2 nanoparticles to the coating layer effectively suppresses thermal shrinkage of the composite separator. In contrast to a SiO 2/PMMA coating layer having a film-shaped PMMA binder, the SiO 2/PMMA binary nanoparticle coating layer employs PMMA particles as a binder. As a consequence, a highly porous structure, i.e., well-connected interstitial voids, is formed between the binary SiO 2 and PMMA nanoparticles. The unique porous morphology allows favourable liquid electrolyte wettability and facile ionic conduction, which play a crucial role in improving cell performance such as the discharge capacity and the C-rate capability of the composite separator.

  4. Ultra-luminous X-ray sources and neutron-star-black-hole mergers from very massive close binaries at low metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, Pablo; Langer, Norbert; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Tauris, Thomas M.; de Mink, Selma; Mandel, Ilya; Moriya, Takashi J.

    2017-08-01

    The detection of gravitational waves from the binary black hole (BH) merger GW150914 may enlighten our understanding of ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs), as BHs of masses >30 M⊙ can reach luminosities >4 × 1039 erg s-1 without exceeding their Eddington luminosities. It is then important to study variations of evolutionary channels for merging BHs, which might instead form accreting BHs and become ULXs. It was recently shown that very massive binaries with mass ratios close to unity and tight orbits can undergo efficient rotational mixing and evolve chemically homogeneously, resulting in a compact BH binary. We study similar systems by computing 120 000 detailed binary models with the MESA code covering a wide range of masses, orbital periods, mass ratios, and metallicities. For initial mass ratios q ≡ M2/M1 ≃ 0.1-0.4, primaries with masses above 40 M⊙ can evolve chemically homogeneously, remaining compact and forming a BH without experiencing Roche-lobe overflow. The secondary then expands and transfers mass to the BH, initiating a ULX phase. At a given metallicity this channel is expected to produce the most massive accreting stellar BHs and the brightest ULXs. We predict that 1 out of 104 massive stars evolves this way, and that in the local universe 0.13 ULXs per M⊙ yr-1 of star formation rate are observable, with a strong preference for low metallicities. An additional channel is still required to explain the less luminous ULXs and the full population of high-mass X-ray binaries. At metallicities log Z> -3, BH masses in ULXs are limited to 60 M⊙, due to the occurrence of pair-instability supernovae which leave no remnant, resulting in an X-ray luminosity cut-off for accreting BHs. At lower metallicities, very massive stars can avoid exploding as pair-instability supernovae and instead form BHs with masses above 130 M⊙, producing a gap in the ULX luminosity distribution. After the ULX phase, neutron star BH binaries that merge in less than a

  5. A large systematic search for close supermassive binary and rapidly recoiling black holes - III. Radial velocity variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnoe, Jessie C.; Eracleous, Michael; Pennell, Alison; Mathes, Gavin; Boroson, Todd; Sigurðsson, Steinn; Bogdanović, Tamara; Halpern, Jules P.; Liu, Jia; Brown, Stephanie

    2017-06-01

    We have been spectroscopically monitoring 88 quasars selected to have broad Hβ emission lines offset from their systemic redshift by thousands of km s-1. By analogy with single-lined spectroscopic binary stars, we consider these quasars to be candidates for hosting supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs). In this work, we present new radial velocity measurements, typically three to four per object over a time period of up to 12 yr in the observer's frame. In 29/88 of the SBHB candidates, no variability of the shape of the broad Hβ profile is observed, which allows us to make reliable measurements of radial velocity changes. Among these, we identify three objects that have displayed systematic and monotonic velocity changes by several hundred km s-1 and are prime targets for further monitoring. Because the periods of the hypothetical binaries are expected to be long, we cannot hope to observe many orbital cycles during our lifetimes. Instead, we seek to evaluate the credentials of the SBHB candidates by attempting to rule out the SBHB hypothesis. In this spirit, we present a method for placing a lower limit on the period, and thus the mass, of the SBHBs under the assumption that the velocity changes we observe are due to orbital motion. Given the duration of our monitoring campaign and the uncertainties in the radial velocities, we were able to place a lower limit on the total mass in the range 4.7 × 104-3.8 × 108 M⊙, which does not yet allow us to rule out the SBHB hypothesis for any candidates.

  6. Effects of high-energy neutrino production and interactions on stars in close X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaisser, T. K.; Stecker, F. W.; Harding, A. K.; Barnard, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Limits are discussed that may be placed on binary systems in which a compact partner is a strong source of high-energy particles that produce photons, neutrinos, and other secondary particles in the companion star. The highest energy neutrinos are absorbed deep in the companion and the associated energy deposition may be large enough to affect its structure or lead to its ultimate disruption. This neutrino heating is evaluated, starting with a detailed numerical calculation of the hadronic cascade induced in the atmosphere of the companion star. For some theoretical models, the resulting energy deposition from neutrino absorption may be so great as to disrupt the companion star over a time scale of 10,000-100,000 yr. Even if the energy deposition is smaller, it may still be high enough to alter the system substantially.

  7. A spectroscopic search for colliding stellar winds in O-type close binary systems. III - 29 UW Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggs, Michael S.; Gies, Douglas R.

    1993-04-01

    The orbital-phase variations in the optical emission lines and UV P Cygni lines of the massive O-type binary 29 UW Canis Majoris are investigated in a search for evidence of colliding winds. High SNR spectra of the H-alpha and He I 6678-A emission lines are presented, and radial velocity curves for several features associated with the photosphere of the more luminous primary star are given. The H-alpha features consists of a P Cygni component that shares the motion of the primary, and which probably originates at the base of its wind, and a broad, stationary emission component. It is proposed that the broad emission forms in a plane midway between the stars where the winds collide. A simple geometric model is used to show that this placement of the broad component can explain the lack of orbital velocity shifts, the near-constancy of the emission strength throughout the orbit, the large velocities associated with the H-alpha wings, and the constancy of the velocity range observed.

  8. Future of X-Ray Astronomy: X-Ray Polarization of Stellar Mass Black Holes in Close Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedin, Yu. N.; Piotrovich, M. Yu.

    2017-06-01

    We discuss the perspectives of future polarimetric observations of cosmic objects in the X-ray spectral range. X-ray polarimetry is one of the perspective methods of X-ay astronomy. Since the first discovery of X-ray sources theory predicted a high degree of polarization that could be expected via electron scattering and non-thermal emission mechanisms. X-ray polarimetry is especially important for the X-ray binary systems. The compact objects in these systems are neutron stars, white dwarfs and black holes. Neutron stars and white dwarfs have their intrinsic magnetic fields. But the magnetic field can exist in the accretion disk around a black hole. We demonstrate that the results of the future polarimetric observations in the X-ray range allow to determine the magnetic field strength at the the radius of the innermost stable circular orbit and to determine the value of the black hole spin. The X-ray polarimetry allows also to obtain constraints on the electric charge value of a black hole.

  9. Close binary systems in OB-associations regions. V. the star V456 Cyg in direction of Cyg OB1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakirov, M. M.; Eshankulova, M. U.

    2006-10-01

    New UBVR photoelectric observations of the eclipsing variable star V456 Cyg of Algol type were obtained at the Maidanak Observatory in 1999-2003. The new ephemeris of the binary is: Min I=JDH2444911.3592(7) + {0.89119484 (14)d}\\cdot{E} + {0.15(1)}d\\cdot 10-9{\\cdot E2}. All of the light curves of the star V456 Cyg were solved by Lavrov's direct method, and elements of the photometric orbit were calculated. The results obtained in R-curve are different from data for other ones. We estimated the absolute basic parameters of the components: M1=2.0M⊙, M2 = 1.7M⊙, R1=1.7R⊙, R2 = 1.6R⊙, M1, bol = +1.7m, M2,bol = +2.5m. The components do not reach ZAMS in the H-R diagram and their age is 107 yrs. The distance for the star V456 Cyg is about 600 pc. The star lies in a well-maked OB-stars group separated by a distance of about 500 pc in the direction of the OB-association Cyg OB1.

  10. A spectroscopic search for colliding stellar winds in O-type close binary systems. III - 29 UW Canis Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggs, Michael S.; Gies, Douglas R.

    1993-01-01

    The orbital-phase variations in the optical emission lines and UV P Cygni lines of the massive O-type binary 29 UW Canis Majoris are investigated in a search for evidence of colliding winds. High SNR spectra of the H-alpha and He I 6678-A emission lines are presented, and radial velocity curves for several features associated with the photosphere of the more luminous primary star are given. The H-alpha features consists of a P Cygni component that shares the motion of the primary, and which probably originates at the base of its wind, and a broad, stationary emission component. It is proposed that the broad emission forms in a plane midway between the stars where the winds collide. A simple geometric model is used to show that this placement of the broad component can explain the lack of orbital velocity shifts, the near-constancy of the emission strength throughout the orbit, the large velocities associated with the H-alpha wings, and the constancy of the velocity range observed.

  11. A spectroscopic search for colliding stellar winds in O-type close binary systems. III - 29 UW Canis Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggs, Michael S.; Gies, Douglas R.

    1993-01-01

    The orbital-phase variations in the optical emission lines and UV P Cygni lines of the massive O-type binary 29 UW Canis Majoris are investigated in a search for evidence of colliding winds. High SNR spectra of the H-alpha and He I 6678-A emission lines are presented, and radial velocity curves for several features associated with the photosphere of the more luminous primary star are given. The H-alpha features consists of a P Cygni component that shares the motion of the primary, and which probably originates at the base of its wind, and a broad, stationary emission component. It is proposed that the broad emission forms in a plane midway between the stars where the winds collide. A simple geometric model is used to show that this placement of the broad component can explain the lack of orbital velocity shifts, the near-constancy of the emission strength throughout the orbit, the large velocities associated with the H-alpha wings, and the constancy of the velocity range observed.

  12. UNDERSTANDING THE UNUSUAL X-RAY EMISSION PROPERTIES OF THE MASSIVE, CLOSE BINARY WR 20a: A HIGH ENERGY WINDOW INTO THE STELLAR WIND INITIATION REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, Gabriela; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Strickler, Rachel

    2013-11-10

    The problem of explaining the X-ray emission properties of the massive, close binary WR 20a is discussed. Located near the cluster core of Westerlund 2, WR 20a is composed of two nearly identical Wolf-Rayet stars of 82 and 83 solar masses orbiting with a period of only 3.7 days. Although Chandra observations were taken during the secondary optical eclipse, the X-ray light curve shows no signs of a flux decrement. In fact, WR 20a appears slightly more X-ray luminous and softer during the optical eclipse, opposite to what has been observed in other binary systems. To aid in our interpretation of the data, we compare with the results of hydrodynamical simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code Mezcal which includes radiative cooling and a radiative acceleration force term. It is shown that the X-ray emission can be successfully explained in models where the wind-wind collision interface in this system occurs while the outflowing material is still being accelerated. Consequently, WR 20a serves as a critical test-case for how radiatively driven stellar winds are initiated and how they interact. Our models not only procure a robust description of current Chandra data, which cover the orbital phases between 0.3 and 0.6, but also provide detailed predictions over the entire orbit.

  13. Understanding the Unusual X-Ray Emission Properties of the Massive, Close Binary WR 20a: A High Energy Window into the Stellar Wind Initiation Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Gabriela; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Strickler, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    The problem of explaining the X-ray emission properties of the massive, close binary WR 20a is discussed. Located near the cluster core of Westerlund 2, WR 20a is composed of two nearly identical Wolf-Rayet stars of 82 and 83 solar masses orbiting with a period of only 3.7 days. Although Chandra observations were taken during the secondary optical eclipse, the X-ray light curve shows no signs of a flux decrement. In fact, WR 20a appears slightly more X-ray luminous and softer during the optical eclipse, opposite to what has been observed in other binary systems. To aid in our interpretation of the data, we compare with the results of hydrodynamical simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code Mezcal which includes radiative cooling and a radiative acceleration force term. It is shown that the X-ray emission can be successfully explained in models where the wind-wind collision interface in this system occurs while the outflowing material is still being accelerated. Consequently, WR 20a serves as a critical test-case for how radiatively driven stellar winds are initiated and how they interact. Our models not only procure a robust description of current Chandra data, which cover the orbital phases between 0.3 and 0.6, but also provide detailed predictions over the entire orbit.

  14. Tomographic Separation of Composite Spectra. XII. The Physical Properties and Spectral Phase Variability of the Massive Close Binary HD 159176

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Laura R.; Epps, Jacob G.; Snyder, Joseph D.

    2016-12-01

    We present our analysis of the double-lined, O-binary HD 159176 based on observations made with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). We use cross-correlation methods to obtain radial velocities, confirm the orbital elements, and estimate the UV flux ratio. In addition, we cross-correlate specific regions of the IUE spectra corresponding to Fe v, Fe iv, He ii, N iii, and O iv features to determine the phase dependence of the cross-correlation strength for those features. We tomographically reconstruct the individual component spectra, which we classify as O6.5 V + O7 V. We present the first light-curve analysis of observations from the HIPPARCOS satellite combined with data from Thomas & Pachoulakis and determine an orbital inclination, i=43\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 5+/- 4\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 5. Both stars are well within their Roche surfaces. Our derived masses, {M}p/{M}⊙ =46.4{+/- }9.514.3 and {M}s/{M}⊙ =44.{+/- }9.113.6, are constrained by the known distance and reddening to NGC 6383 and the derived optical flux ratio, and agree within errors with predicted evolutionary masses. Both components display phase variations corresponding to the classical Struve-Sahade effect in the UV, Fe iv, N iii, and O iv cross-correlation functions. The Fe v features have remarkably uniform profile strengths except in observations prior to conjunctions, a possible post-quadrature Struve-Sahade effect. The derived orbital elements from the various ions are not affected by the Struve-Sahade variability. Both the spectral variability and derived orbital semi-amplitudes of He ii λ 1640 suggest that this feature is formed preferentially on the inner hemispheres of the component stars.

  15. Polarimetric study of the very close eclipsing binary system of the Wolf-Rayet type CX Cep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartasheva, T. A.

    The results of polarization observations of CX Cep carried out at SAO RAS in August, 1998 were compared with the results of its earlier investigations by Schulte-Ladbeck and Van der Hucht (1989). The mean level of linear polarization of the system is noted to sharply increase (from ≍6.1%, in observations of the first researchers, to ≍7%, in ours) which was accompanied by a rise in the amplitude of polarization variations over the orbital period (from ≍0.3% to ≍1%, respectively). A Fourier analysis of the new polarization curve of CX Cep was made by the universally accepted method. The results of the analysis were compared with the analogous results of our repeat analysis of the observations made by Schulte-Ladbeck and Van der Hucht (Kartasheva, 2002). The comparison showed that by 1998 an abrupt increase (≍3 times) occurred in the degree of asymmetry of scattering matter relative to the orbital plane of the system. This increase was accompanied by a sharp rise (≍5 times) of the degree of matter concentration towards this plane and by a growth of more than 3 times of the electron density of the WR envelope. All this suggests that CX Cep was in the state of excitation in 1998 August. This is also evidenced by the revealed in the analysis of our observations rough violation of orthogonality of the axes of ellipses described by the first and second harmonics of expansion, which does not allow the estimate of the orbit inclination of the system obtained in this analysis to be trusted. An identity is noted of the state of CX Cep in the observations of August, 1998 with the state of the closest of the WR binaries CQ Cep in 1994 July.

  16. Evolutionary and pulsational properties of low-mass white dwarf stars with oxygen cores resulting from close binary evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaus, L. G.; Córsico, A. H.; Gautschy, A.; Han, Z.; Serenelli, A. M.; Panei, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    The present work is designed to explore the evolutionary and pulsational properties of low-mass white dwarfs with carbon/oxygen cores. In particular, we follow the evolution of a 0.33-Msolar white dwarf remnant in a self-consistent way with the predictions of nuclear burning, element diffusion and the history of the white dwarf progenitor. Attention is focused on the occurrence of hydrogen shell flashes induced by diffusion processes during cooling phases. The evolutionary stages prior to the white dwarf formation are also fully accounted for by computing the conservative binary evolution of an initially 2.5-Msolar Population I star with a 1.25-Msolar companion, and with period Pi= 3 d. Evolution is followed down to the domain of the ZZ Ceti stars on the white dwarf cooling branch. We find that chemical diffusion induces the occurrence of an additional hydrogen thermonuclear flash, which leads to stellar models with thin hydrogen envelopes. As a result, a fast cooling is encountered at advanced stages of evolution. In addition, we explore the adiabatic pulsational properties of the resulting white dwarf models. As compared with their helium-core counterparts, low-mass oxygen-core white dwarfs are characterized by a pulsational spectrum much more featured, an aspect which could eventually be used for distinguishing both types of stars, if low-mass white dwarfs were in fact found to pulsate as ZZ Ceti-type variables. Finally, we perform a non-adiabatic pulsational analysis on the resulting carbon/oxygen low-mass white dwarf models.

  17. Ultraviolet observations of close-binary and pulsating nuclei of planetary nebulae; Winds and shells around low-mass supergiants; The close-binary nucleus of the planetary nebula HFG-1; A search for binary nuclei of planetary nebulae; UV monitoring of irregularly variable planetary nuclei; and The pulsating nucleus of the planetary nebula Lo 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Howard E.

    1992-01-01

    A brief summary of the research highlights is presented. The topics covered include the following: binary nuclei of planetary nebulae; other variable planetary nuclei; low-mass supergiants; and other IUE-related research.

  18. Radio Emission and Orbital Motion from the Close-encounter Star-Brown Dwarf Binary WISE J072003.20-084651.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Melis, Carl; Todd, Jacob; Gelino, Christopher R.; Hallinan, Gregg; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella

    2015-12-01

    We report the detection of radio emission and orbital motion from the nearby star-brown dwarf binary WISE J072003.20-084651.2AB. Radio observations across the 4.5-6.5 GHz band with the Very Large Array identify at the position of the system quiescent emission with a flux density of 15 ± 3 μJy, and a highly polarized radio source that underwent a 2-3 minute burst with peak flux density 300 ± 90 μJy. The latter emission is likely a low-level magnetic flare similar to optical flares previously observed for this source. No outbursts were detected in separate narrow-band Hα monitoring observations. We report new high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations that confirm the presence of a co-moving T5.5 secondary and provide the first indications of three-dimensional orbital motion. We used these data to revise our estimates for the orbital period (4.1{}-1.3+2.7 year) and tightly constrain the orbital inclination to be nearly edge-on (93.°6+1.°6-1.°4), although robust measures of the component and system masses will require further monitoring. The inferred orbital motion does not change the high likelihood that this radio-emitting very low-mass binary made a close pass to the Sun in the past 100 kyr. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  19. Radial velocity variable, hot post-AGB stars from the MUCHFUSS project. Classification, atmospheric parameters, formation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reindl, N.; Geier, S.; Kupfer, T.; Bloemen, S.; Schaffenroth, V.; Heber, U.; Barlow, B. N.; Østensen, R. H.

    2016-03-01

    In the course of the MUCHFUSS project we recently discovered four radial velocity (RV) variable, hot (Teff≈ 80 000-110 000 K) post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Among them, we found the first known RV variable O(He) star, the only second known RV variable PG 1159 close binary candidate, as well as the first two naked (i.e., without planetary nebula (PN)) H-rich post-AGB stars of spectral type O(H) that show significant RV variations. We present a non-LTE spectral analysis of these stars along with one further O(H)-type star whose RV variations were found to be not significant. We also report the discovery of a far-infrared excess in the case of the PG 1159 star. None of the stars in our sample displays nebular emission lines, which can be explained well in terms of a very late thermal pulse evolution in the case of the PG 1159 star. The "missing" PNe around the O(H)-type stars seems strange, since we find that several central stars of PNe have much longer post-AGB times. Besides the non-ejection of a PN, the occurrence of a late thermal pulse, or the re-accretion of the PN in the previous post-AGB evolution offer possible explanations for those stars not harbouring a PN (anymore). In the case of the O(He) star J0757, we speculate that it might have been previously part of a compact He transferring binary system. In this scenario, the mass transfer must have stopped after a certain time, leaving behind a low-mass close companion that may be responsible for the extreme RV shift of 107.0 ± 22.0 km s-1 that was measured within only 31 min.

  20. THE CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY OF [HH97] FS Aur-79: A CLOSE BINARY WITH LATE-TYPE ACTIVE (dK7e+dM3e) COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S. J.; Robertson, J. W.; De Souza, T. R.; Tycner, C.; Honeycutt, R. K. E-mail: jrobertson@atu.edu E-mail: c.tycner@cmich.edu

    2011-04-15

    Using Doppler tomography we show that FS Aur-79, a near-contact close binary system with late-type active dK7e+dM3e components, has chromospheric prominences in two distinct emission regions associated with the primary star and a larger amount of chromospheric activity associated with the cooler secondary star. The line profiles, equivalent widths, and equivalent width ratios of the H{alpha} and H{beta} emission lines as a function of orbital phase further support that the majority of the chromospheric emission originates above the secondary star and near the neck region. Analysis of high-resolution spectra using the technique of broadening functions has enabled us to determine the radial velocity of the secondary star near quadratures to be approximately 224 km s{sup -1}. A Wilson-Devinney model of the system fitting the UBV light curves and radial velocities shows that there are star spots near the chromospherically active regions. Finally, the absence of Li I {lambda}6708 in the spectra lets us put a lower limit on the age of this system to at least 500 Myr.

  1. Very Low-mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from MARVELS. VI. A Giant Planet and a Brown Dwarf Candidate in a Close Binary System HD 87646

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bo; Ge, Jian; Wolszczan, Alex; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Lee, Brian; Henry, Gregory W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Martín, Eduardo L.; Niedzielski, Andrzej; Xie, Jiwei; Fleming, Scott W.; Thomas, Neil; Williamson, Michael; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz; Jiang, Peng; Martinez Fiorenzano, A. F.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Guo, Pengcheng; Grieves, Nolan; Li, Rui; Liu, Jane; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Mazeh, Tsevi; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Paegert, Martin; Sithajan, Sirinrat; Stassun, Keivan; Thirupathi, Sivarani; van Eyken, Julian C.; Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P.; Zhao, Bo; Zucker, Shay

    2016-11-01

    We report the detections of a giant planet (MARVELS-7b) and a brown dwarf (BD) candidate (MARVELS-7c) around the primary star in the close binary system, HD 87646. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first close binary system with more than one substellar circumprimary companion that has been discovered. The detection of this giant planet was accomplished using the first multi-object Doppler instrument (KeckET) at the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) telescope. Subsequent radial velocity observations using the Exoplanet Tracker at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, the High Resolution Spectrograph at the Hobby Eberley telescope, the “Classic” spectrograph at the Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope at the Fairborn Observatory, and MARVELS from SDSS-III confirmed this giant planet discovery and revealed the existence of a long-period BD in this binary. HD 87646 is a close binary with a separation of ˜22 au between the two stars, estimated using the Hipparcos catalog and our newly acquired AO image from PALAO on the 200 inch Hale Telescope at Palomar. The primary star in the binary, HD 87646A, has {T}{eff} = 5770 ± 80 K, log g = 4.1 ± 0.1, and [Fe/H] = -0.17 ± 0.08. The derived minimum masses of the two substellar companions of HD 87646A are 12.4 ± 0.7 {M}{Jup} and 57.0 ± 3.7 {M}{Jup}. The periods are 13.481 ± 0.001 days and 674 ± 4 days and the measured eccentricities are 0.05 ± 0.02 and 0.50 ± 0.02 respectively. Our dynamical simulations show that the system is stable if the binary orbit has a large semimajor axis and a low eccentricity, which can be verified with future astrometry observations.

  2. Stardust findings favor not only the planetary origin of comets but the underlying close-binary cosmogony of the Solar System as well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobyshevski, Edward M.

    2008-09-01

    We analyze findings of the Stardust mission that brought to the Earth dust from the 81P/Wild 2 coma. Just as the data obtained in the Deep Impact mission to 9P/Tempel 1, they are at odds with the universally accepted condensation/sublimation comet paradigm. They fit rather well to the approach assuming ejection of nuclei of short-period comets from Moon-like bodies of the type of Galilean satellites in rare (six to seven events in 4.5 aeons) global explosions of their massive icy envelopes saturated by 2H 2 + O 2, products of the electrolysis of ice. This approach offers an explanation, in particular, for the jet activity of comets, which is sustained by combustion of the 2H 2 + O 2 + organics mixture ignited and complemented by the solar radiation. Combustion accounts also for other observations, in particular, the presence in the dust of products of high-temperature (800-900 K) metamorphism. The presence of minerals forming at still higher temperatures (˜1400-2000 K), just as the undoubtedly planetary origin of some long-period comets arriving from the joint planeto-cometary cloud beyond Neptune, forces one, however, to invoke the close-binary cosmogony of the Solar System, which three decades ago predicted the existence of such a cloud (in the recent decade, this prediction has been substantiated by the discovery there of many dwarf planets). This cosmogony is based on the modern understanding of the processes involved in the formation of multiple stellar systems and of their gas-dynamic evolution. It considers the Jupiter-Sun system as the limiting case of a binary star and uses it as a basis for explanation of all the known observations and for prediction of the new ones to come. It provides a plausible explanation, in particular, for both the origin and capture by the Earth of the Moon as a high-temperature condensate and the formation of the Galilean satellites, which also contain inclusions of refractory minerals in the ices of their envelopes.

  3. Binary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Keegan; Nakajima, Miki; Stevenson, David J.

    2014-11-01

    Can a bound pair of similar mass terrestrial planets exist? We are interested here in bodies with a mass ratio of ~ 3:1 or less (so Pluto/Charon or Earth/Moon do not qualify) and we do not regard the absence of any such discoveries in the Kepler data set to be significant since the tidal decay and merger of a close binary is prohibitively fast well inside of 1AU. SPH simulations of equal mass “Earths” were carried out to seek an answer to this question, assuming encounters that were only slightly more energetic than parabolic (zero energy). We were interested in whether the collision or near collision of two similar mass bodies would lead to a binary in which the two bodies remain largely intact, effectively a tidal capture hypothesis though with the tidal distortion being very large. Necessarily, the angular momentum of such an encounter will lead to bodies separated by only a few planetary radii if capture occurs. Consistent with previous work, mostly by Canup, we find that most impacts are disruptive, leading to a dominant mass body surrounded by a disk from which a secondary forms whose mass is small compared to the primary, hence not a binary planet by our adopted definition. However, larger impact parameter “kissing” collisions were found to produce binaries because the dissipation upon first encounter was sufficient to provide a bound orbit that was then rung down by tides to an end state where the planets are only a few planetary radii apart. The long computational times for these simulation make it difficult to fully map the phase space of encounters for which this outcome is likely but the indications are that the probability is not vanishingly small and since planetary encounters are a plausible part of planet formation, we expect binary planets to exist and be a non-negligible fraction of the larger orbital radius exoplanets awaiting discovery.

  4. A radial velocity survey for post-common-envelope Wolf-Rayet central stars of planetary nebulae: first results and discovery of the close binary nucleus of NGC 5189

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manick, Rajeev; Miszalski, Brent; McBride, Vanessa

    2015-04-01

    The formation of Wolf-Rayet central stars of planetary nebulae ([WR] CSPNe) whose spectroscopic appearance mimics massive WR stars remains poorly understood. Least understood is the nature and frequency of binary companions to [WR] CSPNe that may explain their H-deficiency. We have conducted a systematic radial velocity (RV) study of six [WR] CSPNe to search for post-common-envelope (post-CE) [WR] binaries. We used a cross-correlation method to construct the RV time series as successfully done for massive close binary WR stars. No significant RV variability was detected for the late-[WC] type nuclei of Hen 2-113, Hen 3-1333, PMR 2 and Hen 2-99. Significant, large-amplitude variability was found in the [WC4] nucleus of NGC 5315. In the [WO1] nucleus of NGC 5189, we discovered significant periodic variability that reveals a close binary with Porb = 4.04 ± 0.1 d. We measured a semi-amplitude of 62.3 ± 1.3 km s-1 that gives a companion mass of m2 ≥ 0.5 M⊙ or m2 = 0.84 M⊙ (assuming i = 45°). The most plausible companion type is a massive white dwarf (WD) as found in Fleming 1. The spectacular nebular morphology of NGC 5189 fits the pattern of recently discovered post-CE PNe extremely well with its dominant low-ionization structures (e.g. as in NGC 6326) and collimated outflows (e.g. as in Fleming 1). The long 4.04 d orbital period is either anomalous (e.g. NGC 2346) or it may indicate that there is a sizeable population of [WR] binaries with massive WD companions in relatively wide orbits, perhaps influenced by interactions with the strong [WR] wind.

  5. X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewin, Walter H. G.; van Paradijs, Jan; van den Heuvel, Edward Peter Jacobus

    1997-01-01

    Preface; 1. The properties of X-ray binaries, N. E. White, F. Nagase and A. N. Parmar; 2. Optical and ultraviolet observations of X-ray binaries J. van Paradijs and J. E. McClintock; 3. Black-hole binaries Y. Tanaka and W. H. G. Lewin; 4. X-ray bursts Walter H. G. Lewin, Jan Van Paradijs and Ronald E. Taam; 5. Millisecond pulsars D. Bhattacharya; 6. Rapid aperiodic variability in binaries M. van der Klis; 7. Radio properties of X-ray binaries R. M. Hjellming and X. Han; 8. Cataclysmic variable stars France Anne-Dominic Córdova; 9. Normal galaxies and their X-ray binary populations G. Fabbiano; 10. Accretion in close binaries Andrew King; 11. Formation and evolution of neutron stars and black holes in binaries F. Verbunt and E. P. J. van den Heuvel; 12. The magnetic fields of neutron stars and their evolution D. Bhattacharya and G. Srinivasan; 13. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts K. Hurley; 14. A catalogue of X-ray binaries Jan van Paradijs; 15. A compilation of cataclysmic binaries with known or suspected orbital periods Hans Ritter and Ulrich Kolb; References; Index.

  6. XMM-NEWTON MONITORING OF THE CLOSE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARY AK SCO. EVIDENCE OF TIDE-DRIVEN FILLING OF THE INNER GAP IN THE CIRCUMBINARY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez de Castro, Ana Ines; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; Talavera, Antonio; Sytov, A. Yu.; Bisikalo, D.

    2013-03-20

    AK Sco stands out among pre-main-sequence binaries because of its prominent ultraviolet excess, the high eccentricity of its orbit, and the strong tides driven by it. AK Sco consists of two F5-type stars that get as close as 11 R{sub *} at periastron passage. The presence of a dense (n{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}) extended envelope has been unveiled recently. In this article, we report the results from an XMM-Newton-based monitoring of the system. We show that at periastron, X-ray and UV fluxes are enhanced by a factor of {approx}3 with respect to the apastron values. The X-ray radiation is produced in an optically thin plasma with T {approx} 6.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K and it is found that the N{sub H} column density rises from 0.35 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} at periastron to 1.11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} at apastron, in good agreement with previous polarimetric observations. The UV emission detected in the Optical Monitor band seems to be caused by the reprocessing of the high-energy magnetospheric radiation on the circumstellar material. Further evidence of the strong magnetospheric disturbances is provided by the detection of line broadening of 278.7 km s{sup -1} in the N V line with Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Numerical simulations of the mass flow from the circumbinary disk to the components have been carried out. They provide a consistent scenario with which to interpret AK Sco observations. We show that the eccentric orbit acts like a gravitational piston. At apastron, matter is dragged efficiently from the inner disk border, filling the inner gap and producing accretion streams that end as ring-like structures around each component of the system. At periastron, the ring-like structures come into contact, leading to angular momentum loss, and thus producing an accretion outburst.

  7. From Binaries to Triples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freismuth, T.; Tokovinin, A.

    2002-12-01

    About 10% of all binary systems are close binaries (P<1000 days). Among those with P<10d, over 40% are known to belong to higher-multiplicity systems (triples, quadruples, etc.). Do ALL close systems have tertiary companions? For a selection of 12 nearby, and apparently "single" close binaries with solar-mass dwarf primary components from the 8-th catalogue of spectroscopic binary orbits, images in the B and R filters were taken at the CTIO 0.9m telescope and suitable tertiary candidates were be identified on color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). Of the 12 SBs, four were found to have tertiary candidates: HD 67084, HD 120734, HD 93486, and VV Mon. However, none of these candidates were found to be common proper motion companions. Follow up observations using adaptive optics reveal a companion to HD 148704. Future observations are planned.

  8. Binary Plutinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith S.

    2015-08-01

    The Pluto-Charon binary was the first trans-neptunian binary to be identified in 1978. Pluto-Charon is a true binary with both components orbiting a barycenter located between them. The Pluto system is also the first, and to date only, known binary with a satellite system consisting of four small satellites in near-resonant orbits around the common center of mass. Seven other Plutinos, objects in 3:2 mean motion resonance with Neptune, have orbital companions including 2004 KB19 reported here for the first time. Compared to the Cold Classical population, the Plutinos differ in the frequency of binaries, the relative sizes of the components, and their inclination distribution. These differences point to distinct dynamical histories and binary formation processes encountered by Plutinos.

  9. Magnetic activity of interacting binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Colin A.

    2017-10-01

    Interacting binaries provide unique parameter regimes, both rapid rotation and tidal distortion, in which to test stellar dynamo theories and study the resulting magnetic activity. Close binaries such as cataclysmic variables (CVs) have been found to differentially rotate, and so can provide testbeds for tidal dissipation efficiency in stellar convective envelopes, with implications for both CV and planet-star evolution. Furthermore, CVs show evidence of preferential emergence of magnetic flux tubes towards the companion star, as well as large, long-lived prominences that form preferentially within the binary geometry. Moreover, RS CVn binaries also show clear magnetic interactions between the two components in the form of coronal X-ray emission. Here, we review several examples of magnetic interactions in different types of close binaries.

  10. T Tauri Spectroscopic Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudorov, A. E.; Eretnova, O. V.

    2017-06-01

    The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, the excess radius-age, and the eccentricity-period relations are constructed for double-lined spectroscopic T Tauri binaries. The masses and the ages of the classical T Tauri and the weak-line T Tauri stars are compared. All components of T Tauri stars have the excess radius in comparison with initial Main Sequence stars of corresponding mass. The younger the star the more excess radius it has. The overwhelming majority of close binaries (P<10d) have eccentricity near to zero. The fraction of quadruple systems in our sample are higher than for Main Sequence stars.

  11. The Search for Trojan Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merline, William J.; Tamblyn, P. M.; Dumas, C.; Close, L. M.; Chapman, C. R.; Durda, D. D.; Levison, H. F.; Hamilton, D. P.; Nesvorny, D.; Storrs, A.; Enke, B.; Menard, F.

    2007-10-01

    We report on observations of Jupiter Trojan asteroids in search of binaries. We made observations using HST/ACS of 35 small (V = 17.5-19.5) objects in Cycle 14, without detecting any binaires. We have also observed a few dozen Trojans in our ground-based study of larger Trojans, discovering only one binary. The result is that the frequency of moderately-separated binaries among the Trojans seem rather low, likely less than 5%. Although we have only statistics of small numbers, it appears that the binary frequencies are more akin to the larger Main-Belt asteroids, than to the frequency in the TNO region, which probably exceeds 10%. The low frequency is inconsistent with the projections based on Trojan contact binaries by Mann et al. (2006, BAAS 38, 6509), although our work cannot detect very close or contact binaries. We discovered and characterized the orbit and density of the first Trojan binary, (617) Patroclus using the Gemini AO system (Merline et al. 2001 IAUC 7741). A second binary, (624) Hecktor, has now been reported by Marchis et al. (2006, IAUC 8732). In a broad survey of Main Belt asteroids, we found that, among the larger objects, the binary fraction is about 2%, while we are finding that the fraction is significantly higher among smaller asteroids (and this is even more apparent from lightcurve discoveries). Further, characteristics of these smaller systems indicate a distinctly different formation mechanism the the larger MB binaries. Because the Trojans have compositions that are more like the KBOs, while they live in a collisional environment much more like the Main Belt than the KBOs, these objects should hold vital clues to binary formation mechanics. And because there seems to be a distinct difference in larger and smaller main-belt binaries, we sought to detect such differences among the Trojans as well.

  12. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARIES WITH STELLAR COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gies, D. R.; Matson, R. A.; Guo, Z.; Lester, K. V.; Orosz, J. A.; Peters, G. J. E-mail: rmatson@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: lester@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: gjpeters@mucen.usc.edu

    2015-12-15

    Many short-period binary stars have distant orbiting companions that have played a role in driving the binary components into close separation. Indirect detection of a tertiary star is possible by measuring apparent changes in eclipse times of eclipsing binaries as the binary orbits the common center of mass. Here we present an analysis of the eclipse timings of 41 eclipsing binaries observed throughout the NASA Kepler mission of long duration and precise photometry. This subset of binaries is characterized by relatively deep and frequent eclipses of both stellar components. We present preliminary orbital elements for seven probable triple stars among this sample, and we discuss apparent period changes in seven additional eclipsing binaries that may be related to motion about a tertiary in a long period orbit. The results will be used in ongoing investigations of the spectra and light curves of these binaries for further evidence of the presence of third stars.

  13. ON THE NATURE OF THE HERBIG B[e] STAR BINARY SYSTEM V921 SCORPII: DISCOVERY OF A CLOSE COMPANION AND RELATION TO THE LARGE-SCALE BIPOLAR NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Stefan; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Monnier, John D.; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Kreplin, Alexander; Weigelt, Gerd

    2012-02-10

    Belonging to the group of B[e] stars, V921 Scorpii is associated with a strong infrared excess and permitted and forbidden line emission, indicating the presence of low- and high-density circumstellar gas and dust. Many aspects of V921 Sco and other B[e] stars still remain mysterious, including their evolutionary state and the physical conditions resulting in the class-defining characteristics. In this Letter, we employ Very Large Telescope Interferometer/AMBER spectro-interferometry in order to reconstruct high-resolution ({lambda}/2B = 0.''0013) model-independent interferometric images for three wavelength bands around 1.65, 2.0, and 2.3 {mu}m. In our images, we discover a close (25.0 {+-} 0.8 mas, corresponding to {approx}29 {+-} 0.9 AU at 1.15 kpc) companion around V921 Sco. Between two epochs in 2008 and 2009, we measure orbital motion of {approx}7 Degree-Sign , implying an orbital period of {approx}35 years (for a circular orbit). Around the primary star, we detect a disk-like structure with indications for a radial temperature gradient. The polar axis of this AU-scale disk is aligned with the arcminute-scale bipolar nebula in which V921 Sco is embedded. Using Magellan/IMACS imaging, we detect multi-layered arc-shaped substructure in the nebula, suggesting episodic outflow activity from the system with a period of {approx}25 years, roughly matching the estimated orbital period of the companion. Our study supports the hypothesis that the B[e] phenomenon is related to dynamical interaction in a close binary system.

  14. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters.

    PubMed

    Benacquista, Matthew J; Downing, Jonathan M B

    2013-01-01

    Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10(4)-10(6) stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  15. Division V: Commission 42: Close Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, Ignasi; Richards, Mercedes T.; Rucinski, Slavek; Bradstreet, David H.; Harmanec, Petr; Kaluzny, Janusz; Mikolajewska, Joanna; Munari, Ulisse; Niarchos, Panagiotis; Olah, Katalin; Pribulla, Theodor; Scarfe, Colin D.; Torres, Guillermo

    2015-08-01

    Commission 42 (C42) co-organized, together with Commission 27 (C27) and Division V (Div V) as a whole, a full day of science and business sessions that were held on 24 August 2012. The program included time slots for discussion of business matters related to Div V, C27 and C42, and two sessions of 2 hours each devoted to science talks of interest to both C42 and C27. In addition, we had a joint session between Div IV and Div V motivated by the proposal to reformulate the division structure of the IAU and the possible merger of the two divisions into a new Div G. The current report gives an account of the matters discussed during the business session of C42.

  16. UHE particle production in close binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillas, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Cygnus X-3 appears to generate so much power in the form of charged particles of up to approx 10 to the 17th power eV that the galaxy may need approx 1 such source on average to maintain its flux of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Accreting gas must supply the energy, and in a surprisingly ordered form, if it is correct to use a Vest-rand-Eichler model for radiation of gammas, modified by the introduction of an accretion wake. Certain relationships between 10 to the 12th power eV and 10 to the 15th power gamma rays are expected.

  17. Planetary systems in binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Genya

    and secular binary perturbations. A planet that has gained a large orbital eccentricity through the Kozai cycles will eventually lose its angular momentum into stellar tides during the repeated close pericenter passages and result in a tight, nearly circular orbit around the central star. Such an orbital migration process triggered by a stellar companion may be quite common for multiple- planet systems, and close-in planets formed in this way may have unique orbital characteristics that can be identified by observations.

  18. Modified evolution of stellar binaries from supermassive black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Yi-Han; Yuan, Ye-Fei

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of main-sequence binaries resided in the galactic centre is influenced a lot by the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Due to this perturbation, the stars in a dense environment are likely to experience mergers or collisions through secular or non-secular interactions. In this work, we study the dynamics of the stellar binaries at galactic centre, perturbed by another distant SMBH. Geometrically, such a four-body system is supposed to be decomposed into the inner triple (SMBH-star-star) and the outer triple (SMBH-stellar binary-SMBH). We survey the parameter space and determine the criteria analytically for the stellar mergers and the tidal disruption events (TDEs). For a relative distant and equal masses SMBH binary, the stars have more opportunities to merge as a result from the Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations in the inner triple. With a sample of tight stellar binaries, our numerical experiments reveal that a significant fraction of the binaries, ˜70 per cent, experience merger eventually. Whereas the majority of the stellar TDEs are likely to occur at a close periapses to the SMBH, induced by the outer Kozai effect. The tidal disruptions are found numerically as many as ˜10 per cent for a close SMBH binary that is enhanced significantly than the one without the external SMBH. These effects require the outer perturber to have an inclined orbit (≥40°) relatively to the inner orbital plane and may lead to a burst of the extremely astronomical events associated with the detection of the SMBH binary.

  19. BINARY ASTEROID ENCOUNTERS WITH TERRESTRIAL PLANETS: TIMESCALES AND EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-15

    Many asteroids that make close encounters with terrestrial planets are in a binary configuration. Here, we calculate the relevant encounter timescales and investigate the effects of encounters on a binary's mutual orbit. We use a combination of analytical and numerical approaches with a wide range of initial conditions. Our test cases include generic binaries with close, moderate, and wide separations, as well as seven well-characterized near-Earth binaries. We find that close approaches (<10 Earth radii) occur for almost all binaries on 1-10 million year timescales. At such distances, our results suggest substantial modifications to a binary's semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination, which we quantify. Encounters within 30 Earth radii typically occur on sub-million year timescales and significantly affect the wider binaries. Important processes in the lives of near-Earth binaries, such as tidal and radiative evolution, can be altered or stopped by planetary encounters.

  20. Stability of binaries. Part II: Rubble-pile binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ishan

    2016-10-01

    We consider the stability of the binary asteroids whose members are granular aggregates held together by self-gravity alone. A binary is said to be stable whenever both its members are orbitally and structurally stable to both orbital and structural perturbations. To this end, we extend the stability analysis of Sharma (Sharma [2015] Icarus, 258, 438-453), that is applicable to binaries with rigid members, to the case of binary systems with rubble members. We employ volume averaging (Sharma et al. [2009] Icarus, 200, 304-322), which was inspired by past work on elastic/fluid, rotating and gravitating ellipsoids. This technique has shown promise when applied to rubble-pile ellipsoids, but requires further work to settle some of its underlying assumptions. The stability test is finally applied to some suspected binary systems, viz., 216 Kleopatra, 624 Hektor and 90 Antiope. We also see that equilibrated binaries that are close to mobilizing their maximum friction can sustain only a narrow range of shapes and, generally, congruent shapes are preferred.

  1. Double Eclipsing Binary Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagas, P.; Pejcha, O.

    2012-06-01

    The parameters of the mutual orbit of eclipsing binaries that are physically connected can be obtained by precision timing of minima over time through light travel time effect, apsidal motion or orbital precession. This, however, requires joint analysis of data from different sources obtained through various techniques and with insufficiently quantified uncertainties. In particular, photometric uncertainties are often underestimated, which yields too small uncertainties in minima timings if determined through analysis of a χ2 surface. The task is even more difficult for double eclipsing binaries, especially those with periods close to a resonance such as CzeV344, where minima get often blended with each other. This code solves the double binary parameters simultaneously and then uses these parameters to determine minima timings (or more specifically O-C values) for individual datasets. In both cases, the uncertainties (or more precisely confidence intervals) are determined through bootstrap resampling of the original data. This procedure to a large extent alleviates the common problem with underestimated photometric uncertainties and provides a check on possible degeneracies in the parameters and the stability of the results. While there are shortcomings to this method as well when compared to Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, the ease of the implementation of bootstrapping is a significant advantage.

  2. A spectroscopic and photometric study of the planetary nebulae Kn 61 and Pa 5

    SciTech Connect

    García-Díaz, Ma. T.; González-Buitrago, D.; López, J. A.; Zharikov, S.; Tovmassian, G.; Borisov, N.; Valyavin, G. E-mail: dgonzalez@astro.unam.mx E-mail: zhar@astro.unam.mx E-mail: borisov@sao.ru

    2014-09-01

    We present the first morpho-kinematical analysis of the planetary nebulae Kn 61 and Pa 5 and explore the nature of their central stars. Our analysis is based on high-resolution and medium-resolution spectroscopic observations, deep narrow-band imaging, and integral photometry. This material allows us to identify the morphological components and study their kinematics. The direct images and spectra indicate an absence of the characteristic [N II] and [S II] emission lines in both nebulae. The nebular spectrum of Kn 61 suggests a hydrogen deficient planetary nebula and the stellar spectrum of the central star reveals a hydrogen-deficient PG 1159-type star. The [O III] position velocity diagram reveals that Kn 61 is a closed, empty, spherical shell with a thin border and a filamentary surface expanding at 67.6 km s{sup –1} and the shell is currently not expanding isotropically. We derived a kinematic age of ∼1.6 × 10{sup 4} yr for an assumed distance of 4 kpc. A photometric period of ∼5.7(±0.4) days has been detected for Kn 61, indicating the presence of a possible binary system at its core. A possible link between filamentary spherical shells and PG 1159-type stars is noted. The morphology of Pa 5 is dominated by an equatorial toroid and faint polar extensions. The equatorial region of this planetary nebula is expanding at 45.2 km s{sup –1}. The stellar spectrum corresponds to a very hot star and is dominated by a steep blue rising continuum and He II, Balmer, and Ca II photospheric lines.

  3. Statistical study of visual binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Rahman, H. I.; Nouh, M. I.; Elsanhoury, W. H.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, some statistical distributions of wide pairs included in Double Star Catalogue are investigated. Frequency distributions and testing hypothesis are derived for some basic parameters of visual binaries. The results reached indicate that, it was found that the magnitude difference is distributed exponentially, which means that the majority of the component of the selected systems is of the same spectral type. The distribution of the mass ratios is concentrated about 0.7 which agree with Salpeter mass function. The distribution of the linear separation appears to be exponentially, which contradict with previous studies for close binaries.

  4. All Bright Cold Classical KBOs are Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith S.; Parker, Alex H.; Grundy, William M.

    2014-11-01

    When sorted by absolute magnitude as seen in ground based observations, an extremely high fraction of the brightest Cold Classical (CC) Kuiper Belt objects (KBO) are, in fact resolved as binaries when observed at higher angular resolution. Of the 22 CCs brighter than H=6.1 observed by HST, 16 have been found to be binary yielding a binary fraction of 73±10%. When low inclination interlopers from the hot population and close binaries are considered, this very high fraction is consistent with 100% of bright CCs being binary. At fainter absolute magnitudes, this fraction drops to ~20%. Such a situation is a natural outcome of a broken size distribution with a steep drop-off in the number of CCs with individual component diameters larger than 150 km (for an assumed albedo of 0.15). A sharp cutoff in the size distribution for CCs is consistent with formation models that suggest that most planetesimals form at a preferred modal size of order 100 km.The very high fraction of binaries among the largest CCs also serves to limit the separation distribution of KBO binaries. At most, 27% of the brightest CCs are possible unresolved binaries. The apparent power law distribution of binary separation must cut off near the current observational limits of HST ( 1800 km at 43 AU). It is worth noting, however, that this observation does not constrain how many components of resolved binaries may themselves be unresolved multiples like 47171 1999 TC36. Finally, it is important to point out that, when sorted by the size of the primary rather than absolute magnitude of the unresolved pair, the fraction of binaries is relatively constant with size (Nesvorny et al. 2011, AJ 141, 159) eliminating observational bias as cause of the pile up of binaries among the brightest Cold Classical Kuiper Belt objects.The very high fraction of binaries among the brightest CCs appears to be an effect of the underlying CC size distribution.

  5. Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, J. J.; Quintana, E. V.; Adams, F. C.; Chambers, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Most stars reside in binary/multiple star systems; however, previous models of planet formation have studied growth of bodies orbiting an isolated single star. Disk material has been observed around one or both components of various young close binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such disks, they can remain dynamically stable for very long times. We have simulated the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets in both circumbinary disks around 'close' binary star systems with stellar separations ($a_B$) in the range 0.05 AU $\\le a_B \\le$ 0.4 AU and binary eccentricities in the range $0 \\le e \\le 0.8$ and circumstellar disks around individual stars with binary separations of tens of AU. The initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet growth within our Solar System and around individual stars in the Alpha Centauri system (Quintana et al. 2002, A.J., 576, 982); giant planets analogous to Jupiter and Saturn are included if their orbits are stable. The planetary systems formed around close binaries with stellar apastron distances less than or equal to 0.2 AU with small stellar eccentricities are very similar to those formed in the Sun-Jupiter-Saturn, whereas planetary systems formed around binaries with larger maximum separations tend to be sparser, with fewer planets, especially interior to 1 AU. Likewise, when the binary periastron exceeds 10 AU, terrestrial planets can form over essentially the entire range of orbits allowed for single stars with Jupiter-like planets, although fewer terrestrial planets tend to form within high eccentricity binary systems. As the binary periastron decreases, the radial extent of the terrestrial planet systems is reduced accordingly. When the periastron is 5 AU, the formation of Earth-like planets near 1 AU is compromised.

  6. Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, J. J.; Quintana, E. V.; Adams, F. C.; Chambers, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Most stars reside in binary/multiple star systems; however, previous models of planet formation have studied growth of bodies orbiting an isolated single star. Disk material has been observed around one or both components of various young close binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such disks, they can remain dynamically stable for very long times. We have simulated the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets in both circumbinary disks around 'close' binary star systems with stellar separations ($a_B$) in the range 0.05 AU $\\le a_B \\le$ 0.4 AU and binary eccentricities in the range $0 \\le e \\le 0.8$ and circumstellar disks around individual stars with binary separations of tens of AU. The initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet growth within our Solar System and around individual stars in the Alpha Centauri system (Quintana et al. 2002, A.J., 576, 982); giant planets analogous to Jupiter and Saturn are included if their orbits are stable. The planetary systems formed around close binaries with stellar apastron distances less than or equal to 0.2 AU with small stellar eccentricities are very similar to those formed in the Sun-Jupiter-Saturn, whereas planetary systems formed around binaries with larger maximum separations tend to be sparser, with fewer planets, especially interior to 1 AU. Likewise, when the binary periastron exceeds 10 AU, terrestrial planets can form over essentially the entire range of orbits allowed for single stars with Jupiter-like planets, although fewer terrestrial planets tend to form within high eccentricity binary systems. As the binary periastron decreases, the radial extent of the terrestrial planet systems is reduced accordingly. When the periastron is 5 AU, the formation of Earth-like planets near 1 AU is compromised.

  7. Stability of multiplanet systems in binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzari, F.; Gallina, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. When exploring the stability of multiplanet systems in binaries, two parameters are normally exploited: the critical semimajor axis ac computed by Holman & Wiegert (1999, AJ, 117, 621) within which planets are stable against the binary perturbations, and the Hill stability limit Δ determining the minimum separation beyond which two planets will avoid mutual close encounters. Both these parameters are derived in different contexts, i.e. Δ is usually adopted for computing the stability limit of two planets around a single star while ac is computed for a single planet in a binary system. Aims: Our aim is to test whether these two parameters can be safely applied in multiplanet systems in binaries or if their predictions fail for particular binary orbital configurations. Methods: We have used the frequency map analysis (FMA) to measure the diffusion of orbits in the phase space as an indicator of chaotic behaviour. Results: First we revisited the reliability of the empirical formula computing ac in the case of single planets in binaries and we find that, in some cases, it underestimates by 10-20% the real outer limit of stability and it does not account for planets trapped in resonance with the companion star well beyond ac. For two-planet systems, the value of Δ is close to that computed for planets around single stars, but the level of chaoticity close to it substantially increases for smaller semimajor axes and higher eccentricities of the binary orbit. In these configurations ac also begins to be unreliable and non-linear secular resonances with the stellar companion lead to chaotic behaviour well within ac, even for single planet systems. For two planet systems, the superposition of mean motion resonances, either mutual or with the binary companion, and non-linear secular resonances may lead to chaotic behaviour in all cases. We have developed a parametric semi-empirical formula determining the minimum value of the binary semimajor axis, for a given

  8. On the dynamical evolution and end states of binary centaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a numerical integration of 666 fictitious binary Centaurs coming from the trans Neptunian space. Our population is restricted to tight binaries whose components have sizes between 30 and 100 km. We included the dynamical perturbations from the giant planets, Kozai Cycles induced by the Sun and tidal friction on the orbits of the binaries. We found that most binaries are disrupted during one of the close planetary encounters, making the mean lifetime of binary Centaurs much shorter than the one of single Centaurs. Nearly 10 per cent of the binaries reach a very tight circular orbit, arguing in favour of the existence of a non-negligible population of contact Centaurs. Another 10 per cent survive as a binary during their lifetime as Centaur. Our simulations favour the existence of a small population of very tight binary Centaurs.

  9. Formation of wide binaries by turbulent fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Seokho; Dunham, Michael M.; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Choi, Minho; Bergin, Edwin A.; Evans, Neal J.

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the formation of wide-binary systems of very low-mass stars (M ≤ 0.1 solar masses, M⊙) is challenging 1,2,3 . The most obvious route is through widely separated low-mass collapsing fragments produced by turbulent fragmentation of a molecular core4,5. However, close binaries or multiples from disk fragmentation can also evolve to wide binaries over a few initial crossing times of the stellar cluster through tidal evolution6. Finding an isolated low-mass wide-binary system in the earliest stage of formation, before tidal evolution could occur, would prove that turbulent fragmentation is a viable mechanism for (very) low-mass wide binaries. Here we report high-resolution ALMA observations of a known wide-separation protostellar binary, showing that each component has a circumstellar disk. The system is too young7 to have evolved from a close binary, and the disk axes are misaligned, providing strong support for the turbulent fragmentation model. Masses of both stars are derived from the Keplerian rotation of the disks; both are very low-mass stars.

  10. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems.

    PubMed

    Postnov, Konstantin A; Yungelson, Lev R

    2014-01-01

    We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  11. How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Maxwell Cassady

    Relatively massive B-type stars with closely orbiting stellar companions can evolve to produce Type Ia supernovae, X-ray binaries, millisecond pulsars, mergers of neutron stars, gamma ray bursts, and sources of gravitational waves. However, the formation mechanism, intrinsic frequency, and evolutionary processes of B-type binaries are poorly understood. As of 2012, the binary statistics of massive stars had not been measured at low metallicities, extreme mass ratios, or intermediate orbital periods. This thesis utilizes large data sets of eclipsing binaries to measure the physical properties of B-type binaries in these previously unexplored portions of the parameter space. The updated binary statistics provide invaluable insight into the formation of massive stars and binaries as well as reliable initial conditions for population synthesis studies of binary star evolution. We first compare the properties of B-type eclipsing binaries in our Milky Way Galaxy and the nearby Magellanic Cloud Galaxies. We model the eclipsing binary light curves and perform detailed Monte Carlo simulations to recover the intrinsic properties and distributions of the close binary population. We find the frequency, period distribution, and mass-ratio distribution of close B-type binaries do not significantly depend on metallicity or environment. These results indicate the formation of massive binaries are relatively insensitive to their chemical abundances or immediate surroundings. Second, we search for low-mass eclipsing companions to massive B-type stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud Galaxy. In addition to finding such extreme mass-ratio binaries, we serendipitously discover a new class of eclipsing binaries. Each system comprises a massive B-type star that is fully formed and a nascent low-mass companion that is still contracting toward its normal phase of evolution. The large low-mass secondaries discernibly reflect much of the light they intercept from the hot B-type stars, thereby

  12. Spectroscopic Orbits for Kepler FOV Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Rachel A.; Gies, Douglas R.; Williams, Stephen J.; Guo, Zhao

    2013-02-01

    We are currently involved in a four year program of precise eclipsing binary photometry with the NASA Kepler Observatory. Our goal is to search for variations in minimum light timing for intermediate mass eclipsing binaries. Such periodic variations will reveal the reflex motion caused by any distant, low mass object that orbits the close binary. it Kepler's unprecedented accuracy and continuous observations provide a unique opportunity to detect the low mass companions that are predicted to result from the angular momentum of the natal cloud. The goal of this proposal is to obtain blue spectra of short period (0.9-6d) eclipsing binaries, derive radial velocities, and produce a double-lined spectroscopic orbit (as well as estimates of the stellar effective temperatures, gravities, and metallicities). Combined with the it Kepler light curve, we will determine very accurate masses and radii for the members of the close binary, which will yield the mass-inclination product M_3 sin i for any companions detected by light travel time or other effects. An extended sample of eclipsing binaries with longer periods (up to 50d) is now being investigated to test whether the presence of a tertiary companion declines with increasing period. We propose to obtain a single spectrum at quadrature for the brightest 48 stars in this expanded sample to characterize the effective temperatures and total mass contained in these systems.

  13. Search for Binary Trojans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith S.; Grundy, W. M.; Ryan, E. L.; Benecchi, S. D.

    2015-11-01

    We have reexamined 41 Trojan asteroids observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to search for unresolved binaries. We have identified one candidate binary with a separation of 53 milliarcsec, about the width of the diffraction limited point-spread function (PSF). Sub-resolution-element detection of binaries is possible with HST because of the high signal-to-noise ratio of the observations and the stability of the PSF. Identification and confirmation of binary Trojans is important because a Trojan Tour is one of five possible New Frontiers missions. A binary could constitute a potentially high value target because of the opportunity to study two objects and to test models of the primordial nature of binaries. The potential to derive mass-based physical information from the binary orbit could yield more clues to the origin of Trojans.

  14. Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Chambers, John; Duncan, Martin J.; Adams, Fred

    2003-01-01

    Most stars reside in multiple star systems; however, virtually all models of planetary growth have assumed an isolated single star. Numerical simulations of the collapse of molecular cloud cores to form binary stars suggest that disks will form within such systems. Observations indirectly suggest disk material around one or both components within young binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such circumstellar disks, they can remain in stable orbits within the binary star systems for eons. We are simulating the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets within binary star systems, using a new, ultrafast, symplectic integrator that we have developed for this purpose. We show that the late stages of terrestrial planet formation can indeed take place in a wide variety of binary systems and we have begun to delineate the range of parameter space for which this statement is true. Results of our initial simulations of planetary growth around each star in the alpha Centauri system and other 'wide' binary systems, as well as around both stars in very close binary systems, will be presented.

  15. The formation of eccentric compact binary inspirals and the role of gravitational wave emission in binary-single stellar encounters

    SciTech Connect

    Samsing, Johan; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2014-03-20

    The inspiral and merger of eccentric binaries leads to gravitational waveforms distinct from those generated by circularly merging binaries. Dynamical environments can assemble binaries with high eccentricity and peak frequencies within the LIGO band. In this paper, we study binary-single stellar scatterings occurring in dense stellar systems as a source of eccentrically inspiraling binaries. Many interactions between compact binaries and single objects are characterized by chaotic resonances in which the binary-single system undergoes many exchanges before reaching a final state. During these chaotic resonances, a pair of objects has a non-negligible probability of experiencing a very close passage. Significant orbital energy and angular momentum are carried away from the system by gravitational wave (GW) radiation in these close passages, and in some cases this implies an inspiral time shorter than the orbital period of the bound third body. We derive the cross section for such dynamical inspiral outcomes through analytical arguments and through numerical scattering experiments including GW losses. We show that the cross section for dynamical inspirals grows with increasing target binary semi-major axis a and that for equal-mass binaries it scales as a {sup 2/7}. Thus, we expect wide target binaries to predominantly contribute to the production of these relativistic outcomes. We estimate that eccentric inspirals account for approximately 1% of dynamically assembled non-eccentric merging binaries. While these events are rare, we show that binary-single scatterings are a more effective formation channel than single-single captures for the production of eccentrically inspiraling binaries, even given modest binary fractions.

  16. PHOEBE: PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prsa, Andrej; Matijevic, Gal; Latkovic, Olivera; Vilardell, Francesc; Wils, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    PHOEBE (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs) is a modeling package for eclipsing binary stars, built on top of the widely used WD program (Wilson & Devinney 1971). This introductory paper overviews most important scientific extensions (incorporating observational spectra of eclipsing binaries into the solution-seeking process, extracting individual temperatures from observed color indices, main-sequence constraining and proper treatment of the reddening), numerical innovations (suggested improvements to WD's Differential Corrections method, the new Nelder & Mead's downhill Simplex method) and technical aspects (back-end scripter structure, graphical user interface). While PHOEBE retains 100% WD compatibility, its add-ons are a powerful way to enhance WD by encompassing even more physics and solution reliability.

  17. Case A Binary Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C A; Eggleton, P P

    2001-03-28

    We undertake a comparison of observed Algol-type binaries with a library of computed Case A binary evolution tracks. The library consists of 5500 binary tracks with various values of initial primary mass M{sub 10}, mass ratio q{sub 0}, and period P{sub 0}, designed to sample the phase-space of Case A binaries in the range -0.10 {le} log M{sub 10} {le} 1.7. Each binary is evolved using a standard code with the assumption that both total mass and orbital angular momentum are conserved. This code follows the evolution of both stars until the point where contact or reverse mass transfer occurs. The resulting binary tracks show a rich variety of behavior which we sort into several subclasses of Case A and Case B. We present the results of this classification, the final mass ratio and the fraction of time spent in Roche Lobe overflow for each binary system. The conservative assumption under which we created this library is expected to hold for a broad range of binaries, where both components have spectra in the range G0 to B1 and luminosity class III - V. We gather a list of relatively well-determined observed hot Algol-type binaries meeting this criterion, as well as a list of cooler Algol-type binaries where we expect significant dynamo-driven mass loss and angular momentum loss. We fit each observed binary to our library of tracks using a {chi}{sup 2}-minimizing procedure. We find that the hot Algols display overall acceptable {chi}{sup 2}, confirming the conservative assumption, while the cool Algols show much less acceptable {chi}{sup 2} suggesting the need for more free parameters, such as mass and angular momentum loss.

  18. Direct Exoplanet Detection with Binary Differential Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Weinberger, Alycia; Mamajek, Eric E.; Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Morzinski, Katie; Hinz, Philip M.; Kaib, Nathan

    2015-10-01

    Binaries are typically excluded from direct imaging exoplanet surveys. However, the recent findings of Kepler and radial velocity programs show that planets can and do form in binary systems. Here, we suggest that visual binaries offer unique advantages for direct imaging. We show that Binary Differential Imaging (BDI), whereby two stars are imaged simultaneously at the same wavelength within the isoplanatic patch at a high Strehl ratio, offers improved point spread function (PSF) subtraction that can result in increased sensitivity to planets close to each star. We demonstrate this by observing a young visual binary separated by 4″ with MagAO/Clio-2 at 3.9 μm, where the Strehl ratio is high, the isoplanatic patch is large, and giant planets are bright. Comparing BDI to angular differential imaging (ADI), we find that BDI’s 5σ contrast is ˜0.5 mag better than ADI’s within ˜1″ for the particular binary we observed. Because planets typically reside close to their host stars, BDI is a promising technique for discovering exoplanets in stellar systems that are often ignored. BDI is also 2-4× more efficient than ADI and classical reference PSF subtraction, since planets can be detected around both the target and PSF reference simultaneously. We are currently exploiting this technique in a new MagAO survey for giant planets in 140 young nearby visual binaries. BDI on a space-based telescope would not be limited by isoplanatism effects and would therefore be an even more powerful tool for imaging and discovering planets. This paper includes data obtained at the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  19. TWIN BINARIES: STUDIES OF STABILITY, MASS TRANSFER, AND COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, J. C.; Holtzman, W.; Gearity, K.; Dooley, K. L.; Kalogera, V.; Rasio, F. A.

    2011-08-20

    Motivated by suggestions that binaries with almost equal-mass components ('twins') play an important role in the formation of double neutron stars and may be rather abundant among binaries, we study the stability of synchronized close and contact binaries with identical components in circular orbits. In particular, we investigate the dependency of the innermost stable circular orbit on the core mass, and we study the coalescence of the binary that occurs at smaller separations. For twin binaries composed of convective main-sequence stars, subgiants, or giants with low-mass cores (M{sub c} {approx}< 0.15M, where M is the mass of a component), a secular instability is reached during the contact phase, accompanied by a dynamical mass transfer instability at the same or at a slightly smaller orbital separation. Binaries that come inside this instability limit transfer mass gradually from one component to the other and then coalesce quickly as mass is lost through the outer Lagrangian points. For twin giant binaries with moderate to massive cores (M{sub c} {approx}> 0.15M), we find that stable contact configurations exist at all separations down to the Roche limit, when mass shedding through the outer Lagrangian points triggers a coalescence of the envelopes and leaves the cores orbiting in a central tight binary. In addition to the formation of binary neutron stars, we also discuss the implications of our results for the production of planetary nebulae with double degenerate central binaries.

  20. Massive binaries in the vicinity of Sgr A*

    SciTech Connect

    Pfuhl, O.; Gillessen, S.; Genzel, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Fritz, T. K.; Ott, T.; Alexander, T.; Martins, F.

    2014-02-20

    A long-term spectroscopic and photometric survey of the most luminous and massive stars in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* revealed two new binaries: a long-period Ofpe/WN9 binary, IRS 16NE, with a modest eccentricity of 0.3 and a period of 224 days, and an eclipsing Wolf-Rayet binary with a period of 2.3 days. Together with the already identified binary IRS 16SW, there are now three confirmed OB/WR binaries in the inner 0.2 pc of the Galactic center. Using radial velocity change upper limits, we were able to constrain the spectroscopic binary fraction in the Galactic center to F{sub SB}=0.30{sub −0.21}{sup +0.34} at a confidence level of 95%, a massive binary fraction close to that observed in dense clusters. The fraction of eclipsing binaries with photometric amplitudes Δm > 0.4 is F{sub EB}{sup GC}=3%±2%, which is consistent with local OB star clusters (F {sub EB} = 1%). Overall, the Galactic center binary fraction seems to be similar to the binary fraction in comparable young clusters.

  1. Binary Galaxies in Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Peter Shun Sang

    1994-01-01

    CCD images of the binary-rich clusters of galaxies A373, A408, A667, A890, and A1250 taken at the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope show that about half the binary galaxies' are actually star-galaxy or star-star pairs. These clusters are not binary-rich. N-body simulations are used to study the effect of static cluster potentials on binary and single galaxies. The softening procedure is discussed in detail. Since Plummer softening is not self-consistent, and since the force laws for various other density models are similar to each other, uniform-density softening is used. The choice of the theoretical galaxy model in terms of the potential at various locations. A fixed cluster potential cannot stabilize binary galaxies against merger, but can disrupt even quite tightly bound binaries. A moderately good predictor of whether a binary merges or disrupts is the mean torque over a quarter of the initial binary period. But the dynamics of the situation is quite complicated, and depends on an interplay between the motion of the binary through the cluster and the absorption of orbital energy by the galaxies. There is also a substantial amount of mass loss. Simulations of single galaxies in cluster show that this mass loss is due mainly to the cluster potential, and not to an interplay between the merging binary and the cluster. This mass loss is driven partially by virial equilibrium responding to the initial tidal truncation by the cluster. Besides verifying some general results of mass loss from satellite systems in the tidal field of larger bodies, it was found that the galaxy loses mass at an exponential rate.

  2. Closing in on Close Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    "A significant body of research links the close reading of complex text--whether the student is a struggling reader or advanced--to significant gains in reading proficiency and finds close reading to be a key component of college and career readiness" (Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, 2011, p. 7). When the author…

  3. Closing remarks

    PubMed Central

    Daykin, C. D.

    1997-01-01

    Closing remarks to Human genetics - uncertainties and the financial implications ahead. A Discussion held at the Royal Society on 25 and 26 September 1996, and organized and edited by R. M. Anderson.

  4. Taming the binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourbaix, D.

    2008-07-01

    Astrometric binaries are both a gold mine and a nightmare. They are a gold mine because they are sometimes the unique source of orbital inclination for spectroscopic binaries, thus making it possible for astrophysicists to get some clues about the mass of the often invisible secondary. However, this is an ideal situation in the sense that one benefits from the additional knowledge that it is a binary for which some orbital parameters are somehow secured (e.g. the orbital period). On the other hand, binaries are a nightmare, especially when their binary nature is not established yet. Indeed, in such cases, depending on the time interval covered by the observations compared to the orbital period, either the parallax or the proper motion can be severely biased if the successive positions of the binary are modelled assuming it is a single star. With large survey campaigns sometimes monitoring some stars for the first time ever, it is therefore crucial to design robust reduction pipelines in which such troublesome objects are quickly identified and either removed or processed accordingly. Finally, even if an object is known not to be a single star, the binary model might turn out not to be the most appropriate for describing the observations. These different situations will be covered.

  5. Binary-phase compression of stretched pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozovoy, Vadim V.; Nairat, Muath; Dantus, Marcos

    2017-10-01

    Pulse stretching and compression are essential for the energy scale-up of ultrafast lasers. Here, we consider a radical approach using spectral binary phases, containing only two values (0 and π) for stretching and compressing laser pulses. We numerically explore different strategies and present results for pulse compression of factors up to a million back to the transform limit and experimentally obtain results for pulse compression of a factor of one hundred, in close agreement with numerical calculations. Imperfections resulting from binary-phase compression are addressed by considering cross-polarized wave generation filtering, and show that this approach leads to compressed pulses with contrast ratios greater than ten orders of magnitude. This new concept of binary-phase stretching and compression, if implemented in a multi-layer optic, could eliminate the need for traditional pulse stretchers and more importantly expensive compressors.

  6. Massive Stars in Interactive Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St.-Louis, Nicole; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    Massive stars start their lives above a mass of ~8 time solar, finally exploding after a few million years as core-collapse or pair-production supernovae. Above ~15 solar masses, they also spend most of their lives driving especially strong, hot winds due to their extreme luminosities. All of these aspects dominate the ecology of the Universe, from element enrichment to stirring up and ionizing the interstellar medium. But when they occur in close pairs or groups separated by less than a parsec, the interaction of massive stars can lead to various exotic phenomena which would not be seen if there were no binaries. These depend on the actual separation, and going from wie to close including colliding winds (with non-thermal radio emission and Wolf-Rayet dust spirals), cluster dynamics, X-ray binaries, Roche-lobe overflow (with inverse mass-ratios and rapid spin up), collisions, merging, rejuventation and massive blue stragglers, black-hole formation, runaways and gamma-ray bursts. Also, one wonders whether the fact that a massive star is in a binary affects its parameters compared to its isolated equivalent. These proceedings deal with all of these phenomena, plus binary statistics and determination of general physical properties of massive stars, that would not be possible with their single cousins. The 77 articles published in these proceedings, all based on oral talks, vary from broad revies to the lates developments in the field. About a third of the time was spent in open discussion of all participants, both for ~5 minutes after each talk and 8 half-hour long general dialogues, all audio-recorded, transcribed and only moderately edited to yield a real flavour of the meeting. The candid information in these discussions is sometimes more revealing than the article(s) that preceded them and also provide entertaining reading. The book is suitable for researchers and graduate students interested in stellar astrophysics and in various physical processes involved when

  7. Binary frequency and origin of the OB runaway stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gies, D.R.; Bolton, C.T.

    1986-06-01

    A radial velocity survey of the bright northern OB runaway stars has been undertaken to determine the frequency of binary stars in this high-velocity group. A total of 634 high-dispersion spectrograms of 36 proposed runaway stars were obtained over a two year period. Approximately half of the stars are velocity-variable; these include seven spectroscopic binaries, one possible beta-Cephei variable, and 10 stars with emission lines in their spectra. The latter group contains seven of the eight Be stars observed and three luminous O stars, and it is argued that their variability is caused by nonradial pulsation. Fifteen of the program stars have a peculiar radial velocity greater than 30 km/s; five others are probable runaways on the basis of distance from the galactic plane and proper motion. Only two of the confirmed and probable runaways, HD 3950 and HD 198846 (Y Cyg), are binaries, and both are double-lines systems. New orbital elements are presented for HD 3950 and the five new binary systems found among the low-velocity stars. The statisical methods used to assess velocity variability and periodic signals are described in detail. The higher fractional abundance of runaways among more massive stars, their binary frequency, and the properties of the runaway binaries suggest that they obtained their high velocities through single-binary, binary-binary, or n-body close encounters during the early dynamical evolution of associations. 208 references.

  8. Black hole binaries dynamically formed in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dawoo; Kim, Chunglee; Lee, Hyung Mok; Bae, Yeong-Bok; Belczynski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    We investigate properties of black hole (BH) binaries formed in globular clusters via dynamical processes, using directN-body simulations. We pay attention to effects of BH mass function on the total mass and mass ratio distributions of BH binaries ejected from clusters. First, we consider BH populations with two different masses in order to learn basic differences from models with single-mass BHs only. Secondly, we consider continuous BH mass functions adapted from recent studies on massive star evolution in a low metallicity environment, where globular clusters are formed. In this work, we consider only binaries that are formed by three-body processes and ignore stellar evolution and primordial binaries for simplicity. Our results imply that most BH binary mergers take place after they get ejected from the cluster. Also, mass ratios of dynamically formed binaries should be close to 1 or likely to be less than 2:1. Since the binary formation efficiency is larger for higher-mass BHs, it is likely that a BH mass function sampled by gravitational-wave observations would be weighed towards higher masses than the mass function of single BHs for a dynamically formed population. Applying conservative assumptions regarding globular cluster populations such as small BH mass fraction and no primordial binaries, the merger rate of BH binaries originated from globular clusters is estimated to be at least 6.5 yr-1 Gpc-3. Actual rate can be up to more than several times of our conservative estimate.

  9. Binary Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2006-05-01

    A review of observations and theories regarding binary asteroids and binary trans-Neptunian objects [collectively, binary minor planets (BMPs)] is presented. To date, these objects have been discovered using a combination of direct imaging, lightcurve analysis, and radar. They are found throughout the Solar System, and present a challenge for theorists modeling their formation in the context of Solar System evolution. The most promising models invoke rotational disruption for the smallest, shortest-lived objects (the asteroids nearest to Earth), consistent with the observed fast rotation of these bodies; impacts for the larger, longer-lived asteroids in the main belt, consistent with the range of size ratios of their components and slower rotation rates; and mutual capture for the distant, icy, trans-Neptunian objects, consistent with their large component separations and near-equal sizes. Numerical simulations have successfully reproduced key features of the binaries in the first two categories; the third remains to be investigated in detail.

  10. Binaries in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hut, Piet; Mcmillan, Steve; Goodman, Jeremy; Mateo, Mario; Phinney, E. S.; Pryor, Carlton; Richer, Harvey B.; Verbunt, Frank; Weinberg, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that globular clusters contain a substantial number of binaries most of which are believed to be primordial. We discuss different successful optical search techniques, based on radial-velocity variables, photometric variables, and the positions of stars in the color-magnitude diagram. In addition, we review searches in other wavelengths, which have turned up low-mass X-ray binaries and more recently a variety of radio pulsars. On the theoretical side, we give an overview of the different physical mechanisms through which individual binaries evolve. We discuss the various simulation techniques which recently have been employed to study the effects of a primordial binary population, and the fascinating interplay between stellar evolution and stellar dynamics which drives globular-cluster evolution.

  11. Double Degenerate Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K.

    2011-09-21

    In this study, angular momentum loss via gravitational radiation in double degenerate binary (DDB)systems (NS + NS, NS + WD, WD + WD, and AM CVn) is studied. Energy loss by gravitational waves has been estimated for each type of systems.

  12. Binary technetium halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, Erik Vaughan

    In this work, the synthetic and coordination chemistry as well as the physico-chemical properties of binary technetium (Tc) chlorides, bromides, and iodides were investigated. Resulting from these studies was the discovery of five new binary Tc halide phases: alpha/beta-TcCl3, alpha/beta-TcCl 2, and TcI3, and the reinvestigation of the chemistries of TcBr3 and TcX4 (X = Cl, Br). Prior to 2009, the chemistry of binary Tc halides was poorly studied and defined by only three compounds, i.e., TcF6, TcF5, and TcCl4. Today, ten phases are known (i.e., TcF6, TcF5, TcCl4, TcBr 4, TcBr3, TcI3, alpha/beta-TcCl3 and alpha/beta-TcCl2) making the binary halide system of Tc comparable to those of its neighboring elements. Technetium binary halides were synthesized using three methods: reactions of the elements in sealed tubes, reactions of flowing HX(g) (X = Cl, Br, and I) with Tc2(O2CCH3)4Cl2, and thermal decompositions of TcX4 (X = Cl, Br) and alpha-TcCl 3 in sealed tubes under vacuum. Binary Tc halides can be found in various dimensionalities such as molecular solids (TcF6), extended chains (TcF5, TcCl4, alpha/beta-TcCl2, TcBr 3, TcI3), infinite layers (beta-TcCl3), and bidimensional networks of clusters (alpha-TcCl3); eight structure-types with varying degrees of metal-metal interactions are now known. The coordination chemistry of Tc binary halides can resemble that of the adjacent elements: molybdenum and ruthenium (beta-TcCl3, TcBr3, TcI 3), rhenium (TcF5, alpha-TcCl3), platinum (TcCl 4, TcBr4), or can be unique (alpha-TcCl2 and beta-TcCl 2) in respect to other known transition metal binary halides. Technetium binary halides display a range of interesting physical properties that are manifested from their electronic and structural configurations. The thermochemistry of binary Tc halides is extensive. These compounds can selectively volatilize, decompose, disproportionate, or convert to other phases. Ultimately, binary Tc halides may find application in the nuclear fuel

  13. X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Satellite X-ray experiments and ground-based programs aimed at observation of X-ray binaries are discussed. Experiments aboard OAO-3, OSO-8, Ariel 5, Uhuru, and Skylab are included along with rocket and ground-based observations. Major topics covered are: Her X-1, Cyg X-3, Cen X-3, Cyg X-1, the transient source A0620-00, other possible X-ray binaries, and plans and prospects for future observational programs.

  14. Learning binary matroid ports

    SciTech Connect

    Coullard, C.; Hellerstein, L.

    1994-12-31

    Given a binary matroid M specified by a port oracle, we can in polynomial number of calls to the oracle construct a binary representation for M. For general matroids, we can in polynomial number of calls to a port oracle determine whether a given subset is independent (that is, we can simulate an independence oracle with a port oracle). The work is related to a theorem of Lehman on matroid ports, and is motivated by issues in computational learning theory.

  15. Binary-Symmetry Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Hiram

    1987-01-01

    Transmission errors for zeros and ones tabulated separately. Binary-symmetry detector employs psuedo-random data pattern used as test message coming through channel. Message then modulo-2 added to locally generated and synchronized version of test data pattern in same manner found in manufactured test sets of today. Binary symmetrical channel shows nearly 50-percent ones to 50-percent zeroes correspondence. Degree of asymmetry represents imbalances due to either modulation, transmission, or demodulation processes of system when perturbed by noise.

  16. Spectroscopic Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Historically, spectroscopic binary stars were binary systems whose nature was discovered by the changing DOPPLER EFFECT or shift of the spectral lines of one or both of the component stars. The observed Doppler shift is a combination of that produced by the constant RADIAL VELOCITY (i.e. line-of-sight velocity) of the center of mass of the whole system, and the variable shift resulting from the o...

  17. Scattering from binary optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Douglas W.

    1993-01-01

    There are a number of sources of scattering in binary optics: etch depth errors, line edge errors, quantization errors, roughness, and the binary approximation to the ideal surface. These sources of scattering can be systematic (deterministic) or random. In this paper, scattering formulas for both systematic and random errors are derived using Fourier optics. These formulas can be used to explain the results of scattering measurements and computer simulations.

  18. Testing the Binary Trigger Hypothesis in FUors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Joel D.; Kraus, Adam L.; Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Ireland, Michael J.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Mann, Andrew W.; Kuruwita, Rajika

    2016-10-01

    We present observations of three FU Orionis objects (hereafter, FUors) with nonredundant aperture-mask interferometry at 1.59 μm and 2.12 μm that probe for binary companions on the scale of the protoplanetary disk that feeds their accretion outbursts. We do not identify any companions to V1515 Cyg or HBC 722, but we do resolve a close binary companion to V1057 Cyg that is at the diffraction limit (ρ =58.3+/- 1.4 mas or 30 ± 5 au) and currently much fainter than the outbursting star ({{Δ }}K\\prime =3.34+/- 0.10 mag). Given the flux excess of the outbursting star, we estimate that the mass of the companion (M˜ 0.25{M}⊙ ) is similar to or slightly below that of the FUor itself, and therefore it resembles a typical T Tauri binary system. Our observations only achieve contrast limits of {{Δ }}K\\prime ˜ 4 mag, and hence we are only sensitive to companions that were near or above the pre-outburst luminosity of the FUors. It remains plausible that FUor outbursts could be tied to the presence of a close binary companion. However, we argue from the system geometry and mass reservoir considerations that these outbursts are not directly tied to the orbital period (i.e., occurring at periastron passage), but instead must only occur infrequently.

  19. BINARY CANDIDATES IN THE JOVIAN TROJAN AND HILDA POPULATIONS FROM NEOWISE LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnett, S.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Grav, T.

    2015-02-01

    Determining the binary fraction for a population of asteroids, particularly as a function of separation between the two components, helps describe the dynamical environment at the time the binaries formed, which in turn offers constraints on the dynamical evolution of the solar system. We searched the NEOWISE archival data set for close and contact binary Trojans and Hildas via their diagnostically large light curve amplitudes. We present 48 out of 554 Hilda and 34 out of 953 Trojan binary candidates in need of follow-up to confirm their large light curve amplitudes and subsequently constrain the binary orbit and component sizes. From these candidates, we calculate a preliminary estimate of the binary fraction without confirmation or debiasing of 14%-23% for Trojans larger than ∼12 km and 30%-51% for Hildas larger than ∼4 km. Once the binary candidates have been confirmed, it should be possible to infer the underlying, debiased binary fraction through estimation of survey biases.

  20. The Young Visual Binary Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prato, Lisa A.; Avilez, Ian; Allen, Thomas; Zoonematkermani, Saeid; Biddle, Lauren; Muzzio, Ryan; Wittal, Matthew; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal

    2017-01-01

    We have obtained adaptive optics imaging and high-resolution H-band and in some cases K-band spectra of each component in close to 100 young multiple systems in the nearby star forming regions of Taurus, Ophiuchus, TW Hya, and Orion. The binary separations for the pairs in our sample range from 30 mas to 3 arcseconds. The imaging and most of our spectra were obtained with instruments behind adaptive optics systems in order to resolve even the closest companions. We are in the process of determining fundamental stellar and circumstellar properties, such as effective temperature, Vsin(i), veiling, and radial velocity, for each component in the entire sample. The beta version of our database includes systems in the Taurus region and provides plots, downloadable ascii spectra, and values of the stellar and circumstellar properties for both stars in each system. This resource is openly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. In this poster we describe initial results from our analysis of the survey data. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.

  1. Solar System binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith S.

    The discovery of binaries in each of the major populations of minor bodies in the solar system is propelling a rapid growth of heretofore unattainable physical information. The availability of mass and density constraints for minor bodies opens the door to studies of internal structure, comparisons with meteorite samples, and correlations between bulk-physical and surface-spectral properties. The number of known binaries is now more than 70 and is growing rapidly. A smaller number have had the extensive followup observations needed to derive mass and albedo information, but this list is growing as well. It will soon be the case that we will know more about the physical parameters of objects in the Kuiper Belt than has been known about asteroids in the Main Belt for the last 200 years. Another important aspect of binaries is understanding the mechanisms that lead to their formation and survival. The relative sizes and separations of binaries in the different minor body populations point to more than one mechanism for forming bound pairs. Collisions appear to play a major role in the Main Belt. Rotational and/or tidal fission may be important in the Near Earth population. For the Kuiper Belt, capture in multi-body interactions may be the preferred formation mechanism. However, all of these conclusions remain tentative and limited by observational and theoretical incompleteness. Observational techniques for identifying binaries are equally varied. High angular resolution observations from space and from the ground are critical for detection of the relatively distant binaries in the Main Belt and the Kuiper Belt. Radar has been the most productive method for detection of Near Earth binaries. Lightcurve analysis is an independent technique that is capable of exploring phase space inaccessible to direct observations. Finally, spacecraft flybys have played a crucial paradigm-changing role with discoveries that unlocked this now-burgeoning field.

  2. How Close Is Close Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saccomano, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    Close Reading is a strategy that can be used when reading challenging text. This strategy requires teachers to provide scaffolding, and create opportunities for think-alouds and rereading of text in order to help students become active readers who focus on finding text-based support for their answers. In addition, teachers must also be aware of…

  3. Crystals of binary Lennard-Jones solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Thomas F.; Hernández-Rojas, Javier; Mortenson, Paul N.; Wales, David J.

    2001-11-01

    We present crystalline structures for 60-, 256-, and 320-atom supercells of binary Lennard-Jones solids. These structures, based on cubic close packing, are much lower in energy than the disordered structures usually considered for this model glass former. We present a disconnectivity graph for a database of minima and transition states for the 320-atom system, which has been simplified using a grouping technique based on the canonical rate constants.

  4. Fabrication of heterogeneous binary arrays of nanoparticles via colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Dayang

    2008-04-30

    Heterogeneous binary arrays of metallic nanoparticles have been constructed by consecutively depositing gold and silver into monolayers of hexagonally close-packed latex spheres at the incidence angles of 15 and -15 degrees, followed by removal of the colloidal masks. The present approach is independent of the chemical nature of both colloidal masks and deposition materials. The pattern feature of the resulting binary nanoparticle arrays is dependent on the colloidal mask registry.

  5. New Binary Integration Strategies and Corresponding R90 Calculations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-23

    radar some simple logic criterion i used. This thesis evaluates the performance of a new binary integration technique . This technique requires M hits out...of N looks with x<M hits being consecutive. Closed form expressions for the cumulv~tive probability of detection are derived and Monte Carlo methods ...thesis evaluates the performance of a new binary integration technique . This technique requires M hits out of N looks with x<M hits being consecutive

  6. Analytic gravitational waveforms for generic precessing compact binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatziioannou, Katerina; Klein, Antoine; Cornish, Neil; Yunes, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational waves from compact binaries are subject to amplitude and phase modulations arising from interactions between the angular momenta of the system. Failure to account for such spin-precession effects in gravitational wave data analysis could hinder detection and completely ruin parameter estimation. In this talk I will describe the construction of closed-form, frequency-domain waveforms for fully-precessing, quasi-circular binary inspirals. The resulting waveforms can model spinning binaries of arbitrary spin magnitudes, spin orientations, and masses during the inspiral phase. I will also describe ongoing efforts to extend these inspiral waveforms to the merger and ringdown phases.

  7. Shape Shifting Satellites in Binary Near-Earth Asteroids: Do Meteoroid Impacts Play a Role in BYORP Orbital Evolution?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2012-01-01

    Less than catastrophic meteoroid impacts over 10(exp 5) years may change the shape of small rubble-pile satellites in binary NEAs, lengthening the average BYORP (binary Yarkovsky-Radzievskii-Paddack) rate of orbital evolution. An estimate of shape-shifting meteoroid fluxes give numbers close enough to causing random walks in the semimajor axis of binary systems to warrant further investigation

  8. The Chromospherically Active Low-Mass Close Binary KIC 9761199

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoldaş, E.; Dal, H. A.

    2017-04-01

    We present the results obtained from the analyses of KIC 9761199's light variation acquired by the Kepler Mission. The temperature of the secondary component was found to be 3891±1 K, and the mass ratio was found to be 0.69±0.01 with an orbital inclination of 77°.4± 0°.1. Stellar spots separated by about 180° longitudinally were found around the latitudes of +47° and +30°. In addition, the OPEA model was derived for 94 detected flares. The plateau value was found to be 1.951±0.069 s, while the half-life value was found to be 1014 s. The flare frequency N1 was 0.01351 h-1, while the flare frequency N2 was 0.00006. Maximum flare rise time was 1118.098 s, while maximum flare total time was 6767.72 s. The chromospheric activity level of KIC 9761199 is at the expected level according to a B-V of 1m.303.

  9. MASTER Net: close binary systems and eruptive variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Gress, O.; Shumkov, V.; Vladimirov, V.; Chazov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Saffe, C.; Podesta, F.; Gabovich, A.

    2017-06-01

    Pavel MASTER-OAFA auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 20h 32m 48.71s -29d 55m 22.0s on 2017-06-19.20638 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.1m (mlim=19.8m).

  10. EXTRASOLAR BINARY PLANETS. II. DETECTABILITY BY TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K. M.; Ida, S.; Ochiai, H.; Nagasawa, M.

    2015-05-20

    We discuss the detectability of gravitationally bound pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call “binary planets”) in extrasolar planetary systems that are formed through orbital instability followed by planet–planet dynamical tides during their close encounters, based on the results of N-body simulations by Ochiai et al. (Paper I). Paper I showed that the formation probability of a binary is as much as ∼10% for three giant planet systems that undergo orbital instability, and after post-capture long-term tidal evolution, the typical binary separation is three to five times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. The binary planets are stable during the main-sequence lifetime of solar-type stars, if the stellarcentric semimajor axis of the binary is larger than 0.3 AU. We show that detecting modulations of transit light curves is the most promising observational method to detect binary planets. Since the likely binary separations are comparable to the stellar diameter, the shape of the transit light curve is different from transit to transit, depending on the phase of the binary’s orbit. The transit durations and depth for binary planet transits are generally longer and deeper than those for the single planet case. We point out that binary planets could exist among the known inflated gas-giant planets or objects classified as false positive detections at orbital radii ≳0.3 AU, propose a binary planet explanation for the CoRoT candidate SRc01 E2 1066, and show that binary planets are likely to be present in, and could be detected using, Kepler-quality data.

  11. Life and Death of Binaries Near the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, J. G.

    2002-09-01

    On any astronomical timescale, binaries near the Galactic Center are strongly affected by interactions with their environment. We shall consider these processes. The high density of stars and possibly WIMPS (weakly interacting, massive particles) cause interactions that change the semimajor axes and eccentricities of the binaries. Interactions with more massive stars may, through exchange collisions, lead to a progressive increase in the masses of the binary components. Some binaries are destroyed through the coalescence of their components due to the high eccentricity that they attain. Others will be destroyed by encounters with energetic intruders that are capable of dissociating the binaries. The binaries that most easily surivive in this hostile environment have small semimajor axes and only white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole components,as such objects have little chance of coalescence under normal circumstances. These compact objects are also massive enough compared to the mass of the average star near the Galactic center that there is much less danger of their binary being disrupted in an encounter. Even binaries with compact companions have short lifetimes if their semimajor axes are less than 2 A.U. because they are forced into coalescence by the emission of gravitational radiation. The tidal field of the central black hole will distrupt binaries that pass close enough to it. If WIMPS make up any sizeable fraction of the mass density at the Galactic Center, they will cause a steady contraction of the semimajor axes of the binaries that may be measurable if one binary component is a pulsar.

  12. Cosmological Impact of Population III Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Bromm, Volker; Heger, Alexander; Jeon, Myoungwon; Woosley, Stan

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of the stellar feedback from Population III (Pop III) binaries by employing improved, more realistic Pop III evolutionary stellar models. To facilitate a meaningful comparison, we consider a fixed mass of 60 {{M}⊙ } incorporated in Pop III stars, either contained in a single star, or split up in binary stars of 30 {{M}⊙ } each or an asymmetric case of one 45 and one 15 {{M}⊙ } star. Whereas the sizes of the resulting H ii regions are comparable across all cases, the He iii regions around binary stars are significantly smaller than that of the single star. Consequently, the He+ 1640 \\overset{\\circ}A recombination line is expected to become much weaker. Supernova (SN) feedback exhibits great variety due to the uncertainty in possible explosion pathways. If at least one of the component stars dies as a hypernova about 10 times more energetic than conventional core-collapse SNe, the gas inside the host minihalo is effectively blown out, chemically enriching the intergalactic medium (IGM) to an average metallicity of {{10}-4}-{{10}-3} {{Z}⊙ }, out to ˜ 2 kpc. The single star, however, is more likely to collapse into a black hole, accompanied by at most very weak explosions. The effectiveness of early chemical enrichment would thus be significantly reduced, in contrast to the lower mass binary stars, where at least one component is likely to contribute to heavy element production and dispersal. Important new feedback physics is also introduced if close binaries can form high-mass X-ray binaries, leading to the pre-heating and -ionization of the IGM beyond the extent of the stellar H ii regions.

  13. Binary ferrihydrite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, G.P.; Zhao, J.; Feng, Z.

    1996-12-03

    A method of preparing a catalyst precursor comprises dissolving an iron salt and a salt of an oxoanion forming agent, in water so that a solution of the iron salt and oxoanion forming agent salt has a ratio of oxoanion/Fe of between 0.0001:1 to 0.5:1. Next is increasing the pH of the solution to 10 by adding a strong base followed by collecting of precipitate having a binary ferrihydrite structure. A binary ferrihydrite catalyst precursor is also prepared by dissolving an iron salt in water. The solution is brought to a pH of substantially 10 to obtain ferrihydrite precipitate. The precipitate is then filtered and washed with distilled water and subsequently admixed with a hydroxy carboxylic acid solution. The admixture is mixed/agitated and the binary ferrihydrite precipitate is then filtered and recovered. 3 figs.

  14. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, Duncan R

    2008-01-01

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 M⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion.

  15. Binary ferrihydrite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Gerald P.; Zhao, Jianmin; Feng, Zhen

    1996-01-01

    A method of preparing a catalyst precursor comprises dissolving an iron salt and a salt of an oxoanion forming agent, in water so that a solution of the iron salt and oxoanion forming agent salt has a ratio of oxoanion/Fe of between 0.0001:1 to 0.5:1. Next is increasing the pH of the solution to 10 by adding a strong base followed by collecting of precipitate having a binary ferrihydrite structure. A binary ferrihydrite catalyst precursor is also prepared by dissolving an iron salt in water. The solution is brought to a pH of substantially 10 to obtain ferrihydrite precipitate. The precipitate is then filtered and washed with distilled water and subsequently admixed with a hydroxy carboxylic acid solution. The admixture is mixed/agitated and the binary ferrihydrite precipitate is then filtered and recovered.

  16. Binary catalogue of exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Richard; Bazso, Akos; Zechner, Renate; Funk, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Since 1995 there is a database which list most of the known exoplanets (The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia at http://exoplanet.eu/). With the growing number of detected exoplanets in binary and multiple star systems it became more important to mark and to separate them into a new database, which is not available in the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Therefore we established an online database (which can be found at: http://www.univie.ac.at/adg/schwarz/multiple.html) for all known exoplanets in binary star systems and in addition for multiple star systems, which will be updated regularly and linked to the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. The binary catalogue of exoplanets is available online as data file and can be used for statistical purposes. Our database is divided into two parts: the data of the stars and the planets, given in a separate list. We describe also the different parameters of the exoplanetary systems and present some applications.

  17. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, Duncan R

    2005-01-01

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.

  18. Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    We present preliminary results of our implementation of a novel electrophoresis separation technique: Binary Oscillatory Cross flow Electrophoresis (BOCE). The technique utilizes the interaction of two driving forces, an oscillatory electric field and an oscillatory shear flow, to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged species. Analytical and numerical studies have indicated that this technique is capable of separating proteins with electrophoretic mobilities differing by less than 10%. With an experimental device containing a separation chamber 20 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 1 mm thick, an order of magnitude increase in throughput over commercially available electrophoresis devices is theoretically possible.

  19. Identification list of binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov,, O.; Karchevsky,, A.; Kaygorodov, P.; Kovaleva, D.

    The Identification List of Binaries (ILB) is a star catalogue constructed to facilitate cross-referencing between different catalogues of binary stars. As of 2015, it comprises designations for approximately 120,000 double/multiple systems. ILB contains star coordinates and cross-references to the Bayer/Flemsteed, DM (BD/CD/CPD), HD, HIP, ADS, WDS, CCDM, TDSC, GCVS, SBC9, IGR (and some other X-ray catalogues), PSR designations, as well as identifications in the recently developed BSDB system. ILB eventually became a part of the BDB stellar database.

  20. Beam scanning binary logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Hideo; Mukai, Seiji; Watanabe, Masanobu; Mori, Masahiko; Yajima, Hiroyoshi

    1990-07-01

    A beam-scanning laser diode (BSLD) is presently applied to a novel optoelectronic logic operation, designated 'beam-scanning binary logic' (BSBL), that covers the implementation of both the basic logic gates and a spatial code encoder for photodetection, while allowing a greater reduction of the number of active devices than ordinary binary logic operations. BSBL executes multifunctional logic operations simultaneously. The data connections between logic gates in BSLD are flexible, due to the ability to electrically control both output power and laser-beam direction.

  1. Binary coding for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chang, Chein-I.; Chang, Chein-Chi; Lin, Chinsu

    2004-10-01

    Binary coding is one of simplest ways to characterize spectral features. One commonly used method is a binary coding-based image software system, called Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for remotely sensed imagery developed by Mazer et al. For a given spectral signature, the SPAM calculates its spectral mean and inter-band spectral difference and uses them as thresholds to generate a binary code word for this particular spectral signature. Such coding scheme is generally effective and also very simple to implement. This paper revisits the SPAM and further develops three new SPAM-based binary coding methods, called equal probability partition (EPP) binary coding, halfway partition (HP) binary coding and median partition (MP) binary coding. These three binary coding methods along with the SPAM well be evaluated for spectral discrimination and identification. In doing so, a new criterion, called a posteriori discrimination probability (APDP) is also introduced for performance measure.

  2. Eclipsing Binary Update, No. 2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    Contents: 1. Wrong again! The elusive period of DHK 41. 2. Stars observed and not observed. 3. Eclipsing binary chart information. 4. Eclipsing binary news and notes. 5. A note on SS Arietis. 6. Featured star: TX Ursae Majoris.

  3. Acceleration by pulsar winds in binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.; Gaisser, T. K.

    1990-01-01

    In the absence of accretion torques, a pulsar in a binary system will spin down due to electromagnetic dipole radiation and the spin-down power will drive a wind of relativistic electron-positron pairs. Winds from pulsars with short periods will prevent any subsequent accretion but may be confined by the companion star atmosphere, wind, or magnetosphere to form a standing shock. The authors investigate the possibility of particle acceleration at such a pulsar wind shock and the production of very high energy (VHE) and ultra high energy (UHE) gamma rays from interactions of accelerated protons in the companion star's wind or atmosphere. They find that in close binaries containing active pulsars, protons will be shock accelerated to a maximum energy dependent on the pulsar spin-down luminosity. If a significant fraction of the spin-down power goes into particle acceleration, these systems should be sources of VHE and possibly UHE gamma rays. The authors discuss the application of the pulsar wind model to binary sources such as Cygnus X-3, as well as the possibility of observing VHE gamma-rays from known binary radio pulsar systems.

  4. Orbital evolution of small binary asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćuk, Matija; Nesvorný, David

    2010-06-01

    About 15% of both near-Earth and main-belt asteroids with diameters below 10 km are now known to be binary. These small asteroid binaries are relatively uniform and typically contain a fast-spinning, flattened primary and a synchronously rotating, elongated secondary that is 20-40% as large (in diameter) as the primary. The principal formation mechanism for these binaries is now thought to be YORP (Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack) effect induced spin-up of the primary followed by mass loss and accretion of the secondary from the released material. It has previously been suggested (Ćuk, M. [2007]. Astrophys. J. 659, L57-L60) that the present population of small binary asteroids is in a steady state between production through YORP and destruction through binary YORP (BYORP), which should increase or decrease secondary's orbit, depending on the satellite's shape. However, BYORP-driven evolution has not been directly modeled until now. Here we construct a simple numerical model of the binary's orbital as well the secondary's rotational dynamics which includes BYORP and selected terms representing main solar perturbations. We find that many secondaries should be vulnerable to chaotic rotation even for relatively low-eccentricity mutual orbits. We also find that the precession of the mutual orbit for typical small binary asteroids might be dominated by the perturbations from the prolate and librating secondary, rather than the oblate primary. When we evolve the mutual orbit by BYORP we find that the indirect effects on the binary's eccentricity (through the coupling between the orbit and the secondary's spin) dominate over direct ones caused by the BYORP acceleration. In particular, outward evolution causes eccentricity to increase and eventually triggers chaotic rotation of the secondary. We conclude that the most likely outcome will be reestablishing of the synchronous lock with a "flipped" secondary which would then evolve back in. For inward evolution we find

  5. Separation in Binary Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Facemire, B. R.; Kaukler, W. F.; Witherow, W. K.; Fanning, U.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of monotectic alloys and alloy analogs reviewed. Report surveys research on liquid/liquid and solid/liquid separation in binary monotectic alloys. Emphasizes separation processes in low gravity, such as in outer space or in free fall in drop towers. Advances in methods of controlling separation in experiments highlighted.

  6. Orbits For Sixteen Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Z.; Novakovic, B.

    2006-12-01

    In this paper orbits for 13 binaries are recalculated and presented. The reason is that recent observations show higher residuals than the corresponding ephemerides calculated by using the orbital elements given in the Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars. The binaries studied were: WDS 00182+7257 = A 803, WDS 00335+4006 = HO 3, WDS 00583+2124 = BU 302, WDS 01011+6022 = A 926, WDS 01014+1155 = BU 867, WDS 01112+4113 = A 655, WDS 01361-2954 + HJ 3447, WDS 02333+5219 = STT 42 AB, WDS 04362+0814 = A 1840 AB, WDS 08017-0836 = A 1580, WDS 08277-0425 = A 550, WDS 17471+1742 = STF 2215 and WDS 18025+4414 = BU 1127 Aa-B. In addition, for three binaries - WDS 01532+1526 = BU 260, WDS 02563+7253 =STF 312 AB and WDS 05003+3924 = STT 92 AB - the orbital elements are calculated for the first time. In this paper the authors present not only the orbital elements, but the masses, dynamical parallaxes, absolute magnitudes and ephemerides for the next five years, as well.

  7. Correlated binary regression with covariates specific to each binary observation.

    PubMed

    Prentice, R L

    1988-12-01

    Regression methods are considered for the analysis of correlated binary data when each binary observation may have its own covariates. It is argued that binary response models that condition on some or all binary responses in a given "block" are useful for studying certain types of dependencies, but not for the estimation of marginal response probabilities or pairwise correlations. Fully parametric approaches to these latter problems appear to be unduly complicated except in such special cases as the analysis of paired binary data. Hence, a generalized estimating equation approach is advocated for inference on response probabilities and correlations. Illustrations involving both small and large block sizes are provided.

  8. THE ROLE OF KOZAI CYCLES IN NEAR-EARTH BINARY ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2012-03-15

    We investigate the Kozai mechanism in the context of near-Earth binaries and the Sun. The Kozai effect can lead to changes in eccentricity and inclination of the binary orbit, but it can be weakened or completely suppressed by other sources of pericenter precession, such as the oblateness of the primary body. Through numerical integrations including primary oblateness and three bodies (the two binary components and the Sun), we show that Kozai cycles cannot occur for the closely separated near-Earth binaries in our sample. We demonstrate that this is due to pericenter precession around the oblate primary, even for very small oblateness values. Since the majority of observed near-Earth binaries are not well separated, we predict that Kozai cycles do not play an important role in the orbital evolution of most near-Earth binaries. For a hypothetical wide binary modeled after 1998 ST27, the separation is large at 16 primary radii and so the orbital effects of primary oblateness are lessened. For this wide binary, we illustrate the possible excursions in eccentricity and inclination due to Kozai cycles as well as depict stable orientations for the binary's orbital plane. Unstable orientations lead to collisions between binary components, and we suggest that the Kozai effect acting in wide binaries may be a route to the formation of near-Earth contact binaries.

  9. Astrometric Binaries: White Dwarfs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliversen, Nancy A.

    We propose to observe a selection of astrometric or spectroscopicastrometric binaries nearer than about 20 pc with unseen low mass companions. Systems of this type are important for determining the luminosity function of low mass stars (white dwarfs and very late main sequence M stars), and their contribution to the total mass of the galaxy. Systems of this type are also important because the low mass, invisible companions are potential candidates in the search for planets. Our target list is selected primarily from the list of 31 astrometric binaries near the sun by Lippincott (1978, Space Sci. Rev., 22, 153), with additional candidates from recent observations by Kamper. The elimination of stars with previous IUE observations, red companions resolved by infrared speckle interferometry, or primaries later than M1 (because if white dwarf companions are present they should have been detected in the visible region) reduces the list to 5 targets which need further information. IUE SWP low dispersion observations of these targets will show clearly whether the remaining unseen companions are white dwarfs, thus eliminating very cool main sequence stars or planets. This is also important in providing complete statistical information about the nearest stars. The discovery of a white dwarf in such a nearby system would provide important additional information about the masses of white dwarfs. Recent results by Greenstein (1986, A. J., 92, 859) from binary systems containing white dwarfs imply that 80% of such systems are as yet undetected. The preference of binaries for companions of approximately equal mass makes the Lippincott-Kamper list of A through K primaries with unseen companions a good one to use to search for white dwarfs. The mass and light dominance of the current primary over the white dwarf in the visible makes ultraviolet observations essential to obtain an accurate census of white dwarf binaries.

  10. Evolution of binary seeds in collapsing protostellar gas clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satsuka, Tatsuya; Tsuribe, Toru; Tanaka, Suguru; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2017-02-01

    We perform 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gas accretion on to the seeds of binary stars to investigate their short-term evolution. Taking into account the dynamically evolving envelope with non-uniform distribution of gas density and angular momentum of accreting flow, our initial condition includes a seed binary and a surrounding gas envelope, modelling the phase of core collapse of gas cloud when the fragmentation has already occurred. We run multiple simulations with different values of initial mass ratio q0 (the ratio of secondary over primary mass) and gas temperature. For our simulation setup, we find a critical value of qc = 0.25 which distinguishes the later evolution of mass ratio q as a function of time. If q0 ≳ qc, the secondary seed grows faster and q increases monotonically towards unity. If q0 ≲ qc, on the other hand, the primary seed grows faster and q is lower than q0 at the end of the simulation. Based on our numerical results, we analytically calculate the long-term evolution of the seed binary including the growth of binary by gas accretion. We find that the seed binary with q0 ≳ qc evolves towards an equal-mass binary star and that with q0 ≲ qc evolves to a binary with an extreme value of q. Binary separation is a monotonically increasing function of time for any q0, suggesting that the binary growth by accretion does not lead to the formation of close binaries.

  11. Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-10-01

    Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  12. Is the DO-type White Dwarf RE 0503-289 a Unique Object?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, D.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.

    2017-03-01

    Trans-iron group elements (atomic numbers Z > 28) are produced by s-process nucleosynthesis on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Flash induced mixing during a late thermal pulse (LTP) should strongly enrich their photospheric abundances. While they are so far not found in the hydrogen-deficient post-LTP [WC] -type Wolf-Rayet stars and PG 1159-type stars, they were identified in a small number of DO-type white dwarfs (WDs). Abundance determinations have shown that these are indeed up to about 35000 times solar. The detection of Ge (Z = 32) in some DA-type WDs yields about solar abundances. Thus, an LTP scenario may be a pre-requisite for very high trans-iron group element abundances. Recently, a very high number of lines of trans-iron group elements were discovered in the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the DO-type WD RE 0503-289. Abundance analyses by means of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model-atmosphere techniques have shown that these elements are strongly overabundant (up to about 4 dex) compared to solar values. To prove the suggestion that an LTP is necessary to yield such overabundances, we performed UV spectroscopy with HST/COS of the PG 1159-type star PG 1707+427 and of two DO-type stars, namely PG 0109+111 and WD 0111+002. These three stars are located in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram close before and after the so-called PG 1159 wind limit. At about this limit, PG 1159-type stars evolve into DO-type WDs. These observations will show whether the high abundances of trans-iron group elements are a common phenomenon and establish constraints for AGB nucleosynthesis and post-LTP evolution. To clarify this, we performed an advanced NLTE spectral analysis and present our preliminary results.

  13. Predicting the fate of binary red giants using the observed sequence E star population: binary planetary nebula nuclei and post-RGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, J. D.; Wood, P. R.; Nicholls, C. P.

    2012-07-01

    Sequence E variables are close binary red giants that show ellipsoidal light variations. They are likely the immediate precursors of planetary nebulae (PNe) with close binary central stars as well as other binary post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) and binary post-red giant branch (post-RGB) stars. We have made a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the fraction of red giant binaries that go through a common envelope event leading to the production of a close binary system or a merged star. The novel aspect of this simulation is that we use the observed frequency of sequence E binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to normalize our calculations. This normalization allows us to produce predictions that are relatively independent of model assumptions. In our standard model, and assuming that the relative numbers of PNe of various types are proportional to their birth rates, we find that in the LMC today the fraction of PNe with close binary central stars is 7-9 per cent, the fraction of PNe with intermediate period binary central stars having separations capable of influencing the nebula shape (orbital periods less than 500 yr) is 23-27 per cent, the fraction of PNe containing wide binaries that are unable to influence the nebula shape (orbital period greater than 500 yr) is 46-55 per cent, the fraction of PNe derived from single stars is 3-19 per cent, and 5-6 per cent of PNe are produced by previously merged stars. We also predict that the birth rate of post-RGB stars is ˜4 per cent of the total PN birth rate, equivalent to ˜50 per cent of the production rate of PNe with close binary central stars. These post-RGB stars most likely appear initially as luminous low-mass helium white dwarf binaries. The average lifetime of sequence E ellipsoidal variability with amplitude more than 0.02 mag is predicted to be ˜0.95 Myr. We use our model and the observed number of red giant stars in the top one magnitude of the RGB in the LMC to predict the number of PNe in

  14. NEA rotations and binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravec, Petr; Harris, A. W.; Warner, B. D.

    2007-05-01

    Of nearly 3900 near-Earth asteroids known in June 2006, 325 have got estimated rotation periods. NEAs with sizes down to 10 meters have been sampled. Observed spin distribution shows a major changing point around D=200 m. Larger NEAs show a barrier against spin rates >11 d-1 (period P~2.2 h) that shifts to slower rates with increasing equatorial elongation. The spin barrier is interpreted as a critical spin rate for bodies held together by self-gravitation only, suggesting that NEAs larger than 200 m are mostly strenghtless bodies (i.e., with zero tensile strength), so called `rubble piles'. The barrier disappears at D<200 m where most objects rotate too fast to be held together by self-gravitation only, so a non-zero cohesion is implied in the smaller NEAs. The distribution of NEA spin rates in the `rubble pile' range (D>0.2 km) is non-Maxwellian, suggesting that other mechanisms than just collisions worked there. There is a pile up in front of the barrier (P of 2-3 h). It may be related to a spin up mechanism crowding asteroids to the barrier. An excess of slow rotators is seen at P>30 h. The spin-down mechanism has no clear lower limit on spin rate; periods as long as tens of days occur. Most NEAs appear to be in basic spin states with rotation around the principal axis. Excited rotations are present among and actually dominate in slow rotators with damping timescales >4.5 byr. A few tumblers observed among fast rotating coherent objects consistently appear to be more rigid or younger than the larger, rubble-pile tumblers. An abundant population of binary systems among NEAs has been found. The fraction of binaries among NEAs larger than 0.3 km has been estimated to be 15 +/-4%. Primaries of the binary systems concentrate at fast spin rates (periods 2-3 h) and low amplitudes, i.e., they lie just below the spin barrier. The total angular momentum content in the binary systems suggests that they formed at the critical spin rate, and that little or no angular

  15. Two new extremely hot pulsating white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, H. E.; Grauer, A. D.; Green, R. F.; Liebert, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    High speed photometry of the extremely hot, nearly degenerate stars PG 1707 + 427 and PG 2131 + 066 reveals that they are low-amplitude pulsating variables. Power spectral analysis shows both to be multiperiodic, with dominant periods of 7.5 and 6.4-6.9 minutes, respectively. Together with the known pulsators PG 1159 - 035 and the central star of the planetary nebula Kohoutek 1-16, these objects define a new pulsational instability strip at the hot edge of the H-R diagram. The variations of these objects closely resemble those of the much cooler pulsating ZZ Ceti DA white dwarfs; both groups are probably nonradial g-mode pulsators. Evolutionary contraction of the PG 1159 - 035 variables may lead to period changes that would be detectable in as little as 1 year. The optical and IUE spectra of the PG 1159 - 035 variables are characterized by absorption lines of C IV and other CNO ions, indicating radiative levitation of species heavier than helium. He II is also present in the spectra, but the hydrogen Balmer lines are absent. Effective temperatures near 100,000 K are required, and the He II 4686 A profiles indicate log g greater than 6. These helium-rich pulsators form the hottest known subgroup of the DO white dwarfs.

  16. Solar-Type Eclipsing Binary Systems with Impacting Gas Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samec, Ronald G.; Hube, Doug; Faulkner, Danny R.; van Hamme, W.

    2002-08-01

    Our quest is the recovery of near contact solar type eclipsing binaries with evidence for stream impacts. Their existence will provide strong support of dynamic mass transfer leading to coalescence into a state of contact. This will lend strong support to the theoretical scenarios of 1) angular momentum loss(AML)via magnetic breaking scenario and 2)Thermal Relaxation Oscillations (TRO)or oscillations between a near­contact and shallow contact modes. We hypothesize that many F to early K spectral type binaries formerly classified as ''thermally decoupled'' contact binaries and other binaries with large differences in eclipse depths formerly classified as contact binaries in the 0.33 to 0.5d period range will reveal evidence for stream impacts when they are subjected to precision UBVRI multi­band photometry, since these fall in the pre­contact period range for F to K dwarf binaries. Modern light curve synthesis techniques will be used to simultaneously model the multi­band light curves. Impact spots will be adjusted numerically along with the stellar atmosphere parameters. Spectroscopic work will follow to verify stream activity and to obtain fundamental physical characteristics. Our larger goal is to understand close binary evolution in general. This study could supply an important piece to the puzzle. We now have found four candidates, CN And, BE Cep, ZZ Eri and V343 Cen giving us an encouraging 40 percent recovery thus far.

  17. Analytical solutions for elastic binary nanotubes of arbitrary chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lai; Guo, Wanlin

    2016-12-01

    Analytical solutions for the elastic properties of a variety of binary nanotubes with arbitrary chirality are obtained through the study of systematic molecular mechanics. This molecular mechanics model is first extended to chiral binary nanotubes by introducing an additional out-of-plane inversion term into the so-called stick-spiral model, which results from the polar bonds and the buckling of binary graphitic crystals. The closed-form expressions for the longitudinal and circumferential Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of chiral binary nanotubes are derived as functions of the tube diameter. The obtained inversion force constants are negative for all types of binary nanotubes, and the predicted tube stiffness is lower than that by the former stick-spiral model without consideration of the inversion term, reflecting the softening effect of the buckling on the elastic properties of binary nanotubes. The obtained properties are shown to be comparable to available density functional theory calculated results and to be chirality and size sensitive. The developed model and explicit solutions provide a systematic understanding of the mechanical performance of binary nanotubes consisting of III-V and II-VI group elements.

  18. Partial volume morphology: eliminating precision loss in binary morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Joshua D.

    2017-03-01

    Binary morphology has innumerable applications in biomedical imaging, from segmentation to denoising. However, it suffers from inherently low precision. This is primarily because binary morphology is a binary technique, where each image voxel is all-or-nothing included or excluded. Many desirable structuring element shapes, especially circles or spheres, are poorly approximated on regular grids. Making things worse, common workflows involving multiple binary morphology iterations, such as opening or closing, compound this error. Also, small structuring elements often cannot be applied to 3D anisotropic image volumes. This work describes an extension to the theory of binary morphology, dubbed partial volume morphology or PVM, which allows the structuring element and/or image to hold fractional gray values to account for partial volumes. Partial volume morphology enables arbitrarily shaped structuring elements to be used, regardless of the underlying image resolution, with arbitrary precision. This technique also extends to 3D anisotropic volumes, allowing high precision morphological operations in anisotropic datasets heretofore impossible with binary morphology. This technique can be applied to a binary segmentation, where it provides subtle improvements and eliminates precision error in the intermediate steps of a multiple-operation workflow. Additionally, PVM is particularly suited for use on `soft' segmentated data, where the partial volume contribution or probability at each point can be found. With segmentation and structuring elements both partial volume aware, partial volume morphology reaches its full potential as a high precision analytical tool. An open source reference implementation in Python, pvmpy, is provided.

  19. Spin-Spin Coupling in Asteroidal Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    Gravitationally bound binaries constitute a substantial fraction of the small body population of the solar system, and characterization of their rotational states is instrumental to understanding their formation and dynamical evolution. Unlike planets, numerous small bodies can maintain a perpetual aspheroidal shape, giving rise to a richer array of non-trivial gravitational dynamics. In this work, we explore the rotational evolution of triaxial satellites that orbit permanently deformed central objects, with specific emphasis on quadrupole-quadrupole interactions. Our analysis shows that in addition to conventional spin-orbit resonances, both prograde and retrograde spin-spin resonances naturally arise for closely orbiting, highly deformed bodies. Application of our results to the illustrative examples of (87) Sylvia and (216) Kleopatra multi-asteroid systems implies capture probabilities slightly below ~10% for leading-order spin-spin resonances. Cumulatively, our results suggest that spin-spin coupling may be consequential for highly elongated, tightly orbiting binary objects.

  20. Brown Dwarf Binaries from Disintegrating Triple Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo

    2015-04-01

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi-Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  1. BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo E-mail: Seppo.Mikkola@utu.fi

    2015-04-15

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  2. STAR HOPPERS: PLANET INSTABILITY AND CAPTURE IN EVOLVING BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Perets, Hagai B.

    2012-07-01

    Many planets are observed in stellar binary systems, and their frequency may be comparable to that of planetary systems around single stars. Binary stellar evolution in such systems influences the dynamical evolution of the resident planets. Here, we study the evolution of a single planet orbiting one star in an evolving binary system. We find that stellar evolution can trigger dynamical instabilities that drive planets into chaotic orbits. This instability leads to planet-star collisions, exchange of the planet between the binary stars ('star hoppers'), and ejection of the planet from the system. The means by which planets can be recaptured is similar to the pull-down capture mechanism for irregular solar system satellites. Because planets often suffer close encounters with the primary on the asymptotic giant branch, captures during a collision with the stellar envelope are also possible for more massive planets. Such capture could populate the habitable zone around white dwarfs.

  3. Microfluidic binary phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelescu, Dan; Menetrier, Laure; Wong, Joyce; Tabeling, Patrick; Salamitou, Philippe

    2004-03-01

    We present a novel binary phase flow regime where the two phases differ substantially in both their wetting and viscous properties. Optical tracking particles are used in order to investigate the details of such multiphase flow inside capillary channels. We also describe microfluidic filters we have developed, capable of separating the two phases based on capillary pressure. The performance of the filters in separating oil-water emulsions is discussed. Binary phase flow has been previously used in microchannels in applications such as emulsion generation, enhancement of mixing and assembly of custom colloidal paticles. Such microfluidic systems are increasingly used in a number of applications spanning a diverse range of industries, such as biotech, pharmaceuticals and more recently the oil industry.

  4. Binary Love relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2016-07-01

    When in a tight binary, the mutual tidal deformations of neutron stars get imprinted onto observables, encoding information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities and gravity in the extreme-gravity regime. Gravitational wave (GW) observations of their late binary inspiral may serve as a tool to extract the individual tidal deformabilities, but this is made difficult by degeneracies between them in the GW model. We here resolve this problem by discovering approximately equation-of-state (EoS)-insensitive relations between dimensionless combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities. We show that these relations break degeneracies in the GW model, allowing for the accurate extraction of both deformabilities. Such measurements can be used to better differentiate between EoS models, and improve tests of general relativity and cosmology.

  5. Adaptive Optics Photometry and Astrometry of Binary Stars. III. A Faint Companion Search of O-Star Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    ejected (by close gravitational encounters or a supernova in a binary). The results of this exercise to discern the probable physical companions are...dense clusters and by supernova explosions in close binaries (Hoogerwerf et al. 2001), and their ejection velocities generally exceed the escape

  6. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    they can also be used to check ("calibrate") other, indirect methods to derive stellar parameters. It is on this background that the first discovery of an eclipsing binary system with two young, solar-like stars is of great interest. The Orion Binary Young stars are not so easy to find. One way is to look for their high-energy emission from a hot corona, created by their enhanced magnetic activity. The object RXJ 0529.4+0041 was first discovered in this way by the X-ray satellite ROSAT. Subsequent optical spectroscopy showed this object to be a young, low-mass spectroscopic binary system. And when a team of astronomers [1] used a 91-cm telescope at the Serra La Nave observing station on the slope of the Etna volcano (Sicily) to monitor the light curve, they also discovered that this system undergoes eclipses. All data confirm that RXJ 0529.4+0041 is located in the Orion Nebula at a distance of about 1500 light-years. This is one of the nearest star-forming regions and almost all stars in this area are quite young. Spectroscopic observations soon confirmed that the binary system was no exception. In particular, fairly strong absorption lines of the fragile element Lithium [4] were detected in both of the binary stars. As Lithium is known to be rapidly destroyed in stars, the finding of a relatively high content of this element implies that the stars must indeed be young. They were probably formed no more than 10 million years ago, i.e., in astronomical terms, they are "infant" stars . High-resolution spectroscopic observations, mostly with the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory , were used to determine the radial velocities of the stars. From these, a first determination of the orbital and stellar parameters was possible. The orbital period turned out to be short. The two stars swing around each other in just 3 days. This also means they must be very close to each other (but still entirely detached from each

  7. Parametric binary dissection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.; Crockett, Thomas W.; Nicol, David M.

    1993-01-01

    Binary dissection is widely used to partition non-uniform domains over parallel computers. This algorithm does not consider the perimeter, surface area, or aspect ratio of the regions being generated and can yield decompositions that have poor communication to computation ratio. Parametric Binary Dissection (PBD) is a new algorithm in which each cut is chosen to minimize load + lambda x(shape). In a 2 (or 3) dimensional problem, load is the amount of computation to be performed in a subregion and shape could refer to the perimeter (respectively surface) of that subregion. Shape is a measure of communication overhead and the parameter permits us to trade off load imbalance against communication overhead. When A is zero, the algorithm reduces to plain binary dissection. This algorithm can be used to partition graphs embedded in 2 or 3-d. Load is the number of nodes in a subregion, shape the number of edges that leave that subregion, and lambda the ratio of time to communicate over an edge to the time to compute at a node. An algorithm is presented that finds the depth d parametric dissection of an embedded graph with n vertices and e edges in O(max(n log n, de)) time, which is an improvement over the O(dn log n) time of plain binary dissection. Parallel versions of this algorithm are also presented; the best of these requires O((n/p) log(sup 3)p) time on a p processor hypercube, assuming graphs of bounded degree. How PBD is applied to 3-d unstructured meshes and yields partitions that are better than those obtained by plain dissection is described. Its application to the color image quantization problem is also discussed, in which samples in a high-resolution color space are mapped onto a lower resolution space in a way that minimizes the color error.

  8. Binary Optics Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, Daniel

    1996-04-02

    This software is a set of tools for the design and analysis of binary optics. It consists of a series of stand-alone programs written in C and some scripts written in an application-specific language interpreted by a CAD program called DW2000. This software can be used to optimize the design and placement of a complex lens array from input to output and produce contours, mask designs, and data exported for diffractive optic analysis.

  9. Processing Of Binary Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, H. S.

    1985-07-01

    An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.

  10. DPI: Symplectic mapping for binary star systems for the Mercury software package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrini, D.

    2015-04-01

    DPI is a FORTRAN77 library that supplies the symplectic mapping method for binary star systems for the Mercury N-Body software package (ascl:1201.008). The binary symplectic mapping is implemented as a hybrid symplectic method that allows close encounters and collisions between massive bodies and is therefore suitable for planetary accretion simulations.

  11. Binary-Signal Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griebeler, Elmer L.

    2011-01-01

    Binary communication through long cables, opto-isolators, isolating transformers, or repeaters can become distorted in characteristic ways. The usual solution is to slow the communication rate, change to a different method, or improve the communication media. It would help if the characteristic distortions could be accommodated at the receiving end to ease the communication problem. The distortions come from loss of the high-frequency content, which adds slopes to the transitions from ones to zeroes and zeroes to ones. This weakens the definition of the ones and zeroes in the time domain. The other major distortion is the reduction of low frequency, which causes the voltage that defines the ones or zeroes to drift out of recognizable range. This development describes a method for recovering a binary data stream from a signal that has been subjected to a loss of both higher-frequency content and low-frequency content that is essential to define the difference between ones and zeroes. The method makes use of the frequency structure of the waveform created by the data stream, and then enhances the characteristics related to the data to reconstruct the binary switching pattern. A major issue is simplicity. The approach taken here is to take the first derivative of the signal and then feed it to a hysteresis switch. This is equivalent in practice to using a non-resonant band pass filter feeding a Schmitt trigger. Obviously, the derivative signal needs to be offset to halfway between the thresholds of the hysteresis switch, and amplified so that the derivatives reliably exceed the thresholds. A transition from a zero to a one is the most substantial, fastest plus movement of voltage, and therefore will create the largest plus first derivative pulse. Since the quiet state of the derivative is sitting between the hysteresis thresholds, the plus pulse exceeds the plus threshold, switching the hysteresis switch plus, which re-establishes the data zero to one transition

  12. A precontact binary and a shallow contact binary are in the same field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang; Qian, Shengbang; He, Jiajia; Liao, Wenping; Liu, Nianping

    2016-06-01

    The period changes of two close binaries, V1107 Cas and AX Cas, which are in the same field, were investigated. Their periods both show a long-term decrease. After further analysis, we found that the periods have their respective cyclic oscillations (T3 = 6.74 ± 0.24 yr for V1107 Cas and T3 = 13.8 ± 0.3 yr for AX Cas), which are possibly caused by a third body due to the light-time effect. We also obtained the complete VRcIc light curves for V1107 Cas and analyzed them with the 2010 version of the Wilson-Devinney code. The photometric results reveal that V1107 Cas is a W-type shallow contact (15.2%±1.8%) binary, with a mass-ratio of 1.797 ± 0.006. The period variation and photometric solution suggest that V1107 Cas is a newly formed contact binary system. Moreover, we estimated the fundamental parameters for V1107 Cas. They are: M1 = 0.39 ± 0.01 M⊙, M2 = 0.70 ± 0.03 M⊙, R1 = 0.52 ± 0.10 R⊙, R2 = 0.68 ± 0.12 R⊙, L1 = 0.178 ± 0.108 L⊙, and L2 = 0.196 ± 0.116 L⊙. Then, based on the coplane assumption, we deduced the masses of possible third bodies to be M3 = 0.091 ± 0.019 M⊙ for V1107 Cas and M3 = 0.325 ± 0.029 M⊙ for AX Cas. Finally, we inferred the evolutional stage of AX Cas, and believe that it is a precontact binary. Thus, the precontact binary AX Cas and the shallow contact binary V1107 Cas have adjoining evolutional stages.

  13. Visual binary stars: data to investigate formation of binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva,, D.; Malkov,, O.; Yungelson, L.; Chulkov, D.

    Statistics of orbital parameters of binary stars as well as statistics of their physical characteristics bear traces of star formation history. However, statistical investigations of binaries are complicated by incomplete or missing observational data and by a number of observational selection effects. Visual binaries are the most common type of observed binary stars, with the number of pairs exceeding 130 000. The most complete list of presently known visual binary stars was compiled by cross-matching objects and combining data of the three largest catalogues of visual binaries. This list was supplemented by the data on parallaxes, multicolor photometry, and spectral characteristics taken from other catalogues. This allowed us to compensate partly for the lack of observational data for these objects. The combined data allowed us to check the validity of observational values and to investigate statistics of the orbital and physical parameters of visual binaries. Corrections for incompleteness of observational data are discussed. The datasets obtained, together with modern distributions of binary parameters, will be used to reconstruct the initial distributions and parameters of the function of star formation for binary systems.

  14. Merging Galaxies Create a Binary Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    Observatory in California indicated that the object was likely a binary quasar in the midst of a galaxy merger. Carnegie's Mulchaey then used the 6.5 meter Baade-Magellan telescope at the Las Campanas observatory in Chile to obtain deeper images and more detailed spectroscopy of the merging galaxies. "Just because you see two galaxies that are close to each other in the sky doesn't mean they are merging," says Mulchaey. "But from the Magellan images we can actually see tidal tails, one from each galaxy, which suggests that the galaxies are in fact interacting and are in the process of merging." Thomas Cox, now a fellow at the Carnegie Observatories, corroborated this conclusion using computer simulations of the merging galaxies. When Cox's model galaxies merged, they showed features remarkably similar to what Mulchaey observed in the Magellan images. "The model verifies the merger origin for this binary quasar system," he says. "It also hints that this kind of galaxy interaction is a key component of the growth of black holes and production of quasars throughout our universe." * The authors of the paper published in the Astrophysical Journal are Paul J. Green of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Adam D. Myers of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Wayne A. Barkhouse of the University of North Dakota, John S. Mulchaey of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Vardha N. Bennert of the Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Thomas J. Cox of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Thomas L. Aldcroft of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, and Joan M. Wrobel of National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM. More information, including images and other multimedia, can be found at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  15. Workshop on Colliding Winds in Binary Stars to Honor Jorge Sahade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemela, Virpi; Morrell, Nidia; Pismis, Paris; Torres-Peimbert, Silvia

    1996-12-01

    Topics considered include: the beginning of the story; mass flow in and out of close binaries; winds of massive, main sequence close binaries; chromospheric activity, stellar winds and red stragglers; uv observations of mass transfer in algols; the circumstellar matter in pre-supernovae of type Ia; observations of colliding winds in O-type binaries; colliding winds in massive binaries involving Wolf-Rayet stars; episodic dust formation by Wolf-Rayet stars: smoke signals from colliding winds; x-ray emission from colliding wind binaries; colliding stellar winds: a new method of determining mass-loss rates via x-ray spectroscopy; sudden radiative braking in colliding hot-star winds; optical observations of colliding winds in gamma2 velorum; left overs for dinner; HD 5980: the Wolf-Rayet binary that became a luminous blue variable; the erupting Wolf-Rayet binary HD 5980 in the small magellanic cloud: spectral transition from B1.5Ia(+) to WN6 and the accompanying light curve; the elliptic orbit of the WR binary system CV serpentis; evidence for colliding winds in WR 146; is there wind-wind collision in WR 141 (HD 193928)?; search for interacting winds in the WN7 + O binary; line formation in CH Cyg: a symbiotic binary; period analysis of radial velocity of pleione; H(alpha) detection of colliding winds in O-type binaries; HD 5980 in the infrared; photometric and polarimetric observations of the Wolf-Rayet eclipsing binary HD 5980 in the small magellanic cloud, and analysis of linear polarization in two Wolf-Rayet binary systems.

  16. Analysis of the Interferometric Binary Finsen 332

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, W. I.; McAlister, H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Two of the most challenging objects for optical interferometry in the middle of the last century were the close components (FIN 332) of the wide visual binary STF2375 (= WDS 18455+0530 = HIP 92027 = ADS 11640). Each component of the wide pair was found to have subcomponents of approximately the same magnitude, position angle and separation and, hence, were designated by the tongue in cheek monikers "Tweedledum and Tweedledee" by the great visual interferometrist William S. Finsen in 1953. They were later included in a list of "Double Stars that Vex the Observer" by W.H. van den Bos. While speckle interferometry has reaped a rich harvest investigating the close inteferometric binaries of Finsen, the "Tweedles" have continued to both fascinate and exasperate due to both the great similarity of the close pairs as well as the inherent 180 degree ambiguity associated with interferometry. Detailed analysis of all published observations of the system have revealed several errors which are here corrected, allowing for determination of these orbital elements which resolve the quadrant ambiguity. A unique software filter was developed which allowed subarrays from archival ICCD speckle data from 1982 to be re-reduced. Those data, combined with new and unpublished observations obtained in 2001-9 from NOAO 4m telescopes, the Mt. Wilson 100in telescope and the NOFS 61in telescope as well as high quality unresolved measures all allow for the correct orbits to be determined. Co-planarity of the multiple system is also investigated.

  17. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-08-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  18. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  19. Radio emission from binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the radio emission from binary star systems - the emission processes that occur, the characteristics of the binary systems inferred from the radio observations, and the reasons for the activity. Several classes of binary stars are described including those with two main sequence stars, those with one normal star and a white dwarf, and those containing a neutron star or a black hole.

  20. Spectroscopic observations of V443 Herculis - A symbiotic binary with a low mass white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrzycka, Danuta; Kenyon, Scott J.; Mikolajewska, Joanna

    1993-01-01

    We present an analysis of new and existing photometric and spectroscopic observations of the symbiotic binary V443 Herculis. This binary system consists of a normal M5 giant and a hot compact star. These two objects have comparable luminosities: about 1500 solar for the M5 giant and about 1000 solar for the compact star. We identify three nebular regions in this binary: a small, highly ionized volume surrounding the hot component, a modestly ionized shell close to the red giant photosphere, and a less dense region of intermediate ionization encompassing both binary components. The system parameters for V443 Her suggest the hot component currently declines from a symbiotic nova eruption.

  1. Particle acceleration in binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyna, V. G.; Sinitsyna, V. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Cygnus X-3 massive binary system is one of the powerful sources of radio and X-ray emission consisting of an accreting compact object, probably a black hole, with a Wolf-Rayet star companion. Based on the detections of ultra high energy gamma-rays by Kiel and Havera Park, Cygnus X-3 has been proposed to be one of the most powerful sources of charged cosmic ray particles in the Galaxy. The results of long-term observations of the Cyg X-3 binary at energies 800 GeV-85 TeV detected by SHALON in 1995 are presented with images, integral spectra and spectral energy distribution. The identification of source with Cygnus X-3 detected by SHALON was secured by the detection of its 4.8 hour orbital period in TeV gamma-rays. During the whole observation period of Cyg X-3 with SHALON significant flux increases were detected at energies above 0.8 TeV. These TeV flux increases are correlated with flaring activity at a lower energy range of X-ray and/or at observations of Fermi LAT as well as with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The variability of very high-energy gamma-radiation and correlation of radiation activity in the wide energy range can provide essential information on particle mechanism production up to very high energies. Whereas, modulation of very high energy emission connected to the orbital motion of the binary system, provides an understanding of the emission processes, nature and location of particle acceleration.

  2. Very Wide Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olling, Robert; Shaya, E.

    2011-01-01

    We develop Bayesian statistical methods for discovering and assigning probabilities to physical stellar companions. The probabilities depend on similarities in "corrected" proper motion, parallax, and the phase-space density of field stars. Very wide binaries with separations over 10,000 AU have recently been predicted to form during the dissolution process of low-mass star clusters. In this case, these wide systems would still carry information about the density and size of the star cluster in which they formed. Alternatively, Galactic tides and weak interactions with passing stars peel off stars from such very wide binaries in less than 1/2 of a Hubble time. In the past, these systems have been used to rule in/out MACHOs or less compact dark (matter) objects. Ours is the first all-sky survey to locate escaped companions that are still drifting along with each other, long after their binary bond has been broken. We test stars for companionship up to an apparent separation of 8 parsec: 10 to 100 times wider than previous searches. Among Hipparcos stars within 100 pc, we find about 260 systems with separations between 0.01 and 1 pc, and another 190 with separation from 1 to 8 parsec. We find a number of previously unnoticed naked-eye companions, among which: Capella & 50 Per; Alioth, Megrez & Alcor; gamma & tau Cen; phi Eri & eta Hor; 62 & 63 Cnc; gamma & tau Per; zeta & delta Hya; beta01, beta02 & beta03 Tuc; 44 & 58 Oph and pi & rho Cep. At least 15 of our candidates are exoplanet host stars.

  3. Observations of mass accretion in binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polidan, R. S.; Peters, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    Results from high resolution observations of eight close binary stars (TX UMa, U CrB, CX Dra, TT Hya, AU Mon, KX And, HR 2142, and phi Per) are presented. Variable absorption lines, indicative of mass flow, are observed in all systems expect phi Per. Emission lines are seen in KX And and phi Per. Variable high ionization features (NV, SiIV, and CIV) are seen in TX UMa, UCrB, CX Dra, and AU Mon. The observations are modeled using the calculations of Lubow and Shu.

  4. The Algol binary system KZ Pavonis revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sürgit, D.; Erdem, A.; Budding, E.

    2010-09-01

    We present results from analysing new spectroscopic and photometric observations of the KZ Pav (IDS 20490-7048 A-BC) multiple system. High-resolution spectra were taken at the Mt John University Observatory in 2007 and 2008. Radial velocities for the close binary were determined from cross-correlation and spectral disentangling methods. The resulting orbital elements are a1 sin i = 0.0103 +/- 0.0001au, a2 sin i = 0.0158 +/- 0.0001 au, M1 sin3i = 1.598 +/- 0.006 Msolar and M2 sin3i = 1.045 +/- 0.006 Msolar. The close binary components rotated synchronously according to their MgI (5183.6 Å) line profiles. Four photometric data sets (1988-89 BV, 1998 V, Hipparcos and 2006 BVRI) were modelled with modern light-curve synthesis methods. The radial velocity models, including proximity effects, give the close binary mass ratio as 0.641 +/- 0.003. The combination of the photometric light and radial velocity data gives the following absolute parameters: M1 = 1.70 +/- 0.02 Msolar, M2 = 1.09 +/- 0.03 Msolar, R1 = 1.74 +/- 0.01 Rsolar, R2 = 1.94 +/- 0.02 Rsolar, L1 = 5.86 +/- 0.81 Lsolar and L2 = 2.32 +/- 0.40 Lsolar. The distance to KZ Pav is 115 +/- 8 pc from our analysis, taking into account interstellar extinction. The orbital period of the close binary, from times of minimum data covering nearly one century, indicates a quasi-sinusoidal form superimposed on a downward parabola. The secular period decrease was interpreted in terms of the combined effects of mass transfer and loss. The sinusoidal component may reflect a light-time effect from either an unseen component or higher order terms in perturbations from the BC system, or perhaps an internal magnetic field rearrangement (Applegate type) mechanism. The orbits of the A-BC and B-C systems are considered against historic astrometric measurements.

  5. Binary Cepheids From High-Angular Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallenne, A.; Mérand, A.; Kervella, P.

    2015-12-01

    Optical interferometry is the only technique giving access to milli-arcsecond (mas) spatial resolution. This is a powerful and unique tool to detect the close orbiting companions of Cepheids, and offers an unique opportunity to make progress in resolving the Cepheid mass discrepancy. Our goal in studying binary Cepheids is to measure the astrometric position of the high-contrast companion, and then combine them with spectroscopic measurements to derive the orbital elements, distances, and dynamical masses. In the course of this program, we developed a new tool, CANDID, to search for high-contrast companions and set detection limits from interferometric observations

  6. Composition formulas of binary eutectics

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Y. P.; Dong, D. D.; Dong, C.; Luo, L. J.; Wang, Q.; Qiang, J. B.; Wang, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1st-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)1 or 3. A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism. PMID:26658618

  7. Composition formulas of binary eutectics.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y P; Dong, D D; Dong, C; Luo, L J; Wang, Q; Qiang, J B; Wang, Y M

    2015-12-14

    The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1(st)-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)(1 or 3). A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism.

  8. Composition formulas of binary eutectics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y. P.; Dong, D. D.; Dong, C.; Luo, L. J.; Wang, Q.; Qiang, J. B.; Wang, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1st-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)1 or 3. A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism.

  9. Ecospheres around binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, B.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific investigations concerning ecospheres of other stars are very important for understanding the posibilities of existence and evolution of extraterrestrial life. In several last years astronomers discovered hundreds of extrasolar planets. Identification of stars with ecospheres is the first step in selecting those planets which could be inhabited. Usually an ecosphere of a single star is considered but it may also exist in planetary systems with two suns. This possibility is very promising in search for life on other planets as more that 60 % of stars reside in binary or multiple systems.

  10. Low autocorrelation binary sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.

  11. BINARY STORAGE ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Chu, J.C.

    1958-06-10

    A binary storage device is described comprising a toggle provided with associsted improved driver circuits adapted to produce reliable action of the toggle during clearing of the toggle to one of its two states. or transferring information into and out of the toggle. The invention resides in the development of a self-regulating driver circuit to minimize the fluctuation of the driving voltages for the toggle. The disclosed driver circuit produces two pulses in response to an input pulse: a first or ''clear'' pulse beginning nt substantially the same time but endlrg slightly sooner than the second or ''transfer'' output pulse.

  12. The X-ray binary, UW CMa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The UW CMa is a close, eclipsing binary composed of an O7f primary with a stron wind and a less luminous O-type companion. It was found that UW CMa a variable X-ray source, whose X-ray variations are in phase with its optical light curve. Since both components of the binary system are O stars, accretion by a compact object is ruled out as a mechanism for generating X-rays. The UW CMa represents a new class of X-ray binaries, in which X-rays result from the collision of a wind from one star with the surface or wind of the other star. It is hypothesised that the impact of a wind against a star generates a shock wave about 0.25 stellar radii above the stellar surface, and material behind the shock front, heated to bout 10 million degrees, radiates the X-ray apparent X-ray variability is due to its location between the two stars, where it undergoes eclipses. The high temperature region maintains an ionization cavity in the wind, as detected with IUE. The ionization cavity is the source of depletion of absorbing ions in the wind between the two stars.

  13. Kepler as a Binary Star Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Stefano, Rosanne

    2010-12-01

    The Kepler observatory was designed to discover transits by Earth-like planets orbiting Sun-like stars. Its first major discoveries, however, are hot objects in close orbits around main-sequence stars. These are likely to be white-dwarf remnants of stars that have transferred mass to the present-day main sequence stars. These particular main-sequence stars are among the Kepler targets because they are bright. The question is: how many of the other Kepler target stars are also orbited by white dwarfs? We have shown that several hundred white dwarfs are likely to transit the Kepler target stars during the mission. In some cases, the signature will be dominated by gravitational lensing, producing distinctive ``antitransits''. Neutron stars and black holes may also be discovered this way. The lensing signature provides a measurement of the gravitational mass of the compact object. Through the discovery of both transits and antitransits caused by white dwarfs, Kepler will discover and study binaries that have already experienced a phase of mass transfer or a common envelope phase. Thus, Kepler will become a premier tool for the study of interacting binaries. During the next phase of interaction, some of the Kepler binaries may become nuclear-burning white dwarfs, and may be candidates for Type Ia supernovae or accretion-induced collapse.

  14. Observational Confirmation of a Link Between Common Envelope Binary Interaction and Planetary Nebula Shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillwig, Todd C.; Jones, David; De Marco, Orsola; Bond, Howard E.; Margheim, Steve; Frew, David

    2016-12-01

    A current issue in the study of planetary nebulae with close binary central stars (CSs) is the extent to which the binaries affect the shaping of the nebulae. Recent studies have begun to show a high coincidence rate between nebulae with large-scale axial or point symmetries and close binary stars. In addition, combined binary-star and spatiokinematic modeling of the nebulae have demonstrated that all of the systems studied to date appear to have their central binary axis aligned with the primary axis of the nebula. Here we add two more systems to the list, the CSs and nebulae of NGC 6337 and Sp 1. We show both systems to be low inclination, with their binary axis nearly aligned with our line of sight. Their inclinations match published values for the inclinations of their surrounding nebulae. Including these two systems with the existing sample statistically demonstrates a direct link between the central binary and the nebular morphology. In addition to the systems’ inclinations we give ranges for other orbital parameters from binary modeling, including updated orbital periods for the binary CSs of NGC 6337 and Sp 1.

  15. Observational Types of Binaries in the Binary Star Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, O.; Kovaleva, D.; Kaygorodov, P.

    2017-06-01

    In the present paper we describe observational types of binaries, included in BDB, the Binary star database, which presently contains data on physical and positional parameters for about 260 000 components of 120 000 stellar systems of multiplicity 2 to more than 20, taken from a large variety of published catalogues and databases.

  16. Some (Apparently) Very Wide Binary Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.; Stephens, Robert D.

    2016-10-01

    We present lightcurves for some of the approximately one dozen asteroids that appear to be very widely-separated binaries. Jacobsen et al. (2014, ApJ 780) attribute their formation to a somewhat complex series of events involving BYORP.The lightcurves consist of two components: Period 1 (P1) is very long, P1 = 50-600 h, with amplitudes of A1 = 0.23-1.0 mag. The second period and amplitudes are similar to the primaries of close binary systems, i.e., P2 = 2.2-3.6 h, A2 ~ 0.10 mag. Two candidates have secondary periods in the range of 5-7 hours. The most exceptional example is (19204) Joshuatree, which has values of P1 = 480 h, A1 = 0.25 mag and P2 = 21.25 h, A2 = 0.08 mag. Based on Jacobson et al. (2014, ApJ 780) and Pravec et al. (2016, Icarus 267), we suggest that P1 represents the primary (larger) body of the system and P2 represents the spin rate of the satellite.Supporting this supposition is that the large amplitude (A1) must be from the larger body, otherwise the dilution of amplitude would require the smaller body to be unreasonably elongate. The limiting size ratio for binaries is around 0.6 (see Pravec et al. 2010, Nature 466, Fig. 1), or a magnitude difference of about 1.0. For a secondary 1.0 mag fainter than the primary to produce a combined lightcurve amplitude of ~0.4 mag would require that the secondary undiluted amplitude to be several magnitudes (near-infinite elongation) and also a near equatorial aspect. This is not likely.Given the lack of mutual events, these can be considered to be only possible binaries. Since the orbital period is probably very long, it seems extremely unlikely that mutual events will ever be seen.The changing landscape of binary asteroid discoveries and theories calls for something beyond descriptive terms such as "suspicious", "possible", "likely", and "confirmed" in order to allow more accurate statistical studies. To this end, we are introducing a new "B" rating in the asteroid lightcurve database (Warner et al., 2009

  17. Rotating and Binary Stars in General Relativit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Stuart

    The inspiral and coalescence of compact binary stars is one of the most challenging problems in theoretical astrophysics. Only recently have advances in numerical relativity made it possible to explore this topic in full general relativity (GR). The mergers of compact binaries have important consequences for the detection of gravitational waves. In addition, the coalescence of binary neutron stars (NSNSs) and binary black-hole neutron stars (BHNSs) may hold the key for resolving other astrophysical puzzles, such as the origin of short-hard gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). While simulations of these systems in full GR are now possible, only the most idealized treatments have been performed to date. More detailed physics, including magnetic fields, black hole spin, a realistic hot, nuclear equation of state and neutrino transport must be incorporated. Only then will we be able to identify reliably future sources that may be detected simultaneously in gravitational waves and as GRBs. Likewise, the coalescence of binary black holes (BHBHs) is now a solved problem in GR, but only in vacuum. Simulating the coalescence of BHBHs in the gaseous environments likely to be found in nearby galaxy cores or in merging galaxies is crucial to identifying an electromagnetic signal that might accompany the gravitational waves produced during the merger. The coalescence of a binary white dwarf-neutron star (WDNS) has only recently been treated in GR, but GR is necessary to explore tidal disruption scenarios in which the capture of WD debris by the NS may lead to catastrophic collapse. Alternatively, the NS may survive and the merger might result in the formation of pulsar planets. The stability of rotating neutron stars in these and other systems has not been fully explored in GR, and the final fate of unstable stars has not been determined in many cases, especially in the presence of magnetic fields and differential rotation. These systems will be probed observationally by current NASA

  18. Misaligned protoplanetary disks in a young binary star system.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Eric L N; Akeson, Rachel

    2014-07-31

    Many extrasolar planets follow orbits that differ from the nearly coplanar and circular orbits found in our Solar System; their orbits may be eccentric or inclined with respect to the host star's equator, and the population of giant planets orbiting close to their host stars suggests appreciable orbital migration. There is at present no consensus on what produces such orbits. Theoretical explanations often invoke interactions with a binary companion star in an orbit that is inclined relative to the planet's orbital plane. Such mechanisms require significant mutual inclinations between the planetary and binary star orbital planes. The protoplanetary disks in a few young binaries are misaligned, but often the measurements of these misalignments are sensitive only to a small portion of the inner disk, and the three-dimensional misalignment of the bulk of the planet-forming disk mass has hitherto not been determined. Here we report that the protoplanetary disks in the young binary system HK Tauri are misaligned by 60 to 68 degrees, such that one or both of the disks are significantly inclined to the binary orbital plane. Our results demonstrate that the necessary conditions exist for misalignment-driven mechanisms to modify planetary orbits, and that these conditions are present at the time of planet formation, apparently because of the binary formation process.

  19. MICROLENSING BINARIES DISCOVERED THROUGH HIGH-MAGNIFICATION CHANNEL

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, I.-G.; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, S.-Y.; Han, C.; Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Sumi, T.; Udalski, A.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Dominik, M.; Allen, W.; Bos, M.; Christie, G. W.; Depoy, D. L.; Dong, S.; Drummond, J.; Gal-Yam, A.; Hung, L.-W.; Janczak, J.; Kaspi, S.; Collaboration: muFUN Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; and others

    2012-02-20

    Microlensing can provide a useful tool to probe binary distributions down to low-mass limits of binary companions. In this paper, we analyze the light curves of eight binary-lensing events detected through the channel of high-magnification events during the seasons from 2007 to 2010. The perturbations, which are confined near the peak of the light curves, can be easily distinguished from the central perturbations caused by planets. However, the degeneracy between close and wide binary solutions cannot be resolved with a 3{sigma} confidence level for three events, implying that the degeneracy would be an important obstacle in studying binary distributions. The dependence of the degeneracy on the lensing parameters is consistent with a theoretical prediction that the degeneracy becomes severe as the binary separation and the mass ratio deviate from the values of resonant caustics. The measured mass ratio of the event OGLE-2008-BLG-510/MOA-2008-BLG-369 is q {approx} 0.1, making the companion of the lens a strong brown dwarf candidate.

  20. The binary Kuiper-belt object 1998 WW31.

    PubMed

    Veillet, Christian; Parker, Joel Wm; Griffin, Ian; Marsden, Brian; Doressoundiram, Alain; Buie, Marc; Tholen, David J; Connelley, Michael; Holman, Matthew J

    2002-04-18

    The recent discovery of a binary asteroid during a spacecraft fly-by generated keen interest, because the orbital parameters of binaries can provide measures of the masses, and mutual eclipses could allow us to determine individual sizes and bulk densities. Several binary near-Earth, main-belt and Trojan asteroids have subsequently been discovered. The Kuiper belt-the region of space extending from Neptune (at 30 astronomical units) to well over 100 AU and believed to be the source of new short-period comets-has become a fascinating new window onto the formation of our Solar System since the first member object, not counting Pluto, was discovered in 1992 (ref. 13). Here we report that the Kuiper-belt object 1998 WW31 is binary with a highly eccentric orbit (eccentricity e approximately 0.8) and a long period (about 570 days), very different from the Pluto/Charon system, which was hitherto the only previously known binary in the Kuiper belt. Assuming a density in the range of 1 to 2 g cm-3, the albedo of the binary components is between 0.05 and 0.08, close to the value of 0.04 generally assumed for Kuiper-belt objects.

  1. Cepheid Binary Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remage Evans, Nancy

    Blue main sequence companions of binary Cepheids can be used to determine Clio luminosity of the Cepheids. By matching the composite spectrum of the companion and the Cepheid with those of standard stars, the spectral type of the companion and the magnitude difference between the two stars can be determined. The main sequence absolute magnitude calibration of the companion then leads to the absolute magnitude of the Cepheid. The aim of this project is to obtain low dispersion SWP spectra of three Cepheids (T Vul, Y Lac, and RS Ori) for which the LWP spectra show excess flux at 2500 from the companion. In addition, we request LWP low dispersion spectra of five Cepheids to complete the survey of all Cepheids brighter than 8" magnitude to look for companions. Archival IUE spectra are non-existant or inadequate (no LWP or overexposed). The purpose of this survey is to accurately determine the percentage of Cepheids which are binaries, to compare with evolutionary predictions. This IUE survey will identify definitively Cepheids with blue companions, about which there is come confusion from groundbased photometric techniques, and hence prevent distortions to such parameters as luminosity, color and reddening. In addition, the distribution of mass ratios (from the spectral type of the main sequence mass and the evolutionary mass of the Cepheid (Evans and Bolton, 1989)), is basic information about star formation.

  2. A Different Look at Cool Contact Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stȩpień, K.

    A brief history of the discovery of W UMa-type eclipsing variables, identified later as cool contact binaries is presented. Further, the main properties of these binaries are discussed and the thermal relaxation oscillation model (TRY) is presented. The model explains two main observational properties of W UMa type stars: the geometry of the binary and the eclipsing light curves. However, the TRO model was developed under the assumptions, some of which turned out to be incorrect. In addition, some of its predictions are not in agreement with observations. In reaction to these problems, a new evolutionary scenario, developed by the present author is presented. It assumes that W UMa-type stars are old objects which have passed the mass transfer episode with the mass ratio reversal. Their structure reminds the Algol-type stars, except that they have smaller angular momenta. The model is in good agreement with observations. The evolutionary model is supplemented by the energy transfer mechanism. It is shown that the lack of hydrostatic equilibrium in a common envelope of the contact binary results in a large-scale flow of matter from the more massive primary to the secondary. The stream matter has a higher entropy than the surface layers of the secondary, hence it flows atop of them. The Coriolis force keeps the flow close to the equator. The stream encircles the secondary and returns to the primary. Because the heat capacity of the stream matter is much larger than the energy, radiated away during the journey around the secondary, the stream temperature hardly decreases. In a stationary situation the stream blocks the core energy of the secondary, flowing beneath, but due to an inconsiderable modification of the convective zone this energy is radiated away by the polar regions, not covered by the stream. The model predicts very similar temperatures of the primary and secondary, in agreement with observations.

  3. Planetary Formation and Dynamics in Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    explanation for the turnover point in the size distribution of the present-day asteroid belt. For the specific case of close binaries such as Alpha Centauri, the snowball growth mode provides a safe way for the bodies to grow through the problematic range with a size of 1˜50 km. In chapter 6, we investigate the intermediate stages of the planet formation in highly inclined cases. We find that the gas drag plays a crucial role in the evolution of the planetesimals' semi-major axis, and the results can be generally divided into two categories, i.e., the Kozai-on regime and the Kozai-off regime. For both regimes, a robust outcome over a wide range of parameters is that, the planetesimals migrate/jump inwards and pile up, leading to a severely truncated and dense planetesimal disk around the primary. In this compact and dense disk, the collision rates are high but the relative velocities are low, providing conditions which are favorable for the planetesimal growth, and potentially allow for the subsequent formation of planets. Finally, we summarize this thesis in chapter 7. Many open questions still remain in current research field of planet formation in binary systems, and the current Kepler project provides an unprecedented opportunity for such researches. A comprehensive understanding of planets in binaries requires placing them in a bigger context to include the formation and evolution of stars and/or clusters.

  4. Influence of binary fraction on the fragmentation of young massive clusters—a Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Sinha, Abisa; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar

    2016-04-01

    A stochastic model has been developed to study the hierarchical fragmentation process of young massive clusters in external galaxies considering close binary components along with individual ones. Stellar masses for individual ones have been generated from truncated Pareto distribution and stellar masses for close binary components have been generated from a truncated Bi-variate Gumbel Exponential distribution. The above distribution is identified by fitting the observed bi-variate distribution of masses of eclipsing binary stars computed from the light curves catalogued in the package Binary Maker 3.0. The resulting mass spectra computed at different projected distances, show signature of mass segregation. Degree of mass segregation becomes reduced due to the inclusion of binary fraction. This might be due to the reduction of massive stars and inclusion of less massive stars rather than inclusion of single massive stars and the effect of line of sight length projected to an observer.

  5. Modelling of Be Disks in Binary Systems Using the Hydrodynamic Code PLUTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyr, I. H.; Panoglou, D.; Jones, C. E.; Carciofi, A. C.

    2016-11-01

    The study of the gas structure and dynamics of Be star disks is critical to our understanding of the Be star phenomenon. The central star is the major force driving the evolution of these disks, however other external forces may also affect the formation of the disk, for example, the gravitational torque produced in a close binary system. We are interested in understanding the gravitational effects of a low-mass binary companion on the formation and growth of a disk in a close binary system. To study these effects, we used the grid-based hydrodynamic code PLUTO. Because this code has not been used to study such systems before, we compared our simulations against codes used in previous work on binary systems. We were able to simulate the formation of a disk in both an isolated and binary system. Our current results suggest that PLUTO is in fact a well suited tool to study the dynamics of Be disks.

  6. Multilevel Models for Binary Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    The methods and models for categorical data analysis cover considerable ground, ranging from regression-type models for binary and binomial data, count data, to ordered and unordered polytomous variables, as well as regression models that mix qualitative and continuous data. This article focuses on methods for binary or binomial data, which are…

  7. Multilevel Models for Binary Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    The methods and models for categorical data analysis cover considerable ground, ranging from regression-type models for binary and binomial data, count data, to ordered and unordered polytomous variables, as well as regression models that mix qualitative and continuous data. This article focuses on methods for binary or binomial data, which are…

  8. Signature Visualization of Software Binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Panas, T

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we present work on the visualization of software binaries. In particular, we utilize ROSE, an open source compiler infrastructure, to pre-process software binaries, and we apply a landscape metaphor to visualize the signature of each binary (malware). We define the signature of a binary as a metric-based layout of the functions contained in the binary. In our initial experiment, we visualize the signatures of a series of computer worms that all originate from the same line. These visualizations are useful for a number of reasons. First, the images reveal how the archetype has evolved over a series of versions of one worm. Second, one can see the distinct changes between version. This allows the viewer to form conclusions about the development cycle of a particular worm.

  9. How do binary clusters form?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Becky; Goodwin, Simon P.; Griffiths, D. W.; Parker, Richard. J.

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 10 per cent of star clusters are found in pairs, known as binary clusters. We propose a mechanism for binary cluster formation; we use N-body simulations to show that velocity substructure in a single (even fairly smooth) region can cause binary clusters to form. This process is highly stochastic and it is not obvious from a region's initial conditions whether a binary will form and, if it does, which stars will end up in which cluster. We find the probability that a region will divide is mainly determined by its virial ratio, and a virial ratio above 'equilibrium' is generally necessary for binary formation. We also find that the mass ratio of the two clusters is strongly influenced by the initial degree of spatial substructure in the region.

  10. BINARY ASTROMETRIC MICROLENSING WITH GAIA

    SciTech Connect

    Sajadian, Sedighe

    2015-04-15

    We investigate whether or not Gaia can specify the binary fractions of massive stellar populations in the Galactic disk through astrometric microlensing. Furthermore, we study whether or not some information about their mass distributions can be inferred via this method. In this regard, we simulate the binary astrometric microlensing events due to massive stellar populations according to the Gaia observing strategy by considering (i) stellar-mass black holes, (ii) neutron stars, (iii) white dwarfs, and (iv) main-sequence stars as microlenses. The Gaia efficiency for detecting the binary signatures in binary astrometric microlensing events is ∼10%–20%. By calculating the optical depth due to the mentioned stellar populations, the numbers of the binary astrometric microlensing events being observed with Gaia with detectable binary signatures, for the binary fraction of about 0.1, are estimated to be 6, 11, 77, and 1316, respectively. Consequently, Gaia can potentially specify the binary fractions of these massive stellar populations. However, the binary fraction of black holes measured with this method has a large uncertainty owing to a low number of the estimated events. Knowing the binary fractions in massive stellar populations helps with studying the gravitational waves. Moreover, we investigate the number of massive microlenses for which Gaia specifies masses through astrometric microlensing of single lenses toward the Galactic bulge. The resulting efficiencies of measuring the mass of mentioned populations are 9.8%, 2.9%, 1.2%, and 0.8%, respectively. The numbers of their astrometric microlensing events being observed in the Gaia era in which the lens mass can be inferred with the relative error less than 0.5 toward the Galactic bulge are estimated as 45, 34, 76, and 786, respectively. Hence, Gaia potentially gives us some information about the mass distribution of these massive stellar populations.

  11. Binary Mixtures of Particles with Different Diffusivities Demix.

    PubMed

    Weber, Simon N; Weber, Christoph A; Frey, Erwin

    2016-02-05

    The influence of size differences, shape, mass, and persistent motion on phase separation in binary mixtures has been intensively studied. Here we focus on the exclusive role of diffusivity differences in binary mixtures of equal-sized particles. We find an effective attraction between the less diffusive particles, which are essentially caged in the surrounding species with the higher diffusion constant. This effect leads to phase separation for systems above a critical size: A single close-packed cluster made up of the less diffusive species emerges. Experiments for testing our predictions are outlined.

  12. APSIDAL MOTION IN ECCENTRIC ECLIPSING BINARY WW CAMELOPARDALIS

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, M.; Kotkova, L.; Kocian, R.; Dreveny, R.; Hanzl, D.

    2010-03-15

    WW Camelopardalis is a relatively bright eclipsing binary system with a slightly eccentric orbit. A dozen of its new eclipse times were measured as part of our long-term observational project of eccentric eclipsing binaries. Based on a new solution of the current O - C diagram, we found for the first time an apsidal motion in good agreement with theory. Its period is about 370 {+-} 50 years. The determined internal structure constant is close to the theoretically expected value. The relativistic effect is significant, being about 13% of the total apsidal motion rate.

  13. Dynamical Evolution and Momentum Transfer for Binary Asteroid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerose, Julie

    Over the past decade, robotic missions have been sent to small bodies, providing a basic understanding of their environment. Some of these small systems are found to be in pairs, orbiting each other, which are thought to represent about 16% of the near-Earth asteroid population. It is fair to assume that a mission will target a binary asteroid system in the near future as they can enable scientific insight into both the geology and dynamics of asteroids. In previous work, the dynamical evolution of binary systems was investigated for an ellipsoidsphere model. From the dynamics of two celestial bodies, equilibrium configurations and their stability were analyzed. For a given value of angular momentum, it was shown that there are in general two relative equilibrium configurations which are opposite in stability. When perturbations are introduced, we found that the equilibrium states are the minimum energy points of nearby periodic families. General dynamics from unstable to stable configurations were investigated for binaries in close proximity. Accounting for the dynamics of binaries, the dynamics of particles in this gravitational field were also studied. The location of the analogue Lagrangian points and energy associated with them were characterized. The L1 region is a key element for transfers between the bodies. It was shown that L1 can be situated between or inside the bodies depending on the free parameters of the system modifying the transfer possibilities since L1 has a hyperbolic manifold associated with it. In the current work, we look at the L1 region for binary system where the bodies are in relative equilibrium, close to each other. We find that L1 transits from outside to inside the ellipsoid when the mass ratio is larger than 0.6. For binary systems in close proximity with L1 being inside the ellipsoidal body, simulations show that particles on the surface tend to move away from the ellipsoid, toward the spherical primary. We can relate this to the

  14. Wetting Layers Close to Coexistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripple, Dean Charles

    A substrate immersed in a two component liquid mixture will preferentially adsorb one of the components. I describe in this thesis theoretical and experimental results on the smooth divergence of the thickness of this adsorbed layer as the system is brought close to two phase coexistence. I present a free energy functional which combines a phenomenological equation of state suitable for near critical binary liquids with a mean field treatment of bulk and surface ions. For the system carbon disulfide plus nitromethane on glass, the theory agrees well with experiment for suitable choices of theoretical parameters. Electrical conductivity measurements of the coexisting liquid phases confirm the choice of ion concentration values. By driving a stirred binary liquid mixture off coexistence with a linear temperature ramp, very small perturbations off coexistence are possible. I apply this method to the system perfluoromethylcyclohexane plus methylcyclohexane on Si wafers, measuring the adsorption with DC null ellipsometry. As the distance from coexistence decreases, the layer thickness smoothly increases and shows a crossover from adsorption dominated by the nonzero correlation length to adsorption dominated by dispersion forces, in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  15. EXPLORING A 'FLOW' OF HIGHLY ECCENTRIC BINARIES WITH KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Subo; Katz, Boaz; Socrates, Aristotle

    2013-01-20

    With 16-month of Kepler data, 15 long-period (40-265 days) eclipsing binaries on highly eccentric orbits (minimum e between 0.5 and 0.85) are identified from their closely separated primary and secondary eclipses ({Delta}t{sub I,II} = 3-10 days). These systems confirm the existence of a previously hinted binary population situated near a constant angular momentum track at P(1 - e {sup 2}){sup 3/2} {approx} 15 days, close to the tidal circularization period P{sub circ}. They may be presently migrating due to tidal dissipation and form a steady-state 'flow' ({approx}1% of stars) feeding the close-binary population (few % of stars). If so, future Kepler data releases will reveal a growing number (dozens) of systems at longer periods, following dN/dlgP {proportional_to} P {sup 1/3} with increasing eccentricities reaching e {yields} 0.98 for P {yields} 1000 days. Radial-velocity follow-up of long-period eclipsing binaries with no secondary eclipses could offer a significantly larger sample. Orders of magnitude more (hundreds) may reveal their presence from periodic 'eccentricity pulses', such as tidal ellipsoidal variations near pericenter passages. Several new few-day-long eccentricity-pulse candidates with long periods (P = 25-80 days) are reported.

  16. VLSI binary updown counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Trieu-Kie (Inventor); Hsu, In-Shek (Inventor); Reed, Irving S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A pipeline binary updown counter is comprised of simple stages that may be readily replicated. Each stage is defined by the Boolean logic equation: A(sub n)(t) = A(sub n)(t - 1) exclusive OR (U AND P(sub n)) inclusive OR (D AND Q(sub n)), where A(sub n)(t) denotes the value of the nth bit at time t. The input to the counter has three values represented by two binary signals U and D such that if both are zero, the input is zero, if U = 0 and D = 1, the input is -1 and if U = 1 and D = 0, the input is +1. P(sub n) represents a product of A(sub k)'s for 1 is less than or equal to k is less than or equal to -1, while Q(sub n) represents the product of bar A's for 1 is less than or equal to K is less than or equal to n - 1, where bar A(sub k) is the complement of A(sub k) and P(sub n) and Q(sub n) are expressed as the following two equations: P(sub n) = A(sub n - 1) A(sub n - 2)...A(sub 1) and Q(sub n) = bar A(sub n - 1) bar A(sub n - 2)...bar A(sub 1), which can be written in recursive form as P(sub n) = P(sub n - 1) AND bar A(sub n - 1) and Q(sub n) = Q(sub n - 1) AND bar A(sub n - 1) with the initial values P(sub 1) = 1 and Q(sub 1) = 1.

  17. Evolutionary history of four binary blue stragglers from the globular clusters ω Cen, M 55, 47 Tuc, and NGC 6752

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stȩpień, K.; Pamyatnykh, A. A.; Rozyczka, M.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Origin and evolution of blue stragglers in globular clusters is still a matter of debate. Aims: The aim of the present investigation is to reproduce the evolutionary history of four binary blue stragglers in four different clusters, for which precise values of global parameters are known. Methods: Using the model for cool close binary evolution that we developed, progenitors of all investigated binaries were found and their parameters evolved into the presently observed values. Results: The results show that the progenitors of the binary blue stragglers are cool close binaries with period of a few days, which transform into stragglers by rejuvenation of the initially less massive component as a result of mass transfer from its more massive companion overflowing the inner critical Roche surface. The parameters of V209 from ω Cen indicate that the binary is substantially enriched in helium. This is an independent and strong evidence of the existence of the helium rich subpopulation in this cluster.

  18. WIYN Open Cluster Study. XLVIII. The Hard-binary Population of NGC 188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Aaron M.; Mathieu, Robert D.

    2012-08-01

    narrow and peaked with a mean value of about 0.5 M ⊙. Predictions for mass-transfer products are most closely consistent with the binary properties of these NGC 188 BSs, which comprise two-thirds of the BS population. Additionally, we compare the NGC 188 binaries to those evolved within the sophisticated Hurley et al. (2005) N-body open cluster simulation. The MS hard-binary population predicted by the simulation is significantly different from the MS hard-binary population observed in NGC 188, in frequency and distributions of period and eccentricity. Many of these differences result from the adopted initial binary population, while others reflect on the physics used in the simulation (e.g., tidal circularization). Additional simulations with initial conditions that are better motivated by observations are necessary to properly investigate the dynamical evolution of a rich binary population in open clusters like NGC 188.

  19. BINARIES AMONG DEBRIS DISK STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, David R.; Zuckerman, B.

    2012-02-01

    We have gathered a sample of 112 main-sequence stars with known debris disks. We collected published information and performed adaptive optics observations at Lick Observatory to determine if these debris disks are associated with binary or multiple stars. We discovered a previously unknown M-star companion to HD 1051 at a projected separation of 628 AU. We found that 25% {+-} 4% of our debris disk systems are binary or triple star systems, substantially less than the expected {approx}50%. The period distribution for these suggests a relative lack of systems with 1-100 AU separations. Only a few systems have blackbody disk radii comparable to the binary/triple separation. Together, these two characteristics suggest that binaries with intermediate separations of 1-100 AU readily clear out their disks. We find that the fractional disk luminosity, as a proxy for disk mass, is generally lower for multiple systems than for single stars at any given age. Hence, for a binary to possess a disk (or form planets) it must either be a very widely separated binary with disk particles orbiting a single star or it must be a small separation binary with a circumbinary disk.

  20. Binaries and Multiple Stellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horch, Elliott

    Binary and multiple stellar systems have importance in three main areas of astronomy and astrophysics. First, because of the relatively simple gravitational interaction at work in the case of binary stars, these systems provide a basic check on stellar structure and evolution theory since the masses may be determined through observation. When these masses can be linked to other properties of the two stars, such as luminosity, color, and radius, they can provide very stringent constraints on stellar models. Second, the statistics of binary and multiple star systems provide clues to star formation mechanisms and environmental effects in the galactic gravitational potential and in clusters. Although a number of good results have been obtained in nearby star clusters and associations, knowledge of the field population has been somewhat limited until recently by a lack of large, complete samples of binaries. However, there appears to be a great deal of promise in this area for the coming decade in part due to astrometric satellites such as Hipparcos and Gaia. Third, the binary scenario is invoked to explain several important types of astrophysical phenomena such as Type Ia supernovae, cataclysmic variables, and stellar x-ray sources. Since the first of these mentioned is a standard candle for the extragalactic distance scale, it may even be said binary stars play a minor role in field of cosmology. However, in this chapter, the focus will mainly be on normal stars in binary and multiple-stellar systems. The basic physics of binaries will be reviewed, and the observational methods in use today will be discussed together with their limitations and prospects for the future. Finally, an overview of the current science in the three main areas mentioned where binaries have a significant impact will be given.

  1. Accretion Processes in Magnetic Binaries*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, Lilia; Li, Jianke; Saxton, Curtis; Wu, Kinwah

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, we give a brief summary of the talks on accretion processes in AM Herculis systems which were presented at the ANU Astrophysical Theory Centre workshop on `Magnetic Fields and Accretion'. One of the topics to be discussed was the mechanism that leads to the formation of magnetically funnelled accretion flows in close interacting magnetic binaries. New solutions to the Bernoulli integral indicate that the field lines must be twisted and have a strong toroidal component at the base of the funnel in order for channelled flow to be possible. The magnetic field pressure of these toroidal fields first lifts the material out of the orbital plane allowing it to `levitate' before freely falling along magnetic field lines towards the stellar surface. Results of recent calculations of the thermal structure and radiation properties of accretion funnels were also presented. These new 3D calculations allow for heating by the soft X-rays originating from the accretion shock, and by magnetic heating at the base of the funnel, and determine self-consistently the thermal structure, and the continuum and line emissions, allowing for both transfer of the external radiation field and the trapping of radiation within the funnel. Calculations were also presented of the expected properties of H- and He-like Fe lines originating from the accretion shock itself at the stellar surface. These lines are predicted to be rather strong and can be used as diagnostics of the accretion flow. Finally, the stability of the accretion shock was also addressed. In particular, it was shown that radiative cooling may cause thermal instability and an oscillatory behaviour, with two competing processes coming into play: bremsstrahlung cooling, which promotes instability, and cyclotron cooling, which tends to dampen the oscillations.

  2. Origin of the computational hardness for learning with binary synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2014-11-01

    Through supervised learning in a binary perceptron one is able to classify an extensive number of random patterns by a proper assignment of binary synaptic weights. However, to find such assignments in practice is quite a nontrivial task. The relation between the weight space structure and the algorithmic hardness has not yet been fully understood. To this end, we analytically derive the Franz-Parisi potential for the binary perceptron problem by starting from an equilibrium solution of weights and exploring the weight space structure around it. Our result reveals the geometrical organization of the weight space; the weight space is composed of isolated solutions, rather than clusters of exponentially many close-by solutions. The pointlike clusters far apart from each other in the weight space explain the previously observed glassy behavior of stochastic local search heuristics.

  3. MML 53 - The Brightest Pre-Main-Sequence Eclipsing Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stempels, H. C.; Hebb, L.

    2011-12-01

    MML 53 is a newly discovered and bright (V=10.8m) pre-main-sequence eclipsing binary located in the 15-22 Myr old Upper-Centaur-Lupus (UCL) star forming region, with component masses of ˜1.02 M⊙ and ˜0.88 M⊙. This system is the first low-mass pre-main-sequence eclipsing binary discovered outside the ˜10 Myr old Orion star-forming region, and samples a slightly older age. A closer examination of MML 53 reveals that this is a three-component system, where the primary and secondary form a close eclipsing binary. Here we present preliminary results from our recent high-resolution spectroscopic study of this object, including estimates of the individual component masses, radii and temperatures. In addition we find indications that the tertiary in MML 53 interacts gravitationally with the eclipsing components.

  4. Open cluster evolutions in binary system: How they dissolved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyatikanto, R.; Arifyanto, M. I.; Wulandari, H. R. T.

    2014-03-01

    Binarity among stellar clusters in galaxy is such a reality which has been realized for a long time, but still hides several questions and problems to be solved. Some of binary star clusters are formed by close encounter, but the others are formed together from similar womb. Some of them undergo separation process, while the others are in the middle of merger toward common future. The products of merger binary star cluster have typical characteristics which differ from solo clusters, especially in their spatial distribution and their stellar members kinematics. On the other hand, these merger products still have to face dissolving processes triggered by both internal and external factors. In this study, we performed N-body simulations of merger binary clusters with different initial conditions. After merging, these clusters dissolve with greater mass-loss rate because of their angular momentum. These rotating clusters also experience more deceleration caused by external tidal field.

  5. The Dusty, Solar Type Spectroscopic Binary BD +20 307

    SciTech Connect

    Fekel, Francis C.; Williamson, Michael H.; Henry, Gregory W.; Zuckerman, B.; Muno, M. P.

    2009-02-16

    The dustiest known main-sequence star, BD +20 307, is actually a double-lined binary with a period of 3.4202 days and a circular orbit. The system is also metal poor with [Fe/H] = -0.4. The components are late-F and early-G dwarfs and have a mass ratio of 1.07. The photometric period of about 3.5 days indicates that the components are synchronously rotating. The metal poor, binary nature invalidates the idea that the object is a very young single star with a warm planet-making dust disk. Instead, the metal poor nature of the system and the lithium abundances of the components argue that the system is likely several billion years old, and so the dust disk results from the recent collision of two planetary mass rocky objects. Thus, BD +20 307 may well be the first known system with planets orbiting a close binary star.

  6. Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Electrophoresis has long been recognized as an effective analytic technique for the separation of proteins and other charged species, however attempts at scaling up to accommodate commercial volumes have met with limited success. In this report we describe a novel electrophoretic separation technique - Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis (BOCE). Numerical simulations indicate that the technique has the potential for preparative scale throughputs with high resolution, while simultaneously avoiding many problems common to conventional electrophoresis. The technique utilizes the interaction of an oscillatory electric field and a transverse oscillatory shear flow to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged protein species. An oscillatory electric field is applied across the narrow gap of a rectangular channel inducing a periodic motion of charged protein species. The amplitude of this motion depends on the dimensionless electrophoretic mobility, alpha = E(sub o)mu/(omega)d, where E(sub o) is the amplitude of the electric field oscillations, mu is the dimensional mobility, omega is the angular frequency of oscillation and d is the channel gap width. An oscillatory shear flow is induced along the length of the channel resulting in the separation of species with different mobilities. We present a model that predicts the oscillatory behavior of charged species and allows estimation of both the magnitude of the induced convective velocity and the effective diffusivity as a function of a in infinitely long channels. Numerical results indicate that in addition to the mobility dependence, the steady state behavior of solute species may be strongly affected by oscillating fluid into and out of the active electric field region at the ends of the cell. The effect is most pronounced using time dependent shear flows of the same frequency (cos((omega)t)) flow mode) as the electric field oscillations. Under such conditions, experiments indicate that

  7. Binary star database: binaries discovered in non-optical bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Oleg Yu.; Tessema, Solomon B.; Kniazev, Alexei Yu.

    The Binary star Database (BDB) is the world's principal database of binary and multiple systems of all observational types. In particular, it should contain data on binaries discovered in non-optical bands, X-ray binaries (XRBs) and radio pulsars in binaries. The goal of the present study was to compile complete lists of such objects. Due to the lack of a unified identification system for XRBs, we had to select them from five principal catalogues of X-ray sources. After cross-identification and positional cross-matching, a general catalogue of 373 XRBs was constructed for the first time. It contains coordinates, indication of photometric and spectroscopic binarity, and extensive cross-identification. In the preparation of the catalogue, a number of XRB classification disagreements were resolved, some catalogued identifiers and coordinates were corrected, and duplicated entries in the original catalogues were found. We have also compiled a general list of 239 radio pulsars in binary systems. The list is supplied with indication of photometric, spectroscopic or X-ray binarity, and with cross-identification data.

  8. Binary black hole spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Broeck, Chris; Sengupta, Anand S.

    2007-03-01

    We study parameter estimation with post-Newtonian (PN) gravitational waveforms for the quasi-circular, adiabatic inspiral of spinning binary compact objects. In particular, the performance of amplitude-corrected waveforms is compared with that of the more commonly used restricted waveforms, in Advanced LIGO and EGO. With restricted waveforms, the properties of the source can only be extracted from the phasing. In the case of amplitude-corrected waveforms, the spectrum encodes a wealth of additional information, which leads to dramatic improvements in parameter estimation. At distances of ~100 Mpc, the full PN waveforms allow for high-accuracy parameter extraction for total mass up to several hundred solar masses, while with the restricted ones the errors are steep functions of mass, and accurate parameter estimation is only possible for relatively light stellar mass binaries. At the low-mass end, the inclusion of amplitude corrections reduces the error on the time of coalescence by an order of magnitude in Advanced LIGO and a factor of 5 in EGO compared to the restricted waveforms; at higher masses these differences are much larger. The individual component masses, which are very poorly determined with restricted waveforms, become measurable with high accuracy if amplitude-corrected waveforms are used, with errors as low as a few per cent in Advanced LIGO and a few tenths of a per cent in EGO. The usual spin orbit parameter β is also poorly determined with restricted waveforms (except for low-mass systems in EGO), but the full waveforms give errors that are small compared to the largest possible value consistent with the Kerr bound. This suggests a way of finding out if one or both of the component objects violate this bound. On the other hand, we find that the spin spin parameter σ remains poorly determined even when the full waveform is used. Generally, all errors have but a weak dependence on the magnitudes and orientations of the spins. We also briefly

  9. Very wide binary stars as the primary source of stellar collisions in the galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaib, Nathan A.; Raymond, Sean N.

    2014-02-20

    We present numerical simulations modeling the orbital evolution of very wide binaries, pairs of stars separated by over ∼10{sup 3} AU. Due to perturbations from other passing stars and the Milky Way's tide, the orbits of very wide binary stars occasionally become extremely eccentric, which forces close encounters between the companion stars. We show that this process causes a stellar collision between very wide binary companion stars once every 1000-7500 yr on average in the Milky Way. One of the main uncertainties in this collision rate is the amount of energy dissipated by dynamic tides during close (but not collisional) periastron passages. This dissipation presents a dynamical barrier to stellar collisions and can instead transform very wide binaries into close or contact binaries. However, for any plausible tidal dissipation model, very wide binary stars are an unrealized, and potentially the dominant, source of stellar collisions in our Galaxy. Such collisions should occur throughout the thin disk of the Milky Way. Stellar collisions within very wide binaries should yield a small population of single, Li-depleted, rapidly rotating massive stars.

  10. The disruption of multiplanet systems through resonance with a binary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touma, Jihad R.; Sridhar, S.

    2015-08-01

    Most exoplanetary systems in binary stars are of S-type, and consist of one or more planets orbiting a primary star with a wide binary stellar companion. Planetary eccentricities and mutual inclinations can be large, perhaps forced gravitationally by the binary companion. Earlier work on single planet systems appealed to the Kozai-Lidov instability wherein a sufficiently inclined binary orbit excites large-amplitude oscillations in the planet's eccentricity and inclination. The instability, however, can be quenched by many agents that induce fast orbital precession, including mutual gravitational forces in a multiplanet system. Here we report that orbital precession, which inhibits Kozai-Lidov cycling in a multiplanet system, can become fast enough to resonate with the orbital motion of a distant binary companion. Resonant binary forcing results in dramatic outcomes ranging from the excitation of large planetary eccentricities and mutual inclinations to total disruption. Processes such as planetary migration can bring an initially non-resonant system into resonance. As it does not require special physical or initial conditions, binary resonant driving is generic and may have altered the architecture of many multiplanet systems. It can also weaken the multiplanet occurrence rate in wide binaries, and affect planet formation in close binaries.

  11. The disruption of multiplanet systems through resonance with a binary orbit.

    PubMed

    Touma, Jihad R; Sridhar, S

    2015-08-27

    Most exoplanetary systems in binary stars are of S-type, and consist of one or more planets orbiting a primary star with a wide binary stellar companion. Planetary eccentricities and mutual inclinations can be large, perhaps forced gravitationally by the binary companion. Earlier work on single planet systems appealed to the Kozai-Lidov instability wherein a sufficiently inclined binary orbit excites large-amplitude oscillations in the planet's eccentricity and inclination. The instability, however, can be quenched by many agents that induce fast orbital precession, including mutual gravitational forces in a multiplanet system. Here we report that orbital precession, which inhibits Kozai-Lidov cycling in a multiplanet system, can become fast enough to resonate with the orbital motion of a distant binary companion. Resonant binary forcing results in dramatic outcomes ranging from the excitation of large planetary eccentricities and mutual inclinations to total disruption. Processes such as planetary migration can bring an initially non-resonant system into resonance. As it does not require special physical or initial conditions, binary resonant driving is generic and may have altered the architecture of many multiplanet systems. It can also weaken the multiplanet occurrence rate in wide binaries, and affect planet formation in close binaries.

  12. ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS IN VERY LOW MASS BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacky, Q. M.; Macintosh, B. A.; Ghez, A. M.; Fabrycky, D. C.; White, R. J.; Barman, T. S.; Rice, E. L.; Hallinan, G.; Duchene, G. E-mail: konopacky@di.utoronto.ca E-mail: fabrycky@ucolick.org E-mail: barman@lowell.edu E-mail: gh@astro.caltech.edu

    2012-05-01

    We present rotational velocities for individual components of 11 very low mass (VLM) binaries with spectral types between M7 and L7.5. These results are based on observations taken with the near-infrared spectrograph, NIRSPEC, and the Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics system. We find that the observed sources tend to be rapid rotators (v sin i > 10 km s{sup -1}), consistent with previous seeing-limited measurements of VLM objects. The two sources with the largest v sin i, LP 349-25B and HD 130948C, are rotating at {approx}30% of their break-up speed, and are among the most rapidly rotating VLM objects known. Furthermore, five binary systems, all with orbital semimajor axes {approx}<3.5 AU, have component v sin i values that differ by greater than 3{sigma}. To bring the binary components with discrepant rotational velocities into agreement would require the rotational axes to be inclined with respect to each other, and that at least one component is inclined with respect to the orbital plane. Alternatively, each component could be rotating at a different rate, even though they have similar spectral types. Both differing rotational velocities and inclinations have implications for binary star formation and evolution. We also investigate possible dynamical evolution in the triple system HD 130948A-BC. The close binary brown dwarfs B and C have significantly different v sin i values. We demonstrate that components B and C could have been torqued into misalignment by the primary star, A, via orbital precession. Such a scenario can also be applied to another triple system in our sample, GJ 569A-Bab. Interactions such as these may play an important role in the dynamical evolution of VLM binaries. Finally, we note that two of the binaries with large differences in component v sin i, LP 349-25AB and 2MASS 0746+20AB, are also known radio sources.

  13. Solar Type Binary Systems with Impacting Gas Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samec, Ronald G.; Hube, Doug; Faulkner, Danny R.; van Hamme, W.

    2002-02-01

    Our quest is the discovery of near-contact solar type eclipsing binaries which show evidence of stream impacts. The existence of stream impacts would provide evidence of dynamic mass transfer possibly leading to coalescence into contact. This would lend strong support to the theoretical scenarios of 1) Angular Momentum Loss (AML) via magnetic breaking and 2) Thermal Relaxation Oscillations (TRO) ,ie., oscillations between a near-contact and shallow contact modes. We hypothesize that many F to early K spectral type binaries formerly classified as ''thermally decoupled'' contact binaries and other binaries with large differences in eclipse depths formerly classified as contact binaries in the 0.33 to 0.5d period range will reveal such stream impacts when they are subjected to precision UBVRI multi-band photometry, since these fall in the pre-contact period range for F to K dwarf binaries. Modern light curve synthesis techniques will be used to simultaneously model the multi-band light curves. Impact spots will be adjusted numerically along with the stellar atmosphere parameters. Spectroscopic work will follow to verify stream activity in emission lines and to obtain radial velocity curves for calculating orbital parameters and fundamental physical characteristics. Our larger goal is to understand close binary evolution in general, in detached, semi-detached and contact modes. This study could supply an important piece to the puzzle. We now have found four stream system candidates: CN And, BE Cep, ZZ Eri and V343 Cen giving us an encouraging 40 % rate of recovery.

  14. Rotational Velocities of Individual Components in Very Low Mass Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopacky, Q. M.; Ghez, A. M.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Macintosh, B. A.; White, R. J.; Barman, T. S.; Rice, E. L.; Hallinan, G.; Duchêne, G.

    2012-05-01

    We present rotational velocities for individual components of 11 very low mass (VLM) binaries with spectral types between M7 and L7.5. These results are based on observations taken with the near-infrared spectrograph, NIRSPEC, and the Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics system. We find that the observed sources tend to be rapid rotators (v sin i > 10 km s-1), consistent with previous seeing-limited measurements of VLM objects. The two sources with the largest v sin i, LP 349-25B and HD 130948C, are rotating at ~30% of their break-up speed, and are among the most rapidly rotating VLM objects known. Furthermore, five binary systems, all with orbital semimajor axes lsim3.5 AU, have component v sin i values that differ by greater than 3σ. To bring the binary components with discrepant rotational velocities into agreement would require the rotational axes to be inclined with respect to each other, and that at least one component is inclined with respect to the orbital plane. Alternatively, each component could be rotating at a different rate, even though they have similar spectral types. Both differing rotational velocities and inclinations have implications for binary star formation and evolution. We also investigate possible dynamical evolution in the triple system HD 130948A-BC. The close binary brown dwarfs B and C have significantly different v sin i values. We demonstrate that components B and C could have been torqued into misalignment by the primary star, A, via orbital precession. Such a scenario can also be applied to another triple system in our sample, GJ 569A-Bab. Interactions such as these may play an important role in the dynamical evolution of VLM binaries. Finally, we note that two of the binaries with large differences in component v sin i, LP 349-25AB and 2MASS 0746+20AB, are also known radio sources.

  15. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BINARY CENTRAL STARS OF THE PLANETARY NEBULAE HFG 1, DS 1, AND LOTR 5

    SciTech Connect

    Montez, Rodolfo; Kastner, Joel H.; De Marco, Orsola; Chu, You-Hua

    2010-10-01

    Close binary systems undergoing mass transfer or common envelope interactions can account for the morphological properties of some planetary nebulae. The search for close binary companions in planetary nebulae is hindered by the difficulty of detecting cool, late-type, main-sequence companions in binary systems with hot pre-white-dwarf primaries. However, models of binary planetary nebula progenitor systems predict that mass accretion or tidal interactions can induce rapid rotation in the companion, leading to X-ray-emitting coronae. To test such models, we have searched for, and detected, X-ray emission from three binary central stars within planetary nebulae: the post-common envelope close binaries in HFG 1 and DS 1 consisting of O-type subdwarfs with late-type, main-sequence companions and the binary system in LoTr 5 consisting of O-type subdwarf and rapidly rotating, late-type giant companion. The X-ray emission in each case is best characterized by spectral models consisting of two optically thin thermal plasma components with characteristic temperatures of {approx}10 MK and 15-40 MK and total X-ray luminosities {approx}10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1}. We consider the possible origin of the X-ray emission from these binary systems and conclude that the most likely origin is, in each case, a corona around the late-type companion, as predicted by models of interacting binaries.

  16. Mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  17. An adaptable binary entropy coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, A.; Klimesh, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel entropy coding technique which is based on recursive interleaving of variable-to-variable length binary source codes. We discuss code design and performance estimation methods, as well as practical encoding and decoding algorithms.

  18. Cryptography with DNA binary strands.

    PubMed

    Leier, A; Richter, C; Banzhaf, W; Rauhe, H

    2000-06-01

    Biotechnological methods can be used for cryptography. Here two different cryptographic approaches based on DNA binary strands are shown. The first approach shows how DNA binary strands can be used for steganography, a technique of encryption by information hiding, to provide rapid encryption and decryption. It is shown that DNA steganography based on DNA binary strands is secure under the assumption that an interceptor has the same technological capabilities as sender and receiver of encrypted messages. The second approach shown here is based on steganography and a method of graphical subtraction of binary gel-images. It can be used to constitute a molecular checksum and can be combined with the first approach to support encryption. DNA cryptography might become of practical relevance in the context of labelling organic and inorganic materials with DNA 'barcodes'.

  19. CHAOTIC ZONES AROUND GRAVITATING BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, Ivan I.

    2015-01-20

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound primaries of comparable masses (a binary star, a binary black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, as a function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges (above a threshold in the primaries' mass ratio) due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the central binary periods. In this zone, the unlimited chaotic orbital diffusion of the tertiary takes place, up to its ejection from the system. The primaries' mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present at all initial eccentricities of the tertiary, is estimated. The diversity of the observed orbital configurations of biplanetary and circumbinary exosystems is shown to be in accord with the existence of the primaries' mass parameter threshold.

  20. Binary stars in moving groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azulay, R.; Guirado, J. C.; Marcaide, J. M.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Ros, E.

    Precise determination of dynamical masses of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars is necessary to calibrate PMS stellar evolutionary models, whose predictions are in disagreement with measurements for masses below 1.2 M_sun. Binary stars in young, nearby loose associations are particularly good candidates, since all members share a common age. We present phase-reference EVN observations of the binary system HD 160934 A/c, that belongs to the AB Doradus moving group, from which we have measured both the relative and absolute orbital motion. Accordingly, we obtained precise estimates of the mass of the components of this binary. Also we report on other PMS binary systems as EK Dra and AB Dor B.

  1. Separation in 5 Msun Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nancy R.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G.; Mason, B. D.; Karovska, M.; Tingle, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cepheids (5 Msun stars) provide an excellent sample for determining the binary properties of fairly massive stars. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Cepheids brighter than 8th magnitude resulted in a list of ALL companions more massive than 2.0 Msun uniformly sensitive to all separations. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) has resolved three of these binaries (Eta Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen). Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations for a sample of 18 Cepheids, and also a distribution of mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 Msun binaries prefer shorter periods than 1 Msun stars, reflecting differences in star formation processes.

  2. Radio emission from binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, George A.

    1986-01-01

    Radio emission from binary star systems; characteristics of the binary systems inferred from the radio observations; and the reasons for the activity are reviewed. Binary stars with two main sequence stars, with one normal star and a white dwarf, and those containing a neutron star or a black hole are described. Energy may be directly available as matter falls into the potential well of a compact object. Electromagnetic induction effects may occur due to relative motions of magnetic fields and matter. By enforcing rapid rotation, binaries can induce strong dynamo action and hence generate free energy in the form of intense, complex, evolving magnetic fields. Whatever the source of energy, the observations at radio and X-ray wavelengths demonstrate that electrons are accelerated to high energies (mildly relativistic and, ultrarelativistic). Observed or inferred radio brightness temperatures range up to 10 to the 15th power K or more, implying coherent emission for sources brighter than 10 billion K.

  3. A massive binary black hole in 1928 + 738?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, Nico; Kaastra, Jelle S.; Hummel, Christian A.

    1993-05-01

    We apply the binary black hole model to explain the wiggles in the milliarcsec radio jet of the superluminal quasar 1928 + 738 (4C 73.18) observed with VLBI at 1.3 cm wavelength by Hummel et al. (1992). The period and amplitude of the wiggles can be explained as due to the orbital motion of a binary black hole with mass of order l0 exp 8 solar masses, mass ratio larger than 0.1, and orbital radius about 10 exp 16 cm. The jet's inclination to the line of sight should be small confirming the standard interpretation of superluminal motion and one-sidedness as due to relativistic motion in a direction close to the line of sight. The small orbital radius suggests that the binary has been losing a significant amount of orbital energy during the last 10 exp 7 yr, possibly by interaction with the matter which is flowing through the active galactic nucleus. The arcsec-scale radio structure provides additional support for a link between activity and binary evolution. If our interpretation of the mass wiggle in this quasar is correct, then many other quasars may contain massive binary black holes as well.

  4. TRIPLE-STAR CANDIDATES AMONG THE KEPLER BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rappaport, S.; Deck, K.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R.; Levine, A.; Borkovits, T.; Carter, J.; El Mellah, I.; Kalomeni, B. E-mail: kdeck@mit.edu E-mail: aml@space.mit.edu E-mail: jacarter@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of a search through the photometric database of Kepler eclipsing binaries looking for evidence of hierarchical triple-star systems. The presence of a third star orbiting the binary can be inferred from eclipse timing variations. We apply a simple algorithm in an automated determination of the eclipse times for all 2157 binaries. The ''calculated'' eclipse times, based on a constant period model, are subtracted from those observed. The resulting O - C (observed minus calculated times) curves are then visually inspected for periodicities in order to find triple-star candidates. After eliminating false positives due to the beat frequency between the {approx}1/2 hr Kepler cadence and the binary period, 39 candidate triple systems were identified. The periodic O - C curves for these candidates were then fit for contributions from both the classical Roemer delay and so-called physical delay, in an attempt to extract a number of the system parameters of the triple. We discuss the limitations of the information that can be inferred from these O - C curves without further supplemental input, e.g., ground-based spectroscopy. Based on the limited range of orbital periods for the triple-star systems to which this search is sensitive, we can extrapolate to estimate that at least 20% of all close binaries have tertiary companions.

  5. The formation of Kuiper-belt binaries through exchange reactions.

    PubMed

    Funato, Yoko; Makino, Junichiro; Hut, Piet; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Kinoshita, Daisuke

    2004-02-05

    Recent observations have revealed that an unexpectedly high fraction--a few per cent--of the trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) that inhabit the Kuiper belt are binaries. The components have roughly equal masses, with very eccentric orbits that are wider than a hundred times the radius of the primary. Standard theories of binary asteroid formation tend to produce close binaries with circular orbits, so two models have been proposed to explain the unique characteristics of the TNOs. Both models, however, require extreme assumptions regarding the size distribution of the TNOs. Here we report a mechanism that is capable of producing binary TNOs with the observed properties during the early stages of their formation and growth. The only required assumption is that the TNOs were initially formed through gravitational instabilities in the protoplanetary dust disk. The basis of the mechanism is an exchange reaction in which a binary whose primary component is much more massive than the secondary interacts with a third body, whose mass is comparable to that of the primary. The low-mass secondary component is ejected and replaced by the third body in a wide but eccentric orbit.

  6. Relating binary-star planetary systems to central configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-11-01

    Binary-star exoplanetary systems are now known to be common, for both wide and close binaries. However, their orbital evolution is generally unsolvable. Special cases of the N-body problem which are in fact completely solvable include dynamical architectures known as central configurations. Here, I utilize recent advances in our knowledge of central configurations to assess the plausibility of linking them to coplanar exoplanetary binary systems. By simply restricting constituent masses to be within stellar or substellar ranges characteristic of planetary systems, I find that (i) this constraint reduces by over 90 per cent the phase space in which central configurations may occur, (ii) both equal-mass and unequal-mass binary stars admit central configurations, (iii) these configurations effectively represent different geometrical extensions of the Sun-Jupiter-Trojan-like architecture, (iv) deviations from these geometries are no greater than 10°, and (v) the deviation increases as the substellar masses increase. This study may help restrict future stability analyses to architectures which resemble exoplanetary systems, and might hint at where observers may discover dust, asteroids and/or planets in binary-star systems.

  7. Quick matching of binary images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Adnan A. Y.

    2015-09-01

    Matching images is a fundamental problem in image processing. The most common technique used to compare binary images is to calculate the correlation between two images or simply to subtract them. Both of these methods -as well as other matching methods- require some type of similarity operation to be applied to the whole image, and hence they are image size dependent. This implies that as image size increases, more processing time is required. However, with image sizes already exceeding 20 mega-pixels and standard image sizes doubling approximately every five years, the need to find a size invariant image matching method is becoming crucial. In this paper, we present a quick way to compare and match binary images based on the Probabilistic Matching Model (PMM). We present two simple image size invariant methods based on PMM: one for fast detection of dissimilar binary images and another for matching binary images. For detecting dissimilar binary images we introduce the Dissimilar Detection via Mapping method (DDM). We compare DDM to other popular matching methods used in the image processing arena and show that DDM is magnitudes faster than any other method. For binary image matching, we use DDM as a preprocessor for other popular methods to speed up their matching speed. In particular, we use DDM with cross correlation to speed it up. Test results are presented for real images varying in size from 16 kilo-pixel images to 10 mega-pixel images to show the method's size invariance.

  8. A wide binary trigger for white dwarf pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsor, Amy; Veras, Dimitri

    2015-11-01

    Metal pollution in white dwarf atmospheres is commonly assumed to be a signature of remnant planetary systems. Most explanations for this pollution predict a sharp decrease in the number of polluted systems with white dwarf cooling age. Observations do not confirm this trend, and metal pollution in old (1-5 Gyr) white dwarfs is difficult to explain. We propose an alternative, time-independent mechanism to produce the white dwarf pollution. The orbit of a wide binary companion can be perturbed by Galactic tides, approaching close to the primary star for the first time after billions of years of evolution on the white dwarf branch. We show that such a close approach perturbs a planetary system orbiting the white dwarf, scattering planetesimals on to star-grazing orbits, in a manner that could pollute the white dwarf's atmosphere. Our estimates find that this mechanism is likely to contribute to metal pollution, alongside other mechanisms, in up to a few per cent of an observed sample of white dwarfs with wide binary companions, independent of white dwarf age. This age independence is the key difference between this wide binary mechanism and others mechanisms suggested in the literature to explain white dwarf pollution. Current observational samples are not large enough to assess whether this mechanism makes a significant contribution to the population of polluted white dwarfs, for which better constraints on the wide binary population are required, such as those that will be obtained in the near future with Gaia.

  9. Evolution of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in Merging Galaxies and Evidence for Potential Sub-parsec Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Robert Scott; Galaxy Evolution Survey, Arkansas; Lacy, C. H. S.; Kennefick, D.; Kennefick, J.; Seigar, M.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of galactic mergers, a significant number of supermassive black holes are expected to be in binary systems and at various stages in their orbital evolution. During galactic mergers, matter in the form of gas and stars is available for the black holes to accrete, providing fuel for black hole growth and a potential mechanism for the onset of a quasar phase. To better understand how supermassive black holes and their active phases evolve over time, the Arkansas Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES) team is studying binary black hole systems at a range of separations, r. We have examined the scarce number of binary systems (10,000 > r > 1,000 pc) to infer information about their individual masses, the amount of gas and dust in the nuclear regions, the accretion rates of the individual nuclei, and the estimated timescale for dynamical friction to reduce the black holes’ separation to parsec scales. We have compared these results to those from theoretical calculations. Furthermore, we have visually examined the spectra of SDSS quasars for "unusual” double-peaked emitters looking for evidence of binary orbital motion at separations of < 1 pc. If found, such close binaries will have measurable orbital periods and will provide important information about the environments of quasars in the final stages of a merger. In addition, they will be excellent sources for gravitational wave emission for future space-based detectors such as LISA.

  10. HIGH FILL-OUT, EXTREME MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEMS. X. THE NEWLY DISCOVERED BINARY XY LEONIS MINORIS

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.-B.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; He, J.-J.; Bernasconi, L. E-mail: yygcn@163.com

    2011-05-15

    The newly discovered short-period close binary star, XY LMi, has been monitored photometrically since 2006. Its light curves are typical EW-type light curves and show complete eclipses with durations of about 80 minutes. Photometric solutions were determined through an analysis of the complete B, V, R, and I light curves using the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney code. XY LMi is a high fill-out, extreme mass ratio overcontact binary system with a mass ratio of q = 0.148 and a fill-out factor of f = 74.1%, suggesting that it is in the late evolutionary stage of late-type tidal-locked binary stars. As observed in other overcontact binary stars, evidence for the presence of two dark spots on both components is given. Based on our 19 epochs of eclipse times, we found that the orbital period of the overcontact binary is decreasing continuously at a rate of dP/dt = -1.67 x 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1}, which may be caused by mass transfer from the primary to the secondary and/or angular momentum loss via magnetic stellar wind. The decrease of the orbital period may result in the increase of the fill-out, and finally, it will evolve into a single rapid-rotation star when the fluid surface reaches the outer critical Roche lobe.

  11. Asynchonous Binaries, Energy Dissipation and Turbulent Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenigsberger, G.; Brott, I.; Moreno, E.

    2015-07-01

    Stars in binary systems are generally modeled under the assumption that they are in an equilibrium configuration and, in particular, that the stellar rotation angular velocity equals the orbital angular velocity. However, asynchronous rotation is more common than generally recognized. All eccentric systems undergo asynchronous rotation and the angular velocity of rotation of many stars in circular orbits differs from that of the orbital angular velocity. Combined with the external gravitational potential, this asynchronous rotation causes shearing motions in the stellar layers and, given that the stellar material is not inviscid, kinetic energy is dissipated into heat. In 1968, Zdeněk Kopal addressed the question of whether the tidal shear energy dissipation rates, Ė, in asynchronous binaries can lead to an internal stellar structure that differs from that in an analogous single star. His calculation, based on the assumption that the viscosity is purely molecular, led him to conclude that Ė is insignificant and therefore has no effect on the internal stellar structure. However, Kopal also pointed out the important caveat that if turbulent viscosity prevailed, then larger values of Ė would obtain. We have revisited the question of the magnitude of Ė using the TIDES code (Moreno 2011) and examined its dependence on viscosity for several layers of a ZAMS 30 M⊙ star with a 20 M⊙ companion in a 6-day eccentric orbit. We find that conditions for turbulent viscosity are favored when the star expands after leaving the main sequence. For example, when the 30 M⊙ star is 5 Myr old and rotating near its corrotation speed, turbulent viscosity might be expected to appear in all layers at distances greater than 60% of the maximum stellar radius. As a consequence, tidal shear energy dissipation may constitute a non-negligible effect in a large number of close binary systems, with possibly interesting consequences for their internal structure and evolution.

  12. Observations of the eclipsing binary b Persei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Robert Zavala (USNO-Flagstaff) et al. request V time-series observations of the bright variable star b Persei 7-21 January 2015 UT, in hopes of catching a predicted eclipse on January 15. This is a follow-up to the February 2013 campaign announced in Alert Notice 476, and will be used as a photometric comparison for upcoming interferometric observations with the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI) in Arizona. b Per (V=4.598, B-V=0.054) is ideal for photoelectric photometers or DSLR cameras. Telescopic CCD observers may observe by stopping down larger apertures. Comparison and check stars assigned by PI: Comp: SAO 24412, V=4.285, B-V = -0.013; Check: SAO 24512, V=5.19, B-V = -0.05. From the PI: "[W]e wanted to try and involve AAVSO observers in a follow up to our successful detection of the b Persei eclipse of Feb 2013, AAVSO Alert Notice 476 and Special Notice 333. Our goal now is to get good time resolution photometry as the third star passes in front of the close ellipsoidal binary. The potential for multiple eclipses exists. The close binary has a 1.5 day orbital period, and the eclipsing C component requires about 4 days to pass across the close binary pair. The primary eclipse depth is 0.15 magnitude. Photometry to 0.02 or 0.03 mags would be fine to detect this eclipse. Eclipse prediction date (JD 2457033.79 = 2015 01 11 UT, ~+/- 1 day) is based on one orbital period from the 2013 eclipse." More information is available at PI's b Persei eclipse web page: http://inside.warren-wilson.edu/~dcollins/bPersei/. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (https://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and information on the targets.

  13. Far-UV spectroscopy of two extremely hot, helium-rich white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.

    2017-05-01

    A large proportion of hot post-asymptotic giant branch stars and white dwarfs (WDs) are hydrogen-deficient. Two distinct evolutionary sequences have been identified. One of them comprises stars of spectral type [WC] and PG1159, and it originates from a late helium-shell flash, creating helium-rich stellar atmospheres with significant admixtures of carbon (up to about 50%, mass fraction). The other sequence comprises stars of spectral type O(He) and luminous subdwarf O stars which possibly are descendants of RCrB stars and extreme helium stars. Their carbon abundances are significantly lower (of the order of 1% or less) and it is thought that they originate from binary-star evolution (through merger or common-envelope evolution). Here we investigate two of the three hottest known helium-rich (DO) WDs (PG 1034+001 and PG 0038+199). They are the only ones for which spectra were recorded with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and the Hubble Space Telescope, allowing a comprehensive ultraviolet spectral analysis. We find effective temperatures of Teff = 115 000 ± 5000 K and 125 000 ± 5000 K, respectively, and a surface gravity of log g= 7 ± 0.5. In both stars, nitrogen is strongly oversolar while C and O are significantly subsolar. For all other assessed metals (Ne, Si, P, S, Ar, Fe, and Ni) we find abundances close to solar. We conclude that these WDs are immediate descendants of O(He) stars and, hence, result from close-binary evolution. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer.

  14. Far-UV Spectroscopy of Two Extremely Hot, Helium-Rich White Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.

    2017-01-01

    A large proportion of hot post-asymptotic giant branch stars and white dwarfs (WDs) are hydrogen-deficient. Two distinct evolutionary sequences have been identified. One of them comprises stars of spectral type [WC] and PG1159, and it originates from a late helium-shell flash, creating helium-rich stellar atmospheres with significant admixtures of carbon (up to about 50, mass fraction). The other sequence comprises stars of spectral type O(He) and luminous subdwarf O stars which possibly are descendants of RCrB stars and extreme helium stars. Their carbon abundances are significantly lower (of the order of 1 or less) and it is thought that they originate from binary-star evolution (through merger or common-envelope evolution). Here we investigate two of the three hottest known helium-rich (DO) WDs (PG 1034+001 and PG 0038+199). They are the only ones for which spectra were recorded with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and the Hubble Space Telescope, allowing a comprehensive ultraviolet spectral analysis. We find effective temperatures of T(eff) =115000 +/- 5000 K and 125000 +/- 5000 K, respectively, and a surface gravity of log g = 7 +/-0.5. In both stars, nitrogen is strongly oversolar while C and O are significantly subsolar. For all other assessed metals (Ne, Si, P, S, Ar, Fe, and Ni) we find abundances close to solar. We conclude that these WDs are immediate descendants of O(He) stars and, hence, result from close-binary evolution.

  15. Binary progenitors of supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, V.

    1984-12-01

    Among the massive stars that are expected to produce Type II, hydrogen-rich supernovae, the presence of a close companion can increase the main sequence mass needed to yield a collapsing core. In addition, due to mass transfer from the primary to the secondary, the companion enhances the stripping of the stellar hydrogen envelope produced by single star winds and thereby makes it harder for the star to give rise to a typical SN II light curve. Among the less massive stars that may be the basis for Type I, hydrogen-free supernovae, a close companion could be an innocent bystander to carbon detonation/deflagration in the primary. It may alternatively be a vital participant which transfers material to a white dwarf primary and drives it to explosive conditions.

  16. Two-dimensional solid solution alloy of Bi-Pb binary films on Rh(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuhara, J.; Yokoyama, M.; Matsui, T.

    2011-10-01

    We studied the atomic arrangements and phase diagrams of two-dimensional (2D) Bi-Pb binary films on a Rh(111) surface with low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and Auger electron spectroscopy. The 2D binary films exhibited incommensurate (4 × 4) LEED patterns with any compositional ratio of Bi:Pb. Atomically resolved STM images revealed that the binary films formed hexagonal, close-packed structures in a 2D solid solution alloy. We found that the 2D binary films followed the Hume-Rothery rule. The interatomic distance decreased linearly from 0.359 nm to 0.342 nm with increasing proportions of Pb. This indicated that the lattice constant of the 2D binary films followed Vegard's law.

  17. Redshift Factor and the First Law of Binary Black Hole Mechanics in Numerical Simulations.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Aaron; Lewis, Adam G M; Pfeiffer, Harald P

    2016-11-04

    The redshift factor z is an invariant quantity of fundamental interest in post-Newtonian and self-force descriptions of compact binaries. It connects different approximation schemes, and plays a central role in the first law of binary black hole mechanics, which links local quantities to asymptotic measures of energy and angular momentum in these systems. Through this law, the redshift factor is conjectured to have a close relation to the surface gravity of the event horizons of black holes in circular orbits. We propose and implement a novel method for extracting the redshift factor on apparent horizons in numerical simulations of quasicircular binary inspirals. Our results confirm the conjectured relationship between z and the surface gravity of the holes and that the first law holds to a remarkable degree for binary inspirals. The redshift factor enables tests of analytic predictions for z in spacetimes where the binary is only approximately circular, giving a new connection between analytic approximations and numerical simulations.

  18. Complicated Structure of Interacting Young Binary System: Outflows and Gas-Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, Tae-Soo; Hayashi, M.; Beck, T. L.; Chris, C. J.; Takami, M.

    2014-07-01

    It is important to understand the formation and evolution of the young binary system because many young stars are born in binary or multiple systems. We report recent discovery of binary jet and wind from UY Aur system with high-angular resolution observation by using NIFS (NIR Integral Field Spectrograph) /GEMINI combined with adaptive optics system, Altair. The primary, UY Aur A, reveals widely opened wind while the secondary, UY Aur B, shows small jets in NIR [Fe II] emission. Outflows from low-mass young binary or multiple systems have been observed from a few tens of samples. Outflows are closely related mass accretion. Many simulations show an accretion flow toward the individual circumstellar disks from the outer circumbinary disk as well as a stream bridge between the circumstellar disks. We will discuss how to use TMT and ALMA for anatomy of young binary systems.

  19. Redshift Factor and the First Law of Binary Black Hole Mechanics in Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Aaron; Lewis, Adam G. M.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.

    2016-11-01

    The redshift factor z is an invariant quantity of fundamental interest in post-Newtonian and self-force descriptions of compact binaries. It connects different approximation schemes, and plays a central role in the first law of binary black hole mechanics, which links local quantities to asymptotic measures of energy and angular momentum in these systems. Through this law, the redshift factor is conjectured to have a close relation to the surface gravity of the event horizons of black holes in circular orbits. We propose and implement a novel method for extracting the redshift factor on apparent horizons in numerical simulations of quasicircular binary inspirals. Our results confirm the conjectured relationship between z and the surface gravity of the holes and that the first law holds to a remarkable degree for binary inspirals. The redshift factor enables tests of analytic predictions for z in spacetimes where the binary is only approximately circular, giving a new connection between analytic approximations and numerical simulations.

  20. Thermodynamic stabilization of nanocrystalline binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, Mostafa; Kotan, Hasan; Koch, Carl C.; Scattergood, Ronald O.

    2013-02-01

    The work presented here was motivated by the need to develop a predictive model for thermodynamic stabilization of binary alloys that is applicable to strongly segregating size-misfit solutes, and that can use available input data for a wide range of solvent-solute combinations. This will serve as a benchmark for selecting solutes and assessing the possible contribution of thermodynamic stabilization for development of high-temperature nanocrystalline alloys. Following a regular solution model that distinguishes the grain boundary and grain interior volume fractions by a transitional interface in a closed system, we include both the chemical and elastic strain energy contributions to the mixing enthalpy ΔHmix using an appropriately scaled linear superposition. The total Gibbs mixing free energy ΔGmix is minimized with respect to simultaneous variations in the grain-boundary volume fraction and the solute contents in the grain boundary and grain interior. The Lagrange multiplier method was used to obtain numerical solutions with the constraint of fixed total solute content. The model predictions are presented using a parametric variation of the required input parameters. Applications are then given for the dependence of the nanocrystalline grain size on temperature and total solute content for selected binary systems where experimental results suggest that thermodynamic stabilization could be effective.

  1. Characterization of Trans-Neptunian Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrievna Kovalenko, Irina; Doressoundiram, Alain

    2016-10-01

    During the "TNOs are Cool: A Survey of the Trans-Neptunian Region" two important physical properties, such as size and albedo, have been obtained from Herschel and Spitzer thermal emission measurements. In this present work we describe an analysis of 28 binary and 2 triple objects related to the "TNOs are cool" project. Firstly, this analysis contains a comparison of multiples with other TNOs by their albedo and diameter characteristics. Secondly, an analysis on correlations between physical and orbital parameters is performed.The knowledge of size allows to estimate the bulk density, which is a crucial parameter containing information on the internal structure of TNOs. Hence, the density estimation problem requires known mass, whose measurement is only possible if the object has a satellite with a known orbit. Unfortunately, from our dataset of binaries only few of them have a full orbit solution and, consequently, a derived bulk density. The lack of observations of such distant objects leads to difficulties in close satellite's orbit determination. A statistical approach, based on a Monte-Carlo Markov chain global optimisation algorithm, is proposed for this problem.

  2. Light Curve Modeling of Eclipsing Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, E. F.

    In the two decades since the development of the first eclipsing-binary modeling code, new analytic techniques and the availability of powerful, sometimes dedicated computing facilities have made possible vastly improved determinations of fundamental and even transient stellar parameters. The scale of these developments, of course, raises questions about modeling tools, techniques, and philosophies, such as: Who will maintain and upgrade the codes? Will the codes be open to improvement by outsiders, and if so, how? And, indeed, what should be the goals of a modeling program? Such questions had not been aired for a long time and, for this reason alone, deserved to be discussed in as general a forum as the community provides. This volume contains material presented by Commission 42 (Close Binary Stars) during the International Astronomical Union's XXI General Assembly in Argentina, July 1991, and during IAU Colloquium 151, Cordoba, Argentina, August 1991. The techniques discussed include simulations of stellar bright and dark spots, streams, partial and complete stellar disks, prominences, and other features characterizing active stars; modeling of polarization parameters; models that use radial velocities as well as line profile simulations to model velocity field variation across stellar disks; the weighted effects of brightness asymmetries; and models for translucent eclipsing agents such as stellar winds.

  3. Phase behavior of a binary fluid mixture of quadrupolar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Masatoshi; Kajimoto, Shinji; Toyouchi, Shuichi; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro; Akama, Yohji; Kotani, Motoko; Fukumura, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    We propose a model molecule to investigate microscopic properties of a binary mixture with a closed-loop coexistence region. The molecule is comprised of a Lennard-Jones particle and a uniaxial quadrupole. Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the high-density binary fluid of the molecules with the quadrupoles of the same magnitude but of the opposite signs can show closed-loop immiscibility. We find that an increase in the magnitude of the quadrupoles causes a shrinkage of the coexistence region. Molecular dynamics simulations also reveal that aggregates with two types of molecules arranged alternatively are formed in the stable one-phase region both above and below the coexistence region. String structures are dominant below the lower critical solution temperature, while branched aggregates are observed above the upper critical solution temperature. We conclude that the anisotropic interaction between the quadrupoles of the opposite signs plays a crucial role in controlling these properties of the phase behavior.

  4. Eclipsing Binaries in the 21st Century—Opportunities for Amateur Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, E. F.; Engle, S. G.; Devinney, E. J.

    2012-06-01

    Eclipsing binaries play major roles in modern astrophysical research. These stars provide fundamental data on the masses, radii, ages, atmospheres, and interiors of stars as well as serving as test beds for stellar structure and evolution models. The study of eclipsing binaries also returns vital information about the formation and evolution of close binaries themselves. Studying the changes in their periods from the observations of eclipse timings provides insights into evolution of close binaries, mass exchange and loss, apsidal motion for eccentric systems, as well as the discovery of the low mass (unseen) third bodies. Moreover eclipsing binaries in clusters and other galaxies can provide accurate distances to the star clusters and galaxies in which they reside. More recently observations of eclipsing exoplanet-star systems (that is, transiting exoplanets) when coupled with spectroscopy are yielding fundamental information about the frequency and the physical properties of planets orbiting other stars. For the reasons discussed above, observations of eclipsing binary systems have been popular for AAVSO observers and many papers have been published (see Williams et al. 2012, JAAVSO, 40, No. 1). A recent example is the highly successful AAVSO’s Citizen Sky Project focused on the enigmatic long-period eclipsing binary ɛ Aur. Building on the success of the AAVSO during the last century, this paper explores the present and future prospects for research in eclipsing binaries. We focus on what can be done by AAVSO members and other amateur astronomers in the study of eclipsing binaries. Several examples of observing strategies and interesting (and scientifically valuable) projects are discussed as well as future prospects. As discussed, there are many opportunities for AAVSO members to contribute to study of eclipsing binary stars and an increasing variety of objects to observe.

  5. General Approach in Computing Sums of Products of Binary Sequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-08

    General Approach in Computing Sums of Products of Binary Sequences E. Kiliç1, P. Stănică2 1TOBB Economics and Technology University, Mathematics...pstanica@nps.edu December 8, 2011 Abstract In this paper we find a general approach to find closed forms of sums of products of arbitrary sequences ...satisfying the same recurrence with different initial conditions. We apply successfully our technique to sums of products of such sequences with indices in

  6. Lyapunov timescales and black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, Neil J.; Levin, Janna

    2003-05-01

    Black hole binaries support unstable orbits at very close separations. In the simplest case of geodesics around a Schwarzschild black hole the orbits, though unstable, are regular. Under perturbation the unstable orbits can become the locus of chaos. All unstable orbits, whether regular or chaotic, can be quantified by their Lyapunov exponents. The exponents are observationally relevant since the phase of gravitational waves can decohere in a Lyapunov time. If the timescale for dissipation due to gravitational waves is shorter than the Lyapunov time, chaos will be damped and essentially unobservable. We find that the two timescales can be comparable. We emphasize that the Lyapunov exponents must only be used cautiously for several reasons: they are relative and depend on the coordinate system used, they vary from orbit to orbit, and finally they can be deceptively diluted by transient behaviour for orbits which pass in and out of unstable regions.

  7. Conjugating binary systems for spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, Philomena G.; Dean, William G.; Sisk, Lori A.; Karu, Zain S.

    1989-01-01

    The materials search was directed to liquid pairs which can form hydrogen bonds of just the right strength, i.e., strong enough to give a high heat of mixing, but weak enough to enable phase change to occur. The cursory studies performed in the area of additive effects indicate that Conjugating Binary (CB) performance can probably be fine-tuned by this means. The Fluid Loop Test Systems (FLTS) tests of candidate CBs indicate that the systems Triethylamine (TEA)/water and propionaldehyde/water show close to the ideal, reversible behavior, at least initially. The Quick Screening Tests QSTs and FLTS tests, however, both suffer from rather severe static due either to inadequate stirring or temperature control. Thus it is not possible to adequately evaluate less than ideal CB performers. Less than ideal performers, it should be noted, may have features that make them better practical CBs than ideal performers. Improvement of the evaluation instrumentation is thus indicated.

  8. Synchronization of magnetic stars in binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, F. K.; Aly, J.-J.; Cook, M. C.; Lamb, D. Q.

    1983-01-01

    Asynchronous rotation of magnetic stars in close binary systems drives substantial field-aligned electrical currents between the magnetic star and its companion. The resulting magnetohydrodynamic torque is able to account for the heretofore unexplained synchronous rotation of the strongly magnetic degenerate dwarf component in systems like AM Her, VV Pup, AN UMa, and EF Eri as well as the magnetic A type component in systems like HD 98088 and 41 Tauri. The electric fields produced by even a small asynchronism are large and may accelerate some electrons to high energies, producing radio emission. The total energy dissipation rate in systems with degenerate dwarf spin periods as short as 1 minute may reach 10 to the 33rd ergs/s. Total luminosities of this order may be a characteristic feature of such systems.

  9. The Michigan Binary Star Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Rudi P.

    2007-07-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, William J. Hussey and Robert G. Aitken, both at Lick Observatory, began a systematic search for unrecorded binary stars with the aid of the 12" and 36" refracting telescopes at Lick Observatory. Aitken's work (and book on binary stars) are well known, Hussey's contributions less so. In 1905 Hussey, a Michigan engineering graduate, returned to direct the Ann Arbor astronomy program, and immediately he began to design new instrumentation for the study of binary stars and to train potential observers. For a time, he spent six months a year at the La Plata Observatory, where he discovered a number of new pairs and decided upon a major southern hemisphere campaign. He spent a decade obtaining the lenses for a large refractor, through the vicissitudes of war and depression. Finally, he obtained a site in South Africa, a 26" refractor, and a small corps of observers, but he died in London en route to fulfill his dream. His right hand man, Richard Rossiter, established the observatory and spent the next thirty years discovering and measuring binary stars: his personal total is a record for the field. This talk is an account of the methods, results, and utility of the extraordinary binary star factory in the veldt.

  10. Massive binary stars as a probe of massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiminki, Daniel C.

    2010-10-01

    Massive stars are among the largest and most influential objects we know of on a sub-galactic scale. Binary systems, composed of at least one of these stars, may be responsible for several types of phenomena, including type Ib/c supernovae, short and long gamma ray bursts, high-velocity runaway O and B-type stars, and the density of the parent star clusters. Our understanding of these stars has met with limited success, especially in the area of their formation. Current formation theories rely on the accumulated statistics of massive binary systems that are limited because of their sample size or the inhomogeneous environments from which the statistics are collected. The purpose of this work is to provide a higher-level analysis of close massive binary characteristics using the radial velocity information of 113 massive stars (B3 and earlier) and binary orbital properties for the 19 known close massive binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association. This work provides an analysis using the largest amount of massive star and binary information ever compiled for an O-star rich cluster like Cygnus OB2, and compliments other O-star binary studies such as NGC 6231, NGC 2244, and NGC 6611. I first report the discovery of 73 new O or B-type stars and 13 new massive binaries by this survey. This work involved the use of 75 successful nights of spectroscopic observation at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory in addition to observations obtained using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph at WIYN, the HIRES echelle spectrograph at KECK, and the Hamilton spectrograph at LICK. I use these data to estimate the spectrophotometric distance to the cluster and to measure the mean systemic velocity and the one-sided velocity dispersion of the cluster. Finally, I compare these data to a series of Monte Carlo models, the results of which indicate that the binary fraction of the cluster is 57 +/- 5% and that the indices for the power law distributions, describing the log of the periods, mass

  11. Solution growth of a binary icosahedral quasicrystal of Sc[subscript 12]Zn[subscript 88

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, P.C.; Caudle, M.L.; Ho, C.-S.; Kreyssig, A.; Nandi, S.; Kim, M.G.; Lin, X.; Kracher, A.; Dennis, K.W.; McCallum, R.W.; Goldman, A.I.

    2010-07-23

    We report the discovery of a binary icosahedral phase in a Sc-Zn alloy obtained through solution-growth, producing millimeter-sized, facetted, single grain quasicrystals that exhibit different growth morphologies, pentagonal dodecahedra, and rhombic triacontahedra, under only marginally different growth conditions. These two morphologies manifest different degrees of quasicrystalline order. The discovery of i-Sc{sub 12}Zn{sub 88} suggests that a re-examination of binary phase diagrams at compositions close to crystalline approximant structures may reveal other binary quasicrystalline phases.

  12. Life and light: exotic photosynthesis in binary and multiple-star systems.

    PubMed

    O'Malley-James, J T; Raven, J A; Cockell, C S; Greaves, J S

    2012-02-01

    The potential for Earth-like planets within binary/multiple-star systems to host photosynthetic life was evaluated by modeling the levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) such planets receive. Combinations of M and G stars in (i) close-binary systems; (ii) wide-binary systems, and (iii) three-star systems were investigated, and a range of stable radiation environments were found to be possible. These environmental conditions allow for the possibility of familiar, but also more exotic, forms of photosynthetic life, such as IR photosynthesizers and organisms that are specialized for specific spectral niches.

  13. Design of binary diffractive microlenses with subwavelength structures using the genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Kenichi L; Suzuki, Shuichi; Yamada, Yasufumi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-12

    We present a method to design binary diffractive microlenses with subwavelength structures, based on the finite-difference time-domain method and the genetic algorithm, also accounting for limitations on feature size and aspect ratio imposed by fabrication. The focusing efficiency of the microlens designed by this method is close to that of the convex lens and much higher than that of the binary Fresnel lens designed by a previous method. Although the optimized structure appears to be a binary Fresnel lens qualitatively, it is hard to quantitatively derive directly from the convex Fresnel lens. The design of a microlens with reduced chromatic aberration is also presented.

  14. Cluster-cluster aggregation in binary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsunaidi, A.; Lach-Hab, M.; González, Agustín E.; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

    2000-01-01

    The structure and aggregation kinetics of three-dimensional clusters composed of two different monomeric species at three concentrations are thoroughly investigated by means of extensive, large-scale computer simulations. The aggregating monomers have all the same size and occupy the cells of a cubic lattice. Two bonding schemes are considered: (a) the binary diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation (BDLCA) in which only the monomers of different species stick together, and (b) the invading binary diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation (IBDLCA) in which additionally monomers of one of the two species are allowed to bond. In the two schemes, the mixed aggregates display self-similarity with a fractal dimension df that depends on the relative molar fraction of the two species and on concentration. At a given concentration, when this molar fraction is small, df approaches a value close to the reaction-limited cluster-cluster aggregation of one-component systems, and when the molar fraction is 0.5, df becomes close to the value of the diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation model. The crossover between these two regimes is due to a time-decreasing reaction probability between colliding particles, particularly at small molar fractions. Several dynamical quantities are studied as a function of time. The number of clusters and the weight-average cluster size display a power-law behavior only at small concentrations. The dynamical exponents are obtained for molar fractions above 0.3 but not at or below 0.2, indicating the presence of a critical transition between a gelling to a nongelling system. The cluster-size distribution function presents scaling for molar fractions larger than 0.2.

  15. Searching for Spectroscopic Binaries within Transition Disk Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Saul A.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Llama, Joe

    2016-03-01

    Transition disks (TDs) are intermediate stage circumstellar disks characterized by an inner gap within the disk structure. To test whether these gaps may have been formed by closely orbiting, previously undetected stellar companions, we collected high-resolution optical spectra of 31 TD objects to search for spectroscopic binaries (SBs). Twenty-four of these objects are in Ophiuchus and seven are within the Coronet, Corona Australis, and Chameleon I star-forming regions. We measured radial velocities for multiple epochs, obtaining a median precision of 400 ms-1. We identified double-lined SB SSTc2d J163154.7-250324 in Ophiuchus, which we determined to be composed of a K7(±0.5) and a K9(±0.5) star, with orbital limits of a < 0.6 au and P < 150 days. This results in an SB fraction of {0.04}-0.03+0.12 in Ophiuchus, which is consistent with other spectroscopic surveys of non-TD objects in the region. This similarity suggests that TDs are not preferentially sculpted by the presence of close binaries and that planet formation around close binaries may take place over similar timescales to that around single stars. This paper is based on data gathered with the 6.5 m Clay Telescope located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  16. The dynamical importance of binary systems in young massive star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grijs, Richard; Li, Chengyuan; Geller, Aaron M.

    2017-03-01

    Characterization of the binary fractions in star clusters is of fundamental importance for many fields in astrophysics. Observations indicate that the majority of stars are found in binary systems, while most stars with masses greater than 0.5M ⊙ are formed in star clusters. In addition, since binaries are on average more massive than single stars, in resolved star clusters these systems are thought to be good tracers of (dynamical) mass segregation. Over time, dynamical evolution through two-body relaxation will cause the most massive objects to migrate to the cluster center, while the relatively lower-mass objects remain in or migrate to orbits at greater radii. This process will globally dominate a cluster's stellar distribution. However, close encounters involving binary systems may disrupt `soft' binaries. This process will occur more frequently in a cluster's central, dense region than in its periphery, which may mask the effects of mass segregation. Using high resolution Hubble Space Telescope observations, combined with sophisticated N-body simulations, we investigate the radial distributions of the main-sequence binary fractions in massive young Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters. We show that binary disruption may play an important role on very short timescales, depending on the environmental conditions in the cluster cores. This may lead to radial binary fractions that initially decline in the cluster centers, which is contrary to the effects expected from dynamical mass segregation.

  17. Formation and Evolution of W Ursae Majoris Contact Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lifang; Zhang, Fenghui; Han, Zhanwen; Jiang, Dengkai

    2007-06-01

    The origin and evolution of W UMa systems are discussed based on All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) data and the mean kinematic ages of four subgroups of 97 field contact binaries (FCBs). The period distribution of eclipsing binaries discovered by ASAS suggests that a period limit to tidal locking for the close binaries is about 2.24 days, so that most W UMa systems might be formed from detached binaries with periods P<~2.24 days, and a maximum advanced time from a detached system to a W UMa is about 3.23 Gyr. Moreover, the secular evolution of the angular momentum (AM), the system mass, and the orbital period of 97 FCBs were investigated according to the mean kinematic ages, which were set according to AM bins. AMs, systemic masses, and orbital periods were shown to be decreasing with kinematic age. Their first-order decreasing rates have been determined as J˙/J=1.86×10-10 yr-1, M˙/M=0.95×10-10 yr-1, and P˙/P=1.24×10-10 yr-1, and the average amplification (A¯=dlnJ/dlnM) is derived to be 1.96. These are lower than those derived from detached chromospherically active binaries (CABs). This suggests that the magnetic activity level of FCBs is indeed weaker than that of CABs. Meanwhile, the decreasing rate of AM of FCBs is found to be equal to an average value in a cycle of a cyclic model of contact binaries. This might suggest that the evolution of FCBs undergoes thermal relaxation oscillation (TRO) and that the coalescence of W UMa systems is a very long process, which is also indicated by the dynamical evolution of FCBs.

  18. Relaxation dynamics in a binary hard-ellipse liquid.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Sheng; Sun, Zhao-Yan; An, Li-Jia

    2015-01-21

    Structural relaxation in binary hard spherical particles has been shown recently to exhibit a wealth of remarkable features when size disparity or mixture composition is varied. In this paper, we test whether or not similar dynamical phenomena occur in glassy systems composed of binary hard ellipses. We demonstrate via event-driven molecular dynamics simulation that a binary hard-ellipse mixture with an aspect ratio of two and moderate size disparity displays characteristic glassy dynamics upon increasing density in both the translational and the rotational degrees of freedom. The rotational glass transition density is found to be close to the translational one for the binary mixtures investigated. More importantly, we assess the influence of size disparity and mixture composition on the relaxation dynamics. We find that an increase of size disparity leads, both translationally and rotationally, to a speed up of the long-time dynamics in the supercooled regime so that both the translational and the rotational glass transition shift to higher densities. By increasing the number concentration of the small particles, the time evolution of both translational and rotational relaxation dynamics at high densities displays two qualitatively different scenarios, i.e., both the initial and the final part of the structural relaxation slow down for small size disparity, while the short-time dynamics still slows down but the final decay speeds up in the binary mixture with large size disparity. These findings are reminiscent of those observed in binary hard spherical particles. Therefore, our results suggest a universal mechanism for the influence of size disparity and mixture composition on the structural relaxation in both isotropic and anisotropic particle systems.

  19. Radiation reaction in binary systems in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennefick, Daniel John

    1997-09-01

    This thesis is concerned with current problems in, and historical aspects of, the problem of radiation reaction in stellar binary systems in general relativity. Part I addresses current issues in the orbital evolution due to gravitational radiation damping of compact binaries. A particular focus is on the inspiral of small bodies orbiting large black holes, employing a perturbation formalism. In addition, the merger, at the end of the insprial, of comparable mass compact binaries, such as neutron star binaries is also discussed. The emphasis of Part I is on providing detailed descriptions of sources and signals with a view to optimising signal analysis in gravitational wave detectors, whether ground- or space- based interferometers, or resonant mass detectors. Part II of the thesis examines the historical controversies surrounding the problem of gravitational waves, and gravitational radiation damping in stellar binaries. In particular, it focuses on debates in the mid 20th-century on whether binary star systems would really exhibit this type of damping and emit gravitational waves, and on the 'quadrupole formula controversy' of the 1970s and 1980s, on the question whether the standard formular describing energy loss due to emission of gravitational waves was correctly derived for such systems. The study shed light on the role of analogy in science, especially where its use is controversial, on the importance of style in physics and on the problem of identity in science, as the use of history as a rhetorical device in controversial debate is examined. The concept of the Theoretician's Regress is introduced to explain the difficulty encountered by relativists in closing debate in this controversy, which persisted in one forms or another for several decades.

  20. Close Encounters of the Stellar Kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has confirmed that close encounters between stars form X-ray emitting, double-star systems in dense globular star clusters. These X-ray binaries have a different birth process than their cousins outside globular clusters, and should have a profound influence on the cluster's evolution. A team of scientists led by David Pooley of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge took advantage of Chandra's unique ability to precisely locate and resolve individual sources to determine the number of X-ray sources in 12 globular clusters in our Galaxy. Most of the sources are binary systems containing a collapsed star such as a neutron star or a white dwarf star that is pulling matter off a normal, Sun-like companion star. "We found that the number of X-ray binaries is closely correlated with the rate of encounters between stars in the clusters," said Pooley. "Our conclusion is that the binaries are formed as a consequence of these encounters. It is a case of nurture not nature." A similar study led by Craig Heinke of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. confirmed this conclusion, and showed that roughly 10 percent of these X-ray binary systems contain neutron stars. Most of these neutron stars are usually quiet, spending less than 10% of their time actively feeding from their companion. NGC 7099 NGC 7099 A globular cluster is a spherical collection of hundreds of thousands or even millions of stars buzzing around each other in a gravitationally-bound stellar beehive that is about a hundred light years in diameter. The stars in a globular cluster are often only about a tenth of a light year apart. For comparison, the nearest star to the Sun, Proxima Centauri, is 4.2 light years away. With so many stars moving so close together, interactions between stars occur frequently in globular clusters. The stars, while rarely colliding, do get close enough to form binary star systems or cause binary stars to

  1. Black Hole Binaries in Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailyn, Charles D.

    I discuss some of what is known and unknown about the behavior of black hole binary systems in the quiescent accretion state. Quiescence is important for several reasons: 1) the dominance of the companion star in optical and IR wavelengths allows the binary parameters to be robustly determined - as an example, we argue that the longer proposed distance to the X-ray source GRO J1655-40 is correct; 2) quiescence represents the limiting case of an extremely low accretion rate, in which both accretion and jets can be observed; 3) understanding the evolution and duration of the quiescent state is a key factor in determining the overall demographics of X-ray binaries, which has taken on a new importance in the era of gravitational wave astronomy.

  2. Experience with parametric binary dissection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.

    1993-01-01

    Parametric Binary Dissection (PBD) is a new algorithm that can be used for partitioning graphs embedded in 2- or 3-dimensional space. It partitions explicitly on the basis of nodes + (lambda)x(edges cut), where lambda is the ratio of time to communicate over an edge to the time to compute at a node. The new algorithm is faster than the original binary dissection algorithm and attempts to obtain better partitions than the older algorithm, which only takes nodes into account. The performance of parametric dissection with plain binary dissection on 3 large unstructured 3-d meshes obtained from computational fluid dynamics and on 2 random graphs were compared. It was showm that the new algorithm can usually yield partitions that are substantially superior, but that its performance is heavily dependent on the input data.

  3. The evolution of CVs: Clues from FUSE observations of Post Common Envelope Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gansicke, B.

    Cataclysmic variables (CVs) represent an important class of close interacting white dwarf + K/M dwarf binaries which routinely serve as astrophysical laboratories for the study of accretion discs and of plasma phyiscs at extreme temperatures and B-fields. However, it is precisely the accretion-related emission in CVs which makes accurate measurements of their binary parameters extremely difficult - and without the detailed knowledge of fundamental properties, such as their stellar masses, our understanding of the evolution of CVs is severely limited. Post Common Envelope Binaries (PCEBs), close but detached white dwarf/late type star binaries, will eventually evolve into CVs through the loss of angular momentum. The absence of mass transfer in these systems permits to determine their binary parameters at a level of precision unachievable in CVs, and measuring these parameters for an ensemble of PCEBs holds great potential for improving the theory of close binary evolution. Here, we propose to observe with FUSE four PCEBs (HR Cam, LM Com, RX J2130.3+4709, and KPD 2154+4048) in order to derive the effective temperatures, masses, photospheric abundances, and rotation rates of their white dwarf primaries.

  4. Critical adsorption on defects in ising magnets and binary alloys

    PubMed

    Hanke

    2000-03-06

    Long-range correlations in a magnet close to its critical point or in a binary alloy close to a continuous order-disorder transition can substantially enhance the effect of local perturbations. It is demonstrated using a position-space renormalization procedure that quasi-one-dimensional defects which break the symmetry of the order parameter have pronounced effects: They cause long-range critical adsorption profiles and give rise to new universal critical exponents, which are identified and calculated using field-theoretical methods.

  5. Critical Adsorption on Defects in Ising Magnets and Binary Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, Andreas

    2000-03-01

    Long-range correlations in a magnet close to its critical point or in a binary alloy close to a continuous order-disorder transition can substantially enhance the effect of local perturbations. It is demonstrated using a position-space renormalization procedure that quasi-one-dimensional defects which break the symmetry of the order parameter have pronounced effects: They cause long-range critical adsorption profiles and give rise to new universal critical exponents, which are identified and calculated using field-theoretical methods.

  6. Protocols for quantum binary voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapliyal, Kishore; Sharma, Rishi Dutt; Pathak, Anirban

    Two new protocols for quantum binary voting are proposed. One of the proposed protocols is designed using a standard scheme for controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC), and the other one is designed using the idea of quantum cryptographic switch, which uses a technique known as permutation of particles. A few possible alternative approaches to accomplish the same task (quantum binary voting) have also been discussed. Security of the proposed protocols is analyzed. Further, the efficiencies of the proposed protocols are computed, and are compared with that of the existing protocols. The comparison has established that the proposed protocols are more efficient than the existing protocols.

  7. Mental Effort in Binary Categorization Aided by Binary Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael

    2013-01-01

    Binary cueing systems assist in many tasks, often alerting people about potential hazards (such as alarms and alerts). We investigate whether cues, besides possibly improving decision accuracy, also affect the effort users invest in tasks and whether the required effort in tasks affects the responses to cues. We developed a novel experimental tool…

  8. Binary YORP Effect and Evolution of Binary Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Elad; Sari, Re'em

    2011-02-01

    The rotation states of kilometer-sized near-Earth asteroids are known to be affected by the Yarkevsky O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect. In a related effect, binary YORP (BYORP), the orbital properties of a binary asteroid evolve under a radiation effect mostly acting on a tidally locked secondary. The BYORP effect can alter the orbital elements over ~104-105 years for a Dp = 2 km primary with a Ds = 0.4 km secondary at 1 AU. It can either separate the binary components or cause them to collide. In this paper, we devise a simple approach to calculate the YORP effect on asteroids and the BYORP effect on binaries including J 2 effects due to primary oblateness and the Sun. We apply this to asteroids with known shapes as well as a set of randomly generated bodies with various degrees of smoothness. We find a strong correlation between the strengths of an asteroid's YORP and BYORP effects. Therefore, statistical knowledge of one could be used to estimate the effect of the other. We show that the action of BYORP preferentially shrinks rather than expands the binary orbit and that YORP preferentially slows down asteroids. This conclusion holds for the two extremes of thermal conductivities studied in this work and the assumption that the asteroid reaches a stable point, but may break down for moderate thermal conductivity. The YORP and BYORP effects are shown to be smaller than could be naively expected due to near cancellation of the effects at small scales. Taking this near cancellation into account, a simple order-of-magnitude estimate of the YORP and BYORP effects as a function of the sizes and smoothness of the bodies is calculated. Finally, we provide a simple proof showing that there is no secular effect due to absorption of radiation in BYORP.

  9. BINARY YORP EFFECT AND EVOLUTION OF BINARY ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, Elad; Sari, Re'em

    2011-02-15

    The rotation states of kilometer-sized near-Earth asteroids are known to be affected by the Yarkevsky O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect. In a related effect, binary YORP (BYORP), the orbital properties of a binary asteroid evolve under a radiation effect mostly acting on a tidally locked secondary. The BYORP effect can alter the orbital elements over {approx}10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} years for a D{sub p} = 2 km primary with a D{sub s} = 0.4 km secondary at 1 AU. It can either separate the binary components or cause them to collide. In this paper, we devise a simple approach to calculate the YORP effect on asteroids and the BYORP effect on binaries including J{sub 2} effects due to primary oblateness and the Sun. We apply this to asteroids with known shapes as well as a set of randomly generated bodies with various degrees of smoothness. We find a strong correlation between the strengths of an asteroid's YORP and BYORP effects. Therefore, statistical knowledge of one could be used to estimate the effect of the other. We show that the action of BYORP preferentially shrinks rather than expands the binary orbit and that YORP preferentially slows down asteroids. This conclusion holds for the two extremes of thermal conductivities studied in this work and the assumption that the asteroid reaches a stable point, but may break down for moderate thermal conductivity. The YORP and BYORP effects are shown to be smaller than could be naively expected due to near cancellation of the effects at small scales. Taking this near cancellation into account, a simple order-of-magnitude estimate of the YORP and BYORP effects as a function of the sizes and smoothness of the bodies is calculated. Finally, we provide a simple proof showing that there is no secular effect due to absorption of radiation in BYORP.

  10. A Study of Planetary Nebulae Possessing Binary Central Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyndall, Amy A.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, detailed studies of three different types of binary central stars within planetary nebulae (bCSPNe) are presented, with the aim of investigating the effects such a range of binary systems has on the morphology and kinematics of the surrounding nebulae, as well as discussing what the implication is for the interaction between the stars themselves. A close binary, an intermediate period binary, and a compact binary system are examined. The close binary PN HaTr 4 is the first system to be studied via detailed spatio-kinematical analysis and modelling, and it is one of few known to contain a post-common envelope (CE) central star system. CE evolution is believed to play an important role in the shaping of PNe, but the exact nature of this role is yet to be understood. High spatial and spectral resolution spectroscopy is presented alongside deep narrow-band imagery to derive the three-dimensional morphology of HaTr 4. The nebula is found to display an extended ovoid morphology with an enhanced equatorial region consistent with a toroidal waist - a feature believed to be typical amongst PNe with post-CE central stars. The nebular symmetry axis is found to lie perpendicular to the orbital plane of the central binary, concordant with the idea that the formation and evolution of HaTr 4 has been strongly influenced by its central binary. Next, PN LoTr 1 is studied using a combination of spectra and photometry, and is thought to contain an intermediate-period binary central star system (P = 100-1500 d). Here, we confirm the binary nature of the central star of LoTr 1, consisting of a K1 III star and a hot white dwarf (WD). The nebula of LoTr 1 presents a very different morphology than that of other seemingly similar bCSPNe possessing barium stars, A70 and WeBo 1 (included in this study for direct comparison), which may be an indication of a difference in their mass-transfer episodes. There is no evidence of barium enhancement in the K1 III companion, but it is

  11. The Relativitic Evolution of Black Hole-Neutron Star Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, J. A.; Baumgarte, T. W.; Shapiro, S. L.; Taniguchi, K.

    2004-12-01

    We report results from our new relativistic evolution calculations of black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binaries. The evolution equations of general relativity are treated in the conformally flat (CF) approximation. Assuming that the BH mass is significantly larger than that of the NS allows us to simplify the field equations for the NS, which we solve self-consistently in a fixed BH background spacetime. This approach guarantees that self-gravity is fully included. The NS fluid, assumed here to follow a gamma-law equation of state (EOS), is evolved using a Lagrangian SPH method. The field equations are solved by spectral methods in spheroidal coordinates. The code has been tested by comparing our results to previously computed quasi-equilibrium sequences, showing good agreement. Our results are a crucial first step in evaluating the stability of mass transfer in extremely close BH-NS binaries. They will allow us to describe quantitatively the dynamical tidal disruption of the NS, and to determine the dependence on the initial binary parameters, including the mass ratio and assumed NS EOS. We will also discuss the implications for detecting gravitational waves from the merger of these systems, about which, in contrast to NS-NS binaries, little is currently known for systems with components of comparable mass. JAF is supported by an NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-0401533.

  12. Entropy-driven formation of binary semiconductor-nanocrystal superlattices.

    PubMed

    Evers, Wiel H; De Nijs, Bart; Filion, Laura; Castillo, Sonja; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel

    2010-10-13

    One of the main reasons for the current interest in colloidal nanocrystals is their propensity to form superlattices, systems in which (different) nanocrystals are in close contact in a well-ordered three-dimensional (3D) geometry resulting in novel material properties. However, the principles underlying the formation of binary nanocrystal superlattices are not well understood. Here, we present a study of the driving forces for the formation of binary nanocrystal superlattices by comparing the formed structures with full free energy calculations. The nature (metallic or semiconducting) and the size-ratio of the two nanocrystals are varied systematically. With semiconductor nanocrystals, self-organization at high temperature leads to superlattices (AlB(2), NaZn(13), MgZn(2)) in accordance with the phase diagrams for binary hard-sphere mixtures; hence entropy increase is the dominant driving force. A slight change of the conditions results in structures that are energetically stabilized. This study provides rules for the rational design of 3D nanostructured binary semiconductors, materials with promises in thermoelectrics and photovoltaics and which cannot be reached by any other technology.

  13. A Spectroscopic Binary in the Hercules Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Andreas; Hansen, Terese; Feltzing, Sofia; Wilkinson, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    We present the radial velocity curve of a single-lined spectroscopic binary in the faint Hercules dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, based on 34 individual spectra covering more than 2 yr of observations. This is the first time that orbital elements could be derived for a binary in a dSph. The system consists of a metal-poor red giant and a low-mass companion, possibly a white dwarf, with a 135 day period in a moderately eccentric (e = 0.18) orbit. Its period and eccentricity are fully consistent with metal-poor binaries in the Galactic halo, while the projected semimajor axis is small, at ap sin i = 38 R ⊙. In fact, a very close orbit could inhibit the production of heavier elements through s-process nucleosynthesis, leading to the very low abundances of neutron-capture elements that are found in this star. We discuss the further implications for the chemical enrichment history of the Hercules dSph, but find no compelling binary scenario that could reasonably explain the full, peculiar abundance pattern of the Hercules dSph galaxy. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and is based in part on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programs ID 079.B-0447(A) and 083.D-0688(A).

  14. Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, David

    2017-01-01

    Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) will eventually detect the gravitational wave (GW) background produced by a cosmological population of binary supermassive black hole (SBHs). In this talk, I review the ways in which the formation and evolution of the binary population determine the amplitude and form of the GW spectrum. A major source of systematic uncertainty is the mass function of SBHs; in the past, SBH masses have often been overestimated, and the number of SBHs with trustworthy mass estimates is still very small. The presence of gas and stars around the binaries accelerates the evolution at large separations, reducing the amplitude of the GW spectrum at low frequencies. I will highlight two recent developments in our theoretical understanding of binary evolution. (1) Slight departures from axi-symmetry in a galaxy imply a sustained supply of stars to the very center, thus overcoming the “final-parsec problem”. (2) In the generic case of a rotating nucleus, the plane of the binary’s orbit evolves predictably toward alignment with the symmetry plane of the nucleus; the binary’s eccentricity also evolves in tandem with the orientation, sometimes reaching values close to one. These processes should leave distinct imprints on the stochastic GW spectrum, and have important implications for the likelihood of GW detection in the near future.

  15. Generating Constant Weight Binary Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    The determination of bounds for A(n, d, w), the maximum possible number of binary vectors of length n, weight w, and pairwise Hamming distance no less than d, is a classic problem in coding theory. Such sets of vectors have many applications. A description is given of how the problem can be used in a first-year undergraduate computational…

  16. Generating Constant Weight Binary Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    The determination of bounds for A(n, d, w), the maximum possible number of binary vectors of length n, weight w, and pairwise Hamming distance no less than d, is a classic problem in coding theory. Such sets of vectors have many applications. A description is given of how the problem can be used in a first-year undergraduate computational…

  17. Clostridium difficile binary toxin CDT

    PubMed Central

    Gerding, Dale N; Johnson, Stuart; Rupnik, Maja; Aktories, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Binary toxin (CDT) is frequently observed in Clostridium difficile strains associated with increased severity of C. difficile infection (CDI). CDT belongs to the family of binary ADP-ribosylating toxins consisting of two separate toxin components: CDTa, the enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase which modifies actin, and CDTb which binds to host cells and translocates CDTa into the cytosol. CDTb is activated by serine proteases and binds to lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor. ADP-ribosylation induces depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton. Toxin-induced actin depolymerization also produces microtubule-based membrane protrusions which form a network on epithelial cells and increase bacterial adherence. Multiple clinical studies indicate an association between binary toxin genes in C. difficile and increased 30-d CDI mortality independent of PCR ribotype. Further studies including measures of binary toxin in stool, analyses of CDI mortality caused by CDT-producing strains, and examination of the relationship of CDT expression to TcdA and TcdB toxin variants and PCR ribotypes are needed. PMID:24253566

  18. A Galactic Binary Detection Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littenberg, Tyson B.

    2011-01-01

    The Galaxy is suspected to contain hundreds of millions of binary white dwarf systems, a large fraction of which will have sufficiently small orbital period to emit gravitational radiation in band for space-based gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). LISA's main science goal is the detection of cosmological events (supermassive black hole mergers, etc.) however the gravitational signal from the galaxy will be the dominant contribution to the data - including instrumental noise over approximately two decades in frequency. The catalogue of detectable binary systems will serve as an unparalleled means of studying the Galaxy. Furthermore, to maximize the scientific return from the mission, the data must be "cleansed" of the galactic foreground. We will present an algorithm that can accurately resolve and subtract 2:: 10000 of these sources from simulated data supplied by the Mock LISA Data Challenge Task Force. Using the time evolution of the gravitational wave frequency, we will reconstruct the position of the recovered binaries and show how LISA will sample the entire compact binary population in the Galaxy.

  19. Eclipsing binaries - selection of targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasche, P.

    2017-04-01

    Are the ground-based observations still needed in the era of robotic all-sky surveys? There were highlighted several fields in the eclipsing binary research, where also the amateur photometry would be very fruitful with also a few suitable systems where the monitoring is needed also using the smaller telescopes.

  20. Sequential binary collision ionization mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Boeyen, R. W.; Watanabe, N.; Doering, J. P.; Moore, J. H.; Coplan, M. A.; Cooper, J. W.

    2004-03-01

    Fully differential cross sections for the electron-impact ionization of the magnesium 3s orbital have been measured in a high-momentum-transfer regime wherein the ionization mechanisms can be accurately described by simple binary collision models. Measurements where performed at incident-electron energies from 400 to 3000 eV, ejected-electron energies of 62 eV, scattering angle of 20 °, and momentum transfers of 2 to 5 a.u. In the out-of-plane geometry of the experiment the cross section is observed far off the Bethe ridge. Both first- and second-order processes can be clearly distinguished as previously observed by Murray et al [Ref. 1] and Schulz et al [Ref. 2]. Owing to the relatively large momentum of the ejected electron, the second order processes can be modeled as sequential binary collisions involving a binary elastic collision between the incident electron and ionic core and a binary knock-out collision between the incident electron and target electron. At low incident-electron energies the cross section for both first and second order processes are comparable, while at high incident energies second-order processes dominate. *Supported by NSF under grant PHY-99-87870. [1] A. J. Murray, M. B. J. Woolf, and F. H. Read J. Phys. B 25, 3021 (1992). [2] M. Schulz, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, H. Kollmus, D. H. Madison. S. Jones and J. Ullrich, Nature 422, 48 (2003).

  1. Binary logic is rich enough

    SciTech Connect

    Zapatrin, R.R.

    1992-02-01

    Given a finite ortholattice L, the *-semigroup is explicitly built whose annihilator ortholattice is isomorphic to L. Thus, it is shown that any finite quantum logic is the additive part of a binary logic. Some areas of possible applications are outlined. 7 refs.

  2. Binary continuous random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousseau, Normand; Barkema, G. T.

    2004-11-01

    Many properties of disordered materials can be understood by looking at idealized structural models, in which the strain is as small as is possible in the absence of long-range order. For covalent amorphous semiconductors and glasses, such an idealized structural model, the continuous random network, was introduced 70 years ago by Zachariasen. In this model, each atom is placed in a crystal-like local environment, with perfect coordination and chemical ordering, yet longer-range order is nonexistent. Defects, such as missing or added bonds, or chemical mismatches, however, are not accounted for. In this paper we explore under what conditions the idealized CRN model without defects captures the properties of the material, and under what conditions defects are an inherent part of the idealized model. We find that the density of defects in tetrahedral networks does not vary smoothly with variations in the interaction strengths, but jumps from close to zero to a finite density. Consequently, in certain materials, defects do not play a role except for being thermodynamical excitations, whereas in others they are a fundamental ingredient of the ideal structure.

  3. School Closings in Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, James; Sludden, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the School District of Philadelphia closed six schools. In 2013, it closed 24. The closure of 30 schools has occurred amid a financial crisis, headlined by the district's $1.35 billion deficit. School closures are one piece of the district's plan to cut expenditures and close its budget gap. The closures are also intended to make…

  4. Coevolution of binaries and circumbinary gaseous discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, David P.; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc which drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for 104 binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentric binaries which strongly couple to the disc develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance which corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. All systems display binary semimajor axis decay due to dissipation from the viscous disc.

  5. Learning Rotation-Invariant Local Binary Descriptor.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yueqi; Lu, Jiwen; Feng, Jianjiang; Zhou, Jie

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a rotation-invariant local binary descriptor (RI-LBD) learning method for visual recognition. Compared with hand-crafted local binary descriptors, such as local binary pattern and its variants, which require strong prior knowledge, local binary feature learning methods are more efficient and data-adaptive. Unlike existing learning-based local binary descriptors, such as compact binary face descriptor and simultaneous local binary feature learning and encoding, which are susceptible to rotations, our RI-LBD first categorizes each local patch into a rotational binary pattern (RBP), and then jointly learns the orientation for each pattern and the projection matrix to obtain RI-LBDs. As all the rotation variants of a patch belong to the same RBP, they are rotated into the same orientation and projected into the same binary descriptor. Then, we construct a codebook by a clustering method on the learned binary codes, and obtain a histogram feature for each image as the final representation. In order to exploit higher order statistical information, we extend our RI-LBD to the triple rotation-invariant co-occurrence local binary descriptor (TRICo-LBD) learning method, which learns a triple co-occurrence binary code for each local patch. Extensive experimental results on four different visual recognition tasks, including image patch matching, texture classification, face recognition, and scene classification, show that our RI-LBD and TRICo-LBD outperform most existing local descriptors.

  6. Production of trans-Neptunian binaries through chaos-assisted capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ernestine A.; Astakhov, Sergey A.; Farrelly, David

    2007-07-01

    The recent discovery of binary objects in the Kuiper Belt opens an invaluable window into past and present conditions in the trans-Neptunian part of the Solar System. For example, knowledge of how these objects formed can be used to impose constraints on planetary formation theories. We have recently proposed a binary object formation model based on the notion of chaos-assisted capture (CAC). In this model two potential binary partners may become trapped for long times inside chaotic layers within their mutual Hill sphere. The binary may then be captured permanently through gravitational scattering with a third `intruder' body. The creation of binaries having similarly sized partners is an ab initio prediction of the model which also predicts large binary semimajor axes and moderately eccentric mutual orbits similar to those observed. Here we present a more detailed analysis with calculations performed in the spatial (three-dimensional) three- and four-body Hill approximations. It is assumed that the potential binary partners are initially following heliocentric Keplerian orbits and that their relative motion becomes perturbed as these objects undergo close encounters. First, the mass, velocity and orbital element distributions which favour binary formation are identified in the circular and elliptical Hill limits. We then consider intruder scattering to the circular Hill four-body problem and find that the CAC mechanism is consistent with observed, apparently randomly distributed, binary mutual orbit inclinations. It also predicts asymmetric distributions of retrograde versus prograde orbits. The time-delay induced by chaos on particle transport through the Hill sphere is analogous to the formation of a resonance in a chemical reaction. Implications for binary formation rates are considered and the `fine-tuning' problem recently identified by Noll et al. is also addressed.

  7. A Speeding Binary in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    The recent discovery of a hyper-velocity binary star system in the halo of the Milky Way poses a mystery: how was this system accelerated to its high speed?Accelerating StarsUnlike the uniform motion in the Galactic disk, stars in the Milky Ways halo exhibit a huge diversity of orbits that are usually tilted relative to the disk and have a variety of speeds. One type of halo star, so-called hyper-velocity stars, travel with speeds that can approach the escape velocity of the Galaxy.How do these hyper-velocity stars come about? Assuming they form in the Galactic disk, there are multiple proposed scenarios through which they could be accelerated and injected into the halo, such as:Ejection after a close encounter with the supermassive black hole at the Galactic centerEjection due to a nearby supernova explosionEjection as the result of a dynamical interaction in a dense stellar population.Further observations of hyper-velocity stars are necessary to identify the mechanism responsible for their acceleration.J1211s SurpriseModels of J1211s orbit show it did not originate from the Galactic center (black dot). The solar symbol shows the position of the Sun and the star shows the current position of J1211. The bottom two panels show two depictions(x-y plane and r-z plane) of estimated orbits of J1211 over the past 10 Gyr. [Nmeth et al. 2016]To this end, a team of scientists led by Pter Nmeth (Friedrich Alexander University, Erlangen-Nrnberg) recently studied the candidate halo hyper-velocity star SDSS J121150.27+143716.2. The scientists obtained spectroscopy of J1211 using spectrographs at the Keck Telescope in Hawaii and ESOs Very Large Telescope in Chile. To their surprise, they discovered the signature of a companion in the spectra: J1211 is actually a binary!Nmeth and collaborators found that J1211, located roughly 18,000 light-years away, is moving at a rapid ~570 km/s relative to the galactic rest frame. The binary system consists of a hot (30,600 K) subdwarf and a

  8. Binary Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae Discovered through Photometric Variability. IV. The Central Stars of HaTr 4 and Hf 2-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillwig, Todd C.; Bond, Howard E.; Frew, David J.; Schaub, S. C.; Bodman, Eva H. L.

    2016-08-01

    We explore the photometrically variable central stars of the planetary nebulae HaTr 4 and Hf 2-2. Both have been classified as close binary star systems previously based on their light curves alone. Here, we present additional arguments and data confirming the identification of both as close binaries with an irradiated cool companion to the hot central star. We include updated light curves, orbital periods, and preliminary binary modeling for both systems. We also identify for the first time the central star of HaTr 4 as an eclipsing binary. Neither system has been well studied in the past, but we utilize the small amount of existing data to limit possible binary parameters, including system inclination. These parameters are then compared to nebular parameters to further our knowledge of the relationship between binary central stars of planetary nebulae and nebular shaping and ejection.

  9. Eclipse timing variations to detect exoplanets in binary star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Richard; Funk, Barbara; Bazso, Akos; Zechner, Renate

    2016-02-01

    This work is devoted to study the circumstances favorable to detect planets in S- or P-Type orbits in close binary star systems by the help of eclipse timing variations (ETVs). A planet in S-Type motion orbits one of the two stars while a planet in P-Type Motion orbits both stars. One can detect ETV signals with the help of former (CoRoT and Kepler) and future space missions Plato, Tess and Cheops). To determine the probability of the detection of such ETV signals with ground based and space telescopes we investigated the dynamics of close binary star systems (stars separated by 0.5 to 3 AU). Therefore we did numerical simulations by using the full three-body problem as dynamical model. The stability and the ETVs are investigated by computing ETV maps for different masses of the secondary star and the exoplanet (Earth, Neptune and Jupiter mass). In addition we changed the planets eccentricity. We can conclude that many ETV amplitudes are large enough to detect planets in S- or P-Type orbits in binary star systems.

  10. Rotational breakup as the origin of small binary asteroids.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kevin J; Richardson, Derek C; Michel, Patrick

    2008-07-10

    Asteroids with satellites are observed throughout the Solar System, from subkilometre near-Earth asteroid pairs to systems of large and distant bodies in the Kuiper belt. The smallest and closest systems are found among the near-Earth and small inner main-belt asteroids, which typically have rapidly rotating primaries and close secondaries on circular orbits. About 15 per cent of near-Earth and main-belt asteroids with diameters under 10 km have satellites. The mechanism that forms such similar binaries in these two dynamically different populations was hitherto unclear. Here we show that these binaries are created by the slow spinup of a 'rubble pile' asteroid by means of the thermal YORP (Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack) effect. We find that mass shed from the equator of a critically spinning body accretes into a satellite if the material is collisionally dissipative and the primary maintains a low equatorial elongation. The satellite forms mostly from material originating near the primary's surface and enters into a close, low-eccentricity orbit. The properties of binaries produced by our model match those currently observed in the small near-Earth and main-belt asteroid populations, including 1999 KW(4) (refs 3, 4).

  11. Tracing the wind interface of the massive binary Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Krister

    2007-07-01

    The binarity of Eta Carinae has been debated for a long time, but most recent evidence favors a binary star interpretation. However, very little is known about the nature of the companion star. Over Eta Carinae's spectroscopic period many observable wind lines in the NUV/Optical region, have been shown to exhibit peculiar line profiles with unusual velocity shifts relative to the system velocity. Some of the lines are exclusively blue-shifted over the entire 5.54 yr cycle and their ionization/excitation imply formation in the interface between the two massive stars. Especially, the He I emission lines are mainly formed in the wind interface region. Since the wind momentum is much larger for the primary star than its companion, the wind interface is located fairly close to the companion. Consequently, by tracing the He I emission we can construct a radial velocity curve that will describe the motion of the companion star and will derive the relation between the masses of the binary system stars. Furthermore, we will measure velocity and intensity variations in H I and Fe II to further investigate the ionization/excitation structure throughout Eta Carinae's wind. The analysis of the central source of Eta Carinae, due to the closeness of the two stars in the binary system {30 AU} and the intervening matter in line-of-sight towards Eta Carinae, is extremely dependent on data obtained with high angular resolving power. The HST archival data is crucial for the continuance of this project.

  12. Using binary statistics in Taurus-Auriga to distinguish between brown dwarf formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, M.; Martín, E. L.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Lodieu, N.; Kroupa, P.; Manjavacas, E.; Thies, I.; Rebolo López, R.; Velasco, S.

    2017-08-01

    Context. One of the key questions of the star formation problem is whether brown dwarfs (BDs) form in the manner of stars directly from the gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud core (star-like) or whether BDs and some very low-mass stars (VLMSs) constitute a separate population that forms alongside stars comparable to the population of planets, for example through circumstellar disk (peripheral) fragmentation. Aims: For young stars in Taurus-Auriga the binary fraction has been shown to be large with little dependence on primary mass above ≈ 0.2 M⊙, while for BDs the binary fraction is < 10%. Here we investigate a case in which BDs in Taurus formed dominantly, but not exclusively, through peripheral fragmentation, which naturally results in small binary fractions. The decline of the binary frequency in the transition region between star-like formation and peripheral formation is modelled. Methods: We employed a dynamical population synthesis model in which stellar binary formation is universal with a large binary fraction close to unity. Peripheral objects form separately in circumstellar disks with a distinctive initial mass function (IMF), their own orbital parameter distributions for binaries, and small binary fractions, according to observations and expectations from smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and grid-based computations. A small amount of dynamical processing of the stellar component was accounted for as appropriate for the low-density Taurus-Auriga embedded clusters. Results: The binary fraction declines strongly in the transition region between star-like and peripheral formation, exhibiting characteristic features. The location of these features and the steepness of this trend depend on the mass limits for star-like and peripheral formation. Such a trend might be unique to low density regions, such as Taurus, which host binary populations that are largely unprocessed dynamically in which the binary fraction is large for stars down to M

  13. Neutron star high-mass binaries as the origin of SGR/AXP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2016-03-01

    A close high-mass binary system consisting of a neutron star (NS) and a massive OB supergiant companion is expected to lead to a Thorne-Żytkow object (TZO) structure, which consists of a NS core and a stellar envelope. We use the scenario machine program to calculate the formation tracks of TZOs in close high-mass NS binaries and their subsequent evolution. We propose and demonstrate that the explosion and instant contraction of a TZO structure leave its stellar remnant as a soft gamma-ray repeater and an anomalous X-ray pulsar respectively.

  14. Phase-field model for binary alloys.

    PubMed

    Kim, S G; Kim, W T; Suzuki, T

    1999-12-01

    We present a phase-field model (PFM) for solidification in binary alloys, which is found from the phase-field model for a pure material by direct comparison of the variables for a pure material solidification and alloy solidification. The model appears to be equivalent with the Wheeler-Boettinger-McFadden (WBM) model [A.A. Wheeler, W. J. Boettinger, and G. B. McFadden, Phys. Rev. A 45, 7424 (1992)], but has a different definition of the free energy density for interfacial region. An extra potential originated from the free energy density definition in the WBM model disappears in this model. At a dilute solution limit, the model is reduced to the Tiaden et al. model [Physica D 115, 73 (1998)] for a binary alloy. A relationship between the phase-field mobility and the interface kinetics coefficient is derived at a thin-interface limit condition under an assumption of negligible diffusivity in the solid phase. For a dilute alloy, a steady-state solution of the concentration profile across the diffuse interface is obtained as a function of the interface velocity and the resultant partition coefficient is compared with the previous solute trapping model. For one dimensional steady-state solidification, where the classical sharp-interface model is exactly soluble, we perform numerical simulations of the phase-field model: At low interface velocity, the simulated results from the thin-interface PFM are in excellent agreement with the exact solutions. As the partition coefficient becomes close to unit at high interface velocities, whereas, the sharp-interface PFM yields the correct answer.

  15. Phase-field model for binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Gyoon; Kim, Won Tae; Suzuki, Toshio

    1999-12-01

    We present a phase-field model (PFM) for solidification in binary alloys, which is found from the phase-field model for a pure material by direct comparison of the variables for a pure material solidification and alloy solidification. The model appears to be equivalent with the Wheeler-Boettinger-McFadden (WBM) model [A.A. Wheeler, W. J. Boettinger, and G. B. McFadden, Phys. Rev. A 45, 7424 (1992)], but has a different definition of the free energy density for interfacial region. An extra potential originated from the free energy density definition in the WBM model disappears in this model. At a dilute solution limit, the model is reduced to the Tiaden et al. model [Physica D 115, 73 (1998)] for a binary alloy. A relationship between the phase-field mobility and the interface kinetics coefficient is derived at a thin-interface limit condition under an assumption of negligible diffusivity in the solid phase. For a dilute alloy, a steady-state solution of the concentration profile across the diffuse interface is obtained as a function of the interface velocity and the resultant partition coefficient is compared with the previous solute trapping model. For one dimensional steady-state solidification, where the classical sharp-interface model is exactly soluble, we perform numerical simulations of the phase-field model: At low interface velocity, the simulated results from the thin-interface PFM are in excellent agreement with the exact solutions. As the partition coefficient becomes close to unit at high interface velocities, whereas, the sharp-interface PFM yields the correct answer.

  16. Formation of the widest binary stars from dynamical unfolding of triple systems.

    PubMed

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo

    2012-12-13

    The formation of very wide binary systems, such as the α Centauri system with Proxima (also known as α Centauri C) separated from α Centauri (which itself is a close binary A/B) by 15,000 astronomical units (1 AU is the distance from Earth to the Sun), challenges current theories of star formation, because their separation can exceed the typical size of a collapsing cloud core. Various hypotheses have been proposed to overcome this problem, including the suggestion that ultrawide binaries result from the dissolution of a star cluster--when a cluster star gravitationally captures another, distant, cluster star. Recent observations have shown that very wide binaries are frequently members of triple systems and that close binaries often have a distant third companion. Here we report N-body simulations of the dynamical evolution of newborn triple systems still embedded in their nascent cloud cores that match observations of very wide systems. We find that although the triple systems are born very compact--and therefore initially are more protected against disruption by passing stars--they can develop extreme hierarchical architectures on timescales of millions of years as one component is dynamically scattered into a very distant orbit. The energy of ejection comes from shrinking the orbits of the other two stars, often making them look from a distance like a single star. Such loosely bound triple systems will therefore appear to be very wide binaries.

  17. A close encounter of the massive kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sana, H.; Barbá, R. H.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Gamen, R. C.

    2017-01-01

    We have used (i) Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectroscopy, (ii) ground-based Precision Integrated-Optics Near-infrared Imaging ExpeRiment/Very Large Telescope long-baseline interferometry, and (iii) ground-based spectroscopy from different instruments to study the orbit of the extreme multiple system HD 93 129 Aa,Ab, which is composed of (at least) two very massive stars in a long-period orbit with e > 0.92, which will pass through periastron in 2017/2018. In several ways, the system is an η Car precursor. Around the time of periastron passage, the two very strong winds will collide and generate an outburst of non-thermal hard X-ray emission without precedent in an O+O binary since astronomers have been able to observe above Earth's atmosphere. A coordinated multiwavelength monitoring in the next two years will enable a breakthrough understanding of the wind interactions in such extreme close encounters. Furthermore, we have found evidence that HD 93 129 Aa may be a binary system itself. In that case, we could witness a three-body interaction which may yield a runaway star or a stellar collision close to or shortly after the periastron passage. Either of those outcomes would be unprecedented, as they are predicted to be low-frequency events in the Milky Way.

  18. SIM Lite Detection of Habitable Planets in P-Type Binary-Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Xiaopei; Shao, Michael; Shaklan, Stuart; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    Close binary stars like spectroscopic binaries create a completely different environment than single stars for the evolution of a protoplanetary disk. Dynamical interactions between one star and protoplanets in such systems provide more challenges for theorists to model giant planet migration and formation of multiple planets. For habitable planets the majority of host stars are in binary star systems. So far only a small amount of Jupiter-size planets have been discovered in binary stars, whose minimum separations are 20 AU and the median value is about 1000 AU (because of difficulties in radial velocity measurements). The SIM Lite mission, a space-based astrometric observatory, has a unique capability to detect habitable planets in binary star systems. This work analyzed responses of the optical system to the field stop for companion stars and demonstrated that SIM Lite can observe exoplanets in visual binaries with small angular separations. In particular we investigated the issues for the search for terrestrial planets in P-type binary-planetary systems, where the planets move around both stars in a relatively distant orbit.

  19. Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Super Massive Black Hole Binaries in Galaxy Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood

    2012-07-01

    Galaxy centers are residing places for Super Massive Black Holes (SMBHs). Galaxy mergers bring SMBHs close together to form gravitationally bound binary systems which, if able to coalesce in less than a Hubble time, would be one of the most promising sources of gravitational waves for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). But as is the case for virtually all potential LISA sources, the event rate is poorly known, with estimates ranging from a few to to a few thousand events per year. In spherical galaxy models, SMBH binaries stall at a separation of approximately one parsec, leading to the ``final parsec problem"(FPP). By performing a large set of direct N-body simulations of galaxy mergers having SMBHs at the center, we show that merger-induced triaxiality of the remnant is capable of supporting a constant supply of stars on so-called centrophilic orbits that interact with the binary and thus avoid the FPP. The coalescence times for SMBH binary with mass of a million solar masses are less than 1 Gyr and for those at the upper end of SMBH masses a billion solar masses are 1-2 Gyr for less eccentric binaries whereas less than 1 Gyr for highly eccentric binaries. SMBH binaries are thus expected to be promising sources of gravitational waves at low and high redshifts.

  20. Star cluster evolution with primordial binaries. 3: Effect of the Galactic tidal field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, Steve; Hut, Piet

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of N-body simulations of tidally limited star clusters with an initial population of 0%-20% binaries. We find that (1) if enough binaries are initially present, the binary fraction may fall to a minimum value, then increase at late times; (2) the cluster evaporation timescale is quite insensitive to the details of the initial binary distribution; (3) the cluster core radius stabilizes at a few percent of the half-mass radius when binaries are present, just as in the case of isolated clusters; and (4) there may be a marked difference between the spatial distribution of low-energy and high-energy binaries as the cluster evolves. Specifically, the spatial distribution of the lower energy systems is often substantially more extended than that of the more tightly bound pairs. At no time are our simulated clusters well described by simple dynamical models that neglect the close coupling between the binding energies and the center-of-mass energies of the binaries they contain.

  1. SIM Lite Detection of Habitable Planets in P-Type Binary-Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Xiaopei; Shao, Michael; Shaklan, Stuart; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    Close binary stars like spectroscopic binaries create a completely different environment than single stars for the evolution of a protoplanetary disk. Dynamical interactions between one star and protoplanets in such systems provide more challenges for theorists to model giant planet migration and formation of multiple planets. For habitable planets the majority of host stars are in binary star systems. So far only a small amount of Jupiter-size planets have been discovered in binary stars, whose minimum separations are 20 AU and the median value is about 1000 AU (because of difficulties in radial velocity measurements). The SIM Lite mission, a space-based astrometric observatory, has a unique capability to detect habitable planets in binary star systems. This work analyzed responses of the optical system to the field stop for companion stars and demonstrated that SIM Lite can observe exoplanets in visual binaries with small angular separations. In particular we investigated the issues for the search for terrestrial planets in P-type binary-planetary systems, where the planets move around both stars in a relatively distant orbit.

  2. Star cluster evolution with primordial binaries. 3: Effect of the Galactic tidal field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, Steve; Hut, Piet

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of N-body simulations of tidally limited star clusters with an initial population of 0%-20% binaries. We find that (1) if enough binaries are initially present, the binary fraction may fall to a minimum value, then increase at late times; (2) the cluster evaporation timescale is quite insensitive to the details of the initial binary distribution; (3) the cluster core radius stabilizes at a few percent of the half-mass radius when binaries are present, just as in the case of isolated clusters; and (4) there may be a marked difference between the spatial distribution of low-energy and high-energy binaries as the cluster evolves. Specifically, the spatial distribution of the lower energy systems is often substantially more extended than that of the more tightly bound pairs. At no time are our simulated clusters well described by simple dynamical models that neglect the close coupling between the binding energies and the center-of-mass energies of the binaries they contain.

  3. Main Sequence Binary Fraction in Globular Cluster NGC 6397

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinath, Srikar; Cool, A. M.; Anderson, J.

    2011-01-01

    We report preliminary results from a study of main-sequence binaries (MSBs) in the core-collapsed globular cluster NGC 6397 using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys. We analyze images of the central regions of the cluster extending out to approximately one half-mass radius (rhm = 2.33') taken with the Wide Field Channel in the F435W and F625W filters. After removing non-members using proper motions, we construct a color-magnitude diagram (CMD) containing 15578 cluster stars. Model cluster CMDs indicate that in the range 16 < R < 22, MSBs with mass ratio (q=M2/M1) > 0.6 appear sufficiently far above and redward of the main sequence ridge line to be distinguishable from the single-star sequence. Out of 10835 stars in this magnitude range, we identify an initial set of 137 stars (with primary masses in the range 0.4-0.7 Msun) whose offset from the single-star sequence is statistically significant. A check of quality of fit to the PSF combined with close visual inspection of the images shows that 85 of these stars are well measured and unresolved and are thus good MSB candidates. The resulting upper limit on the fraction of MSBs with q > 0.6 and primaries in the range 0.4-0.7 Msun is 0.8%. We compare our measured fraction and the radial distribution of the MSB candidates to earlier findings based on HST/WFPC2 imaging and explore the significance of the results for the total binary population in NGC 6397. Keywords: binaries: general - globular clusters: individual(NGC 6397) - binary fraction - stars: main sequence binary

  4. Formation of Binaries at the Stage of Rarefied Preplanetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, Sergei I.

    2009-05-01

    Last years, new arguments in favor of the model of rarefied preplanetesimals - clumps have been found by several scientists. The models of binary formation due to the gravitational interactions or collisions of future binary components with an object (or objects) that were inside their Hill sphere, which were considered by several authors for solid objects, could be more effective for rarefied preplanetesimals. For example, due to almost circular heliocentric orbits, duration of their motion inside the Hill sphere could be longer and minimum distances could be smaller than for solid bodies. Some collided rarefied preplanetesimals had a greater density at distances closer to their centers, and sometimes there could be two centers of contraction inside the rotating preplanetesimal formed as a result of a collision of two rarefied preplanetesimals. The observed separation distance can characterize the sizes of contracted preplanetesimals. In particular, binaries with close masses separated by a large distance and with any value of the eccentricity of the orbit of the secondary component relative to the primary component could be formed. Most of rarefied preasteroids could contract into solid asteroids before they collided with other preasteroids. Formation of some binaries could be caused by that the angular momentum that they obtained at the stage of rarefied preplanetesimals was greater than that could exist for solid bodies. During contraction of a rotating rarefied preplanetesimal, some material could form a cloud (that transformed into a disk) of material moving around the contracting primary. One or several satellites of the primary could be formed from this cloud. The angular momentum of a discovered trans-Neptunian or asteroidal binary is smaller than the typical angular momentum of two identical rarefied preplanetesimals having the same total mass and encountering to the Hill sphere from circular heliocentric orbits (Ipatov S.I. 2009, LPSC XL, #1021).

  5. On the structure of contact binaries. I - The contact discontinuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, F. H.; Lubow, S. H.; Anderson, L.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of the interior structure of contact binaries is reviewed, and a simple resolution of the difficulties which plague the theory is suggested. It is proposed that contact binaries contain a contact discontinuity between the lower surface of the common envelope and the Roche lobe of the cooler star. This discontinuity is maintained against thermal diffusion by fluid flow, and the transition layer is thin to the extent that the dynamical time scale is short in comparison with the thermal time scale. The idealization that the transition layer has infinitesimal thickness allows a simple formulation of the structure equations which are closed by appropriate jump conditions across the discontinuity. The further imposition of the standard boundary conditions suffices to define a unique model for the system once the chemical composition, the masses of the two stars, and the orbital separation are specified.

  6. A model for the massive binary V340 Muscae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    A synthetic light curve has been fitted to photometric data from the ASAS-3 database. The parameters of the best solution are well consistent with those derived from stellar models for both components for an initial metallicity Z=0.020 and a common age of 5 Myr. Therefore, we can reliably estimate the absolute dimensions of this close eclipsing binary system. Apparently, the O-type primary star has a mass of about 22.65 Msun and a radius of 10.35 Rsun. For the secondary star, likely a late B-type dwarf, we obtain about 3.1 Msun and 2.1 Rsun. Their mass ratio of about 0.138 might be the lowest found so far in O-type binaries. [English and German online-version of this paper available under www.bav-astro.eu/rb/rb2016-2/1.html].

  7. Superluminal Jets and Other Properties of Black Holes Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Discoveries in the past few years of radio jets in Galactic black hole candidates have provided a link between active galactic nuclei (AGNS) and the compact stars in binary systems. The availability of binary systems relatively close by is an opportunity to learn about the jet production mechanism on a timescale a million times shorter than that of an AGN. Evidence is clearly seen of correlated high energy X-ray and gamma ray emission to radio emission from jets, linking the accretion and jet production mechanisms. objects such as GRS 1915+105, GRO J1655-40 and Cyg X-3 show striking properties which distinguish them from other black hole candidates. Our theoretical understanding of these systems is still in the formative stages. I review some of the most recent multiwavelength data and point out questions raised by these observations.

  8. Galactic binary science with the new LISA design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, Neil; Robson, Travis

    2017-05-01

    Building on the great success of the LISA Pathfinder mission, the outlines of a new LISA mission design were laid out at the 11th International LISA Symposium in Zurich. The revised design calls for three identical spacecraft forming an equilateral triangle with 2.5 million kilometer sides, and two laser links per side delivering full polarization sensitivity. With the demonstrated Pathfinder performance for the disturbance reduction system, and a well studied design for the laser metrology, it is anticipated that the new mission will have a sensitivity very close to the original LISA design. This implies that the mid-band performance, between 0.5 mHz and 3 mHz, will be limited by unresolved signals from compact binaries in our galaxy. Here we use the new LISA design to compute updated estimates for the galactic confusion noise, the number of resolvable galactic binaries, and the accuracy to which key parameters of these systems can be measured.

  9. Binary neutron stars: Equilibrium models beyond spatial conformal flatness.

    PubMed

    Uryū, Kōji; Limousin, François; Friedman, John L; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Shibata, Masaru

    2006-10-27

    Equilibria of binary neutron stars in close circular orbits are computed numerically in a waveless formulation: the full Einstein-relativistic-Euler system is solved on an initial hypersurface to obtain an asymptotically flat form of the 4-metric and an extrinsic curvature whose time derivative vanishes in a comoving frame. Two independent numerical codes are developed, and solution sequences that model inspiraling binary neutron stars during the final several orbits are successfully computed. The binding energy of the system near its final orbit deviates from earlier results of third post-Newtonian and of spatially conformally flat calculations. The new solutions may serve as initial data for merger simulations and as members of quasiequilibrium sequences to generate gravitational-wave templates, and may improve estimates of the gravitational-wave cutoff frequency set by the last inspiral orbit.

  10. Analytic Gravitational Waveforms for Generic Precessing Binary Inspirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatziioannou, Katerina; Klein, Antoine; Cornish, Neil; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-02-01

    Binary systems of two compact objects circularize and spiral toward each other via the emission of gravitational waves. The coupling of the spins of each object with the orbital angular momentum causes the orbital plane to precess, which leads to modulation of the gravitational wave signal. Until now, generating frequency-domain waveforms for fully precessing systems for use in gravitational wave data analysis meant numerically integrating the equations of motion, then Fourier transforming the result, which is very computationally intensive for systems that complete hundreds or thousands of cycles in the sensitive band of a detector. Previously, analytic solutions were only available for certain special cases or for simplified models. Here we describe the construction of closed-form, frequency-domain waveforms for fully precessing, quasicircular binary inspirals.

  11. Accreting Double White Dwarf Binaries: Implications for LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Kyle; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2017-09-01

    We explore the long-term evolution of mass-transferring white dwarf (WD) binaries undergoing both direct-impact and disk accretion and explore implications of such systems to gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. We cover a broad range of initial component masses and show that these systems, the majority of which lie within the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) sensitivity range, exhibit prominent negative orbital frequency evolution (chirp) for a significant fraction of their lifetimes. Using a galactic population synthesis, we predict ∼2700 of these systems will be observable with a negative chirp of 0.1 yr‑2 by a space-based GW detector like LISA. We also show that detections of mass-transferring double WD systems by LISA may provide astronomers with unique ways of probing the physics governing close compact object binaries.

  12. Secular period decreasing of 17 detached chromospherically active binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, C. Q.; Luo, Y. P.; Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L. C.; Luo, Z. Q.; Yang, S. Z.

    2008-10-01

    The long-term orbital period changes of detached chromospheric active binaries were surveyed. 17 of such systems are found to be undergoing secular period decreasing with the rates (dP/dt) of -3.05 × 10-9 to -3.77 × 10-5 days per year. The longer the orbital period, the more rapidly the period decreases. Following Stepien (1995), the period decreasing rate due to the angular momentum loss (AML) caused by magnetic wind is computed for each system. A comparison shows that the observed dP/dt's are obviously higher than that of the theoretical predictions by 1-3 orders of magnitude. It suggests that the magnetic wind is not likely the determinant mechanism driving the AML in close binaries.

  13. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AND ORBITS OF 'FAST' VISUAL BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2012-08-15

    Results of speckle observations at the 4.1 m SOAR telescope in 2012 (158 measures of 121 systems, 27 non-resolutions) are reported. The aim is to follow fast orbital motion of recently discovered or neglected close binaries and sub-systems. Here, eight previously known orbits are defined better, two more are completely revised, and five orbits are computed for the first time. Using differential photometry from Hipparcos or speckle and the standard relation between mass and absolute magnitude, the component's masses and dynamical parallaxes are estimated for all 15 systems with new or updated orbits. Two astrometric binaries HIP 54214 and 56245 are resolved here for the first time, another eight are measured. We highlight several unresolved pairs that may actually be single despite multiple historic measures, such as 104 Tau and f Pup AB. Continued monitoring is needed to understand those enigmatic cases.

  14. Superluminal Jets and Other Properties of Black Holes Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Discoveries in the past few years of radio jets in Galactic black hole candidates have provided a link between active galactic nuclei (AGNS) and the compact stars in binary systems. The availability of binary systems relatively close by is an opportunity to learn about the jet production mechanism on a timescale a million times shorter than that of an AGN. Evidence is clearly seen of correlated high energy X-ray and gamma ray emission to radio emission from jets, linking the accretion and jet production mechanisms. objects such as GRS 1915+105, GRO J1655-40 and Cyg X-3 show striking properties which distinguish them from other black hole candidates. Our theoretical understanding of these systems is still in the formative stages. I review some of the most recent multiwavelength data and point out questions raised by these observations.

  15. Analytic Gravitational Waveforms for Generic Precessing Binary Inspirals.

    PubMed

    Chatziioannou, Katerina; Klein, Antoine; Cornish, Neil; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-02-03

    Binary systems of two compact objects circularize and spiral toward each other via the emission of gravitational waves. The coupling of the spins of each object with the orbital angular momentum causes the orbital plane to precess, which leads to modulation of the gravitational wave signal. Until now, generating frequency-domain waveforms for fully precessing systems for use in gravitational wave data analysis meant numerically integrating the equations of motion, then Fourier transforming the result, which is very computationally intensive for systems that complete hundreds or thousands of cycles in the sensitive band of a detector. Previously, analytic solutions were only available for certain special cases or for simplified models. Here we describe the construction of closed-form, frequency-domain waveforms for fully precessing, quasicircular binary inspirals.

  16. Numerical simulations of binary black holes with nearly extremal spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelace, Geoffrey

    2010-02-01

    There is a significant possibility that astrophysically realistic black holes may have nearly extremal spins (i.e., spins close to 1 in dimensionless units). The prospect of observing the gravitational waves from a binary-black-hole merger with nearly extremal spins motivates the goal of simulating these systems numerically. These simulations must begin with initial data that satisfy the Einstein constraint equations; however, the commonly used methods of generating constraint-satisfying initial data cannot yield data with nearly extremal spins. In this talk, I will describe evolutions of conformally curved binary-black-hole initial data with nearly extremal spins using the Caltech-Cornell-CITA Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC). )

  17. Is the Binary Mass Ratio Distribution Separation-Dependent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullikson, Kevin; Kraus, Adam L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent discoveries of planets orbiting retired A-stars on close orbits and young A-stars on very wide orbits have renewed interest in the properties of nearby intermediate-mass stars. Especially interesting are the young stars because directly-imaged planets orbiting them may be bright enough for characterization (e.g. HR 8799, Beta Pictoris, etc). However, intermediate-mass stars and especially young intermediate mass stars are part of multiple systems more often than not. Close stellar companions may affect the formation and orbital evolution of any planets, and the properties of the companions can help constrain the binary formation mechanism. The mass ratio distribution of a population of binary stars, especially if the distribution for close companions is significantly different from that of wide companions, is helpful to distinguish companions that were born in or affected by the circumstellar disk from those which formed through fragmentation of the molecular core. Previous imaging surveys have found that binary systems with A-type primary stars tend to have cool companions with extreme mass ratios. There are hints at a much flatter mass ratio distribution for close companions, but strong completeness effects complicate the picture. We have conducted a spectroscopic survey of ~400 nearby main sequence A- and B-type stars, aimed at detecting stellar companions as late as M4 for all orbital separations <100 AU. We have searched for companions to the stars by cross-correlating the spectra against model templates for F-M type stars; a significant peak in the cross-correlation function indicates a detection. Our cross-correlation technique can detect low-mass companions with orbits that are too wide to detect with radial velocity monitoring and too small to detect with imaging techniques, making it complementary to work already done. We will present results from our survey and compare the mass ratio distribution we measure to the corresponding distribution for

  18. Probing Intermolecular Interactions in Binary Liquid Mixtures Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Self-Defocusing.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Sandeep Kumar; Das, Dhiman; Goswami, Debabrata

    2016-06-13

    Photo-thermal behavior of binary liquid mixtures has been studied by high repetition rate (HRR) Z-scan technique with femtosecond laser pulses. Changes in the peak-valley difference in transmittance (ΔTP-V) for closed aperture Z-scan experiments are indicative of thermal effects induced by HRR femtosecond laser pulses. We show such indicative results can have a far-reaching impact on molecular properties and intermolecular interactions in binary liquid mixtures. Spectroscopic parameters derived from this experimental technique show that the combined effect of physical and molecular properties of the constituent binary liquids can be related to the components of the binary liquid. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Evidence for a planetary mass third body orbiting the binary star KIC 5095269

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getley, A. K.; Carter, B.; King, R.; O'Toole, S.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we report the evidence for a planetary mass body orbiting the close binary star KIC 5095269. This detection arose from a search for eclipse timing variations amongst the more than 2000 eclipsing binaries observed by Kepler. Light curve and periodic eclipse time variations have been analysed using systemic and a custom Binary Eclipse Timings code based on the Transit Analysis Package which indicates a 7.70 ± 0.08MJup object orbiting every 237.7 ± 0.1 d around a 1.2 M⊙ primary and a 0.51 M⊙ secondary in an 18.6 d orbit. A dynamical integration over 107 yr suggests a stable orbital configuration. Radial velocity observations are recommended to confirm the properties of the binary star components and the planetary mass of the companion.

  20. BINARIES DISCOVERED BY THE MUCHFUSS PROJECT: SDSS J08205+0008-AN ECLIPSING SUBDWARF B BINARY WITH A BROWN DWARF COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Geier, S.; Schaffenroth, V.; Drechsel, H.; Heber, U.; Kupfer, T.; Tillich, A.; Oestensen, R. H.; Smolders, K.; Degroote, P.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Barlow, B. N.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2011-04-20

    Hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) are extreme horizontal branch stars believed to originate from close binary evolution. Indeed about half of the known sdB stars are found in close binaries with periods ranging from a few hours to a few days. The enormous mass loss required to remove the hydrogen envelope of the red-giant progenitor almost entirely can be explained by common envelope ejection. A rare subclass of these binaries are the eclipsing HW Vir binaries where the sdB is orbited by a dwarf M star. Here, we report the discovery of an HW Vir system in the course of the MUCHFUSS project. A most likely substellar object ({approx_equal}0.068 M{sub sun}) was found to orbit the hot subdwarf J08205+0008 with a period of 0.096 days. Since the eclipses are total, the system parameters are very well constrained. J08205+0008 has the lowest unambiguously measured companion mass yet found in a subdwarf B binary. This implies that the most likely substellar companion has not only survived the engulfment by the red-giant envelope, but also triggered its ejection and enabled the sdB star to form. The system provides evidence that brown dwarfs may indeed be able to significantly affect late stellar evolution.

  1. Binary nucleation at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahoransky, R. A.; Peters, F.

    1985-01-01

    The onset of homogeneous condensation of binary vapors in the supersaturated state is studied in ethanol/n-propanol and water/ethanol via their unsteady expansion in a shock tube at temperatures below 273 K. Ethanol/n-propanol forms a nearly ideal solution, whereas water/ethanol is an example of a strongly nonideal mixture. Vapor mixtures of various compositions are diluted in dry air at small mole fractions and expanded in the driver section from room temperature. The onset of homogeneous condensation is detected optically and the corresponding thermodynamic state is evaluated. The experimental results are compared with the binary nucleation theory, and the particular problems of theoretical evaluation at low temperatures are discussed.

  2. Mass transfer between binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modisette, J. L.; Kondo, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The transfer of mass from one component of a binary system to another by mass ejection is analyzed through a stellar wind mechanism, using a model which integrates the equations of motion, including the energy equation, with an initial static atmosphere and various temperature fluctuations imposed at the base of the star's corona. The model is applied to several situations and the energy flow is calculated along the line of centers between the two binary components, in the rotating frame of the system, thereby incorporating the centrifugal force. It is shown that relatively small disturbances in the lower chromosphere or photosphere can produce mass loss through a stellar wind mechanism, due to the amplification of the disturbance propagating into the thinner atmosphere. Since there are many possible sources of the disturbance, the model can be used to explain many mass ejection phenomena.

  3. Binary Stars in SBS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erastova, L. K.

    2016-06-01

    Thirty spectroscopic binary stars were found in the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS). They show composite spectra - WD(DA)+dM or dC (for example Liebert et al. 1994). They may have red color, if the radiation of the red star dominates, and blue one, if the blue star is brighter and have peculiar spectrum in our survey plate. We obtained slit spectra for most of such objects. But we often see the spectrum of one component, because our slit spectra did not cover all optical range. We examine by eye the slit spectra of all SBS stellar objects (˜700) in SDSS DR7, DR8 or DR9 independent on our observations. We confirmed or discovered the duplicity of 30 stars. Usually they are spectroscopic binaries, where one component is WD (DA) and the second one is a red star with or without emission. There also are other components combinations. Sometimes there are emission lines, probably, indicating variable ones.

  4. Binary Inspiral in Quadratic Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Quadratic gravity is a general class of quantum-gravity-inspired theories, where the Einstein-Hilbert action is extended through the addition of all terms quadratic in the curvature tensor coupled to a scalar field. In this article, we focus on the scalar Gauss- Bonnet (sGB) theory and consider the black hole binary inspiral in this theory. By applying the post-Newtonian (PN) formalism, we found that there is a scalar dipole radiation which leads to -1PN correction in the energy flux relative to gravitational radiation in general relativity. From the orbital decay rate of a low-mass X-ray binary A0600-20, we obtain the bound that is six orders of magnitude stronger than the current solar system bound. Furthermore, we show that the excess in the orbital decay rate of XTE J1118+480 can be explained by the scalar radiation in sGB theory.

  5. Information graphs for binary predictors.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G; McRoberts, N; Burnett, F J

    2015-01-01

    Binary predictors are used in a wide range of crop protection decision-making applications. Such predictors provide a simple analytical apparatus for the formulation of evidence related to risk factors, for use in the process of Bayesian updating of probabilities of crop disease. For diagrammatic interpretation of diagnostic probabilities, the receiver operating characteristic is available. Here, we view binary predictors from the perspective of diagnostic information. After a brief introduction to the basic information theoretic concepts of entropy and expected mutual information, we use an example data set to provide diagrammatic interpretations of expected mutual information, relative entropy, information inaccuracy, information updating, and specific information. Our information graphs also illustrate correspondences between diagnostic information and diagnostic probabilities.

  6. Cool Star Binaries with ALEXIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    We proposed to search for high-temperature, flare-produced Fe XXIII line emission from active cool star binary systems using the ALEXIS all-sky survey. Previous X-ray transient searches with ARIEL V and HEAO-1, and subsequent shorter duration monitoring with the GINGA and EXOSAT satellites demonstrated that active binaries can produce large (EM approximately equals 10(exp 55-56/cu cm) X-ray flares lasting several hours or longer. Hot plasma from these flares at temperatures of 10(exp 7)K or more should produce Fe XXIII line emission at lambda = 132.8 A, very near the peak response of ALEXIS telescopes 1A and 2A. Our primary goals were to estimate flare frequency for the largest flares in the active binary systems, and, if the data permitted, to derive a distribution of flare energy vs. frequency for the sample as a whole. After a long delay due to the initial problems with the ALEXIS attitude control, the heroic efforts on the part of the ALEXIS satellite team enabled us to carry out this survey. However, the combination of the higher than expected and variable background in the ALEXIS detectors, and the lower throughput of the ALEXIS telescopes resulted in no convincing detections of large flares from the active binary systems. In addition, vignetting-corrected effective exposure times from the ALEXIS aspect solution were not available prior to the end of this contract; therefore, we were unable to convert upper limits measured in ALEXIS counts to the equivalent L(sub EUV).

  7. Binary stars in loose associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azulay, R.; Guirado, J. C.; Marcaide, J. M.; Martí-Vidal, I.

    2013-05-01

    Precise determinations of dynamical masses of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars are necessary to calibrate PMS stellar evolutionary models, whose predictions are in disagreement with measurements for masses below 1.2 M_{⊙}. Binary stars in young, nearby loose associations (moving groups) are particularly good candidates, primarily because all members share a common age. Belonging to the AB Doradus moving group, we have observed the binary AB Dor Ba/Bb, 0.06" separation, with the Australian Long Baseline Array at 8.4 GHz. We have detected the two components Ba/Bb, which facilitates (i) a measurement of the relative orbital motion through subsequent radio maps, and (ii) an estimate of the orbital parameters, once combined the radio information with infrared relative astrometry. Our preliminary analysis shows that best-fit orbit corresponds to that with a period of 1.1 yr and semi major axis of 0.068". The sum of the masses AB Dor Ba/Bb is 0.3±0.1 M_{⊙}. The study of this binary, along with other stars of the same association, will constitute a benchmark for testing PMS models of low-mass stars.

  8. Marangoni convection in binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Behringer, Robert P; Oron, Alexander

    2007-07-01

    Marangoni instabilities in binary mixtures in the presence of the Soret effect and evaporation are different from those in pure liquids. In contrast to a large amount of experimental work on Marangoni convection in pure liquids, such experiments in binary mixtures are not available in the literature, to our knowledge. Using binary mixtures of NaCl/water in an open system, evaporation of water molecules at the liquid-vapor interface is inevitable. We have systematically investigated the pattern formation for a set of substrate temperatures and solute concentrations in an open system. The flow patterns evolve with time, driven by surface-tension fluctuations due to evaporation and the Soret effect, while the air-liquid interface does not deform. A shadow-graph method is used to follow the pattern formation in time. The patterns are mainly composed of polygons and rolls. The mean pattern size first decreases slightly, and then gradually increases during the evolution. Evaporation affects the pattern formation mainly at the early stages and the local evaporation rate tends to become spatially uniform at the film surface. The Soret effect becomes important at the later stages and affects the mixture for a large mean solute concentration where the Soret number is significantly above zero. The strength of convection increases with the initial solute concentration and the substrate temperature. Our findings differ from the theoretical predictions in which evaporation is neglected.

  9. Radial velocity curves of ellipsoidal red giant binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, J. D.; Wood, P. R. E-mail: peter.wood@anu.edu.au

    2014-12-01

    Ellipsoidal red giant binaries are close binary systems where an unseen, relatively close companion distorts the red giant, leading to light variations as the red giant moves around its orbit. These binaries are likely to be the immediate evolutionary precursors of close binary planetary nebula and post-asymptotic giant branch and post-red giant branch stars. Due to the MACHO and OGLE photometric monitoring projects, the light variability nature of these ellipsoidal variables has been well studied. However, due to the lack of radial velocity curves, the nature of their masses, separations, and other orbital details has so far remained largely unknown. In order to improve this situation, we have carried out spectral monitoring observations of a large sample of 80 ellipsoidal variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud and we have derived radial velocity curves. At least 12 radial velocity points with good quality were obtained for most of the ellipsoidal variables. The radial velocity data are provided with this paper. Combining the photometric and radial velocity data, we present some statistical results related to the binary properties of these ellipsoidal variables.

  10. BINARY QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT. I. 24 NEW QUASAR PAIRS AT z {approx} 3-4

    SciTech Connect

    Hennawi, Joseph F.; Myers, Adam D.; Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Glikman, Eilat; Mahabal, Ashish; Fan Xiaohui; Martin, Crystal L.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shankar, Francesco

    2010-08-20

    The clustering of quasars on small scales yields fundamental constraints on models of quasar evolution and the buildup of supermassive black holes. This paper describes the first systematic survey to discover high-redshift binary quasars. Using color-selection and photometric redshift techniques, we searched 8142 deg{sup 2} of Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data for binary quasar candidates, and confirmed them with follow-up spectroscopy. Our sample of 27 high-redshift binaries (24 of them new discoveries) at redshifts 2.9 < z < 4.3 with proper transverse separations 10 kpc < R{sub perpendicular} < 650 kpc increases the number of such objects known by an order of magnitude. Eight members of this sample are very close pairs with R{sub perpendicular} < 100 kpc, and of these close systems four are at z>3.5. The completeness and efficiency of our well-defined selection algorithm are quantified using simulated photometry and we find that our sample is {approx}50% complete. Our companion paper uses this knowledge to make the first measurement of the small-scale clustering (R < 1 h {sup -1} Mpc comoving) of high-redshift quasars. High-redshift binaries constitute exponentially rare coincidences of two extreme (M {approx}> 10{sup 9} M {sub sun}) supermassive black holes. At z {approx} 4, there is about one close binary per 10 Gpc{sup 3}, thus these could be the highest sigma peaks, the analogs of superclusters, in the early universe.

  11. Pulsed Accretion onto Eccentric and Circular Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong

    2016-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of circumbinary accretion onto eccentric and circular binaries using the moving-mesh code AREPO. This is the first set of simulations to tackle the problem of binary accretion using a finite-volume scheme on a freely moving mesh, which allows for accurate measurements of accretion onto individual stars for arbitrary binary eccentricity. While accretion onto a circular binary shows bursts with period of ˜ 5 times the binary period P b, accretion onto an eccentric binary is predominantly modulated at the period ˜ 1{P}{{b}}. For an equal-mass circular binary, the accretion rates onto individual stars are quite similar to each other, following the same variable pattern in time. By contrast, for eccentric binaries, one of the stars can accrete at a rate 10-20 times larger than its companion. This “symmetry breaking” between the stars, however, alternates over timescales of order 200P b and can be attributed to a slowly precessing, eccentric circumbinary disk. Over longer timescales, the net accretion rates onto individual stars are the same, reaching a quasi-steady state with the circumbinary disk. These results have important implications for the accretion behavior of binary T Tauri stars and supermassive binary black holes.

  12. GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Khan, Fazeel Mahmood

    2015-09-10

    Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy.

  13. Closing the Advising Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates closing patterns for an institutional conversation in an ELP (English Language Program) at a university in the United States, noting the relationship between the closing patterns of the participants and their level of proficiency in English. By indicating that ESL learners, especially beginners, face difficulty in closing…

  14. Surviving a School Closing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witt, Peter M.; Moccia, Josephine

    2011-01-01

    When a beloved school closes, community emotions run high. De Witt and Moccia, administrators in the Averill Park School District in upstate New York, describe how their district navigated through parents' anger and practical matters in closing a small neighborhood elementary school and transferring all its students to another school. With a group…

  15. Extrasolar binary planets. I. Formation by tidal capture during planet-planet scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ochiai, H.; Nagasawa, M.; Ida, S.

    2014-08-01

    We have investigated (1) the formation of gravitationally bounded pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call 'binary planets') from capturing each other through planet-planet dynamical tide during their close encounters and (2) the subsequent long-term orbital evolution due to planet-planet and planet-star quasi-static tides. For the initial evolution in phase 1, we carried out N-body simulations of the systems consisting of three Jupiter-mass planets taking into account the dynamical tide. The formation rate of the binary planets is as much as 10% of the systems that undergo orbital crossing, and this fraction is almost independent of the initial stellarcentric semimajor axes of the planets, while ejection and merging rates sensitively depend on the semimajor axes. As a result of circularization by the planet-planet dynamical tide, typical binary separations are a few times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. After the orbital circularization, the evolution of the binary system is governed by long-term quasi-static tide. We analytically calculated the quasi-static tidal evolution in phase 2. The binary planets first enter the spin-orbit synchronous state by the planet-planet tide. The planet-star tide removes angular momentum of the binary motion, eventually resulting in a collision between the planets. However, we found that the binary planets survive the tidal decay for the main-sequence lifetime of solar-type stars (∼10 Gyr), if the binary planets are beyond ∼0.3 AU from the central stars. These results suggest that the binary planets can be detected by transit observations at ≳ 0.3 AU.

  16. Binary and triple collisions causing instability in the free-fall three-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehara, Hiroaki; Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2000-04-01

    Dominant factors for escape after the first triple-encounter are searched for in the three-body problem with zero initial velocities and equal masses. By a global numerical survey on the whole initial-value space, it is found that not only a triple-collision orbit but also a particular family of binary-collision orbits exist in the set of escape orbits. This observation is justified from various viewpoints. Binary-collision orbits experiencing close triple-encounter turn out to be close to isosceles orbits after the encounter and hence lead to escape. Except for a few cases, binary-collision orbits of near-isosceles slingshot also escape.

  17. A new technique for calculations of binary stellar evolution, with application to magnetic braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, S.; Joss, P. C.; Verbunt, F.

    1983-01-01

    The development of appropriate computer programs has made it possible to conduct studies of stellar evolution which are more detailed and accurate than the investigations previously feasible. However, the use of such programs can also entail some serious drawbacks which are related to the time and expense required for the work. One approach for overcoming these drawbacks involves the employment of simplified stellar evolution codes which incorporate the essential physics of the problem of interest without attempting either great generality or maximal accuracy. Rappaport et al. (1982) have developed a simplified code to study the evolution of close binary stellar systems composed of a collapsed object and a low-mass secondary. The present investigation is concerned with a more general, but still simplified, technique for calculating the evolution of close binary systems with collapsed binaries and mass-losing secondaries.

  18. Evolution of double white dwarf binaries undergoing direct-impact accretion: Implications for gravitational wave astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Kyle; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    For close double white dwarf binaries, the mass-transfer phenomenon known as direct-impact accretion (when the mass transfer stream impacts the accretor directly rather than forming a disc) may play a pivotal role in the long-term evolution of the systems. In this analysis, we explore the long-term evolution of white dwarf binaries accreting through direct-impact and explore implications of such systems to gravitational wave astronomy. We cover a broad range of parameter space which includes initial component masses and the strength of tidal coupling, and show that these systems, which lie firmly within the LISA frequency range, show strong negative chirps which can last as long as several million years. Detections of double white dwarf systems in the direct-impact phase by detectors such as LISA would provide astronomers with unique ways of probing the physics governing close compact object binaries.

  19. Pair production close to black hole horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Philippe; Titarchuk, Lev

    2012-07-01

    Accreting stellar-mass black holes in Galactic binaries exhibit a ``bi-modal" spectral behavior - namely the so called high-soft and low-hard spectral states. An increase in the soft blackbody luminosity component leads to the appearance of an extended power law. An important observational fact is that this effect is seen as a persistent phenomenon only in BH candidates, and thus it is apparently a unique black hole signature. Although similar power law components are detected in the intermediate stages in neutron star systems, they are of a transient nature, i.e. disappearing with increasing luminosity. It thus seems a reasonable assumption that the unique spectral signature of the soft state of BH binaries is directly tied to the black hole event horizon. This is the primary motivation for the Bulk Motion Comptonization Model, introduced in several previous papers, and recently applied with striking success to a substantial body of observational data. We argued that the BH X-ray spectrum in the high-soft state is formed in the relatively cold accretion flow with a subrelativistic bulk velocity close to c and a temperature of a few keV. In such a flow the effect of the bulk Comptonization is indeed much stronger than the effect of the thermal ones. Another property of these accreted flow, that we will explore during this talk, is that, very close to horizon, X-ray photons may be upscattered by bulk electrons to MeV energy. Most of these photons fall down then in the black hole, but some of them anyway have time to interact with another X-ray photon by the photon-photon process to make an electron-positron pairs. We will then explore in details the consequences of this pair creation process close to horizon and what can be the observational evidences of this effect.

  20. New RR Lyrae variables in binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdu, G.; Catelan, M.; Jurcsik, J.; Dékány, I.; Drake, A. J.; Marquette, J.-B.

    2015-04-01

    Despite their importance, very few RR Lyrae (RRL) stars have been known to reside in binary systems. We report on a search for binary RRL in the OGLE-III Galactic bulge data. Our approach consists in the search for evidence of the light-travel time effect in so-called observed minus calculated (O-C) diagrams. Analysis of 1952 well-observed fundamental-mode RRL in the OGLE-III data revealed an initial sample of 29 candidates. We used the recently released OGLE-IV data to extend the baselines up to 17 yr, leading to a final sample of 12 firm binary candidates. We provide O-C diagrams and binary parameters for this final sample, and also discuss the properties of eight additional candidate binaries whose parameters cannot be firmly determined at present. We also estimate that ≳ 4 per cent of the RRL reside in binary systems.

  1. Binary Black Holes from Dense Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Carl

    2017-01-01

    The recent detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of compact object astrophysics. But to fully utilize this new window into the universe, we must compare these observations to detailed models of binary black hole formation throughout cosmic time. In this talk, I will review our current understanding of cluster dynamics, describing how binary black holes can be formed through gravitational interactions in dense stellar environments, such as globular clusters and galactic nuclei. I will review the properties and merger rates of binary black holes from the dynamical formation channel. Finally, I will describe how the spins of a binary black hole are determined by its formation history, and how we can use this to discriminate between dynamically-formed binaries and those formed from isolated evolution in galactic fields.

  2. Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.

  3. Bubble nucleation in a Lennard-Jones binary liquid mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidakov, Vladimir G.; Protsenko, Sergey P.; Bryukhanov, Vasiliy M.

    2016-10-01

    We report a molecular dynamics (MD) study of homogeneous bubble nucleation in a stretched Lennard-Jones binary mixture at a temperature close to the solvent triple point. The pressure of the limiting stretching pn corresponding to a fixed value of the nucleation rate has been determined. The values of pn achieved in MD simulation are lower than those calculated from classical nucleation theory (CNT). The discrepancy between the data of MD simulation and CNT may be connected with the neglect in the latter of the size dependence of the surface tension of critical bubbles.

  4. Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov–Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like. PMID:26159412

  5. Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Diego Jose; Lai, Dong

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 days, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. We present new results (PNAS 112, 30, p 9264) on the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this "LK+tide" mechanism. From secular and N-body calculations, we show how planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Either outcome can explain these planets' elusiveness to detection. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer specific predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.

  6. Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong

    2015-07-28

    The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.

  7. Closing in on Ceres

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-03

    NASA Dawn spacecraft will be getting an up-close look at the dwarf planet Ceres starting in late March or the beginning of April 2015. This graphic shows the science-gathering orbits planned for the spacecraft.

  8. Closed Large Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Large Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. When the cell centers are cloudy and the main sinking motion is concentrated at cell ...

  9. Prometheus Up Close

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-08

    NASA Cassini spacecraft spied details on the pockmarked surface of Saturn moon Prometheus 86 kilometers, or 53 miles across during a moderately close flyby on Dec. 6, 2015. This is one of Cassini highest resolution views of Prometheus.

  10. Crustal Failure during Binary Inspiral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, A. J.; Andersson, N.; Jones, D. I.; Samuelsson, L.; Hawke, I.

    2012-04-01

    We present the first fully relativistic calculations of the crustal strain induced in a neutron star by a binary companion at the late stages of inspiral, employing realistic equations of state for the fluid core and the solid crust. We show that while the deep crust is likely to fail only shortly before coalescence, there is a large variation in elastic strain, with the outermost layers failing relatively early on in the inspiral. We discuss the significance of the results for both electromagnetic and gravitational-wave astronomy.

  11. Spectroscopic Orbits of Three Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarfe, C. D.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents new spectroscopic orbits of three binaries with evolved primaries and periods of the order of a few years, two of them very eccentric. All the orbits were determined primarily from observations made with the DAO 1.2-m telescope and coudé spectrograph. Observations were obtained using the radial velocity spectrometer until it was decommissioned in 2004, and since then using a CCD detector, and cross-correlating the spectra with those of standard stars. It will be evident that the latter procedure leads to smaller observational scatter than the former did.

  12. CRUSTAL FAILURE DURING BINARY INSPIRAL

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, A. J.; Andersson, N.; Jones, D. I.; Hawke, I.; Samuelsson, L.

    2012-04-20

    We present the first fully relativistic calculations of the crustal strain induced in a neutron star by a binary companion at the late stages of inspiral, employing realistic equations of state for the fluid core and the solid crust. We show that while the deep crust is likely to fail only shortly before coalescence, there is a large variation in elastic strain, with the outermost layers failing relatively early on in the inspiral. We discuss the significance of the results for both electromagnetic and gravitational-wave astronomy.

  13. SYSTEMATICALLY MISCLASSIFIED BINARY DEPENDENT VARIABLES

    PubMed Central

    TENNEKOON, VIDHURA; ROSENMAN, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    When a binary dependent variable is misclassified, that is, recorded in the category other than where it really belongs, probit and logit estimates are biased and inconsistent. In some cases the probability of misclassification may vary systematically with covariates, and thus be endogenous. In this paper we develop an estimation approach that corrects for endogenous misclassification, validate our approach using a simulation study, and apply it to the analysis of a treatment program designed to improve family dynamics. Our results show that endogenous misclassification could lead to potentially incorrect conclusions unless corrected using an appropriate technique. PMID:27293307

  14. Closed Circular Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caglayan, Günhan

    2016-01-01

    A Steiner chain is defined as the sequence of n circles that are all tangent to two given non-intersecting circles. A closed chain, in particular, is one in which every circle in the sequence is tangent to the previous and next circles of the chain. In a closed Steiner chain the first and the "n"th circles of the chain are also tangent…

  15. Closed Circular Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caglayan, Günhan

    2016-01-01

    A Steiner chain is defined as the sequence of n circles that are all tangent to two given non-intersecting circles. A closed chain, in particular, is one in which every circle in the sequence is tangent to the previous and next circles of the chain. In a closed Steiner chain the first and the "n"th circles of the chain are also tangent…

  16. Planetesimal Accretion in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzari, F.; Scholl, H.

    2000-11-01

    Planetesimal accretion in close binary systems is a complex process for the gravitational perturbations of the companion star on the planetesimal orbits. These perturbations excite high eccentricities that can halt the accumulation process of planetesimals into planets also in those regions around the star where stable planetary orbits would eventually be possible. However, the evolution of a planetesimal swarm is also affected by collisions and gas drag. In particular, gas drag combined with the secular perturbations of the secondary star forces a strong alignment of all the planetesimal periastra. Since periastra are also coupled to eccentricities via the secular perturbations of the companion, the orbits of the planetesimals, besides all being aligned, also have very close values of eccentricity. This orbital ``phasing'' strongly reduces the contribution of the eccentricity to the relative velocities between planetesimals, and the impact speeds are dominated by the Keplerian shear: accretion becomes possible. This behavior is not limited to small planetesimals but also affects bodies as large as 100 km in diameter. The effects of gas drag are in fact enhanced by the presence of the constant forced component in the orbital eccentricity of the planetesimals. We describe analytically the periastron alignment by using the secular equations developed by Heppenheimer, and we test the prediction of the theory with a numerical code that integrates the orbits of a swarm of planetesimals perturbed by gas drag and collisions. The gas density is assumed to decrease outward, and the collisions are modeled as inelastic. Our computations are focused on the α Centauri system, which is a good candidate for terrestrial planets as we will show. The impact velocities between planetesimals of different sizes are computed at progressively increasing distances from the primary star and are compared with estimates for the maximum velocity for accretion. According to our simulations in

  17. Effective Potential Theory for Diffusion in Binary Ionic Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Baalrud, Scott D.; Daligault, Jerome

    2016-10-01

    We present theoretical predictions of diffusion coefficients for classical binary ionic mixtures spanning weak to strong coupling. Strongly coupled, classical ionic mixtures are realized in non-neutral plasmas, and they serve as a useful reference system for ultracold plasmas and warm dense matter. We model many-body correlation effects on transport by treating binary interactions via the potential of mean force and by treating the Coulomb hole around each ion with an effective exclusion radius. This approach is known to agree closely with molecular dynamics results for the transport properties of single-component plasmas - including warm dense matter - up to the onset of liquid-like correlations, and we find a comparable range of agreement for the interdiffusion coefficient of binary ionic mixtures. We also present the self-diffusion coefficients of the two ion species in a mixture, in light of recent measurements in ultracold neutral plasmas. An outlook for applying the theory to electron-ion transport in the strong coupling regime is also considered. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from NSF Grant PHY-1453736.

  18. Photometric CCD observations of four Pre-cataclysmic binary candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa, R.; Vogt, N.; Colque, Juan Pablo

    We present preliminary results of differential photometric observations of Abell 65, HZ 9, GD 1401 and BPM 46460, obtained between September and December 2006 with the 42 cm telescope of the Cerro Armazones Observatory which belongs to the Universidad Catolica del Norte, Antofagasta. All four stars are close red dwarf/white dwarf binaries which could have formed be recent common envelope events. In two of the four cases we detected (or confirmed) significant variability. In one of them, the central star of a planetary nebula Abell 65, we confirmed the rather strong photometric variability with a period very near to 24 hours (Bond and Livio, 1990). In the white dwarf binary HZ9 we detected, for the first time, photometric variations with a period near 0.58 days which corresponds to the known orbital period (Lanning and Pesch, 1981; Stauffer, 1987). The amplitude of this variation is 0.08 mag, it probably refers to reflection of the white dwarf radiation on the surface of the red companion. - These observations are part of a larger on-going project which pretends to identify and to study pre-cataclysmic binaries by means of photometric and spectroscopic methods and to improve, this way, the hitherto poor statistics on the properties of these interesting stars.

  19. A binary population synthesis study on gravitational wave sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinzhong, Liu; Yu, Zhang

    Gravitational waves (GW) are a natural consequence of Einstein's theory of gravity (general relativity), and minute distortions of space-time. Gravitational Wave Astronomy is an emerging branch of observational astronomy which aims to use GWs to collect observational data about objects such as neutron stars and black holes, about events such as supernovae and about the early universe shortly after the big bang.This field will evolve to become an established component of 21st century multi-messenger astronomy, and will stand shoulder-to-shoulder with gamma-ray, x-ray, optical, infrared and radio astronomers in exploring the cosmos. In this paper, we state a recent theoretical study on GW sources, and present the results of our studies on the field using a binary population synthesis (BPS) approach, which was designed to investigate the formation of many interesting binary-related objects, including close double white dwarfs, AM CVn stars, ultra-compact X-ray binaries(UCXBs), double neutron stars, double stellar black holes. Here we report how BPS can be used to determine the GW radiation from double compact objects.

  20. Transient behavior and time lags in binary nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Wyslouzil, B.E.; Wilemski, G.

    1996-04-02

    To investigate transient binary nucleation, both qualitatively and quantitatively, we numerically solved the birth-death equations for vapor-to-liquid phase transitions. We found that in its early transient stages, binary nucleation rarely, if ever, occurs via the saddle point. Instead most binary systems pass through a temporary stage in which the region of maximum flux extends over a ridge on the free energy surface before reaching the state of saddle point nucleation. Both the number of particles formed and their composition may be affected, and this could be very important for nucleation in glasses and other condensed mixtures for which timescales are very long. In order to plan experiments, accurate estimates of the time lag are important. We therefore directly calculated the time lag for the saddle point flux using our numerical results and compared it with the available analytical predictions. Although the analytical results over-estimate the time lag by factors of 2-6, the numerical results followed the predicted analytical trends quite closely under most conditions.